Science.gov

Sample records for lipid profile depend

  1. Searching for Linear Dependencies between Heart Magnetic Resonance Images and Lipid Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sysi-Aho, Marko; Koikkalainen, Juha; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Söderlund, Hans; Heliö, Tiina; Orešič, Matej

    Information derived from "omics" data in life science research are frequently limited by specific spatial or temporal scales these data describe. As a case study of integrating physiological and molecular data in human, here we study associations between the heart magnetic resonance images and serum lipidomic profiles. In the best case, such associations could help infer the physiologic state of the heart from a blood serum sample without need to use expensive imaging techniques. Strong marginal and partial correlations are found between the lipid profiles and parameters derived from the heart images. Regression analyses are applied to study these dependencies in more detail. This study demonstrates the feasibility of mapping lipid profiles to heart images, and thus combining information from two very different scales, small molecules and macroscopic physiologic features. Such mappings could be generalized to other "omics" data as well to complete our picture of the holistic function of a living organism.

  2. The Effects of Physical Training on Blood Lipid Profiles in Adolescents with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campaigne, B. N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) participated in a 12-week exercise program to determine whether such training would bring about changes in blood lipid and lipoprotein profiles. The findings support the beneficial effects of regular exercise for individuals with IDDM. (MT)

  3. Mercury induced time-dependent alterations in lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis

    SciTech Connect

    Bano, Y.; Hasan, M.

    1989-04-01

    The effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/) on lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of fresh water cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis were studied. The daily exposure of HgCl/sub 2/ 0.2 mg/L for 10, 20 and 30 days depleted the total lipids in brain. But the content of phospholipids enhanced significantly at 30 days. Significant diminution in C/P ratio was discernible with 30 days of exposure following mercury toxicosis. Liver exhibited elevated levels of total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol and C/P ratio. Interestingly kidney showed marked decrease in the concentration of total lipids, cholesterol and C/P ratio at higher exposure. However, the phospholipid values increased during the longer exposure. The content of total lipids and phospholipids was high in muscle but the level of cholesterol and C/P ratio were depleted. Significant increment in lipid peroxidation was discernible in brain, liver and muscle. In kidney the rate of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced. The results suggest that exposure of HgCl/sub 2/ enhances the peroxidation of endogenous lipids in brain, liver and muscle. Interestingly the lipid contents are affected differently in different body organs.

  4. A depth-dependent profile of the lipid conformation and lateral packing order of the stratum corneum in vivo measured using Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Choe, ChunSik; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E

    2016-03-21

    The intercellular lipid structure of the stratum corneum (SC) plays a key role in skin barrier function. A depth profile of the intercellular lipid conformation and the lipid lateral packing order were measured in vivo in the human SC using confocal Raman microscopy. The depth profiles of the 2880 cm(-1)/2850 cm(-1) peak ratio intensity, which represent the C-H stretching and lateral packing order of lipids, and the 1080 cm(-1)/(1130 cm(-1) + 1060 cm(-1)) peak ratio, which represents the C-C skeleton vibration and trans-gauche conformation order of lipids, were investigated. The influence of keratin on the lipid peaks at 2850 cm(-1) and 2880 cm(-1) was excluded by the developed mathematical algorithm. The results show that the trans-conformation and lateral packing order of the intercellular lipids reach their maximum value in the SC at 20-40% of its depth and then decrease towards the stratum granulosum. These results show that at a depth of 20-40% (normally corresponding to a depth of 4-8 μm) the SC exhibits the most ordered lipids and therefore the highest skin barrier function. The lateral packing of lipids is more disordered on the surface and in the deeper parts of the SC, which may be associated with a reduced skin barrier function. PMID:26855232

  5. Profiling Lipid Metabolites Yields Unique Information on Sex- and Time-dependent Responses of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) Exposed to 17α-Ethynylestradiol

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alterations in hepatic lipid profiles of fathead minnows (FHM) exposed to the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) were determined using 1H-NMR spectroscopy-based metabolite profiling. The exposures were conducted using either 10 ng/l or 100 ng/l EE2 via a continuous flo...

  6. Analysis of lipid profile in lipid storage myopathy.

    PubMed

    Aguennouz, M'hammed; Beccaria, Marco; Purcaro, Giorgia; Oteri, Marianna; Micalizzi, Giuseppe; Musumesci, Olimpia; Ciranni, Annmaria; Di Giorgio, Rosa Maria; Toscano, Antonio; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Lipid dysmetabolism disease is a condition in which lipids are stored abnormally in organs and tissues throughout the body, causing muscle weakness (myopathy). Usually, the diagnosis of this disease and its characterization goes through dosage of Acyl CoA in plasma accompanied with evidence of droplets of intra-fibrils lipids in the patient muscle biopsy. However, to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of lipid storage diseases, it is useful to identify the nature of lipids deposited in muscle fiber. In this work fatty acids and triglycerides profile of lipid accumulated in the muscle of people suffering from myopathies syndromes was characterized. In particular, the analyses were carried out on the muscle biopsy of people afflicted by lipid storage myopathy, such as multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, and neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy, and by the intramitochondrial lipid storage dysfunctions, such as deficiencies of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II enzyme. A single step extraction and derivatization procedure was applied to analyze fatty acids from muscle tissues by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector and with an electronic impact mass spectrometer. Triglycerides, extracted by using n-hexane, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. The most representative fatty acids in all samples were: C16:0 in the 13-24% range, C18:1n9 in the 20-52% range, and C18:2n6 in the 10-25% range. These fatty acids were part of the most representative triglycerides in all samples. The data obtained was statistically elaborated performing a principal component analysis. A satisfactory discrimination was obtained among the different diseases. Using component 1 vs component 3 a 43.3% of total variance was explained. Such results suggest the important role that lipid profile characterization can have in supporting a correct

  7. SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN SUICIDE ATTEMPTERS

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sandeep; Trivedi, J.K.; Singh, H.; Dalal, P.K.; Asthana, O.P.; Srivastava, J.S.; Mishra, Rakesh; Ramakant; Sinha, P.K.

    1999-01-01

    Practical difficulties associated with assessment of central parameters necessitates the development of peripheral markers of suicidal risk. Recent research suggest that serum lipid profile may be a useful indicator of suicidal behaviour. Serum lipid profiles of forty suicide attempters were compared with forty age, sex and BMI matched controls. Total serum cholesterol, serum Triglyceride, LDL levels and HDL levels were found to be lower in suicide attempters but were not statistically significant. Statistically significant negative con-elation was seen between risk-rescue score and above mentioned parameters. No statitically significant difference was observed when various diagnostic break-up groups of patients were compared. PMID:21430801

  8. Smoking and Serum Lipid Profiles in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    An, Hui-Mei; Tan, Yun-Long; Tan, Shu-Ping; Shi, Jing; Wang, Zhi-Ren; Yang, Fu-De; Huang, Xu-Feng; Soars, Jair C; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang-Yang

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with a high prevalence of cigarette-smoking and abnormal lipid profiles. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the profiles differ between schizophrenic smokers and non-smokers and whether the lipid profiles are related to psychopathological symptoms. Serum lipid profiles were measured in 130 male inpatients with DSM-IV-defined schizophrenia: 104 smokers and 26 non-smokers. Symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Our results showed that positive PANSS symptoms were fewer in smokers than in non-smokers, while the negative symptoms were fewer in those who smoked more cigarettes. Total protein and globulin levels were significantly lower in the smokers than in the non-smokers. However, there was no significant difference in total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, or apolipoprotein B between the smokers and non-smokers. However, the PANSS positive subscale had a significant negative correlation with the HDL-c levels (a protective factor) in the smokers but not in the non-smokers. Our findings suggest that schizophrenic patients who smoke have fewer psychotic symptoms, but contrary to expectation, smoking does not alter lipid profile levels. PMID:27017941

  9. Hepatic lipid profiling of deer mice fed ethanol using {sup 1}H and {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy: A dose-dependent subchronic study

    SciTech Connect

    Fernando, Harshica; Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.

    2012-11-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is a 2nd major cause of liver disease resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by a wide spectrum of pathologies starting from fat accumulation (steatosis) in early reversible stage to inflammation with or without fibrosis and cirrhosis in later irreversible stages. Previously, we reported significant steatosis in the livers of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH{sup −}) vs. hepatic ADH-normal (ADH{sup +}) deer mice fed 4% ethanol daily for 2 months [Bhopale et al., 2006, Alcohol 39, 179–188]. However, ADH{sup −} deer mice fed 4% ethanol also showed a significant mortality. Therefore, a dose-dependent study was conducted to understand the mechanism and identify lipid(s) involved in the development of ethanol-induced fatty liver. ADH{sup −} and ADH{sup +} deer mice fed 1, 2 or 3.5% ethanol daily for 2 months and fatty infiltration in the livers were evaluated by histology and by measuring dry weights of extracted lipids. Lipid metabolomic changes in extracted lipids were determined by proton ({sup 1}H) and {sup 31}phosphorus ({sup 31}P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR data was analyzed by hierarchical clustering (HC) and principle component analysis (PCA) for pattern recognition. Extensive vacuolization by histology and significantly increased dry weights of total lipids found only in the livers of ADH{sup −} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol vs. pair-fed controls suggest a dose-dependent formation of fatty liver in ADH{sup −} deer mouse model. Analysis of NMR data of ADH{sup −} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol vs. pair-fed controls shows increases for total cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), triacylglycerides and unsaturation, and decreases for free cholesterol, phospholipids and allylic and diallylic protons. Certain classes of neutral lipids (cholesterol esters, fatty acyl chain (-COCH{sub 2}-) and FAMEs) were

  10. Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile depend on body fat in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.

    PubMed

    Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Mouratidou, Theodora; Huybrechts, Inge; Labayen, Idoia; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Palacios, Gonzalo; Breidenassel, Christina; Molnár, Dénes; Roccaldo, Romana; Widhalm, Kurt; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; Manios, Yannis; Vyncke, Krishna; Sjöström, Michael; Libuda, Lars; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Moreno, Luis A

    2014-12-28

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile in adolescents from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) cross-sectional study (2006-7), and to assess the role of body fat-related variables in these associations. Weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol, TAG, apoB and apoA1 were measured in 454 adolescents (44% boys) aged 12.5-17.5 years. Macronutrient intake (g/4180 kJ per d (1000 kcal per d)) was assessed using two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. Associations were evaluated by multi-level analysis and adjusted for sex, age, maternal education, centre, sum of four skinfolds, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviours and diet quality index for adolescents. Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with HDL-C (β = - 0.189, P< 0.001). An inverse association was found between fat intake and TAG (β = - 0.319, P< 0.001). Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipids varied according to adiposity levels, i.e. an inverse association between carbohydrate intake and HDL-C was only observed in those adolescents with a higher waist:height ratio. As serum lipids and excess body fat are the major markers of CVD, these findings should be considered when developing strategies to prevent the risk of CVD among adolescents. PMID:25366323

  11. Correlations between anthropometry and lipid profile in type 2 diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Himabindu, Yalamanchali; Sriharibabu, Manne; Alekhya, Katamreddy; Saisumanth, Kandula; Lakshmanrao, Nambaru; Komali, Kanagala

    2013-01-01

    Over a period of time, anthropometric parameters have evolved into reliable indicators for predicting the incidence of diabetes mellitus. A number of studies have shown correlations between anthropometry and lipid profiles in healthy volunteers. This study examined correlations between anthropometry and lipid profile in type 2 diabetics. The limited observations made in this study reveal that anthropometric parameters are not ideal for predicting lipid profile abnormalities in type 2 diabetics. PMID:23961494

  12. Fatty acid profile of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports the fatty acid profiles of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks for the production of bio-based fuels and chemicals. Lipids were extracted using hexane from oil-bearing seeds using a standard Soxhlet apparatus. Fatty acid profiles were measured using gas chromatography-flame ionization...

  13. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  14. Effect of Silybin on Lipid Profile in Hypercholesterolaemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Asirvatham, Sylvia Santhakumari; Janarthanam, Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hyperlipidemia is a major cause of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis associated conditions, such as Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), ischaemic cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease. Though there are hypolipidemic drugs available, the search for a more efficacious hypo lipidemic agent was always going on. Aim To study the effect of Silybin on lipid profile in Hypercholesterolaemic rats. Materials and Methods After grant of permission from animal ethics committee, the animals were divided into four groups of eight each (normal control, Experimental control with High cholesterol diet, High cholesterol diet + Silybin 300mg, High cholesterol diet + Silybin 600mg). At the end of 60 days the animals in all the groups were subjected to overnight fasting followed by plasma and liver biochemical analyses. Statistical Analysis The data were analysed by ANNOVA followed by Duncan’s multi range test and the value of p≤0.05 was used as the criterion for statistical significance. Results The rats fed on high cholesterol diet showed significant increase in serum total cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL-C and VLDL-C. Treatment with Silybin significantly decreased serum total cholesterol (24%), Triglycerides (21%), LDL-C (24%) in a dose dependent manner. Rats treated with Silybin (300 and 600 mg/kg) showed significant increase in hepatic HDL –C and decrease in other lipid profiles. Conclusion Treatment with Silybin significantly decreased both serum and hepatic total cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL-C, LDL-C and increased HDL-C at both doses. PMID:27190826

  15. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles of bat wing surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fuller, Nathan W; Moore, Patrick R; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-11-01

    Sebocytes are specialized epithelial cells that rupture to secrete sebaceous lipids (sebum) across the mammalian integument. Sebum protects the integument from UV radiation, and maintains host microbial communities among other functions. Native glandular sebum is composed primarily of triacylglycerides (TAG) and wax esters (WE). Upon secretion (mature sebum), these lipids combine with minor cellular membrane components comprising total surface lipids. TAG and WE are further cleaved to smaller molecules through oxidation or host enzymatic digestion, resulting in a complex mixture of glycerolipids (e.g., TAG), sterols, unesterified fatty acids (FFA), WE, cholesteryl esters, and squalene comprising surface lipid. We are interested if fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of bat surface lipid could predict species specificity to the cutaneous fungal disease, white nose syndrome (WNS). We collected sebaceous secretions from 13 bat spp. using Sebutape(®) and converted them to FAME with an acid catalyzed transesterification. We found that Sebutape(®) adhesive patches removed ~6× more total lipid than Sebutape(®) indicator strips. Juvenile eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) had significantly higher 18:1 than adults, but 14:0, 16:1, and 20:0 were higher in adults. FAME profiles among several bat species were similar. We concluded that bat surface lipid FAME profiling does not provide a robust model predicting species susceptibility to WNS. However, these results provide baseline data that can be used for lipid roles in future ecological studies, such as life history, diet, or migration. PMID:25227993

  16. Characterization of 3D Voronoi Tessellation Nearest Neighbor Lipid Shells Provides Atomistic Lipid Disruption Profile of Protein Containing Lipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Sara Y.; Duong, Hai V.; Compton, Campbell; Vaughn, Mark W.; Nguyen, Hoa; Cheng, Kwan H.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying protein-induced lipid disruptions at the atomistic level is a challenging problem in membrane biophysics. Here we propose a novel 3D Voronoi tessellation nearest-atom-neighbor shell method to classify and characterize lipid domains into discrete concentric lipid shells surrounding membrane proteins in structurally heterogeneous lipid membranes. This method needs only the coordinates of the system and is independent of force fields and simulation conditions. As a proof-of-principle, we use this multiple lipid shell method to analyze the lipid disruption profiles of three simulated membrane systems: phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol, and beta-amyloid/phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol. We observed different atomic volume disruption mechanisms due to cholesterol and beta-amyloid Additionally, several lipid fractional groups and lipid-interfacial water did not converge to their control values with increasing distance or shell order from the protein. This volume divergent behavior was confirmed by bilayer thickness and chain orientational order calculations. Our method can also be used to analyze high-resolution structural experimental data. PMID:25637891

  17. Expression profiling and comparative sequence derived insights into lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, Matthew J.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2001-12-19

    Expression profiling and genomic DNA sequence comparisons are increasingly being applied to the identification and analysis of the genes involved in lipid metabolism. Not only has genome-wide expression profiling aided in the identification of novel genes involved in important processes in lipid metabolism such as sterol efflux, but the utilization of information from these studies has added to our understanding of the regulation of pathways participating in the process. Coupled with these gene expression studies, cross species comparison, searching for sequences conserved through evolution, has proven to be a powerful tool to identify important non-coding regulatory sequences as well as the discovery of novel genes relevant to lipid biology. An example of the value of this approach was the recent chance discovery of a new apolipoprotein gene (apo AV) that has dramatic effects upon triglyceride metabolism in mice and humans.

  18. Plasma flux-dependent lipid A deactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hung-Wen; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Ahmed, Musahid; Liu, Suet Yi; Fang, Yigang; Seog, Joonil; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Graves, David B.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the influence of gas plasma flux on endotoxin lipid A film deactivation. To study the effect of the flux magnitude of reactive species, a modified low-pressure inductively coupled plasma (ICP) with O radical flux ˜1016 cm-2 s-1 was used. After ICP exposures, it was observed that while the Fourier transform infrared absorbance of fatty chains responsible for the toxicity drops by 80% through the film, no obvious film endotoxin deactivation is seen. This is in contrast to that previously observed under low flux exposure conducted in a vacuum beam system: near-surface only loss of fatty chains led to significant film deactivation. Secondary ion mass spectrometry characterization of changes at the film surface did not appear to correlate with the degree of deactivation. Lipid A films need to be nearly completely removed in order to detect significant deactivation under high flux conditions. Additional high reactive species flux experiments were conducted using an atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet and a UV/ozone device. Exposure of lipid A films to reactive species with these devices showed similar deactivation behaviour. The causes for the difference between low and high flux exposures may be due to the nature of near-surface structural modifications as a function of the rate of film removal.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation studies of lipid order parameter profiles near integral membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Sperotto, M M; Mouritsen, O G

    1991-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation techniques have been applied to a statistical mechanical lattice model in order to study the coherence length for the spatial fluctuations of the lipid order parameter profiles around integral membrane proteins in dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayers. The model, which provides a detailed description of the pure lipid bilayer main transition, incorporates hydrophobic matching between the lipid and protein hydrophobic thicknesses as a major contribution to the lipid-protein interactions in lipid membranes. The model is studied at low protein-to-lipid ratios. The temperature dependence of the coherence length is found to have a dramatic peak at the phase transition temperature. The dependence on protein circumference as well as hydrophobic length is determined and it is concluded that in some cases the coherence length is much longer than previously anticipated. The long coherence length provides a mechanism for indirect lipid-mediated protein-protein long-range attraction and hence plays an important role in regulating protein segregation. Images FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:2009352

  20. Lipid Profile in Cardiac Syndrome X: Association with Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Zeynalzadeh, Javad; Shirpoor, Alireza; Seyedmohammadzad, Mirhossein; Hajhosseini, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic inflammation caused by Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection has a pathogenic role in Cardiac Syndrome X (CSX). In addition, it has shown that bacterial infection may affect blood lipids. Aim To assess if H.pylori affects the level of lipid profile in CSX. Materials and Methods Eighty-eight CSX patients and 97 healthy controls were enrolled. The Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), Lipoprotein A (LP{A}), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Apoprotein A1 (APOA1), and Apoprotein B (APOB) was estimated colorimetrically. In addition, the presence of IgG antibody to H.pylori was tested in plasma samples by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Results TC, LP{A}, LDL, APOA1 and APOB levels in CSX group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p<0.05). But, these parameters in H.pylori positive and H.pylori negative, among CSX and control groups were not significant. Conclusion Increased plasma level of lipid profile and H.pylori infection were associated with CSX; it seems that plasma lipid disorders have a significant role in the development of CSX.

  1. Lipid Profile in Different Parts of Edible Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Si; Ye, Mengwei; Xu, Jilin; Guo, Chunyang; Zheng, Huakun; Hu, Jiabao; Chen, Juanjuan; Wang, Yajun; Xu, Shanliang; Yan, Xiaojun

    2015-09-23

    Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum has been exploited commercially as a delicious food for a long time. Although the edible and medicinal values of R. esculentum have gained extensive attention, the effects of lipids on its nutritional value have rarely been reported. In the present of study, the lipid profile including lipid classes, fatty acyl compositions, and fatty acid (FA) positions in lipids from different parts (oral arms, umbrella, and mouth stalk) of R. esculentum was explored by ultraperformance liquid chromatography--electrospray ionization--quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS). More than 87 species from 10 major lipid classes including phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), phosphatidylserine (PS), ceramide (Cer), ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP), and triacylglycerol (TAG) were separated and characterized. Semiquantification of individual lipid species in different parts of R. esculentum was also conducted. Results showed that glycerophospholipids (GPLs) enriched in highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) were the major compenents in all parts of R. esculentum, which accounted for 54-63% of total lipids (TLs). Considering the high level of GPLs and the FA compositions in GPLs, jellyfish R. esculentum might have great potential as a health-promoting food for humans and as a growth-promoting diet for some commercial fish and crustaceans. Meanwhile, LPC, LPE, and LPI showed high levels in oral arms when compared with umbrella and mouth stalk, which may be due to the high proportion of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in oral arms. Moreover, a high CAEP level was detected in oral arms, which may render cell membranes with resistance to chemical hydrolysis by PLA2. The relatively low TAG content could be associated with specific functions of oral arms. PMID:26322863

  2. Solvent-exposed lipid tail protrusions depend on lipid membrane composition and curvature.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Mukarram A; Van Lehn, Reid C; Choi, S H; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2016-06-01

    The stochastic protrusion of hydrophobic lipid tails into solution, a subclass of hydrophobic membrane defects, has recently been shown to be a critical step in a number of biological processes like membrane fusion. Understanding the factors that govern the appearance of lipid tail protrusions is critical for identifying membrane features that affect the rate of fusion or other processes that depend on contact with solvent-exposed lipid tails. In this work, we utilize atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the likelihood of tail protrusions in phosphotidylcholine lipid bilayers of varying composition, curvature, and hydration. We distinguish two protrusion modes corresponding to atoms near the end of the lipid tail or near the glycerol group. Through potential of mean force calculations, we demonstrate that the thermodynamic cost for inducing a protrusion depends on tail saturation but is insensitive to other bilayer structural properties or hydration above a threshold value. Similarly, highly curved vesicles or micelles increase both the overall frequency of lipid tail protrusions as well as the preference for splay protrusions, both of which play an important role in driving membrane fusion. In multi-component bilayers, however, the incidence of protrusion events does not clearly depend on the mismatch between tail length or tail saturation of the constituent lipids. Together, these results provide significant physical insight into how system components might affect the appearance of protrusions in biological membranes, and help explain the roles of composition or curvature-modifying proteins in membrane fusion. PMID:26828121

  3. Changes in lipid composition, fatty acid profile and lipid oxidative stability during Cantonese sausage processing.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chaoying; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Weizheng; Zhou, Feibai; Cui, Chun

    2013-03-01

    Lipid composition, fatty acid profile and lipid oxidative stability were evaluated during Cantonese sausage processing. Free fatty acids increased with concomitant decrease of phospholipids. Total content of free fatty acids at 72 h in muscle and adipose tissue was 7.341 mg/g and 3.067 mg/g, respectively. Total amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (SFA, MUFA, and PUFA) in neutral lipid exhibited a little change during processing, while the proportion of PUFA significantly decreased in the PL fraction. The main triacylglycerols were POO+SLO+OOO, PSO (P = palmitic acid, O = oleic acid, L = linoleic acid, S = stearic acid), and a preferential hydrolysis of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid was observed. Phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) were the main components of phospholipids and PE exhibited the most significant degradation during processing. Thiobarbituric acid values (TBARS) increased while peroxide values and hexanal contents varied during processing. PMID:23273460

  4. Profile sampling dependence of the MLAYER program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ting-Hsun

    1991-03-01

    The dependence of the predictions of the MLAYER program on the set of heights at which the refractive index value are sampled from a fixed reference profile are analyzed. A refractivity profile with a four-meter evaporation duct is adopted as a reference. Two variable piecewise linear profiles of four and five segments, respectively, are used to approximate the reference profile for MLAYER computations. The sensitivities of the waveguide mode location, the range attenuation rate, and the height-gain function to the changes of the piece-wise linear profiles are investigated at the frequencies 3, 6, 10, and 15 GHz. The frequency dependence of the dominant mode for one profile is also studied to investigate the fact that the sensitivity to changes in sampling point location is lower at GHz than at other frequencies. A general rule-of-thumb for the change in range attenuation rate due to a slight change in refractivity is suggested.

  5. Distinct urinary lipid profile in children with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xueheng; Setchell, Kenneth; Devarajan, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Background Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for the majority of new-onset end-stage renal disease (ESRD) during adolescence. FSGS treatment is a great challenge for pediatric nephrologists due to intertwined molecular pathways underlining its complex pathophysiology. There is emerging evidence showing that perturbed lipid metabolism plays a role in the pathophysiology of FSGS. Methods We postulate that the nephrotic milieu in FSGS differs from minimal change disease (MCD) and that urinary lipidomics can be used as a tool for early diagnosis of FSGS. We explored the urinary lipid profile of patients with FSGS and MCD using an unbiased metabolomics approach. Results We discovered a unique lipid signature characterized by increased concentration of fatty acid (FA) and lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC) and a decrease in urinary concentration of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in patients with FSGS. These findings indicate increased metabolism of membrane phospholipid PC by phospholipase A2 (PLA2), resulting in higher urinary concentrations of LPC and FA. Conclusions We propose that increased PC by-products can be used as a biomarker to diagnose FSGS and shed light on the mechanism of tubular and podocyte damage. Validation of identified urinary lipids as a biomarker in predicting the diagnosis and progression of FSGS in a larger patient population is warranted. PMID:26537928

  6. Dependence of norfloxacin diffusion across bilayers on lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Purushothaman, Sowmya; Cama, Jehangir; Keyser, Ulrich F

    2016-02-21

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing concern in medicine and raises the need to develop and design new drug molecules that can efficiently inhibit bacterial replication. Spurring the passive uptake of the drug molecules is an obvious solution. However our limited understanding of drug-membrane interactions due to the presence of an overwhelming variety of lipids constituting cellular membranes and the lack of facile tools to probe the bio-physical interactions between drugs and lipids imposes a major challenge towards developing new drug molecules that can enter the cell via passive diffusion. Here, we used a label-free micro-fluidic platform combined with giant unilamellar lipid vesicles to investigate the permeability of membranes containing mixtures of DOPE and DOPG in DOPC, leading to a label-free measurement of passive membrane-permeability of autofluorescent antibiotics. A fluoroquinolone drug, norfloxacin was used as a case study. Our results indicate that the diffusion of norfloxacin is strongly dependent on the lipid composition which is not expected from the traditional octanol-lipid partition co-efficient assay. The anionic lipid, DOPG, slows the diffusion process whereas the diffusion across liposomes containing DOPE increases with higher DOPE concentration. Our findings emphasise the need to investigate drug-membrane interactions with focus on the specificity of drugs to lipids for efficient drug delivery, drug encapsulation and targeted drug-delivery. PMID:26768751

  7. Paraquat and NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation in lung microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, H.P.; Gorsky, L.D.

    1981-10-10

    Since there exists some controversy in the literature as to whether paraquat augments microsomal lipid peroxidation via superoxide anion (O/sub 2//sup -/), the role of paraquat and active oxygen species in NADPH-dependent lung microsomal lipid peroxidation was investigated. Incubation of buffered aerobic mixture of bovine lung microsome and NADPH, in the presence or absence of exogenously added iron, resulted in a progressive formation of lipid peroxides whose accumulation could be followed at 535 nm as malondialdehyde. Paraquat strongly inhibited this lipid peroxidation, Thus, malondialydehyde formation was 50% inhibited by 4 X 10/sup -5/ M paraquat in the reaction mixture. The malondialdehyde color development by lipid peroxides was not affected by this concentration of paraquat. Lipid peroxidation was also strongly inhibited by singlet oxygen scavengers, e.g. dimethylfuran and diphenylfuran, and by catalase. Hydroxyl radical scavengers, e.g. mannitol, benzoate, and ethanol, had little effect in malondialydehyde production. Superoxide dismutase, which removes O/sub 2//sup -/ efficiently, did not inhibit malondialdehyde production by lung microsomes and rather enhanced its formation. A scheme in which paraquat and active O/sub 2/ species may be involved with microsomal lipid peroxidation is presented.

  8. Fitness variables and the lipid profile in United States astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, M. A.; Squires, W. G.; Jackson, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    The study examines the relationship between several measures of fitness and the lipid profile in United States astronauts. Data were collected on 89 astronauts, previously selected (PSA) and newly selected (NSA), during their annual physical examinations. Several similarities were seen in the two groups. The PSA (mean age of 46.1) had a lower maximum oxygen capacity (41.7 ml kg/min vs. 47.5 ml kg/min); when adjusted for age, it was no different from the NSA (mean age 33.5). The PSA had similar body composition with 15.7% - lower than expected for age. The lipid profiles of the two groups were basically the same with the differences being a function of age. Compared to a normative population, the astronauts had similar cholesterols, lower triglycerides, and higher HDLs. The astronaut profiles were generally more favorable than the age-matched controls, which is felt to be a result of the self-supervised conditioning program and annual preventive medicine consultation and education.

  9. Study of lipid profile in adult women with acne

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Marisa Gonzaga; Batista, Anna Luiza Fonseca; Macedo, Marzia Silva; Machado Filho, Carlos D’Aparecida Santos; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to establish the lipid profile of female patients with acne in the Acne-in-Adult-Women Ambulatory Care Clinic in order to observe the prevalence of dyslipidemia in those patients. Methods This is a retrospective transversal study that evaluated the medical records of 416 patients who attended at the Acne-in-Adult-Women Ambulatory Care Clinic, at the Dermatology Department, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil, in the year 2012. Relevant data included age and clinical classification of acne. The lipid profile was analyzed according to the results of laboratory tests ordered during outpatient visits, which included total and fractionated cholesterol levels and triglycerides. Results The epidemiological study sample was of 219 patients, with ages ranging from 21 to 61 years (mean of 32.23 years). The predominant clinical grade was papule-pustule acne (grade II) with 156 patients (71%). Regarding the lipid profile of the patients, there was a high increase in total cholesterol levels in 17.35% of the cases. High-density lipoprotein levels were low in 11.42% of the patients, with normal prevalence in 194 subjects. Low-density lipoprotein levels were normal in most patients (60.27%). Very-low-density lipoprotein values were normal in almost all patients (94.06%) and increased in only 13 patients (5.94%). Only 18 patients presented high levels of triglycerides (8.22%). Conclusion The conclusion was that patients with grades II and III acne are more likely to have total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein altered. A correct and early diagnosis can be an important measure for the prevention of the metabolic syndrome in these patients. PMID:26316790

  10. HIF-2α dependent lipid storage promotes endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Bo; Ackerman, Daniel; Sanchez, Danielle J.; Li, Bo; Ochocki, Joshua D.; Grazioli, Alison; Bobrovnikova-Marjon, Ekaterina; Diehl, J. Alan; Keith, Brian; Simon, M. Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Two hallmarks of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are constitutive hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) signaling and abundant intracellular lipid droplets (LDs). However, regulation of lipid storage and its role in ccRCC are incompletely understood. Transcriptional profiling of primary ccRCC samples revealed that expression of the LD coat protein gene PLIN2 was elevated in tumors and correlated with HIF-2α, but not HIF-1α, activation. HIF-2α dependent PLIN2 expression promoted lipid storage, proliferation, and viability in xenograft tumors. Mechanistically, lipid storage maintained integrity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is functionally and physically associated with LDs. Specifically, PLIN2 dependent lipid storage suppressed cytotoxic ER stress responses that otherwise result from elevated protein synthetic activity characteristic of ccRCC cells. Thus, in addition to promoting ccRCC proliferation and anabolic metabolism, HIF-2α modulates lipid storage to sustain ER homeostasis, particularly under conditions of nutrient and oxygen limitation, thereby promoting tumor cell survival. PMID:25829424

  11. Chill-coma recovery time, age and sex determine lipid profiles in Ceratitis capitata tissues.

    PubMed

    Pujol-Lereis, Luciana Mercedes; Fagali, Natalia Soledad; Rabossi, Alejandro; Catalá, Ángel; Quesada-Allué, Luis Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The remodeling of membrane composition by changes in phospholipid head groups and fatty acids (FA) degree of unsaturation has been associated with the maintenance of membrane homeostasis under stress conditions. Overall lipid levels and the composition of cuticle lipids also influence insect stress resistance and tissue protection. In a previous study, we demonstrated differences in survival, behavior and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene expression between subgroups of Ceratitis capitata flies that had a reversible recovery from chill-coma and those that developed chilling-injury. Here, we analyzed lipid profiles from comparable subgroups of 15 and 30-day-old flies separated according to their recovery time after a chill-coma treatment. Neutral and polar lipid classes of chill-coma subgroups were separated by thin layer chromatography and quantified by densitometry. FA composition of polar lipids of chill-coma subgroups and non-stressed flies was evaluated using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Higher amounts of neutral lipids such as triglycerides, diacylglycerol, wax esters, sterol esters and free esters were found in male flies that recovered faster from chill-coma compared to slower flies. A multivariate analysis revealed changes in patterns of storage and cuticle lipids among subgroups both in males and females. FA unsaturation increased after cold exposure, and was higher in thorax of slower subgroups compared to faster subgroups. The changes in neutral lipid patterns and FA composition depended on recovery time, sex, age and body-part, and were not specifically associated with the development of chilling-injury. An analysis of phospholipid classes showed that the phosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidylcholine ratio (PC/LPC) was significantly higher, or showed a tendency, in subgroups that may have developed chilling-injury compared to those with a reversible recovery from coma. PMID:26868723

  12. Exploration of polar lipid accumulation profiles in Euglena gracilis using LipidBlast, an MS/MS spectral library constructed in silico.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takumi; Furuhashi, Takeshi; Okazawa, Atsushi; Nakai, Rai; Nakazawa, Masami; Kind, Tobias; Fiehn, Oliver; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Arita, Masanori; Ohta, Daisaku

    2014-01-01

    A rapid protocol for polar lipid profiling was applied to Euglena gracilis lipid metabolism by LipidBlast, an MS/MS spectral similarity search tool. The similarity search results suggested anoxia-induced polar lipid metabolism in Euglena characterized by the accumulation of differential lipid classes, carbon chain lengths, and unsaturated bond numbers. The informatics-supported MS spectral search provides an alternative option for global lipid profiling studies. PMID:25036478

  13. Age-dependence of lipid parameters in the general population and vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Richter, V; Rassoul, F; Hentschel, B; Kothe, K; Krobara, M; Unger, R; Purschwitz, K; Rotzsch, W; Thiery, J; Muradian, K

    2004-06-01

    Age-dependent changes of lipid metabolism may arise both as a result of mechanisms of biological ageing and factors influencing age-dependent changes. To study possible influences of nutrition and life-style of vegetarians on age-dependence of lipid parameters, subjects of general population were compared with vegetarians. In the frame of population-based lipid screening projects in the city of Leipzig/Germany (Lipid Study Leipzig, LSL) 10 550 subjects (3,816 men and 6,734 women, age 18-99 years) of general population were compared with 417 vegetarians (vegans, lacto-vegetarians, lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 148 men and 269 women, age 18-93 years). Most of the vegetarians included in the study were members of the German Society of Vegetarians. The study program included capillary blood cholesterol measurements and the determination of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, the measurement of other cardiovascular risk factors and the evaluation of dietary and life-style factors. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk profile within LSL was connected with individual consultation. The mean total cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol level and the total: HDL-cholesterol ratio showed the expected age-dependence, with maximum values within the decade 60-70 years. Vegetarians showed lower total and non-HDL-cholesterol levels in comparison with the general population. Furthermore, the age-dependent increase of these parameters is less pronounced under the conditions of vegetarian nutrition and life-style. Especially in young adulthood a significant difference is observed. Thus, the results of the present study reveal the role of nutritional and life-style factors that determine the lipid profile on a population basis and suggest that the known age-dependent rise of the level of atherogenic plasma lipoproteins is partly preventable. PMID:15224241

  14. Anesthetic Diffusion Through Lipid Membranes Depends on the Protonation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Isidoro, Rosendo; Sierra-Valdez, F. J.; Ruiz-Suárez, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of substances possess anesthetic action. However, despite decades of research and tests, a golden rule is required to reconcile the diverse hypothesis behind anesthesia. What makes an anesthetic to be local or general in the first place? The specific targets on proteins, the solubility in lipids, the diffusivity, potency, action time? Here we show that there could be a new player equally or even more important to disentangle the riddle: the protonation rate. Indeed, such rate modulates the diffusion speed of anesthetics into lipid membranes; low protonation rates enhance the diffusion for local anesthetics while high ones reduce it. We show also that there is a pH and membrane phase dependence on the local anesthetic diffusion across multiple lipid bilayers. Based on our findings we incorporate a new clue that may advance our understanding of the anesthetic phenomenon. PMID:25520016

  15. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C.; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S.; Irace, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk. Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods. We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women. Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  16. Targeted Lipid Profiling Discovers Plasma Biomarkers of Acute Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Sunil A.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Liebeskind, David S.; Won, Seok Joon; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2015-01-01

    Prior efforts to identify a blood biomarker of brain injury have relied almost exclusively on proteins; however their low levels at early time points and poor correlation with injury severity have been limiting. Lipids, on the other hand, are the most abundant molecules in the brain and readily cross the blood-brain barrier. We previously showed that certain sphingolipid (SL) species are highly specific to the brain. Here we examined the feasibility of using SLs as biomarkers for acute brain injury. A rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a mouse model of stroke were used to identify candidate SL species though our mass-spectrometry based lipid profiling approach. Plasma samples collected after TBI in the rat showed large increases in many circulating SLs following injury, and larger lesions produced proportionately larger increases. Plasma samples collected 24 hours after stroke in mice similarly revealed a large increase in many SLs. We constructed an SL score (sum of the two SL species showing the largest relative increases in the mouse stroke model) and then evaluated the diagnostic value of this score on a small sample of patients (n = 14) who presented with acute stroke symptoms. Patients with true stroke had significantly higher SL scores than patients found to have non-stroke causes of their symptoms. The SL score correlated with the volume of ischemic brain tissue. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using lipid biomarkers to diagnose brain injury. Future studies will be needed to further characterize the diagnostic utility of this approach and to transition to an assay method applicable to clinical settings. PMID:26076478

  17. Effects of different biomass drying and lipid extraction methods on algal lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and biodiesel quality.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Liu, Yan; Lopes, Wilson A; Druzian, Janice I; Souza, Carolina O; Carvalho, Gilson C; Nascimento, Iracema A; Liao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Three lipid extraction methods of hexane Soxhlet (Sox-Hex), Halim (HIP), and Bligh and Dyer (BD) were applied on freeze-dried (FD) and oven-dried (OD) Chlorella vulgaris biomass to evaluate their effects on lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and algal biodiesel quality. Among these three methods, HIP was the preferred one for C. vulgaris lipid recovery considering both extraction efficiency and solvent toxicity. It had the highest lipid yields of 20.0 and 22.0% on FD and OD biomass, respectively, with corresponding neutral lipid yields of 14.8 and 12.7%. The lipid profiling analysis showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids were the major fatty acids in the algal lipids, and there were no significant differences on the amount of these acids between different drying and extraction methods. Correlative models applied to the fatty acid profiles concluded that high contents of palmitic and oleic acids in algal lipids contributed to balancing the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and led to a high-quality algal biodiesel. PMID:25588528

  18. Lipid profile components and subclinical cerebrovascular disease in the Northern Manhattan Study

    PubMed Central

    Willey, Joshua Z.; Gardener, Hannah; Moon, Yeseon P.; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Sacco, Ralph L.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Wright, Clinton B.

    2014-01-01

    /dl for men) at baseline to high risk HDL-C at the time of MRI (versus starting and remaining low risk) was associated with greater WMHV (difference in logWMHV 0.34, p-value 0.03). We noted a similar association with transitioning to a TC≥200mg/dl at the time of MRI (difference in logWMHV 0.25, p-value 0.006). There were no associations with baseline or change in lipid profile components with SBI. Conclusions The association of plasma lipid profile components with greater WMHV may depend on apoE genotype and worsening HDL and TC risk levels over time. PMID:25034465

  19. Olive Leaf Extract Improves the Atherogenic Lipid Profile in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet.

    PubMed

    Olmez, Ercument; Vural, Kamil; Gok, Sule; Ozturk, Zeynep; Kayalar, Husniye; Ayhan, Semin; Var, Ahmet

    2015-10-01

    Coronary heart disease because of atherosclerosis is still the most common cause of mortality. Elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol are major risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the olive leaf extract on serum lipid profile, early changes of atherosclerosis and endothelium-dependent relaxations in cholesterol-fed rats. For this purpose, rats were fed by 2% cholesterol-enriched or standard chow for 8 weeks. Some rats in each group were also fed orally by olive leaf extract at doses of 50 or 100 mg/kg/day. Atorvastatin at dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight daily was also given as positive control. After 8 weeks, lipid profiles of rat serums were analyzed. Antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and degree of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) were also measured in the hearts isolated from rats. In addition, expression of adhesion molecules and endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated thoracic aortas of rats were evaluated. Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were found to be increased in cholesterol-fed rats, and both doses of olive leaf extract and atorvastatin significantly decreased those levels. In conclusion, because the olive leaf extract attenuates the increased cholesterol levels, it may have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis. PMID:26328503

  20. Combined Supplementation with Grape Pomace and Omija Fruit Ethanol Extracts Dose-Dependently Improves Body Composition, Plasma Lipid Profiles, Inflammatory Status, and Antioxidant Capacity in Overweight and Obese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Han, Hye Jin; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Cho, Su-Jung; Kim, Ae Hyang; Han, Youngji; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of combined grape pomace and omija fruit ethanol extracts (GO) on metabolic disorders in overweight or obese subjects. Seventy-six subjects (30-70 years, body mass index ≥23.0 kg/m2) were divided into control (starch, 4 g/day, n = 24), low-GO (low dose GO, grape pomace extract [342.5 mg/day] + omija fruit extract [57.5 mg/day], n = 26), and high-GO (high dose GO, grape pomace extract [685 mg/day] + omija fruit extract [115 mg/day], n = 26) groups. Body composition, nutrient intake, plasma lipid profiles, inflammation, antioxidant capacity, and hepatotoxicity markers were assessed in all subjects at the baseline and 10 weeks after taking the supplements. The body weight and body fat of overweight or obese subjects was not significantly altered in the low-GO and high-GO groups. However, the high-GO supplement significantly decreased the baseline-adjusted final plasma total-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels and increased the baseline-adjusted final plasma apolipoprotein (apo) A-1 level compared with that of the control group. In addition, the high-GO supplement significantly lowered apo B, apo B/apo A-1, lipoprotein a (Lp[a]), atherogenic index, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and elevated erythrocyte antioxidant capacity compared with the control group or the baseline levels. The low-GO supplement decreased the plasma IL-1β level and elevated erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity compared with that at baseline. However, in general, high-GO exerted a greater effect than low-GO. There were no significant differences in activities of plasma glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase between the groups. This study is a preliminary clinical study to verify that GO could be beneficial for amelioration of obesity-related dyslipidemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress

  1. The Temperature Dependence of Lipid Membrane Permeability, its Quantized Nature, and the Influence of Anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Blicher, Andreas; Wodzinska, Katarzyna; Fidorra, Matthias; Winterhalter, Mathias; Heimburg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the permeability of lipid membranes for fluorescence dyes and ions. We find that permeability reaches a maximum close to the chain melting transition of the membranes. Close to transitions, fluctuations in area and compressibility are high, leading to an increased likelihood of spontaneous lipid pore formation. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy reveals the permeability for rhodamine dyes across 100-nm vesicles. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we find that the permeability of vesicle membranes for fluorescence dyes is within error proportional to the excess heat capacity. To estimate defect size we measure the conductance of solvent-free planar lipid bilayer. Microscopically, we show that permeation events appear as quantized current events very similar to those reported for channel proteins. Further, we demonstrate that anesthetics lead to a change in membrane permeability that can be predicted from their effect on heat capacity profiles. Depending on temperature, the permeability can be enhanced or reduced. We demonstrate that anesthetics decrease channel conductance and ultimately lead to blocking of the lipid pores in experiments performed at or above the chain melting transition. Our data suggest that the macroscopic increase in permeability close to transitions and microscopic lipid ion channel formation are the same physical process. PMID:19486680

  2. Lean red meat consumption and lipid profiles in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Bradlee, M. Loring; Singer, Martha R.; Moore, Lynn L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies of red meat consumption often fail to distinguish between leaner and fattier or processed cuts of meat. Red meat has also been frequently linked with less healthy diet patterns. Data exploring health effects of lean red meat in younger individuals, particularly in the context of a healthy diet, are sparse. This study examined the effects of lean red meat in combination with higher intakes of fruit/non-starchy vegetables on lipid profiles in older adolescent girls. Methods Data from 1,461 girls followed for 10 years starting at 9-10 years of age in the NHLBI Growth and Health Study were used. Diet was assessed using multiple sets of 3-day records collected over eight exam cycles. Outcome measures included fasting levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides at ages 18-20 years. Results After adjusting for age, race, SES, height, activity level, hours of television/day, and intakes of whole grains and dairy foods using multivariable modeling, girls consuming ≥6 oz lean red meat/wk combined with ≥2 servings of fruit/non-starchy vegetables/day had LDL levels about 6-7 mg/dL lower (p<0.05) than girls with lower intakes of lean red meat and fruit/non-starchy vegetables. In addition, girls with higher intakes of both were 33% less likely (OR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.48-0.94) to have an LDL-C ≥110 mg/dL and 41% less likely (OR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.42, 0.83) to have an elevated LDL:HDL ratio (≥2.2) at the end of adolescence. Conclusion These analyses suggest that lean red meat may be included in a healthy adolescent diet without unfavorable effects on lipid values. PMID:23663235

  3. Lipid profiling by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and the identification of lipid phosphorylation by kinases in potato stolons.

    PubMed

    Cenzano, Ana M; Cantoro, Renata; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa; Abdala, Guillermina I; Racagni, Graciela E

    2012-01-11

    There is limited information about the involvement of lipids and esterified fatty acids in signaling pathways during plant development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lipid composition and molecular species of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Spunta) stolons and to identify phosphorylated lipids in the first two developmental stages of tuber formation. Lipid profiling was determined using ESI-MS/MS, a useful method for the determination of the biosynthesis and catabolism of lipids based on their fatty acid composition. The most prevalent compound identified in this study was phosphatidic acid (PA); digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) was the second most abundant compound. A 34:2 species was identified in PA, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The identification of lipid phosphorylation by kinases was revealed by the presence of the phosphorylated lipids. PA was metabolized to diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) by phosphatidic acid kinase (PAK). This work establishes a correlation between lipid fatty acid composition and lipid metabolism enzymes at the beginning of tuber formation and is the first report of PAK activity in the early events of potato tuber formation. PMID:22142228

  4. Lipid profiling by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and the identification of lipid phosphorylation by kinases in potato stolons

    PubMed Central

    Cenzano, Ana M.; Cantoro, Renata; Teresa Hernandez-Sotomayor, S. M.; Abdala, Guillermina I.; Racagni, Graciela E.

    2013-01-01

    There is limited information about the involvement of lipids and esterified fatty acids in signaling pathways during plant development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lipid composition and molecular species of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Spunta) stolons and to identify phosphorylated lipids in the first two developmental stages of tuber formation. Lipid profiling was determined using ESI-MS/MS, a useful method for the determination of the biosynthesis and catabolism of lipids based on their fatty acid composition. The most prevalent compound identified in this study was phosphatidic acid (PA); digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) was the second most abundant compound. A 34:2 species was identified in PA, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The identification of lipid phosphorylation by kinases was revealed by the presence of the phosphorylated lipids. PA was metabolized to diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) by phosphatidic acid kinase (PAK). This work establishes a correlation between lipid fatty acid composition and lipid metabolism enzymes at the beginning of tuber formation and is the first report of PAK activity in the early events of potato tuber formation. PMID:22142228

  5. Induction of lipids and resultant FAME profiles of microalgae from coastal waters of Pearl River Delta.

    PubMed

    Daroch, Maurycy; Shao, Congcong; Liu, Ying; Geng, Shu; Cheng, Jay J

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a study on identification, cultivation and characterisation of microalgal strains from the coastal waters of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong, China. Thirty-seven identified strains belong to the families: Chlorellaceae, Scotiellocystoidaceae, Scenedesmaceae,Selenastraceae,Micractiniaceae, Coccomyxaceae, Trebouxiaceae and Chlorococcaceae. Of isolated strains, Hindakia PKUAC 169 was selected for lipid induction using two methods: nitrogen starvation and salt stress. After derivatisation of algal lipids through in situ transesterification, lipid profiles of the alga under the two methods were analysed. The results have shown that both lipid yield and fatty acid profiles vary with the methods. Of the two tested methods of inducing lipid production, salt stress yielded three-fold higher lipid productivity than nitrogen starvation. The lipids are predominantly composed of C14-C18 fatty acids, which are favourable for biodiesel production. Moreover, the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was below the limit of 12% set by EN14214 biodiesel standard. PMID:23933027

  6. Haemolymph protein and lipid profile of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infected by fungi.

    PubMed

    Angelo, I C; Gôlo, P S; Camargo, M G; Kluck, G E G; Folly, E; Bittencourt, V R E P

    2010-04-01

    The current study evaluates the protein and lipid profile of haemolymph of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus engorged females infected by Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana or Fusarium oxysporum. Ticks were immersed or inoculated with conidial suspension. Haemolymph was collected from the dorsal surface of engorged females. The results showed altered total protein amounts; however, no significant difference was observed on electrophoretic profile among haemolymph samples. In addition, altered lipid profile was detected in haemocyte samples from ticks treated with Beauveria and Metarhizium. PMID:20537114

  7. Relationship between exposure to industrial noise and serum lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Bahabad, Afshin Malek; Moghaddam, Azadeh Nahan

    2011-01-01

    Aim of our study was to investigate the effects of exposure to industrial noise on serum lipid profile among workers who are exposed to noise at work. In a historical cohort study, we recruited 154 and 146 male workers as high and low level noise exposure groups respectively. We defined workers with at least one year exposure to noise level more than 90 dB as high exposure group, and those with exposure to less than 80 dB as low exposure group. Afterwards, in the fasting blood specimens of participants we measured serum Triglyceride (TG), total Cholesterol (TC), high and low density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL). Mean of TG, TC, HDL and LDL for low exposure group were 148, 189, 38 and 103 mg/dl and for high exposure group were 237, 189, 37 and 104 mg/dl respectively. Mean serum TG between two groups was different. Even after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking and work hours per week, serum TG among high exposure group was 89 mg/dl higher than low exposure group and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.00). There was no significant difference between two groups in TC, LDL and HDL levels. This study did not find a statistically significant relationship between exposure to noise and serum TC, LDL and HDL, but TG in two groups was different and this difference was statistically significant. PMID:22131242

  8. Lipid profiling and corresponding biodiesel quality of Mortierella isabellina using different drying and extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Ruan, Zhenhua; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; Liu, Yan; Liao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Four lipid extraction methods (Bligh & Dyer, hexane & isopropanol, dichloromethane & methanol, and hexane) were evaluated to extract lipid from freeze- and oven-dried fungus Mortierella isabellina ATCC42613. The highest lipid yield (41.8%) was obtained from Bligh & Dyer extraction on the oven-dried fungal biomass with a methanol:chloroform:water ratio of 2:1:0.8. Other lipid extraction methods on both freeze- and oven-dried samples had lipid yields ranging from 20.7% to 35.9%. Non-polar lipid was the main lipid class (more than 90% of total lipid) in M. isabellina. Regarding fatty acid profile, there was no significant difference on fatty acid concentration between different drying and extraction methods. Estimation of biodiesel fuel properties using correlative models further demonstrated that the fungal biodiesel is a good alternative to fossil diesel. PMID:25034797

  9. Nonbilayer lipids affect peripheral and integral membrane proteins via changes in the lateral pressure profile.

    PubMed

    van den Brink-van der Laan, Els; Killian, J Antoinette; de Kruijff, Ben

    2004-11-01

    Nonbilayer lipids can be defined as cone-shaped lipids with a preference for nonbilayer structures with a negative curvature, such as the hexagonal phase. All membranes contain these lipids in large amounts. Yet, the lipids in biological membranes are organized in a bilayer. This leads to the question: what is the physiological role of nonbilayer lipids? Different models are discussed in this review, with a focus on the lateral pressure profile within the membrane. Based on this lateral pressure model, predictions can be made for the effect of nonbilayer lipids on peripheral and integral membrane proteins. Recent data on the catalytic domain of Leader Peptidase and the potassium channel KcsA are discussed in relation to these predictions and in relation to the different models on the function of nonbilayer lipids. The data suggest a general mechanism for the interaction between nonbilayer lipids and membrane proteins via the membrane lateral pressure. PMID:15519321

  10. Lipid profiling identifies a triacylglycerol signature of insulin resistance and improves diabetes prediction in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Eugene P.; Cheng, Susan; Larson, Martin G.; Walford, Geoffrey A.; Lewis, Gregory D.; McCabe, Elizabeth; Yang, Elaine; Farrell, Laurie; Fox, Caroline S.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Carr, Steven A.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Florez, Jose C.; Clish, Clary B.; Wang, Thomas J.; Gerszten, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes, although exactly which of the many plasma lipids contribute to this remains unclear. We therefore investigated whether lipid profiling can inform diabetes prediction by performing liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry–based lipid profiling in 189 individuals who developed type 2 diabetes and 189 matched disease-free individuals, with over 12 years of follow up in the Framingham Heart Study. We found that lipids of lower carbon number and double bond content were associated with an increased risk of diabetes, whereas lipids of higher carbon number and double bond content were associated with decreased risk. This pattern was strongest for triacylglycerols (TAGs) and persisted after multivariable adjustment for age, sex, BMI, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, total triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol. A combination of 2 TAGs further improved diabetes prediction. To explore potential mechanisms that modulate the distribution of plasma lipids, we performed lipid profiling during oral glucose tolerance testing, pharmacologic interventions, and acute exercise testing. Levels of TAGs associated with increased risk for diabetes decreased in response to insulin action and were elevated in the setting of insulin resistance. Conversely, levels of TAGs associated with decreased diabetes risk rose in response to insulin and were poorly correlated with insulin resistance. These studies identify a relationship between lipid acyl chain content and diabetes risk and demonstrate how lipid profiling could aid in clinical risk assessment. PMID:21403394

  11. Genetic modulation of lipid profiles following lifestyle modification or metformin treatment: the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Pollin, Toni I; Isakova, Tamara; Jablonski, Kathleen A; de Bakker, Paul I W; Taylor, Andrew; McAteer, Jarred; Pan, Qing; Horton, Edward S; Delahanty, Linda M; Altshuler, David; Shuldiner, Alan R; Goldberg, Ronald B; Florez, Jose C; Franks, Paul W

    2012-01-01

    Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS) based on deleterious alleles at 32 lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms modifies the effects of lifestyle and/or metformin interventions on lipid levels and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) lipoprotein subfraction size and number. Twenty-three loci previously associated with fasting LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides replicated (P = 0.04-1 × 10(-17)). Except for total HDL particles (r = -0.03, P = 0.26), all components of the lipid profile correlated with the GRS (partial |r| = 0.07-0.17, P = 5 × 10(-5)-1 10(-19)). The GRS was associated with higher baseline-adjusted 1-year LDL cholesterol levels (β = +0.87, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 8 × 10(-5), P(interaction) = 0.02) in the lifestyle intervention group, but not in the placebo (β = +0.20, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.35) or metformin (β = -0.03, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.90; P(interaction) = 0.64) groups. Similarly, a higher GRS predicted a greater number of baseline-adjusted small LDL particles at 1 year in the lifestyle intervention arm (β = +0.30, SEE ± 0.012 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.01, P(interaction) = 0.01) but not in the placebo (β = -0.002, SEE ± 0.008 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.74) or metformin (β = +0.013, SEE ± 0.008 nmol/L/allele, P = 0.12; P(interaction) = 0.24) groups. Our findings suggest that a high genetic burden confers an adverse lipid profile and predicts attenuated response in LDL-C levels and small LDL particle number to dietary and physical activity interventions aimed at weight loss. PMID:22951888

  12. Genetic Modulation of Lipid Profiles following Lifestyle Modification or Metformin Treatment: The Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Kathleen A.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Taylor, Andrew; McAteer, Jarred; Pan, Qing; Horton, Edward S.; Delahanty, Linda M.; Altshuler, David; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Florez, Jose C.; Bray, George A.; Culbert, Iris W.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Eberhardt, Barbara; Greenway, Frank; Guillory, Fonda G.; Herbert, April A.; Jeffirs, Michael L.; Kennedy, Betty M.; Lovejoy, Jennifer C.; Morris, Laura H.; Melancon, Lee E.; Ryan, Donna; Sanford, Deborah A.; Smith, Kenneth G.; Smith, Lisa L.; Amant, Julia A. St.; Tulley, Richard T.; Vicknair, Paula C.; Williamson, Donald; Zachwieja, Jeffery J.; Polonsky, Kenneth S.; Tobian, Janet; Ehrmann, David; Matulik, Margaret J.; Clark, Bart; Czech, Kirsten; DeSandre, Catherine; Hilbrich, Ruthanne; McNabb, Wylie; Semenske, Ann R.; Caro, Jose F.; Watson, Pamela G.; Goldstein, Barry J.; Smith, Kellie A.; Mendoza, Jewel; Liberoni, Renee; Pepe, Constance; Spandorfer, John; Donahue, Richard P.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Prineas, Ronald; Rowe, Patricia; Calles, Jeanette; Cassanova-Romero, Paul; Florez, Hermes J.; Giannella, Anna; Kirby, Lascelles; Larreal, Carmen; McLymont, Valerie; Mendez, Jadell; Ojito, Juliet; Perry, Arlette; Saab, Patrice; Haffner, Steven M.; Montez, Maria G.; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martinez, Arlene; Hamman, Richard F.; Nash, Patricia V.; Testaverde, Lisa; Anderson, Denise R.; Ballonoff, Larry B.; Bouffard, Alexis; Calonge, B. Ned; Delve, Lynne; Farago, Martha; Hill, James O.; Hoyer, Shelley R.; Jortberg, Bonnie T.; Lenz, Dione; Miller, Marsha; Price, David W.; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Seagle, Helen; Smith, Carissa M.; Steinke, Sheila C.; VanDorsten, Brent; Horton, Edward S.; Lawton, Kathleen E.; Arky, Ronald A.; Bryant, Marybeth; Burke, Jacqueline P.; Caballero, Enrique; Callaphan, Karen M.; Ganda, Om P.; Franklin, Therese; Jackson, Sharon D.; Jacobsen, Alan M.; Jacobsen, Alan M.; Kula, Lyn M.; Kocal, Margaret; Malloy, Maureen A.; Nicosia, Maryanne; Oldmixon, Cathryn F.; Pan, Jocelyn; Quitingon, Marizel; Rubtchinsky, Stacy; Seely, Ellen W.; Schweizer, Dana; Simonson, Donald; Smith, Fannie; Solomon, Caren G.; Warram, James; Kahn, Steven E.; Montgomery, Brenda K.; Fujimoto, Wilfred; Knopp, Robert H.; Lipkin, Edward W.; Marr, Michelle; Trence, Dace; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Murphy, Mary E.; Applegate, William B.; Bryer-Ash, Michael; Frieson, Sandra L.; Imseis, Raed; Lambeth, Helen; Lichtermann, Lynne C.; Oktaei, Hooman; Rutledge, Lily M.K.; Sherman, Amy R.; Smith, Clara M.; Soberman, Judith E.; Williams-Cleaves, Beverly; Metzger, Boyd E.; Johnson, Mariana K.; Behrends, Catherine; Cook, Michelle; Fitzgibbon, Marian; Giles, Mimi M.; Heard, Deloris; Johnson, Cheryl K.H.; Larsen, Diane; Lowe, Anne; Lyman, Megan; McPherson, David; Molitch, Mark E.; Pitts, Thomas; Reinhart, Renee; Roston, Susan; Schinleber, Pamela A.; Nathan, David M.; McKitrick, Charles; Turgeon, Heather; Abbott, Kathy; Anderson, Ellen; Bissett, Laurie; Cagliero, Enrico; Florez, Jose C.; Delahanty, Linda; Goldman, Valerie; Poulos, Alexandra; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Carrion-Petersen, Mary Lou; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Edelman, Steven V.; Henry, Robert R.; Horne, Javiva; Janesch, Simona Szerdi; Leos, Diana; Mudaliar, Sundar; Polonsky, William; Smith, Jean; Vejvoda, Karen; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Lee, Jane E.; Allison, David B.; Aronoff, Nancy J.; Crandall, Jill P.; Foo, Sandra T.; Pal, Carmen; Parkes, Kathy; Pena, Mary Beth; Rooney, Ellen S.; Wye, Gretchen E.H. Van; Viscovich, Kristine A.; Marrero, David G.; Prince, Melvin J.; Kelly, Susie M.; Dotson, Yolanda F.; Fineberg, Edwin S.; Guare, John C; Hadden, Angela M.; Ignaut, James M.; Jackson, Marcia L.; Kirkman, Marion S.; Mather, Kieren J.; Porter, Beverly D.; Roach, Paris J.; Rowland, Nancy D.; Wheeler, Madelyn L.; Ratner, Robert E.; Youssef, Gretchen; Shapiro, Sue; Bavido-Arrage, Catherine; Boggs, Geraldine; Bronsord, Marjorie; Brown, Ernestine; Cheatham, Wayman W.; Cola, Susan; Evans, Cindy; Gibbs, Peggy; Kellum, Tracy; Levatan, Claresa; Nair, Asha K.; Passaro, Maureen; Uwaifo, Gabriel; Saad, Mohammed F.; Budget, Maria; Jinagouda, Sujata; Akbar, Khan; Conzues, Claudia; Magpuri, Perpetua; Ngo, Kathy; Rassam, Amer; Waters, Debra; Xapthalamous, Kathy; Santiago, Julio V.; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; White, Neil H.; Das, Samia; Santiago, Ana; Brown, Angela; Fisher, Edwin; Hurt, Emma; Jones, Tracy; Kerr, Michelle; Ryder, Lucy; Wernimont, Cormarie; Saudek, Christopher D.; Bradley, Vanessa; Sullivan, Emily; Whittington, Tracy; Abbas, Caroline; Brancati, Frederick L.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Charleston, Jeanne B.; Freel, Janice; Horak, Katherine; Jiggetts, Dawn; Johnson, Deloris; Joseph, Hope; Loman, Kimberly; Mosley, Henry; Rubin, Richard R.; Samuels, Alafia; Stewart, Kerry J.; Williamson, Paula; Schade, David S.; Adams, Karwyn S.; Johannes, Carolyn; Atler, Leslie F.; Boyle, Patrick J.; Burge, Mark R.; Canady, Janene L.; Chai, Lisa; Gonzales, Ysela; Hernandez-McGinnis, Doris A.; Katz, Patricia; King, Carolyn; Rassam, Amer; Rubinchik, Sofya; Senter, Willette; Waters, Debra; Shamoon, Harry; Brown, Janet O.; Adorno, Elsie; Cox, Liane; Crandall, Jill; Duffy, Helena; Engel, Samuel; Friedler, Allison; Howard-Century, Crystal J.; Kloiber, Stacey; Longchamp, Nadege; Martinez, Helen; Pompi, Dorothy; Scheindlin, Jonathan; Violino, Elissa; Walker, Elizabeth; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Zimmerman, Elise; Zonszein, Joel; Orchard, Trevor; Wing, Rena R.; Koenning, Gaye; Kramer, M. Kaye; Barr, Susan; Boraz, Miriam; Clifford, Lisa; Culyba, Rebecca; Frazier, Marlene; Gilligan, Ryan; Harrier, Susan; Harris, Louann; Jeffries, Susan; Kriska, Andrea; Manjoo, Qurashia; Mullen, Monica; Noel, Alicia; Otto, Amy; Semler, Linda; Smith, Cheryl F.; Smith, Marie; Venditti, Elizabeth; Weinzierl, Valarie; Williams, Katherine V.; Wilson, Tara; Arakaki, Richard F.; Latimer, Renee W.; Baker-Ladao, Narleen K.; Beddow, Ralph; Dias, Lorna; Inouye, Jillian; Mau, Marjorie K.; Mikami, Kathy; Mohideen, Pharis; Odom, Sharon K.; Perry, Raynette U.; Knowler, William C.; Cooeyate, Norman; Hoskin, Mary A.; Percy, Carol A.; Acton, Kelly J.; Andre, Vickie L.; Barber, Rosalyn; Begay, Shandiin; Bennett, Peter H.; Benson, Mary Beth; Bird, Evelyn C.; Broussard, Brenda A.; Chavez, Marcella; Dacawyma, Tara; Doughty, Matthew S.; Duncan, Roberta; Edgerton, Cyndy; Ghahate, Jacqueline M.; Glass, Justin; Glass, Martia; Gohdes, Dorothy; Grant, Wendy; Hanson, Robert L.; Horse, Ellie; Ingraham, Louise E.; Jackson, Merry; Jay, Priscilla; Kaskalla, Roylen S.; Kessler, David; Kobus, Kathleen M.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Manus, Catherine; Michaels, Sara; Morgan, Tina; Nashboo, Yolanda; Nelson, Julie A.; Poirier, Steven; Polczynski, Evette; Reidy, Mike; Roumain, Jeanine; Rowse, Debra; Sangster, Sandra; Sewenemewa, Janet; Tonemah, Darryl; Wilson, Charlton; Yazzie, Michelle; Bain, Raymond; Fowler, Sarah; Brenneman, Tina; Abebe, Solome; Bamdad, Julie; Callaghan, Jackie; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Gao, Yuping; Grimes, Kristina L.; Grover, Nisha; Haffner, Lori; Jones, Steve; Jones, Tara L.; Katz, Richard; Lachin, John M.; Mucik, Pamela; Orlosky, Robert; Rochon, James; Sapozhnikova, Alla; Sherif, Hanna; Stimpson, Charlotte; Temprosa, Marinella; Walker-Murray, Fredricka; Marcovina, Santica; Strylewicz, Greg; Aldrich, F. Alan; O'Leary, Dan; Stamm, Elizabeth; Rautaharju, Pentti; Prineas, Ronald J.; Alexander, Teresa; Campbell, Charles; Hall, Sharon; Li, Yabing; Mills, Margaret; Pemberton, Nancy; Rautaharju, Farida; Zhang, Zhuming; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Moran, Robert R.; Ganiats, Ted; David, Kristin; Sarkin, Andrew J.; Eastman, R.; Fradkin, Judith; Garfield, Sanford; Gregg, Edward; Zhang, Ping; Herman, William; Florez, Jose C.; Altshuler, David; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Franks, Paul W.; Hanson, Robert L.; Jablonski, Kathleen; Knowler, William C.; McAteer, Jarred B.; Pollin, Toni I.; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS) based on deleterious alleles at 32 lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms modifies the effects of lifestyle and/or metformin interventions on lipid levels and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) lipoprotein subfraction size and number. Twenty-three loci previously associated with fasting LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides replicated (P = 0.04–1×10−17). Except for total HDL particles (r = −0.03, P = 0.26), all components of the lipid profile correlated with the GRS (partial |r| = 0.07–0.17, P = 5×10−5–1×10−19). The GRS was associated with higher baseline-adjusted 1-year LDL cholesterol levels (β = +0.87, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 8×10−5, Pinteraction = 0.02) in the lifestyle intervention group, but not in the placebo (β = +0.20, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.35) or metformin (β = −0.03, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.90; Pinteraction = 0.64) groups. Similarly, a higher GRS predicted a greater number of baseline-adjusted small LDL particles at 1 year in the lifestyle intervention arm (β = +0.30, SEE±0.012 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.01, Pinteraction = 0.01) but not in the placebo (β = −0.002, SEE±0.008 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.74) or metformin (β = +0.013, SEE±0.008 nmol/L/allele, P = 0.12; Pinteraction = 0.24) groups. Our findings suggest that a high genetic burden confers an adverse lipid profile and predicts attenuated response in LDL-C levels and small LDL particle number to dietary and physical activity interventions aimed at weight loss. PMID:22951888

  13. Correlation between anthropometry and lipid profile in healthy subjects of Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Manjareeka, Magna; Nanda, Sitikantha; Mishra, Jayanti; Mishra, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases constitute one class of common contributors to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prevalence of overweight and obesity has dramatically increased in developing countries and is related to cardiovascular risk factors. Anthropometric parameters have the advantages in daily clinical practice of being a simple to measure tool with good reproducibility, especially in a developing country like India. Aim of this study is to correlate some anthropometric variables with lipid parameters in healthy subjects and to assess the anthropometric variable which best reflects the altered lipid profile. Materials and Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted after the Institutional Ethical Committee Clearance. Included participants (1187) were subjected to anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference using standard procedures on the same morning of the day, as the blood sample was collected after overnight fast and estimated for fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. Results: There is a weak correlation between body mass index (BMI) and lipid parameters. Among all the anthropometric variables studied, WC is best correlated to lipid parameters. The mean values of lipid parameters were not significantly different in BMI <25 and BMI ≥25 groups. Conclusions: WC remains one of the simple and reliable variables which best reflects the lipid profile. In a developing country like India, where measurement of cardiovascular risk factors such as body fat saturation and lipid profile remains difficult in the rural population, WC may be used as an effective tool, without being used as a substitute. PMID:26903756

  14. Variation in Lipid Profile Across Different Patterns of Obesity – Observations from Guwahati, Assam

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Mauchumi Saikia; Borah, Probodh; Das, Dulmoni

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity adversely affects cardiovascular health is known. But, data is few in this regard from Assam, northeast India. The serum lipid profile is performed for cardio-metabolic status assessment. Aim The aim of the study was to investigate variation in serum lipids across different obesity patterns in an urban population from Assam. Materials and Methods Two hundred subjects were classified by WC (waist circumference) and BMI (body mass index) values into four groups as follows: Group I (normal WC, normal BMI), Group II (normal WC, increased BMI), Group III (increased WC, normal BMI) and Group IV (increased WC, increased BMI). WC and BMI served as measures of central and generalized obesity respectively. Lipid profile was measured using VITROS 5600 Autoanalyser, and compared across these groups. Multivariate analyses were performed separately for males and females to confirm the results of univariate analyses. Results WC and BMI exhibited significant correlations with different lipid parameters. Group IV individuals had the most abnormal lipid profile values, while, Group I individuals had the most normal values. Group II and Group III individuals had intermediate values. BMI was independently associated with serum triglycerides in both males and females. WC was independently associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol in females. Conclusion The lipid values varied significantly across different obesity patterns. Serum lipid concentrations were strongly influenced by anthropometric indices of obesity in both sexes. Presence of both central and generalized obesity led to greater abnormalities in lipid profile than presence of central or generalized obesity alone. PMID:26672627

  15. Characterizing Exposures of Fish to Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent: An Integrated Metabolite and Lipid Profiling Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolite and lipid profiling are well established techniques for studying chemical-induced alterations to normal biological function in numerous organisms. These techniques have been used successfully to identify biomarkers of chemical exposure, screen for chemical potency, or ...

  16. The effect of Malaysian cocoa extract on glucose levels and lipid profiles in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ruzaidi, A; Amin, I; Nawalyah, A G; Hamid, M; Faizul, H A

    2005-04-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of cocoa extract on serum glucose levels and lipid profiles in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Cocoa extract (contained 285.6 mg total polyphenol per gram extract) was prepared from fermented and roasted (140 degrees C, 20 min) beans by extracting using 80% ethanol in the ratio of 1-10. The extract of three dosages (1, 2, and 3%) was fed to normal and diabetic rats for a period of 4 weeks. In hyperglycaemic group, cocoa extract (1 and 3%) diets were found to significantly lower (p<0.05) the serum glucose levels compared to the control. Furthermore, supplementation of 1 and 3% cocoa extract had significantly reduced (p<0.05) the level of total cholesterol in diabetic rats. In addition, 1, 2, and 3% cocoa extract diets had significantly lowered (p<0.05) the total triglycerides. Interestingly, this study found that serum HDL-cholesterol had increased significantly (p<0.05) in diabetic rats fed with 2% cocoa extract, while the LDL-cholesterol had decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the 1% treated group. These results indicate that cocoa extract may possess potential hypoglycaemic and hypocholestrolemic effects on serum glucose levels and lipid profiles, respectively. The results also found that the effect of cocoa extract was dose-dependent. PMID:15763363

  17. Tragopogon porrifolius improves serum lipid profile and increases short-term satiety in rats.

    PubMed

    Zeeni, Nadine; Daher, Costantine F; Saab, Lea; Mroueh, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Tragopogon porrifolius (white salsify) is an edible plant commonly used in folk medicine in Lebanon and neighbouring countries. This study investigates the effect of the aqueous extract of the aerial part of T. porrifolius on lipemia and appetite regulation using a rat model. Food intake, abdominal fat percentage, blood lipid profile, liver weight and liver enzymes were assessed following 4 weeks of extract intake via drinking water (50, 100, or 250 mg/kg body weight) in standard high-carbohydrate and high-fat dietary conditions. In a separate study, the short term effect of a preload of T. porrifolius extract on food intake was evaluated. Results showed that consumption of the plant extract for a period of four weeks resulted in a marked improvement of the lipid profile (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol). Body weight, food intake and intra-abdominal fat were also lower in animals given the plant extract (100 and 250 mg/kg). In addition, T. porrifolius extract preload produced a dose dependent decrease in food intake observed over 24h. The intake of T. porrifolius aqueous extract therefore improved lipemia and increased satiety in rats with no visible adverse effects. PMID:24099703

  18. Effects of the Cynanchum wilfordii Ethanol Extract on the Serum Lipid Profile in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Sung; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Kim, Young-Eon; Kim, In-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Mok; Lee, Chang-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ethanol extract of Cynanchum wilfordii (ECW) on the blood lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed free access to either a normal diet (AIN-93 diet), or 1% high-cholesterol diet with or without 0.5% or 1% ECW for 5 weeks. After sacrifice, the rat serum lipid profile was analyzed. The diets containing ECW decreased body weight gains compared to the normal diet. Serum HDL-cholesterol levels of ECW-fed groups were significantly increased in the hypercholesterolemic groups and normal groups (P<0.05). When 1% ECW was fed to the normal group, total cholesterol level was increased. Moreover, treatment of ECW in hypercholesterolemic groups yielded a dose-dependent and highly significant decrease in the atherogenic index as compared to the control. These results suggest that intake of Cynanchum wilfordii may help reduce the risks of hypercholesterolemia by increasing blood HDL-cholesterol and lowering the atherogenic index. PMID:24471126

  19. Effects of the Cynanchum wilfordii Ethanol Extract on the Serum Lipid Profile in Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Sung; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Kim, Young-Eon; Kim, In-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Mok; Lee, Chang-Ho

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ethanol extract of Cynanchum wilfordii (ECW) on the blood lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed free access to either a normal diet (AIN-93 diet), or 1% high-cholesterol diet with or without 0.5% or 1% ECW for 5 weeks. After sacrifice, the rat serum lipid profile was analyzed. The diets containing ECW decreased body weight gains compared to the normal diet. Serum HDL-cholesterol levels of ECW-fed groups were significantly increased in the hypercholesterolemic groups and normal groups (P<0.05). When 1% ECW was fed to the normal group, total cholesterol level was increased. Moreover, treatment of ECW in hypercholesterolemic groups yielded a dose-dependent and highly significant decrease in the atherogenic index as compared to the control. These results suggest that intake of Cynanchum wilfordii may help reduce the risks of hypercholesterolemia by increasing blood HDL-cholesterol and lowering the atherogenic index. PMID:24471126

  20. Lipid profiling of lipoprotein X: Implications for dyslipidemia in cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Heimerl, Susanne; Boettcher, Alfred; Kaul, Harald; Liebisch, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Lipoprotein X (Lp-X) is an abnormal lipoprotein that may typically be formed in intra- and extrahepatic cholestasis and potentially interfere with lipid analysis in the routine lab. To gain insight into lipid class and species composition, Lp-X, LDL and HDL from cholestatic and control serum samples were subjected to mass spectrometric analysis including phospholipids (PL), sphingolipids, free cholesterol (FC), cholesteryl esters (CE) and bile acids. Our analysis of Lp-X revealed a content of 46% FC, 49% PL with 34% phosphatidylcholine (PC) as main PL component. The lipid species pattern of Lp-X showed remarkable high fractions of mono-unsaturated species including PC 32:1 and PC 34:1 and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) 32:1 and 34:1. LDL and HDL lipid composition in the same specimens strongly reflected the lipid composition of Lp-X with increased PC 32:1, PC 34:1, PE 32:1, PE 34:1 and FC accompanied by decreased CE compared to controls. Comparison of Lp-X and biliary lipid composition clearly indicates that Lp-X does not originate from a sole release of bile lipids. Moreover, these data present evidence for increased hepatic fatty acid and PL synthesis which may represent a reaction to high hepatic FC level observed during cholestasis. PMID:27112638

  1. The role of developing breast cancer in alteration of serum lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsalam, Kamal Eldin A.; Hassan, Ikhlas K.; Sadig, Isam A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The major aim of this study is to examine the role of alterations in lipid profile in women developing breast cancer. This study was carried out between May 2009 and December 2010. Background: The relationship between lipids and breast cancer is undistinguished. Until now, conflicting results have been reported on the association between lipids and risk of breast cancer development in women. Materials and Methods: Plasma lipids (i.e., total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and triglycerides [TG] were analyzed from 60 controls and 120 untreated breast cancer patients with clinical and histopathological evidence, under aseptic conditions. Venous blood was drawn from the cases and controls and estimations of lipid profile were done utilizing the standard procedures. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent sample t-test to compare the mean serum levels of lipid profile and TC/HDL ratio between patients and controls. Results: A significant rise in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and ratio of total cholesterol: high density lipoprotein cholesterol values, whereas high density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol were not affected significantly by the breast cancer. Conclusions: The developing breast cancer might be considered as one of the factors in alterations in lipid profile levels. PMID:23626635

  2. Tea Dietary Fiber Improves Serum and Hepatic Lipid Profiles in Mice Fed a High Cholesterol Diet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenxin; Shu, Yang; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-06-01

    Tea dietary fiber (TDF) was prepared from tea residues and modified to get cellulose-modified TDF (CTDF) by cellulase or micronized TDF (MTDF) by ultrafine grinding. The in vitro lipid-binding capacities of the three fibers and their effects on serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet were evaluated. The results showed that the three fibers had excellent lipid-binding capacities, and the cholesterol- and sodium cholate-binding capacities of CTDF and MTDF were significantly higher than those of TDF. Animal studies showed that, compared to model control, the three fibers significantly decreased mice average daily gain, gain: feed, and liver index, reduced total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol of serum and liver, increased serum and hepatic high density lipoprotein-cholesterol to TC ratio, and promoted the excretion of fecal lipids, and they also significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase of serum and liver, and decreased lipid peroxidation; moreover, the effects of CTDF and MTDF were better than that of TDF. It was concluded that the three fibers could improve serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet and the mechanism of action might be due to the promotion of fecal excretion of lipids through their lipid-binding ability and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that tea dietary fiber has the potential to be used as a functional ingredient to control cardiovascular disease. PMID:27040277

  3. Dihydrolipoic acid inhibits 15-lipoxygenase-dependent lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, Domenico; Ciofani, Giuliano; Pierdomenico, Sante Donato; Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Cuccurullo, Franco

    2003-11-15

    The potential antioxidant effects of the hydrophobic therapeutic agent lipoic acid (LA) and of its reduced form dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) on the peroxidation of either linoleic acid or human non-HDL fraction catalyzed by soybean 15-lipoxygenase (SLO) and rabbit reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase (RR15-LOX) were investigated. DHLA, but not LA, did inhibit SLO-dependent lipid peroxidation, showing an IC(50) of 15 microM with linoleic acid and 5 microM with the non-HDL fraction. In specific experiments performed with linoleic acid, inhibition of SLO activity by DHLA was irreversible and of a complete, noncompetitive type. In comparison with DHLA, the well-known lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid and the nonspecific iron reductant sodium dithionite inhibited SLO-dependent linoleic acid peroxidation with an IC(50) of 4 and 100 microM, respectively, while the hydrophilic thiol N-acetylcysteine, albeit possessing iron-reducing and radical-scavenging properties, was ineffective. Remarkably, DHLA, but not LA, was also able to inhibit the peroxidation of linoleic acid and of the non-HDL fraction catalyzed by RR15-LOX with an IC(50) of, respectively, 10 and 5 microM. Finally, DHLA, but once again not LA, could readily reduce simple ferric ions and scavenge efficiently the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl in ethanol; DHLA was considerably less effective against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-mediated, peroxyl radical-induced non-HDL peroxidation, showing an IC(50) of 850 microM. Thus, DHLA, at therapeutically relevant concentrations, can counteract 15-lipoxygenase-dependent lipid peroxidation; this antioxidant effect may stem primarily from reduction of the active ferric 15-lipoxygenase form to the inactive ferrous state after DHLA-enzyme hydrophobic interaction and, possibly, from scavenging of fatty acid peroxyl radicals formed during lipoperoxidative processes. Inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase oxidative activity by DHLA could occur in

  4. Quantitative Profiling of Major Neutral Lipid Classes in Human Meibum by Direct Infusion Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianzhong; Green, Kari B.; Nichols, Kelly K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this investigation was to better understand lipid composition in human meibum. Methods. Intact lipids in meibum samples were detected by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis in positive detection mode using sodium iodide (NaI) as an additive. The peak intensities of all major types of lipid species, that is, wax esters (WEs), cholesteryl esters (CEs), and diesters (DEs) were corrected for peak overlapping and isotopic distribution; an additional ionization efficiency correction was performed for WEs and CEs, which was simplified by the observation that the corresponding ionization efficiency was primarily dependent on the specific lipid class and saturation degree of the lipids while independent of the carbon chain length. A set of WE and CE standards was spiked in meibum samples for ionization efficiency determination and absolute quantitation. Results. The absolute amount (μmol/mg) for each of 51 WEs and 31 CEs in meibum samples was determined. The summed masses for 51 WEs and 31 CEs accounted for 48 ± 4% and 40 ± 2%, respectively, of the total meibum lipids. The mass percentages of saturated and unsaturated species were determined to be 75 ± 2% and 25 ± 1% for CEs and 14 ± 1% and 86 ± 1% for WEs. The profiles for two types of DEs were also obtained, which include 42 α,ω Type II DEs, and 21 ω Type I-St DEs. Conclusions. Major neutral lipid classes in meibum samples were quantitatively profiled by ESI-MS analysis with NaI additive. PMID:23847307

  5. Effects of flaxseed consumption on systemic inflammation and serum lipid profile in hemodialysis patients with lipid abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Khalatbari Soltani, Saman; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Tabibi, Hadi; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Atabak, Shahnaz; Loh, Su-Peng; Rahmani, Leila

    2013-04-01

    Inflammation and lipid abnormalities are two important risk factors for cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of flaxseed consumption on systemic inflammation and serum lipid profile in HD patients with lipid abnormalities. This was an unblinded, randomized clinical trial. Thirty HD patients with dyslipidemia (triglyceride >200 mg/dL and/or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) <40 mg/dL) were randomly assigned to either a flaxseed or control group. Patients in the flaxseed group received 40 g/day ground flaxseed for 8 weeks, whereas patients in the control group received their usual diet, without any flaxseed. At baseline and at the end of week 8, 7 mL of blood was collected after a 12- to 14-hour fast and serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Serum concentrations of triglyceride (P < 0.01), total cholesterol (P < 0.01), LDL-C (P < 0.01), and CRP (P < 0.05) decreased significantly in the flaxseed group at the end of week 8 compared with baseline, whereas serum HDL-C showed a significant increase (P < 0.01). These changes in the flaxseed group were significant in comparison with the control group. The study indicates that flaxseed consumption improves lipid abnormalities and reduces systemic inflammation in HD patients with lipid abnormalities. PMID:22998533

  6. Lipid Profiling of In Vitro Cell Models of Adipogenic Differentiation: Relationships With Mouse Adipose Tissues.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Lucy; Prudovsky, Igor; Koza, Robert A; Anunciado-Koza, Rea V; Siviski, Matthew E; Lindner, Volkhard; Friesel, Robert E; Rosen, Clifford J; Baker, Paul R S; Simons, Brigitte; Vary, Calvin P H

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to characterize lipid profiles in cell models of adipocyte differentiation in comparison to mouse adipose tissues in vivo. A novel lipid extraction strategy was combined with global lipid profiling using direct infusion and sequential precursor ion fragmentation, termed MS/MS(ALL) . Perirenal and inguinal white adipose tissue and interscapular brown adipose tissues from adult C57BL/6J mice were analyzed. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, ear mesenchymal progenitor cells, and brown adipose-derived BAT-C1 cells were also characterized. Over 3000 unique lipid species were quantified. Principal component analysis showed that perirenal versus inguinal white adipose tissues varied in lipid composition of triacyl- and diacylglycerols, sphingomyelins, glycerophospholipids and, notably, cardiolipin CL 72:3. In contrast, hexosylceramides and sphingomyelins distinguished brown from white adipose. Adipocyte differentiation models showed broad differences in lipid composition among themselves, upon adipogenic differentiation, and with adipose tissues. Palmitoyl triacylglycerides predominate in 3T3-L1 differentiation models, whereas cardiolipin CL 72:1 and SM 45:4 were abundant in brown adipose-derived cell differentiation models, respectively. MS/MS(ALL) data suggest new lipid biomarkers for tissue-specific lipid contributions to adipogenesis, thus providing a foundation for using in vitro models of adipogenesis to reflect potential changes in adipose tissues in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2182-2193, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26910604

  7. The Valuable Role of Measuring Serum Lipid Profile in Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Ghahremanfard, Farahnaz; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid; Shahnazari, Banafsheh; Gholami, Golnaz; Mehdizadeh, Jamileh

    2015-01-01

    Objective Serum lipid levels are not only associated with etiology, but also with prognosis in cancer. To investigate this issue further, we aimed to evaluate the serum levels of lipids in association with the most important prognostic indicators in cancer patients at the start of chemotherapy. Methods In a retrospective cross-sectional study, using existing medical records obtained from 2009–2014, the data of all incident cancer cases in Iranian patients referred to the Semnan oncology clinic for chemotherapy were analyzed. Data on demographics, cancer type, prognostic indicators (e.g. lymph node involvement, metastasis, and stage of disease), as well as the patient’s lipid profile were collected. We used multiple logistic regression models to show the relationship between prognosis indicators and lipid profile adjusting for age, gender, and type of cancer. Results The data of 205 patients was gathered. We found a significant difference in the lipid profile between different types of cancers (breast, colon, gastric, and ovarian). With the exception of high-density lipoprotein levels in women, which were higher than in men, the means of other lipid profiles were similar between the genders. There was a significant association between higher levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL >110mg/dL) in the serum and metastasis (adjusted odds ratio=2.4, 95% CI 1.2–3.5). No significant association was reported between lipid profile and lymph nodes involvement and stage of the disease. Conclusion Our study suggested a benefit of measuring serum levels of lipids for predicting cancer progression. Increased LDL levels can be considered a predictive factor for increasing the risk of metastasis. PMID:26421116

  8. Association of common JAK2 variants with body fat, insulin sensitivity and lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Dongliang; Gooljar, Sakina B; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Collins, Laura J; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; O'Dell, Sandra D

    2007-01-01

    The leptin signal is transduced via the JAK2-STAT3 pathway at the leptin receptor. JAK2 also phosphorylates IRS, integral to insulin and leptin action and is required for optimum ABCA1-dependent transport of lipids from cells to apoA-I. We hypothesised that common variation in the JAK2 gene may be associated with body fat, insulin sensitivity and modulation of the serum lipid profile in the general population. Ten tagging SNPs spanning the gene were genotyped in 2760 Caucasian female twin subjects (mean age 47.3±12.6 years) from the St Thomas' UK Adult Twin Registry (Twins UK). Minor allele frequencies were between 0.170 and 0.464. The major allele of rs7849191 was associated with higher central fat (P=0.030), % central fat (P=0.014) and waist circumference (P=0.027) and the major allele of rs3780378 with higher serum apoA (P=0.026), total cholesterol (P=0.014) and LDL cholesterol (P=0.012) and lower triglyceride (P=0.023). However, no associations were significant at a level which took account of multiple testing. Although JAK2 is a critical element in leptin and insulin signalling and has a role in cellular cholesterol transport, we failed to establish associations of common SNPs with relevant phenotypes in this human study. PMID:18239666

  9. Relevance of apolipoprotein E4 for the lipid profile of Brazilian patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Souza, D R S; Nakachima, L; Biagioni, R B; Nakazone, M A; Pinhel, M A S; Trindade, D M; Mafra, V T; Tácito, L H B; Martin, J F V; Pinheiro Júnior, S; Brandão, A C

    2007-02-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE - e2, e3, e4 alleles) plays a role in the regulation of lipid metabolism, with the e4 considered to be a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to evaluate the apoE polymorphisms in Brazilians with CAD and their influence on the lipid profile and other risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking). Two hundred individuals were examined: 100 patients with atherosclerosis confirmed by coronary angiography and 100 controls. Blood samples were drawn to determine apoE polymorphisms and lipid profile. As expected, the e3 allele was prevalent in the CAD (0.87) and non-CAD groups (0.81; P = 0.099), followed by the e4 allele (0.09 and 0.14, respectively; P = 0.158). The e3/3 (76 and 78%) and e3/4 (16 and 23%) were the most common genotypes for patients and controls, respectively. The lipid profile was altered in patients compared to controls (P < 0.05), independently of the e4 allele. However, in the controls this allele was prevalent in individuals with elevated LDL-cholesterol levels only (odds ratio = 2.531; 95% CI = 1.028-6.232). The frequency of risk factors was higher in the CAD group (P < 0.05), but their association with the lipid profile was not demonstrable in e4 carriers. In conclusion, the e4 allele is not associated with CAD or lipid profile in patients with atherosclerosis. However, its frequency in the non-CAD group is associated with increased levels of LDL-cholesterol, suggesting an independent effect of the e4 allele on lipid profile when the low frequency of other risk factors in this group is taken into account. PMID:17273655

  10. Circulating lipids and glycaemic control in insulin dependent diabetic children.

    PubMed Central

    Azad, K; Parkin, J M; Court, S; Laker, M F; Alberti, K G

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence of dyslipidaemia in children with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and its relation to glycaemic control was studied in a group of 51 diabetic children and a control population of 132 schoolchildren. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia in the fasting state was increased in the diabetic group (39%) compared with control subjects (17%). Serum cholesterol concentration alone was raised in 25% of diabetic subjects while serum cholesterol and triglycerides were raised in 14%, compared with 16% and 0.7% respectively in control subjects. Serum total cholesterol (5.1 v 4.5 mmol/l), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.2 v 2.6 mmol/l), non-esterified fatty acids (0.91 v 0.50 mmol/l), and triglycerides (0.94 v 0.76 mmol/l) were higher in diabetic children. Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein (apo)B concentrations increased with worsening control, while serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol and apoA-I concentrations were unaltered. There were also positive correlations between glycated haemoglobin and total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apoB in diabetic children. Thus, abnormalities in circulating lipids are common in young subjects with IDDM but largely disappear if blood glucose concentrations are reasonably controlled. PMID:7944528

  11. Human serum metabolic profiles are age dependent.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhonghao; Zhai, Guangju; Singmann, Paula; He, Ying; Xu, Tao; Prehn, Cornelia; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Lattka, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Soranzo, Nicole; Heinrich, Joachim; Standl, Marie; Thiering, Elisabeth; Mittelstraß, Kirstin; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Peters, Annette; Suhre, Karsten; Li, Yixue; Adamski, Jerzy; Spector, Tim D; Illig, Thomas; Wang-Sattler, Rui

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the complexity of aging is of utmost importance. This can now be addressed by the novel and powerful approach of metabolomics. However, to date, only a few metabolic studies based on large samples are available. Here, we provide novel and specific information on age-related metabolite concentration changes in human homeostasis. We report results from two population-based studies: the KORA F4 study from Germany as a discovery cohort, with 1038 female and 1124 male participants (32-81 years), and the TwinsUK study as replication, with 724 female participants. Targeted metabolomics of fasting serum samples quantified 131 metabolites by FIA-MS/MS. Among these, 71/34 metabolites were significantly associated with age in women/men (BMI adjusted). We further identified a set of 13 independent metabolites in women (with P values ranging from 4.6 × 10(-04) to 7.8 × 10(-42) , α(corr) = 0.004). Eleven of these 13 metabolites were replicated in the TwinsUK study, including seven metabolite concentrations that increased with age (C0, C10:1, C12:1, C18:1, SM C16:1, SM C18:1, and PC aa C28:1), while histidine decreased. These results indicate that metabolic profiles are age dependent and might reflect different aging processes, such as incomplete mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. The use of metabolomics will increase our understanding of aging networks and may lead to discoveries that help enhance healthy aging. PMID:22834969

  12. The Type of Fat Ingested at Breakfast Influences the Plasma Lipid Profile of Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Morillas-Ruiz, J. M.; Delgado-Alarcon, J. M.; Rubio-Perez, J. M.; Albaladejo Oton, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether the type of fat ingested at breakfast can modify the plasma lipid profile and other cardiovascular risk variables in postmenopausal women at risk of cardiovascular disease, a longitudinal, randomized, and crossover study was carried out with postmenopausal women at risk of CVD. They were randomly assigned to eat each type of breakfast during one month: 6 study periods (breakfast with the same composition plus butter/margarine/virgin olive oil) separated by two washout periods. On the first and last days of each study period, weight, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and body mass index were recorded in fasting conditions and a blood sample was collected to measure plasma lipid profile. When comparing final values to baseline values, we only found out statistically significant differences on plasma lipid profiles. Butter-based breakfast increased total cholesterol and HDL, while margarine-based breakfast decreased total cholesterol and LDL and increased HDL. After the olive oil-based breakfast intake, a tendency towards a decrease of total cholesterol and LDL levels and an increase of HDL levels was observed. No statistically significant differences were observed in triglycerides levels, BMI, and arterial pressure in any breakfast type. The margarine-based breakfast was the only one which significantly increased the percentage of volunteers with optimal lipid profiles. The polyunsaturated fat at breakfast has improved the plasma lipid profile in the analyzed sample population, suggesting that PUFA-based breakfast can be advisable in women at risk of CVD. PMID:25136625

  13. The Effects of Body Acupuncture on Obesity: Anthropometric Parameters, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory and Immunologic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Hamid; Zhao, Baixiao; Darbandi, Mahsa; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Tavallaie, Shima; Rahsepar, Amir Ali; Parizadeh, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Safariyan, Mohammad; Nemati, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Maryam; Abbasi-Parizad, Parisa; Darbandi, Sara; Akhlaghi, Saeed; Ferns, Gordon A. A.

    2012-01-01

    A randomized controlled clinical trial in 196 obese subjects was performed to examine the effectiveness of body acupuncture on body weight loss, lipid profile and immunogenic and inflammatory markers. Subjects received authentic (cases) or sham (controls) acupuncture for 6 weeks in combination with a low-calorie diet. In the following 6 weeks, they received the low-calorie diet alone. Subjects were assessed at the beginning, 6 and 12 weeks later. Heat shock protein (Hsps)-27, 60, 65, 70 antibody titers and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were also assessed. A significant reduction in measures of adiposity and improvement in lipid profile were observed in both groups, but the levels of anti-Hsp-antibodies decreased in cases only. A reduction in anthropometric and lipid profile in cases were sustained in the second period, however, only changes in lipid profile were observed in the control group. Anti-Hsp-antibodies and hs-CRP levels continued to be reduced in cases but in controls only the reduction in hs-CRP remained. Changes in anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, and anti-Hsp-antibodies were more evident in cases. Body acupuncture in combination with diet restriction was effective in enhancing weight loss and improving dyslipidemia. PMID:22649299

  14. Salt effects on lamellar repeat distance depending on head groups of neutrally charged lipids.

    PubMed

    Hishida, Mafumi; Yamamura, Yasuhisa; Saito, Kazuya

    2014-09-01

    Change in lamellar repeat distances of neutrally charged lipids upon addition of monovalent salts was measured with small-angle X-ray scattering for combinations of two lipids (PC and PE lipids) and six salts. Large dependence on lipid head group is observed in addition to those on added cation and anion. The ion and lipid dependences have little correlation with measured surface potentials of lipid membranes. These results indicate that the lamellar swelling by salt is not explained through balance among interactions considered previously (van der Waals interaction, electrostatic repulsion emerged by ion binding, etc.). It is suggested that effect of water structure, which is affected by not only ions but also lipid itself, should be taken into account for understanding membrane-membrane interactions, as in the Hofmeister effect. PMID:25126900

  15. Serum lipid & lipoprotein profiles of obese Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Ho, T F; Paramsothy, S; Aw, T C; Yip, W C

    1996-03-01

    The serum lipid and lipoprotein levels of 59 obese Chinese children with a mean age of 13.0 years and mean relative weight of 164.2% were analysed. Between 40% to 54% of these children had elevated lipid and lipoprotein levels and about 78% had reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL) level when compared to healthy American and Japanese children. The obese children also had higher mean levels of total cholesterol (TC) and lower HDL compared to male adults in the local population. Those with elevated TC had higher mean relative weight (170% vs 159%, p < 0.05). In view of the close association between hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis, obese children should be carefully screened and managed to prevent long term morbidity and mortality of coronary artery disease. PMID:10967982

  16. Association between coffee consumption and serum lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    KARABUDAK, EFSUN; TÜRKÖZÜ, DUYGU; KÖKSAL, EDA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and serum lipid levels in a study population of 122 Turkish subjects (mean age, 41.4±12.69 years), including 48 males and 74 females. A questionnaire was compiled to determine baseline characteristics, and food and coffee consumption. Subjects were divided into three groups, which included non-drinkers, Turkish coffee and instant coffee drinkers, and anthropometric measurements were acquired, including weight, height and body mass index. Serum lipid levels were analyzed, including the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels. Of the population studied, 76.2% had consumed at least one cup of coffee per week over the previous year. Daily consumption values were 62.3±40.60 ml (0.7±0.50 cup) for Turkish coffee and 116.3±121.96 ml (0.7±0.81 cup) for instant coffee. No statistically significant differences were observed in the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C or VLDL-C among the three groups. In addition, no statistically significant differences were observed in the serum lipid levels when comparing individuals who consumed coffee with sugar/cream or who smoked and those who did not (P>0.05). Therefore, the present observations indicated no significant association between the consumption of Turkish or instant coffee and serum lipid levels. PMID:26136902

  17. Progestin modulates the lipid profile and sensitivity of breast cancer cells to docetaxel

    PubMed Central

    Schlaepfer, Isabel R.; Hitz, Carolyn A.; Gijón, Miguel A.; Bergman, Bryan C.; Eckel, Robert H.; Jacobsen, Britta M.

    2015-01-01

    Progestins induce lipid accumulation in progesterone receptor (PR)-positive breast cancer cells. We speculated that progestin-induced alterations in lipid biology confer resistance to chemotherapy. To examine the biology of lipid loaded breast cancer cells, we used a model of progestin-induced lipid synthesis. T47D (PR-positive) and MDA-MB-231(PR-negative) cell lines were used to study progestin response. Oil red O staining of T47D cells treated with progestin showed lipid droplet formation was PR dependent, glucose dependent and reduced sensitivity to docetaxel. This protection was not observed in PR-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. Progestin treatment induced stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) enzyme expression and chemical inhibition of SCD-1 diminished lipid droplets and cell viability, suggesting the importance of lipid stores in cancer cell survival. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of phospholipids from progestin-treated T47D cells revealed an increase in unsaturated fatty acids, with oleic acid as most abundant. Cells surviving docetaxel treatment also contained more oleic acid in phospholipids, suggesting altered membrane fluidity as a potential mechanism of chemoresistance mediated in part by SCD-1. Lastly, intact docetaxel molecules were present within progestin induced lipid droplets, suggesting a protective quenching effect of intracellular lipid droplets. Our studies suggest the metabolic adaptations produced by progestin provide novel metabolic targets for future combinatorial therapies for progestin-responsive breast cancers. PMID:22922095

  18. Spectrograph Instrumental Profiles - Dependence on Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, J.; Dravins, D.

    1982-04-01

    Spectrograph instrumental profiles (including stray light far away from the central peak) have been measured in blue and red light for the three cameras in the coudé spectrograph of the 1.52-m telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence. The different dispersions 0.7, 1.2, and 2.0 nm mm-1 are obtained using the same ruled diffraction grating. On a linear distance scale in the focal plane the profiles are rather similar down to a 10-3 intensity level, but on a wavelength scale the profiles improve with increasing dispersion, indicating the presence of a stray light component other than that caused by diffraction by grating irregularities. The effects of these instrumental profiles on observed spectra are illustrated by numerical convolutions with the solar spectrum.

  19. [A comparison of rate human lipid profile changes at moderate altitude].

    PubMed

    Minvaleev, R S

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies antiatherogenic changes of serum lipid profile in various conditions, namely: 1) the mountain and climatic treatment on Caucasian resorts, 2) periodic hypobaric therapy, 3) trekking in mountains with regular cold tests (the Tibetan yoga gTum-mo). We made the comparison of rate of change of serum total cholesterol, high (HDL), low (LDL) and very low density (VLDL) lipoproteins, and also triglycerides by use of exponential model of changes of lipid profile. By application of new computing algorithm it was proved that the maximal rate of antiatherogenic changes of serum lipid profile (decrease in the total cholesterol and in LDL, increase in HDL) is characteristic for a combination of three conditions: 1) moderate altitude hypoxia, 2) moderate physical activities and 3) special exercises for increase of cold tolerance (the Tibetan yoga gTum-mo). PMID:21780687

  20. Tubular lipid membranes pulled from vesicles: Dependence of system equilibrium on lipid bilayer curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golushko, I. Yu.; Rochal, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Conditions of joint equilibrium and stability are derived for a spherical lipid vesicle and a tubular lipid membrane (TLM) pulled from this vesicle. The obtained equations establish relationships between the geometric and physical characteristics of the system and the external parameters, which have been found to be controllable in recent experiments. In particular, the proposed theory shows that, in addition to the pressure difference between internal and external regions of the system, the variable spontaneous average curvature of the lipid bilayer (forming the TLM) also influences the stability of the lipid tube. The conditions for stability of the cylindrical phase of TLMs after switching off the external force that initially formed the TLM from a vesicle are discussed. The loss of system stability under the action of a small axial force compressing the TLM is considered.

  1. Oxygen-Dependent Regulation of Bacterial Lipid Production

    PubMed Central

    Lemmer, Kimberly C.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Noguera, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding the mechanisms of lipid accumulation in microorganisms is important for several reasons. In addition to providing insight into assembly of biological membranes, lipid accumulation has important applications in the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is an attractive organism to study lipid accumulation, as it has the ability to increase membrane production at low O2 tensions. Under these conditions, R. sphaeroides develops invaginations of the cytoplasmic membrane to increase its membrane surface area for housing of the membrane-bound components of its photosynthetic apparatus. Here we use fatty acid levels as a reporter of membrane lipid content. We show that, under low-O2 and anaerobic conditions, the total fatty acid content per cell increases 3-fold. We also find that the increases in the amount of fatty acid and photosynthetic pigment per cell are correlated as O2 tensions or light intensity are changed. To ask if lipid and pigment accumulation were genetically separable, we analyzed strains with mutations in known photosynthetic regulatory pathways. While a strain lacking AppA failed to induce photosynthetic pigment-protein complex accumulation, it increased fatty acid content under low-O2 conditions. We also found that an intact PrrBA pathway is required for low-O2-induced fatty acid accumulation. Our findings suggest a previously unknown role of R. sphaeroides transcriptional regulators in increasing fatty acid and phospholipid accumulation in response to decreased O2 tension. IMPORTANCE Lipids serve important functions in living systems, either as structural components of membranes or as a form of carbon storage. Understanding the mechanisms of lipid accumulation in microorganisms is important for providing insight into the assembly of biological membranes and additionally has important applications in the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. In this study, we

  2. Oxygen-­dependent regulation of bacterial lipid production

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lemmer, Kimberly C.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Noguera, Daniel R.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2015-05-02

    Understanding the mechanisms of lipid accumulation in microorganisms is important for several reasons. In addition to providing insight into assembly of biological membranes, lipid accumulation has important applications in the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is an attractive organism to study lipid accumulation, as it has the somewhat unique ability to increase membrane production at low O₂ tensions. Under these conditions, R. sphaeroides develops invaginations of the cytoplasmic membrane to increase its membrane surface area for housing of the membrane-bound components of its photosynthetic apparatus. Here we use fatty acid levels as a reportermore » of membrane lipid content. We show that, under low-O₂ and anaerobic conditions, the total fatty acid content per cell increases 3-fold. We also find that the increases in the amount of fatty acid and photosynthetic pigment per cell are correlated as O₂ tensions or light intensity are changed. To ask if lipid and pigment accumulation were genetically separable, we analyzed strains with mutations in known photosynthetic regulatory pathways. While a strain lacking AppA failed to induce photosynthetic pigment-protein complex accumulation, it increased fatty acid content under low O2 conditions. We also found that an intact PrrBA pathway is required for low O2-induced fatty acid accumulation. In conclusion, our findings suggest a previously unknown role of R. sphaeroides transcriptional regulators in increasing fatty acid and phospholipid accumulation in response to decreased O₂ tension.« less

  3. Oxygen-­dependent regulation of bacterial lipid production

    SciTech Connect

    Lemmer, Kimberly C.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Noguera, Daniel R.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2015-05-12

    Understanding the mechanisms of lipid accumulation in microorganisms is important for several reasons. In addition to providing insight into assembly of biological membranes, lipid accumulation has important applications in the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is an attractive organism to study lipid accumulation, as it has the somewhat unique ability to increase membrane production at low O₂ tensions. Under these conditions, R. sphaeroides develops invaginations of the cytoplasmic membrane to increase its membrane surface area for housing of the membrane-bound components of its photosynthetic apparatus. Here we use fatty acid levels as a reporter of membrane lipid content. We show that, under low-O₂ and anaerobic conditions, the total fatty acid content per cell increases 3-fold. We also find that the increases in the amount of fatty acid and photosynthetic pigment per cell are correlated as O₂ tensions or light intensity are changed. To ask if lipid and pigment accumulation were genetically separable, we analyzed strains with mutations in known photosynthetic regulatory pathways. While a strain lacking AppA failed to induce photosynthetic pigment-protein complex accumulation, it increased fatty acid content under low O2 conditions. We also found that an intact PrrBA pathway is required for low O2-induced fatty acid accumulation. Our findings suggest a previously unknown role of R. sphaeroides transcriptional regulators in increasing fatty acid and phospholipid accumulation in response to decreased O₂ tension.

  4. A simple desalting method for direct MALDI mass spectrometry profiling of tissue lipids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hay-Yan J; Liu, Cheng Bin; Wu, Hsuan-Wen

    2011-04-01

    Direct MALDI-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) profiling of tissue lipids often observes isobaric phosphatidylcholine (PC) species caused by the endogenous alkali metal ions that bias the relative abundance of tissue lipids. Fresh rat brain cryosections were washed with 70% ethanol (EtOH), water (H₂O), or 150 mM ammonium acetate (NH₄Ac), and the desalting effectiveness of each fluid was evaluated by MALDI-MS profiling of PC and sphingomyelin (SM) species in tissue and in the washing runoff. The results indicated that EtOH and H₂O only partially desalted the tissue lipids, yet both substantially displaced the tissue lipids to the washing runoffs. On the other hand, NH₄Ac effectively desalted the tissue lipids and produced a runoff containing no detectable PCs or SMs. NH₄Ac wash also unveiled the underlying changes of PCs and SMs in the infarcted rat cortex previously masked by edema-caused increase of tissue sodium. The MS/MS of an isobaric PC in the infarcted cortex revealed the precursor change as the result of NH₄Ac wash and confirmed the desalting effectiveness of such wash. Other than desalting, NH₄Ac wash also removes contaminants in tissue, enhances the overall spectral quality, and benefits additionally in profiling of biological molecules in tissue. PMID:21266365

  5. MOLECULAR GENETIC AND BIOCHEMICAL APPROACHES FOR DEFINING LIPID-DEPENDENT MEMBRANE PROTEIN FOLDING

    PubMed Central

    Dowhan, William; Bogdanov, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    We provide an overview of lipid-dependent polytopic membrane protein folding and topogenesis. Lipid dependence of this process was determined by employing Escherichia coli cells in which specific lipids can be eliminated, substituted, tightly titrated or controlled temporally during membrane protein synthesis and assembly. The secondary transport protein lactose permease (LacY) was used to establish general principles underlying the molecular basis of lipid-dependent effects on protein domain folding, protein transmembrane domain (TM) orientation, and function. These principles were then extended to several other secondary transport proteins of E. coli. The methods used to follow proper conformational organization of protein domains and the topological organization of protein TMs in whole cells and membranes are described. The proper folding of an extramembrane domain of LacY that is crucial for energy dependent uphill transport function depends on specific lipids acting as non-protein molecular chaperones. Correct TM topogenesis is dependent on charge interactions between the cytoplasmic surface of membrane proteins and a proper balance of the membrane surface net charge defined by the lipid head groups. Short-range interactions between the nascent protein chain and the translocon are necessary but not sufficient for establishment of final topology. After release from the translocon short-range interactions between lipid head groups and the nascent protein chain, partitioning of protein hydrophobic domains into the membrane bilayer, and long–range interactions within the protein thermodynamically drive final membrane protein organization. Given the diversity of membrane lipid compositions throughout nature, it is tempting to speculate that during the course of evolution the physical and chemical properties of proteins and lipids have co-evolved in the context of the lipid environment of membrane systems in which both are mutually depend on each other for

  6. High-temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for skin surface lipids profiling[S

    PubMed Central

    Michael-Jubeli, Rime; Bleton, Jean; Baillet-Guffroy, Arlette

    2011-01-01

    Skin surface lipids (SSLs) arising from both sebaceous glands and skin removal form a complex lipid mixture composed of free fatty acids and neutral lipids. High-temperature gas chromatography coupled with electron impact or chemical ionization mass spectrometry was used to achieve a simple analytical protocol, without prior separation in classes and without prior cleavage of lipid molecules, in order to obtain simultaneously i) a qualitative characterization of the individual SSLs and ii) a quantitative evaluation of lipid classes. The method was first optimized with SSLs collected from the forehead of a volunteer. More than 200 compounds were identified in the same run. These compounds have been classified in five lipid classes: free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, waxes, sterols, and glycerides. The advantage to this method was it provided structural information on intact compounds, which is new for cholesteryl esters and glycerides, and to obtain detailed fingerprints of the major SSLs. These fingerprints were used to compare the SSL compositions from different body areas. The squalene/cholesterol ratio was used to determine the balance between sebaceous secretion and skin removal. This method could be of general interest in fields where complex lipid mixtures are involved. PMID:20952798

  7. Monoolein-based cubosomes affect lipid profile in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Antonella; Murgia, Sergio; Putzu, Danilo; Meli, Valeria; Falchi, Angela Maria

    2015-10-01

    Monoolein-based cubosomes are promising drug delivery nanocarriers for theranostic purposes. Nevertheless, a small amount of research has been undertaken to investigate the impact of these biocompatible nanoparticles on cell lipid profile. The purpose of the present investigation was to explore changes in lipid components occurring in human carcinoma HeLa cells when exposed to short-term treatments (2 and 4h) with monoolein-based cubosomes stabilized by Pluronic F108 (MO/PF108). A combination of TLC and reversed-phase HPLC with DAD and ELSD detection was performed to analyze cell total fatty acid profile and levels of phospholipids, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and cholesteryl esters. The treatments with MO/PF108 cubosomes, at non-cytotoxic concentration (83μg/mL of MO), affected HeLa fatty acid profile, and a significant increase in the level of oleic acid 18:1 n-9 was observed in treated cells after lipid component saponification. Nanoparticle uptake modulated HeLa cell lipid composition, inducing a remarkable incorporation of oleic acid in the phospholipid and triacylglycerol fractions, whereas no changes were observed in the cellular levels of free cholesterol and cholesteryl oleate. Moreover, cell-based fluorescent measurements of intracellular membranes and lipid droplet content were assessed on cubosome-treated cells with an alternative technique using Nile red staining. A significant increase in the amount of the intracellular membranes and mostly in the cytoplasmic lipid droplets was detected, confirming that monoolein-based cubosome treatment influences the synthesis of intracellular membranes and accumulation of lipid droplets. PMID:26341749

  8. Neuroactive steroid treatment modulates myelin lipid profile in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Mitro, Nico; Cermenati, Gaia; Brioschi, Elisabetta; Abbiati, Federico; Audano, Matteo; Giatti, Silvia; Crestani, Maurizio; De Fabiani, Emma; Azcoitia, Inigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Caruso, Donatella; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2014-09-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy causes a decrease in the levels of dihydroprogesterone and 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol (3α-diol) in the peripheral nerves. These two neuroactive steroids exert protective effects, by mechanisms that still remain elusive. We have previously shown that the activation of Liver X Receptors improves the peripheral neuropathic phenotype in diabetic rats. This protective effect is accompanied by the restoration to control values of the levels of dihydroprogesterone and 3α-diol in peripheral nerves. In addition, activation of these receptors decreases peripheral myelin abnormalities by improving the lipid desaturation capacity, which is strongly blunted by diabetes, and ultimately restores the myelin lipid profile to non-diabetic values. On this basis, we here investigate whether dihydroprogesterone or 3α-diol may exert their protective effects by modulating the myelin lipid profile. We report that both neuroactive steroids act on the lipogenic gene expression profile in the sciatic nerve of diabetic rats, reducing the accumulation of myelin saturated fatty acids and promoting desaturation. These changes were associated with a reduction in myelin structural alterations. These findings provide evidence that dihydroprogesterone and 3α-diol are protective agents against diabetic peripheral neuropathy by regulating the de novo lipogenesis pathway, which positively influences myelin lipid profile. PMID:24607810

  9. Human Ozone (O3) Exposure Alters Serum Profile of Lipid Metabolites

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN OZONE (O3) EXPOSURE ALTERS SERUM PROFILE OF LIPID METABOLITES Miller, D B.1; Kodavanti, U P.2 Karoly, E D.3; Cascio W.E2, Ghio, A J. 21. UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, N.C., United States. 2. NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, N.C., United States. 3. METABOLON INC., Durham, N.C., United...

  10. Oxygen-­dependent regulation of bacterial lipid production

    SciTech Connect

    Lemmer, Kimberly C.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Noguera, Daniel R.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2015-05-02

    Understanding the mechanisms of lipid accumulation in microorganisms is important for several reasons. In addition to providing insight into assembly of biological membranes, lipid accumulation has important applications in the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is an attractive organism to study lipid accumulation, as it has the somewhat unique ability to increase membrane production at low O₂ tensions. Under these conditions, R. sphaeroides develops invaginations of the cytoplasmic membrane to increase its membrane surface area for housing of the membrane-bound components of its photosynthetic apparatus. Here we use fatty acid levels as a reporter of membrane lipid content. We show that, under low-O₂ and anaerobic conditions, the total fatty acid content per cell increases 3-fold. We also find that the increases in the amount of fatty acid and photosynthetic pigment per cell are correlated as O₂ tensions or light intensity are changed. To ask if lipid and pigment accumulation were genetically separable, we analyzed strains with mutations in known photosynthetic regulatory pathways. While a strain lacking AppA failed to induce photosynthetic pigment-protein complex accumulation, it increased fatty acid content under low O2 conditions. We also found that an intact PrrBA pathway is required for low O2-induced fatty acid accumulation. In conclusion, our findings suggest a previously unknown role of R. sphaeroides transcriptional regulators in increasing fatty acid and phospholipid accumulation in response to decreased O₂ tension.

  11. PROFILE OF LIVER DYSFUNCTION IN ALCHOHOL DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Desai, N.G.; Vaswani, M.; Chavan, B.S.; Tripathi, B.M.; Kaw, N.

    1996-01-01

    Ninety two patients of alcohol dependence were studied for liver function at a specialised drug dependence treatment centre. Biochemical laboratory evidence of liver dysfunction was found in a very large number of patients, including the patients who had no clinical signs or symptoms. The findings from this retrospective study are discussed in the context of the earlier studies from other settings in India. PMID:21584115

  12. Profile of liver dysfunction in alchohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Desai, N G; Vaswani, M; Chavan, B S; Tripathi, B M; Kaw, N

    1996-01-01

    Ninety two patients of alcohol dependence were studied for liver function at a specialised drug dependence treatment centre. Biochemical laboratory evidence of liver dysfunction was found in a very large number of patients, including the patients who had no clinical signs or symptoms. The findings from this retrospective study are discussed in the context of the earlier studies from other settings in India. PMID:21584115

  13. Crystalline, Ordered and Disordered Lipid Membranes: Convergence of Stress Profiles Due to Ergosterol

    SciTech Connect

    Vanegas, Juan M.; Longo, Marjorie L.; Faller, Roland

    2011-03-23

    We present a simulation study focusing on modulations of the stress, or lateral pressure, profiles of lipid bilayer phases by addition of a sterol, ergosterol, at multiple temperatures. A major redistribution of lateral and normal pressures across the gel phase bilayer required 10 mol% sterol in comparison to a gradual redistribution beginning at 20 mol% for the liquid phase. Stress profiles across all temperatures converged at 30 mol% ergosterol. Redistribution and merging of stress profiles, associated with structural alterations, are coincident with experimentally observed modulations in mechanical properties, and therefore are suggested as the mechanism of action for this biologically necessary role of sterols.

  14. Size-dependent mortality rate profiles.

    PubMed

    Roa-Ureta, Ruben H

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge of mortality rates is crucial to the understanding of population dynamics in populations of free-living fish and invertebrates in marine and freshwater environments, and consequently to sustainable resource management. There is a well developed theory of population dynamics based on age distributions that allow direct estimation of mortality rates. However, for most cases the aging of individuals is difficult or age distributions are not available for other reasons. The body size distribution is a widely available alternative although the theory underlying the formation of its shape is more complicated than in the case of age distributions. A solid theory of the time evolution of a population structured by any physiological variable has been developed in 1960s and 1970s by adapting the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of classical mechanics, and equations to estimate the body size-distributed mortality profile have been derived for simple cases. Here I extend those results with regards to the size-distributed mortality profile to complex cases of non-stationary populations, individuals growing according to a generalised growth model and seasonally patterned recruitment pulses. I apply resulting methods to two cases in the marine environment, a benthic crustacean population that was growing during the period of observation and whose individuals grow with negative acceleration, and a sea urchin coastal population that is undergoing a stable cycle of two equilibrium points in population size whose individuals grow with varying acceleration that switches sign along the size range. The extension is very general and substantially widens the applicability of the theory. PMID:27164999

  15. Paraoxonase Activity and Lipid Profile in Paediatric Nephrotic Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Anuradha B.; Patil, Vidya S.; Ingleshwar, Deepti G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dyslipidaemia of Nephrotic Syndrome (NS) is known to be linked to oxidative reactions and atherosclerosis. Paraoxonase (PON1) has been implicated in the prevention of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) lipid peroxidation and also degrades biologically active oxidised lipids in lipoprotein. Aim The present study was taken up to assess PON1 levels in paediatric nephrotic syndrome and also to see if any correlation exists between lipid parameters and PON1. Materials and Methods This study consists of Group 1 with 40 cases of NS in the age group of 2-14 years and Group 2 with 40 age and sex matched healthy controls. Lipid profile and paraoxonase activity was measured in serum samples of both the groups. Results Statistical analysis by student’s t-test showed that the mean levels of Total Cholesterol, Trigylycerides, LDL, and VLDL were significantly increased in Group 1 when compared to Group 2 (p <0.001). The mean levels of HDL were similar in both groups. The levels of PON1 were significantly lowered in Group 1 when compared to Group 2. Correlation studies showed no significant correlation between lipid profile and PON1. Conclusion Cases have atherosclerotic dyslipidaemia and significantly decreased PON1 activity. Decreased PON1 may lead to increased oxidation of LDL accelerating the process of atherosclerosis. PMID:27134858

  16. Lipid Profiles within the SABRE Trial of Anastrozole with and without Risedronate

    PubMed Central

    Van Poznak, Catherine; Makris, Andreas; Clack, Glen; Barlow, David H.; Eastell, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lipid profiles in women with early breast cancer receiving anastrozole with or without risedronate were examined within an international Phase III/IV study to assess for possible treatment related changes. Methods Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer were assigned to 1 of 3 strata by risk of fragility fracture. Patients with the highest risk for fracture received anastrozole plus risedronate (A+R). Moderate-risk patients were randomized in a double-blind manner to anastrozole and risedronate (A+R) or anastrozole and placebo (A+P). Lower-risk patients received anastrozole (A) alone. Serial fasting blood samples were assessed for changes in lipid parameters relative to baseline after 12 months of treatment with anastrozole with or without risedronate. Samples were centrally analyzed for low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol), high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG). Analysis was performed as primary analysis population for lipids (A plus A+P), lipid intention to treat population and secondary population (A+R). Results Of the 119 patients treated with A plus A+P, there were 66 patients eligible for inclusion in the primary analysis population. Of the 115 patients treated with secondary population (A+R) there were 65 patients eligible for lipid profiling. For LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, TC and TG there were no significant changes between the baseline and 12 month assessments to suggest that any of these therapies have a negative impact on the lipid profile. Conclusions In this study of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer receiving adjuvant anastrozole with or without risedronate, there was no adverse effect on LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, TC or TG values over the 12 month monitoring period. PMID:22763465

  17. Microarray Analysis of the Gene Expression Profile and Lipid Metabolism in Fat-1 Transgenic Cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinfeng; Bai, Chunling; Ding, Xiangbin; Wei, Zhuying; Guo, Hong; Li, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are beneficial for human health. However, humans and mammals are unable to synthesize n-3 PUFAs because they lack the n-3 desaturase gene fat-1 and must therefore obtain this type of fatty acid through their diet. Through the production of fat-1 transgenic animals, it is possible to obtain animal products that are rich in n-3 PUFAs, such as meat and milk. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression profile and the mechanism of lipid metabolism in fat-1 transgenic cattle and to accumulate important basic data that are required to obtain more efficient fat-1 transgenic cattle. Transcriptome profiling of fat-1 transgenic and wild-type cattle identified differentially expressed genes that are involved in 90 biological pathways, eight pathways of which were related to lipid metabolism processes 36 genes of which were related to lipid metabolism. This analysis also identified 11 significantly enriched genes that were involved in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway. These findings were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The information obtained in this study indicated that the introduction of an exogenous fat-1 gene into cattle affects the gene expression profile and the process of lipid metabolism in these animals. These results may provide important insights into how an exogenous fat-1 gene synthesizes n-3 PUFAs in transgenic cattle and other mammals. PMID:26426396

  18. Alteration of Lipid Profile in Patients with Head and Neck Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Poorey, Vijay Kumar; Thakur, Pooja

    2016-06-01

    Lipids are the major cell membrane components, essential for various biological functions including cell growth and division for the maintenance of cell integrity of normal and malignant tissues. The changes in lipid profile have been associated since long with cancer and hypocholesterolemia has been observed in patients with cancers of various organs. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the alterations and clinical significance of plasma lipid profiles in untreated head and neck malignancies. The present case-control study comprises of newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed, 100 head and neck malignancy cases diagnosed between 1st July 2013 and 30th June 2014 in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal. Fasting blood samples were collected and the lipid profile studied. In present study, the authors found that there is a preponderance of head and neck malignancy in the age group of 41-60 years, males having the higher incidence. Malignancy involving oral cavity were the commonest and majority were well differentiated. Statistically, there was a highly significant reduction of mean serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides and high density lipoproteins (HDL) in the subjects of head and neck malignancy as compared to the control group. TC and HDL were also found significantly lower among those with habit of tobacco consumption. PMID:27340626

  19. Coconut oil predicts a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Feranil, Alan B.; Duazo, Paulita L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Adair, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35–69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu City. Coconut oil intake was measured as individual coconut oil intake calculated using two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.54 ± 8.92 grams). Cholesterol profiles were measured in plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Mean lipid values in this sample were total cholesterol (TC) (186.52 ± 38.86 mg/dL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (40.85 ± 10.30 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (119.42 ± 33.21 mg/dL), triglycerides (130.75 ± 85.29 mg/dL) and the TC/HDL ratio (4.80 ± 1.41). Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with HDL-c levels. PMID:21669587

  20. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Oelmann, Simon; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Bahls, Martin; Friedrich, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Background/aims Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population. Methods Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated. Results We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08), p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07), p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08), p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06), p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07–3.48), p = 0.03) and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09–3.47), p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months. Conclusion This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases. PMID:27128661

  1. Enhancement of lipid production and fatty acid profiling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Karpagam, R; Preeti, R; Ashokkumar, B; Varalakshmi, P

    2015-11-01

    Lipid from microalgae is one of the putative oil resources to facilitate the biodiesel production during this era of energy dissipation and environmental pollution. In this study, the key parameters such as biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content were evaluated at the early stationary phase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 cultivated in nutrient starved (nitrogen, phosphorous), glucose (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2%) and vitamin B12 supplementation (0.001%, 0.002% and 0.003%) in Tris-Acetate-Phosphate (TAP) medium. The lipid content in nitrogen starved media was 61% which is 2.34 folds higher than nutrient sufficient TAP medium. Glucose supplementation has lead to proportional increase in biomass productivity with the increasing concentration of glucose whereas vitamin B12 supplementations had not shown any influence in lipid and biomass production. Further, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of C. reinhardtii, CC 1010 has revealed more than 80% of total SFA (saturated fatty acid) and MUFA (mono unsaturated fatty acid) content. Quality checking parameters of biodiesel like cetane number, saponification value, iodine number and degree of unsaturation were analyzed and the biodiesel fuel properties were found to be appropriate as per the international standards, EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Conclusively, among all the treatments, nitrogen starvation with 0.1% glucose supplementation had yielded high lipid content in C. reinhardtii, CC 1010. PMID:25838071

  2. Serial measurement of lipid profile and inflammatory markers in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amit Kumar; Singh, Harsh Vardhan; Raizada, Arun; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Serum concentration of lipids and lipoproteins changes during the course of acute coronary syndrome as a consequence of the inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on the levels of lipid profile and inflammatory markers. We investigated 400 patients with AMI who were admitted within 24 h of onset of symptoms. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were determined by standard enzymatic methods along with high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (latex enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay) and cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 (quantitative ''sandwich'' enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The results indicate a trend of reduced TC, LDL, and HDL, and elevated TG levels, along with pro- and anti-inflammatory markers (p < 0.001), between day 1 and the day 2 serum samples of AMI patients. However, corrections in the serum levels have been observed at day 7. Our results demonstrate significant variations in the mean lipid levels and inflammatory markers between days 1, 2 and 7 after AMI. Therefore, it is recommended that the serum lipids should be assessed within 24 hours after infarction. Early treatment of hyperlipidemia provides potential benefits. Exact knowledge regarding baseline serum lipids and lipoprotein levels as well as their varying characteristics can provide a rational basis for clinical decisions about lipid lowering therapy. PMID:26535040

  3. Lipid profile in chronic renal failure at a moderate altitude of 2250 m.

    PubMed

    Gargya; Thakur, S; Kapoor, D

    1999-11-01

    There is no statistically significant difference between the two groups (CRF and control) as regard the serum lipid values regardless of the severity, age and etiology. The dyslipidemia in present study not correlate with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease reinforcing the earlier finding of increased levels of HDL-c at higher altitudes. Still in practice the lipid profile should be estimated in all patients and those found to be inappropriately high with increased cardiovascular risk should be treated as recommended in the general population. PMID:10862268

  4. Mapping Condition-Dependent Regulation of Lipid Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Jewett, Michael C.; Workman, Christopher T.; Nookaew, Intawat; Pizarro, Francisco A.; Agosin, Eduardo; Hellgren, Lars I.; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Lipids play a central role in cellular function as constituents of membranes, as signaling molecules, and as storage materials. Although much is known about the role of lipids in regulating specific steps of metabolism, comprehensive studies integrating genome-wide expression data, metabolite levels, and lipid levels are currently lacking. Here, we map condition-dependent regulation controlling lipid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by measuring 5636 mRNAs, 50 metabolites, 97 lipids, and 57 13C-reaction fluxes in yeast using a three-factor full-factorial design. Correlation analysis across eight environmental conditions revealed 2279 gene expression level-metabolite/lipid relationships that characterize the extent of transcriptional regulation in lipid metabolism relative to major metabolic hubs within the cell. To query this network, we developed integrative methods for correlation of multi-omics datasets that elucidate global regulatory signatures. Our data highlight many characterized regulators of lipid metabolism and reveal that sterols are regulated more at the transcriptional level than are amino acids. Beyond providing insights into the systems-level organization of lipid metabolism, we anticipate that our dataset and approach can join an emerging number of studies to be widely used for interrogating cellular systems through the combination of mathematical modeling and experimental biology. PMID:24062529

  5. Extended synaptotagmins are Ca2+-dependent lipid transfer proteins at membrane contact sites.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haijia; Liu, Yinghui; Gulbranson, Daniel R; Paine, Alex; Rathore, Shailendra S; Shen, Jingshi

    2016-04-19

    Organelles are in constant communication with each other through exchange of proteins (mediated by trafficking vesicles) and lipids [mediated by both trafficking vesicles and lipid transfer proteins (LTPs)]. It has long been known that vesicle trafficking can be tightly regulated by the second messenger Ca(2+), allowing membrane protein transport to be adjusted according to physiological demands. However, it remains unclear whether LTP-mediated lipid transport can also be regulated by Ca(2+) In this work, we show that extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts), poorly understood membrane proteins at endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites, are Ca(2+)-dependent LTPs. Using both recombinant and endogenous mammalian proteins, we discovered that E-Syts transfer glycerophospholipids between membrane bilayers in the presence of Ca(2+) E-Syts use their lipid-accommodating synaptotagmin-like mitochondrial lipid binding protein (SMP) domains to transfer lipids. However, the SMP domains themselves cannot transport lipids unless the two membranes are tightly tethered by Ca(2+)-bound C2 domains. Strikingly, the Ca(2+)-regulated lipid transfer activity of E-Syts was fully recapitulated when the SMP domain was fused to the cytosolic domain of synaptotagmin-1, the Ca(2+)sensor in synaptic vesicle fusion, indicating that a common mechanism of membrane tethering governs the Ca(2+)regulation of lipid transfer and vesicle fusion. Finally, we showed that microsomal vesicles isolated from mammalian cells contained robust Ca(2+)-dependent lipid transfer activities, which were mediated by E-Syts. These findings established E-Syts as a novel class of LTPs and showed that LTP-mediated lipid trafficking, like vesicular transport, can be subject to tight Ca(2+)regulation. PMID:27044075

  6. Lipid-dependent gating of a voltage-gated potassium channel

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Liu, Weiran; Anderson, Lingyan Y.; Jiang, Qiu-Xing

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies hypothesized that phospholipids stabilize two voltage-sensing arginine residues of certain voltage-gated potassium channels in activated conformations. It remains unclear how lipids directly affect these channels. Here, by examining the conformations of the KvAP in different lipids, we showed that without voltage change, the voltage-sensor domains switched from the activated to the resting state when their surrounding lipids were changed from phospholipids to nonphospholipids. Such lipid-determined conformational change was coupled to the ion-conducting pore, suggesting that parallel to voltage gating, the channel is gated by its annular lipids. Our measurements recognized that the energetic cost of lipid-dependent gating approaches that of voltage gating, but kinetically it appears much slower. Our data support that a channel and its surrounding lipids together constitute a functional unit, and natural nonphospholipids such as cholesterol should exert strong effects on voltage-gated channels. Our first observation of lipid-dependent gating may have general implications to other membrane proteins. PMID:21427721

  7. The NADPH- and iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in human placental microsomes.

    PubMed

    Milczarek, Ryszard; Sokolowska, Ewa; Hallmann, Anna; Klimek, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    In pregnant females, placenta is the most important source of lipid hydroperoxides and other reactive oxygen species (ROS). The increased production of lipid peroxides is often linked to preeclampsia. In our study, we revealed that NADPH- and iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in human placental microsomes (HPM) occurred. In the presence of Fe2+ ion, HPM produced small amounts of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) - a final product of lipid peroxidation. NADPH caused a strong increase of iron stimulated TBARS formation. TBARS formation was inhibited by superoxide dismutase, butylated hydroxytoluene and alpha-tocopherol but not by mannitol or catalase. TBARS and superoxide radical production was inhibited in similar manner by cytochrome P450 inhibitors. The results obtained led us to the following conclusions: (1) microsomal lipid peroxidation next to mitochondrial lipid peroxidation may by an important source of lipid hydroperoxides in blood during pregnancy and (2) superoxide radical released by microsomal cytochrome P450 is an important factor in NADPH- and iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in HPM. PMID:16896536

  8. Serum lipid profile in oral squamous cell carcinoma: alterations and association with some clinicopathological parameters and tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Acharya, S; Rai, P; Hallikeri, K; Anehosur, V; Kale, J

    2016-06-01

    Hypocholesterolemia has been observed in patients with cancers of various organs; however the potential role of alterations in serum lipid profile in oral cancer remains controversial. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the serum lipid profile in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and its prognostic significance. Ninety untreated OSCC patients, who reported to the craniofacial unit for treatment between 2011 and 2014, were identified to obtain clinicopathological data and preoperative blood investigations including lipid profile. The fasting blood lipid profile, including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL), was evaluated using a fully automated biochemistry analyser. Data were analyzed statistically using the Student's t-test, analysis of variance, and post hoc tests. Statistically significant decreases in serum TC, HDL, and LDL levels were observed in OSCC patients as compared to healthy controls (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in mean lipid profile values in terms of stage, grade, or lymph node metastasis. This study identified changes in lipid profiles in OSCC. The results suggest that during the development and progression of OSCC, levels of serum lipids are decreased. A review of the literature confirmed that OSCC patients exhibit aberrant serum lipid patterns. PMID:26899131

  9. Autophagy regulation depends on ER homeostasis controlled by lipid droplets.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Ariadna P; Graef, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is a highly conserved homeostasis and quality control process critically linked to neurodegeneration, metabolic diseases, cancer, and aging. A key feature of autophagy is the de novo formation of autophagosomes, double-membrane vesicular structures encapsulating cytoplasmic cargo for vacuolar turnover and recycling. The membrane rearrangements underlying nucleation, expansion, closure, and vacuolar fusion of autophagosomes are driven by multicomponent core autophagy machinery in cooperation with numerous factors involved in a variety of cellular processes. Our current understanding of the origin and contribution of diverse membrane sources to autophagosome biogenesis and of cellular functions enabling stress-appropriate autophagy responses critical for cell health and survival remains limited. Here, we summarize and discuss our recent findings analyzing the role of lipid droplets (LDs), conserved intracellular storage compartments for neutral lipids, for autophagy regulation. Our data indicate that LDs are dispensable as membrane sources, but fulfill critical functions for maintaining endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis, including buffering of newly synthesized fatty acids and maintenance of phospholipid composition, required for intact autophagy regulation and cell survival during nutrient stress. PMID:27245853

  10. The dependence of lipid monolayer lipolysis on surface pressure.

    PubMed

    Hall, D G

    1992-10-01

    Brönsted-Bjerrum theory [Brönsted (1922) Z. Phys. Chem. 102, 169-207; (1925) Z. Phys. Chem. 115, 337-364; Bjerrum (1924) Z. Phys. Chem. 108, 82-100] as applied to reactions at interfaces is used to interpret published data on the lipolysis of dinonanoyl phosphatidylcholine monolayers by pancreatic phospholipase A2. Reasonable quantitative agreement between theoretical and experimental results occurs when the reported effects of surface pressure on the amount of adsorbed enzyme are used together with the assumption that the Langmuir-Syskowski [Lange (1967) Nonionic Surfactants (Schick, M., ed.), chap. 4, Marcel Dekker, London and New York] isotherm describes the adsorption of lipid. The equations of Mass Action kinetics are less successful. Equivalent data on the lipolysis of didodecanoyl phosphatidylglycerol by pancreatic lipase can also be interpreted by arguing that the adsorbed enzyme forms significant amounts of enzyme substrate complex which reacts to give products in accordance with the well-known Briggs-Haldane [Lehninger (1975) Biochemistry, 2nd edn., chap. 8, Worth, New York] mechanism. The positions of the observed maxima in rate versus surface pressure plots suggests that the adsorption of an enzyme molecule displaces less lipid than one expects from the pronounced differences in molecular sizes of the two adsorbed species. PMID:1417793

  11. Voltage-dependent capacitance in lipid bilayers made from monolayers.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, O; Latorre, R

    1978-01-01

    Electrocompression has been measured in lipid bilayers made by apposition of two monolayers. The capacitance C(V), as a function of membrane potential, V, was found to be well described by C(V) = C(O) [1 + alpha(V + delta psi)2] where C(O) is the capacitance at V = O, alpha is the fractional increase in capacitance per square volt, and delta psi is the surface potential difference. In lipid bilayers made from monolayers alpha has a value of 0.02 V-2, which is ca. 500-fold smaller than the value found in solvent containing membranes. In asymmetric bilayers made of one neutral and one negatively charged monolayer, delta psi values were found to be those expected from independent measurements of surface charge density. If the fractional increase in capacitance found here is a good approximation to that of biological membranes, nonlinear capacitative charge displacement derived from electrostriction is expected to be less than 1% of the total gating charge displacement found in squid axons. PMID:620076

  12. Factors Associated with Adiposity, Lipid Profile Disorders and the Metabolic Syndrome Occurrence in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Suliga, Edyta; Kozieł, Dorota; Cieśla, Elżbieta; Rębak, Dorota; Głuszek, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was the assessment of the dependencies between a woman’s menopausal status and adiposity, lipid profile and metabolic syndrome occurrence, as well as finding out whether the correlations between the socio-demographic profile and lifestyle elements and adiposity, lipid profile and the risk of MetS are the same before and after menopause. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3636 women, aged between 40–59, which involved a questionnaire interview, anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples, on the basis of which the concentration of triglycerides, cholesterol and glucose was estimated. Before menopause, a greater adiposity (BMIβ = 0.08; %BFβ = 0.07; WCβ = 0.06) was characteristic for women living in a stable relationship than for single women. Women who smoked in the past were characterized by a higher BMI (β = 0.09) and WC (β = 0.06) in comparison with women who have never smoked, while after menopause a greater adiposity (%BFβ = 0.12) and a worse lipid profile (TCβ = 0.08; LDLβ = 0.07; HDLβ = -0.05; TGβ = 0.14) were present in women currently smoking, in comparison to women who have never smoked. After menopause, in women who had two or more children, a greater adiposity (BMIβ = 0.07 and 0.09; %BFβ = 0.05 and 0.07) and a higher risk of MetS (OR = 1.22, 95%CI: 1.03–1.44) was observed compared to nulliparous women, than before menopause. In women with a higher level of education, the risk of MetS after menopause was significantly lower compared with women with a lower level of education (OR = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.61–0.90). Physical activity after menopause had a higher influence on the decrease in the women’s adiposity (BMIβ = -0.11 v. -0.06; %BFβ = -0.11 v. -0.06; WCβ = -0.14 v. -0.08), than before menopause. In women not undergoing hormone replacement therapy, some of the socio-demographic factors and lifestyle elements affected adiposity, lipid profile and the risk of MetS differently before and after

  13. Efficient computation of some speed-dependent isolated line profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, H.; Ngo, N. H.; Hartmann, J.-M.

    2013-11-01

    This paper provides FORTRAN subroutines for the calculation of the partially-Correlated quadratic-Speed-Dependent Hard-Collision (pCqSDHC) profile and of its two limits: the quadratic-Speed-Dependent Voigt (qSDV) and the quadratic-Speed-Dependent Hard-Collision (qSDHC) profiles. Numerical tests successfully confirm the analytically derived fact that all these profiles can be expressed as combinations of complex Voigt probability functions. Based on a slightly improved version of the CPF subroutine [Humlicek. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 1979;21:309] for the calculation of the complex probability function, we show that the pCqSDHC, qSDHC and qSDV profiles can be quickly calculated with an accuracy better than 10-4.

  14. Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Glycemic Control and Lipid Profiles in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Fereshteh; Kia, Mahsa; Soleimani, Alireza; Asemi, Zatollah; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    To our knowledge, data on the effects of selenium supplementation on glycemic control and lipid concentrations in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) are scarce. The current study was done to determine the effects of selenium supplementation on glycemic control and lipid concentrations in patients with DN. This was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial in which 60 patients with DN were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either 200 μg of selenium supplements (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) daily for 12 weeks. Blood sampling was performed for the quantification of glycemic indicators and lipid profiles at the onset of the study and after 12 weeks of intervention. Selenium supplementation for 12 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in serum insulin levels (P = 0.01), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P = 0.02), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated B cell function (HOMA-B) (P = 0.009) and a significant rise in plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (P = 0.001) compared with the placebo. Taking selenium supplements had no significant effects on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and lipid profiles compared with the placebo. Overall, our study demonstrated that selenium supplementation for 12 weeks among patients with DN had beneficial effects on plasma GPx, serum insulin levels, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B, while it did not affect FPG, QUICKI, and lipid profiles. PMID:26686847

  15. Vegan diet and blood lipid profiles: a cross-sectional study of pre and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vegan diet has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality, partly due to its effects on serum lipid profiles. Lipid profiles [high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG)] have not been fully elucidated either in pre and postmenopausal vegans or in ovo-lacto vegetarians. This study aimed to compare lipid profiles among vegans, ovo-lacto vegetarians and omnivores. Methods Demographic data and lipid profiles were obtained from the 2002 Taiwanese Survey on Hypertension, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine factors significantly and independently associated with different categories of veganism and to estimate the β value of lipid profiles in the dietary types. Results A total of 2397 premenopausal and 1154 postmenopausal participants who did not receive lipid lowering drugs were enrolled. Premenopausal vegans had significantly lower HDL-C and higher TG, LDL-C/HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C compared with omnivores. For postmenopausal women, vegans had lower TC while ovo-lacto vegetarians were observed with low HDL-C when compared with omnivores. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that vegan and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets decreased HDL-C levels in premenopausal women (β = -7.63, p = 0.001 and β = -4.87, p = 0.001, respectively). There were significant associations between lower LDL-C and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets (β = -7.14, p = 0.008) and also between TG and vegan diet (β = 23.37, p = 0.008), compared with omnivorous diet. Post-menopausal women reported to have consumed either a vegan or an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet were at the risk of having low HDL-C unlike those that consumed omnivorous diets (β = -4.88, p = 0.015 and β = -4.48, p = 0.047). There were no significant changes in LDL-C in both pre and postmenopausal

  16. Effect of Terminalia catappa on lipid profile in transplanted fibrosarcoma in rats

    PubMed Central

    Naitik, Pandya; Prakash, Tigari; Kotresha, Dupadahalli; Rao, Nadendla Rama

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of an antitumor activity of Terminalia catappa on lipid lowering activity in transplanted fibrosarcoma in Wistar albino rats. Methylcholantherene–induced fibrosarcoma was transplanted in rats. After 30th day when tumor became palpable, started the treatment of ethanolic extract of Terminalia catappa by orally (250 and 500 mg/kg) for a period of 20 days. The blood sample was collected on 21st day, and the liver and the kidney were also removed for studying the lipid profile in serum and the tissues. The levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were markedly elevated and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was markedly decreased in the serum of tumor bearing rats. Significant alterations were also observed in the lipid profile of liver and kidney. These changes were significantly reversed in Terminalia catappa (500 mg/kg) treated animals. The reversal of altered lipid levels to normal values in rats with experimentally induced tumor was showed antitumor activity by Terminalia catappa. PMID:22701253

  17. Effect of Terminalia catappa on lipid profile in transplanted fibrosarcoma in rats.

    PubMed

    Naitik, Pandya; Prakash, Tigari; Kotresha, Dupadahalli; Rao, Nadendla Rama

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of an antitumor activity of Terminalia catappa on lipid lowering activity in transplanted fibrosarcoma in Wistar albino rats. Methylcholantherene-induced fibrosarcoma was transplanted in rats. After 30(th) day when tumor became palpable, started the treatment of ethanolic extract of Terminalia catappa by orally (250 and 500 mg/kg) for a period of 20 days. The blood sample was collected on 21(st) day, and the liver and the kidney were also removed for studying the lipid profile in serum and the tissues. The levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were markedly elevated and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was markedly decreased in the serum of tumor bearing rats. Significant alterations were also observed in the lipid profile of liver and kidney. These changes were significantly reversed in Terminalia catappa (500 mg/kg) treated animals. The reversal of altered lipid levels to normal values in rats with experimentally induced tumor was showed antitumor activity by Terminalia catappa. PMID:22701253

  18. Tree nuts and the lipid profile: a review of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Griel, Amy E; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2006-11-01

    Tree nuts have a fatty acid profile that favourably affects blood lipids and lipoproteins. They are low in saturated fat and high in unsaturated fatty acids and are rich sources of other nutrients. An extensive database consistently shows total and LDL cholesterol-lowering effects of diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol and high in unsaturated fat provided by a variety of tree nuts. Collectively, a summary of studies conducted to date shows that tree nuts reduce LDL cholesterol by 3-19 % compared with Western and lower-fat diets. Nuts also contain many nutrients and bioactive compounds that appear to contribute to the favourable effects on lipids and lipoproteins--these include plant sterols, dietary fibre and antioxidants. Because of their unique nutrient profile, nuts can be part of a diet that features multiple heart-healthy foods resulting in a cholesterol lowering response that surpasses that of cholesterol-lowering diets typically used to reduce CVD risk. PMID:17125536

  19. Stimulation of incretin secretion by dietary lipid: is it dose dependent?

    PubMed

    Yoder, Stephanie M; Yang, Qing; Kindel, Tammy L; Tso, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    After the ingestion of nutrients, secretion of the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) by the enteroendocrine cells increases rapidly. Previous studies have shown that oral ingestion of fat stimulates secretion of both incretins; however, it is unclear whether there is a dose-dependent relationship between the amount of lipid ingested and the secretion of the hormones in vivo. Recently, we found a higher concentration of the incretin hormones in intestinal lymph than in peripheral or portal plasma. We therefore used the lymph fistula rat model to test for a dose-dependent relationship between the secretion of GIP and GLP-1 and dietary lipid. Under isoflurane anesthesia, the major mesenteric lymphatic duct of male Sprague-Dawley rats was cannulated. Each animal received a single, intraduodenal bolus of saline or varying amounts of the fat emulsion Liposyn II (0.275, 0.55, 1.1, 2.2, and 4.4 kcal). Lymph was continuously collected for 3 h and analyzed for triglyceride, GIP, and GLP-1 content. In response to increasing lipid calories, secretion of triglyceride, GIP, and GLP-1 into lymph increased dose dependently. Interestingly, the response to changes in intraluminal lipid content was greater in GLP-1- than in GIP-secreting cells. The different sensitivities of the two cell types to changes in intestinal lipid support the concept that separate mechanisms may underlie lipid-induced GIP and GLP-1 secretion. Furthermore, we speculate that the increased sensitivity of GLP-1 to intestinal lipid content reflects the hormone's role in the ileal brake reflex. As lipid reaches the distal portion of the gut, GLP-1 is secreted in a dose-dependent manner to reduce intestinal motility and enhance proximal fat absorption. PMID:19520739

  20. Altered Hippocampal Lipid Profile Following Acute Postnatal Exposure to Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Catherine A.; Farmer, Kyle; Lee, Hyunmin; Holahan, Matthew R.; Smith, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Slight changes in the abundance of certain lipid species in the brain may drastically alter normal neurodevelopment via membrane stability, cell signalling, and cell survival. Previous findings have demonstrated that postnatal exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) disrupts normal axonal and neural development in the hippocampus. The goal of the current study was to determine whether postnatal exposure to DEHP alters the lipid profile in the hippocampus during postnatal development. Systemic treatment with 10 mg/kg DEHP during postnatal development led to elevated levels of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in the hippocampus of female rats. There was no effect of DEHP exposure on the overall abundance of phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin in male rats or of lysophosphatidylcholine in male or female rats. Individual analyses of each identified lipid species revealed 10 phosphatidylcholine and six sphingomyelin lipids in DEHP-treated females and a single lysophosphatidylcholine in DEHP-treated males with a two-fold or higher increase in relative abundance. Our results are congruent with previous work that found that postnatal exposure to DEHP had a near-selective detrimental effect on hippocampal development in males but not females. Together, results suggest a neuroprotective effect of these elevated lipid species in females. PMID:26516880

  1. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River.

    PubMed

    Murzina, Svetlana A; Nefedova, Zinaida A; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N; Veselov, Alexey E; Efremov, Denis A; Nemova, Nina N

    2016-01-01

    The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years) after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs) maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes. PMID:27376274

  2. Altered Hippocampal Lipid Profile Following Acute Postnatal Exposure to Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Catherine A; Farmer, Kyle; Lee, Hyunmin; Holahan, Matthew R; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2015-10-01

    Slight changes in the abundance of certain lipid species in the brain may drastically alter normal neurodevelopment via membrane stability, cell signalling, and cell survival. Previous findings have demonstrated that postnatal exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) disrupts normal axonal and neural development in the hippocampus. The goal of the current study was to determine whether postnatal exposure to DEHP alters the lipid profile in the hippocampus during postnatal development. Systemic treatment with 10 mg/kg DEHP during postnatal development led to elevated levels of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in the hippocampus of female rats. There was no effect of DEHP exposure on the overall abundance of phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin in male rats or of lysophosphatidylcholine in male or female rats. Individual analyses of each identified lipid species revealed 10 phosphatidylcholine and six sphingomyelin lipids in DEHP-treated females and a single lysophosphatidylcholine in DEHP-treated males with a two-fold or higher increase in relative abundance. Our results are congruent with previous work that found that postnatal exposure to DEHP had a near-selective detrimental effect on hippocampal development in males but not females. Together, results suggest a neuroprotective effect of these elevated lipid species in females. PMID:26516880

  3. Lipids and lipoprotein profile in doxorubicin treated rats: influence of alpha-tocopherol administration.

    PubMed

    Geetha, A; Catherine, J; Sankar, R; Devi, C S

    1990-11-01

    The effect of doxorubicin (DXR) on the levels of heart, liver and plasma lipids and plasma lipoproteins were studied in rats. Rats were treated with DXR (2.5 mg/kg body weight weekly for 8 weeks, iv) with or without alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TPL) (400 mg/kg body wt daily for 60 days) co-administration. DXR treated rats showed increase in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids. The activities of lecithin cholesterol-acyl transferase and hepatic and extrahepatic lipoprotein lipase were lowered significantly with concomitant increase in liver and heart lipid peroxide levels in DXR treatment. HDL cholesterol level was found to be decreased significantly in DXR treated rats as a result of which there was an increase of LDLc/HDLc ratio. alpha-TPL coadministration brought back the enzyme activity to near normal and reduced the level of lipid peroxides. The lipid changes were minimum in rats treated with both alpha-TPL and DXR. This study suggests that the toxicity of DXR is reflected in lipids and lipoprotein profile. PMID:2283173

  4. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Matczuk, Jan; Zalewska, Anna; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Knaś, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Garbowska, Marta; Ziembicka, Dominika M; Waszkiel, Danuta; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Kurek, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    In today's world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver) insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27471733

  5. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Matczuk, Jan; Zalewska, Anna; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Knaś, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Garbowska, Marta; Ziembicka, Dominika M.; Waszkiel, Danuta; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In today's world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver) insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27471733

  6. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River

    PubMed Central

    Murzina, Svetlana A.; Nefedova, Zinaida A.; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N.; Veselov, Alexey E.; Efremov, Denis A.; Nemova, Nina N.

    2016-01-01

    The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years) after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs) maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes. PMID:27376274

  7. Induced lipid peroxidation in ram sperm: semen profile, DNA fragmentation and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Thais Rose dos Santos; de Castro, Letícia Signori; Delgado, Juliana de Carvalho; de Assis, Patrícia Monken; Siqueira, Adriano Felipe Perez; Mendes, Camilla Mota; Goissis, Marcelo Demarchi; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José Álvaro; Nichi, Marcílio; Visintin, José Antonio; D'Ávila Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz

    2016-04-01

    Action of reactive oxygen species, protamination failures and apoptosis are considered the most important etiologies of sperm DNA fragmentation. This study evaluated the effects of induced lipid peroxidation susceptibility on native semen profile and identified the mechanisms involved in sperm DNA fragmentation and testicular antioxidant defense on Santa Ines ram sperm samples. Semen was collected from 12 adult rams (Ovis aries) performed weekly over a 9-week period. Sperm analysis (motility, mass motility, abnormalities, membrane and acrosome status, mitochondrial potential, DNA fragmentation, lipid peroxidation and intracellular free radicals production); protamine deficiency; PRM1, TNP1 and TNP2 gene expression; and determination of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase activity and immunodetection in seminal plasma were performed. Samples were distributed into four groups according to the sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation after induction with ascorbate and ferrous sulfate (low, medium, high and very high). The results were analyzed by GLM test and post hoc least significant difference. We observed an increase in native GPx activity and CAT immunodetection in groups with high susceptibility to induced lipid peroxidation. We also found an increase in total sperm defects, acrosome and membrane damages in the group with the highest susceptibility to induced lipid peroxidation. Additionally, the low mitochondrial membrane potential, susceptible to chromatin fragmentation and the PRM1 mRNA were increased in the group showing higher susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Ram sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation may compromise sperm quality and interfere with the oxidative homeostasis by oxidative stress, which may be the main cause of chromatin damage in ram sperm. PMID:26811546

  8. The effect of modern Balinese Baris dancing exercise (MBBDE) on serum lipid profiles.

    PubMed

    Adiputra, N; Djojonegoro, S; Soekarman; Manuaba, A

    1992-12-01

    There is still a lack of information on the effect of regular dancing exercise on lipid profiles. On the other hand, many studies have been carried out on the effect of aerobic exercise on lipid profiles. This study tried to find out the effects of Modern Balinese Baris Dancing Exercise (MBBDE) on serum lipid profiles. Subjects of the study were 30 healthy young male Balinese as an experimental group, and another 30 healthy young Balinese as control group. The MBBDE involved exercise intensity at 70-80% of targeted heart rate, for 50 min period, 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-control group design was applied. Total cholesterol and triglyceride were measured enzymatically. Following MBBDE 3 x 50 min/week for 8 weeks duration, serum level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration increased significantly from 55.3 +/- 2.32 mg/dl to 63.2 +/- 2.82 mg/dl (p < 0.001). It was also associated with the decrease of total cholesterol concentration from 195.5 +/- 21.10 mg/dl to 161.8 +/- 21.29 mg/dl (p < 0.001); triglyceride concentration from 132.2 +/- 9.65 mg/dl to 110.6 +/- 9.08 mg/dl (p < 0.001); and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration from 113.8 +/- 21.68 mg/dl to 76.9 +/- 20.76 mg/dl (p < 0.001). No significant differences were found in the above parameters in the control group. It is concluded that MBBDE is an aerobic, endurance exercise, and therefore produces beneficial effect on the serum lipid profiles. PMID:1340496

  9. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongqin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yong; Qu, Yanghua; Lu, Xiaonan; Luo, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p<0.05, linearly), total triglycerides (TG, p<0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, p<0.05), as well as atherogenic index (p<0.001), whereas no change was observed in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p>0.05). The levels of TG (p<0.001) and LDL-C (p<0.001) were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01). Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05), and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05). The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment

  10. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongqin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yong; Qu, Yanghua; Lu, Xiaonan; Luo, Hailing

    2015-07-01

    Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p<0.05, linearly), total triglycerides (TG, p<0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, p<0.05), as well as atherogenic index (p<0.001), whereas no change was observed in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p>0.05). The levels of TG (p<0.001) and LDL-C (p<0.001) were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01). Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05), and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05). The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment

  11. Association between Dietary Patterns and Blood Lipid Profiles in Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Yeon-Sook; Chang, Hak Chul; Moon, Min Kyong

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to explore the associations of dietary patterns with blood lipid profiles and obesity in adults with type 2 diabetes. The data were obtained from the Forth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. Adults 30 yr or older, from which had both biochemical and dietary data were obtained. Among them, 680 subjects were defined as having diabetes based on criteria of fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, anti-diabetic treatment, or previously diagnosed diabetes. Dietary data from a 24-hr recall were used to derive dietary patterns by factor analysis. Four dietary patterns by factor analysis were identified: 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol', 'Noodles & Seafood', 'Rice & Vegetables', and 'Korean Healthy' patterns. Serum cholesterol levels in the highest quartile of the 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol' pattern were significantly higher compared with those in the lowest quartile. In addition, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the highest quartile of the 'Korean Healthy' pattern were significantly lower after adjusting for potential confounders. Dietary patterns of adults with diabetes were found to be associated with blood lipid profiles. 'Korean Healthy' pattern including whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits could thus improve lipid profiles among those with type 2 diabetes. PMID:21935277

  12. Changes in profile of lipids and adipokines in patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanyan; Wu, Xiafang; Wu, Ruirui; Sun, Xiance; Yang, Boyi; Wang, Yi; Xu, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Changes in profile of lipids and adipokines have been reported in patients with thyroid dysfunction. But the evidence is controversial. The present study aimed to explore the relationships between thyroid function and the profile of lipids and adipokines. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 197 newly diagnosed hypothyroid patients, 230 newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients and 355 control subjects. Hypothyroid patients presented with significantly higher serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), fasting insulin, resistin and leptin than control (p < 0.05). Hyperthyroid patients presented with significantly lower serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDLC and leptin, as well as higher levels of fasting insulin, resistin, adiponectin and homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) than control (p < 0.05). Nonlinear regression and multivariable linear regression models all showed significant associations of resistin or adiponectin with free thyroxine and association of leptin with thyroid-stimulating hormone (p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant correlation between resistin and HOMA-IR was observed in the patients (p < 0.001). Thus, thyroid dysfunction affects the profile of lipids and adipokines. Resistin may serve as a link between thyroid dysfunction and insulin resistance. PMID:27193069

  13. Changes in profile of lipids and adipokines in patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanyan; Wu, Xiafang; Wu, Ruirui; Sun, Xiance; Yang, Boyi; Wang, Yi; Xu, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Changes in profile of lipids and adipokines have been reported in patients with thyroid dysfunction. But the evidence is controversial. The present study aimed to explore the relationships between thyroid function and the profile of lipids and adipokines. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 197 newly diagnosed hypothyroid patients, 230 newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients and 355 control subjects. Hypothyroid patients presented with significantly higher serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), fasting insulin, resistin and leptin than control (p < 0.05). Hyperthyroid patients presented with significantly lower serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDLC and leptin, as well as higher levels of fasting insulin, resistin, adiponectin and homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) than control (p < 0.05). Nonlinear regression and multivariable linear regression models all showed significant associations of resistin or adiponectin with free thyroxine and association of leptin with thyroid-stimulating hormone (p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant correlation between resistin and HOMA-IR was observed in the patients (p < 0.001). Thus, thyroid dysfunction affects the profile of lipids and adipokines. Resistin may serve as a link between thyroid dysfunction and insulin resistance. PMID:27193069

  14. Maternal and Fetal Lipid and Adipokine Profiles and Their Association with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Solis-Paredes, Mario; Espino Y Sosa, Salvador; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Nava-Salazar, Sonia; Ortega-Castillo, Veronica; Rodriguez-Bosch, Mario; Bravo-Flores, Eyerahi; Espejel-Nuñez, Aurora; Tolentino-Dolores, Maricruz; Gaona-Estudillo, Rubí; Martinez-Bautista, Nancy; Perichart-Perera, Otilia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Maternal metabolic changes impact fetal metabolism resulting in a higher risk for developing chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to assess the association between maternal and fetal adipokine and lipid profiles, as well as the influence of maternal weight on this association. Methods. Healthy pregnant women at term who delivered by C-section were enrolled. Maternal and fetal glucose, lipid profile, adiponectin, leptin, and resistin levels were analyzed by obesity and maternal weight gain. Statistics included descriptives, correlations, and mean differences (SPSS v20.0). Results. Adiponectin and resistin concentrations were higher in fetal blood, while leptin was lower (p < 0.05). A significant inverse association between maternal resistin and fetal LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) (r = -0.327; p = 0.022) was observed. A positive correlation was found between maternal and fetal resistin (r = 0.358; p = 0.013). Women with excessive weight gain had higher leptin levels and their fetuses showed higher LDL-C levels (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Maternal resistin showed an inverse association with fetal LDL-C, suggesting that maternal adiposity status may play an active role in the regulation of fetal lipid profile and consequently, in fetal programming. Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy may exert an effect over metabolic mediators in both mother and newborn. PMID:27190514

  15. Maternal and Fetal Lipid and Adipokine Profiles and Their Association with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Solis-Paredes, Mario; Espino y Sosa, Salvador; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Nava-Salazar, Sonia; Ortega-Castillo, Veronica; Rodriguez-Bosch, Mario; Bravo-Flores, Eyerahi; Espejel-Nuñez, Aurora; Tolentino-Dolores, Maricruz; Gaona-Estudillo, Rubí; Martinez-Bautista, Nancy; Perichart-Perera, Otilia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Maternal metabolic changes impact fetal metabolism resulting in a higher risk for developing chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to assess the association between maternal and fetal adipokine and lipid profiles, as well as the influence of maternal weight on this association. Methods. Healthy pregnant women at term who delivered by C-section were enrolled. Maternal and fetal glucose, lipid profile, adiponectin, leptin, and resistin levels were analyzed by obesity and maternal weight gain. Statistics included descriptives, correlations, and mean differences (SPSS v20.0). Results. Adiponectin and resistin concentrations were higher in fetal blood, while leptin was lower (p < 0.05). A significant inverse association between maternal resistin and fetal LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) (r = −0.327; p = 0.022) was observed. A positive correlation was found between maternal and fetal resistin (r = 0.358; p = 0.013). Women with excessive weight gain had higher leptin levels and their fetuses showed higher LDL-C levels (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Maternal resistin showed an inverse association with fetal LDL-C, suggesting that maternal adiposity status may play an active role in the regulation of fetal lipid profile and consequently, in fetal programming. Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy may exert an effect over metabolic mediators in both mother and newborn. PMID:27190514

  16. Pollen Lipidomics: Lipid Profiling Exposes a Notable Diversity in 22 Allergenic Pollen and Potential Biomarkers of the Allergic Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Mohamed Elfatih H.; Lui, Jan Hsi; Palnivelu, Ravishankar; Naclerio, Robert M.; Preuss, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim Pollen grains are the male gametophytes that deliver sperm cells to female gametophytes during sexual reproduction of higher plants. Pollen is a major source of aeroallergens and environmental antigens. The pollen coat harbors a plethora of lipids that are required for pollen hydration, germination, and penetration of the stigma by pollen tubes. In addition to proteins, pollen displays a wide array of lipids that interact with the human immune system. Prior searches for pollen allergens have focused on the identification of intracellular allergenic proteins, but have largely overlooked much of the extracellular pollen matrix, a region where the majority of lipid molecules reside. Lipid antigens have attracted attention for their potent immunoregulatory effects. By being in close proximity to allergenic proteins on the pollen surface when they interact with host cells, lipids could modify the antigenic properties of proteins. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a comparative pollen lipid profiling of 22 commonly allergenic plant species by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, followed by detailed data mining and statistical analysis. Three experiments compared pollen lipid profiles. We built a database library of the pollen lipids by matching acquired pollen-lipid mass spectra and retention times with the NIST/EPA/NIH mass-spectral library. We detected, identified, and relatively quantified more than 106 lipid molecular species including fatty acids, n-alkanes, fatty alcohols, and sterols. Pollen-derived lipids stimulation up-regulate cytokines expression of dendritic and natural killer T cells co-culture. Conclusions/Significance Here we report on a lipidomic analysis of pollen lipids that can serve as a database for identifying potential lipid antigens and/or novel candidate molecules involved in allergy. The database provides a resource that facilitates studies on the role of lipids in the immunopathogenesis of allergy. Pollen

  17. Observing a Lipid-Dependent Alteration in Single Lactose Permeases

    PubMed Central

    Serdiuk, Tetiana; Sugihara, Junichi; Mari, Stefania A.; Kaback, H. Ronald; Müller, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Lipids of the Escherichia coli membrane are mainly composed of 70–80% phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and 20–25% phosphatidylglycerol (PG). Biochemical studies indicate that the depletion of PE causes inversion of the N-terminal helix bundle of the lactose permease (LacY), and helix VII becomes extramembraneous. Here we study this phenomenon using single-molecule force spectroscopy, which is sensitive to the structure of membrane proteins. In PE and PG at a ratio of 3:1, ~95% of the LacY molecules adopt a native structure. However, when PE is omitted and the membrane contains PG only, LacY almost equally populates a native and a perturbed conformation. The most drastic changes occur at helices VI and VII and the intervening loop. Since helix VII contains Asp237 and Asp240, zwitterionic PE may suppress electrostatic repulsion between LacY and PG in the PE:PG environment. Thus, PE promotes a native fold and prevents LacY from populating a functionally defective, non-native conformation. PMID:25800555

  18. Serum lipid profile spectrum and delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage: Is there a relation?

    PubMed Central

    Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Aggarwal, Ashish; Srinivasan, Anirudh; Meena, Rajesh; Gaudihalli, Sachin; Singh, Harnarayan; Dhandapani, Manju; Mukherjee, Kanchan K.; Gupta, Sunil K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Serum lipid abnormalities are known to be important risk factors for vascular disorders. However, their role in delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), the major cause of morbidity after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unclear. This study was an attempt to evaluate the spectrum of lipid profile changes in SAH compared to matched controls, and their relation with the occurrence of DCI. Methods: Admission serum lipid profile levels were measured in patients of SAH and prospectively studied in relation to various factors and clinical development of DCI. Results: Serum triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly lower among SAH patients compared to matched controls (mean [±standard deviation (SD)] mg/dL: 117.3 [±50.4] vs. 172.8 [±89.1], P = 0.002), probably because of energy consumption due to hypermetabolic response. Patients who developed DCI had significantly higher TG levels compared to those who did not develop DCI (mean [±SD] mg/dL: 142.1 [±56] vs. 111.9 [±54], P = 0.05). DCI was noted in 62% of patients with TG >150 mg/dL, compared to 22% among the rest (P = 0.01). Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) neither showed a significant difference between SAH and controls and nor any significant association with DCI. Multivariate analysis using binary logistic regression adjusting for the effects of age, sex, systemic disease, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade, Fisher grade, and clipping/coiling, revealed higher TG levels to have significant independent association with DCI (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Higher serum TG levels appear to be significantly associated with DCI while other lipid parameters did not show any significant association. This may be due to their association with remnant cholesterol or free fatty acid-induced lipid peroxidation. PMID:26664869

  19. Lipid Profile

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cholesterol in all the lipoprotein particles. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) — measures the cholesterol in ... carries it to the liver for removal. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) — calculates the cholesterol in ...

  20. Sesame fractions and lipid profiles: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Khalesi, Saman; Paukste, Ernesta; Nikbakht, Elham; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein

    2016-03-14

    Increased plasma lipid profiles are among the most important risk factors of CHD and stroke. Sesame contains considerable amounts of vitamin E, MUFA, fibre and lignans, which are thought to be associated with its plasma lipid-lowering properties. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence and identify the effects of sesame consumption on blood lipid profiles using a meta-analysis of controlled trials. PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane Library databases were searched (from 1960 to May 2015). A total of ten controlled trials were identified based on the eligibility criteria. Both the Cochrane Collaboration tool and the Rosendal scale were used to assess the risk of bias of the included studies. The meta-analysis results showed that consumption of sesame did not significantly change the concentrations of total blood cholesterol (-0·32 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·75, 0·11; P=0·14, I(2)=96%), LDL-cholesterol (-0·15 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·50, 0·19; P=0·39, I(2)=96%) or HDL-cholesterol (0·01 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·00, 0·02; P=0·16, I(2)=0%). However, a significant reduction was observed in serum TAG levels (-0·24 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·32, -0·15; P<0·001, I(2)=84%) after consumption of sesame. It was concluded that sesame consumption can significantly reduce blood TAG levels but there is insufficient evidence to support its hypocholesterolaemic effects. Further studies are required to determine the potential effect of sesame consumption on lipid profiles and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26758593

  1. Observational study of lipid profile and LDL particle size in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype is characterized by an increase in plasma triglycerides, a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), and the prevalence of small, dense-low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) particles. The aim of this study was to establish the importance of LDL particle size measurement by gender in a group of patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MS) attending at a Cardiovascular Risk Unit in Primary Care and their classification into phenotypes. Subjects and methods One hundred eighty-five patients (93 men and 92 women) from several areas in the South of Spain, for a period of one year in a health centre were studied. Laboratory parameters included plasma lipids, lipoproteins, low-density lipoprotein size and several atherogenic rates were determinated. Results We found differences by gender between anthropometric parameters, blood pressure and glucose measures by MS status. Lipid profile was different in our two study groups, and gender differences in these parameters within each group were also remarkable, in HDLc and Apo A-I values. According to LDL particle size, we found males had smaller size than females, and patients with MS had also smaller than those without MS. We observed inverse relationship between LDL particle size and triglycerides in patients with and without MS, and the same relationship between all atherogenic rates in non-MS patients. When we considered our population in two classes of phenotypes, lipid profile was worse in phenotype B. Conclusion In conclusion, we consider worthy the measurement of LDL particle size due to its relationship with lipid profile and cardiovascular risk. PMID:21936888

  2. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  3. Endocytosis of Gene Delivery Vectors: From Clathrin-dependent to Lipid Raft-mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Ayman; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The ideal nonviral vector delivers its nucleic acid cargo to a specific intracellular target. Vectors enter cells mainly through endocytosis and are distributed to various intracellular organelles. Recent advances in microscopy, lipidomics, and proteomics confirm that the cell membrane is composed of clusters of lipids, organized in the form of lipid raft domains, together with non-raft domains that comprise a generally disordered lipid milieu. The binding of a nonviral vector to either region can determine the pathway for its endocytic uptake and subsequent intracellular itinerary. Given this model of the cell membrane structure, endocytic pathways should be reclassified in relation to lipid rafts. In this review, we attempt to assess the currently recognized endocytic pathways in mammalian cells. The endocytic pathways are classified in relation to the membrane regions that make up the primary endocytic vesicles. This review covers the well-recognized clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), phagocytosis, and macropinocytosis in addition to the less addressed pathways that take place in lipid rafts. These include caveolae-mediated, flotillin-dependent, GTPase regulator associated with focal adhesion kinase-1 (GRAF1)-dependent, adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6)-dependent, and RhoA-dependent endocytic pathways. We summarize the regulators associated with each uptake pathway and methods for interfering with these regulators are discussed. The fate of endocytic vesicles resulting from each endocytic uptake pathway is highlighted. PMID:23587924

  4. Gene expression profiling reveals Nef induced deregulation of lipid metabolism in HIV-1 infected T cells.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Surya; Trivedi, Jay; Mitra, Debashis

    2016-03-25

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) encodes a 27 kDa Negative Factor or Nef protein, which is increasingly proving to be a misnomer. Nef seems to be crucial for AIDS progression as individuals infected with nef-deleted strain of HIV were reported to become Long Term Non Progressors (LTNP). These findings necessitate tracing of Nef's footprint on landscape of cellular transcriptome favoring HIV-1 pathogenesis. We have tried to explore effect of Nef on cellular gene expression profile in conjunction with rest of HIV-1 proteins. Our results show that 237 genes are differentially regulated due to the presence of Nef during infection, which belong to several broad categories like "signaling", "apoptosis", "transcription" and "lipid metabolism" in gene ontology analysis. Furthermore, our results show that Nef causes disruption of lipid content in HIV-1 infected T cells. Molecular inhibitors of lipid metabolism like Atorvastatin and Ranolazine were found to have profound effect on wild type virus as compared to nef-deleted HIV-1. Thus our results suggest that interference in lipid metabolism is a potential mechanism through which Nef contributes in enhancing HIV-1 pathogenesis. PMID:26915805

  5. Mass spectrometric profiling of lipids in intestinal tissue from rats fed cereals processed for medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Dowlatshahi Pour, Masoumeh; Jennische, Eva; Lange, Stefan; Ewing, Andrew G; Malmberg, Per

    2016-06-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used for lipid profiling of intestine tissue sections from rats fed specially processed cereals and rats fed ordinary feed as a control. This cereal is known to increase the activity of antisecretory factor in plasma and the exact mechanism for the activation process at the cellular level is unclear. ToF-SIMS has been used to track food induced changes in lipid content in intestinal tissue sections to gain insight into the possible mechanisms involved. Data from 20 intestine sections belonging to four different rats from each group of control and specially processed cereals-fed rats were obtained using the stage scan macroraster with a lateral resolution of 5 μm. Data were subsequently subjected to orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis. The data clearly show that changes of certain lipids are induced by the specially processed cereal feed. Scores plots show a well-defined separation between the two groups. The corresponding loading plots reveal that the groups separate mainly due to changes of vitamin E, phosphocholine, and phosphosphingolipid fragments, and that for the c18:2 fatty acid. The observed changes in lipids might give insight into the working mechanisms of antisecretory factor in the body, and this has been successfully used to understand the working mechanism of specially processed cereal-induced antisecretory factor activation in intestine. PMID:26753787

  6. Plasma lipids profile and erythrocytes system in patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.

    2006-08-01

    Erythrocytes system study can provide a framework for detailed exploration of blood cell-cell and cell-vessel wall interactions, one of the key patterns in blood and vascular pathophysiology. Our objective was to explore erythrocytes system in patients with stable angina pectoris II f.c. (Canadian classification). The participants (N = 56, age 40 - 55 years) without obesity, glucose tolerance violations, lipid lowering drugs treating, heart failure of II and more functional classes (NYHA), coronary episode at least 6 months before study were involved in the study. Blood samples were incubated with glucose solutions of increasing concentrations (from 2.5% to 20% with 2.5% step) during 60 mm (36° C). In prepared blood smears erythrocyte's sizes were studied. Plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels were also measured. Received data were approximated by polynomials of high degree, with after going first and second derivations. Erythrocytes system "behavior" was studied by means of phase pattern constructing. By lipids levels all the patient were divided into five groups: 1) patients with normal lipids levels, 2) patients with borderline total cholesterol level, 3) patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia, 4) patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia and 5) patients with combined hyperlipidemia. Erythrocytes size lowering process was of set of "stages", which characteristics differ significantly (p > 0.05) in all five groups. Their rate and acceleration characteristics allow us to detect type of lipid profile in patients. Erythrocyte system disturbing by glucose concentration increase show to be most resistant in group of patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia.

  7. Anthropometry, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile in prepubertal children born early, full, or late term

    PubMed Central

    Derraik, José G. B.; Savage, Tim; Miles, Harriet L.; Mouat, Fran; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2014-01-01

    To examine differences in growth and metabolism in prepubertal children born early term, full term, and late term. We retrospectively studied 294 prepubertal children aged 7.3 years (range 3.0–12.1 years). Children were separated into those born early term (37 0/7–38 6/7 weeks of gestation; n = 68), full term (39 0/7–40 6/7 weeks; n = 179), and late term (41 0/7–41 6/7 weeks; n = 47). Clinical assessments included anthropometry, DXA-derived body composition, fasting lipids, and glucose homeostasis. Statistical models accounted for important confounding factors, such as gender, age, birth weight SDS, birth order, and parental variables. When birth weight was adjusted for sex and gestational age (birth weight SDS), late terms were heavier than both early (p = 0.034) and full (p = 0.020) terms. Early term children were shorter than both full (p = 0.010) and late (p = 0.049) term children, but differences in height disappeared following correction for parents' heights. There were no differences in glucose homeostasis, BMI SDS, adiposity, or fat distribution between groups. Lipid profiles were also similar. When important confounding factors were accounted for, there were no meaningful differences in anthropometry, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile among children born early term, full term, or late term. PMID:25263327

  8. Lipid profile but not highly sensitive C-reactive protein helps distinguish prehypertensives from normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bharath, T.; Manjula, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early identification of the prehypertensive state can greatly improve the disease risk management. Although increased levels of highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and dyslipidemia is reported among patients with hypertension, the correlation of these parameters among prehypertensives in not known. Hence, the present study was designed to compare the levels of serum hsCRP and lipid profile among prehypertensives and normal subjects and correlate it with blood pressure (BP) levels. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measurements and BP were recorded in 40 prehypertensive and 40 normal subjects. Subjects were assigned to a group based on their BP as per Joint National Committee 7 criteria. Serum hsCRP and lipid profile were measured and correlated with BP levels. Results: Serum hsCRP showed no significant difference between the two groups. There was no significant correlation of BP with hsCRP in both the groups. Total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were significantly increased in prehypertensives as compared to normal subjects. There was no significant association between BP and lipid parameters in prehypertensives. Conclusions: Significant increase of TC and LDL but not hsCRP was evident among prehypertensives as compared to normal subjects. PMID:26283827

  9. Plasma lipid profiling across species for the identification of optimal animal models of human dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wu; Carballo-Jane, Ester; McLaren, David G; Mendoza, Vivienne H; Gagen, Karen; Geoghagen, Neil S; McNamara, Lesley Ann; Gorski, Judith N; Eiermann, George J; Petrov, Aleksandr; Wolff, Michael; Tong, Xinchun; Wilsie, Larissa C; Akiyama, Taro E; Chen, Jing; Thankappan, Anil; Xue, Jiyan; Ping, Xiaoli; Andrews, Genevieve; Wickham, L Alexandra; Gai, Cesaire L; Trinh, Tu; Kulick, Alison A; Donnelly, Marcie J; Voronin, Gregory O; Rosa, Ray; Cumiskey, Anne-Marie; Bekkari, Kavitha; Mitnaul, Lyndon J; Puig, Oscar; Chen, Fabian; Raubertas, Richard; Wong, Peggy H; Hansen, Barbara C; Koblan, Ken S; Roddy, Thomas P; Hubbard, Brian K; Strack, Alison M

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the applicability of various animal models to dyslipidemia in humans and to identify improved preclinical models for target discovery and validation for dyslipidemia, we measured comprehensive plasma lipid profiles in 24 models. These included five mouse strains, six other nonprimate species, and four nonhuman primate (NHP) species, and both healthy animals and animals with metabolic disorders. Dyslipidemic humans were assessed by the same measures. Plasma lipoprotein profiles, eight major plasma lipid fractions, and FA compositions within these lipid fractions were compared both qualitatively and quantitatively across the species. Given the importance of statins in decreasing plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol for treatment of dyslipidemia in humans, the responses of these measures to simvastatin treatment were also assessed for each species and compared with dyslipidemic humans. NHPs, followed by dog, were the models that demonstrated closest overall match to dyslipidemic humans. For the subset of the dyslipidemic population with high plasma triglyceride levels, the data also pointed to hamster and db/db mouse as representative models for practical use in target validation. Most traditional models, including rabbit, Zucker diabetic fatty rat, and the majority of mouse models, did not demonstrate overall similarity to dyslipidemic humans in this study. PMID:22021650

  10. Hexadecenoic Fatty Acid Isomers in Human Blood Lipids and Their Relevance for the Interpretation of Lipidomic Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Anna; Tolika, Evanthia; Louka, Maria; Sunda, Valentina; Deplano, Simone; Melchiorre, Michele; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Formisano, Cesare; Di Micco, Rosa; Faraone Mennella, Maria Rosaria; Ferreri, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are emerging health biomarkers, and in particular the ratio between palmitoleic acid (9cis-16:1) and palmitic acid (16:0) affords the delta-9 desaturase index that is increased in obesity. Recently, other positional and geometrical MUFA isomers belonging to the hexadecenoic family (C16 MUFA) were found in circulating lipids, such as sapienic acid (6cis-16:1), palmitelaidic acid (9trans-16:1) and 6trans-16:1. In this work we report: i) the identification of sapienic acid as component of human erythrocyte membrane phospholipids with significant increase in morbidly obese patients (n = 50) compared with age-matched lean controls (n = 50); and ii) the first comparison of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids (PL) and plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) in morbidly obese patients highlighting that some of their fatty acid levels have opposite trends: increases of both palmitic and sapienic acids with the decrease of linoleic acid (9cis,12cis-18:2, omega-6) in red blood cell (RBC) membrane PL were reversed in plasma CE, whereas the increase of palmitoleic acid was similar in both lipid species. Consequentially, desaturase enzymatic indexes gave different results, depending on the lipid class used for the fatty acid content. The fatty acid profile of morbidly obese subjects also showed significant increases of stearic acid (C18:0) and C20 omega-6, as well as decreases of oleic acid (9cis-18:1) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega-3) as compared with lean healthy controls. Trans monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were also measured and found significantly increased in both lipid classes of morbidly obese subjects. These results highlight the C16 MUFA isomers as emerging metabolic marker provided that the assignment of the double bond position and geometry is correctly performed, thus identifying the corresponding lipidomic pathway. Since RBC membrane PL and plasma CE have different fatty acid trends, caution must also be used in the

  11. Hexadecenoic Fatty Acid Isomers in Human Blood Lipids and Their Relevance for the Interpretation of Lipidomic Profiles.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Anna; Tolika, Evanthia; Louka, Maria; Sunda, Valentina; Deplano, Simone; Melchiorre, Michele; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Formisano, Cesare; Di Micco, Rosa; Faraone Mennella, Maria Rosaria; Ferreri, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are emerging health biomarkers, and in particular the ratio between palmitoleic acid (9cis-16:1) and palmitic acid (16:0) affords the delta-9 desaturase index that is increased in obesity. Recently, other positional and geometrical MUFA isomers belonging to the hexadecenoic family (C16 MUFA) were found in circulating lipids, such as sapienic acid (6cis-16:1), palmitelaidic acid (9trans-16:1) and 6trans-16:1. In this work we report: i) the identification of sapienic acid as component of human erythrocyte membrane phospholipids with significant increase in morbidly obese patients (n = 50) compared with age-matched lean controls (n = 50); and ii) the first comparison of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids (PL) and plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) in morbidly obese patients highlighting that some of their fatty acid levels have opposite trends: increases of both palmitic and sapienic acids with the decrease of linoleic acid (9cis,12cis-18:2, omega-6) in red blood cell (RBC) membrane PL were reversed in plasma CE, whereas the increase of palmitoleic acid was similar in both lipid species. Consequentially, desaturase enzymatic indexes gave different results, depending on the lipid class used for the fatty acid content. The fatty acid profile of morbidly obese subjects also showed significant increases of stearic acid (C18:0) and C20 omega-6, as well as decreases of oleic acid (9cis-18:1) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega-3) as compared with lean healthy controls. Trans monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were also measured and found significantly increased in both lipid classes of morbidly obese subjects. These results highlight the C16 MUFA isomers as emerging metabolic marker provided that the assignment of the double bond position and geometry is correctly performed, thus identifying the corresponding lipidomic pathway. Since RBC membrane PL and plasma CE have different fatty acid trends, caution must also be used in the

  12. NADPH- and iron-dependent lipid peroxidation inhibit aromatase activity in human placental microsomes.

    PubMed

    Milczarek, Ryszard; Sokołowska, Ewa; Hallmann, Anna; Kaletha, Krystian; Klimek, Jerzy

    2008-06-01

    During pregnancy placenta is the most significant source of lipid hydroperoxides and other reactive oxygen species (ROS). The increased production of lipid peroxides and other ROS is often linked to pre-eclampsia. It is already proved that placental endoplasmic reticulum may be an important place of lipid peroxides and superoxide radical production. In the present study we revealed that NADPH- and iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in human placental microsomes (HPM) inhibit placental aromatase--a key enzyme of estrogen biosynthesis in human placenta. We showed that significant inhibition of this enzyme is caused by small lipid peroxidation (TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances)<4nmol/mg microsomal protein (m.p.)). More intensive lipid peroxidation (TBARS>9nmol/mg microsomal protein) diminishes aromatase activity to value being less than 5% of initial value. NADPH- and iron-dependent lipid peroxidation also causes disappearance of cytochrome P450 parallel to observed aromatase activity inhibition. EDTA, alpha-tocopherol, MgCl(2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) prevent aromatase activity inhibition and cytochrome P450(AROM) degradation. Mannitol and catalase have not effect on TBARS synthesis, aromatase activity and cytochrome P450 degradation. In view of the above we postulate that the inhibition of aromatase activity observed is mainly a consequence of cytochrome P450(AROM) degradation induced by lipid radicals. The role of hydroxyl radical in cytochrome P450 degradation is negligible in our experimental conditions. The results presented here also suggest that the inhibition of aromatase activity can also take place in placenta at in vivo conditions. PMID:18499441

  13. Safety profile of the intravenous administration of brain-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Mariana; Mendonça, Liliana; Nóbrega, Clévio; Gomes, Célia; Costa, Pedro; Hirai, Hirokazu; Moreira, João Nuno; Lima, Maria C; Manjunath, N; de Almeida, Luís Pereira

    2016-03-01

    In a clinical setting, where multiple administrations of the therapeutic agent are usually required to improve the therapeutic outcome, it is crucial to assess the immunogenicity of the administered nanoparticles. In this data work, we investigated the safety profile of the repeated intravenous administration of brain-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles (RVG-9r-targeted SNALPs). To evaluate local activation of the immune system, we performed analysis of mouse tissue homogenates and sections from cerebellum. To investigate peripheral activation of the immune system, we used serum of mice that were intravenously injected with RVG-9r-targeted SNALPs. These data are related and were discussed in the accompanying research article entitled "Intravenous administration of brain-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles alleviates Machado-Joseph disease neurological phenotype" (Conceição et al., in press) [1]. PMID:26958628

  14. MBPpred: Proteome-wide detection of membrane lipid-binding proteins using profile Hidden Markov Models.

    PubMed

    Nastou, Katerina C; Tsaousis, Georgios N; Papandreou, Nikos C; Hamodrakas, Stavros J

    2016-07-01

    A large number of modular domains that exhibit specific lipid binding properties are present in many membrane proteins involved in trafficking and signal transduction. These domains are present in either eukaryotic peripheral membrane or transmembrane proteins and are responsible for the non-covalent interactions of these proteins with membrane lipids. Here we report a profile Hidden Markov Model based method capable of detecting Membrane Binding Proteins (MBPs) from information encoded in their amino acid sequence, called MBPpred. The method identifies MBPs that contain one or more of the Membrane Binding Domains (MBDs) that have been described to date, and further classifies these proteins based on their position in respect to the membrane, either as peripheral or transmembrane. MBPpred is available online at http://bioinformatics.biol.uoa.gr/MBPpred. This method was applied in selected eukaryotic proteomes, in order to examine the characteristics they exhibit in various eukaryotic kingdoms and phyla. PMID:27048983

  15. Safety profile of the intravenous administration of brain-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles

    PubMed Central

    Conceição, Mariana; Mendonça, Liliana; Nóbrega, Clévio; Gomes, Célia; Costa, Pedro; Hirai, Hirokazu; Moreira, João Nuno; Lima, Maria C.; Manjunath, N.; de Almeida, Luís Pereira

    2016-01-01

    In a clinical setting, where multiple administrations of the therapeutic agent are usually required to improve the therapeutic outcome, it is crucial to assess the immunogenicity of the administered nanoparticles. In this data work, we investigated the safety profile of the repeated intravenous administration of brain-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles (RVG-9r-targeted SNALPs). To evaluate local activation of the immune system, we performed analysis of mouse tissue homogenates and sections from cerebellum. To investigate peripheral activation of the immune system, we used serum of mice that were intravenously injected with RVG-9r-targeted SNALPs. These data are related and were discussed in the accompanying research article entitled “Intravenous administration of brain-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles alleviates Machado–Joseph disease neurological phenotype” (Conceição et al., in press) [1]. PMID:26958628

  16. Profiling the triacylglyceride contents in bat integumentary lipids by preparative thin layer chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Risch, Thomas S; Savary, Brett J

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian integument includes sebaceous glands that secrete an oily material onto the skin surface. Sebum production is part of the innate immune system that is protective against pathogenic microbes. Abnormal sebum production and chemical composition are also a clinical symptom of specific skin diseases. Sebum contains a complex mixture of lipids, including triacylglycerides, which is species-specific. The broad chemical properties exhibited by diverse lipid classes hinder the specific determination of sebum composition. Analytical techniques for lipids typically require chemical derivatizations that are labor-intensive and increase sample preparation costs. This paper describes how to extract lipids from mammalian integument, separate broad lipid classes by thin-layer chromatography, and profile the triacylglyceride contents using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This robust method enables a direct determination of the triacylglyceride profiles among species and individuals, and it can be readily applied to any taxonomic group of mammals. PMID:24056580

  17. Profiling the Triacylglyceride Contents in Bat Integumentary Lipids by Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Pannkuk, Evan L.; Risch, Thomas S.; Savary, Brett J.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian integument includes sebaceous glands that secrete an oily material onto the skin surface. Sebum production is part of the innate immune system that is protective against pathogenic microbes. Abnormal sebum production and chemical composition are also a clinical symptom of specific skin diseases. Sebum contains a complex mixture of lipids, including triacylglycerides, which is species-specific. The broad chemical properties exhibited by diverse lipid classes hinder the specific determination of sebum composition. Analytical techniques for lipids typically require chemical derivatizations that are labor-intensive and increase sample preparation costs. This paper describes how to extract lipids from mammalian integument, separate broad lipid classes by thin-layer chromatography, and profile the triacylglyceride contents using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This robust method enables a direct determination of the triacylglyceride profiles among species and individuals, and it can be readily applied to any taxonomic group of mammals. PMID:24056580

  18. Lipid Profile and Electrolyte Composition in Diabetic Rats Treated With Leaf Extract of Musa sapientum.

    PubMed

    Adewoye, E O; Ige, A O

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects lipid levels resulting in diabetic dyslipidemia as well as electrolyte loss from the body. Musa sapientum has been reported to possess antidiabetic properties. This study assessed the lipid profile and electrolyte composition in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with methanol leaf extract of M. sapientum (cMEMSL). Diabetes was induced with alloxan (120 mg/kg i.p.). Seventy-five male albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 15 rats each. Group 1 was control; groups 2-5 were made diabetic and treated with 0.2 ml 0.9% NaCl, cMEMSL (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg), respectively, for 14 days. Blood samples were obtained from the retro orbital sinus after light anesthesia from 5 animals in each group on days 2, 7, and 14 for lipids and electrolyte analysis. Lipid profile of diabetic treated (cMEMSL and glibenclamide) animals showed significant reduction (p < .05) in total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The high density lipoprotein (HDL) level in the treatment groups increased significantly (p < .05) compared with diabetic untreated. Sodium, potassium, and phosphate ions significantly increased in all diabetic treatment groups while chloride ion significantly decreased compared with diabetic untreated. There was no significant difference in calcium and bicarbonate ion concentration in all the groups. This study has showed additional properties of Musa sapientum to include its ability to restore electrolyte balance, reduce cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and increase the HDL levels in diabetic animals. PMID:25320868

  19. The Relationships between Thyroid Hormones and Thyroid-stimulating Hormone with Lipid Profile in Euthyroid Men

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Aminuddin, Amilia; Johari, Mohamad Hanapi; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Alteration in lipid profile is a common observation in patients with thyroid dysfunction, but the current knowledge on the relationship between lipids and thyroid hormone levels in euthyroid state is insufficient. The current study aimed to determine the association between thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with lipid profile in a euthyroid male population. Methods: A total of 708 Chinese and Malay men aged 20 years and above were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Their blood was collected for the determination of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and TSH levels. The association was analyzed using multiple regression and logistic regression models with adjustment for age, ethnicity, body mass index and FT4/FT3/TSH levels. Results: In multiple regression models, TSH was positively and significantly associated with TG (p<0.05). Free T4 was positively and significantly associated with TC, LDL-C and HDL-C (p<0.05). Free T3 was negatively and significantly associated with HDL-C (p<0.05). In binary logistic models, an increase in TSH was significantly associated with higher prevalence of elevated TG in the subjects (p<0.05), while an increase in FT4 was significantly associated with higher prevalence of elevated TC but a lower prevalence of subnormal HDL in the subjects (p<0.05). Free T3 was not associated with any lipid variables in the logistic regression (p>0.05). Conclusions: In euthyroid Malaysian men, there are positive and significant relationships between TSH level and TG level, and between FT4 level and cholesterol levels. PMID:24578612

  20. Plasma and Liver Lipid Profiles in Rats Exposed to Chronic Hypobaric Hypoxia: Changes in Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Julio; Naveas, Nelson; Pulido, Ruth; De la Cruz, Juan José; Mamani, Maribel; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Siques, Patricia, Julio Brito, Nelson Naveas, Ruth Pulido, Juan José De la Cruz, Maribel Mamani, and Fabiola León-Velarde. Plasma and liver lipid profiles in rats exposed to chronic hypobaric hypoxia: Changes in metabolic pathways. High Alt Med Biol 15:388–395, 2014.—Lipid metabolism under chronic hypoxia (CH) has not received equal attention as intermittent hypoxia (IH). To determine the CH-induced changes in plasma and liver, as well as the mRNA and protein expression of two key enzymes in the triglyceride and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways, SREBP-1 (HMG-CoA reductase) and SREBP-2 (SCD-1), we exposed adult male Wistar rats to CH (4600 m; n=15) for 30 days compared to normoxic rats (n=15). The CH rats exhibited weight loss (p<0.001), higher hematocrit (%), and higher hemoglobin (g/dL) (p<0.01). In the plasma of CH rats, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol increased at day 15. VLDL-cholesterol and triglycerides (p<0.01) greatly increased (35%), while HDL-cholesterol decreased (p<0.01). Triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol remained elevated by 28% at day 30 (p<0.01). Hepatic triglycerides increased two-fold, while total cholesterol increased by 51% (p<0.001; p<0.05). Upregulation of SCD-1 mRNA and protein was observed in the CH rats (p<0.01); however, no differences were observed in HMG-CoA reductase mRNA or protein expression in both groups. In conclusion, CH, like IH, alters lipid profiles by increasing triglycerides in the plasma and liver and upregulating triglyceride biosynthesis without affecting the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. Additional involved mechanisms require further study because of the importance of lipids in cardiovascular risk. PMID:25185022

  1. Serum amyloid a gene polymorphism and its association with lipid profile in Saudi females with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdu-Allah, Azza M.; Tarhouny, Shereen A. El; Baghdadi, Hussam Hussein

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Osteoporosis can be defined as a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and micro architectural decline of bone tissue. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a family of protein that increases up to 1,000-fold in blood during inflammation. In this study, we aimed to study the relationship between SAA1 gene polymorphism (rs12218) and lipid profile and osteoporosis. Methods: The study was performed on the female students of Taibah University in Al Medina, KSA during June 2014 to April 2015. According to BMD; osteoporosis group (138 students) and control group (128 students). All groups were subjected to; BMI, BMD, calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, lipid profile and SAA. Polymerase chain reaction and Real Time were done to determine the distribution of allele and genotype frequency of SAA (rs12218) C/T polymorphism. Results: This study shows that the TT genotype of rs12218 was more frequent in osteoporosis group than control group (P<0.001). Also, TT genotype and T allel was found to be associated with plasma total cholesterol, TG, LDLc, HDLc, Tscore, Zscore and SAA1 level in osteoporosis group (P=0.000, P=0.05, and P=0.000, P=0.000, P=0.01, P=0.02, P=0.000 respectively). The logistic regression analysis with and without lipid disorders in the osteoporosis group also show that the TT genotype of rs12218 still differed significantly between these two groups (P=0.001, OR=1.814, 95% CI: 0.719-4.577). Conclusion: The results of this study shows a significant association between TT genotype of rs12218 and both lipid level and osteoporosis in Saudi female population. PMID:26648999

  2. Serum lipid profiles, the prevalence of dyslipidemia and the risk factors in two isolated Chinese minorities

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Pei-Juan; Xie, Rui-Bin; Yin, Rui-Xing; Wei, Dai-Xun; Huang, Jian; Huang, Feng; Li, Hui; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Both Jing and Mulao nationalities are the isolated minorities in China. Little is known about the prevalence of dyslipidemia between the two ethnic groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the differences in serum lipid profiles, the prevalence of dyslipidemia and their risk factors between the Jing and Mulao populations. A cross-sectional study of dyslipidemia was conducted in Dongxing city, Guangxi, China, during Dec 2011 and Jan 2012. A total of 1254 subjects of Jing and 1251 participants of Mulao were surveyed by a stratified randomized sampling. Information on demography, diet and lifestyle was collected with standardized questionnaire. Serum lipid levels were detected using the commercially available kits. The levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower but the levels of ApoB were higher in Jing than in Mulao (P < 0.001 for all). The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (32.38% vs. 24.38%), high ApoB (35.25% vs. 15.35%) and low ApoA1/ApoB ratio (22.65% vs. 16.87%) was higher and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.48% vs. 2.16%), high LDL-C (17.54% vs. 40.53%) and low ApoA1 (5.98% vs. 11.43%) was lower in Jing than in Mulao (P < 0.001 for all). The risk factors for serum lipid parameters and hyperlipidemia were different between the two ethnic groups. Serum lipid profiles, the prevalence of dyslipidemia and their risk factors are different between the Jing and Mulao populations. These differences may result from the combined effects of different diet, lifestyle, and genetic factors. PMID:26770556

  3. Cardiolipin Deficiency in Rhodobacter sphaeroides Alters the Lipid Profile of Membranes and of Crystallized Cytochrome Oxidase, but Structure and Function Are Maintained

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xi; Tamot, Banita; Hiser, Carrie; Reid, Gavin E.; Benning, Christoph; Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh

    2012-05-08

    Many recent studies highlight the importance of lipids in membrane proteins, including in the formation of well-ordered crystals. To examine the effect of changes in one lipid, cardiolipin, on the lipid profile and the production, function, and crystallization of an intrinsic membrane protein, cytochrome c oxidase, we mutated the cardiolipin synthase (cls) gene of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, causing a >90% reduction in cardiolipin content in vivo and selective changes in the abundances of other lipids. Under these conditions, a fully native cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) was produced, as indicated by its activity, spectral properties, and crystal characteristics. Analysis by MALDI tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) revealed that the cardiolipin level in CcO crystals, as in the membranes, was greatly decreased. Lipid species present in the crystals were directly analyzed for the first time using MS/MS, documenting their identities and fatty acid chain composition. The fatty acid content of cardiolipin in R. sphaeroides CcO (predominantly 18:1) differs from that in mammalian CcO (18:2). In contrast to the cardiolipin dependence of mammalian CcO activity, major depletion of cardiolipin in R. sphaeroides did not impact any aspect of CcO structure or behavior, suggesting a greater tolerance of interchange of cardiolipin with other lipids in this bacterial system.

  4. Effects of smokeless dipping tobacco (Naswar) consumption on antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile in its users.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Faiza; Bano, Samina

    2015-09-01

    Dipping tobacco, traditionally referred to as moist snuff, is a type of finely ground, moistened smokeless tobacco product. Naswar is stuffed in the floor of the mouth under the lower lip, or inside the cheek, for extended periods of time. Tobacco use causes dyslipidemia and also induces oxidative stress, leading to alteration in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in turn play a vital role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies conducted on smokeless tobacco products reveal contradictory findings regarding its effects on lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes. As use of Naswar is quite common in Pakistan, the current study aimed to evaluate levels of the antioxidant enzymes viz glutathione per oxidase (GPx) and super oxide dismutase (SOD), alongside lipid profile parameters such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to assess the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in Naswar users.90 Healthy males aged 16-43 years, who consumed Naswar daily, were selected for the study, alongside 68 age-matched non-tobacco users as controls. Both GPx and SOD levels as well as serum HDL-C were significantly reduced (P<0.01) in Naswar users, whereas serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were significantly increased (P<0.01) in Naswar consumers compared to controls. Our findings indicate deleterious effects of Naswar usage on health by causing altered lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes thereby placing its consumers at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26525023

  5. Changes in weight loss and lipid profiles after a dietary purification program: a prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case series was to describe immediate changes to weight and lipid profiles after a 21-day Standard Process whole food supplement and dietary modification program. Methods Changes in weight and lipid profiles were measured for 7 participants (6 men and 1 woman) participating in a 21-day program. The dietary modifications throughout the Standard Process program were consumption of (1) unlimited fresh or frozen vegetables and fruits and preferably twice as many vegetables as fruits, (2) ½ to 1 cup of cooked lentils or brown rice each day, (3) 4 to 7 teaspoons of cold pressed oils per day, and (4) at least 64 oz of water a day. After day 10 of the program, participants were allowed to consume 1 to 2 servings of baked, broiled, or braised poultry or fish per day. Participants consumed a whey protein–based shake as meal replacement 2 times per day. Nutritional supplementation included a cleanse product on days 1 to 7, soluble fiber supplementation including oat bran concentrate and apple pectin on all days, and “green food” supplementation on days 8 to 21. Results Weight loss ranged between 5.2 (2.4 kg) and 19.9 lb (9.0 kg) (average, 11.7 lb; 5.3 kg). Total cholesterol levels decreased with ranges between 11 and 77 mg/dL, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased in a range between 7 and 67 mg/dL. Conclusion After participating in a dietary program, the 7 participants demonstrated short-term weight loss and improvements in their lipid profiles. PMID:23997722

  6. Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients

    PubMed Central

    Kojuri, Javad; Vosoughi, Amir R; Akrami, Majid

    2007-01-01

    Background hyperlipidemia as a major risk factor of atherosclerosis is treated with different drugs. Concerning length of therapy and vast majority of side effects, herbal medication may be suitable substitute for these drugs. Methods In this single-blind, placebo controlled study, lipid profiles of 150 hyperlipidemic patients in cardiology outpatient department of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were checked at same conditions. They were divided into three equal groups randomly (each composing of 50 patients). They were given enteric-coated garlic powder tablet (equal to 400 mg garlic, 1 mg allicin) twice daily, anethum tablet (650 mg) twice daily, and placebo tablet. All patients were put on NCEP type Π diet and Six weeks later, lipid profiles were checked. Results In garlic group: total cholesterol (decreased by 26.82 mg/dl, 12.1% reduction, and P-value: .000), and LDL-cholesterol (decreased by 22.18 mg/dl, 17.3% reduction, and P-value: .000) dropped. HDL-cholesterol (increased by 10.02 mg/dl, 15.7% increase, and P-value: .000) increased. Although triglyceride dropped by 13.72 mg/dl (6.3%) but this was not significant statistically (P-value: .222). In anethum group: surprisingly, triglyceride increased by 14.74 mg/dl (6.0%). Anethum could reduce total cholesterol by 0.4 % and LDL-cholesterol by 6.3% but these were not significant statistically (P-value: .828, and .210, respectively). Conclusion Anethum has no significant effect on lipid profile, but garlic tablet has significant favorable effect on cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Garlic may play an important role in therapy of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:17328819

  7. Serum lipid profiles are associated with disability and MRI outcomes in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier vascular endothelium is critical for entry of immune cells into the MS brain. Vascular co-morbidities are associated with increased risk of progression. Dyslipidemia, elevated LDL and reduced HDL may increase progression by activating inflammatory processes at the vascular endothelium. Objective To assess the associations of serum lipid profile variables (triglycerides, high and low density lipoproteins (HDL, LDL) and total cholesterol) with disability and MRI measures in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods This study included 492 MS patients (age: 47.1 ± 10.8 years; disease duration: 12.8 ± 10.1 years) with baseline and follow-up Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS) assessments after a mean period of 2.2 ± 1.0 years. The associations of baseline lipid profile variables with disability changes were assessed. Quantitative MRI findings at baseline were available for 210 patients. Results EDSS worsening was associated with higher baseline LDL (p = 0.006) and total cholesterol (p = 0.001, 0.008) levels, with trends for higher triglyceride (p = 0.025); HDL was not associated. A similar pattern was found for MSSS worsening. Higher HDL levels (p < 0.001) were associated with lower contrast-enhancing lesion volume. Higher total cholesterol was associated with a trend for lower brain parenchymal fraction (p = 0.033). Conclusions Serum lipid profile has modest effects on disease progression in MS. Worsening disability is associated with higher levels of LDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides. Higher HDL is associated with lower levels of acute inflammatory activity. PMID:21970791

  8. Relationship between lipid and hematological profiles with adiposity in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Lisianny Camilla Cocri do Nascimento; da Silva, Humberto José Gomes; Lins, Tatiana Acioli; do Prado, Wagner Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Background An excess of weight including obesity have reached epidemic rates in all age groups, both in developed and developing countries. It is notable that overweight children and adolescents have a higher likelihood of becoming obese adults and to present health-related problems early in life. Objetives To verify associations of the lipid and hematological profiles with adiposity in obese adolescents beginning multidisciplinary weight loss therapy. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with 85 adolescents of both genders, aged 12-19 years (Tanner staging 3 or 4) and body mass index greater than the 95th percentile. The sum of the triceps, subscapular and calf skinfolds and the waist circumference were used to estimate adiposity. Blood samples were collected from all patients after overnight fasting to analyze blood lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides), blood sugar and the hematological profile (hemoglobin, platelets and red blood cells). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients were used for statistical analysis with significance set for p-values ≤ 0.05. Results There were statistical differences between genders for red blood cells (p-value = 0.000), hemoglobin (p-value = 0.000) and platelets (p-value = 0.002). Positive correlations were found for red blood cells (p-value = 0.031) and hemoglobin (p-value = 0.024) with waist circumference. There was a negative correlation between hemoglobin and the sum of skinfolds (p-value = 0.022). Conclusion The results demonstrate an association between the lipid and hematological profiles and body adiposity in obese adolescents thus reinforcing the importance of treating obese adolescents early to prevent health related problems in adult life. PMID:23904803

  9. Temporal Changes in Microbial Metagenomic Signatures and Lipid Profiles After Fracturing in the Marcellus Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trexler, R.; Wrighton, K. C.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Wilkins, M.; Daly, R. A.; Mouser, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas formations represent understudied deep biosphere ecosystems with important implications to terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and global energy resources. Recent 16S rRNA gene studies examining temporal microbial community dynamics of returned fluids from hydraulically fractured wells in the Marcellus Shale indicate ecosystem changes from aerobic, low-salt associated microbes in injected fluids to anaerobic, halophilic taxa in produced fluids several months after fracturing. To further characterize changes in the ecology, functional potential and biosignatures of observed taxa, we sequenced genomic DNA from three key time points after fracturing (T7, T82, and T328; Tn, n = days) and analyzed their lipid signatures. The metagenomic profiles verify 16S rRNA gene trends, revealing strain-type changes in dominant Bacteria of Marinobacter, Halomonas, and Halanaerobium and the Archaeal genus Methanolobus through time. Novel species within the γ-Proteobacteria were also observed. Reconstructed genomes show as bioavailable N decreases through time, genes associated with N2 fixing and obtaining N from organic pools (ncd2, nit1, and eutCB) increase in T82 and T328 samples after oxidized nitrogen species (NO3) are depleted. Further, S oxidizing genes were only detected in the T7 sample with incomplete pathways for dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR). Later time points showed an increase in abundance of sulfonate importer genes and the anaerobic DSR gene, asrA, suggesting the use of sulfite and sulfonates for S acquisition after sulfate is depleted. Lipid analyses confirmed distinct profiles between T82 and T328 and revealed differences in 16 and 18 C monounsaturated fatty acids, indicative of gram (-) bacteria. The lipid profile from T328 was markedly less diverse than that of T82 and indicated a very limited community, as supported by the 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic data. This research integrates metagenomic data with lipid profiles to characterize temporal

  10. Profiling of phospholipids and related lipid structures using multidimensional ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimpin, Sarah; Tan, Bo; Bohrer, Brian C.; O'Dell, David K.; Merenbloom, Samuel I.; Pazos, Mauricio X.; Clemmer, David E.; Walker, J. Michael

    2009-10-01

    Increasingly comprehensive questions related to the biosynthesis of lipids relevant to understanding new signaling pathways have created daunting tasks for their chemical analysis. Here, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and mass spectrometry (MS) techniques combined with electrospray ionization have been used to examine mixtures of closely related lipid structures. The drift time distributions of sphingomyelins show baseline separations for ethylene chain length differences ([Delta] ~ 1.2 ms) and partial separations in single unsaturation differences ([Delta] ~ 0.3 ms) revealing that the most compact structures are observed with shorter chains and increasing unsaturation. Drift time distributions of different ionizations frequently fall into families with the same drift times (isodrifts) indicating that the ion attached to the lipid has little structural influence. The present data show that phospholipids, especially phosphatidylinositol, aggregate to form inverted micelles. Phospholipids (phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylinositol) are effectively separated according to their polar head groups. This method also provides information about the mixture composition of the chemically different lipids N-palmitoyl glycine, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide, and phosphatidylcholine existing over an array of charge states and sizes (inverted micelles) depending on mixture concentration. Multidimensional IMS3-MS introduces an additional dimension to fragmentation analysis by separating the fragmented ions into groups related to size, shape and charge and allows determination of sn-1 and sn-2 substitution as is shown for phosphatidylglycerols. This contribution provides evidence for extending the targeted approach to global lipidomics analysis using the high-efficiency gas-phase separation afforded by multidimensional IMS-MS.

  11. Top-down lipidomics of low density lipoprotein reveal altered lipid profiles in advanced chronic kidney disease[S

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Ana; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Chariyavilaskul, Pajaree; Dhaun, Neeraj; Melville, Vanessa; Goddard, Jane; Webb, David J.; Pitt, Andrew R.; Spickett, Corinne M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the molecular lipidomic profile of LDL in patients with nondiabetic advanced renal disease and no evidence of CVD to that of age-matched controls, with the hypothesis that it would reveal proatherogenic lipid alterations. LDL was isolated from 10 normocholesterolemic patients with stage 4/5 renal disease and 10 controls, and lipids were analyzed by accurate mass LC/MS. Top-down lipidomics analysis and manual examination of the data identified 352 lipid species, and automated comparative analysis demonstrated alterations in lipid profile in disease. The total lipid and cholesterol content was unchanged, but levels of triacylglycerides and N-acyltaurines were significantly increased, while phosphatidylcholines, plasmenyl ethanolamines, sulfatides, ceramides, and cholesterol sulfate were significantly decreased in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Chemometric analysis of individual lipid species showed very good discrimination of control and disease sample despite the small cohorts and identified individual unsaturated phospholipids and triglycerides mainly responsible for the discrimination. These findings illustrate the point that although the clinical biochemistry parameters may not appear abnormal, there may be important underlying lipidomic changes that contribute to disease pathology. The lipidomic profile of CKD LDL offers potential for new biomarkers and novel insights into lipid metabolism and cardiovascular risk in this disease. PMID:25424003

  12. Lipid Sources with Different Fatty Acid Profile Alters the Fatty Acid Profile and Quality of Beef from Confined Nellore Steers

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, Giovani; Lage, Josiane F.; Carvalho, Isabela P. C.; Messana, Juliana D.; Canesin, Roberta. C.; Reis, Ricardo A.; Berchielli, Telma T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of lipid sources with different fatty acids profile on meat fatty acids profile and beef quality traits of Nellore. A total of 45 Nellore animals with an average initial body weight of 419±11 kg (at 15±2 mo) were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of 5 treatments and 9 replicates. The roughage feed was maize silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF), and soybean grains (SG). No effects of lipid sources were observed (p>0.05) on beef color, pH, water-holding capacity, and sarcomere length. Beef from cattle fed PO had greater shear-force values (p<0.05) compared to beef from cattle fed WF. Deposition of main unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and linolenic) was greater in treatments WF, SG, and LO, respectively, while the values of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were greater when animals were fed LO. The inclusion of LO in the diet enhances the concentration of CLA in longissimus muscle and subcutaneous fat besides improving the atherogenicity index and elongase activity. As such, LO can be used with the aim to improve the quality of beef from confined Nellore cattle. Conversely, the use of PO is not recommended since it may increase the concentration of undesirable unsaturated fatty acids in muscle and subcutaneous fat, shear-force and the atherogenicity index. PMID:26104402

  13. Effect of long-term aluminum feeding on lipid/phospholipid profiles of rat brain myelin.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Jignesh D; Dave, Kunjan R; Katyare, Surendra S

    2004-06-22

    Effect of long-term (90-100 days) exposure of rats to soluble salt of aluminum (AlCl3) on myelin lipid profile was examined. The long-term exposure to AlCl3 resulted in a 60% decrease in the total phospholipid (TPL) content while the cholesterol (CHL) content increased by 55%. Consequently the TPL/CHL molar ratio decreased significantly by 62%. The phospholipid composition of the myelin membrane changed drastically; the proportion of practically all the phospholipid classes decreased by 32 to 60% except for phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Of the latter two, proportion of PC was unchanged while PE increased in proportion by 47%. Quantitatively, all phospholipid classes decreased by from 42 to 76% with no change in the PE content. However the membrane fluidity was not altered in Al-treated rats. Many of the changes we observe here show striking similarities with the reported phospholipid profiles of Alzheimer brains. PMID:15212698

  14. Voltage-dependent K+ channel gating and voltage sensor toxin sensitivity depend on the mechanical state of the lipid membrane

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Daniel; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2008-01-01

    Voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channels underlie action potentials through gating conformational changes that are driven by membrane voltage. In this study of the paddle chimera Kv channel, we demonstrate that the rate of channel opening, the voltage dependence of the open probability, and the maximum achievable open probability depend on the lipid membrane environment. The activity of the voltage sensor toxin VsTx1, which interferes with voltage-dependent gating by partitioning into the membrane and binding to the channel, also depends on the membrane. Membrane environmental factors that influence channel function are divisible into two general categories: lipid compositional and mechanical state. The mechanical state can have a surprisingly large effect on the function of a voltage-dependent K+ channel, including its pharmacological interaction with voltage sensor toxins. The dependence of VSTx1 activity on the mechanical state of the membrane leads us to hypothesize that voltage sensor toxins exert their effect by perturbing the interaction forces that exist between the channel and the membrane. PMID:19050073

  15. Relation of Paraoxonase1, Arylesterase and Lipid Profile in Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mogarekar, Mukund R; Wagh, Reena V; Das, Rajkumar R; Pramanik, Sanjay S; Sonune, Sanjay M; Chawhan, Sanjay M

    2015-01-01

    Background Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an enzyme associated with High density lipoprotein (HDL) in blood and it is considered to have antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties. PON1 plays an important role in protecting HDL and especially low density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidative modification by hydrolyzing lipid peroxides which are known to be associated with many vascular diseases including atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate and correlate serum paraoxonase (PON1) and arylesterase (ARE) activities as well as lipid profile levels in patients with ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods The study population was comprised of 50 ischemic stroke patients and 50 healthy controls. The serum PON1 and ARE activities were measured spectrophotometrically by using paraoxon and phenylacetate as substrate respectively by Eckerson method. Serum lipid was measured using routine biochemical method. Results The normality of the distribution of the parameters are assessed by Shapiro-Wilk test. Two sample t-test is applied for hypothesis testing. The serum PONI and arylesterase ARE decreased significantly in ischemic stroke patients (p<0.001). The PON1 was positively correlated with HDL. Conclusion This study strongly suggests that the estimation of HDL-C associated PON1 enzyme gives valuable information for prediction of risk of ischemic stroke due to cerebrovascular thromboembolism. The result shows that PON1 and ARE could be considered as a risk factors for ischemic stroke. PMID:26673997

  16. Changes in serum lipid profile in the acute and convalescent Plasmodium vivax malaria: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Teresinha C; Martin, Thamires G O; Alves, Eduardo R; Mello, Marcia B C; Nery, Andreia F; Gomes, Luciano T; Fontes, Cor Jesus F

    2016-11-01

    Although serum lipids are known to be altered in Plasmodium falciparum-induced malaria, little is known about such changes due to Plasmodium vivax infection. This cohort study assessed serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in 164 patients in the acute phase of malaria caused by P. vivax and characterized these changes in the convalescent phase after treatment with chloroquine and primaquine. Compared to reference values, serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were lower and triglyceride levels were higher in the acute phase. Moreover, the parasite density was negatively correlated with LDL (r=-0,189; p=0.027) and HDL (r=-0,256; p=0.001) serum levels. Eighty patients returned for clinical and laboratory revaluation 7-12days after treatment initiation. All patients showed parasite clearance and the absence of symptoms during the convalescent phase. Analysis of the serum lipids of these 80 patients showed significant increases in the serum levels of total cholesterol (p<0.0001), LDL (p<0.0001), and HDL (p<0.0001) as well as a significant reduction in triglycerides (p=0.004), indicating a trend towards a return to normal levels. This transient change in lipid profile between the acute and convalescent stages may be useful for the clinical monitoring of patients treated for vivax malaria. PMID:27461878

  17. Impact of APOE gene polymorphisms on the lipid profile in an Algerian population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism is well established. However, the impact of APOE polymorphisms has never been investigated in an Algerian population. This study assessed, for the fist time, the relationships between three APOE polymorphisms (epsilon, rs439401, rs4420638) and plasma lipid concentrations in a general population sample from Algeria. Methods The association analysis was performed in the ISOR study, a representative sample of the population living in Oran (787 subjects aged between 30 and 64). Polymorphisms were considered both individually and as haplotypes. Results In the ISOR sample, APOE ϵ4 allele carriers had higher plasma triglyceride (p=0.0002), total cholesterol (p=0.009) and LDL-cholesterol (p=0.003) levels than ϵ3 allele carriers. No significant associations were detected for the rs4420638 and rs439401 SNPs. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analyses confirmed the respectively deleterious and protective impacts of the ϵ4 and ϵ2 alleles on LDL-cholesterol levels and showed that the G allele of the rs4420638 polymorphism may exert a protective effect on LDL-cholesterol levels in subjects bearing the APOE epsilon 4 allele. Conclusion Our results showed that (i) the APOE epsilon polymorphism has the expected impact on the plasma lipid profile and (ii) the rs4420638 G allele may counterbalance the deleterious effect of the ϵ4 allele on LDL-cholesterol levels in an Algerian population. PMID:24160669

  18. Effects of fibre-enriched diets on tissue lipid profiles of MSG obese rats.

    PubMed

    Rotimi, O A; Olayiwola, I O; Ademuyiwa, O; Balogun, E A

    2012-11-01

    In order to investigate the influence of some fibre-enriched diets on tissue lipids in an animal model of obesity induced by the administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG), obese rats were fed diets containing 30% of Acha, Cassava, Maize and Plantain for five weeks and weight gain, feed intake and lee index were recorded. The lipid profiles of plasma, erythrocytes, kidney, heart and liver as well as hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity were measured. The diets significantly (p<0.05) reduced weight gain and lee index in the obese rats. Obesity-induced increase in plasma and erythrocytes lipid levels was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by these diets. MSG-induced obesity also resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in hepatic cholesterol level which was reduced by the diets. MSG-obesity was characterised by a significant (p<0.05) increase in cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipids in kidney and this was reversed by the diets except Maize which did not reverse the increased cholesterol level. Only Acha reversed the obesity-induced increase in heart cholesterol and phospholipids. The increased activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase associated with obesity was also significantly (p<0.05) reduced by the diets. In conclusion, dyslipidemia associated with MSG-induced obesity could be attenuated by consumption of fibre-enriched diets. PMID:22898616

  19. Black soybean extract improves lipid profiles in fenofibrate-treated type 2 diabetics with postprandial hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Masataka; Sato, Daisuke; Tsutsumi, Kazuhiko; Tsutsui, Hideyo; Nakamura, Takao; Oshida, Yoshiharu

    2015-06-01

    Black soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) are known to be rich in polyphenols, including anthocyanins, and they have been consumed since ancient times for their beneficial effects on health. In addition, it has been reported that black soybean (BS) seed coat may ameliorate obesity and insulin resistance. In the present study, we administered BS extract to type 2 diabetics for 2 months to investigate the effects of BS on glycemic control and lipid metabolism parameters. In addition, we administered BS and antihyperlipidemic agent, fenofibrate, to patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by postprandial hyperlipidemia for 2 months and assessed the combined effects of fenofibrate and BS on serum lipid profile. The results showed that administration of the BS alone had no effect on the blood glucose or lipid levels, but that administration of fenofibrate alone and fenofibrate in combination with the BS significantly lowered their serum triglyceride (TG) level at fasting state, and the percent decrease in the serum TG level after combined administration was significantly higher than in the subjects who received fenofibrate alone. Furthermore, the serum LDL cholesterol concentration, which did not decrease when fenofibrate was administered alone, decreased significantly when the BS and fenofibrate were administered in combination. These results suggest that combined administration of the BS with fenofibrate enhanced the antihyperlipidemic action of fenofibrate, and the results of this study demonstrated the usefulness of the BS in clinical practice. PMID:25651043

  20. Effects of Regular Recreational Exercise Training on Serum ANGPTL3-Like Protein and Lipid Profile in Young Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smol, Ewa; Kłapcińska, Barbara; Kempa, Katarzyna; Fredyk, Artur; Małecki, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of the role of ANGPTL3, a liver-secreted glycoprotein, in serum lipid turnover, led us to hypothesize that this protein may be involved in modification of the lipid profile induced by exercise-training. Given the lack of data regarding this issue, the main goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of regular participation in a recreational physical activity program on serum ANGPTL3 and selected lipid profile measures in young, apparently healthy female and male adults. We compared serum ANGPTL3, lipid profile measures, common lipid ratios, the Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) and glucose in fasting blood samples derived from 22 active physical education students including active females (AF, N=6) and males (AM, N=16) with samples from 28 relatively sedentary age-matched peers, including female (SF, N=9) and male (SM, N=19) individuals not involved in any regular physical conditioning program. Despite high inter-individual variability of serum ANGPTL3, there was a general tendency toward higher serum ANGPTL3 and HDL-C in women compared to men, but without significant differences related to their physical activity status. Based on both routine lipid profile measures and lipid ratios, all participants had normal lipid profiles, normal glycemia, as well as favorable anthropometric indices not suggesting increased cardiometabolic risk. However, lower levels of the TG/HDL-C ratio and AIP in physically active compared to relatively sedentary participants, reflecting the predominance of large, buoyant LDL particles, strongly support the view of beneficial health-promoting effects of regular participation in recreational sport activities. PMID:26839611

  1. Effects of phylloquinone supplementation on lipid profile in women with rheumatoid arthritis: a double blind placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Kolahi, Sousan; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Mesgari Abbasi, Mehran; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an excess mortality from cardiovascular disease which is likely attributed to an atherogenic lipid profile. Among nutritional factors vitamin K has been recently focused as a pivotal nutrient in improvement of lipid related markers. Thus, this study was designed to determine the effects of vitamin K on lipid profile in this disease. SUBJECTS/METHODS Fifty eight patients with definitive RA were participated in the present double blind placebo controlled study. They were randomly allocated into two groups to receive vitamin K1 as phylloquinone [10 mg/day] (n = 30) or placebo pills (n = 28), for eight weeks. In order to control the effects of probable confounders dietary intakes, anthropometric measurements including weight and height, clinical status using disease activity score-28 (DAS-28), physical activity and anxiety status were evaluated at baseline. Moreover, serum levels of lipid related markers including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) were measured at baseline and at the end of intervention. RESULTS There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding any of the baseline characteristics. After adjusting for some relevant confounders, in comparison between two groups, we observed no significant changes in lipid related markers at the end of intervention. Also, there was no significant difference between before and after intervention values within groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Function of vitamin K1 in lipid profile modification remains still controversial. This study showed that vitamin K1 has no effect on lipid profile in women with rheumatoid arthritis. Further studies with a longer follow-up are required to determine the effects of vitamin K on atherogenic lipid profile. PMID:25861426

  2. Chronic Oral Infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis Accelerates Atheroma Formation by Shifting the Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Tabeta, Koichi; Aoki, Yukari; Miyashita, Hirotaka; Miyauchi, Sayuri; Miyazawa, Haruna; Nakajima, Takako; Yamazaki, Kazuhisa

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that periodontal disease increases the risk of atherothrombotic disease. Atherosclerosis has been characterized as a chronic inflammatory response to cholesterol deposition in the arteries. Although several studies have suggested that certain periodontopathic bacteria accelerate atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, the mechanistic link between cholesterol accumulation and periodontal infection-induced inflammation is largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We orally infected C57BL/6 and C57BL/6.KOR-Apoeshl (B6.Apoeshl) mice with Porphyromonas gingivalis, which is a representative periodontopathic bacterium, and evaluated atherogenesis, gene expression in the aorta and liver and systemic inflammatory and lipid profiles in the blood. Furthermore, the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from P. gingivalis on cholesterol transport and the related gene expression was examined in peritoneal macrophages. Alveolar bone resorption and elevation of systemic inflammatory responses were induced in both strains. Despite early changes in the expression of key genes involved in cholesterol turnover, such as liver X receptor and ATP-binding cassette A1, serum lipid profiles did not change with short-term infection. Long-term infection was associated with a reduction in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol but not with the development of atherosclerotic lesions in wild-type mice. In B6.Apoeshl mice, long-term infection resulted in the elevation of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), LDL and total cholesterols in addition to the reduction of HDL cholesterol. This shift in the lipid profile was concomitant with a significant increase in atherosclerotic lesions. Stimulation with P. gingivalis LPS induced the change of cholesterol transport via targeting the expression of LDL receptor-related genes and resulted in the disturbance of regulatory mechanisms of the cholesterol level in macrophages. Conclusions

  3. Effect of Abdominoplasty in the Lipid Profile of Patients with Dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Gallardo, Guillermo; Pérez Verdin, Ana; Fuentes, Miguel; Godínez Gutiérrez, Sergio; Ambriz-Plascencia, Ana Rosa; González-García, Ignacio; Gómez-Fonseca, Sonia Mericia; Madrigal, Rosalio; González-Reynoso, Luis Iván; Figueroa, Sandra; Toscano Igartua, Xavier; Jiménez Gutierrez, Déctor Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Dyslipidemia like other chronic degenerative diseases is pandemic in Latin America and around the world. A lot of patients asking for body contouring surgery can be sick without knowing it. Objective. Observe the lipid profile of patients with dyslipidemia, before and three months after an abdominoplasty. Methods. Patients candidate to an abdominoplasty without morbid obesity were followed before and three months after the surgery. We compared the lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and HOMA (cardiovascular risk marker) before and three months after the surgery. We used Student's t test to compare the results. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results. Twenty-six patients were observed before and after the surgery. At the third month, we found only statistical differences in LDL and triglyceride values (P 0.04 and P 0.03). The rest of metabolic values did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion. In this group of patients with dyslipidemia, at the third month, only LDL and triglyceride values reached statistical significances. There is no significant change in glucose, insulin, HOMA, cholesterol, VLDL, or HDL. PMID:23956856

  4. Plasma lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profiles in Nigerian university athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Oyelola, O O; Rufai, M A

    1993-01-01

    The fasting plasma lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profiles were determined in 14 healthy Nigerian male athletes and controls matched for sex and anthropometric parameters. The mean levels of total cholesterol (P < 0.05), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo) AII and E were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in the athletes than in the controls. However, there were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) between the mean values of the plasma triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, apo AI, B, Lp(a), LpA1 and CIII:NonB respectively for the athletes and controls. A priori, the potential effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk was also compared using three predictor ratios - total cholesterol: HDL cholesterol (TC:HDL), LDL cholesterol: HDL cholesterol and apo B:AI. The mean of the three ratios was lower in the athletes than in the controls; however, the differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Based on our data, exercise appears to decrease the TC:HDL ratio in the athletes by lowering LDL-cholesterol, while the HDL-cholesterol is unaffected. We conclude that physical activity has salutary effects on the lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profiles of healthy Nigerian men. PMID:8130968

  5. A Single Consumption of High Amounts of the Brazil Nuts Improves Lipid Profile of Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Colpo, Elisângela; Vilanova, Carlos Dalton de Avila; Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Marta Maria; Farias, Iria Luiza Gomes; Irineu Muller, Edson; Muller, Aline Lima Hermes; Moraes Flores, Erico Marlon; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study investigates the effects of Brazil nut ingestion on serum lipid profile in healthy volunteers. Methods. Ten healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Each subject was tested 4 times in a randomized crossover in relation to the ingestion of different serving sizes of the Brazil nut: 0, 5, 20, or 50 g. At each treatment point, peripheral blood was drawn before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 hours and 5 and 30 days. Blood samples were tested for total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and LDL-c, resp.), triglycerides, selenium, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma GT, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Results. A significant increase of the plasma selenium levels was observed at 6 hours within the groups receiving the nuts. Serum LDL-c was significantly lower, whereas HDL-c was significantly higher 9 hours after the ingestion of 20 or 50 g of nuts. The biochemical parameters of liver and kidney function were not modified by ingestion of nuts. Conclusions. This study shows that the ingestion of a single serving of Brazil nut can acutely improve the serum lipid profile of healthy volunteers. PMID:23840948

  6. Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappan, V.; Shree, K. Sakthi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in albino rats by administration of atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic control and P. reticulatus treated (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses for 45 days). After the treatment period of 45th day triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Results: The aqueous extract of P. reticulatus (250 mg and 500 mg/kg) produced significant reduction (P < 0.05) in triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) while increased HDL-cholesterol in atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats at the end of the treatment period (45 days). However, the reduction in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic control. Thus, aqueous extract of P. reticulatus is effective in controlling TC, lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The results suggest the aqueous extract of P. reticulatus can be utilized for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients. PMID:21189912

  7. Effects of Apple Consumption on Lipid Profile of Hyperlipidemic and Overweight Men

    PubMed Central

    Vafa, Mohammad Reza; Haghighatjoo, Elham; Shidfar, Farzad; Afshari, Shirin; Gohari, Mahmood Reza; Ziaee, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Fruits and vegetables may be beneficial on lipid profile of hyperlipidemic subjects. The present study was aimed to verify the effect of golden delicious apple on Lipid Profile in hyperlipidemic and overweight men. Methods: Forty six hyperlipidemic and overweight men were randomly divided into two groups. Intervention group received 300g golden delicious apple per day for 8 weeks. Control group had the regular dietary regimen for the same period of time. Blood samples were analyzed for serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), lipoprotein a (Lp a) and LDL/HDL ratio at baseline and after intervention. Results: Total polyphenols and fibers were 485 mg/kg and 4.03 g/100g in fresh apple respectively. After 8 weeks, significant statistical differences were observed considering the TG and VLDL levels between two groups, but no significant differences were observed regarding TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo (B), Lp (a) and LDL/HDL ratio. Conclusions: Consumption of Golden delicious apple may be increased serum TG and VLDL in hyperlipidemic and overweight men. We need more studies to assay the effect of apple consumption on serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo (B), Lp (a) and LDL/HDL ratio. PMID:21603015

  8. Olive Leaf Extract Elevates Hepatic PPAR α mRNA Expression and Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Leena; Liu, Ya-Nan; Park, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that olive leaf extract might alleviate dyslipidemia resulting from estrogen deficiency. Serum lipid profile and mRNA expression of the related genes in the liver and adipose tissue were analyzed after providing olive leaf extract (200 or 400 mg/kg body weight; n=7 for each group) to ovariectomized rats for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks' administration, the rats in the olive leaf extract-administered groups showed significantly lower levels of serum triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol compared with the rats in the control group, whereas the administration of olive leaf extract did not significantly change the elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, administration of high dose of olive leaf extract significantly decreased the liver triglyceride and increased serum estradiol levels. mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) were not affected by ovariectomy, however, administration of olive leaf extract significantly increased both PPAR α and ACO mRNA expression. Expression of adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue was significantly decreased in the ovariectomized control group. Rats administered low-dose olive leaf extract showed significantly elevated adiponectin mRNA expression compared with rats in the ovariectomized control group. Even though dose-dependent effects were not observed in most of the measurements, these results suggest that genes involved in lipid metabolism may be regulated by olive leaf extract administration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25714618

  9. Olive Leaf Extract Elevates Hepatic PPAR α mRNA Expression and Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Leena; Liu, Ya-Nan; Park, Hyunjin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We hypothesized that olive leaf extract might alleviate dyslipidemia resulting from estrogen deficiency. Serum lipid profile and mRNA expression of the related genes in the liver and adipose tissue were analyzed after providing olive leaf extract (200 or 400 mg/kg body weight; n=7 for each group) to ovariectomized rats for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks' administration, the rats in the olive leaf extract-administered groups showed significantly lower levels of serum triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol compared with the rats in the control group, whereas the administration of olive leaf extract did not significantly change the elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, administration of high dose of olive leaf extract significantly decreased the liver triglyceride and increased serum estradiol levels. mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) were not affected by ovariectomy, however, administration of olive leaf extract significantly increased both PPAR α and ACO mRNA expression. Expression of adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue was significantly decreased in the ovariectomized control group. Rats administered low-dose olive leaf extract showed significantly elevated adiponectin mRNA expression compared with rats in the ovariectomized control group. Even though dose-dependent effects were not observed in most of the measurements, these results suggest that genes involved in lipid metabolism may be regulated by olive leaf extract administration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25714618

  10. Crack depth profiling using guided wave angle dependent reflectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Volker, Arno Pahlavan, Lotfollah Blacquiere, Gerrit

    2015-03-31

    Tomographic corrosion monitoring techniques have been developed, using two rings of sensors around the circumference of a pipe. This technique is capable of providing a detailed wall thickness map, however this might not be the only type of structural damage. Therefore this concept is expanded to detect and size cracks and small corrosion defects like root corrosion. The expanded concept uses two arrays of guided-wave transducers, collecting both reflection and transmission data. The data is processed such that the angle-dependent reflectivity is obtained without using a baseline signal of a defect-free situation. The angle-dependent reflectivity is the input of an inversion scheme that calculates a crack depth profile. From this profile, the depth and length of the crack can be determined. Preliminary experiments show encouraging results. The depth sizing accuracy is in the order of 0.5 mm.

  11. Monitoring of changes in lipid profiles during PLK1 knockdown in cancer cells using DESI MS.

    PubMed

    Jayashree, Balasubramanyam; Srimany, Amitava; Jayaraman, Srinidhi; Bhutra, Anjali; Janakiraman, Narayanan; Chitipothu, Srujana; Krishnakumar, Subramanian; Baddireddi, Lakshmi Subhadra; Elchuri, Sailaja; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2016-08-01

    The importance of the polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) gene is increasing substantially both as a biomarker and as a target for highly specific cancer therapy. This is due to its involvement in multiple points of cell progression and carcinogenesis. PLK1 inhibitors' efficacy in treating human cancers has been limited due to the lack of a specific targeting strategy. Here, we describe a method of targeted downregulation of PLK1 in cancer cells and the concomitant rapid detection of surface lipidomic perturbations using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS). The efficient delivery of siRNA targeting PLK1 gene selectively to the cancer cells is achieved by targeting overexpressed cell surface epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) by the EpDT3 aptamer. The chimeric aptamer (EpDT3-siPLK1) showed the knockdown of PLK1 gene expression and PLK1 protein levels by quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. The abundant surface lipids, phosphatidylcholines (PCs), such as PC(32:1) (m/z 754.6), PC(34:1) (m/z 782.6), and PC(36:2) (m/z 808.6), were highly expressed in MCF-7 and WERI-RB1 cancer cells compared to normal MIO-M1 cells and they were observed using DESI MS. These overexpressed cell surface lipids in the cancer cells were downregulated upon the treatment of EpDT3-siPLK1 chimera indicating a novel role of PLK1 to regulate surface lipid expression in addition to the efficient selective cancer targeting ability. Our results indicate that DESI MS has a potential ability to rapidly monitor aptamer-mediated cancer therapy and accelerate the drug discovery process. Graphical abstract Binding of aptamer chimera to the cells and changes in lipid profile. PMID:27277815

  12. Characterization of the abnormal lipid profile in Chinese patients with psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiaowen; Lin, Kai; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Sainan

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that has been associated with abnormal lipid metabolism. To characterize the lipid profile in Chinese, 86 patients with psoriasis and 84 healthy control subjects were assessed. Compared with healthy controls, the fasting serum values of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) were lower in the patient group. Compared with vulgaris psoriasis, special types of psoriasis had even lower levels of HDL-C and ApoA-I. Considering the severity of psoriasis, the level of ApoA-I and HDL-C were also the only two serum lipid parameters decreased in the mild group compared to those in controls. In the moderate and the severe group, the values of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and ApoA-I were all decreased compared to healthy control group. Further analysis indicated that the values of HDL-C and ApoA-I were significantly lower in the severe group compared to the moderate group. Correlation analysis indicated that the levels of HDL-C but not ApoA-I was negatively associated with the severity of the disease. Interestingly, when psoriasis was improved by treatment, the serum levels of TG, TC, HDL-C and ApoA-I were increased from the pre-treatment values. We conclude that abnormalities in serum lipid metabolism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Chinese patients with psoriasis. PMID:26823881

  13. [Gene polymorphism at apoB locus and the serum lipids profile in children].

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Feng, N; Wang, Y; Ye, G

    2001-09-01

    The relations of gene polymorphism at the apolipoprotein B locus and serum lipid profile in children was studied in 308 normal 7-11 year-old children, including 151 boys and 157 girls. Blood samples were collected for all subjects, and then the serum and blood clot were separated. Serum lipids, including TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, apoB, apoA I and Lp(a) were detected. Genome DNA was extracted from blood clot, then apoB-Xba I gene polymorphism were tested by PCR-RFLP method. The results showed that the distribution of apoB-Xba I genotype in 308 children accorded with Hardy-Weiberg inheritance equilibrium law. The frequency of heterozygote(+/-) was 13.3%, allele(+) was 0.067. The frequency of allele(+) was closed to the internal and Japanese reports (0.033 and 0.04), but much less than the Caucasians (0.50). This showed a ethnic and population difference in the inheritance variation. The average LDL-C levels of the heterozygotes(+/-) were 2.17 mmol/L, no difference compared with homozygotes(-/-) (2.21 mmol/L, P > 0.05). There was also no difference for the genotype distribution between the hyperlipidemia group and control group, which may be the results of no enough sample size and the sample selection, and so on. On the other hand, in normal children, serum lipids controlled by many genes, the effect of a single gene might be small. More studies and analysis on the relationship between serum lipids and multiple genes in multisites should be the next step. PMID:12561593

  14. Serum lipid profile and clinical characteristics of patients with xanthelasma palpebrarum*

    PubMed Central

    Kavoussi, Hossein; Ebrahimi, Ali; Rezaei, Mansour; Ramezani, Mazaher; Najafi, Behnaz; Kavoussi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Although many factors are involved in the etiology of xanthelasma palpebrum, lipid disorder is strongly associated with its induction. Xanthelasma palpebrum, the most common type of xanthoma, usually presents in middle-aged females and results in aesthetic problems. Objective To evaluate thelipid profile and important clinical aspects of xanthelasma palpebrum patients. Methods In this descriptive study, we enrolled 42xanthelasma palpebrumpatients, and 42 cases of non-inflammatory skin disorders as thecontrol group, matched for age and gender.The clinical characteristics of the patients and fasting serum lipid profile were recorded for both groups. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS-16. Results Xanthelasma palpebrum was found more commonly in middle-aged females with disease onset of less than 1 year, and without significant familial history of xanthoma. Furthermore,xanthelasma lesionswere most often seen in the upper lid with mild extension and was rarely associated with systemic disease. There was no statistically significant difference between two groups regarding hypertriglyceridemia (p= 0.231) and hypercholesterolemia (p= 0.302). The mean serum levels of cholesterol (221.51±60.4 mg/dl), triglyceride (185.98±71.1 mg/dl) and VLDL (37.7±17.6 mg/dl) were significantly higher and themedian HDL (36.2 (31, 41) mg/dl) level was lower in thepatient group. Conclusion In our study, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia did not reveal a significant difference between thepatient and control groups; however, mean serum values for cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL and HDL showed a significant difference between the two groups. Therefore, in addition to lipid abnormality, other factors could be involved in the pathogenesis of xanthelasma palpebrum. PMID:27579742

  15. Effects of synbiotic on anthropometry, lipid profile and oxidative stress in obese children.

    PubMed

    Ipar, N; Aydogdu, S Durmus; Yildirim, G Kilic; Inal, M; Gies, I; Vandenplas, Y; Dinleyici, E C

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested some beneficial effects of probiotics and/or prebiotics on obesity in adults; such experience is limited in children and adolescents. This study was an open-label, randomised, controlled study including children with primary obesity. The first group was treated with a standard method with a reduced calorie intake and increased physical activity. The second group received add-on daily synbiotic supplementation during one month. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential effects of a synbiotic on anthropometric measurements, lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters. One month of supplementation of the synbiotic resulted in a significant reduction of weight (P<0.001) and body mass index (P<0.01). Changes (% reduction comparing to baseline) in anthropometric measurements, were significantly higher in the children receiving the additional synbiotic supplement (P<0.05). The percentage of children with weight loss was higher in the synbiotic group, but not statistically significant (71.4 vs 64.2%, P>0.05). At the 30(th) day of synbiotic intervention, serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total oxidative stress levels significantly declined (P<0.05). Changes in serum lipid levels were significantly higher in the synbiotic group (P<0.05). Changes in serum total oxidative stress levels before and after the intervention period, were significant in synbiotic group (P<0.01). In our study, changes in weight, body mass index, and triceps skinfold thickness were higher in the group receiving the one month synbiotic supplement thin in the standard method group. The supplement tested also had a beneficial effect on lipid profile and total oxidative stress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing the effects of synbiotics on oxidative stress in obese patients with an additional effect on weight loss regarding to previous studies. PMID:26259892

  16. Effects of Sesame Seed Supplementation on Lipid Profile and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Khadem Haghighian, Mahdieh; Alipoor, Beitollah; Eftekhar Sadat, Bina; Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Moghaddam, Abdolvahab; Vatankhah, Amir-Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to assess the effect of sesame seed on lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Methods: Fifty patients with knee OA were allocated into two groups receiving 40 g of sesame seed daily along with standard medical therapy (n=25) or stan­dard treatment (n=25) for two months. Serum total antioxidant capacity, ma­londialdehyde (MDA) and lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides) were measured. Results: After the intervention period two months of study, serum TC, LDL-cholesterol and MDA decreased significantly in the sesame group (P<0.05), while no significant difference in serum values of lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters was seen in the control group (P>0.05). There was no signifi­cant difference in pre and post-treatment values of lipid profile and oxidative parameters between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Current study showed a positive effect of sesame seed in improv­ing lipid profile and oxidative stress in patients with knee OA and indicated the fact that sesame seed might be of help to reduce oxidative stress in OA patients. PMID:25097842

  17. Effect of cholesterol on structural and mechanical properties of membranes depends on lipid chain saturation

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Jianjun; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Nagle, John F.

    2009-08-15

    The effects of cholesterol on membrane bending modulus K{sub C}, membrane thickness D{sub HH}, the partial and apparent areas of cholesterol and lipid, and the order parameter S{sub xray} are shown to depend upon the number of saturated hydrocarbon chains in the lipid molecules. Particularly striking is the result that up to 40% cholesterol does not increase the bending modulus K{sub C} of membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine lipids with two cis monounsaturated chains, although it does have the expected stiffening effect on membranes composed of lipids with two saturated chains. The B fluctuational modulus in the smectic liquid crystal theory is obtained and used to discuss the interactions between bilayers. Our K{sub C} results motivate a theory of elastic moduli in the high cholesterol limit and they challenge the relevance of universality concepts. Although most of our results were obtained at 30 deg. C, additional data at other temperatures to allow consideration of a reduced temperature variable do not support universality for the effect of cholesterol on all lipid bilayers. If the concept of universality is to be valid, different numbers of saturated chains must be considered to create different universality classes. The above experimental results were obtained from analysis of x-ray scattering in the low angle and wide angle regions.

  18. HCV 3a Core Protein Increases Lipid Droplet Cholesteryl Ester Content via a Mechanism Dependent on Sphingolipid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso-Garcia, Alba; Branche, Emilie; Conzelmann, Stéphanie; Parisot, Clotilde; Potma, Eric O.; Riezman, Howard; Negro, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients often develop steatosis and the HCV core protein alone can induce this phenomenon. To gain new insights into the pathways leading to steatosis, we performed lipidomic profiling of HCV core protein expressing-Huh-7 cells and also assessed the lipid profile of purified lipid droplets isolated from HCV 3a core expressing cells. Cholesteryl esters, ceramides and glycosylceramides, but not triglycerides, increased specifically in cells expressing the steatogenic HCV 3a core protein. Accordingly, inhibitors of cholesteryl ester biosynthesis such as statins and acyl-CoA cholesterol acyl transferase inhibitors prevented the increase of cholesteryl ester production and the formation of large lipid droplets in HCV core 3a-expressing cells. Furthermore, inhibition of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis by myriocin - but not of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis by miglustat - affected both lipid droplet size and cholesteryl ester level. The lipid profile of purified lipid droplets, isolated from HCV 3a core-expressing cells, confirmed the particular increase of cholesteryl ester. Thus, both sphingolipid and cholesteryl ester biosynthesis are affected by the steatogenic core protein of HCV genotype 3a. These results may explain the peculiar lipid profile of HCV-infected patients with steatosis. PMID:25522003

  19. Comprehensive Metabolomic, Lipidomic and Microscopic Profiling of Yarrowia lipolytica during Lipid Accumulation Identifies Targets for Increased Lipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Wei, Siwei; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Arey, Bruce W.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Orr, Galya; Metz, Thomas O.; Baker, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous ascomycete yeast that accumulates large amounts of lipids and has potential as a biofuel producing organism. Despite a growing scientific literature focused on lipid production by Y. lipolytica, there remain significant knowledge gaps regarding the key biological processes involved. We applied a combination of metabolomic and lipidomic profiling approaches as well as microscopic techniques to identify and characterize the key pathways involved in de novo lipid accumulation from glucose in batch cultured, wild-type Y. lipolytica. We found that lipids accumulated rapidly and peaked at 48 hours during the five day experiment, concurrent with a shift in amino acid metabolism. We also report that exhaustion of extracellular sugars coincided with thickening of the cell wall, suggesting that genes involved in cell wall biogenesis may be a useful target for improving the efficiency of lipid producing yeast strains. PMID:25905710

  20. Comprehensive metabolomic, lipidomic and microscopic profiling of Yarrowia lipolytica during lipid accumulation identifies targets for increased lipogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Wei, Siwei; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Dohnalkova, Alice; Arey, Bruce W.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Orr, Galya; Metz, Thomas O.; Baker, Scott E.

    2015-04-23

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous ascomycete yeast that accumulates large amounts of lipids and has potential as a biofuel producing organism. Despite a growing scientific literature focused on lipid production by Y. lipolytica, there remain significant knowledge gaps regarding the key biological processes involved. We applied a combination of metabolomic and lipidomic profiling approaches as well as microscopic techniques to identify and characterize the key pathways involved in de novo lipid accumulation from glucose in batch cultured, wild-type Y. lipolytica. We found that lipids accumulated rapidly and peaked at 48 hours during the five day experiment, concurrent with a shift in amino acid metabolism. We also report that Y. lipolytica secretes disaccharides early in batch culture and reabsorbs them when extracellular glucose is depleted. Exhaustion of extracellular sugars coincided with thickening of the cell wall, suggesting that genes involved in cell wall biogenesis may be a useful target for improving the efficiency of lipid producing yeast strains.

  1. The effects of Momordica charantia on obesity and lipid profiles of mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dried Momordica charantia aqueous extracts (MCA) and ethanol extracts (MCE) on obesity and lipid profiles in mice fed a high-fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Forty two ICR mice were randomly divided into six groups. The normal group was fed a basal diet, and other groups were fed a 45% high-fat diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. The normal and HFD groups were also orally administered distilled water each day for 7 weeks. The remaining groups received Momordica charantia extract (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCA, and 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCE). In order to measure the anti-obesity and lipid profile improvement effects, body and visceral tissue weight, lipid profiles, plasma insulin levels, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. RESULTS Both MCA and MCE significantly decreased body and visceral tissue weight relative to those of the HFD group (P < 0.05). Additionally high doses of MCE and MCA significantly reduced the plasmatic insulin levels compared to the HFD groups (P < 0.05) to concentrations comparable to those found in the normal group. MCA and MCE supplementation also significantly modulated the lipid profiles in plasma, liver, and feces compared to mice fed the HFD (P < 0.05). Furthermore MCA and MCE significantly increased hepatic SOD activity, and reduced MDA generation in the liver of the HFD mice (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Results from the present study suggest that Momordica charantia extracts have anti-obesity effects and the ability to modulate lipid prolife of mice fed a HFD by suppressing body weight gain, visceral tissue weight, plasma and hepatic lipid concentrations, and lipid peroxidation along with increasing lipid metabolism. PMID:26425278

  2. Fats and factors: lipid profiles associate with personality factors and suicidal history in bipolar subjects.

    PubMed

    Evans, Simon J; Prossin, Alan R; Harrington, Gloria J; Kamali, Masoud; Ellingrod, Vicki L; Burant, Charles F; McInnis, Melvin G

    2012-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have shown efficacy in the treatment of bipolar disorder, however their specific role in treating the illness is unclear. Serum PUFA and dietary intakes of PUFA associate with suicidal behavior in epidemiological studies. The objective of this study was to assess serum n-3 and n-6 PUFA levels in bipolar subjects and determine possible associations with suicidal risk, including suicidal history and relevant personality factors that have been associated with suicidality. We studied 27 bipolar subjects using the NEO-PI to assess the big five personality factors, structured interviews to verify diagnosis and assess suicidal history, and lipomics to quantify n-3 and n-6 PUFA in serum. We found positive associations between personality factors and ratios of n-3 PUFA, suggesting that conversion of short chain to long chain n-3s and the activity of enzymes in this pathway may associate with measures of personality. Thus, ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to alpha linolenic acid (ALA) and the activity of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) involved in the conversion of ALA to DHA were positively associated with openness factor scores. Ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to ALA and ratios of EPA to DHA were positively associated with agreeableness factor scores. Finally, serum concentrations of the n-6, arachidonic acid (AA), were significantly lower in subjects with a history of suicide attempt compared to non-attempters. The data suggest that specific lipid profiles, which are controlled by an interaction between diet and genetics, correlate with suicidal history and personality factors related to suicidal risk. This study provides preliminary data for future studies to determine whether manipulation of PUFA profiles (through diet or supplementation) can affect personality measures and disease outcome in bipolar subjects and supports the need for further investigations into individualized specific modulations of lipid profiles to add

  3. CD82 endocytosis and cholesterol-dependent reorganization of tetraspanin webs and lipid rafts

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Congfeng; Zhang, Yanhui H.; Thangavel, Muthusamy; Richardson, Mekel M.; Liu, Li; Zhou, Bin; Zheng, Yi; Ostrom, Rennolds S.; Zhang, Xin A.

    2009-01-01

    Tetraspanin CD82 suppresses cell migration, tumor invasion, and tumor metastasis. To determine the mechanism by which CD82 inhibits motility, most studies have focused on the cell surface CD82, which forms tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs) with other transmembrane proteins, such as integrins. In this study, we found that CD82 undergoes endocytosis and traffics to endosomes and lysosomes. To determine the endocytic mechanism of CD82, we demonstrated that dynamin and clathrin are not essential for CD82 internalization. Depletion or sequestration of sterol in the plasma membrane markedly inhibited the endocytosis of CD82. Despite the demand on Cdc42 activity, CD82 endocytosis is distinct from macropinocytosis and the documented dynamin-independent pinocytosis. As a TEM component, CD82 reorganizes TEMs and lipid rafts by redistributing cholesterol into these membrane microdomains. CD82-containing TEMs are characterized by the cholesterol-containing microdomains in the extreme light- and intermediate-density fractions. Moreover, the endocytosis of CD82 appears to alleviate CD82-mediated inhibition of cell migration. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that lipid-dependent endocytosis drives CD82 trafficking to late endosomes and lysosomes, and CD82 reorganizes TEMs and lipid rafts through redistribution of cholesterol.—Xu, C., Zhang, Y. H., Thangavel, M., Richardson, M. M., Liu, L., Zhou, B., Zheng, Y., Ostrom, R. S., Zhang, X. A. CD82 endocytosis and cholesterol-dependent reorganization of tetraspanin webs and lipid rafts. PMID:19497983

  4. Contribution of various lipid profile parameters in determining creatine kinase-MB levels in unstable angina patients

    PubMed Central

    Bagale, Kiran R; Ingle, Avinash S; Choudhary, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Context: In India, the correlation of severity of minor myocardial damage with dyslipidemia has rarely been studied in patients of unstable angina (UA). Dyslipidemia is proven to be a major risk factor for developing acute coronary syndrome (ACS) but still there is doubt about the type of lipoproteins involved in causing minor myocardial damage occurring in UA patients of ACS. Aims: The aim of our study was to find out the contribution of various types of lipoproteins to predict the severity of minor myocardial damage occurring in the patients of UA. Settings and Design: Correlation design was used for the study. A single group of individuals was selected. Data were collected on dependent variable creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and independent variables (lipid profile parameters). Subjects and Methods: The study comprised fifty patients admitted in cardiac care unit with typical history of UA with electrocardiogram showing no ST-segment elevation. The severity of myocardial damage was assessed from on admission CK-MB levels. The lipid profile was estimated from fasting blood samples of all the patients. Statistical Analysis Used: For the purpose of the study, Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis methods were applied. Results: The triacylglycerol (TAG), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (TC/HDL) showed significant positive correlation whereas HDL was negatively correlating with CK-MB levels. Conclusions: The TAG, VLDL, and TC/HDL were found to be significantly affecting the severity of myocardial damage in the patients of UA. PMID:27127739

  5. Structure of the KvAP voltage-dependent K+ channel and its dependence on the lipid membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Lee,S.; Lee, A.; Chen, J.; MacKinnon, R.; Chin, W.

    2005-01-01

    Voltage-dependent ion channels gate open in response to changes in cell membrane voltage. This form of gating permits the propagation of action potentials. We present two structures of the voltage-dependent K{sup +} channel KvAP, in complex with monoclonal Fv fragments (3.9 Angstroms) and without antibody fragments (8 Angstroms). We also studied KvAP with disulfide cross-bridges in lipid membranes. Analyzing these data in the context of the crystal structure of Kv1.2 and EPR data on KvAP we reach the following conclusions: (i) KvAP is similar in structure to Kv1.2 with a very modest difference in the orientation of its voltage sensor; (ii) mAb fragments are not the source of non-native conformations of KvAP in crystal structures; (iii) because KvAP contains separate loosely adherent domains, a lipid membrane is required to maintain their correct relative orientations, and (iv) the model of KvAP is consistent with the proposal of voltage sensing through the movement of an arginine-containing helix-turn-helix element at the protein-lipid interface.

  6. Structure of the KvAP voltage-dependent K+ channel and its dependence on the lipid membrane

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seok-Yong; Lee, Alice; Chen, Jiayun; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2005-01-01

    Voltage-dependent ion channels gate open in response to changes in cell membrane voltage. This form of gating permits the propagation of action potentials. We present two structures of the voltage-dependent K+ channel KvAP, in complex with monoclonal Fv fragments (3.9 Å) and without antibody fragments (8 Å). We also studied KvAP with disulfide cross-bridges in lipid membranes. Analyzing these data in the context of the crystal structure of Kv1.2 and EPR data on KvAP we reach the following conclusions: (i) KvAP is similar in structure to Kv1.2 with a very modest difference in the orientation of its voltage sensor; (ii) mAb fragments are not the source of non-native conformations of KvAP in crystal structures; (iii) because KvAP contains separate loosely adherent domains, a lipid membrane is required to maintain their correct relative orientations, and (iv) the model of KvAP is consistent with the proposal of voltage sensing through the movement of an arginine-containing helix-turn-helix element at the protein-lipid interface. PMID:16223877

  7. No effects of short-term sleep restriction, in a controlled feeding setting, on lipid profiles in normal weight adults

    PubMed Central

    O’Keeffe, Majella; Roberts, Amy L.; Kelleman, Michael; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Summary Short sleep has been associated with cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of short-term sleep restriction on lipid profiles and resting blood pressure factors in young, normal weight individuals (14 men, 13 women). Participants were randomized to 5 nights of either habitual (9 h) or short (4 h) sleep in a crossover design separated by a 3 wk washout period. There was no sleep x day interaction on lipid profile and blood pressure. Short-term sleep restriction does not alter lipid profiles and resting blood pressure in healthy, normal weight individuals. The association between short sleep and increased cardiovascular risk reported in the epidemiological literature may be the result of long-term sleep restriction and poor lifestyle choices. PMID:23682639

  8. Seasonal thyroid and lipid profiles in Thoroughbred pregnant and nonpregnant mares (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Fazio, Esterina; Medica, Pietro; Cravana, Cristina; Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Ferlazzo, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which physiological seasonal thyroid and lipid panel (triglyceride, [TG], total cholesterol, [tCho], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, [HDL Cho], LDL cholesterol, phospholipids, [PDs]) changes occur in 12 Thoroughbred pregnant and six nonpregnant mares over a period of 12 months, from April to March, by into account the lactation stage. Serum total triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels were measured using immunoenzymatic assay kits; the serum lipid panel was analyzed using the enzymatic colorimetric method. One-way ANOVA reported a significant effect of time over 12 months for T3 (F = 5.46; P < 0.001) and T4 (F = 3.98; P < 0.001), in both pregnant and nonpregnant mares, and for triglyceride (F = 2.57; P < 0.01), tCho (F = 2.32; P < 0.01), HDL Cho (F = 5.60; P < 0.0001), and PDs (F = 7.01; P < 0.0001) in pregnant mares. Two-way ANOVA repoted a significant lactating effect compared with nonlactating stage for T3 (F = 8.33; P = 0.006), T4 (F = 6.43; P = 0.003), tCho (F = 10.38; P = 0.0078), HDL Cho (F = 7.64; P = 0.020), and PDs (F = 5.07; P = 0.048). Thus, it appears that under similar environmental condition, nutrition regime, and management system, lactation stage plays a significant role in the seasonal thyroid and lipid profiles in Thoroughbred pregnant mares, with higher T3, T4, and PDs values, and lower tCho and HDL Cho in lactating than nonlactating mares. The physiological values obtained in this study may be used as additional resources to evaluate thyroid and lipid profiles in Thoroughbred pregnant and nonpregnant mares, generating a wished numbers of observation, especially when the additional breed and physiological conditions are considered. PMID:26920797

  9. Nutrients and neurodevelopment: lipids.

    PubMed

    González, Horacio F; Visentin, Silvana

    2016-10-01

    Nutrients, lipids in particular, make up the central nervous system structure and play major functional roles: they stimulate development, migration, and nerve cell differentiation. They are part of gray matter, white matter, nerve nuclei, and synaptogenesis. Breast milk contains lipids which are crucial for infant brain development. The lipid profile of breast milk was used as a guideline for the development of breast milk substitutes. However, to date, no substitute has matched it. Complementary feeding should include docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, other polyunsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and complex lipids found in milk fat. The lipid composition of breast milk depends on maternal intake and nutritional status during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It has a great impact on development. Our goal is to review scientific literature regarding the role of lipids on infant brain development and the importance of breast milk lipid composition, maternal diet, and complementary feeding. PMID:27606648

  10. Vitamin E tocotrienol supplementation improves lipid profiles in chronic hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Daud, Zulfitri A Mat; Tubie, Boniface; Sheyman, Marina; Osia, Robert; Adams, Judy; Tubie, Sharon; Khosla, Pramod

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Chronic hemodialysis patients experience accelerated atherosclerosis contributed to by dyslipidemia, inflammation, and an impaired antioxidant system. Vitamin E tocotrienols possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, the impact of dietary intervention with Vitamin E tocotrienols is unknown in this population. Patients and methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial was conducted in 81 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Subjects were provided daily with capsules containing either vitamin E tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) (180 mg tocotrienols, 40 mg tocopherols) or placebo (0.48 mg tocotrienols, 0.88 mg tocopherols). Endpoints included measurements of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin 6), oxidative status (total antioxidant power and malondialdehyde), lipid profiles (plasma total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), as well as cholesteryl-ester transfer protein activity and apolipoprotein A1. Results TRF supplementation did not impact any nutritional, inflammatory, or oxidative status biomarkers over time when compared with the baseline within the group (one-way repeated measures analysis of variance) or when compared with the placebo group at a particular time point (independent t-test). However, the TRF supplemented group showed improvement in lipid profiles after 12 and 16 weeks of intervention when compared with placebo at the respective time points. Normalized plasma triacylglycerols (cf baseline) in the TRF group were reduced by 33 mg/dL (P=0.032) and 36 mg/dL (P=0.072) after 12 and 16 weeks of intervention but no significant improvement was seen in the placebo group. Similarly, normalized plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was higher (P<0.05) in the TRF group as compared with placebo at both week 12 and week 16. The changes in the TRF group at week 12 and week 16 were associated with higher plasma apolipoprotein A1 concentration (P

  11. Identification and signature profiles for pro-resolving and inflammatory lipid mediators in human tissue

    PubMed Central

    Colas, Romain A.; Shinohara, Masakazu; Dalli, Jesmond; Chiang, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Resolution of acute inflammation is an active process locally controlled by a novel genus of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) that orchestrate key resolution responses. Hence, it is of general interest to identify individual bioactive mediators and profile their biosynthetic pathways with related isomers as well as their relation(s) to classic eicosanoids in mammalian tissues. Lipid mediator (LM)-SPM levels and signature profiles of their biosynthetic pathways were investigated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS)-based LM metabololipidomics. LM and SPM were identified using ≥6 diagnostic ions and chromatographic behavior matching with both authentic and synthetic materials. This approach was validated using the composite reference plasma (SRM1950) of 100 healthy individuals. Using targeted LM metabololipidomics, we profiled LM and SPM pathways in human peripheral blood (plasma and serum) and lymphoid organs. In these, we identified endogenous SPM metabolomes, namely, the potent lipoxins (LX), resolvins (Rv), protectins (PD), and maresins (MaR). These included RvD1, RvD2, RvD3, MaR1, and NPD1/PD1, which were identified in amounts within their bioactive ranges. In plasma and serum, principal component analysis (PCA) identified signature profiles of eicosanoids and SPM clusters. Plasma-SPM increased with omega-3 and acetylsalicylic acid intake that correlated with increased phagocytosis of Escherichia coli in whole blood. These findings demonstrate an approach for identification of SPM pathways (e.g., resolvins, protectins, and maresins) in human blood and lymphoid tissues that were in amounts commensurate with their pro-resolving, organ protective, and tissue regeneration functions. LM metabololipidomics coupled with calibration tissues and physiological changes documented herein provide a tool for functional phenotypic profiling. PMID:24696140

  12. Identification and signature profiles for pro-resolving and inflammatory lipid mediators in human tissue.

    PubMed

    Colas, Romain A; Shinohara, Masakazu; Dalli, Jesmond; Chiang, Nan; Serhan, Charles N

    2014-07-01

    Resolution of acute inflammation is an active process locally controlled by a novel genus of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) that orchestrate key resolution responses. Hence, it is of general interest to identify individual bioactive mediators and profile their biosynthetic pathways with related isomers as well as their relation(s) to classic eicosanoids in mammalian tissues. Lipid mediator (LM)-SPM levels and signature profiles of their biosynthetic pathways were investigated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS)-based LM metabololipidomics. LM and SPM were identified using ≥6 diagnostic ions and chromatographic behavior matching with both authentic and synthetic materials. This approach was validated using the composite reference plasma (SRM1950) of 100 healthy individuals. Using targeted LM metabololipidomics, we profiled LM and SPM pathways in human peripheral blood (plasma and serum) and lymphoid organs. In these, we identified endogenous SPM metabolomes, namely, the potent lipoxins (LX), resolvins (Rv), protectins (PD), and maresins (MaR). These included RvD1, RvD2, RvD3, MaR1, and NPD1/PD1, which were identified in amounts within their bioactive ranges. In plasma and serum, principal component analysis (PCA) identified signature profiles of eicosanoids and SPM clusters. Plasma-SPM increased with omega-3 and acetylsalicylic acid intake that correlated with increased phagocytosis of Escherichia coli in whole blood. These findings demonstrate an approach for identification of SPM pathways (e.g., resolvins, protectins, and maresins) in human blood and lymphoid tissues that were in amounts commensurate with their pro-resolving, organ protective, and tissue regeneration functions. LM metabololipidomics coupled with calibration tissues and physiological changes documented herein provide a tool for functional phenotypic profiling. PMID:24696140

  13. Atomic Structure of a Voltage-Dependent K+ Channel in a Lipid Membrane-Like Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Long,S.; Tao, X.; Campbell, E.; MacKinnon, R.

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channels repolarize the action potential in neurons and muscle. This type of channel is gated directly by membrane voltage through protein domains known as voltage sensors, which are molecular voltmeters that read the membrane voltage and regulate the pore. Here we describe the structure of a chimaeric voltage-dependent K+ channel, which we call the 'paddle-chimaera channel', in which the voltage-sensor paddle has been transferred from Kv2.1 to Kv1.2. Crystallized in complex with lipids, the complete structure at 2.4 Angstroms resolution reveals the pore and voltage sensors embedded in a membrane-like arrangement of lipid molecules. The detailed structure, which can be compared directly to a large body of functional data, explains charge stabilization within the membrane and suggests a mechanism for voltage-sensor movements and pore gating.

  14. Influence of Maternal Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Foetal Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Cinelli, Giulia; Fabrizi, Marta; Ravà, Lucilla; Ciofi degli Atti, Marta; Vernocchi, Pamela; Vallone, Cristina; Pietrantoni, Emanuela; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Signore, Fabrizio; Manco, Melania

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are fundamental for a foetus’s growth, serving as an energy source, structural constituents of cellular membranes and precursors of bioactive molecules, as well as being essential for cell signalling. Long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs) are pivotal in brain and visual development. It is of interest to investigate whether and how specific pregnancy conditions, which alter fatty acid metabolism (excessive pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) or gestational weight gain (GWG)), affect lipid supply to the foetus. For this purpose, we evaluated the erythrocyte FAs of mothers and offspring (cord-blood) at birth, in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG. A total of 435 mothers and their offspring (237 males, 51%) were included in the study. Distribution of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), and their metabolites, arachidonic acid, dihomogamma linoleic (DGLA) and ecosapentanoic acid, was significantly different in maternal and foetal erythrocytes. Pre-pregnancy BMI was significantly associated with maternal percentage of MUFAs (Coeff: −0.112; p = 0.021), LA (Coeff: −0.033; p = 0.044) and DHA (Coeff. = 0.055; p = 0.0016); inadequate GWG with DPA (Coeff: 0.637; p = 0.001); excessive GWG with docosaexahenoic acid (DHA) (Coeff. = −0.714; p = 0.004). Moreover, pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with foetus percentage of PUFAs (Coeff: −0.172; p = 0.009), omega 6 (Coeff: −0.098; p = 0.015) and DHA (Coeff: −0.0285; p = 0.036), even after adjusting for maternal lipids. Our findings show that maternal GWG affects maternal but not foetal lipid profile, differently from pre-pregnancy BMI, which influences both. PMID:27314385

  15. Influence of Maternal Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Foetal Lipid Profile.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, Giulia; Fabrizi, Marta; Ravà, Lucilla; Ciofi Degli Atti, Marta; Vernocchi, Pamela; Vallone, Cristina; Pietrantoni, Emanuela; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Signore, Fabrizio; Manco, Melania

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are fundamental for a foetus's growth, serving as an energy source, structural constituents of cellular membranes and precursors of bioactive molecules, as well as being essential for cell signalling. Long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs) are pivotal in brain and visual development. It is of interest to investigate whether and how specific pregnancy conditions, which alter fatty acid metabolism (excessive pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) or gestational weight gain (GWG)), affect lipid supply to the foetus. For this purpose, we evaluated the erythrocyte FAs of mothers and offspring (cord-blood) at birth, in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG. A total of 435 mothers and their offspring (237 males, 51%) were included in the study. Distribution of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), and their metabolites, arachidonic acid, dihomogamma linoleic (DGLA) and ecosapentanoic acid, was significantly different in maternal and foetal erythrocytes. Pre-pregnancy BMI was significantly associated with maternal percentage of MUFAs (Coeff: -0.112; p = 0.021), LA (Coeff: -0.033; p = 0.044) and DHA (Coeff. = 0.055; p = 0.0016); inadequate GWG with DPA (Coeff: 0.637; p = 0.001); excessive GWG with docosaexahenoic acid (DHA) (Coeff. = -0.714; p = 0.004). Moreover, pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with foetus percentage of PUFAs (Coeff: -0.172; p = 0.009), omega 6 (Coeff: -0.098; p = 0.015) and DHA (Coeff: -0.0285; p = 0.036), even after adjusting for maternal lipids. Our findings show that maternal GWG affects maternal but not foetal lipid profile, differently from pre-pregnancy BMI, which influences both. PMID:27314385

  16. A systematic review of the effects of nuts on blood lipid profiles in humans.

    PubMed

    Mukuddem-Petersen, Janine; Oosthuizen, Welma; Jerling, Johann C

    2005-09-01

    The inverse association of nut consumption and risk markers of coronary heart disease (lipids) has sparked the interest of the scientific and lay community. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to investigate the effects of nuts on the lipid profile. Medline and Web of Science databases were searched from the start of the database to August 2004 and supplemented by cross-checking reference lists of relevant publications. Human intervention trials with the objective of investigating independent effects of nuts on lipid concentrations were included. From the literature search, 415 publications were screened and 23 studies were included. These papers received a rating based upon the methodology as it appeared in the publication. No formal statistical analysis was performed due to the large differences in study designs of the dietary intervention trials. The results of 3 almond (50-100 g/d), 2 peanut (35-68 g/d), 1 pecan nut (72 g/d), and 4 walnut (40-84 g/d) studies showed decreases in total cholesterol between 2 and 16% and LDL cholesterol between 2 and 19% compared with subjects consuming control diets. Consumption of macadamia nuts (50-100 g/d) produced less convincing results. In conclusion, consumption of approximately 50-100 g (approximately 1.5-3.5 servings) of nuts > or = 5 times/wk as part of a heart-healthy diet with total fat content (high in mono- and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids) of approximately 35% of energy may significantly decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in normo- and hyperlipidemic individuals. PMID:16140880

  17. Lipid Profile Remodeling in Response to Nitrogen Deprivation in the Microalgae Chlorella sp. (Trebouxiophyceae) and Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Olmstead, Ian L. D.; Bergamin, Amanda; Shears, Melanie J.; Dias, Daniel A.; Kentish, Sandra E.; Scales, Peter J.; Botté, Cyrille Y.; Callahan, Damien L.

    2014-01-01

    Many species of microalgae produce greatly enhanced amounts of triacylglycerides (TAGs), the key product for biodiesel production, in response to specific environmental stresses. Improvement of TAG production by microalgae through optimization of growth regimes is of great interest. This relies on understanding microalgal lipid metabolism in relation to stress response in particular the deprivation of nutrients that can induce enhanced TAG synthesis. In this study, a detailed investigation of changes in lipid composition in Chlorella sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. in response to nitrogen deprivation (N-deprivation) was performed to provide novel mechanistic insights into the lipidome during stress. As expected, an increase in TAGs and an overall decrease in polar lipids were observed. However, while most membrane lipid classes (phosphoglycerolipids and glycolipids) were found to decrease, the non-nitrogen containing phosphatidylglycerol levels increased considerably in both algae from initially low levels. Of particular significance, it was observed that the acyl composition of TAGs in Nannochloropsis sp. remain relatively constant, whereas Chlorella sp. showed greater variability following N-deprivation. In both algae the overall fatty acid profiles of the polar lipid classes were largely unaffected by N-deprivation, suggesting a specific FA profile for each compartment is maintained to enable continued function despite considerable reductions in the amount of these lipids. The changes observed in the overall fatty acid profile were due primarily to the decrease in proportion of polar lipids to TAGs. This study provides the most detailed lipidomic information on two different microalgae with utility in biodiesel production and nutraceutical industries and proposes the mechanisms for this rearrangement. This research also highlights the usefulness of the latest MS-based approaches for microalgae lipid research. PMID:25171084

  18. The lipid profile of brown adipose tissue is sex-specific in mice.

    PubMed

    Hoene, Miriam; Li, Jia; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Weigert, Cora; Xu, Guowang; Lehmann, Rainer

    2014-10-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ with a vital function in small mammals and potential as metabolic drug target in humans. By using high-resolution LC-tandem-mass spectrometry, we quantified 329 lipid species from 17 (sub)classes and identified the fatty acid composition of all phospholipids from BAT and subcutaneous and gonadal white adipose tissue (WAT) from female and male mice. Phospholipids and free fatty acids were higher in BAT, while DAG and TAG levels were higher in WAT. A set of phospholipids dominated by the residue docosahexaenoic acid, which influences membrane fluidity, showed the highest specificity for BAT. We additionally detected major sex-specific differences between the BAT lipid profiles, while samples from the different WAT depots were comparatively similar. Female BAT contained less triacylglycerol and more phospholipids rich in arachidonic and stearic acid whereas another set of fatty acid residues that included linoleic and palmitic acid prevailed in males. These differences in phospholipid fatty acid composition could greatly affect mitochondrial membranes and other cellular organelles and thereby regulate the function of BAT in a sex-specific manner. PMID:25128765

  19. Characterization of hepatic lipid profiles in a mouse model with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and subsequent fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kosuke; Uebanso, Takashi; Maekawa, Keiko; Ishikawa, Masaki; Taguchi, Ryo; Nammo, Takao; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Udagawa, Haruhide; Fujii, Masato; Shibazaki, Yuichiro; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Kazuki; Saito, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a major health problem since it often leads to hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the underlying mechanisms of NASH development and subsequent fibrosis have yet to be clarified. We compared comprehensive lipidomic profiles between mice with high fat diet (HFD)-induced steatosis and STAM mice with NASH and subsequent fibrosis. The STAM mouse is a model that demonstrates NASH progression resembling the disease in humans: STAM mice manifest NASH at 8 weeks, which progresses to fibrosis at 12 weeks, and finally develop hepatocellular carcinoma. Overall, 250 lipid molecules were detected in the liver using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found that STAM mice with NASH presented a significantly higher abundance of sphingolipids and lower levels of triacylglycerols than the HFD-fed control mice. The abundance of certain fatty acids in phospholipid side chains was also significantly different between STAM and control mice, although global levels of phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines were comparable. Finally, increase in levels of acylcarnitines and some diacylglycerols was observed in STAM mice toward the fibrosis stage, but not in age-matched control mice. Our study provides insights into the lipid status of the steatotic, NASH, and fibrotic liver that would help elucidate the molecular pathophysiology of NASH progression. PMID:26289793

  20. Lipid profiles, in vitro digestion and oxidative stability of mutton bird oil.

    PubMed

    Akanbi, Taiwo O; Barrow, Colin J

    2016-02-01

    The lipid profile, in vitro digestion and oxidative stability of mutton bird oil were investigated. Wax ester, triacylglycerol and sterol were the major lipids present as determined using capillary chromatography with flame ionisation detector (Iatroscan). Fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography (GC) showed that wax esters had a higher total omega-3 fatty acids content including EPA, DPA and DHA than TAGs (31 % and 24 %, respectively). In TAGs, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data showed that EPA was statistically positioned at sn-1,3 and sn-2, while DHA was preferentially at sn-2. In vitro digestion using porcine pancreatic lipase resulted in 75 % of TAG and 10 % wax ester hydrolysis in 120 min. As reflected in the measured conjugated dienes (CD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values during accelerated oxidation at 60 °C for 5 days, the oil was relatively stable against oxidation considering its high omega-3 content. PMID:27162403

  1. Characterization of hepatic lipid profiles in a mouse model with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and subsequent fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kosuke; Uebanso, Takashi; Maekawa, Keiko; Ishikawa, Masaki; Taguchi, Ryo; Nammo, Takao; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Udagawa, Haruhide; Fujii, Masato; Shibazaki, Yuichiro; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Kazuki; Saito, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a major health problem since it often leads to hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the underlying mechanisms of NASH development and subsequent fibrosis have yet to be clarified. We compared comprehensive lipidomic profiles between mice with high fat diet (HFD)-induced steatosis and STAM mice with NASH and subsequent fibrosis. The STAM mouse is a model that demonstrates NASH progression resembling the disease in humans: STAM mice manifest NASH at 8 weeks, which progresses to fibrosis at 12 weeks, and finally develop hepatocellular carcinoma. Overall, 250 lipid molecules were detected in the liver using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found that STAM mice with NASH presented a significantly higher abundance of sphingolipids and lower levels of triacylglycerols than the HFD-fed control mice. The abundance of certain fatty acids in phospholipid side chains was also significantly different between STAM and control mice, although global levels of phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines were comparable. Finally, increase in levels of acylcarnitines and some diacylglycerols was observed in STAM mice toward the fibrosis stage, but not in age-matched control mice. Our study provides insights into the lipid status of the steatotic, NASH, and fibrotic liver that would help elucidate the molecular pathophysiology of NASH progression. PMID:26289793

  2. Square Wave Voltammetry: An Alternative Technique to Determinate Piroxicam Release Profiles from Nanostructured Lipid Carriers.

    PubMed

    Otarola, Jessica; Garrido, Mariano; Correa, N Mariano; Molina, Patricia G

    2016-08-01

    A new, simple, and fast electrochemical (EC) method has been developed to determine the release profile of piroxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, loaded in a drug delivery system based on nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). For the first time, the samples were analyzed by using square wave voltammetry, a sensitive EC technique. The piroxicam EC responses allow us to propose a model that explains the experimental results and to subsequently determine the amount of drug loaded into the NLCs formulation as a function of time. In vitro drug release studies showed prolonged drug release (up to 5 days), releasing 60 % of the incorporated drug. The proposed method is a promising and stable alternative for the study of different drug delivery systems. PMID:27128856

  3. Do Lipids Show State-dependent Affinity to the Voltage-gated Potassium Channel KvAP?*

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Élise; Thompson, Christine; Blunck, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    As all integral membrane proteins, voltage-gated ion channels are embedded in a lipid matrix that regulates their channel behavior either by physicochemical properties or by direct binding. Because manipulation of the lipid composition in cells is difficult, we investigated the influence of different lipids on purified KvAP channels reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers of known composition. Lipids developed two distinct and independent effects on the KvAP channels; lipids interacting with the pore lowered the energy barriers for the final transitions, whereas voltage sensor-bound lipids shifted the midpoint of activation dependent on their electrostatic charge. Above all, the midpoint of activation was determined only by those lipids the channels came in contact with first after purification and can seemingly only be exchanged if the channel resides in the open state. The high affinity of the bound lipids to the binding site has implications not only on our understanding of the gating mechanism but also on the general experimental design of any lipid dependence study. PMID:24742679

  4. Longitudinal Metabolomic Profiling of Amino Acids and Lipids across Healthy Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Hellmuth, Christian; Uhl, Olaf; Buss, Claudia; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Koletzko, Berthold; Entringer, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by a complexity of metabolic processes that may impact fetal development and ultimately, infant health outcomes. However, our understanding of whole body maternal and fetal metabolism during this critical life stage remains incomplete. The objective of this study is to utilize metabolomics to profile longitudinal patterns of fasting maternal metabolites among a cohort of non-diabetic, healthy pregnant women in order to advance our understanding of changes in protein and lipid concentrations across gestation, the biochemical pathways by which they are metabolized and to describe variation in maternal metabolites between ethnic groups. Among 160 pregnant women, amino acids, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, keto-bodies and non-esterified fatty acids were detected by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, while polar lipids were detected through flow-injected mass spectrometry. The maternal plasma concentration of several essential and non-essential amino acids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, free carnitine, acetylcarnitine, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins significantly decreased across pregnancy. Concentrations of several TCA intermediates increase as pregnancy progresses, as well as the keto-body β-hydroxybutyrate. Ratios of specific acylcarnitines used as indicators of metabolic pathways suggest a decreased beta-oxidation rate and increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 enzyme activity with advancing gestation. Decreasing amino acid concentrations likely reflects placental uptake and tissue biosynthesis. The absence of any increase in plasma non-esterified fatty acids is unexpected in the catabolic phase of later pregnancy and may reflect enhanced placental fatty acid uptake and utilization for fetal tissue growth. While it appears that energy production through the TCA cycle increases as pregnancy progresses, decreasing patterns of free carnitine and acetylcarnitine as well as increased

  5. Longitudinal Metabolomic Profiling of Amino Acids and Lipids across Healthy Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Karen L.; Hellmuth, Christian; Uhl, Olaf; Buss, Claudia; Wadhwa, Pathik D.; Koletzko, Berthold; Entringer, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by a complexity of metabolic processes that may impact fetal development and ultimately, infant health outcomes. However, our understanding of whole body maternal and fetal metabolism during this critical life stage remains incomplete. The objective of this study is to utilize metabolomics to profile longitudinal patterns of fasting maternal metabolites among a cohort of non-diabetic, healthy pregnant women in order to advance our understanding of changes in protein and lipid concentrations across gestation, the biochemical pathways by which they are metabolized and to describe variation in maternal metabolites between ethnic groups. Among 160 pregnant women, amino acids, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, keto-bodies and non-esterified fatty acids were detected by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, while polar lipids were detected through flow-injected mass spectrometry. The maternal plasma concentration of several essential and non-essential amino acids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, free carnitine, acetylcarnitine, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins significantly decreased across pregnancy. Concentrations of several TCA intermediates increase as pregnancy progresses, as well as the keto-body β-hydroxybutyrate. Ratios of specific acylcarnitines used as indicators of metabolic pathways suggest a decreased beta-oxidation rate and increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 enzyme activity with advancing gestation. Decreasing amino acid concentrations likely reflects placental uptake and tissue biosynthesis. The absence of any increase in plasma non-esterified fatty acids is unexpected in the catabolic phase of later pregnancy and may reflect enhanced placental fatty acid uptake and utilization for fetal tissue growth. While it appears that energy production through the TCA cycle increases as pregnancy progresses, decreasing patterns of free carnitine and acetylcarnitine as well as increased

  6. The effect of pioglitazone on weight, lipid profile and liver enzymes in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Nasser; Niafar, Mitra; Najafipour, Farzad; Mohamadzadeh Gharebaghi, Saeed; Adabi, Khadijeh; Dalir Abdolahinia, Elaheh; Ahadi, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pioglitazone is one of the antidiabetic agents used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The effect of pioglitazone on blood glucose, lipid profile, liver enzymes and weight has been shown with conflicting results. In this study we aim to evaluate the effect of pioglitazone on the weight, lipid profile and liver enzymes in patients with DM. Methods: In this single-arm clinical trial, 110 poorly controlled diabetic type 2 patients (63.6% female with mean age of 54.26 ± 8.96 years) who were on maximal dosage of metformin and glibenclamide were enrolled. Patients were treated with pioglitazone for 3 months and laboratory. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), alkaline phosphatase (ALK-P), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and weight changes were measured before and at the end of the study. Results: The levels of FBS (p < 0.001), HbA1c (p < 0.001), triglyceride (p = 0.001), ALT (p = 0.005) and ALK-P (p = 0.001) were significantly decreased, but weight was significantly increased (p < 0.001) after the intervention. There were no significant difference in cholesterol, LDL and HDL values before and after study. Conclusion: Although pioglitazone causes a significant decrease in FBS, HbA1C and triglyceride levels, it is associated with weight gain, which would limit its utility. IRCT registration code: IRCT201209276712N2 PMID:25941563

  7. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Avelino, Ana Paula A; Oliveira, Gláucia MM; Ferreira, Célia CD; Luiz, Ronir R; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-01-01

    Background Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Methods We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (<7% SFA/day of the total energy value) and high consumption groups (>7% SFA/day of the total energy value). Results Low SFA (<7% SFA/day of total energy value) consumption was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations. However, we observed that the linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020). The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P<0.050), suggesting an additive effect of linseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol. Conclusion The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed oil showed notable effects by increasing the HDL cholesterol concentration. In addition, consumption of <7% SFA/day of the total energy value increased the effect of linseed oil, demonstrating the importance of reducing the consumption of saturated fat. PMID:26543357

  8. Polar lipid and fatty acid profiles--re-vitalizing old approaches as a modern tool for the classification of mycoplasmas?

    PubMed

    Worliczek, Hanna Lucia; Kämpfer, Peter; Rosengarten, Renate; Tindall, Brian J; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-07-01

    A set of 20 Mollicutes strains representing different lines of descent, including the type species of the genus Mycoplasma, Mycoplasma mycoides, Acholeplasma laidlawii and a strain of Mesoplasma, were subjected to polar lipid and fatty acid analyses in order to evaluate their suitability for classification purposes within members of this group. Complex polar lipid and fatty acid profiles were detected for each examined strain. All strains contained the polar lipids phosphocholine-6'-alpha-glucopyranosyl-(1'-3)-1, 2-diacyl-glycerol (MfGL-I), 1-O-alkyl/alkenyl-2-O-acyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine (MfEL), sphingomyelin (SphM), 1-O-alkyl/alkenyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lysoMfEL), the unknown aminophospholipid APL1 and the cholesterol Chol2. A total of 19 strains revealed the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and/or phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG) was detected in 13 strains. The unknown aminolipid AL1 was found in the extracts of 17 strains. Unbranched saturated and unsaturated compounds predominated in the fatty acid profiles. Major fatty acids were usually C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 omega9c and 'Summed feature 5' (C18:2 omega6, 9c/C18:0 anteiso). Our results demonstrated that members of the M. mycoides cluster showed rather homogenous polar lipid and fatty acid profiles. In contrast, each of the other strains was characterized by a unique polar lipid profile and significant quantitative differences in the presence of certain fatty acids. These results indicate that analyses of both polar lipid and fatty acid profiles could be a useful tool for classification of mycoplasmas. PMID:17482408

  9. Chondrocytes Utilize a Cholesterol-Dependent Lipid Translocator To Externalize Phosphatidylserine†

    PubMed Central

    Damek-Poprawa, Monika; Golub, Ellis; Otis, Linda; Harrison, Gerald; Phillips, Christine; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    During endochondral ossification, growth plate chondrocytes release plasma membrane (PM) derived matrix vesicles (MV), which are the site of initial hydroxyapatite crystal formation. MV constituents which facilitate the mineralization process include the integral membrane ectoenzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) and nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase (NPP1/PC-1), along with a phosphatidylserine- (PS-) rich membrane surface that binds annexins and calcium, resulting in enhanced calcium entry into MV. In this study, we determined that chick growth plate MV were highly enriched in membrane raft microdomains containing high levels of cholesterol, glycophosphatidylinositol- (GPI-) anchored ALPase, and phosphatidylserine (PS) localized to the external leaflet of the bilayer. To determine how such membrane microdomains arise during chondrocyte maturation, we explored the role of PM cholesterol-dependent lipid assemblies in regulating the activities of lipid translocators involved in the externalization of PS. We first isolated and determined the composition of detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) from chondrocyte PM. DRMs isolated from chondrocyte PM were enhanced in ganglioside 1 (GM1) and cholesterol as well as GPI-anchored ALPase. Furthermore, these membrane domains were enriched in PS (localized to the external leaflet of the bilayer) and had significantly higher ALPase activity than non-cholesterol-enriched domains. To understand the role of cholesterol-dependent lipid assemblies in the externalization of PS, we measured the activities of two lipid transporters involved in PS externalization, aminophospholipid translocase (APLT) and phospholipid scramblase (PLSCR1), during maturation of a murine chondrocytic cell line, N1511. In this report, we provide the first evidence that maturing chondrocytes express PLSCR1 and have scramblase activity. We propose that redistribution of PS is dependent on an increase in phospholipid scramblase activity and a decrease

  10. A study on blood lipid profiles, aluminum and mercury levels in college students

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eunim; Hyun, Whajin; Ro, Yoona; Lee, Hongmie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES College students are in a period of transition from adolescence to adulthood, in which proper dietary habits and balanced nutritional intake are very important. However, improper dietary habits and lifestyles can bring several health problems. This study was performed to investigate blood lipid profiles, blood aluminum and mercury in college students and the relationships among them. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were 80 college students (43 males and 37 females) in Gyeonggi-do. General characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood lipids, SGOT, SGPT, and blood aluminum and mercury of the subjects were measured and analyzed, and their relationship was studied. RESULTS The BMI was significantly higher in males, 23.69 ± 3.20 kg/m2, than in females, 20.38 ± 2.37 kg/m2 (P < 0.001). The blood pressure was significantly higher in males with 128.93 ± 12.92 mmHg systolic pressure and 77.14 ± 10.31 mmHg diastolic pressure compared to females with 109.78 ± 11.97 mmHg and 65.95 ± 6.92 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.001). HDL cholesterol in males, 61.88 ± 13.06 mg/dl, was lower than 64.73 ± 12.16 mg/dl in females, but other blood lipid levels were higher in males. Blood aluminum was significantly higher in males, 9.12 ± 2.11 µg/L, than in females, 8.03 ± 2.14 µg/L (P < 0.05), and blood mercury was higher in males, 3.08 ± 1.55 µg/L, than in females, 2.64 ± 1.49 µg/L. The blood lipids showed positive correlation with obesity and blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS The degree of obesity, blood pressure, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol were higher in males, suggesting possible association with chronic disease incidence such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Thus, it is considered that a systematic health education is needed for college students, especially for males. PMID:27478552

  11. Lipid Profiling and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals a Functional Interplay between Estradiol and Growth Hormone in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Santana-Farré, Ruymán; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; García, Irma; Guerra, Borja; Mateo-Díaz, Carlos; Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos; Flores-Morales, Amilcar; Díaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) may interfere with endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions in liver in both females and males. Indirect mechanisms play a crucial role because of the E2 influence on the pituitary GH secretion and the GHR-JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathway in the target tissues. E2, through its interaction with the estrogen receptor, exerts direct effects on liver. Hypothyroidism also affects endocrine and metabolic functions of the liver, rendering a metabolic phenotype with features that mimic deficiencies in E2 or GH. In this work, we combined the lipid and transcriptomic analysis to obtain comprehensive information on the molecular mechanisms of E2 effects, alone and in combination with GH, to regulate liver functions in males. We used the adult hypothyroid-orchidectomized rat model to minimize the influence of internal hormones on E2 treatment and to explore its role in male-differentiated functions. E2 influenced genes involved in metabolism of lipids and endo-xenobiotics, and the GH-regulated endocrine, metabolic, immune, and male-specific responses. E2 induced a female-pattern of gene expression and inhibited GH-regulated STAT5b targeted genes. E2 did not prevent the inhibitory effects of GH on urea and amino acid metabolism-related genes. The combination of E2 and GH decreased transcriptional immune responses. E2 decreased the hepatic content of saturated fatty acids and induced a transcriptional program that seems to be mediated by the activation of PPARα. In contrast, GH inhibited fatty acid oxidation. Both E2 and GH replacements reduced hepatic CHO levels and increased the formation of cholesterol esters and triacylglycerols. Notably, the hepatic lipid profiles were endowed with singular fingerprints that may be used to segregate the effects of different hormonal replacements. In summary, we provide in vivo evidence that E2 has a significant impact on lipid content and transcriptome in male liver and that E2 exerts a marked influence on

  12. A potential synbiotic product improves the lipid profile of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies showed that intake of yacon or some lactic acid bacteria was able to inhibit the development of diabetes mellitus, by reducing glucose and associated symptoms, for example, the lipid profile. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the consumption influence of a potential symbiotic product of soybean and yacon extract and fermented Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus ssp jugurti 416 in reducing blood glucose and lipid levels in an animal model. Methods Diabetes mellitus was chemically induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). The rats were divided into four groups (n=10): GI – non-diabetic animals that received only a standard chow diet (negative control), GII – diabetic animals that received only chow diet (positive control), GIII – diabetic animals that received the chow diet + 1 mL/kg body weight/day of soybean and yacon unfermented product, GIV – diabetic rats that received the chow diet + 1 mL/kg body weight/day of soybean and yacon fermented product. There was a seven-week treatment period and the following parameters were evaluated: animal body weight, food and water intake, blood glucose, enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglycerides levels, total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL-C. Cell viability of the fermented product was checked weekly for a seven-week period. Results The product average viable population was 108-109 CFU/mL, by ensuring both the rods and cocci regular intake. No difference was observed between the water and feed intake and body weight of groups that received unfermented and fermented products and the untreated diabetic group. The same was observed for the blood glucose and AST and ALT activities, while some improvement was observed for a lipid profile, represented by reduction of triglycerides level by 15.07% and 33.50% in groups III and IV, respectively, and an

  13. Sex hormone-binding globulin and lipid profile in pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Garcés, Carmen; Oya, Iría de; Lasunción, Miguel A; López-Simón, Laura; Cano, Beatriz; de Oya, Manuel

    2010-02-01

    Men and women have different lipid profiles throughout life, related to changes in sex hormones; and this has been associated with sex-related differences in the prevalence of coronary heart disease. The influence of sex hormone changes during puberty on the lipid profile has been reported, but levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (the specific plasma binding protein of sex hormones) have not been evaluated even though its regulatory role might be crucial. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between sex hormones and SHBG and changes in plasma lipid levels during puberty. Our population-based sample included 370 healthy schoolchildren (175 male and 195 female), ranging from 12 to 15 years old. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were significantly lower in 15-year-olds than in younger boys, and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I levels steeply decreased across the studied age groups. Parallel to these changes, testosterone levels increased whereas SHBG decreased as age increases in boys. In girls, no significant differences were observed in these variables among the age groups. Testosterone and SHBG were highly correlated with anthropometric variables. Sex hormone-binding globulin was negatively associated with triglycerides (TG) in both sexes, remaining statistically significant after further adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI) in girls. Sex hormone-binding globulin was the only predictive variable for HDL-C and TG in multiple linear regression analysis, after adjustment by BMI, in both sexes, accounting for 10% of the variance of HDL-C in boys and for around 5% of the variance of TG in both sexes. In boys, testosterone and SHBG remained significantly correlated to apo A-I levels, even after adjusting for age and BMI, and were the most important predictive variables for apo A-I in multiple linear regression analysis. In conclusion, SHBG levels are related to a decrease in HDL-C and apo A-I levels during puberty in boys and

  14. Lipid Profile in Adolescent Girls with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Hyperandrogenemia

    PubMed Central

    Zachurzok, Agnieszka; Deja, Grazyna; Gawlik, Aneta; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Klimek, Katarzyna; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives. The study aim was to evaluate whether hyperandrogenemia in adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) may adversely influence lipid profile. Design and Participants. Lipid levels in 16 diabetic girls with biochemical hyperandrogenemia (T1DM-H) aged 16.3 ± 1.2 years were compared to 38 diabetic girls with normal androgen levels (T1DM-N) aged 15.8 ± 1.2 years. 15 healthy girls served as controls (CG). In all patients, anthropometric measurements were done, and androgens and SHBG were assessed. Results. In T1DM-H, total cholesterol (TC) and low density cholesterol (LDL-ch) were significantly higher than in CG (196.1 ± 41.2 versus 162.7 ± 31.7 mg/dL, p = 0.01; 117.3 ± 33.1 versus 91.3 ± 27.8 mg/dL, p = 0.01, resp.). Their LDL-ch, non-high density cholesterol (non-HDL-ch) concentrations, and LDL/HDL ratio were also significantly higher than in T1DM-N (117.3 ± 33.1 versus 97.7 ± 26.7 mg/dL, p = 0.03; 137.3 ± 42.9 versus 113.3 ± 40.4 mg/dL, p = 0.04; 2.8 ± 3.7 versus 1.6 ± 0.5, p = 0.04, resp.). In stepwise multiple linear regression, free androgen index (FAI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were associated with TC (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.0006), non-HDL-ch (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.0003), and LDL-ch (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.0008). Triglycerides and LDL/HDL ratio were (R2 = 0.7, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.6, p < 0.0003 resp.) related to testosterone, FAI, WHR, and mean HbA1c. Conclusion. Lipid profile in diabetic adolescent girls is adversely influenced by the androgens level, particularly in the group with higher WHR and poorer glycemic control. PMID:27239195

  15. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Resende, Nathália M; Félix, Henrique R; Soré, Murillo R; M M, Aníbal; Campos, Kleber E; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2016-05-13

    This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS) in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group), G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm). The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements. PMID:27192196

  16. Cluster SIMS and the Temperature Dependence of Molecular Depth Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Dan; Wucher, Andreas; Brenes, Daniel A; Lu, Caiyan; Winograd, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The quality of molecular depth profiles created by erosion of organic materials by cluster ion beams exhibits a strong dependence upon temperature. To elucidate the fundamental nature of this dependence, we employ the Irganox 3114/1010 organic delta layer reference material as a model system. This delta-layer system is interrogated using a 40 keV C60+ primary ion beam. Parameters associated with the depth profile such as depth resolution, uniformity of sputtering yield and topography are evaluated between 90 K and 300 K using a unique wedge-crater beveling strategy that allows these parameters to be determined as a function of erosion depth from atomic force microscope measurements. The results show that the erosion rate calibration performed using the known Δ-layer depth in connection with the fluence needed to reach the peak of the corresponding SIMS signal response is misleading. Moreover, we show that the degradation of depth resolution is linked to a decrease of the average erosion rate and the buildup of surface topography in a thermally activated manner. This underlying process starts to influence the depth profile above a threshold temperature between 210 and 250 K for the system studied here. Below that threshold, the process is inhibited and steady-state conditions are reached with constant erosion rate, depth resolution and molecular secondary ion signals from both the matrix and the Δ-layers. In particular, the results indicate that further reduction of the temperature below 90 K does not lead to further improvement of the depth profile. Above the threshold, the process becomes stronger at higher temperature, leading to an immediate decrease of the molecular secondary ion signals. This signal decay is most pronounced for the highest m/z ions but is less for the smaller m/z ions, indicating a shift toward small fragments by accumulation of chemical damage. The erosion rate decay and surface roughness buildup, on the other hand, exhibit a rather sudden

  17. Leptin induces macrophage lipid body formation by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase- and mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa M; Almeida, Patricia E; D'Avila, Heloisa; Martins, Aline S; Rezende, Ana Paula; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo; Bozza, Patricia T

    2008-01-25

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone/cytokine that links nutritional status with neuroendocrine and immune functions. Lipid bodies (lipid droplets) are emerging as dynamic organelles with roles in lipid metabolism and inflammation. Here we investigated the roles of leptin in signaling pathways involved in cytoplasmic lipid body biogenesis and leukotriene B(4) synthesis in macrophages. Our results demonstrated that leptin directly activated macrophages and induced the formation of adipose differentiation-related protein-enriched lipid bodies. Newly formed lipid bodies were sites of 5-lipoxygenase localization and correlated with an enhanced capacity of leukotriene B(4) production. We demonstrated that leptin-induced macrophage activation was dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, since the lipid body formation was inhibited by LY294002 and was absent in the PI3K knock-out mice. Leptin induces phosphorylation of p70(S6K) and 4EBP1 key downstream signaling intermediates of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in a rapamycin-sensitive mechanism. The mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, inhibited leptin-induced lipid body formation, both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, rapamycin inhibited leptin-induced adipose differentiation-related protein accumulation in macrophages and lipid body-dependent leukotriene synthesis, demonstrating a key role for mTOR in lipid body biogenesis and function. Our results establish PI3K/mTOR as an important signaling pathway for leptin-induced cytoplasmic lipid body biogenesis and adipose differentiation-related protein accumulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate a previously unrecognized link between intracellular (mTOR) and systemic (leptin) nutrient sensors in macrophage lipid metabolism. Leptin-induced increased formation of cytoplasmic lipid bodies and enhanced inflammatory mediator production in macrophages may have implications for obesity-related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:18039669

  18. Identification of Genes Related to Growth and Lipid Deposition from Transcriptome Profiles of Pig Muscle Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chamba, Yangzom; Zhang, Bo; Shang, Peng; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Changxin

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome profiles established using high-throughput sequencing can be effectively used for screening genome-wide differentially expressed genes (DEGs). RNA sequences (from RNA-seq) and microRNA sequences (from miRNA-seq) from the tissues of longissimus dorsi muscle of two indigenous Chinese pig breeds (Diannan Small-ear pig [DSP] and Tibetan pig [TP]) and two introduced pig breeds (Landrace [LL] and Yorkshire [YY]) were examined using HiSeq 2000 to identify and compare the differential expression of functional genes related to muscle growth and lipid deposition. We obtained 27.18 G clean data through the RNA-seq and detected that 18,208 genes were positively expressed and 14,633 of them were co-expressed in the muscle tissues of the four samples. In all, 315 DEGs were found between the Chinese pig group and the introduced pig group, 240 of which were enriched with functional annotations from the David database and significantly enriched in 27 Gene Ontology (GO) terms that were mainly associated with muscle fiber contraction, cadmium ion binding, response to organic substance and contractile fiber part. Based on functional annotation, we identified 85 DEGs related to growth traits that were mainly involved in muscle tissue development, muscle system process, regulation of cell development, and growth factor binding, and 27 DEGs related to lipid deposition that were mainly involved in lipid metabolic process and fatty acid biosynthetic process. With miRNA-seq, we obtained 23.78 M reads and 320 positively expressed miRNAs from muscle tissues, including 271 known pig miRNAs and 49 novel miRNAs. In those 271 known miRNAs, 20 were higher and 10 lower expressed in DSP-TP than in LL-YY. The target genes of the 30 miRNAs were mainly participated in MAPK, GnRH, insulin and Calcium signaling pathway and others involved cell development, growth and proliferation, etc. Combining the DEGs and the differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs, we drafted a network of 46 genes and 18

  19. Prolonged niacin treatment leads to increased adipose tissue PUFA synthesis and anti-inflammatory lipid and oxylipin plasma profile.

    PubMed

    Heemskerk, Mattijs M; Dharuri, Harish K; van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; Jónasdóttir, Hulda S; Kloos, Dick-Paul; Giera, Martin; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Harmelen, Vanessa

    2014-12-01

    Prolonged niacin treatment elicits beneficial effects on the plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile that is associated with a protective CVD risk profile. Acute niacin treatment inhibits nonesterified fatty acid release from adipocytes and stimulates prostaglandin release from skin Langerhans cells, but the acute effects diminish upon prolonged treatment, while the beneficial effects remain. To gain insight in the prolonged effects of niacin on lipid metabolism in adipocytes, we used a mouse model with a human-like lipoprotein metabolism and drug response [female APOE*3-Leiden.CETP (apoE3 Leiden cholesteryl ester transfer protein) mice] treated with and without niacin for 15 weeks. The gene expression profile of gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) from niacin-treated mice showed an upregulation of the "biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids" pathway, which was corroborated by quantitative PCR and analysis of the FA ratios in gWAT. Also, adipocytes from niacin-treated mice secreted more of the PUFA DHA ex vivo. This resulted in an increased DHA/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio in the adipocyte FA secretion profile and in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Interestingly, the DHA metabolite 19,20-dihydroxy docosapentaenoic acid (19,20-diHDPA) was increased in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Both an increased DHA/AA ratio and increased 19,20-diHDPA are indicative for an anti-inflammatory profile and may indirectly contribute to the atheroprotective lipid and lipoprotein profile associated with prolonged niacin treatment. PMID:25320342

  20. Orange juice improved lipid profile and blood lactate of overweight middle-aged women subjected to aerobic training

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the influence of regular consumption of orange juice associated with aerobic exercise on the lipid profile of middle aged women, previously sedentary. Twenty-six women, 30 to 55 years old, volunteered to consume orange juice daily for 3 months and participate in an aerobic train...

  1. Role of sudarshan kriya and pranayam on lipid profile and blood cell parameters during exam stress: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Swapna; Elango, Tamilselvi; Malligarjunan, Hemamalini; Kochupillai, Vinod; Dayalan, Haripriya

    2012-01-01

    Background: Yoga is a science practiced in India over thousands of years. It produces constituent physiological changes and has sound scientific basis. Aim: Since exam stress modifies lipid profile and hematological parameters, we conducted an investigation on the effect of sudarshan kriya (SK and P) program on these parameters. Materials and Methods: Blood samples of 43 engineering students were collected at four intervals namely baseline (BL), exam stress (ES), three and six weeks practice of SK and P during exam stress. Lipid profile and hematological parameters were measured at all four intervals. Results: ES elevated total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels. Hematological parameters affected by ES included neutrophil, lymphocytes, platelet count, packed cell volume (PCV) and mean cell volume (MCV). Three and six weeks practice of SK and P reduced the elevated lipid profile, hematological parameters and improved lymphocyte levels. Conclusion: Our study indicates that SK and P practice has the potential to overcome ES by improving lipid profile and hematological parameters. PMID:22346062

  2. Objective and sensory measures of meat quality and fatty acid profile of longissimus intramuscular lipid from pigs fed crude glycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The longissimus dorsi from 87 pigs (43 barrows, 44 gilts) fed corn-soybean meal based diets containing 0, 5, or 10% crude glycerol for 138 days were examined for objective and sensory measures of meat quality and the fatty acid profile of LD lipid was determined. Crude glycerol was obtained from AG ...

  3. Transcript Profiles of Two Wheat Lipid Transfer Protein-encoding Genes are Altered During Attach by Hessian Fly Larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘GeneCalling’, an mRNA profiling technology, was used to identify a candidate lipid transfer protein (LTP) sequence that showed decreased mRNA abundance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) plants following attack by virulent Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor Say) larvae (compatible interaction)...

  4. Polarization-dependent fluorescence of proteins bound to nanopore-confined lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.-Q.; Marek, A.; Smirnov, Alex I.; Grebel, H.

    2008-09-01

    Lipid bilayers are essential structural component of biological membranes of all the living species: from viruses and bacteria to plants and humans. Biophysical and biochemical properties of such membranes are important for understanding physical mechanisms responsible for drug targeting. Binding events between proteins and the membrane may be ascertained by introducing fluorescence markers (chromophores) to the proteins. Here we describe a novel biosensing platform designed to enhance signals of these fluorescence markers. Nanoporous aluminum oxide membranes with and without gold (Au) surface coating have been employed for optical detection of bound conjugated streptavidin to biotinylated lipid bilayers-a model system that mimics protein docking to the membrane surface. Unexpectedly, it was found that fluorescence signals from such structures vary when pumped with E-polarized and H-polarized incident optical beams. The origin of the observed polarization-dependent effects and the implications for enhanced fluorescence detection in a biochip format are being discussed.

  5. Size-dependent, stochastic nature of lipid exchange between nano-vesicles and model membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabaei, Seyed R.; Gillissen, Jurriaan J. J.; Vafaei, Setareh; Groves, Jay T.; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-07-01

    The interaction of nanoscale lipid vesicles with cell membranes is of fundamental importance for the design and development of vesicular drug delivery systems. Here, we introduce a novel approach to study vesicle-membrane interactions whereby we are able to probe the influence of nanoscale membrane properties on the dynamic adsorption, exchange, and detachment of vesicles. Using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we monitor these processes in real-time upon the electrostatically tuned attachment of individual, sub-100 nm vesicles to a supported lipid bilayer. The observed exponential vesicle detachment rate depends strongly on the vesicle size, but not on the vesicle charge, which suggests that lipid exchange occurs during a single stochastic event, which is consistent with membrane stalk formation. The fluorescence microscopy assay developed in this work may enable measuring of the probability of stalk formation in a controlled manner, which is of fundamental importance in membrane biology, offering a new tool to understand nanoscale phenomena in the context of biological sciences.The interaction of nanoscale lipid vesicles with cell membranes is of fundamental importance for the design and development of vesicular drug delivery systems. Here, we introduce a novel approach to study vesicle-membrane interactions whereby we are able to probe the influence of nanoscale membrane properties on the dynamic adsorption, exchange, and detachment of vesicles. Using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we monitor these processes in real-time upon the electrostatically tuned attachment of individual, sub-100 nm vesicles to a supported lipid bilayer. The observed exponential vesicle detachment rate depends strongly on the vesicle size, but not on the vesicle charge, which suggests that lipid exchange occurs during a single stochastic event, which is consistent with membrane stalk formation. The fluorescence microscopy assay developed

  6. Insertion of perilipin 3 into a glycero(phospho)lipid monolayer depends on lipid headgroup and acyl chain species.

    PubMed

    Mirheydari, Mona; Rathnayake, Sewwandi S; Frederick, Hannah; Arhar, Taylor; Mann, Elizabeth K; Cocklin, Simon; Kooijman, Edgar E

    2016-08-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are organelles that contribute to various cellular functions that are vital for life. Aside from acting as a neutral lipid storage depot, they are also involved in building new membranes, synthesis of steroid hormones, and cell signaling. Many aspects of LD structure and function are not yet well-understood. Here we investigate the interaction of perilipin 3, a member of the perilipin family of LD binding proteins, and three N-terminal truncation mutants with lipid monolayers. The interaction is studied as a function of surface pressure for a series of systematically chosen lipids. We find that the C terminus of perilipin 3 has different insertion behavior from that of the longer truncation mutants and the full-length protein. Inclusion of N-terminal sequences with the C terminus decreases the ability of the protein construct to insert in lipid monolayers. Coupling of anionic lipids to negative spontaneous curvature facilitates protein interaction and insertion. The C terminus shows strong preference for lipids with more saturated fatty acids. This work sheds light on the LD binding properties and function of the different domains of perilipin 3. PMID:27256689

  7. The Effect of Cinnamon Extract and Long-Term Aerobic Training on Heart Function, Biochemical Alterations and Lipid Profile Following Exhaustive Exercise in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Badalzadeh, Reza; Shaghaghi, Mehrnoush; Mohammadi, Mustafa; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Zeynab

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Regular training is suggested to offer a host of benefits especially on cardiovascular system. In addition, medicinal plants can attenuate oxidative stress-mediated damages induced by stressor insults. In this study, we investigated the concomitant effect of cinnamon extract and long-term aerobic training on cardiac function, biochemical alterations and lipid profile following exhaustive exercise. Methods: Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into five groups depending on receiving regular training, cinnamon bark extraction, none or both of them, and then encountered with an exhausted exercise in last session. An 8-week endurance training program was designed with a progressive increase in training speed and time. Myocardial hemodynamics was monitored using a balloon-tipped catheter inserted into left ventricles. Blood samples were collected for analyzing biochemical markers, lipid profiles and lipid-peroxidation marker, malondealdehyde (MDA). Results: Trained animals showed an enhanced cardiac force and contractility similar to cinnamon-treated rats. Co-application of regular training and cinnamon had additive effect in cardiac hemodynamic (P<0.05). Both regular training and supplementation with cinnamon significantly decreased serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level and HDL/LDL ratio as compared to control group (P<0.01). Furthermore, pre-treatment with cinnamon extract and/or regular training significantly reduced MDA level elevation induced by exhausted exercise (P<0.01). Conclusion: Long-term treatment of rats with cinnamon and regular training improved cardiac hemodynamic through an additive effect. The positive effects of cinnamon and regular training on cardiac function were associated with a reduced serum MDA level and an improved blood lipid profile. PMID:25671183

  8. Quantitative Spatiotemporal Chemical Profiling of Individual Lipid Droplets by Hyperspectral CARS Microscopy in Living Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Pope, Iestyn; Masia, Francesco; Langbein, Wolfgang; Watson, Pete; Borri, Paola

    2016-04-01

    There is increasing evidence showing that cytosolic lipid droplets, present in all eukaryotic cells, play a key role in many cellular functions. Yet their composition at the individual droplet level and how it evolves over time in living cells is essentially unknown due to the lack of suitable quantitative nondestructive measurement techniques. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of label-free hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, together with a quantitative image analysis algorithm developed by us, to quantify the lipid type and content in vol/vol concentration units of individual lipid droplets in living human adipose-derived stem cells during differentiation over 9 days in media supplemented with different fatty acids. Specifically, we investigated the addition of the polyunsaturated linoleic and alpha-linolenic fatty acids into the normal differentiation medium (mostly containing monounsaturated fatty acids). We observe a heterogeneous uptake which is droplet-size dependent, time dependent, and lipid dependent. Cells grown in linoleic-acid-supplemented medium show the largest distribution of lipid content across different droplets at all times during differentiation. When analyzing the average lipid content, we find that adding linoleic or alpha-linolenic fatty acids at day 0 results in uptake of the new lipid components with an exponential time constant of 22 ± 2 h. Conversely, switching lipids at day 3 results in an exponential time constant of 60 ± 5 h. These are unprecedented findings, exemplifying that the quantitative imaging method demonstrated here could open a radically new way of studying and understanding cytosolic lipid droplets in living cells. PMID:26937957

  9. Serum chemistry and lipid profiles in neonatal beagle puppies fed homemade milk replacer formulas.

    PubMed

    Chandler, M L; Miller, E; Olson, P N; Ralston, S L

    1993-04-01

    Milk replacer formulas based on cow's milk and egg yolks are frequently recommended for use in neonatal puppies. These formulas are lower in protein, kilocalories, calcium, and phosphorus than bitch's milk. In addition, the cholesterol content is greater than bitch's milk. The effect of feeding these formulas on serum chemistry profiles, lipid profiles, and alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme profiles of 5-week-old beagle puppies was studied. Three groups of beagle puppies were fed bitch's milk (control) (n = 18), a homemade milk-egg-oil formula (Formula 1) (n = 18), or a homemade milk-egg-oil formula supplemented with additional calcium and phosphorous (Formula 2) (n = 18). Concentrations of serum urea nitrogen, albumin, and total CO2 were lower (P < 0.05), and concentrations of serum phosphorus, globulins, sodium, chloride, and cholesterol were higher (P < 0.05) in formula-fed puppies than bitch-fed puppies. Serum potassium concentration was lower in the puppies fed Formula 1 than in the control puppies (P < 0.05), and serum potassium concentration in the puppies fed Formula 2 was not significantly different from that in puppies fed Formula 1 or the control puppies. Total triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein2 cholesterol (HDL2) concentrations were similar in all three groups of puppies but the combined high density lipoprotein1 (HDL1) plus low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in the formula-fed puppies and accounted for the majority of the increase in cholesterol. There were no differences (P < 0.05) in total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) or bone-derived ALP (BALP) concentrations among the groups, however there was a higher (P < 0.05) serum concentration of liver-derived ALP (LALP) in the Formula 1-fed puppies. Feeding homemade egg and cow's milk-based puppy replacement formulas is not recommended for long term use. PMID:8467696

  10. Fatty Acid and Lipid Profiles with Emphasis on n-3 Fatty Acids and Phospholipids from Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yadong; Wang, Miao; Lindström, Mikael E; Li, Jiebing

    2015-10-01

    In order to establish Ciona intestinalis as a new bioresource for n-3 fatty acids-rich marine lipids, the animal was fractionated into tunic and inner body tissues prior to lipid extraction. The lipids obtained were further classified into neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL) followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis using GC-FID, GC-MS, (1)H NMR, 2D NMR, MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS methods. It was found that the tunic and inner body tissues contained 3.42-4.08% and 15.9-23.4% of lipids respectively. PL was the dominant lipid class (42-60%) irrespective of the anatomic fractions. From all lipid fractions and classes, the major fatty acids were 16:0, 18:1n-9, C20:1n-9, C20:5n-3 (EPA) and C22:6n-3 (DHA). The highest amounts of long chain n-3 fatty acids, mainly EPA and DHA, were located in PL from both body fractions. Cholestanol and cholesterol were the dominant sterols together with noticeable amounts of stellasterol, 22 (Z)-dehydrocholesterol and lathosterol. Several other identified and two yet unidentified sterols were observed for the first time from C. intestinalis. Different molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (34 species), sphingomyelin (2 species), phosphatidylethanolamine (2 species), phosphatidylserine (10 species), phosphatidylglycerol (9 species), ceramide (38 species) and lysophospholipid (5 species) were identified, representing the most systematic PL profiling knowledge so far for the animal. It could be concluded that C. intestinalis lipids should be a good alternative for fish oil with high contents of n-3 fatty acids. The lipids would be more bioavailable due to the presence of the fatty acids being mainly in the form of PL. PMID:26233815

  11. LIPID PROFILE OF POLISH PRIMARY CARE PATIENTS AGED 35-55 YEARS LIVING IN THE DISTRICT OF PLESZEW.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Karolina; Matyjaszczyk, Piotr; Zaporowska-STACHOWIAK, Iwona; Kostrzewska, Magdalena; Piorunek, Tomasz; Minczykowskp, Andrzej; Bryl, Wieslaw

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, more than half of the adult population suffers from lipid disorders. Among the 18 million Polish people with hypercholesterolemia, over 10.8 million are unaware of this problem. To estimate the lipid profile of selected primary care patients in the district of Pleszew (Western Poland), general practitioners (GPs) recruited 681 patients aged 35-55 years in 2011. Fasting serum lipids were evaluated. We found statistically significant differences in all lipid parameters between all younger (35-45 years) and older (46-55 years) patients, between all female and male subjects, between women and men ages 35-45 years; in total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) between younger and older female population; in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and TG between women and men ages 46-55 years. Dyslipidemia, both, newly detected and previously treated, was detected in 591 patients (86.8%): 322 females (84.3%) and 269 males (90.0%). The highest percentage of lipid disorders was found in males aged 46-55 years (91.9%) and the lowest among women aged 35-45 years (78.0%). Age and gender differences in the prevalence of dyslipidemia proved of statistical importance. Among 155 patients on lipid-lowering therapy, only 28 subjects (18.1%) reached the target value of serum lipids. The prevalence of lipid disorders among primary care patients aged 35-55 years in the district of Pleszew was significantly high, and it was proved that dyslipidemia is statistically prominent in males and older patients. Polish healthcare professionals should make more efforts to improve the detection and treatment of lipid disorders. PMID:27180447

  12. Subchronic effects of valproic acid on gene expression profiles for lipid metabolism in mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Min-Ho |; Kim, Mingoo |; Lee, Byung-Hoon |; Kim, Ju-Han |; Kang, Kyung-Sun |; Kim, Hyung-Lae |; Yoon, Byung-Il |; Chung, Heekyoung; Kong, Gu |; Lee, Mi-Ock ||

    2008-02-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is used clinically to treat epilepsy, however it induces hepatotoxicity such as microvesicular steatosis. Acute hepatotoxicity of VPA has been well documented by biochemical studies and microarray analysis, but little is known about the chronic effects of VPA in the liver. In the present investigation, we profiled gene expression patterns in the mouse liver after subchronic treatment with VPA. VPA was administered orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day or 500 mg/kg/day to ICR mice, and the livers were obtained after 1, 2, or 4 weeks. The activities of serum liver enzymes did not change, whereas triglyceride concentration increased significantly. Microarray analysis revealed that 1325 genes of a set of 32,996 individual genes were VPA responsive when examined by two-way ANOVA (P < 0.05) and fold change (> 1.5). Consistent with our previous results obtained using an acute VPA exposure model (Lee et al., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 220:45-59, 2007), the most significantly over-represented biological terms for these genes included lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolism. Biological pathway analysis suggests that the genes responsible for increased biosynthesis of cholesterol and triglyceride, and for decreased fatty acid {beta}-oxidation contribute to the abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by subchronic VPA treatment. A comparison of the VPA-responsive genes in the acute and subchronic models extracted 15 commonly altered genes, such as Cyp4a14 and Adpn, which may have predictive power to distinguish the mode of action of hepatotoxicants. Our data provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and useful information to predict steatogenic hepatotoxicity.

  13. Meta-Analysis: Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Lipid Profiles in Normal to Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Mikiko; Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Tamura, Hiro-omi; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested that probiotic supplementation has beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. However, there are conflicting results on the efficacy of probiotic preparations in reducing serum cholesterol. Objective To evaluate the effects of probiotics on human serum lipid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of interventional studies. Methods Eligible reports were obtained by searches of electronic databases. We included randomized, controlled clinical trials comparing probiotic supplementation with placebo or no treatment (control). Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3.3. Subanalyses were also performed. Results Eleven of 33 randomized clinical trials retrieved were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. No participant had received any cholesterol-lowering agent. Probiotic interventions (including fermented milk products and probiotics) produced changes in total cholesterol (TC) (mean difference –0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.27 to –0.07 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (mean difference –0.22 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.30 to –0.13 mmol/L). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ significantly between probiotic and control groups. In subanalysis, long-term (>4-week) probiotic intervention was statistically more effective in decreasing TC and LDL-C than short-term (≤4-week) intervention. The decreases in TC and LDL-C levels with probiotic intervention were greater in mildly hypercholesterolemic than in normocholesterolemic individuals. Both fermented milk product and probiotic preparations decreased TC and LDL-C levels. Gaio and the Lactobacillus acidophilus strain reduced TC and LDL-C levels to a greater extent than other bacterial strains. Conclusions In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed that probiotic supplementation could be useful in the primary prevention of hypercholesterolemia and may lead to reductions in risk

  14. Effects of Sitagliptin on Lipid Profiles in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Minhua; Li, Yuelan; Zhang, Shihong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sitagliptin has been reported to improve lipid profiles, but findings from these studies are conflicting. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of sitagliptin on serum lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We made a comprehensive literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and VIP database until June 2015. Eligible studies were randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that investigated the effect of sitagliptin on serum triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Eleven RCTs with 2338 patients were identified. Compared with controls, sitagliptin alone or in combination significantly improved serum TG (weighted mean difference [WMD] −0.24 mmol/L; 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.40 to −0.09; P = 0.002) and HDL-C (WMD 0.05 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.02–0.07; P < 0.001).However, no statistical significances were observed in LDL-C (WMD −0.07 mmol/L; 95% CI −0.22 to 0.08; P = 0.337) and TC (WMD −0.14; 95% CI −0.33 to 0.06; P = 0.177). Subgroup analyses revealed that sitagliptin alone achieved greater improvement in serum TG, TC, and HDL-C levels. These findings suggested that sitagliptin alone or in combination significantly improved serum TG and HDL-C levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26765417

  15. Development of ionic-complex-based nanostructured lipid carriers to improve the pharmacokinetic profiles of breviscapine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei; Zheng, Yong; Shan, Feng-ying; Zhou, Jing; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhi-rong

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Breviscapine isolated from the Chinese herb Erigeron breviscapus (Vant) Hand-Mazz is widely used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to improve the pharmacokinetic profiles of breviscapine using nanostructured lipid carrier based on an ionic complex formation. Methods: Breviscapine nanostructured lipid carrier (Bre-NLC) was prepared using the thin film homogenization method. The morphology of Bre-NLCs was determined using transmission electron microscopy. The mean particle size, polydispersity index, zeta-potential analysis and entrapment efficiency were analized. In vitro release was studied using the dialysis method. In vitro stability was studied in fresh plasma and liver slurry of rats. In vivo pharmacokinetics was analyzed in rats after intravenous injection of a dose equivalent to breviscapine (10 mg/kg). Results: The Bre-NLCs were spherical with a mean particle size of ∼170 nm, a zeta potential of ∼20 mV and a high entrapment efficiency of ∼89%. Compared with a commercially available solution, a substantial decrease in the cumulative release of breviscapine was found for the Bre-NLCs. The NLC has a significantly protective effect against the liver enzyme degradation of breviscapine. After intravenous administration in rats, the Bre-NLCs exhibited a 32 times increase in the AUC0–t and a 12 times increase in T1/2 as compared to the commercially available breviscapine solution. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the NLC has great potential to use as a novel sustained release system for breviscapine. PMID:23770990

  16. Lipid profile of body builders with and without self-administration of anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, J; Kullmer, T; Urhausen, A; Bergmann, R; Kindermann, W

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-four top-level body builders [13 anabolic steroid users (A); 11 non-users (N)] and 11 performance-matched controls (C) were examined to determine the effect on lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of many years of body building with and without simultaneous intake of anabolic steroids and testosterone. After an overnight fast, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TOTC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), the HDLC subfractions HDL2C and HDL3C, as well as apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I), apolipoprotein A-II (Apo A-II) and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) were determined. Both A and N, compared to C, showed significantly lower HDLC and higher LDLC concentrations, with the differences between A and C clearly pronounced. In a subgroup of 6 body builders taking anabolic steroids at the time of the study, HDLC, HDL2C, HDL3C, Apo A-I and Apo A-II were all significantly lower and LDLC was significantly higher than in a second subgroup of 7 body builders who had discontinued their intake of anabolic steroids at least 4 weeks prior to the study. In some single cases HDLC was barely detectable (2-7 mg.dl-1). The TG and TOTC remained unchanged. The present findings suggest that many years of body building among top-level athletes have no beneficial effect on lipoproteins and apolipoproteins. Simultaneous use of anabolic steroids results in part in extreme alterations in lipoproteins and apolipoproteins, representing an atherogenic profile. After discontinuing the use of anabolic steroids, the changes in lipid metabolism appear to be reversible. PMID:2583156

  17. CD36 haplotypes are associated with lipid profile in normal-weight subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemia is a common metabolic disorder that may result from abnormalities in the synthesis, processing and catabolism of lipoprotein particles. Disorders of lipoprotein concentrations and elevated concentration of oxidized lipoproteins (oxLDL) are risk factors in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CD36 plays an important role in lipid metabolism and polymorphisms in the CD36 gene are related to cardiovascular risk factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there is an association between genotypes and haplotypes of five polymorphisms in the CD36 gene with lipid levels in young normal-weight subjects. Methods A total of 232 unrelated subjects with normal-weight of 18 to 25 years old (157 women and 75 men) were randomly selected. The lipid profile and glucose levels were measured by enzymatic colorimetric assays. Genotyping of the polymorphisms -33137A/G (rs1984112), -31118G/A (rs1761667), -22674 T/C (rs2151916), 27645 Ins/Del (rs3840546) and 30294G/C (rs1049673) in the CD36 receptor gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism, linkage disequilibrium analysis among the five polymorphisms and an analysis of haplotype were estimated. Results HDL-C levels was lower in men than in women (P = 0.03). However, the median oxLDL levels in men was higher than in women (P = 0.05). There was no significant difference in the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C and glucose (P > 0.05). HDL-C levels were lower in the subjects with TC genotype of polymorphism -22674 T/C (P = 0.04), but the carriers of TT genotype had lower oxLDL levels (P = 0.01). LDL-C levels were higher in young carriers of CC genotype for 30294G/C polymorphism than non-carriers (P = 0.03). The subjects carrying the AATDC haplotype had 3.2 times presumably higher risk of LDL-C > 100 mg/dL than the carrying the AGTIG haplotype (P = 0.02), whereas the subjects carrying the AATIC haplotype had 2.0 times presumably

  18. The functional role of some tomato products on lipid profile and liver function in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hoda Salama; Ahmed, Lamiaa Ali; El-din, Maha Mohamed Essam

    2008-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the functional role of lycopene obtained from powder prepared from fresh tomato, tomato paste, and ketchup that contained equal amounts of lycopene based on levels of intake on body weight gain (BWG), feed intake, feed efficiency ratio (FER), lipid profiles, atherogenic index, and liver enzymes of hyperlipidemic rats. Forty-eight male albino rats were divided into two main groups: the first group (n = 6 rats) was kept on the basal diet as a normal control, while the second group (n = 42 rats) was fed a hyperlipidemic diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. The latter group was divided into seven subgroups: the first subgroup was the positive control group, while the others were supplemented with one of the tomato products at one of two levels (10 or 20 mg of lycopene/kg of diet). BWG, feed intake, and FER were calculated, and blood samples were collected to determine total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein fractions, atherogenic index, and liver function in sera. Relative organ weights were also calculated. Results revealed that administration of various tomato products produced a significant reduction in feed intake except for the hyperlipidemic group that supplemented with the lower lycopene level from tomato paste. In addition, BWG and FER were not influenced by addition of tomato products at any level of intake. Hyperlipidemic rats supplemented with tomato powder, tomato paste, or ketchup showed significant improvement in almost all the parameters studied compared to the positive control group. Results showed that the higher lycopene level from tomato paste produced significant improvement in all lipid parameters, followed by 10 mg of lycopene/kg from tomato paste, which caused significant elevation in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol comparable to that of the negative control group. The lowest atherogenic index was achieved by addition of the lower lycopene level from tomato paste followed by

  19. Treatment with pravastatin and fenofibrate improves atherogenic lipid profiles but not inflammatory markers in ACTG 5087

    PubMed Central

    Fichtenbaum, Carl J.; Yeh, Tzu-Min; Evans, Scott R.; Aberg, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Statins and fibrates alter lipids, apolipoproteins and inflammatory markers in persons without HIV. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in lipoproteins, apolipoproteins and other markers of inflammation with the use of pravastatin and fenofibrate. Design Evaluation of participants in ACTG A5087, a randomized trial of pravastatin 40 mg/day or fenofibrate 200 mg/day for the treatment of dyslipidemia. Participants that failed single-agent therapy at week 12 were given the combination. Methods Participants with available specimens were tested for apolipoproteins A1 and B, adiponectin, plasminogen-activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), P-selectin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Results 74 participants (37 per randomized arm) received either pravastatin or fenofibrate for 12 weeks with 60 receiving combination treatment from weeks 12–48. There were no significant changes in hs-CRP, PAI-1, and P-selectin. From baseline to week 12, the median Apo B levels (−8 mg/dL, P=0.01 for fenofibrate and −27 mg/dL, P<0.01 for pravastatin) and ApoB/A1 ratios (−0.16, P<0.01 for both arms) significantly decreased. From baseline to week 48, median adiponectin (−1 ng/dL, P<0.01), Apo B (−22 mg/dL, P<0.01) and Apo B/A1 ratios (−0.2, P<0.01) all decreased in those who went on combination therapy, whereas Apo A1 (9.5 mg/dL, P=0.01) levels increased. Conclusion Treatment with pravastatin or fenofibrate improves the atherogenic lipid profile within the first 12 weeks and is sustained through 48 weeks with combination therapy. Adiponectin levels decrease with lipid-lowering therapy. However, markers of inflammation and platelet activation were not appreciably changed suggesting that the biologic properties of these agents differ in persons with HIV infection. PMID:20824151

  20. Effect of plant sterols on the lipid profile of patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Randomised, experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have been conducted on supplementing the daily diet with plant sterol ester-enriched milk derivatives in order to reduce LDL-cholesterol levels and, consequently, cardiovascular risk. However, clinical practice guidelines on hypercholesterolaemia state that there is not sufficient evidence to recommend their use in subjects with hypercholesterolaemia. The main objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of the intake of 2 g of plant sterol esters a day in lowering LDL-cholesterol levels in patients diagnosed with hypercholesterolaemia. The specific objectives are: 1) to quantify the efficacy of the daily intake of plant sterol esters in lowering LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and cardiovascular risk in patients with hypercholesterolaemia; 2) to evaluate the occurrence of adverse effects of the daily intake of plant sterol esters; 3) to identify the factors that determine a greater reduction in lipid levels in subjects receiving plant sterol ester supplements. Methods/Design Randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled experimental trial carried out at family doctors' surgeries at three health centres in the Health Area of Albacete (Spain). The study subjects will be adults diagnosed with "limit" or "defined" hypercholesterolaemia and who have LDL cholesterol levels of 130 mg/dl or over. A dairy product in the form of liquid yoghurt containing 2 g of plant sterol ester per container will be administered daily after the main meal, for a period of 24 months. The control group will receive a daily unit of yogurt not supplemented with plant sterol esters that has a similar appearance to the enriched yoghurt. The primary variable is the change in lipid profile at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. The secondary variables are: change in cardiovascular risk, adherence to the dairy product, adverse effects, adherence to dietary recommendations, frequency of food consumption, basic physical examination data, health problems, lipid

  1. Bilayer registry in a multicomponent asymmetric membrane: Dependence on lipid composition and chain length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polley, Anirban; Mayor, Satyajit; Rao, Madan

    2014-08-01

    A question of considerable interest to cell membrane biology is whether phase segregated domains across an asymmetric bilayer are strongly correlated with each other and whether phase segregation in one leaflet can induce segregation in the other. We answer both these questions in the affirmative, using an atomistic molecular dynamics simulation to study the equilibrium statistical properties of a 3-component asymmetric lipid bilayer comprising an unsaturated palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidyl-choline, a saturated sphingomyelin, and cholesterol with different composition ratios. Our simulations are done by fixing the composition of the upper leaflet to be at the coexistence of the liquid ordered (lo)-liquid disordered (ld) phases, while the composition of the lower leaflet is varied from the phase coexistence regime to the mixed ld phase, across a first-order phase boundary. In the regime of phase coexistence in each leaflet, we find strong transbilayer correlations of the lo domains across the two leaflets, resulting in bilayer registry. This transbilayer correlation depends sensitively upon the chain length of the participating lipids and possibly other features of lipid chemistry, such as degree of saturation. We find that the lo domains in the upper leaflet can induce phase segregation in the lower leaflet, when the latter is nominally in the mixed (ld) phase.

  2. Bilayer registry in a multicomponent asymmetric membrane: Dependence on lipid composition and chain length

    SciTech Connect

    Polley, Anirban; Mayor, Satyajit; Rao, Madan E-mail: madan@ncbs.res.in

    2014-08-14

    A question of considerable interest to cell membrane biology is whether phase segregated domains across an asymmetric bilayer are strongly correlated with each other and whether phase segregation in one leaflet can induce segregation in the other. We answer both these questions in the affirmative, using an atomistic molecular dynamics simulation to study the equilibrium statistical properties of a 3-component asymmetric lipid bilayer comprising an unsaturated palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidyl-choline, a saturated sphingomyelin, and cholesterol with different composition ratios. Our simulations are done by fixing the composition of the upper leaflet to be at the coexistence of the liquid ordered (l{sub o})-liquid disordered (l{sub d}) phases, while the composition of the lower leaflet is varied from the phase coexistence regime to the mixed l{sub d} phase, across a first-order phase boundary. In the regime of phase coexistence in each leaflet, we find strong transbilayer correlations of the l{sub o} domains across the two leaflets, resulting in bilayer registry. This transbilayer correlation depends sensitively upon the chain length of the participating lipids and possibly other features of lipid chemistry, such as degree of saturation. We find that the l{sub o} domains in the upper leaflet can induce phase segregation in the lower leaflet, when the latter is nominally in the mixed (l{sub d}) phase.

  3. Size-dependent, stochastic nature of lipid exchange between nano-vesicles and model membranes.

    PubMed

    Tabaei, Seyed R; Gillissen, Jurriaan J J; Vafaei, Setareh; Groves, Jay T; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-07-21

    The interaction of nanoscale lipid vesicles with cell membranes is of fundamental importance for the design and development of vesicular drug delivery systems. Here, we introduce a novel approach to study vesicle-membrane interactions whereby we are able to probe the influence of nanoscale membrane properties on the dynamic adsorption, exchange, and detachment of vesicles. Using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we monitor these processes in real-time upon the electrostatically tuned attachment of individual, sub-100 nm vesicles to a supported lipid bilayer. The observed exponential vesicle detachment rate depends strongly on the vesicle size, but not on the vesicle charge, which suggests that lipid exchange occurs during a single stochastic event, which is consistent with membrane stalk formation. The fluorescence microscopy assay developed in this work may enable measuring of the probability of stalk formation in a controlled manner, which is of fundamental importance in membrane biology, offering a new tool to understand nanoscale phenomena in the context of biological sciences. PMID:27355613

  4. Carbon Monoxide Modulates Connexin Function through a Lipid Peroxidation-Dependent Process: A Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Retamal, Mauricio A

    2016-01-01

    Hemichannels are ion channels composed of six connexins (Cxs), and they have the peculiarity to be permeable not only to ions, but also to molecules such as ATP and glutamate. Under physiological conditions they present a low open probability, which is sufficient to enable them to participate in several physiological functions. However, massive and/or prolonged hemichannel opening induces or accelerates cell death. Therefore, the study of the molecular mechanisms that control hemichannel activity appears to be essential for understanding several physiological and pathological processes. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous transmitter that modulates many cellular processes, some of them through modulation of ion channel activity. CO exerts its biological actions through the activation of guanylate cyclase and/or inducing direct carbonylation of proline, threonine, lysine, and arginine. It is well accepted that guanylate cyclase dependent pathway and direct carbonylation, are not sensitive to reducing agents. However, it is important to point out that CO-through a lipid peroxide dependent process-can also induce a secondary carbonylation in cysteine groups, which is sensitive to reducing agents. Recently, in our laboratory we demonstrated that the application of CO donors to the bath solution inhibited Cx46 hemichannel currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes, a phenomenon that was fully reverted by reducing agents. Therefore, a plausible mechanism of CO-induced Cx46 hemichannel inhibition is through Cx46-lipid oxidation. In this work, I will present current evidence and some preliminary results that support the following hypothesis: Carbon monoxide inhibits Cx46 HCs through a lipid peroxidation-dependent process. The main goal of this paper is to broaden the scientific community interest in studying the relationship between CO-Fatty acids and hemichannels, which will pave the way to more research directed to the understanding of the molecular mechanism(s) that control the

  5. Carbon Monoxide Modulates Connexin Function through a Lipid Peroxidation-Dependent Process: A Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Retamal, Mauricio A.

    2016-01-01

    Hemichannels are ion channels composed of six connexins (Cxs), and they have the peculiarity to be permeable not only to ions, but also to molecules such as ATP and glutamate. Under physiological conditions they present a low open probability, which is sufficient to enable them to participate in several physiological functions. However, massive and/or prolonged hemichannel opening induces or accelerates cell death. Therefore, the study of the molecular mechanisms that control hemichannel activity appears to be essential for understanding several physiological and pathological processes. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous transmitter that modulates many cellular processes, some of them through modulation of ion channel activity. CO exerts its biological actions through the activation of guanylate cyclase and/or inducing direct carbonylation of proline, threonine, lysine, and arginine. It is well accepted that guanylate cyclase dependent pathway and direct carbonylation, are not sensitive to reducing agents. However, it is important to point out that CO—through a lipid peroxide dependent process—can also induce a secondary carbonylation in cysteine groups, which is sensitive to reducing agents. Recently, in our laboratory we demonstrated that the application of CO donors to the bath solution inhibited Cx46 hemichannel currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes, a phenomenon that was fully reverted by reducing agents. Therefore, a plausible mechanism of CO-induced Cx46 hemichannel inhibition is through Cx46-lipid oxidation. In this work, I will present current evidence and some preliminary results that support the following hypothesis: Carbon monoxide inhibits Cx46 HCs through a lipid peroxidation-dependent process. The main goal of this paper is to broaden the scientific community interest in studying the relationship between CO-Fatty acids and hemichannels, which will pave the way to more research directed to the understanding of the molecular mechanism(s) that control

  6. Lipid Profile In Relation To Anthropometric Indices and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Saghafi-Asl, Maryam; Pirouzpanah, Saeed; Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Mehranghiz; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Aliashrafi, Soudabeh; Sadein, Bita

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study was aimed to investigate lipid profile in relation to anthropometric indices and insulin resistance in overweight or obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, lipid profile and anthropometric indices including body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR), and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were evaluated in 63 overweight or obese PCOS patients subdivided into insulin-resistant (IR) and non insulin-resistant (NIR) groups. IR was defined as homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ≥3.8. Results: Fasting insulin concentration and HOMA-IR were higher (P<0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.012) was lower in IR group. All of the anthropometric measures other than WHR and BMI showed significant correlations with several lipid parameters. Amongst, WHtR showed the strongest correlation with total cholesterol (TC) (r=0.37; P=0.004) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (r=0.33; P=0.011) in the whole PCOS patients. Conclusion: Anthropometric characteristics (especially BMI and hip circum­ference) are more important parameters correlated to lipid profile than IR in overweight or obesePCOS patients, confirming the importance of early treat­ment of obesity to prevent dyslipidemia in the future. PMID:24688970

  7. Imaging the Lipid-Phase-Dependent Pore Formation of Equinatoxin II in Droplet Interface Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Rojko, N.; Cronin, B.; Danial, J.S.H.; Baker, M.A.B.; Anderluh, G.; Wallace, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Using phase-separated droplet interface bilayers, we observe membrane binding and pore formation of a eukaryotic cytolysin, Equinatoxin II (EqtII). EqtII activity is known to depend on the presence of sphingomyelin in the target membrane and is enhanced by lipid phase separation. By imaging the ionic flux through individual pores in vitro, we observe that EqtII pores form predominantly within the liquid-disordered phase. We observe preferential binding of labeled EqtII at liquid-ordered/liquid-disordered domain boundaries before it accumulates in the liquid-disordered phase. PMID:24739162

  8. The Insertion and Transport of Anandamide in Synthetic Lipid Membranes Are Both Cholesterol-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Di Pasquale, Eric; Chahinian, Henri; Sanchez, Patrick; Fantini, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Background Anandamide is a lipid neurotransmitter which belongs to a class of molecules termed the endocannabinoids involved in multiple physiological functions. Anandamide is readily taken up into cells, but there is considerable controversy as to the nature of this transport process (passive diffusion through the lipid bilayer vs. involvement of putative proteic transporters). This issue is of major importance since anandamide transport through the plasma membrane is crucial for its biological activity and intracellular degradation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the involvement of cholesterol in membrane uptake and transport of anandamide. Methodology/Principal Findings Molecular modeling simulations suggested that anandamide can adopt a shape that is remarkably complementary to cholesterol. Physicochemical studies showed that in the nanomolar concentration range, anandamide strongly interacted with cholesterol monolayers at the air-water interface. The specificity of this interaction was assessed by: i) the lack of activity of structurally related unsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid and arachidonic acid at 50 nM) on cholesterol monolayers, and ii) the weak insertion of anandamide into phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin monolayers. In agreement with these data, the presence of cholesterol in reconstituted planar lipid bilayers triggered the stable insertion of anandamide detected as an increase in bilayer capacitance. Kinetics transport studies showed that pure phosphatidylcholine bilayers were weakly permeable to anandamide. The incorporation of cholesterol in phosphatidylcholine bilayers dose-dependently stimulated the translocation of anandamide. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that cholesterol stimulates both the insertion of anandamide into synthetic lipid monolayers and bilayers, and its transport across bilayer membranes. In this respect, we suggest that besides putative anandamide protein-transporters, cholesterol could

  9. PLANT LIPIDOMICS: DISCERNING BIOLOGICAL FUNCTION BY PROFILING PLANT COMPLEX LIPIDS USING MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2002, plant biologists have begun to apply mass spectrometry to the comprehensive analysis of complex lipids. Such lipidomic analyses have been used to uncover roles for lipids in plant response to stresses and to identify in vivo functions of genes involved in lipid metabolism....

  10. Multi-omic profiles of hepatic metabolism in TPN-fed preterm pigs administered new generation lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Gregory; Kulkarni, Madhulika; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; Stoll, Barbara; Ng, Kenneth; Martin, Camilia; Belmont, John; Hadsell, Darryl; Heird, William; Newgard, Christopher B; Olutoye, Oluyinka; van Goudoever, Johannes; Lauridsen, Charlotte; He, Xingxuan; Schuchman, Edward H; Burrin, Douglas

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to characterize the lipidomic, metabolomic, and transcriptomic profiles in preterm piglets administered enteral (ENT) formula or three parenteral lipid emulsions [parenteral nutrition (PN)], Intralipid (IL), Omegaven (OV), or SMOFlipid (SL), for 14 days. Piglets in all parenteral lipid groups showed differential organ growth versus ENT piglets; whole body growth rate was lowest in IL piglets, yet there were no differences in either energy expenditure or (13)C-palmitate oxidation. Plasma homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance demonstrated insulin resistance in IL, but not OV or SL, compared with ENT. The fatty acid and acyl-CoA content of the liver, muscle, brain, and plasma fatty acids reflected the composition of the dietary lipids administered. Free carnitine and acylcarnitine (ACT) levels were markedly reduced in the PN groups compared with ENT piglets. Genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation were increased, whereas those associated with alternative pathways of fatty acid oxidation were decreased in all PN groups. Our results show that new generation lipid emulsions directly enrich tissue fatty acids, especially in the brain, and lead to improved growth and insulin sensitivity compared with a soybean lipid emulsion. In all total PN groups, carnitine levels are limiting to the formation of ACTs and gene expression reflects the stress of excess lipid on liver function. PMID:27474222

  11. Blood glucose level and lipid profile of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations.

    PubMed

    Ojiako, Okey A; Chikezie, Paul C; Ogbuji, Agomuo C

    2016-04-01

    The current study sought to investigate the capacities of single and combinatorial herbal formulations of leaf extracts of Acanthus montanus, Asystasia gangetica, Emilia coccinea, and Hibiscus rosasinensis to reverse hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Phytochemical composition of the herbal extracts, fasting plasma glucose concentration (FPGC), and serum lipid profile (SLP) of the rats were measured by standard methods. The relative abundance of phytochemicals in the four experimental leaf extracts was in the following order: flavonoids > alkaloids > saponins > tannins. Hyperglycemic rats (HyGR) treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations showed evidence of reduced FPGC compared with the untreated HyGR and were normoglycemic (FPGC < 110.0 mg/dL). Similarly, HyGR treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations showed evidence of readjustments in their SLPs. Generally, HyGR treated with triple herbal formulations (THfs) exhibited the highest atherogenic index compared with HyGR treated with single herbal formulations (SHfs), double herbal formulations (DHfs), and quadruple herbal formulation (QHf). The display of synergy or antagonism by the composite herbal extracts in ameliorating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia depended on the type and number of individual herbal extract used in constituting the experimental herbal formulations. Furthermore, the capacities of the herbal formulations (SHfs, DHfs, THfs, and QHf) to exert glycemic control and reverse dyslipidemia did not follow predictable patterns in the animal models. PMID:27114943

  12. Blood glucose level and lipid profile of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations

    PubMed Central

    Ojiako, Okey A.; Chikezie, Paul C.; Ogbuji, Agomuo C.

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to investigate the capacities of single and combinatorial herbal formulations of leaf extracts of Acanthus montanus, Asystasia gangetica, Emilia coccinea, and Hibiscus rosasinensis to reverse hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Phytochemical composition of the herbal extracts, fasting plasma glucose concentration (FPGC), and serum lipid profile (SLP) of the rats were measured by standard methods. The relative abundance of phytochemicals in the four experimental leaf extracts was in the following order: flavonoids > alkaloids > saponins > tannins. Hyperglycemic rats (HyGR) treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations showed evidence of reduced FPGC compared with the untreated HyGR and were normoglycemic (FPGC < 110.0 mg/dL). Similarly, HyGR treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations showed evidence of readjustments in their SLPs. Generally, HyGR treated with triple herbal formulations (THfs) exhibited the highest atherogenic index compared with HyGR treated with single herbal formulations (SHfs), double herbal formulations (DHfs), and quadruple herbal formulation (QHf). The display of synergy or antagonism by the composite herbal extracts in ameliorating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia depended on the type and number of individual herbal extract used in constituting the experimental herbal formulations. Furthermore, the capacities of the herbal formulations (SHfs, DHfs, THfs, and QHf) to exert glycemic control and reverse dyslipidemia did not follow predictable patterns in the animal models. PMID:27114943

  13. The adrenal specific toxicant mitotane directly interacts with lipid membranes and alters membrane properties depending on lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Scheidt, Holger A; Haralampiev, Ivan; Theisgen, Stephan; Schirbel, Andreas; Sbiera, Silviu; Huster, Daniel; Kroiss, Matthias; Müller, Peter

    2016-06-15

    Mitotane (o,p'.-DDD) is an orphan drug approved for the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma. The mechanisms, which are responsible for this activity of the drug, are not completely understood. It can be hypothesized that an impact of mitotane is mediated by the interaction with cellular membranes. However, an interaction of mitotane with (lipid) membranes has not yet been investigated in detail. Here, we characterized the interaction of mitotane and its main metabolite o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroacetic acid (o,p'-DDA) with lipid membranes by applying a variety of biophysical approaches of nuclear magnetic resonance, electron spin resonance, and fluorescence spectroscopy. We found that mitotane and o,p'-DDA bind to lipid membranes by inserting into the lipid-water interface of the bilayer. Mitotane but not o,p'-DDA directly causes a disturbance of bilayer structure leading to an increased permeability of the membrane for polar molecules. Mitotane induced alterations of the membrane integrity required the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine and/or cholesterol. Collectively, our data for the first time characterize the impact of mitotane on the lipid membrane structure and dynamics, which may contribute to a better understanding of specific mitotane effects and side effects. PMID:27002491

  14. Evaluation of Serum Lipid Profiles in Turkish Children Aged Two to Eighteen Years

    PubMed Central

    Toprak, D; Bukulmez, A; Dogan, N; Oztekin, O; Koken, T

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate dyslipidaemia in children according to age, gender, percentiles, mother's education level, breastfeeding duration and areas of residence. Methods: A total of 285 children (137 girls; 148 boys), aged between two and 18 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional, epidemiologic study. Lipid profiles were assessed and its relation with socio-demographic features was evaluated. Results: Dyslipidaemia prevalence was 37.4% (n = 107). High very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are related with percentiles of the children (p = 0.006, p = 0.03, respectively). Gender was a significant factor for VLDL-C, which was higher in girls than boys (p = 0.04). Total cholesterol levels were high in 14 children (4.9%); 72 of the study group (25.3%) had high triglyceride levels; HDL-C levels were low in 52 children (18.2%). Conclusion: All the parameters of dyslipidaemia are not so high in our region. However, as early detection of dyslipidaemia should begin in childhood, we should perform periodic checks to prevent cardiovascular risks. PMID:25803372

  15. Noni Juice Improves Serum Lipid Profiles and Other Risk Markers in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mian-Ying; Peng, Lin; Weidenbacher-Hoper, Vicki; Deng, Shixin; Anderson, Gary; West, Brett J.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress leads to dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation. Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice has been found previously to have a significant antioxidant activity. One hundred thirty-two adult heavy smokers completed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of noni juice on serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and homocysteine. Volunteers drank noni juice or a fruit juice placebo daily for one month. Drinking 29.5 mL to 188 mL of noni juice per day significantly reduced cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and hs-CRP. Decreases in LDL and homocysteine, as well increases in HDL, were also observed among noni juice drinkers. The placebo, which was devoid of iridoid glycosides, did not significantly influence blood lipid profiles or hs-CRP. Noni juice was able to mitigate cigarette smoke-induced dyslipidemia, an activity associated with the presence of iridoids. PMID:23097636

  16. [Alteration of serum lipid profile in young men with different somatotypes after food load].

    PubMed

    Fefelova, V V; Koloskova, T P; Kazakova, T V; Fefelova, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    Serum lipid profiles of 76 men of young age (17-21years) were investigated using thin layer chromatography and determination of somatotypes was realized using the scheme of V.P. Chtetsov et al. (1978). The investigation was conducted on an empty stomach and after one hour after food loads (test meal with energy value of 419 kcal, content of proteins - 17,9 g, fats - 11,9 g, carbohydrates - 60,1 g). Regularities inherent to certain somatotypes were revealed. In young men with the abdominal somatotype (with the most pronounced fat component), changes evidencing membranes rigidity growth were revealed: cholesterol esterification processes inhibition and increase of sphingomyelin after meal (p = 0.001). In young men with muscular somatotype the highest level of phosphatidylcholine and the lowest level of easily-oxidized phospholipid fractions in comparison to other somatotypes [thoracic (p = 0.044), abdominal (p = 0.037) and undetermined (p = 0.021)] were registered. General rule is lowering of the free fatty acids levels after meal in comparison with the indices on the empty stomach for all somatotypes: thoracic (p = 0.0001), muscular (p = 0.012), abdominal (p = 0.041) and undetermined (p = 000018). Definiteness of the effect of lowering of free fatty acids levels after meal for all somatotypes could evidence the importance Of this process for maintaining the homeostatic body constants. PMID:26402939

  17. The Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Metabolic Markers and Lipid Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Te; Tsai, Su-Shan; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Ting, Hua; Wu, Trong-Neng; Liou, Saou-Hsing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and metabolic markers and whether the elevated risk of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is related to Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 246 male bus drivers from one transportation company in Taiwan. Each participant was evaluated by a polysomnography (PSG) test and by blood lipids examination. Severity of OSA was categorized according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Results The results showed that a 73.3% prevalence of MetS in OSA (AHI > 15) and a 80.0% prevalence of MetS in severe OSA (AHI > 30) were found. After adjusting for confounding variables, an increased level of Body-Mass Index (BMI) and two non-MetS cardiovascular risk factors, total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly associated with AHI in subjects with severe OSA. MetS was about three times to be present in subjects with severe OSA, even adjusted for BMI. Conclusions The findings showed a high prevalence of MetS in OSA among professional drivers, especially in the severe group category. BMI was the major contributing factor to OSA. However, the present study did not find a sensitive clinical marker of a detrimental metabolic profile in OSA patients. PMID:26115005

  18. Effect of fruits of Moringa oleifera on the lipid profile of normal and hypercholesterolaemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Komal; Balaraman, R; Amin, A H; Bafna, P A; Gulati, O D

    2003-06-01

    Rabbits were fed Moringa oleifera (200mg/kg/day, p.o.) or lovastatin (6mg/kg/day, p.o.) in banana pulp along with standard laboratory diet and hypercholesterolaemic diet for 120 days. Moringa oleifera and lovastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, phospholipid, triglyceride, VLDL, LDL, cholesterol to phospholipid ratio and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL ratio (HDL/HDL-total cholesterol) as compared to the corresponding control groups. Treatment with M. oleifera or lovastatin in normal rabbits decreased the HDL levels. However, HDL levels were significantly increased or decreased in M. oleifera- or lovastatin-treated hypercholesterolaemic rabbits, respectively. Lovastatin- or M. oleifera-treated hypercholesterolaemic rabbits showed decrease in lipid profile of liver, heart and aorta while similar treatment of normal animals did not produce significant reduction in heart. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of faecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidaemic effect. PMID:12738086

  19. The Relationship Between Serum Lipid Profile and Selected Trace Elements for Adult Men in Mosul City

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sabaawy, Osama M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the correlations of the serum concentrations of copper, zinc, and manganese with lipid profile parameters of adult men in Mosul City, Iraq. Methods The study included 51 apparently healthy adult men as a control group aged 34-62 years (group 1), and 31 hyperlipidemic patients aged 37-60 years (group 2). Trace elements copper, zinc and manganese were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined using enzymatic method. Indirect serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were calculated via the Friedewald formula. Data were evaluated as mean and standard deviation by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test. Results The results indicated that there is a significant lower level of serum zinc in hyperlipidemic patients compared with the control group, while copper and manganese showed no significant differences between the two groups. A significant negative correlation was found between serum zinc and total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and low/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio; while a significant positive correlation was found between serum zinc and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, a significant positive correlation between copper and triglyceride existed in the patient group, while the control group showed no such correlation. Conclusion Hyperlipidemia may possibly be related to a decrease in the level of serum zinc in hyperlipidemic adult men. The data also supports the concept that zinc supplementation might be useful in improving metabolic complications in subjects with hyperlipidemia. PMID:23071882

  20. Profiling of lipid and glycogen accumulations under different growth conditions in the sulfothermophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Toshihiro; Aoki, Motohide; Ju, Xiaohui; Ueda, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujiwara, Shoko; Umemura, Tomonari; Tsuzuki, Mikio; Minoda, Ayumi

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular red alga Galdieria sulphuraria grows efficiently and produces a large amount of biomass in acidic conditions at high temperatures. It has great potential to produce biofuels and other beneficial compounds without becoming contaminated with other organisms. In G. sulphuraria, biomass measurements and glycogen and lipid analyses demonstrated that the amounts and compositions of glycogen and lipids differed when cells were grown under autotrophic, mixotrophic, and heterotrophic conditions. Maximum biomass production was obtained in the mixotrophic culture. High amounts of glycogen were obtained in the mixotrophic cultures, while the amounts of neutral lipids were similar between mixotrophic and heterotrophic cultures. The amounts of neutral lipids were highest in red algae, including thermophiles. Glycogen structure and fatty acids compositions largely depended on the growth conditions. PMID:26595665

  1. Solvent history dependence of gramicidin A conformations in hydrated lipid bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    LoGrasso, P V; Moll, F; Cross, T A

    1988-01-01

    Reconstituted lipid bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and gramicidin A' have been prepared by cosolubilizing gramicidin and DMPC in one of three organic solvent systems followed by vacuum drying and hydration. The conformational state of gramicidin as characterized by 23Na NMR, circular dichroism, and solid state 15N NMR is dependent upon the cosolubilizing solvent system. In particular, two conformational states are described; a state in which Na+ has minimal interactions with the polypeptide, referred to as a nonchannel state, and a state in which Na+ interacts very strongly with the polypeptide, referred to as the channel state. Both of these conformations are intimately associated with the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer. Furthermore, both of these states are stable in the bilayer at neutral pH and at a temperature above the bilayer phase transition temperature. These results with gramicidin suggest that the conformation of membrane proteins may be dictated by the conformation before membrane insertion and may be dependent upon the mechanism by which the insertion is accomplished. PMID:2462923

  2. Wheat germ oil and α-lipoic acid predominantly improve the lipid profile of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Shahid, Muhammad

    2013-11-20

    In response to recent assertions that synthetic antioxidants may have the potential to cause toxic effects and to consumers' increased attention to consuming natural products, the poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants, alone or in combination with synthetic antioxidants that are currently being used by the industry. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of α-lipoic acid, α-tocopherol, and wheat germ oil on the status of antioxidant enzymes, fatty acid profile, and serum biochemical profile of broiler blood. One-day-old (180) broiler birds were fed six different feeds varying in their antioxidant content: no addition (T1), natural α-tocopherol (wheat germ oil, T2), synthetic α-tocopherol (T3), α-lipoic acid (T4), α-lipoic acid together with natural α-tocopherol (T5), and α-lipoic acid together with synthetic α-tocopherol (T6). The composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the breast and leg meat was positively influenced by the different dietary supplements. The content of fatty acid was significantly greater in broilers receiving T2 both in breast (23.92%) and in leg (25.82%) meat, whereas lower fatty acid levels was found in broilers receiving diets containing T6 in the breast (19.57%) and leg (21.30%) meat. Serum total cholesterol (113.42 mg/dL) and triglycerides (52.29 mg/dL) were lowest in the group given natural α-tocopherol and α-lipoic acid. Wheat germ oil containing natural α-tocopherol alone or with α-lipoic acid was more effective than synthetic α-tocopherol in raising levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase while lowering plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides and raising high-density lipoprotein and plasma protein significantly. It was concluded that the combination of wheat germ oil and α-lipoic acid is helpful in improving the lipid profile of broilers. PMID:24191686

  3. Lipid profile and thyroid hormone status in the last trimester of pregnancy in single-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Omidi, Arash; Sajedi, Zhila; Montazer Torbati, Mohammad Bagher; Ansari Nik, Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Changes in lipid metabolism have been shown to occur during pregnancy. The thyroid hormones affect lipid metabolism. The present study was carried out to find out whether the last trimester of pregnancy affects thyroid hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), lipid, and lipoprotein profile in healthy dromedary camels. Twenty clinical healthy dromedary camels aged between 4-5 years were divided into two equal groups: (1) pregnant camels in their last trimester of pregnancy and (2) non-pregnant age-matched controls. Thyroid function tests were carried out by measuring serum levels of TSH, free thyroxin (fT4), total thyroxin (T4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and total triiodothyronine (T3) by commercially available radio immunoassay kits. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were analyzed using enzymatic/spectrophotometric methods while low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and total lipid (TL) were calculated using Friedewald's and Raylander's formula, respectively. Serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones except fT4 did not show any significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant camels. fT4 level was lower in the pregnant camels (P < 0.05). Serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, total lipid, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and VLDL did not show significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant camels. All of these variables in pregnant camels were higher than non-pregnant. Based on the results of this study, the fetus load may not alter the thyroid status of the camel and the concentrations of thyroid hormones were not correlated with TSH and lipid profile levels in the healthy pregnant camels. PMID:24429808

  4. A mitochondrial-targeted ubiquinone modulates muscle lipid profile and improves mitochondrial respiration in obesogenic diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Coudray, Charles; Fouret, Gilles; Lambert, Karen; Ferreri, Carla; Rieusset, Jennifer; Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Lecomte, Jérôme; Ebabe Elle, Raymond; Badia, Eric; Murphy, Michael P; Feillet-Coudray, Christine

    2016-04-14

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome components including abdominal obesity, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance is increasing in both developed and developing countries. It is generally accepted that the development of these features is preceded by, or accompanied with, impaired mitochondrial function. The present study was designed to analyse the effects of a mitochondrial-targeted lipophilic ubiquinone (MitoQ) on muscle lipid profile modulation and mitochondrial function in obesogenic diet-fed rats. For this purpose, twenty-four young male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed one of the following diets: (1) control, (2) high fat (HF) and (3) HF+MitoQ. After 8 weeks, mitochondrial function markers and lipid metabolism/profile modifications in skeletal muscle were measured. The HF diet was effective at inducing the major features of the metabolic syndrome--namely, obesity, hepatic enlargement and glucose intolerance. MitoQ intake prevented the increase in rat body weight, attenuated the increase in adipose tissue and liver weights and partially reversed glucose intolerance. At the muscle level, the HF diet induced moderate TAG accumulation associated with important modifications in the muscle phospholipid classes and in the fatty acid composition of total muscle lipid. These lipid modifications were accompanied with decrease in mitochondrial respiration. MitoQ intake corrected the lipid alterations and restored mitochondrial respiration. These results indicate that MitoQ protected obesogenic diet-fed rats from some features of the metabolic syndrome through its effects on muscle lipid metabolism and mitochondrial activity. These findings suggest that MitoQ is a promising candidate for future human trials in the metabolic syndrome prevention. PMID:26856891

  5. Lipidomic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii reveals critical changes in lipid composition in response to acetic acid stress.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Lina; Santos, Aline Xs; Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L(-1), while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L(-1) acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large

  6. L-Carnitine supplementation improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile in women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Mahdavi, Reza; Kolahi, Sousan; Zemestani, Maryam; Vatankhah, Amir-Mansour

    2015-08-01

    Considering the pathologic importance of oxidative stress and altered lipid metabolism in osteoarthritis (OA), this study aimed to investigate the effect of l-carnitine supplementation on oxidative stress, lipid profile, and clinical status in women with knee OA. We hypothesized that l-carnitine would improve clinical status by modulating serum oxidative stress and lipid profile. In this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 72 overweight or obese women with mild to moderate knee OA were randomly allocated into 2 groups to receive 750 mg/d l-carnitine or placebo for 8 weeks. Dietary intake was evaluated using 24-hour recall for 3 days. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid profile, visual analog scale for pain intensity, and patient global assessment of severity of disease were assessed before and after supplementation. Only 69 patients (33 in the l-carnitine group and 36 in the placebo group) completed the study. l-Carnitine supplementation resulted in significant reductions in serum MDA (2.46 ± 1.13 vs 2.16 ± 0.94 nmol/mL), total cholesterol (216.09 ± 34.54 vs 206.12 ± 39.74 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (129.45 ± 28.69 vs 122.05 ± 32.76 mg/dL) levels compared with baseline (P < .05), whereas these parameters increased in the placebo group. Serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TAC levels did not change significantly in both groups (P > .05). No significant differences were observed in dietary intake, serum lipid profile, MDA, and TAC levels between groups after adjusting for baseline values and covariates (P > .05). There were significant intragroup and intergroup differences in pain intensity and patient global assessment of disease status after supplementation (P < .05). Collectively, l-carnitine improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile significantly in women with knee OA. PMID:26149189

  7. Changes in Lipid Profiles of HIV+ Adults over Nine Months at a Harare HIV Clinic: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Nehumba, Doreen; Oktedalen, Olav; Marange, Princess; Kodogo, Vitaris; Gomo, Zvenyika Alfred; Esterhuizen, Tonya M.; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection, together with ART, is associated with changes in biochemical, metabolic parameters and lipid profiles. The aim of this study was to compare changes in lipid profiles among HIV positive outpatients over nine months. 171 patients were investigated, 79% were ART experienced, and 82% of ART experienced patients were on NVP/EFV first line at baseline, but some patients changed ART groups over follow-up and classification was based on intent to treat. More than 60% ART naïve and ART experienced patients had some form of dyslipidemia either at baseline or at follow-up, but mean lipid values for the two groups were within normal limits. At baseline and follow-up, mean levels of TC and HDL were slightly higher in the ART experienced group. Interestingly, there was higher increase in HDL over time in the ART negative group compared to the ART positive group. There was a decrease in TC/HDL ratio in both groups over time, suggesting a reduction in calculated risk of CHD over time. HIV positive patients frequently show various forms of dyslipidemia, but there are no changes in average atherogenic lipid levels and results suggest reduced risk of CHD, mainly due to increases in HDL, after nine months of observation time. PMID:27051532

  8. Identification of nucleolin as a lipid-raft-dependent β1-integrin-interacting protein in A375 cell migration.

    PubMed

    Bi, Jiajia; Wang, Ruifei; Zhang, Yue; Han, Xiaoqing; Ampah, Khamal Kwesi; Liu, Wenguang; Zeng, Xianlu

    2013-12-01

    Lipid rafts are related to cell surface receptor function. Integrin is a major surface receptor protein in cell adhesion and migration on the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here, we showed that lipid rafts played a critical role in human melanoma A375 cell spreading and migration on fibronectin; an important component of the ECM that interacts with β1 integrin. We found that the disruption of lipid rafts did not markedly inhibit the expression and activation of β1 integrin. By coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we investigated the influence of lipid rafts on the β1 integrin complex and identified nucleolin as a potential lipid-raft-dependent β1-integrin-interacting protein. Upon confirmation of the interaction between β1 integrin and nucleolin, further studies revealed that nucleolin colocalized with β1 integrin in lipid rafts and raft disruption interrupted their association. In addition, knockdown of nucleolin markedly attenuated A375 cell spreading and migration on fibronectin. Taken together, we demonstrated that nucleolin is a critical lipid-raft-dependent β1-integrin-interacting protein in A375 cell spreading and migration on fibronectin. PMID:24292944

  9. Chemical Profiles of Microalgae with Emphasis on Lipids: A Subcontract Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tornabene, T. G.; Hubbard, J. S.

    1984-09-01

    Well balanced cultivated cells that are healthy and unstressed produce the optimum cellular yield. All stress studies for lipids production should be conducted with the established cell mass and not be administered during active cultivation. Cells cultivated continually in suboptimum conditions produce lower cellular yields and continuous cultivation in suboptimum media and environmental conditions produce lower than normal lipid levels. Lipid triggers are preceded by a burst of carbohydrate synthesis and storage.

  10. Strain-dependent profile of misfolded prion protein aggregates.

    PubMed

    Morales, Rodrigo; Hu, Ping Ping; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Moda, Fabio; Diaz-Espinoza, Rodrigo; Chen, Baian; Bravo-Alegria, Javiera; Makarava, Natallia; Baskakov, Ilia V; Soto, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Prions are composed of the misfolded prion protein (PrP(Sc)) organized in a variety of aggregates. An important question in the prion field has been to determine the identity of functional PrP(Sc) aggregates. In this study, we used equilibrium sedimentation in sucrose density gradients to separate PrP(Sc) aggregates from three hamster prion strains (Hyper, Drowsy, SSLOW) subjected to minimal manipulations. We show that PrP(Sc) aggregates distribute in a wide range of arrangements and the relative proportion of each species depends on the prion strain. We observed a direct correlation between the density of the predominant PrP(Sc) aggregates and the incubation periods for the strains studied. The relative presence of PrP(Sc) in fractions of different sucrose densities was indicative of the protein deposits present in the brain as analyzed by histology. Interestingly, no association was found between sensitivity to proteolytic degradation and aggregation profiles. Therefore, the organization of PrP molecules in terms of the density of aggregates generated may determine some of the particular strain properties, whereas others are independent from it. Our findings may contribute to understand the mechanisms of strain variation and the role of PrP(Sc) aggregates in prion-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:26877167

  11. Strain-dependent profile of misfolded prion protein aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Rodrigo; Hu, Ping Ping; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Moda, Fabio; Diaz-Espinoza, Rodrigo; Chen, Baian; Bravo-Alegria, Javiera; Makarava, Natallia; Baskakov, Ilia V.; Soto, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Prions are composed of the misfolded prion protein (PrPSc) organized in a variety of aggregates. An important question in the prion field has been to determine the identity of functional PrPSc aggregates. In this study, we used equilibrium sedimentation in sucrose density gradients to separate PrPSc aggregates from three hamster prion strains (Hyper, Drowsy, SSLOW) subjected to minimal manipulations. We show that PrPSc aggregates distribute in a wide range of arrangements and the relative proportion of each species depends on the prion strain. We observed a direct correlation between the density of the predominant PrPSc aggregates and the incubation periods for the strains studied. The relative presence of PrPSc in fractions of different sucrose densities was indicative of the protein deposits present in the brain as analyzed by histology. Interestingly, no association was found between sensitivity to proteolytic degradation and aggregation profiles. Therefore, the organization of PrP molecules in terms of the density of aggregates generated may determine some of the particular strain properties, whereas others are independent from it. Our findings may contribute to understand the mechanisms of strain variation and the role of PrPSc aggregates in prion-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:26877167

  12. Tissue lipid metabolism and hepatic metabolomic profiling in response to supplementation of fermented cottonseedmeal in the diets of broiler chickens*

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Cun-xi; Zhang, Wen-ju; Wang, Yong-qiang; Liu, Yan-feng; Ge, Wen-xia; Liu, Jian-cheng

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on lipid metabolites, lipid metabolism-related gene expression in liver tissues and abdominal adipose tissues, and hepatic metabolomic profiling in broiler chickens. One hundred and eighty 21-d-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into three diet groups with six replicates of 10 birds in each group. The three diets consisted of a control diet supplemented with unfermented cottonseed meal, an experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by Candida tropicalis, and a second experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by C. tropicalis plus Saccharomyces cerevisae. The results showed that FCSM intake significantly decreased the levels of abdominal fat and hepatic triglycerides (P<0.05 for both). Dietary FCSM supplementation down-regulated the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase in liver tissues and the lipoprotein lipase expression in abdominal fat tissues (P<0.05 for both). FCSM intake resulted in significant metabolic changes of multiple pathways in the liver involving the tricarboxylic acid cycle, synthesis of fatty acids, and the metabolism of glycerolipid and amino acids. These findings indicated that FCSM regulated lipid metabolism by increasing or decreasing the expression of the lipid-related gene and by altering multiple endogenous metabolites. Lipid metabolism regulation is a complex process, this discovery provided new essential information about the effects of FCSM diets in broiler chickens and demonstrated the great potential of nutrimetabolomics in researching complex nutrients added to animal diets. PMID:26055906

  13. Comprehensive metabolomic, lipidomic and microscopic profiling of Yarrowia lipolytica during lipid accumulation identifies targets for increased lipogenesis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Wei, Siwei; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Dohnalkova, Alice; Arey, Bruce W.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Orr, Galya; Metz, Thomas O.; Baker, Scott E.

    2015-04-23

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous ascomycete yeast that accumulates large amounts of lipids and has potential as a biofuel producing organism. Despite a growing scientific literature focused on lipid production by Y. lipolytica, there remain significant knowledge gaps regarding the key biological processes involved. We applied a combination of metabolomic and lipidomic profiling approaches as well as microscopic techniques to identify and characterize the key pathways involved in de novo lipid accumulation from glucose in batch cultured, wild-type Y. lipolytica. We found that lipids accumulated rapidly and peaked at 48 hours during the five day experiment, concurrent with a shiftmore » in amino acid metabolism. We also report that Y. lipolytica secretes disaccharides early in batch culture and reabsorbs them when extracellular glucose is depleted. Exhaustion of extracellular sugars coincided with thickening of the cell wall, suggesting that genes involved in cell wall biogenesis may be a useful target for improving the efficiency of lipid producing yeast strains.« less

  14. The effect of iron on growth, lipid accumulation, and gene expression profile of the freshwater microalga Chlorella sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Wan, Minxi; Jin, Xuejie; Xia, Jinlan; Rosenberg, Julian N; Yu, Geng; Nie, Zhenyuan; Oyler, George A; Betenbaugh, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    The effects of iron on the growth, lipid accumulation, and gene expression profiles of the limnetic Chlorella sorokiniana CCTCC M209220 under photoautotrophy were investigated. The addition of iron up to 10(-5) mol l(-l) increased final cell densities by nearly 2-fold at 2.3 × 10(7) cells/ml, growth rate by 2-fold, and the length of the exponential phase by 5 days as compared to unsupplemented controls while 10(-3) mol l(-1) iron was toxic. The lipid content increased from 12 % for unsupplemented cultures to 33 % at 10(-4) mol l(-1) iron while the highest overall lipid yield reached 179 mg l(-1). A genefishing and qPCR comparison between the C. sorokiniana at low and high iron levels indicated increases in the expression of several genes, including carbonic anhydrase involved in microalgal cell growth, as well as acc1 and choline transporter related to lipid synthesis. This study provides insights into changes in gene expression and metabolism that accompany iron supplementation to Chlorella as well as potential metabolic engineering targets for improving growth and lipid synthesis in microalgae. PMID:25248441

  15. Association between serum level of vitamin D and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is suggested that vitamin D deficiency is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) via its effect on lipid profiles. The objective of this study was to determine the association between fasting serum levels of 25(OH) D and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 108 type 2 diabetics. Patients were selected randomly among members of the Iranian Diabetes Association according to study criteria. Fasting concentration of 25(OH) D, calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lipid profiles (including triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and total cholesterol) were measured. Results The mean serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) and PTH were 53.41 ± 33.25 nmol/l and 40.24 ± 18.24 pmol/l, respectively, in type 2 diabetic patients. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 58.34% and vitamin D sufficiency and insufficiency combined was 41.66%. Although in diabetic patients with vitamin D deficiency, serum levels of total cholesterol, TG, and LDL were higher and HDL was lower compared to patients with vitamin D sufficiency, this association was statistically significant only for serum level of TG (145.91 ± 79.00 vs. 122.95 ± 55.82 mg/dl). Conclusions The results of present study show that serum concentrations of 25(OH) D were inversely associated with TG. More interventional studies are needed to confirm the relationship between serum concentration of vitamin D and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24398023

  16. Changes in the blood lipid profile after administration of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaves in the normal albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, A; Lavania, S C; Pandey, D N; Pant, M C

    1994-10-01

    Administration of fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) mixed as 1 g and 2 g in 100 gms of diet given for four weeks, brought about significant changes in the lipid profile of normal albino rabbits. This resulted in significant lowering in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid and LDL-cholesterol levels and significant increase in the HDL-cholesterol and total faecal sterol contents. PMID:7883302

  17. Mangiferin supplementation improves serum lipid profiles in overweight patients with hyperlipidemia: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Na, Lixin; Zhang, Qiao; Jiang, Shuo; Du, Shanshan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao; Niu, Yucun

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that mangiferin decreased serum triglycerides and free fatty acids (FFAs) by increasing FFAs oxidation in both animal and cell experiments. This study sought to evaluate the effects of mangiferin on serum lipid profiles in overweight patients with hyperlipidemia. Overweight patients with hyperlipidemia (serum triglyceride ≥ 1.70 mmol/L, and total cholesterol ≥ 5.2 mmol/L) were included in this double-blind randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomly allocated to groups, either receiving mangiferin (150 mg/day) or identical placebo for 12 weeks. The lipid profile and serum levels of mangiferin, glucose, L-carnitine, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate were determined at baseline and 12 weeks. A total of 97 participants completed the trial. Compared with the placebo control, mangiferin supplementation significantly decreased the serum levels of triglycerides and FFAs, and insulin resistance index. Mangiferin supplementation also significantly increased the serum levels of mangiferin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, L-carnitine, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate, and increased lipoprotein lipase activity. However, there were no differences in the serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum glucose, and insulin between groups. Mangiferin supplementation could improve serum lipid profiles by reducing serum triglycerides and FFAs in overweight patients with hyperlipidemia, partly due to the promotion of FFAs oxidation. PMID:25989216

  18. High Temperature- and High Pressure-Processed Garlic Improves Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diets

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (P<.05). The results suggest that high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles. PMID:22404600

  19. Perturbations in the Lipid Profile of Individuals with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Lipidomics Analysis of a Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program Sample Subset

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, Christina M.; Ding, Jie; Zhang, Qibin; Alquier, Thierry; Zhao, Rui; Mueller, Patricia W.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2010-08-01

    Objectives: To characterize the lipid profile of individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus using LC-MS-based lipidomics and the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach. Design and methods: Lipids were extracted from plasma and sera of 10 subjects from the Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program (years 2000-2005) and 10 non-diabetic subjects and analyzed by capillary liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid ion-trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Lipids were identified and quantified using the AMT tag approach. Results: Five hundred sixty lipid features differentiated (q < 0.05) diabetic from healthy individuals in a partial least-squares analysis, characterizing of individuals with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: A lipid profile associated with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes may aid in further characterization of biochemical pathways involved in lipid regulation or mobilization and lipotoxicity of pancreatic beta-cells.

  20. Ligand-Dependent Nanoparticle Clustering within Lipid Membranes Induced by Surrounding Medium.

    PubMed

    Šegota, Suzana; Vojta, Danijela; Kendziora, Dania; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Fruk, Ljiljana; Baranović, Goran

    2015-04-23

    The interactions between hydrophobic or semihydrophobic gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) and a dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer as a model cell membrane in two ionic solutions result in the structural reorganization within the bilayer manifested as locally increased nanomechanical compaction in the vicinity of NP clusters as well as changed overall thermotropic properties. The effects of NP surface charge and hydrophobicity were examined using AFM imaging, force spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy. The NP clustering occurred during hydration process of dry films containing both the DMPC molecules and the NPs by the mechanism in which the number of bilayer deformations was reduced by NP clustering. The force spectroscopy showed increased bilayer density around (semi)hydrophobic NP clusters and thus locally increased lateral compaction of the bilayer. The strengthening effect was observed for both the silver and the gold NPs in a high ionic strength solution such as seawater, while it was absent under physiological conditions. The local lipid rearrangement induces the long-range lipid reorganization resulting in the bilayer phase transition shifting toward lower or higher temperatures depending on the solution ionic strength (at the most by -1.0 °C in phosphate buffered saline and at the most by +0.5 °C in seawater). PMID:25831116

  1. AMPK-dependent modulation of hepatic lipid metabolism by nesfatin-1.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yue; Li, Ziru; Gao, Ling; Li, Yin; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Weizhen

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism by which peripheral nesfatin-1 regulates hepatic lipid metabolism. Continuous peripheral infusion of nesfatin-1 reduced adiposity and plasma levels of triglyceride and cholesterol. In mice fed high fat diet, peripheral nesfatin-1 significantly decreased hepatic steatosis measured by triglyceride content and oil red staining area and diameter. These alterations were associated with a significant reduction in lipogenesis-related transcriptional factors PPARγ and SREBP1, as well as rate-limited enzyme genes such as acaca, fasn, gpam, dgat1 and dgat2. In primary hepatocytes, nesfatin-1 inhibited both basal and oleic acid stimulated triglyceride accumulation, which was accompanied by a decrement in lipogenesis-related genes and an increase in β-oxidation-related genes. In cultured hepatocytes, nesfatin-1 increased levels of AMPK phosphorylation. Inhibition of AMPK by compound C blocked the reduction of triglyceride content elicited by nesfatin-1. Our studies demonstrate that nesfatin-1 attenuates lipid accumulation in hepatocytes by an AMPK-dependent mechanism. PMID:26363221

  2. Low pH and Anionic Lipid-dependent Fusion of Uukuniemi Phlebovirus to Liposomes*

    PubMed Central

    Bitto, David; Halldorsson, Steinar; Caputo, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Many phleboviruses (family Bunyaviridae) are emerging as medically important viruses. These viruses enter target cells by endocytosis and low pH-dependent membrane fusion in late endosomes. However, the necessary and sufficient factors for fusion have not been fully characterized. We have studied the minimal fusion requirements of a prototypic phlebovirus, Uukuniemi virus, in an in vitro virus-liposome assay. We show that efficient lipid mixing between viral and liposome membranes requires close to physiological temperatures and phospholipids with negatively charged headgroups, such as the late endosomal phospholipid bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate. We further demonstrate that bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate increases Uukuniemi virus fusion beyond the lipid mixing stage. By using electron cryotomography of viral particles in the presence or absence of liposomes, we observed that the conformation of phlebovirus glycoprotein capsomers changes from the native conformation toward a more elongated conformation at a fusion permissive pH. Our results suggest a rationale for phlebovirus entry in late endosomes. PMID:26811337

  3. Effect of whey protein on blood lipid profiles: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J-W; Tong, X; Wan, Z; Wang, Y; Qin, L-Q; Szeto, I M Y

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that whey supplementation may have beneficial effects on lipid profiles, although results were inconsistent. A literature search was performed in March 2015 for randomized controlled trials observing the effects of whey protein and its derivatives on circulating levels of triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A meta-analysis was subsequently conducted. The meta-analysis results of 13 trials showed that whey supplementation significantly reduced the circulating TG level by 0.11 mmol/l (95% CI: -0.21, 0 mmol/l), whereas the whey protein had no effects on circulating TC (-0.11 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.27, 0.05 mmol/l), LDL-C (-0.08 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.23, 0.07 mmol/l) and HDL-C (0.01 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.05 mmol/l). Subgroup analysis showed that significant TG reduction disappeared in participants with low body mass index, low supplemental whey dose or under exercise training/energy restriction during the trial. No evidence of heterogeneity across studies and publication bias was observed. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that the effects of whey protein supplementation were modest, with an overall lowering effect on TG but no effect on TC, LDL-C and HDL-C. PMID:27026427

  4. Evaluation of Body Mass Index and Plasma Lipid Profile in Boerboel Dogs.

    PubMed

    Ajadi, Rasheed Adetola; Ashogbon, Rashidat Oluwatobiloba; Adeniyi, Abisola Abosede

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and plasma lipid profile in Boerboel dogs. Body weights (BW),height (H) at shoulder and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from fifty-three Boerboels to determine the BMI while,body condition score (BCS) was determined subjectively. Also 5mls of blood was obtained from the dogs for determinationof total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TRIG), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). Datawere presented as means ± standard deviation and results were compared using analysis of variance. Relationship betweenBW, H and WC was determined using regression analysis. Value was accepted significant at p < 0.05. There were nosignificant differences (P > 0.05) in BW, WC, BMI and GAS between male and female Boerboels, however, H wassignificantly (P < 0.05) higher in male (62.0 ± 1.6 cm) than female Boerboels (57.0 ± 1.5 cm). BMI and HDL weresignificantly (P < 0.05) lower in Boerboels <23 months (112.4 ± 2.8 Kg/m2; 36.0 ± 2.4mg/dl) compared with those 24 - 47months (133.4 ± 1.8Kg/m2; 40.1 ± 2.2mg/dl) and >48 months (137.9 ± 1.6kg/m2; 45.8 ± 2.6mg/dl) respectively. However,there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in TC, TRIG, HDL and LDL between Boerboels with BCS > 5 compared tothose with BCS < 5. BMI linearly increased with decreasing H and WC in Boerboel dogs. It was concluded that BMI did notdiffer between sexes of Boerboel but differ between age categories. PMID:27574768

  5. Metabolomic profiling reveals mitochondrial-derived lipid biomarkers that drive obesity-associated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sampey, Brante P; Freemerman, Alex J; Zhang, Jimmy; Kuan, Pei-Fen; Galanko, Joseph A; O'Connell, Thomas M; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Stevens, Robert D; Newgard, Christopher B; Brauer, Heather A; Troester, Melissa A; Makowski, Liza

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Several animal models of obesity exist, but studies are lacking that compare traditional lard-based high fat diets (HFD) to "Cafeteria diets" (CAF) consisting of nutrient poor human junk food. Our previous work demonstrated the rapid and severe obesogenic and inflammatory consequences of CAF compared to HFD including rapid weight gain, markers of Metabolic Syndrome, multi-tissue lipid accumulation, and dramatic inflammation. To identify potential mediators of CAF-induced obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, we used metabolomic analysis to profile serum, muscle, and white adipose from rats fed CAF, HFD, or standard control diets. Principle component analysis identified elevations in clusters of fatty acids and acylcarnitines. These increases in metabolites were associated with systemic mitochondrial dysfunction that paralleled weight gain, physiologic measures of Metabolic Syndrome, and tissue inflammation in CAF-fed rats. Spearman pairwise correlations between metabolites, physiologic, and histologic findings revealed strong correlations between elevated markers of inflammation in CAF-fed animals, measured as crown like structures in adipose, and specifically the pro-inflammatory saturated fatty acids and oxidation intermediates laurate and lauroyl carnitine. Treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages with lauroyl carnitine polarized macrophages towards the M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype through downregulation of AMPK and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Results presented herein demonstrate that compared to a traditional HFD model, the CAF diet provides a robust model for diet-induced human obesity, which models Metabolic Syndrome-related mitochondrial dysfunction in serum, muscle, and adipose, along with pro-inflammatory metabolite alterations. These data also suggest that modifying the availability or metabolism of saturated fatty acids may limit the inflammation associated with obesity leading to Metabolic

  6. Changes in serum lipid profile of obese or overweight children and adolescents following a lifestyle modification course

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Hashemipour, Mahin; Sheikh-Heidar, Ahmad; Ghatreh-Samani, Shohreh

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Considering rapid global increase in children obesity and high prevalence of dyslipidemia in obese and overweight children, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of an educational course on changes of lipid profile in children. METHODS This non-pharmacological clinical trial study was performed on 4-18 year-old children attending outpatient clinics of Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center (Iran). Anthropometric measurements were conducted for all children. Fasting blood samples were taken from right hand of the participants at the first laboratory visit. Biochemical tests including measurement of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were also carried out. Children took part in one educational session in which they were taught about ways and benefits of having regular physical activity once a day and having healthy foods. All children were followed up for about four months and anthropometrics and biochemical tests were repeated. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. RESULTS A total number of 412 children (245 girls and 167 boys) were divided into four age groups of under 6, 6-9, 10-13, and 14-18 years old. Baseline anthropometric measures were significantly higher in boys. However, there was no difference between boys and girls in baseline lipid profile. Children's body mass index (BMI) z-score increased in all age groups except for 14-18 year-old boys. In boys older than 10 years, there were significant reductions in LDL-C and TC. In girls over 10 years of age, there was a significant increase in HDL-C. Although anthropometric measurements did not change in children (except for 14-18 year-old-boys), there was a significant reduction in children's lipid profile after the study. CONCLUSION Our study showed that although one session of interventional education had no significant effects on children's anthropometric measurements, it could change their

  7. Effects of Iron Overload on the Activity of Na,K-ATPase and Lipid Profile of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Leilismara; Garcia, Israel J. P.; Costa, Tamara G. F.; Silva, Lilian N. D.; Renó, Cristiane O.; Oliveira, Eneida S.; Tilelli, Cristiane Q.; Santos, Luciana L.; Cortes, Vanessa F.; Santos, Herica L.; Barbosa, Leandro A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential chemical element for human life. However, in some pathological conditions, such as hereditary hemochromatosis type 1 (HH1), iron overload induces the production of reactive oxygen species that may lead to lipid peroxidation and a change in the plasma-membrane lipid profile. In this study, we investigated whether iron overload interferes with the Na,K-ATPase activity of the plasma membrane by studying erythrocytes that were obtained from the whole blood of patients suffering from iron overload. Additionally, we treated erythrocytes of normal subjects with 0.8 mM H2O2 and 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h. We then analyzed the lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and Na,K-ATPase activity of plasma membranes derived from these cells. Iron overload was more frequent in men (87.5%) than in women and was associated with an increase (446%) in lipid peroxidation, as indicated by the amount of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and an increase (327%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes treated with 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h showed an increase (132%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity but no change in the TBARS levels. Iron treatment also decreased the cholesterol and phospholipid content of the erythrocyte membranes and similar decreases were observed in iron overload patients. In contrast, erythrocytes treated with 0.8 mM H2O2 for 24 h showed no change in the measured parameters. These results indicate that erythrocytes from patients with iron overload exhibit higher Na,K-ATPase activity compared with normal subjects and that this effect is specifically associated with altered iron levels. PMID:26197432

  8. Improvement of lipid profiles when switching from efavirenz to rilpivirine in HIV-infected patients with dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Thamrongwonglert, Pornpimol; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Anunnatsiri, Siriluck; Mootsikapun, Piroon

    2016-02-01

    Rilpivirine (RPV) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, which has better lipid profiles than efavirenz (EFV) in treatment naïve patients. However, the data on treatment experience are limited especially in dyslipidemic HIV patients; thus, we aimed to assess the change of lipid profiles after switching from EFV to RPV in these patients. In this prospective, open-label, cohort study, we enrolled HIV-1 infected adults who had received at least 6 months of EFV-based regimen, with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL for ≥6 months prior to switching. The objectives of this study were to analyze lipid changes and to evaluate the efficacy, safety, tolerability at 24 weeks after switching therapy. Fifty-three patients were enrolled and completed the study. At week 24, a significant decrease in the mean (95% confident interval, CI) total cholesterol (-28.06 mg/dL, 95%CI -35.20 to -20.91, p < 0.0001), LDL-cholesterol (-20.96 mg/dL, 95%CI -28.12 to -13.80, p < 0.0001), high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (-5.11 mg/dL, 95%CI -7.79 to -2.44, p < 0.0001), and triglyceride (-29.79 mg/dL. 95%CI -52.39 to -7.19, p = 0.011) levels were observed. One patient had virologic rebound with HIV RNA of 114 copies/mL at week 24. Three (5.7%) patients had grade 2 elevations of liver enzymes. None of the patients discontinued RPV during the study. Switching from EFV-based therapy to RPV-based regimen improved lipid profiles in fully suppressed HIV patients with dyslipidemia. This treatment should be considered in these patients. PMID:26739573

  9. A Quantitative Spectrophotometric Assay to Monitor the tRNA-Dependent Pathway for Lipid Aminoacylation In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Grube, Christopher D; Roy, Hervé

    2016-08-01

    The transfer RNA (tRNA)-dependent pathway for lipid aminoacylation is a two-step pathway composed of (1) a tRNA aminoacylation step catalyzed by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, forming a specific aa-tRNA, and (2) a tRNA-dependent transfer step in which the amino acid acylating the tRNA is transferred to an acceptor lipid. The latter step is catalyzed by a transferase located within the cytoplasmic membrane of certain bacteria. Lipid aminoacylation modifies the biochemical properties of the membrane and enhances resistance of some pathogens to various classes of antimicrobial agents and components of the innate immune response. Lipid aminoacylation has also been linked to increased virulence of various pathogenic bacteria. Inhibition of this mechanism would render pathogens more susceptible to existing drugs or to natural defenses of a host organism. Because lipid aminoacylation is widespread in many bacterial genera and absent from eukaryotes, and because the tRNA aminoacylation step of this pathway is also used in protein biosynthesis (a process essential for bacterial life), this pathway represents an attractive target for drug design. We have reconstituted the lipid aminoacylation pathway in vitro and optimized it for high-throughput screening of libraries of compounds to simultaneously identify inhibitors targeting each step of the pathway in a single assay. PMID:27073192

  10. Comparative profiling of membrane lipids during water stress in Thellungiella salsuginea and its relative Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yu, Buzhu; Li, Weiqi

    2014-12-01

    The remodelling of membrane lipids contributes to the tolerance of plants to stresses, such as freezing and deprivation of phosphorus. However, whether and how this remodelling relates to tolerance of PEG-induced osmotic stress has seldom been reported. Thellungiella salsuginea is a popular extremophile model for studies of stress tolerance. In this study, it was demonstrated that T. salsuginea was more tolerant to PEG-induced osmotic stress than its close relative Arabidopsis thaliana. Lipidomic analysis indicated that plastidic lipids are more sensitive to PEG-induced osmotic stress than extra-plastidic ones in both species, and that the changes in plastidic lipids differed markedly between them. PEG-induced osmotic stress led to a dramatic decrease in levels of plastidic lipids in A. thaliana, whereas the change in plastidic lipid in T. salsuginea involved an adaptive remodelling shortly after the onset of PEG-induced osmotic stress. The two aspects of this remodelling involved increases in (1) the level of plastidic lipids, especially digalactosyl diacylglycerol, and (2) the double bond index of plastidic lipids. These remodelling steps could maintain the integrity and improve the fluidity of plastidic membranes and this may contribute to the PEG-induced osmotic stress tolerance of T. salsuginea. PMID:25308761

  11. Age-dependent changes in lipid peroxide levels in peripheral organs, but not in brain, in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Matsugo, S; Kitagawa, T; Minami, S; Esashi, Y; Oomura, Y; Tokumaru, S; Kojo, S; Matsushima, K; Sasaki, K

    2000-01-01

    The tissue concentration of lipid peroxides was determined in the brain, heart, liver, lung and kidney of accelerated senescence-prone (SAMP-8) and -resistant (SAMR-1) mice at 3, 6 and 9 months of age by a method involving chemical derivatization and high performance liquid chromatography. The level of lipid peroxides in the brain did not show an age-dependent change, but at each age the brain level of lipid peroxides was significantly higher in SAMP-8 than in SAMR-1. In contrast, the lipid peroxide levels in the peripheral organs showed increases with aging in both strains, and they were significantly higher in SAMP-8 than in SAMR-1 at both 3 and 6 months of age (except at 3 months of age in the kidney). These results suggest that increased oxidative stress in the brain and peripheral organs is a cause of the senescence-related degeneration and impairments seen in SAMP-8. PMID:10643812

  12. Characterization of lipid droplets in steroidogenic MLTC-1 Leydig cells: Protein profiles and the morphological change induced by hormone stimulation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Fujikawa, Noriyuki; Nimura, Satomi; Tokuoka, Yutaro; Tsuda, Sonoka; Aiuchi, Toshihiro; Kato, Rina; Obama, Takashi; Itabe, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are functional subcellular organelles involved in multiple intracellular processes. LDs are found in nearly all types of eukaryotic cells, but their properties are highly variable in different types of tissues. Steroidogenic cells synthesize steroid hormones de novo from the cholesterol deposited in cytosolic LDs. However, the roles of LD proteins in steroidogenesis under pituitary hormone stimulation have not been well elucidated. The protein profile of isolated LDs from the mouse Leydig tumor cell line MLTC-1 was distinct from that of hepatic cells or macrophages. By proteomic analysis of the components using mass spectrometry, two enzymes for steroidogenesis, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3βHSD1) and 17 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 11 (17βHSD11), were identified in two strong bands in the LD fractions. The LD fraction of MLTC-1 cells also included CYP11A1 and CYP17, suggesting that the LDs contain all the enzymes needed for testosterone synthesis. The steroidogenesis in Leydig cells is activated by luteinizing hormone through a PKA-dependent pathway. Stimulation of MLTC-1 cells with luteinizing hormone or 8-bromo-cAMP caused drastic changes in the morphology of the LDs in the MLTC-1 cells. Upon stimulation, large perinuclear LDs are turned into much smaller LDs and dispersed throughout the cytosol. These results raise the possibility that LDs are involved in a regulatory pathway of steroidogenesis, not just by serving as a storage depot for cholesterol esters, but also by providing enzymes and generating sites for enzymatic activity. PMID:26143378

  13. A versatile ultra-high performance LC-MS method for lipid profiling.

    PubMed

    Knittelfelder, Oskar L; Weberhofer, Bernd P; Eichmann, Thomas O; Kohlwein, Sepp D; Rechberger, Gerald N

    2014-03-01

    A new UPLC-based untargeted lipidomic approach using a qTOF hybrid mass spectrometer is introduced. The applied binary gradient enables separations of lipid species including constitutional isomeric compounds and low abundant lipid classes such as phosphatidic acid (PA). Addition of phosphoric acid to the solvents improves peak shapes for acidic phospholipids. MS(E) scans allow simultaneous acquisition of full scan data and collision induced fragmentation to improve identification of lipid classes and to obtain structural information. The method was used to investigate the lipidome of yeast. PMID:24548922

  14. Bioactive Constituents from “Triguero” Asparagus Improve the Plasma Lipid Profile and Liver Antioxidant Status in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; De la Puerta, Rocío; Giménez, María Dolores García; Fernández-Arche, María Angeles; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. “triguero” variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that “triguero” asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24284391

  15. Purity matters: A workflow for the valid high-resolution lipid profiling of mitochondria from cell culture samples

    PubMed Central

    Kappler, Lisa; Li, Jia; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Weigert, Cora; Lehmann, Rainer; Xu, Guowang; Hoene, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular lipidomics is a novel field of research that requires the careful combination of several pre-analytical and analytical steps. To define a reliable strategy for mitochondrial lipid profiling, we performed a systematic comparison of different mitochondria isolation procedures by western blot analyses and comprehensive high-resolution lipidomics. Using liver-derived HepG2 cells, we compared three common mitochondria isolation methods, differential centrifugation (DC), ultracentrifugation (UC) and a magnetic bead-assisted method (MACS). In total, 397 lipid species, including 32 cardiolipins, could be quantified in only 100 μg (by protein) of purified mitochondria. Mitochondria isolated by UC showed the highest enrichment in the mitochondria-specific cardiolipins as well as their precursors, phosphatidylglycerols. Mitochondrial fractions obtained by the commonly used DC and the more recent MACS method contained substantial contaminations by other organelles. Employing these isolation methods when performing lipidomics analyses from cell culture mitochondria may lead to inaccurate results. To conclude, we present a protocol how to obtain reliable mitochondria-specific lipid profiles from cell culture samples and show that quality controls are indispensable when performing mitochondria lipidomics. PMID:26892142

  16. Common medications used by patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: what are their effects on the lipid profile?

    PubMed

    Rosenblit, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is the most fundamental risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). In clinical practice, many commonly prescribed medications can alter the patient's lipid profile and, potentially, the risk for ASCVD-either favorably or unfavorably. The dyslipidemia observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be characterized as both ominous and cryptic, in terms of unrecognized, disproportionately elevated atherogenic cholesterol particle concentrations, in spite of deceptively and relatively lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Several factors, most notably insulin resistance, associated with the unfavorable discordance of elevated triglyceride (TG) levels and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), have been shown to correlate with an increased risk/number of ASCVD events in patients with T2DM. This review focuses on known changes in the routine lipid profile (LDL-C, TGs, and HDL-C) observed with commonly prescribed medications for patients with T2DM, including antihyperglycemic agents, antihypertensive agents, weight loss medications, antibiotics, analgesics, oral contraceptives, and hormone replacement therapies. Given that the risk of ASCVD is already elevated for patients with T2DM, the use of polypharmacy may warrant close observation of overall alterations through ongoing lipid-panel monitoring. Ultimately, the goal is to reduce levels of atherogenic cholesterol particles and thus the patient's absolute risk. PMID:27417914

  17. Effect of Nicotinic Acid (Vitamin B3 or Niacin) on the lipid profile of diabetic and non – diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Zeb Shah, Talmeez; Ali, Abdul Basit; Ahmad Jafri, Saghir; Qazi, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of nicotinic acid on the lipid profile of diabetic and non diabetic rats. Methods: This was an experimental study done at the Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Lahore, Pakistan between May 2010 to July 2010. Nicotinic acid was administered to a hypercholesterolemic group and a hypercholesterolemic + diabetic Group of Albino rats for 42 days and response to therapy was recorded on day 21 and day 42 of the experiment. Comparison among these two groups as well as three control groups was determined by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and differences were considered significant at (P<0.05). A total of 50 rats were included in the study. Results: Lipid profile of the hypercholesterolemic group as well as hypercholesterolemic + diabetic group as compared with the control groups showed highly significant improvement on the day 21 and day 42 of the experiment. The values of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and total lipids (TL) showed highly significant decrease whereas serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol showed highly significant increase. Conclusion: Nicotinic acid is the most effective agent available in increasing HDL cholesterol and lowering serum TC, triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol and TL in hypercholesterolemic Diabetic and hypercholesterolemic non-diabetic Albino rats. PMID:24353732

  18. Computer simulation of the distribution of hexane in a lipid bilayer: spatially resolved free energy, entropy, and enthalpy profiles.

    PubMed

    MacCallum, Justin L; Tieleman, D Peter

    2006-01-11

    The partitioning behavior of small molecules in lipid bilayers is important in a variety of areas including membrane protein folding and pharmacology. However, the inhomogeneous nature of lipid bilayers on a nanometer length scale complicates experimental studies of membrane partitioning. To gain more insight in the partitioning of a small molecule into the lipid bilayer, we have carried out atomistic computer simulations of hexane in a dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine model membrane. We have been able to obtain spatially resolved free energy, entropy, enthalpy, and heat capacity profiles based on umbrella sampling calculations at three different temperatures. In agreement with experiment, hexane partitions preferentially to the center of the bilayer. This process is driven almost entirely by a favorable entropy change, consistent with the hydrophobic effect. In contrast, partitioning to the densest region of the acyl chains is dominated by a favorable enthalpy change with a small entropy change, which is consistent with the "nonclassical" hydrophobic effect or "bilayer" effect. We explain the features of the entropy and enthalpy profiles in terms of density and free volume in the system. PMID:16390139

  19. Bioactive constituents from "triguero" asparagus improve the plasma lipid profile and liver antioxidant status in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; De la Puerta, Rocío; Garcia Gimenez, María Dolores; Fernández-Arche, María Angeles; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. "triguero" variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that "triguero" asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24284391

  20. Loss of Body Weight and Fat and Improved Lipid Profiles in Obese Rats Fed Apple Pomace or Apple Juice Concentrate

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats. PMID:23909905

  1. Plasma lipid profiling across species for the identification of optimal animal models of human dyslipidemia[S

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wu; Carballo-Jane, Ester; McLaren, David G.; Mendoza, Vivienne H.; Gagen, Karen; Geoghagen, Neil S.; McNamara, Lesley Ann; Gorski, Judith N.; Eiermann, George J.; Petrov, Aleksandr; Wolff, Michael; Tong, Xinchun; Wilsie, Larissa C.; Akiyama, Taro E.; Chen, Jing; Thankappan, Anil; Xue, Jiyan; Ping, Xiaoli; Andrews, Genevieve; Wickham, L. Alexandra; Gai, Cesaire L.; Trinh, Tu; Kulick, Alison A.; Donnelly, Marcie J.; Voronin, Gregory O.; Rosa, Ray; Cumiskey, Anne-Marie; Bekkari, Kavitha; Mitnaul, Lyndon J.; Puig, Oscar; Chen, Fabian; Raubertas, Richard; Wong, Peggy H.; Hansen, Barbara C.; Koblan, Ken S.; Roddy, Thomas P.; Hubbard, Brian K; Strack, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the applicability of various animal models to dyslipidemia in humans and to identify improved preclinical models for target discovery and validation for dyslipidemia, we measured comprehensive plasma lipid profiles in 24 models. These included five mouse strains, six other nonprimate species, and four nonhuman primate (NHP) species, and both healthy animals and animals with metabolic disorders. Dyslipidemic humans were assessed by the same measures. Plasma lipoprotein profiles, eight major plasma lipid fractions, and FA compositions within these lipid fractions were compared both qualitatively and quantitatively across the species. Given the importance of statins in decreasing plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol for treatment of dyslipidemia in humans, the responses of these measures to simvastatin treatment were also assessed for each species and compared with dyslipidemic humans. NHPs, followed by dog, were the models that demonstrated closest overall match to dyslipidemic humans. For the subset of the dyslipidemic population with high plasma triglyceride levels, the data also pointed to hamster and db/db mouse as representative models for practical use in target validation. Most traditional models, including rabbit, Zucker diabetic fatty rat, and the majority of mouse models, did not demonstrate overall similarity to dyslipidemic humans in this study. PMID:22021650

  2. Nanostructured lipid carriers as a novel oral delivery system for triptolide: induced changes in pharmacokinetics profile associated with reduced toxicity in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cong; Peng, Fan; Liu, Wei; Wan, Jiangling; Wan, Chunxi; Xu, Huibi; Lam, Christopher Waikei; Yang, Xiangliang

    2014-01-01

    After oral administration in rodents, triptolide (TP), a diterpenoid triepoxide compound, active as anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, anti-fertility, anti-cystogenesis, and anticancer agent, is rapidly absorbed into the blood circulation (from 5.0 to 19.5 minutes after dosing, depending on the rodent species) followed by a short elimination half-life (from about 20 minutes to less than 1 hour). Such significant and rapid fluctuations of TP in plasma likely contribute to its toxicity, which is characterized by injury to hepatic, renal, digestive, reproductive, and hematological systems. With the aim of prolonging drug release and improving its safety, TP-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (TP-NLCs), composed of Compritol® 888 ATO (solid lipid) and Capryol™ 90 (liquid lipid), were developed using a microemulsion technique. The formulated TP-NLCs were also characterized and in vitro release was evaluated using the dialysis bag diffusion technique. In addition, the pharmacokinetics and toxicology profiles of TP-NLCs were compared to free TP and TP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (TP-SLNs; containing Compritol 888 ATO only). Results demonstrate that TP-NLCs had mean particle size of 231.8 nm, increased drug encapsulation with a 71.6% efficiency, and stable drug incorporation for over 1-month. TP-NLCs manifested a better in vitro sustained-release pattern compared to TP-SLNs. Furthermore, TP-NLCs prolonged mean residence time (MRT)0–t (P<0.001, P<0.001), delayed Tmax (P<0.01, P<0.05) and decreased Cmax (P<0.01, P<0.05) compared to free TP and TP-SLNs, respectively, which was associated with reduced subacute toxicity in male rats. In conclusion, our data suggest that TP-NLCs are superior to TP-SLNs and could be a promising oral delivery system for a safer use of TP. PMID:24591827

  3. Optimization of a Nile Red method for rapid lipid determination in autotrophic, marine microalgae is species dependent.

    PubMed

    Balduyck, Lieselot; Veryser, Cedrick; Goiris, Koen; Bruneel, Charlotte; Muylaert, Koenraad; Foubert, Imogen

    2015-11-01

    Several studies have been conducted to develop rapid methods for quantification of lipid content in microalgae, as an alternative for time consuming gravimetric methods. Different studies showed that lipid staining with Nile Red in whole cell suspensions and subsequently quantification by the use of a spectrofluorometric device is a promising method, but a profound optimization and validation is rare. It has already been proven that the correlation curve for quantification is species dependent, but it has not yet been investigated whether this is also the case for the optimization of the Nile Red assay protocol. Therefore, two autotrophic, marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis oculata and T-Isochrysis lutea, strongly differing in e.g. cell wall structure, were selected in this study to investigate whether optimization of the Nile Red assay is species dependent. Besides this, it was checked for one of these species, Nannochloropsis, whether the lipid content, determined by the Nile Red assay, could indeed be correlated with the neutral and/or total lipid content determined by gravimetric methods. It was found that optimization of the Nile Red assay was strongly species dependent. Consequently, optimization has to be done for each species before using the assay. For Nannochloropsis, a good correlation was found between total and neutral lipid content obtained by the Nile Red assay and by gravimetric methods. PMID:26388510

  4. Lipid profiles of oil from trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) heads, spines and viscera: trout by-products as a possible source of omega-3 lipids?

    PubMed

    Fiori, L; Solana, M; Tosi, P; Manfrini, M; Strim, C; Guella, G

    2012-09-15

    Lipid profiles of fish oil extracted from trout heads, spines and viscera using supercritical carbon dioxide and Randall extraction with hexane were measured. The amount of unsaturated fatty acids (as a percentage of total fatty acids) was within the range of 72.6-75.3% in all the substrates. A significant presence of the most important omega-3 fatty acids was detected. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in oil from spines, heads and viscera resulted to be 8.7% and 7.3%, 7.9% and 6.3%, and 6.4% and 6.0%, respectively. A low (≈3%), but worth noting, presence of lipids with omega-1 polyunsaturated fatty chains was observed in all the oils. Finally, significant differences were noticed in the relative amounts of triacylglycerides (TAG), diacylglycerides (DAG) and free fatty acids (FFA). Whereas oil from heads and spines was essentially composed of TAG (≈98%), in viscera oil the molar distribution ratio became TAG:DAG:FFA=87:8:5. PMID:23107732

  5. Structural insights into lipid-dependent reversible dimerization of human GLTP

    SciTech Connect

    Samygina, Valeria R.; Ochoa-Lizarralde, Borja; Popov, Alexander N.; Cabo-Bilbao, Aintzane; Goni-de-Cerio, Felipe; Molotkovsky, Julian G.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Brown, Rhoderick E.; Malinina, Lucy

    2013-04-01

    It is shown that dimerization is promoted by glycolipid binding to human GLTP. The importance of dimer flexibility in wild-type protein is manifested by point mutation that ‘locks’ the dimer while diversifying ligand/protein adaptations. Human glycolipid transfer protein (hsGLTP) forms the prototypical GLTP fold and is characterized by a broad transfer selectivity for glycosphingolipids (GSLs). The GLTP mutation D48V near the ‘portal entrance’ of the glycolipid binding site has recently been shown to enhance selectivity for sulfatides (SFs) containing a long acyl chain. Here, nine novel crystal structures of hsGLTP and the SF-selective mutant complexed with short-acyl-chain monoSF and diSF in different crystal forms are reported in order to elucidate the potential functional roles of lipid-mediated homodimerization. In all crystal forms, the hsGLTP–SF complexes displayed homodimeric structures supported by similarly organized intermolecular interactions. The dimerization interface always involved the lipid sphingosine chain, the protein C-terminus (C-end) and α-helices 6 and 2, but the D48V mutant displayed a ‘locked’ dimer conformation compared with the hinge-like flexibility of wild-type dimers. Differences in contact angles, areas and residues at the dimer interfaces in the ‘flexible’ and ‘locked’ dimers revealed a potentially important role of the dimeric structure in the C-end conformation of hsGLTP and in the precise positioning of the key residue of the glycolipid recognition centre, His140. ΔY207 and ΔC-end deletion mutants, in which the C-end is shifted or truncated, showed an almost complete loss of transfer activity. The new structural insights suggest that ligand-dependent reversible dimerization plays a role in the function of human GLTP.

  6. Concentration Dependence of NaCl ion distributions around DPPC lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jorge R.; García, Angel E.

    2012-01-01

    We study the coordination of excess NaCl to zwitterionic DPPC lipid bilayers using molecular dynamics simulations. We find that Na ions directly coordinate with the DPPC lipid carbonyl groups. As the number of excess ions increases, the number of coordinated ions increases, until it reaches a plateau at a ratio near 1 ion per every four lipids at 310 K, and 1 ion per every six lipids at 323 K. The area per lipid decreases as the number of excess ions is increased. For low number of ions per lipids (1:16 and 1:8), most Na ions are bound to the lipid carbonyls, while the Cl form an ionic cloud around the lipid choline groups. As a result of the Na binding, the lipid has an effective positive charge density. The residence time of Na ions bound to the lipid is longer than 40 ns, while Cl ions exchange faster than the nanoseconds timescale. We find that the bound Na ions replace ordered water around the carbonyls. The net linear charge density near the carbonyl groups stays positive, regardless of the presence of excess salt in the solution. PMID:22179761

  7. Myeloperoxidase-dependent lipid peroxidation promotes the oxidative modification of cytosolic proteins in phagocytic neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Wilkie-Grantham, Rachel P; Magon, Nicholas J; Harwood, D Tim; Kettle, Anthony J; Vissers, Margreet C; Winterbourn, Christine C; Hampton, Mark B

    2015-04-10

    Phagocytic neutrophils generate reactive oxygen species to kill microbes. Oxidant generation occurs within an intracellular phagosome, but diffusible species can react with the neutrophil and surrounding tissue. To investigate the extent of oxidative modification, we assessed the carbonylation of cytosolic proteins in phagocytic neutrophils. A 4-fold increase in protein carbonylation was measured within 15 min of initiating phagocytosis. Carbonylation was dependent on NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase activity and was inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene and Trolox, indicating a role for myeloperoxidase-dependent lipid peroxidation. Proteomic analysis of target proteins revealed significant carbonylation of the S100A9 subunit of calprotectin, a truncated form of Hsp70, actin, and hemoglobin from contaminating erythrocytes. The addition of the reactive aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) caused carbonylation, and HNE-glutathione adducts were detected in the cytosol of phagocytic neutrophils. The post-translational modification of neutrophil proteins will influence the functioning and fate of these immune cells in the period following phagocytic activation, and provides a marker of neutrophil activation during infection and inflammation. PMID:25697357

  8. Myeloperoxidase-dependent Lipid Peroxidation Promotes the Oxidative Modification of Cytosolic Proteins in Phagocytic Neutrophils*

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie-Grantham, Rachel P.; Magon, Nicholas J.; Harwood, D. Tim; Kettle, Anthony J.; Vissers, Margreet C.; Winterbourn, Christine C.; Hampton, Mark B.

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytic neutrophils generate reactive oxygen species to kill microbes. Oxidant generation occurs within an intracellular phagosome, but diffusible species can react with the neutrophil and surrounding tissue. To investigate the extent of oxidative modification, we assessed the carbonylation of cytosolic proteins in phagocytic neutrophils. A 4-fold increase in protein carbonylation was measured within 15 min of initiating phagocytosis. Carbonylation was dependent on NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase activity and was inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene and Trolox, indicating a role for myeloperoxidase-dependent lipid peroxidation. Proteomic analysis of target proteins revealed significant carbonylation of the S100A9 subunit of calprotectin, a truncated form of Hsp70, actin, and hemoglobin from contaminating erythrocytes. The addition of the reactive aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) caused carbonylation, and HNE-glutathione adducts were detected in the cytosol of phagocytic neutrophils. The post-translational modification of neutrophil proteins will influence the functioning and fate of these immune cells in the period following phagocytic activation, and provides a marker of neutrophil activation during infection and inflammation. PMID:25697357

  9. The dependence of the lipid bilayer membrane: buffer partition coefficient of pentobarbitone on pH and lipid composition.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, K W; Yu, S C

    1977-01-01

    1 The membrane/buffer partition coefficient of [14C]-pentobarbitone has been determined as a function of the lipid composition of bilayer membranes. 2 A new technique based on ultrafiltration gave comparable results to conventional techniques but required less time for equilbration. 3 The membrane/buffer coefficient was independent of pentobarbitone concentration in the range studies. 4 The apparent partition coefficient varied with pH and was a linear function of the degree of dissociation of pentobarbition. 5 Both the charged and uncharged forms of pentobarbitone partitioned into the membrane, the latter to a much greater extent than the former. 6 At low pH the highest partition coefficient observed was in egg phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes. 7 Incorporation of cholesterol or phosphatidic acid into phosphatidylcholine membranes greatly reduced the partition coefficient. 8 High pressures do not greatly change these partition coefficients. PMID:21013

  10. Effect of Tai Chi exercise on blood lipid profiles: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiao-hong; Mahemuti, Amina; Zhang, Xue-hua; Wang, Ya-ping; Hu, Po; Jiang, Ju-bo; Xiang, Mei-xiang; Liu, Gang; Wang, Jian-an

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Studies have demonstrated that Tai Chi exercise improves blood lipid level with inconsistent results. A meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of Tai Chi on blood lipid profiles in humans. Methods: We screened the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library (Central), Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang data, and Clinicaltrials.gov for randomized controlled trials with Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) score more than 3 points up to June 2015. Six studies involving 445 subjects were included. Most trials applied 12-week Tai Chi intervention courses. Results: In comparison with the control group, blood triglyceride (TG) level difference between follow-up and baseline was statistically significantly lower in the Tai Chi practicing group (weighted mean difference (WMD) −16.81 mg/dl; 95% confidence intervals (CI) −31.27 to −2.35 mg/dl; P=0.02). A trend to improving total cholesterol (TC) reduction was found with Tai Chi (WMD −7.96 mg/dl; 95% CI −17.30 to 1.39 mg/dl; P=0.10). However, no difference was found in blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Conclusions: Tai Chi exercise lowered blood TG level with a trend to decrease blood TC level. Our data suggest that Tai Chi has the potential to implement meaningful blood lipid modification and serve as an adjunctive exercise modality. The relationship between Tai Chi exercise regimen and lipid profile change might have a scientific priority for future investigation. PMID:27487809

  11. Effect of Spirulina Intervention on Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Status, and Lipid Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Md.; Hossain, Md. Faruk; Tanu, Arifur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Study objectives include a comparison of the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile between COPD patients and controls and evaluation of the effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile of COPD patients. Methods. 30 patients with COPD and 20 controls with no respiratory problems were selected. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria were served as the basis of COPD diagnosis. The serum content of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxide, glutathione (GSH), vitamin C, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) was also measured. Two different doses, (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg spirulina, were given to two groups, each of which comprises 15 COPD patients. Results. All targeted blood parameters have significant difference (P = 0.000) between COPD patients and controls except triglyceride (TG). Spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 2) mg dose has significantly reduced serum content of MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, and cholesterol (P = 0.000) while increasing GSH, Vit C level (P = 0.000), and the activity of SOD (P = 0.000) and GST (P = 0.038). At the same time, spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 4) mg dose has favorable significant effect (P = 0.000) on all targeted blood parameters except for HDL (P = 0.163). PMID:25685791

  12. Comparison of Serum Lipid Profile in HIV Positive Patients on ART with ART Naïve Patients

    PubMed Central

    V, Vijay; Shekhanawar, M.S.; Rajeshwari; M, Amareshwaras; D, Shantala

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The widespread use of effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV patients has coincided with increasing reports of complications like HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome and the metabolic alterations, affecting the lipid and glucose metabolism. Evidences in support of lipodystrophy and dyslipidaemia associated with First- line HAART in our area is scarce. The aim of the present study was 1) to study and compare Lipid profile in HIV positive patients on ART with that of freshly diagnosed HIV positive patients who were yet to be started on ART. 2) To assess lipodystrophy syndrome in patients on ART. Materials and Methods: Hundred newly diagnosed HIV positive patients who were yet to be started on ART were taken as controls (ART-Naïve).Hundred randomly selected HIV+ patients who were already on First-line ART regimen (Stavudine/Zudovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine) for more than 12 months were taken as cases (ART). This study was conducted for a period of 12 months at the VIMS ART centre, Bellary, Karnataka, India. Results: There was a significant increase (p<0.001) in serum Total Cholesterol, LDL-C, TG, VLDL, Non-HDL -C & TC/HDL-C ratio in ART patients compared to ART-naïve patients. Of the 100 ART patients 23 had lipodystrophy syndrome (buffalo hump, abnormal fat deposition around neck & back, buccal fat resorption, increase in abdominal fat). Conclusion: To conclude, it is evident from our study that there is increase in lipid profile (except HDL) in ART patients compared to ART Naïve group and 23 ART patients showed lipodystrophy syndrome. Hence it appears reasonable to measure fasting lipid levels before and 3-6 months after antiretroviral therapy is initiated or when ART regimen is changed. PMID:25478335

  13. Effects of Whole Grain, Fish and Bilberries on Serum Metabolic Profile and Lipid Transfer Protein Activities: A Randomized Trial (Sysdimet)

    PubMed Central

    Lankinen, Maria; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Paananen, Jussi; Joukamo, Laura; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu; Gylling, Helena; Orešič, Matej; Jauhiainen, Matti; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Uusitupa, Matti; Schwab, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Objective We studied the combined effects of wholegrain, fish and bilberries on serum metabolic profile and lipid transfer protein activities in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Methods Altogether 131 subjects (40–70 y, BMI 26–39 kg/m2) with impaired glucose metabolism and features of the metabolic syndrome were randomized into three groups with 12-week periods according to a parallel study design. They consumed either: a) wholegrain and low postprandial insulin response grain products, fatty fish 3 times a week, and bilberries 3 portions per day (HealthyDiet), b) wholegrain and low postprandial insulin response grain products (WGED), or c) refined wheat breads as cereal products (Control). Altogether 106 subjects completed the study. Serum metabolic profile was studied using an NMR-based platform providing information on lipoprotein subclasses and lipids as well as low-molecular-weight metabolites. Results There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics between the groups at baseline or at the end of the intervention. Mixed model analyses revealed significant changes in lipid metabolites in the HealthyDiet group during the intervention compared to the Control group. All changes reflected increased polyunsaturation in plasma fatty acids, especially in n-3 PUFAs, while n-6 and n-7 fatty acids decreased. According to tertiles of changes in fish intake, a greater increase of fish intake was associated with increased concentration of large HDL particles, larger average diameter of HDL particles, and increased concentrations of large HDL lipid components, even though total levels of HDL cholesterol remained stable. Conclusions The results suggest that consumption of diet rich in whole grain, bilberries and especially fatty fish causes changes in HDL particles shifting their subclass distribution toward larger particles. These changes may be related to known protective functions of HDL such as reverse cholesterol transport and could partly

  14. Lipids in the diet and the fatty acid profile in beef: a review and recent patents on the topic.

    PubMed

    Ladeira, Marcio M; Machado Neto, Otavio R; Chizzotti, Mario L; Oliveira, Dalton M; Chalfun Junior, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this review is to report how the use of lipid sources in diets for ruminants can affect the fatty acid profile of beef. In addition, recent patents that can be utilized to alter the fatty acid profile in the meat, or which concern the synthesis of conjugated fatty acids will be reviewed. The industrial production of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has already started and the commercial products present isomers cis-9, trans-11; trans-9, cis-11; and trans-10, cis-12. Patents on the biological synthesis of isomer C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 from the linoleic acid have also been published. However, the economic production of CLA in industrial scale is a difficult process. Most of the patents published for CLA production utilize bacteria of the genera Bifidobacterium sp. and Propionibacterium sp. Lipid supplementation, with the objective to improve the fatty acid profile of beef, can be done through the use of patented products, such as genetically modified oilseeds and calcium soaps of fatty acids. PMID:22702746

  15. Temperature-dependent lipid levels and components in polar and temperate eelpout (Zoarcidae).

    PubMed

    Brodte, Eva; Graeve, M; Jacob, U; Knust, R; Pörtner, H-O

    2008-09-01

    Total lipid content, lipid classes and fatty acid composition were analysed in tissues from two eelpout species fed on the same diet, the Antarctic Pachycara brachycephalum and the temperate Zoarces viviparus, with the aim of determining the role of lipids in fishes from different thermal habitats. The lipid content increased with decreasing temperature in the liver of both species, suggesting enhanced lipid storage under cold conditions. In P. brachycephalum, lipid composition in the liver and muscle was strongly dominated by triacylglycerols between 0 and 6 degrees C. In contrast, in the temperate species, lipid class composition changed with changes in the temperature. When acclimatized to 4 and 6 degrees C Z. viviparus not only displayed a shift to lipid anabolism and pronounced lipid storage, as indicated by high triacylglycerol levels, but also a shift to patterns of cold adaptation, as reflected by an increased content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the lipid extract. Unsaturated fatty acids were also abundant in the Antarctic eelpout, but when compared to Z. viviparus at the same temperatures, the latter had significantly higher ratios of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid levels, whereas the Antarctic eelpout showed significantly higher ratios of monounsaturated to saturated fatty acid levels. High delta-15N values of the Antarctic eelpout reflect the high trophic level of this scavenger in the Weddell Sea food web. Stable carbon values suggest that lipid-enriched prey forms a major part of its diet. The strategy to accumulate storage lipids in the cold is interpreted to be adaptive behaviour at colder temperatures and during periods of irregular, pulsed food supply. PMID:18665464

  16. Cylindrical diffuser axial detection profile is dependent on fiber design

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The axial emission and detection profiles of 1- and 2-cm cylindrical diffusing fibers based on concentration gradients of scatterers were measured. Based on these measurements, we describe a method for determination of the scatterer concentration gradient within the diffusers. Using a Monte Carlo model incorporating these concentrations, detection was simulated and found to agree with measurements. The measured and simulated detection profiles for these diffusers were found to be drastically different from those previously measured in an alternative diffuser design incorporating an end reflector. When using cylindrical diffusers as detection fibers, it is, therefore, important to understand the design of the fiber and characterize the detection behavior. PMID:25839428

  17. Imaging heterogeneity of membrane and storage lipids in transgenic Camelina sativa seeds with altered fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Horn, Patrick J; Silva, Jillian E; Anderson, Danielle; Fuchs, Johannes; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Nazarenus, Tara J; Shulaev, Vladimir; Cahoon, Edgar B; Chapman, Kent D

    2013-10-01

    Engineering compositional changes in oilseeds is typically accomplished by introducing new enzymatic step(s) and/or by blocking or enhancing an existing enzymatic step(s) in a seed-specific manner. However, in practice, the amounts of lipid species that accumulate in seeds are often different from what one would predict from enzyme expression levels, and these incongruences may be rooted in an incomplete understanding of the regulation of seed lipid metabolism at the cellular/tissue level. Here we show by mass spectrometry imaging approaches that triacylglycerols and their phospholipid precursors are distributed differently within cotyledons and the hypocotyl/radicle axis in embryos of the oilseed crop Camelina sativa, indicating tissue-specific heterogeneity in triacylglycerol metabolism. Phosphatidylcholines and triacylglycerols enriched in linoleic acid (C18:2) were preferentially localized to the axis tissues, whereas lipid classes enriched in gadoleic acid (C20:1) were preferentially localized to the cotyledons. Manipulation of seed lipid compositions by heterologous over-expression of an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase, or by suppression of fatty acid desaturases and elongases, resulted in new overall seed storage lipid compositions with altered patterns of distribution of phospholipid and triacylglycerol in transgenic embryos. Our results reveal previously unknown differences in acyl lipid distribution in Camelina embryos, and suggest that this spatial heterogeneity may or may not be able to be changed effectively in transgenic seeds depending upon the targeted enzyme(s)/pathway(s). Further, these studies point to the importance of resolving the location of metabolites in addition to their quantities within plant tissues. PMID:23808562

  18. In situ characterizing membrane lipid phenotype of breast cancer cells using mass spectrometry profiling.

    PubMed

    He, Manwen; Guo, Shuai; Li, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Lipid composition in cell membrane is closely associated with cell characteristics. Here, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization- Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to in situ determine membrane components of human mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10 A) and six different breast cancer cell lines (i.e., BT-20, MCF-7, SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-157, and MDA-MB-361) without any lipid extraction and separation. Partial least-square discriminant analysis indicated that changes in the levels of these membrane lipids were closely correlated with the types of breast cell lines. Elevated levels of polyunsaturated lipids in MCF-10 A cells relative to six breast cancer cells and in BT-20 cells relative to other breast cancer cell lines were detected. The Western blotting assays indicated that the expression of five lipogenesis-related enzymes (i.e., fatty acid synthase 1(FASN1), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 5 (SCD5), choline kinase α (CKα), and sphingomyelin synthase 1) was associated with the types of the breast cells, and that the SCD1 level in MCF-7 cells was significantly increased relative to other breast cell lines. Our findings suggest that elevated expression levels of FASN1, SCD1, SCD5, and CKα may closely correlated with enhanced levels of saturated and monounsaturated lipids in breast cancer cell lines. PMID:26061164

  19. Quantitative Profiling of Brain Lipid Raft Proteome in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowska, Magdalena; Castillo, Catherine; Francesconi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome, a leading cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism, arises from transcriptional silencing of the FMR1 gene encoding an RNA-binding protein, Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). FMRP can regulate the expression of approximately 4% of brain transcripts through its role in regulation of mRNA transport, stability and translation, thus providing a molecular rationale for its potential pleiotropic effects on neuronal and brain circuitry function. Several intracellular signaling pathways are dysregulated in the absence of FMRP suggesting that cellular deficits may be broad and could result in homeostatic changes. Lipid rafts are specialized regions of the plasma membrane, enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, involved in regulation of intracellular signaling. Among transcripts targeted by FMRP, a subset encodes proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis and homeostasis, dysregulation of which could affect the integrity and function of lipid rafts. Using a quantitative mass spectrometry-based approach we analyzed the lipid raft proteome of Fmr1 knockout mice, an animal model of Fragile X syndrome, and identified candidate proteins that are differentially represented in Fmr1 knockout mice lipid rafts. Furthermore, network analysis of these candidate proteins reveals connectivity between them and predicts functional connectivity with genes encoding components of myelin sheath, axonal processes and growth cones. Our findings provide insight to aid identification of molecular and cellular dysfunctions arising from Fmr1 silencing and for uncovering shared pathologies between Fragile X syndrome and other autism spectrum disorders. PMID:25849048

  20. The novel chlamydial adhesin CPn0473 mediates the lipid raft-dependent uptake of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Fechtner, Tim; Galle, Jan N; Hegemann, Johannes H

    2016-08-01

    Chlamydiae are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular pathogens that pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. Chlamydial surface molecules are essential for host cell invasion. The first interaction with the host cell is thereby accomplished by the Outer membrane complex protein B (OmcB) binding to heparan sulfate moieties on the host cell surface, followed by the interaction of the chlamydial polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) with host cell receptors. Specifically, the interaction of the Pmp21 adhesin and invasin with its human interaction partner, the epidermal growth factor receptor, results in receptor activation, down-stream signalling and finally internalization of the bacteria. Blocking both, the OmcB and Pmp21 adhesion pathways, did not completely abolish infection, suggesting the presence of additional factors relevant for host cell invasion. Here, we show that the novel surface protein CPn0473 of Chlamydia pneumoniae contributes to the binding and invasion of infectious chlamydial particles. CPn0473 is expressed late in the infection cycle and located on the infectious chlamydial cell surface. Soluble recombinant CPn0473 as well as rCPn0473-coupled fluorescent latex beads adhere to human epithelial HEp-2 cells. Interestingly, in classical infection blocking experiments pretreatment of HEp-2 cells with rCPn0473 does not attenuate adhesion but promotes dose-dependently internalization by C. pneumoniae suggesting an unusual mode of action for this adhesin. This CPn0473-dependent promotion of infection by C. pneumoniae depends on two different domains within the protein and requires intact lipid rafts. Thus, inhibition of the interaction of CPn0473 with the host cell could provide a way to reduce the virulence of C. pneumoniae. PMID:26780295

  1. Effects of Bread with Nigella Sativa on Lipid Profiles, Apolipoproteins and Inflammatory Factor in Metabolic Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N.sativa) has been used in traditional medicine and many studies have been performed in different communities in order to reveal the effects of it on medical disorders and chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bread with N. Sativa on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins, and inflammatory factors in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over and clinical trial was conducted in 51 MetS patients of both sexes with age group of 20-65 years old in Chaloos, north of Iran. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. In phase 1, intervention group (A, n = 27) received daily a bread with N. sativa and wheat bran and control group (B, n = 24) received the same bread without N. sativa for 2 months. After 2 weeks of wash out period, phase 2 was started with switch the intervention between two groups. Measuring of lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor was performed for all patients before and after two phases. In this study, treatment, sequence and time effects of intervention were evaluated and revealed that consumption of bread with N. sativa has no significant treatment and time effects on triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein (APO)-A, APO-B and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p > 0.05). Sequence effect was significant on CHOL, LDL, APO-A, and APO-B (p < 0.05) but was not significant on other parameters (p > 0.05). Consumption of bread with N. sativa has no a significant effect on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor in MetS patients. PMID:27152298

  2. Clearance of Hepatic Sphingomyelin by Olipudase Alfa Is Associated With Improvement in Lipid Profiles in Acid Sphingomyelinase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Thurberg, Beth L; Wasserstein, Melissa P; Jones, Simon A; Schiano, Thomas D; Cox, Gerald F; Puga, Ana Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD; Niemann-Pick disease type A and B) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by abnormal intracellular sphingomyelin (SM) accumulation. Prominent liver involvement results in hepatomegaly, fibrosis/cirrhosis, abnormal liver chemistries, and a proatherogenic lipid profile. Olipudase alfa (recombinant human ASM) is in clinical development as an investigational enzyme replacement therapy for the non-neurological manifestations of ASMD. In a phase 1b study conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability of within-patient dose escalation with olipudase alfa, measurement of SM levels in liver biopsies was used as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of substrate burden. Five adult patients with non neuronopathic ASMD received escalating doses of olipudase alfa every 2 weeks for 26 weeks. Liver biopsies obtained at baseline and 26 weeks after treatment were evaluated for SM storage by histomorphometric analysis, biochemistry, and electron microscopy. Biopsies were also assessed for inflammation and fibrosis, and for the association of SM levels with liver volume, liver function tests, and lipid profiles. At baseline, SM storage present in Kupffer cells and hepatocytes ranged from 9.8% to 53.8% of the microscopic field. After 26 weeks of treatment, statistically significant reductions in SM (P<0.0001) measured by morphometry were seen in 4 patients with evaluable liver biopsies. The 26-week biopsy of the fifth patient was insufficient for morphometric quantitation. Posttreatment SM levels ranged from 1.2% to 9.5% of the microscopic field, corresponding to an 84% to 92% relative reduction from baseline. Improvements in liver volume, liver function tests, and lipid profiles were also observed. This study illustrates the utility of SM assessment by liver biopsy as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of disease burden in these patients. PMID:27340749

  3. Even mildly elevated TSH is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in postmenopausal women with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Geng, Houfa; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Chenggang; Zhao, Meng; Yu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Bingchang; Wang, Yong; Ban, Bo; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Postmenopausal women, a population with increased risk of atherosclerosis, also have an appreciable risk of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). The current study sought an association between serum thyrotropin (TSH), the biomarker of SCH and atherosclerosis lipid profile changes. A total of 45 postmenopausal women with SCH and 27 healthy women matched by age and body mass index were enrolled in this observational study. Serum lipid profiles and thyroid function were assessed. Compared with healthy controls, the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-c and oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in SCH were increased by ~22.8%, 29.6%, 30.5% and 23.2%, respectively. TSH was positively correlated with TC, LDL-c and oxLDL in all of the study subjects after adjusting for age and BMI. In particular, the positive correlation remained significant after adjusting for serum FT3 and FT4. When further stratified by TSH levels, both the subgroup of mildly elevated TSH (4.78-9.99 mU/L) and overtly elevated TSH (>10.00 mU/L) exhibited significantly higher serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-c and oxLDL compared to the normal TSH subgroup. Path analysis revealed that the total effects of TSH on TC (total effectsTC,TSH = 0.4323) included a significant direct effect (direct effectTC,TSH = 0.4932) and an indirect effect via an intermediary variable (FT3, FT4). Furthermore, TC exhibited a direct effect on LDL-c, as did LDL-c on oxLDL. In conclusion, even with a mild elevation of serum TSH, SCH is associated with atherogenic lipid profiles in postmenopausal women independent of thyroid hormones. PMID:24679183

  4. Placental lipoprotein lipase DNA methylation levels are associated with gestational diabetes mellitus and maternal and cord blood lipid profiles.

    PubMed

    Houde, A A; St-Pierre, J; Hivert, M F; Baillargeon, J P; Perron, P; Gaudet, D; Brisson, D; Bouchard, L

    2014-04-01

    Placental lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is crucial for placental lipid transfer. Impaired LPL gene expression and activity were reported in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and intra-uterine growth restriction. We hypothesized that placental LPL DNA methylation is altered by maternal metabolic status and could contribute to fetal programming. The objective of this study was thus to assess whether placental LPL DNA methylation is associated with GDM and both maternal and newborn lipid profiles. Placenta biopsies were sampled at delivery from 126 women including 27 women with GDM diagnosed following a post 75 g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between weeks 24 and 28 of gestation. Placental LPL DNA methylation and expression levels were determined using bisulfite pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. DNA methylation levels within LPL proximal promoter region (CpG1) and intron 1 CpG island (CpGs 2 and 3) were lower in placenta of women with GDM. DNA methylation levels at LPL-CpG1 and CpG3 were also negatively correlated with maternal glucose (2-h post OGTT; r=-0.22; P=0.02) and HDL-cholesterol levels (third trimester of pregnancy; r=-0.20; p=0.03), respectively. Moreover, we report correlation between LPL-CpG2 DNA methylation and cord blood lipid profile. DNA methylation levels within intron 1 CpG island explained up to 26% (r⩽-0.51; P<0.001) of placental LPL mRNA expression variance. Overall, we showed that maternal metabolic profile is associated with placental LPL DNA methylation dysregulation. Our results suggest that site-specific LPL epipolymorphisms in the placenta are possibly functional and could potentially be involved in determining the future metabolic health of the newborn. PMID:24847699

  5. Spironolactone in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: effects on clinical features, insulin sensitivity and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Zulian, E; Sartorato, P; Benedini, S; Baro, G; Armanini, D; Mantero, F; Scaroni, C

    2005-01-01

    This prospective clinical trial was designed to assess the effects of a long-term therapy with spironolactone, with and without dietary-induced weight-loss, on clinical features, lipid profile and insulin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Twenty-five patients (range of age 16-32 yr; 13 lean and 12 overweight) fulfilling formal diagnostic criteria for PCOS (oligomenorrhea and/or amenorrhea, biochemical and/or clinical evidence of hyperadrogenism) were studied at baseline and then received oral spironolactone (100 mg/die) for 12 months; association with lifestyle modifications was recommended to all over-weight patients. Clinical, endocrine and metabolic parameters [oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), lipid profile] were measured at baseline and at the end of the antiandrogen treatment. The therapy was associated with a significant average decline of triglycerides in overweight subjects and with increased HDL-cholesterol levels in lean patients. The insulin levels at 60 min during OGTT, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and area under curve of insulin were significantly lowered in overweight women after 12 months of spironolactone and weight loss and no negative changes in insulin secretion and sensitivity were observed in PCOS women after pharmacological treatment alone. The efficacy of spironolactone on the androgenic clinical aspects of PCOS has been confirmed in this study. Furthermore, our data show that long-term treatment with spironolactone exerts no negative effects on lipoprotein profile and glucose metabolism; more relevant beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism were observed when the antiandrogen was associated with weight loss in overweight PCOS women. PMID:15816371

  6. Effects of Bread with Nigella Sativa on Lipid Profiles, Apolipoproteins and Inflammatory Factor in Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Mohtashami, Alireaz; Mahaki, Behzad; Azadbakht, Leila; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Nigella sativa (N.sativa) has been used in traditional medicine and many studies have been performed in different communities in order to reveal the effects of it on medical disorders and chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bread with N. Sativa on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins, and inflammatory factors in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over and clinical trial was conducted in 51 MetS patients of both sexes with age group of 20-65 years old in Chaloos, north of Iran. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. In phase 1, intervention group (A, n = 27) received daily a bread with N. sativa and wheat bran and control group (B, n = 24) received the same bread without N. sativa for 2 months. After 2 weeks of wash out period, phase 2 was started with switch the intervention between two groups. Measuring of lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor was performed for all patients before and after two phases. In this study, treatment, sequence and time effects of intervention were evaluated and revealed that consumption of bread with N. sativa has no significant treatment and time effects on triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein (APO)-A, APO-B and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p > 0.05). Sequence effect was significant on CHOL, LDL, APO-A, and APO-B (p < 0.05) but was not significant on other parameters (p > 0.05). Consumption of bread with N. sativa has no a significant effect on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor in MetS patients. PMID:27152298

  7. Feeding milk replacer instead of whole milk affects blood plasma proteome and lipid profile in preruminant calves.

    PubMed

    Lepczyński, A; Herosimczyk, A; Ożgo, M; Skrzypczak, W F

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of feeding milk or milk-replacer on the blood plasma proteome and lipid profile in calves during the second week of life. Feeding milk-replacer significantly decreased the expression of plasma apoA-I. Age of calves affected apoA-I expression, which was higher on the 8th than on the 11th and 14th day of life. A significant effect of interaction between diet and age was also observed. The expression of apoA-IV, was significantly affected by diet and was lower in calves fed milk replacer. Expression of this protein was significantly lower at the 8th day of life and was up-regulated in the calves fed milk-replacer at the second week of life. Calves fed milk-replacer had greater expression of haptoglobin, which differed significantly between days of blood sampling, being higher on the 8th than on the 11th and 14th day. The interactive effect of diet and age affected haptoglobin expression, which was successively down-regulated in calves fed milk re- placer. Diet had a significant effect on the plasma lipid profile. Animals fed milk had a greater concentration of TC, HDLC and LDLC. The composition of milk-replacer, especially fat source, is probably the main factor that affects expression of proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism and level of components of lipid profile in calves fed formula. We claim that the initially increased level of haptoglobin, followed by its decrease during the second week of life in calves fed milk-replacer may indicate the presence of short-term stress induced by changes in the feeding system. PMID:25928915

  8. Effect of Tamarindus indica fruits on blood pressure and lipid-profile in human model: an in vivo approach.

    PubMed

    Iftekhar, A S M Maruf; Rayhan, Israt; Quadir, Mohiuddin Abdul; Akhteruzzaman, Sharif; Hasnat, Abul

    2006-04-01

    Fruits of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for their effects on lipid profile, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and body weight in human subjects. Dried and pulverized pulp of T. indica fruits, at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight, was found to reduce total cholesterol level (p = 0.031) and LDL-cholesterol level (p = 0.004) to a significant extent. Though the fruits exerted no conspicuous effect on body weight and systolic blood pressure, it significantly reduced the diastolic pressure as confirmed by independent sample t-test at 5% significance level. PMID:16751124

  9. Alterations of the lipid content and fatty acid profile of Chlorella protothecoides under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Piasecka, Agata; Nosalewicz, Artur; Simionato, Diana; Wawrzykowski, Jacek

    2015-11-01

    Chlorella protothecoides is a valuable source of lipids that may be used for biodiesel production. The present work shows analysis of the potential of photoheterotrophic cultivation of C. protothecoides under various light intensities aiming to identify the conditions with maximal biomass and lipid content. An increase in light intensity was associated with an increased specific growth rate and a shortened doubling time. Also, the relative total lipid content increased from 24.8% to 37.5% with increase of light intensity. The composition of fatty acid methyl esters was affected by light intensity with the C16-18 fatty acids increased from 76.97% to 90.24% of total fatty acids. However, the content of linolenic acids decreased with the increase of the culture irradiance. These studies indicate that cultures irradiated with high light intensities achieve the minimal specifications for biodiesel quality on linolenic acids and thus are suitable for biodiesel production. PMID:26231126

  10. Dietary intake and blood lipid profile in overweight and obese schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The high blood lipid levels and obesity are one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. Some environmental factors are supposed to be involved in this relationship, such as dietary factors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary intake and blood lipids levels in overweight and obese schoolchildren. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with 147 overweight and obese schoolchildren in Botucatu city, Brazil. The anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference and skinfolds), pubertal staging evaluation and biochemical tests were taken in all children. Three 24h-recall were applied in order to estimate the dietary intake and its relationship with blood lipid levels. The Student t test and multiple linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was assessed at the level of 0.05. The data were processed in SAS software (version 9.1.3; SAS Institute). Results At this study, 63% of children were obese (body mass index higher than 95th percentile) and 80% showed high body fat percentage. The percentage of children with abnormal total cholesterol and triglycerides was 12% and 10%, respectively, and 28% presented at least one abnormal lipid levels. The average values of anthropometric measurements were higher in children with elevated lipid levels. Total cholesterol levels were positively related to full-fat dairy products and triglycerides levels to saturated fat percentage. Conclusions Saturated fat was positively associated with elevated lipid levels in overweight and obese schoolchildren. These results reinforce the importance of healthy dietary habits since childhood in order to reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. PMID:23111146

  11. Maternal Blood Lipid Profile during Pregnancy and Associations with Child Adiposity: Findings from the ROLO Study

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, Aisling A.; Alberdi, Goiuri; O’Sullivan, Elizabeth J.; O’Brien, Eileen C.; Crosbie, Brenda; Twomey, Patrick J.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The in-utero environment affects fetal development; it is vital to understand how maternal diet during pregnancy influences childhood body composition. While research indicates that triglycerides in hyperglycaemic women may increase birth weight, little is known about this relationship in euglycemic women. This study examines the relationship between maternal blood lipid status and infant adiposity up to 2 years of age. Methods Data from 331 mother-child pairs from the ROLO longitudinal birth cohort study was analysed. Maternal dietary intakes were recorded and fasting blood lipids, leptin and HOMA were measured in early and late pregnancy and cord blood. Infant anthropometric measurements and skin-fold thicknesses were recorded at birth, 6 months and 2 years. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore associations between maternal blood lipid status and infant adiposity. Results All maternal blood lipids increased significantly during pregnancy. Maternal dietary fat intake was positively associated with total cholesterol levels in early pregnancy. Late pregnancy triglycerides were positively associated with birth weight (P = 0.03) while cord blood triglycerides were negatively associated with birth weight (P = 0.01). Cord HDL-C was negatively associated with infant weight at 6 months (P = 0.005). No other maternal blood lipids were associated with infant weight or adiposity up to 2 years of age. Conclusion Maternal and fetal triglycerides were associated with birth weight and cord HDL-C with weight at 6 months. Thus, maternal lipid concentrations may exert in-utero influences on infant body composition. There may be potential to modulate infant body composition through alteration of maternal diet during pregnancy. PMID:27560495

  12. Non-linear imaging techniques visualize the lipid profile of C. elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Meropi; Petanidou, Barbara; Palikaras, Konstantinos; Fotakis, Costas; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Filippidis, George

    2015-07-01

    The non-linear techniques Second and Third Harmonic Generation (SHG, THG) have been employed simultaneously to record three dimensional (3D) imaging and localize the lipid content of the muscular areas (ectopic fat) of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Simultaneously, Two-Photon Fluorescence (TPEF) was used initially to localize the stained lipids with Nile Red, but also to confirm the THG potential to image lipids successfully. In addition, GFP labelling of the somatic muscles, proves the initial suggestion of the existence of ectopic fat on the muscles and provides complementary information to the SHG imaging of the pharynx. The ectopic fat may be related to a complex of pathological conditions including type-2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The elucidation of the molecular path leading to the development of metabolic syndrome is a vital issue with high biological significance and necessitates accurate methods competent of monitoring lipid storage distribution and dynamics in vivo. THG microscopy was employed as a quantitative tool to monitor the lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues in the pharyngeal muscles of 12 unstained specimens while the SHG imaging revealed the anatomical structure of the muscles. The ectopic fat accumulation on the pharyngeal muscles increases in wild type (N2) C. elegans between 1 and 9 days of adulthood. This suggests a correlation of the ectopic fat accumulation with the aging. Our results can provide new evidence relating the deposition of ectopic fat with aging, but also validate SHG and THG microscopy modalities as new, non-invasive tools capable of localizing and quantifying selectively lipid accumulation and distribution.

  13. Univariate and multivariate molecular spectral analyses of lipid related molecular structural components in relation to nutrient profile in feed and food mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeysekara, Saman; Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to determine lipid related molecular structures components (functional groups) in feed combination of cereal grain (barley, Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) based dried distillers grain solubles (wheat DDGSs) from bioethanol processing at five different combination ratios using univariate and multivariate molecular spectral analyses with infrared Fourier transform molecular spectroscopy, and (ii) to correlate lipid-related molecular-functional structure spectral profile to nutrient profiles. The spectral intensity of (i) CH3 asymmetric, CH2 asymmetric, CH3 symmetric and CH2 symmetric groups, (ii) unsaturation (Cdbnd C) group, and (iii) carbonyl ester (Cdbnd O) group were determined. Spectral differences of functional groups were detected by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal components analysis (PCA). The results showed that the combination treatments significantly inflicted modifications (P < 0.05) in nutrient profile and lipid related molecular spectral intensity (CH2 asymmetric stretching peak height, CH2 symmetric stretching peak height, ratio of CH2 to CH3 symmetric stretching peak intensity, and carbonyl peak area). Ratio of CH2 to CH3 symmetric stretching peak intensity, and carbonyl peak significantly correlated with nutrient profiles. Both PCA and HCA differentiated lipid-related spectrum. In conclusion, the changes of lipid molecular structure spectral profiles through feed combination could be detected using molecular spectroscopy. These changes were associated with nutrient profiles and functionality.

  14. Modulation of endomembranes morphodynamics in the secretory/retrograde pathways depends on lipid diversity.

    PubMed

    Boutté, Yohann; Moreau, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    Membrane lipids are crucial bricks for cell and organelle compartmentalization and their physical properties and interactions with other membrane partners (lipids or proteins) reveal lipids as key actors of the regulation of membrane morphodynamics in many cellular functions and especially in the secretory/retrograde pathways. Studies on membrane models have indicated diverse mechanisms by which membranes bend. Moreover, in vivo studies also indicate that membrane curvature can play crucial roles in the regulation of endomembrane morphodynamics, organelle morphology and transport vesicle formation. A role for enzymes of lipid metabolism and lipid-protein interactions will be discussed as crucial mechanisms in the regulation of membrane morphodynamics in the secretory/retrograde pathways. PMID:25233477

  15. Lipid bilayer nanodisc platform for investigating polyprenol-dependent enzyme interactions and activities

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Meredith D.; Schneggenburger, Philipp E.; Imperiali, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Membrane-bound polyprenol-dependent pathways are important for the assembly of essential glycoconjugates in all domains of life. However, despite their prevalence, the functional significance of the extended linear polyprenyl groups in the interactions of the glycan substrates, the biosynthetic enzymes that act upon them, and the membrane bilayer in which they are embedded remains a mystery. These interactions are investigated simultaneously and uniquely through application of the nanodisc membrane technology. The Campylobacter jejuni N-linked glycosylation pathway has been chosen as a model pathway in which all of the enzymes and substrates are biochemically accessible. We present the functional reconstitution of two enzymes responsible for the early membrane-committed steps in glycan assembly. Protein stoichiometry analysis, fluorescence-based approaches, and biochemical activity assays are used to demonstrate the colocalization of the two enzymes in nanodiscs. Isotopic labeling of the substrates reveals that undecaprenyl-phosphate is coincorporated into discs with the two enzymes, and furthermore, that both enzymes are functionally reconstituted and can sequentially convert the coembedded undecaprenyl-phosphate into undecaprenyl-diphosphate-linked disaccharide. These studies provide a proof-of-concept demonstrating that the nanodisc model membrane system represents a promising experimental platform for analyzing the multifaceted interactions among the enzymes involved in polyprenol-dependent glycan assembly pathways, the membrane-associated substrates, and the lipid bilayer. The stage is now set for exploration of the roles of the conserved polyprenols in promoting protein–protein interactions among pathway enzymes and processing of substrates through sequential steps in membrane-associated glycan assembly. PMID:24302767

  16. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczyńska, Maria; Dudzińska, Wioleta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued. PMID:26389928

  17. Methionine sulfoxide profiling of milk proteins to assess the influence of lipids on protein oxidation in milk.

    PubMed

    Wüst, Johannes; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-06-15

    Thermal treatment of milk and milk products leads to protein oxidation, mainly the formation of methionine sulfoxide. Reactive oxygen species, responsible for the oxidation, can be generated by Maillard reaction, autoxidation of sugars, or lipid peroxidation. The present study investigated the influence of milk fat on methionine oxidation in milk. For this purpose, quantitative methionine sulfoxide profiling of all ten methionine residues of β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and αs1-casein was carried out by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS-sMRM). Analysis of defatted and regular raw milk samples after heating for up to 8 min at 120 °C and analysis of ultrahigh-temperature milk samples with 0.1%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat revealed that methionine oxidation of the five residues of the whey proteins and of residues M 123, M 135, and M 196 of αs1-casein was not affected or even suppressed in the presence of milk fat. Only the oxidation of residues M 54 and M 60 of αs1-casein was promoted by lipids. In evaporated milk samples, formation of methionine sulfoxide was hardly influenced by the fat content of the samples. Thus, it can be concluded that lipid oxidation products are not the major cause of methionine oxidation in milk. PMID:26927981

  18. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans.

    PubMed

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczyńska, Maria; Dudzińska, Wioleta

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m²). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued. PMID:26389928

  19. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-dependent regulation of lipid synthesis supports cell survival and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Regulation of lipid metabolism via activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) has emerged as an important function of the Akt/mTORC1 signaling axis. Although the contribution of dysregulated Akt/mTORC1 signaling to cancer has been investigated extensively and altered lipid metabolism is observed in many tumors, the exact role of SREBPs in the control of biosynthetic processes required for Akt-dependent cell growth and their contribution to tumorigenesis remains unclear. Results We first investigated the effects of loss of SREBP function in non-transformed cells. Combined ablation of SREBP1 and SREBP2 by siRNA-mediated gene silencing or chemical inhibition of SREBP activation induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress and engaged the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, specifically under lipoprotein-deplete conditions in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Induction of ER-stress led to inhibition of protein synthesis through increased phosphorylation of eIF2α. This demonstrates for the first time the importance of SREBP in the coordination of lipid and protein biosynthesis, two processes that are essential for cell growth and proliferation. SREBP ablation caused major changes in lipid composition characterized by a loss of mono- and poly-unsaturated lipids and induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. Alterations in lipid composition and increased ROS levels, rather than overall changes to lipid synthesis rate, were required for ER-stress induction. Next, we analyzed the effect of SREBP ablation in a panel of cancer cell lines. Importantly, induction of apoptosis following SREBP depletion was restricted to lipoprotein-deplete conditions. U87 glioblastoma cells were highly susceptible to silencing of either SREBP isoform, and apoptosis induced by SREBP1 depletion in these cells was rescued by antioxidants or by restoring the levels of mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, silencing of SREBP1

  20. In Situ Characterizing Membrane Lipid Phenotype of Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines Using Mass Spectrometry Profiling

    PubMed Central

    He, Manwen; Guo, Shuai; Ren, Junling; Li, Zhili

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal lipid metabolisms are closely associated with cancers. In this study, mass spectrometry was employed to in situ investigate the associations of membrane lipid phenotypes of six human lung cancer cell lines (i.e., A549, H1650, H1975 from adenocarcinoma, H157 and H1703 from squamous cell carcinomas, and H460 from a large cell carcinoma) with cancer cell types and finally total 230 lipids were detected. Based these 230 lipids, partial least-square discriminant analysis indicated that fifteen lipids (i.e., PE 18:0_18:1, PI 18:0_20:4, SM 42:2, PE 16:0_20:4, PE 36:2, PC 36:2, SM 34:1, PA 38:3,C18:0, C22:4, PA 34:2, C20:5, C20:2, C18:2, and CerP 36:2) with variable importance in the projection (VIP) value of > 1.0 could be used to differentiate six cancer cell lines with the Predicted Residual Sum of Square (PRESS) score of 0.1974. Positive correlation between polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e., C20:4, C22:4, C22:5, and C22:6) and polyunsaturated phospholipids (PE 16:0_20:4, PE 38:4, and PI 18:0_20:4) was observed in lung adenocarcinoma cells, especially for H1975 cells. Three adenocarcinoma cell lines (i.e., A549, H1650, and H1975) could be differentiated from other lung cancer cell lines based on the expression of C18:1, C20:1, C20:2, C20:5, and C22:6. PMID:27162539

  1. In Situ Characterizing Membrane Lipid Phenotype of Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines Using Mass Spectrometry Profiling.

    PubMed

    He, Manwen; Guo, Shuai; Ren, Junling; Li, Zhili

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal lipid metabolisms are closely associated with cancers. In this study, mass spectrometry was employed to in situ investigate the associations of membrane lipid phenotypes of six human lung cancer cell lines (i.e., A549, H1650, H1975 from adenocarcinoma, H157 and H1703 from squamous cell carcinomas, and H460 from a large cell carcinoma) with cancer cell types and finally total 230 lipids were detected. Based these 230 lipids, partial least-square discriminant analysis indicated that fifteen lipids (i.e., PE 18:0_18:1, PI 18:0_20:4, SM 42:2, PE 16:0_20:4, PE 36:2, PC 36:2, SM 34:1, PA 38:3,C18:0, C22:4, PA 34:2, C20:5, C20:2, C18:2, and CerP 36:2) with variable importance in the projection (VIP) value of > 1.0 could be used to differentiate six cancer cell lines with the Predicted Residual Sum of Square (PRESS) score of 0.1974. Positive correlation between polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e., C20:4, C22:4, C22:5, and C22:6) and polyunsaturated phospholipids (PE 16:0_20:4, PE 38:4, and PI 18:0_20:4) was observed in lung adenocarcinoma cells, especially for H1975 cells. Three adenocarcinoma cell lines (i.e., A549, H1650, and H1975) could be differentiated from other lung cancer cell lines based on the expression of C18:1, C20:1, C20:2, C20:5, and C22:6. PMID:27162539

  2. Influence of vanadium on serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles: a population-based study among vanadium exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some experimental animal studies reported that vanadium had beneficial effects on blood total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG). However, the relationship between vanadium exposure and lipid, lipoprotein profiles in human subjects remains uncertain. This study aimed to compare the serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles of occupational vanadium exposed and non-exposed workers, and to provide human evidence on serum lipid, lipoprotein profiles and atherogenic indexes changes in relation to vanadium exposure. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 533 vanadium exposed workers and 241 non-exposed workers from a Steel and Iron Group in Sichuan, China. Demographic characteristics and occupational information were collected through questionnaires. Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels were measured for all participants. The ratios of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to HDL-C and apoB to apoA-I were used as atherogenic indexes. A general linear model was applied to compare outcomes of the two groups while controlling possible confounders and multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate the relationship between low HDL-C level, abnormal atherogenic index and vanadium exposure. Results Higher levels of HDL-C and apoA-I could be observed in the vanadium exposed group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, atherogenic indexes (TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and apoB/apoA-I ratios) were found statistically lower in the vanadium exposed workers (P < 0.05). Changes in HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C were more pronounced in male workers than that in female workers. In male workers, after adjusting for potential confounding variables as age, habits of smoking and drinking, occupational vanadium exposure was still associated with lower HDL-C (OR 0.41; 95% CI, 0.27-0.62) and abnormal atherogenic index (OR 0.38; 95% CI, 0.20-0.70). Conclusion Occupational

  3. Lipid profile and glucose changes after supplementation with astaxanthin: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Ursoniu, Sorin; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Banach, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many studies have shown that oral supplementation with astaxanthin may be a novel potential treatment for inflammation and oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases, but evidence of the effects on lipid profile and glucose is still inconclusive. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of astaxanthin supplementation on plasma lipid and glucose concentrations. Material and methods The search included PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and EMBASE (up to November 27, 2014) to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of astaxanthin supplementation on lipid profile and glucose levels. Two independent reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, methods and outcomes. Results Seven studies meeting inclusion criteria with 280 participants were selected for this meta-analysis; 163 participants were allocated to the astaxanthin supplementation group and 117 to the control group. A random-effect meta-analysis of data from 7 RCTs (10 treatment arms) did not show any significant effect of supplementation with astaxanthin on plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (weighted mean difference (WMD): –1.52 mg/dl, 95% CI: –8.69 to –5.66, p = 0.679), LDL-C (WMD: +1.25 mg/dl, 95% CI: –6.70 to +9.21, p = 0.758), HDL-C (WMD: +1.75 mg/dl, 95% CI: –0.92 to +4.42, p = 0.199), triglycerides (WMD: –4.76 mg/dl, 95% CI: –21.52 to +12.00, p = 0.578), or glucose (WMD: –2.65 mg/dl, 95% CI: –5.84 to +0.54, p = 0.103). All these effect sizes were robust, and omission of any of the included studies did not significantly change the overall estimate. Conclusions This meta-analysis of data from 10 RCT arms did not indicate a significant effect of supplementation with astaxanthin on plasma lipid profile, but a slight glucose-lowering effect was observed. Further, well-designed trials are necessary to validate these results. PMID:25995739

  4. Gut microbiota can transfer fiber characteristics and lipid metabolic profiles of skeletal muscle from pigs to germ-free mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Honglin; Diao, Hui; Xiao, Yi; Li, Wenxia; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping; Mao, Xiangbing; Luo, Yuheng; Zeng, Benhua; Wei, Hong; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    Obesity causes changes in microbiota composition, and an altered gut microbiota can transfer obesity-associated phenotypes from donors to recipients. Obese Rongchang pigs (RP) exhibited distinct fiber characteristics and lipid metabolic profiles in their muscle compared with lean Yorkshire pigs (YP). However, whether RP have a different gut microbiota than YP and whether there is a relationship between the microbiota and muscle properties are poorly understood. The present study was conducted to test whether the muscle properties can be transferred from pigs to germ-free (GF) mice. High-throughput pyrosequencing confirms the presence of distinct core microbiota between pig breeds, with alterations in taxonomic distribution and modulations in β diversity. RP displayed a significant higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and apparent genera differences compared with YP. Transplanting the porcine microbiota into GF mice replicated the phenotypes of the donors. RP and their GF mouse recipients exhibited a higher body fat mass, a higher slow-contracting fiber proportion, a decreased fiber size and fast IIb fiber percentage, and enhanced lipogenesis in the gastrocnemius muscle. Furthermore, the gut microbiota composition of colonized mice shared high similarity with their donor pigs. Taken together, the gut microbiota of obese pigs intrinsically influences skeletal muscle development and the lipid metabolic profiles. PMID:27545196

  5. [Effect of sacha inchi oil (plukenetia volúbilis l) on the lipid profile of patients with hyperlipoproteinemia].

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Fausto; Pando, Rosa; Ronceros, Gerardo

    2011-12-01

    We performed a pilot, experimental, open study in order to know the effect, effective dosage and secondary effects of sacha inchi´s (Plukenetia Huallabamba) [corrected] oil on the lipid profiles of patients with hypercholesterolemia. We included 24 patients of ages 35 to 75, to whom we measured total cholesterol (TC), HDL, triglycerides (Tg), glucose (G), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin (I) levels in blood, then we randomized them to receive sacha inchi oil orally 5 ml or 10 ml of a suspension of sacha inchi oil (2gr/5ml) for four months. The oil intake produced a decrease in the mean values of TC, and NEFA, and a rise in HDL in both subgroups. The subgroup receiving 10 ml was associated to an increase in the insulin levels. Sacha inchi oil appears to have beneficial effects on the lipid profile of patients with dyslipidemia, but their efficacy and security should be evaluated in randomized clinical trials. PMID:22241259

  6. Effect of Quercus infectoria and Rosa damascena on lipid profile and atherosclerotic plaque formation in rabbit model of hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Gholamhoseinian, A; Shahouzehi, B; Joukar, S; Iranpoor, M

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is the cause of many complications in the human societies. In this study, the effect of methanol extracts of Quercus infectoria (QI) galls and Rosa damascena (RD) Mill flower were studied on lipid profile and atherosclerotic plaques formation in hyperlipidemic rabbits. Thirty-six New Zeland white rabbits randomly divided into 6 groups as control (I), hyperlipidemic (II), hyperlipidemic+QI (III), hyperlipidemic+RD (IV), +Atorvastolin (V) and hyperlipidemic+Orlistat (VI) and were fed with high fat diet (0.5% cholesterol and 16% hydrogenated vegetable oil) for 45 days. At the end of the study period, lipid profile and plaque formation were assessed. Total Cholesterol (TC), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly increased in hyperlipidemic group compared with control group (p < 0.001). Methanol extract consumption of Quercus infectoria significantly decreased plasma levels of TC, TG and LDL (p < 0.001). It also decreased plaques formation in semi lunar valve and thoracic aorta. Rosa damascena mill flower methanol extract moderately decreased the levels of TC, TG, LDL and plaques formation but it was not significant. HDL levels and weight of animals did not show significant difference among groups. Based on the doses used in this study, our finding indicated that QI but no RD methanol extract has anti atherogenic and hypolipidemic activities. PMID:22530439

  7. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of Heracleum persicum on lipid profile in cholesterol-fed rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Dashti, Gholamreza; Saberi, Salabali; Malekjamshidi, Parvin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) on lipid profile of male hyperlipidemic rabbits. Materials and Methods: Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into six groups of five each. One group received normal diet and the other groups fed with a high cholesterol (2% W/W) diet for 7 weeks. Vehicle, hydroalcoholic extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg), essential oil (200  l/kg), and lovastatin (5 mg/kg) were administered orally to animals and their effects on lipid profile were evaluated. Results: Essential oil of H. perscum significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum triglyceride level and increased HDL-cholesterol concentration. Moreover, hydroalcoholic extract (1000 mg/kg), essential oil (200  l/kg), and lovastatin significantly (p<0.01) reduced serum concentration of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Conclusion: These findings suggest that essential oil of the plant fruits may have some benefits in reducing cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25050312

  8. Human longevity is associated with regular sleep patterns, maintenance of slow wave sleep, and favorable lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Mazzotti, Diego Robles; Guindalini, Camila; Moraes, Walter André dos Santos; Andersen, Monica Levy; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Some individuals are able to successfully reach very old ages, reflecting higher adaptation against age-associated effects. Sleep is one of the processes deeply affected by aging; however few studies evaluating sleep in long-lived individuals (aged over 85) have been reported to date. The aim of this study was to characterize the sleep patterns and biochemical profile of oldest old individuals (N = 10, age 85–105 years old) and compare them to young adults (N = 15, age 20–30 years old) and older adults (N = 13, age 60–70 years old). All subjects underwent full-night polysomnography, 1-week of actigraphic recording and peripheral blood collection. Sleep electroencephalogram spectral analysis was also performed. The oldest old individuals showed lower sleep efficiency and REM sleep when compared to the older adults, while stage N3 percentage and delta power were similar across the groups. Oldest old individuals maintained strictly regular sleep-wake schedules and also presented higher HDL-cholesterol and lower triglyceride levels than older adults. The present study revealed novel data regarding specific sleep patterns and maintenance of slow wave sleep in the oldest old group. Taken together with the favorable lipid profile, these results contribute with evidence to the importance of sleep and lipid metabolism regulation in the maintenance of longevity in humans. PMID:25009494

  9. Fiber in Diet Is Associated with Improvement of Glycated Hemoglobin and Lipid Profile in Mexican Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-López, Lubia; Muñoz-Torres, Abril Violeta; García-Peña, Carmen; López-Alarcón, Mardia; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the association of dietary fiber on current everyday diet and other dietary components with glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c), glucose, lipids profile, and body weight body weight, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 395 patients with type 2 diabetes was performed. HbA1c, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and lipids profile were measured. Weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. Everyday diet with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was evaluated. ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. Results. Higher fiber intake was associated with a low HbA1c, high HDL-c levels, low weight, and waist circumference. The highest tertile of calories consumption was associated with a higher fasting glucose level and weight. The highest tertile of carbohydrate consumption was associated with a lower weight. The lowest tertile of total fat and saturated fat was associated with the highest tertile of HDL-c levels, and lower saturated fat intake was associated with lower weight (p < 0.05). Conclusions. A higher content of fiber in the diet reduces HbA1c and triglycerides, while improving HDL-c levels. Increasing fiber consumption while lowering calorie consumption seems to be an appropriate strategy to reduce body weight and promote blood glucose control. PMID:27144178

  10. Kochujang, fermented soybean-based red pepper paste, decreases visceral fat and improves blood lipid profiles in overweight adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Health benefits of Kochujang (KCJ) and its bioactive compounds have been reported in several in vitro and animal studies. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of KCJ supplementation on body composition and blood lipid profiles in overweight adults. Methods Sixty overweight men and women with BMI ≥23 kg/m2 and waist-hip-ratio (WHR) ≥0.90 for men and ≥0.85 for women were randomly assigned to a KCJ supplement (n=30, 32 g/day) or placebo (n=30, 32 g/day) group for a 12-week, double-blind, placebo controlled study. We measured anthropometric parameters, serum lipid profiles, abdominal fat distribution by computerized tomography and calculated the atherosclerosis indices in 53 subjects (n=26 in KCJ group, n=27 in placebo group) who completed the study. Results After 12 weeks, the KCJ group showed a significant reduction in visceral fat (cm2) (p<0.05), although body weight (kg) and WHR did not change. Serum concentration of triglycerides and ApoB were decreased when compared to those of the placebo group. Conclusion KCJ supplementation (32 g/day) for 12 weeks in overweight adults showed anti-atherosclerotic and anti-obesogenic effects. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov Identifier: NCT01532375 PMID:23442518

  11. Fiber in Diet Is Associated with Improvement of Glycated Hemoglobin and Lipid Profile in Mexican Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-López, Lubia; Muñoz-Torres, Abril Violeta; García-Peña, Carmen; López-Alarcón, Mardia; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the association of dietary fiber on current everyday diet and other dietary components with glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c), glucose, lipids profile, and body weight body weight, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 395 patients with type 2 diabetes was performed. HbA1c, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and lipids profile were measured. Weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. Everyday diet with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was evaluated. ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. Results. Higher fiber intake was associated with a low HbA1c, high HDL-c levels, low weight, and waist circumference. The highest tertile of calories consumption was associated with a higher fasting glucose level and weight. The highest tertile of carbohydrate consumption was associated with a lower weight. The lowest tertile of total fat and saturated fat was associated with the highest tertile of HDL-c levels, and lower saturated fat intake was associated with lower weight (p < 0.05). Conclusions. A higher content of fiber in the diet reduces HbA1c and triglycerides, while improving HDL-c levels. Increasing fiber consumption while lowering calorie consumption seems to be an appropriate strategy to reduce body weight and promote blood glucose control. PMID:27144178

  12. Safety and efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract from Lawsonia inermis leaves on lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surender; Verma, Nishikant; Karwasra, Ritu; Kalra, Prerna; Kumar, Rohit; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dyslipidemia is one of the most common risk factor for cardiac-related disorders in diabetes mellitus. Diabetic dyslipidemia is characterized by hypertriglyceridemia, low high density lipoprotein and elevated low density lipoprotein concentration. Aim: To explore the effect of Lawsonia inermis hydroalcoholic extract (LIHE) for diabetic dyslipidemic activity along with its safety profile. Materials and Methods: LIHE administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg in rats after induction of hyperglycemia by alloxan. Insulin (1 IU/kg), glibenclamide (2.5 mg/kg), and metformin (100 mg/kg) were used as positive control and 1% gum acacia as normal control. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's t-test. Results: The percentage reduction in blood glucose level of LIHE at dose of 400 mg/kg was 39.08% on day 21 when compared to baseline (day 0), which is comparable to glibenclamide (44.77%) and metformin (46.30%). Decrease in blood glucose level exhibited significant improvement in lipid profile, plasma albumin, total plasma protein and serum creatinine. Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated that LIHE significantly improved lipid and lipoprotein pattern observed in diabetic rats and this could be due to improvement in insulin secretion or action, thus has potential to be used in treatment of diabetes mellitus associated dyslipidemia. PMID:26730149

  13. Gut microbiota can transfer fiber characteristics and lipid metabolic profiles of skeletal muscle from pigs to germ-free mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Honglin; Diao, Hui; Xiao, Yi; Li, Wenxia; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping; Mao, Xiangbing; Luo, Yuheng; Zeng, Benhua; Wei, Hong; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    Obesity causes changes in microbiota composition, and an altered gut microbiota can transfer obesity-associated phenotypes from donors to recipients. Obese Rongchang pigs (RP) exhibited distinct fiber characteristics and lipid metabolic profiles in their muscle compared with lean Yorkshire pigs (YP). However, whether RP have a different gut microbiota than YP and whether there is a relationship between the microbiota and muscle properties are poorly understood. The present study was conducted to test whether the muscle properties can be transferred from pigs to germ-free (GF) mice. High-throughput pyrosequencing confirms the presence of distinct core microbiota between pig breeds, with alterations in taxonomic distribution and modulations in β diversity. RP displayed a significant higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and apparent genera differences compared with YP. Transplanting the porcine microbiota into GF mice replicated the phenotypes of the donors. RP and their GF mouse recipients exhibited a higher body fat mass, a higher slow-contracting fiber proportion, a decreased fiber size and fast IIb fiber percentage, and enhanced lipogenesis in the gastrocnemius muscle. Furthermore, the gut microbiota composition of colonized mice shared high similarity with their donor pigs. Taken together, the gut microbiota of obese pigs intrinsically influences skeletal muscle development and the lipid metabolic profiles. PMID:27545196

  14. Effect of Camel Milk on Blood Sugar and Lipid Profile of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ejtahed, Hanieh Sadat; Niasari Naslaji, Amir; Mirmiran, Parvin; Zraif Yeganeh, Maryam; Hedayati, Mehdi; Azizi, Fereidoun; Moosavi Movahedi, Aliakbar

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been shown that camel milk consumption has a definite decreasing effect on the prevalence of diabetes. However, most of these studies were conducted on patients with type 1 diabetes, whereas studies on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are limited. In vitro experiments have shown that camel milk was able to decrease blood glucose concentration. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of camel and cow milk on blood sugar, lipid profile, and blood pressure of patients with T2DM. Patients and Methods: In a randomized single-blinded controlled clinical trial, 20 patients with T2DM were randomly allocated into two groups. Participants consumed 500 mL of either camel milk (intervention group) or cow milk (control group) daily for two months. Results: Mean of insulin concentration was significantly increased from 64.59 to 84.03 pmol/L in the camel milk group during the study (P < 0.05). No significant differences were shown in fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and blood pressure between the two groups at the end of study. There was significant increase in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) during the study in both groups, but no significant difference was seen between the two groups. Conclusions: Camel milk increased insulin level in patients with T2DM and might contribute to glycemic control in T2DM. PMID:25745496

  15. Differential effects of saturated versus unsaturated dietary fatty acids on weight gain and myocellular lipid profiles in mice

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, S; de Vogel-van den Bosch, J; de Wit, N; Schaart, G; van Beurden, D; Hesselink, M; van der Meer, R; Schrauwen, P

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In conditions of continuous high-fat (HF) intake, the degree of saturation of the fatty acids (FAs) in the diet might have a crucial role in the onset of obesity and its metabolic complications. In particular, the FA composition of the diet might influence the storage form of lipids inside skeletal muscle. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the FA composition of HF diets differentially affects weight gain and accumulation of myocellular triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG). Furthermore, we examined whether the FA composition of the diet was reflected in the composition of the myocellular lipid intermediates. Design: C57Bl6 mice were fed HF diets (45% energy) mainly containing palm oil (PO), cocoa butter (CB), olive oil (OO) or safflower oil (SO; n=6 per group) for 8 weeks. A low-fat diet (10% energy, PO) was used as control. Body weight was monitored weekly. At the end of the dietary intervention, myocellular TAG and DAG content and profiles were measured. Results: We here show that HF_CB prevented weight gain after 8 weeks of HF feeding. Furthermore, the HF diet rich in SO prevented the accumulation of both myocellular TAG and DAG. Interestingly, the FA composition of DAG and TAG in skeletal muscle was a reflection of the dietary FA composition. Conclusion: Already after a relatively short period, the dietary FA intake relates to the FA composition of the lipid metabolites in the muscle. A diet rich in polyunsaturated FAs seems to prevent myocellular lipid accumulation. PMID:23449423

  16. Plasma Metabolic Profiles in Women are Menopause Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Chaofu; Hou, Yan; Zhang, Haiyu; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jingtao; Guo, Bing; Zhang, Fan; Li, Hailong; Zhou, Xiaohua; Li, Ying; Li, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Menopause is an endocrinological transition that greatly affects health and disease susceptibility in middle-aged and elderly women. To gain new insights into the metabolic process of menopause, plasma metabolic profiles in 115 pre- and post-menopausal women were systematically analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in conjunction with univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. Metabolic signatures revealed considerable differences between pre- and post-menopausal women, and clear separations were observed between the groups in partial least-squares discriminant analysis score plots. In total, 28 metabolites were identified as potential metabolite markers for menopause, including up-regulated acylcarnitines, fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylethanolamines, and down-regulated pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and dihydrolipoic acid. These differences highlight that significant alterations occur in fatty acid β-oxidation, phospholipid metabolism, hormone metabolism and amino acid metabolism in post-menopausal women. In conclusion, our plasma metabolomics study provides novel understanding of the metabolic profiles related to menopause, and will be useful for investigating menopause-related diseases and assessing metabolomic confounding factors. PMID:26580805

  17. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Santaella, Marina; Mira-Pascual, Laia; Martínez-Arias, Elena; Khodayar-Pardo, Parisá; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez-Costa, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term) collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA) and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk. PMID:26492267

  18. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries.

    PubMed

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Santaella, Marina; Mira-Pascual, Laia; Martínez-Arias, Elena; Khodayar-Pardo, Parisá; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez-Costa, Cecilia

    2015-10-01

    Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term) collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA) and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk. PMID:26492267

  19. Safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with rosmarinic acid for oral use: in vitro and animal approaches

    PubMed Central

    Madureira, Ana Raquel; Nunes, Sara; Campos, Débora A; Fernandes, João C; Marques, Cláudia; Zuzarte, Monica; Gullón, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Calhau, Conceição; Sarmento, Bruno; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pintado, Maria Manuela; Reis, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) possesses several protective bioactivities that have attracted increasing interest by nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industries. Considering the reduced bioavailability after oral use, effective (and safe) delivery systems are crucial to protect RA from gastrointestinal degradation. This study aims to characterize the safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles produced with Witepsol and Carnauba waxes and loaded with RA, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, focused on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays, redox status markers, hematological and biochemical profile, liver and kidney function, gut bacterial microbiota, and fecal fatty acids composition. Free RA and sage extract, empty nanoparticles, or nanoparticles loaded with RA or sage extract (0.15 and 1.5 mg/mL) were evaluated for cell (lymphocytes) viability, necrosis and apoptosis, and antioxidant/prooxidant effects upon DNA. Wistar rats were orally treated for 14 days with vehicle (control) and with Witepsol or Carnauba nanoparticles loaded with RA at 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight/d. Blood, urine, feces, and several tissues were collected for analysis. Free and loaded RA, at 0.15 mg/mL, presented a safe profile, while genotoxic potential was found for the higher dose (1.5 mg/mL), mainly by necrosis. Our data suggest that both types of nanoparticles are safe when loaded with moderate concentrations of RA, without in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity and with an in vivo safety profile in rats orally treated, thus opening new avenues for use in nutraceutical applications. PMID:27536103

  20. Safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with rosmarinic acid for oral use: in vitro and animal approaches.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Ana Raquel; Nunes, Sara; Campos, Débora A; Fernandes, João C; Marques, Cláudia; Zuzarte, Monica; Gullón, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Calhau, Conceição; Sarmento, Bruno; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pintado, Maria Manuela; Reis, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) possesses several protective bioactivities that have attracted increasing interest by nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industries. Considering the reduced bioavailability after oral use, effective (and safe) delivery systems are crucial to protect RA from gastrointestinal degradation. This study aims to characterize the safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles produced with Witepsol and Carnauba waxes and loaded with RA, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, focused on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays, redox status markers, hematological and biochemical profile, liver and kidney function, gut bacterial microbiota, and fecal fatty acids composition. Free RA and sage extract, empty nanoparticles, or nanoparticles loaded with RA or sage extract (0.15 and 1.5 mg/mL) were evaluated for cell (lymphocytes) viability, necrosis and apoptosis, and antioxidant/prooxidant effects upon DNA. Wistar rats were orally treated for 14 days with vehicle (control) and with Witepsol or Carnauba nanoparticles loaded with RA at 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight/d. Blood, urine, feces, and several tissues were collected for analysis. Free and loaded RA, at 0.15 mg/mL, presented a safe profile, while genotoxic potential was found for the higher dose (1.5 mg/mL), mainly by necrosis. Our data suggest that both types of nanoparticles are safe when loaded with moderate concentrations of RA, without in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity and with an in vivo safety profile in rats orally treated, thus opening new avenues for use in nutraceutical applications. PMID:27536103

  1. A nutritional program improved lipid profiles and weight in 28 chiropractic patients: a retrospective case series☆

    PubMed Central

    Powell, James P.; Leonard, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study retrospectively examined the effects of a 21-day nutritional intervention program, which included fruit and vegetable consumption, energy restriction, and nutritional supplements, on serum lipid measures in 28 chiropractic patients. Methods Medical records were reviewed for 28 chiropractic patients who had completed a commercially available 21-day nutritional intervention program between April 2005 and August 2007 and for whom complete serum lipid and weight measures immediately pre- and postintervention were available. The primary outcome was change in serum lipids, and change in body weight was a secondary outcome variable. Results Significant reductions in total, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were observed. Serum triglycerides decreased from 116.3 ± 54.6 (mean ± SD) to 88.6 ± 40.5 mg/dL (P < .01). Total cholesterol decreased from 223.3 ± 40.7 to 176.2 ± 30.0 mg/dL (P < .0001). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased from 145.7 ± 36.8 to 110.9 ± 25.3 mg/dL (P < .0001). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased from 54.3 ± 14.6 to 47.6 ± 10.5 mg/dL (P < .001). Weight for patients decreased from 191.2 ± 38.8 to 182.2 ± 36.3 lb (P < .0001). Conclusions This retrospective case series supports the hypothesis that a nutritional purification intervention program emphasizing fruit and vegetable consumption, energy restriction, and nutritional supplements reduces serum lipids and weight. PMID:19646370

  2. Temperature-dependent lipid metabolism in the blow fly Lucilia sericata.

    PubMed

    Muntzer, A; Montagne, C; Ellse, L; Wall, R

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of how arthropods use energy is fundamental to explaining their diverse life histories and adaptation to specific environments. It is also of importance when attempting to predict the impacts of environmental change on patterns of development and phenology. Here, lipid use by the economically important agent of ovine myiasis, Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was quantified at a range of temperatures. During pupation, at temperatures above the minimum temperature required for development (9 °C), pupae depleted an average of 30% of their total lipid over the course of pupation regardless of temperature. There was no detectable loss of lipid during pupation at temperatures below 9 °C. In general, larger individuals had the same relative amounts of lipid as smaller individuals. Newly emerged adults metabolized about 16% of the lipid reserves with which they emerged in the first 24 h during flight-related activity. Starved adults, with access to water but without sucrose or protein, depleted their lipid reserves and died within about 4 days of emergence. However, adults with access to protein and/or carbohydrate were able to maintain a stored lipid content of about 2.38% of their total body mass for at least 14 days after emergence, irrespective of sex. This finding is similar to that in field-caught individuals, in which lipid content was found to be a mean of 3% of body mass. The data suggest that warmer environmental conditions, within the temperature limits tested here, although shortening the time required for development and altering the patterns of seasonal abundance of L. sericata, are unlikely to impact on fly survival because of greater metabolic demands during non-feeding stages of the lifecycle. PMID:25753336

  3. Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. Results The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Conclusion Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats. PMID:21569626

  4. Lipid Profiles and Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Eastern Iranian Adolescents, Birjand, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Fatemeh; Chahkandi, Tayebeh; Kazemi, Toba; Bijari, Bita; Zardast, Mahmoud; Namakin, Kokab

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular risk factors begin in childhood and adolescence. This study aimed at assessing serum lipids and prevalence of Dyslipidemia in 11-18 year old students of Birjand. Methods The present cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was done on 2,643 middle and high school students of Birjand aged 11-18 years (1,396 girls and 1,247 boys). Blood samples were collected for the measurement of blood lipids, including Cholesterol, Triglyceride, HDL, and LDL after a 12-hour fasting period. The defined borderline and abnormal values stated in 2011 by the American Academy of Child, was used. Results According to our results, it is concluded that: (i) 34.3% (31.3% girls and 37.6% boys) of adolescents had at least one dyslipidemia. (ii) 24.7% of the individuals had HDL lower than 40, where 14% of them TG≥130, 6.1% of cases TC≥200, and 3.5% of cases LDL≥130. Lipid disorder within low HDL type and hypertriglyceridemia were significantly higher in boys (P<0.05) than girls. Hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in the age group of 11-14 years and low HDL in the age group of 15-18 years showed the highest values (P<0.05). Conclusion Adolescents of Birjand have high prevalence of dyslipidemia. Preventive measures are recommended to improve lifestyle, including healthy nutrition, encouraging adolescents to exercise, and more mobility. PMID:26170521

  5. Sodium fluorescein influence on the hemorheological profile of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Sargento, L; Zabala, L; Saldanha, C; Souza-Ramalho, P; Martins-Silva, J

    1999-01-01

    Sodium fluorescein angiography is a widely used technology in ophthalmology, which allows us to visualise the chorioretinal microcirculation. Previous reports showed a prolongation of the retinal circulation time along with erythrocyte hyperaggregation and a decrease of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity and a possible interference with the erythrocyte's membrane fluidity. The aim of the present work is to investigate the influence of sodium fluorescein on the hemorheological profile of a group of 23 non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients undergoing routine retinal angiography. Thirty minutes after the endovenous administration of the fluorescein there was: (I) an increase of whole blood viscosity (p = 0.015), erythrocyte elongation index (EEI, p < 0.05), whole blood pH (p < 0.001), methemoglobin (p < 0.001) and carboxyhemoglobin (p < 0.001) concentrations; (II) no variation of plasma osmolality and erythrocyte aggregation index (EAI); (III) a decrease of the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity, p < 001; (IV) no variation in membrane lipid fluidity, although 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) correlated directly with the EEI, while 1,4-trimethyl-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (TMA-DPH) and EAI correlated inversely, suggesting that the decreasing EEI (lower erythrocyte deformablity) might be associated with an increased rigidity of the external polar region and fluidification of the hydrophobic region of the erythrocyte membrane, with an increasing EAI. In conclusion, the endovenous administration of sodium fluorescein in NIDDM patients during the retinal angiography procedure interferes with the erythrocyte membrane and possibly with the microcirculatory blood flow. PMID:10416808

  6. Lipid from infective L. donovani regulates acute myeloid cell growth via mitochondria dependent MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nabanita; Das, Subhadip; Bose, Dipayan; Banerjee, Somenath; Jha, Tarun; Das Saha, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    The microbial source, which includes live, attenuated, or genetically modified microbes or their cellular component(s) or metabolites, has gained increasing significance for therapeutic intervention against several pathophysiological conditions of disease including leukemia, which remains an incurable disease till now despite recent advances in the medical sciences. We therefore took up the present study to explore if the leishmanial lipid (pLLD) isolated from L. donovani can play an anti-neoplastic role in acute myeloid leukemia cells by regulating cellular growth. Indeed pLLD significantly inhibited cell proliferation of four AML cell lines (HL-60, MOLT-4, U937, and K562). Scanning electron microscopy and DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that it significantly induced apoptosis of U937 cells through morphological alteration. Occurrence of apoptosis was checked by using Annexin exposure and this established that the cell cycle was arrested at G0/G1 phase in time-dependent manner. pLLD increased the intracellular ROS with alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential, as detected using DCFDA. It also regulated the expression of apoptosis-related proteins like Bax, Bcl2, Bad and t-Bid besides causing cleavage of PARP as determined by western blot analysis. Treatment of U937 cells with pLLD induced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2, p38, and caspases 9/3. The results suggest that pLLD induces apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia cells possibly via increasing intracellular ROS and regulating the MAPK pathway. PMID:25750993

  7. Lipid from Infective L. donovani Regulates Acute Myeloid Cell Growth via Mitochondria Dependent MAPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nabanita; Das, Subhadip; Bose, Dipayan; Banerjee, Somenath; Jha, Tarun; Das Saha, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    The microbial source, which includes live, attenuated, or genetically modified microbes or their cellular component(s) or metabolites, has gained increasing significance for therapeutic intervention against several pathophysiological conditions of disease including leukemia, which remains an incurable disease till now despite recent advances in the medical sciences. We therefore took up the present study to explore if the leishmanial lipid (pLLD) isolated from L. donovani can play an anti-neoplastic role in acute myeloid leukemia cells by regulating cellular growth. Indeed pLLD significantly inhibited cell proliferation of four AML cell lines (HL-60, MOLT-4, U937, and K562). Scanning electron microscopy and DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that it significantly induced apoptosis of U937 cells through morphological alteration. Occurrence of apoptosis was checked by using Annexin exposure and this established that the cell cycle was arrested at G0/G1 phase in time-dependent manner. pLLD increased the intracellular ROS with alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential, as detected using DCFDA. It also regulated the expression of apoptosis-related proteins like Bax, Bcl2, Bad and t-Bid besides causing cleavage of PARP as determined by western blot analysis. Treatment of U937 cells with pLLD induced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2, p38, and caspases 9/3. The results suggest that pLLD induces apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia cells possibly via increasing intracellular ROS and regulating the MAPK pathway. PMID:25750993

  8. Reduction of Cu(II) by lipid hydroperoxides: implications for the copper-dependent oxidation of low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R P; Svistunenko, D; Wilson, M T; Darley-Usmar, V M

    1997-01-01

    The Cu(II)-promoted oxidation of lipids is a lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH)-dependent process that has been used routinely to assess the oxidizability of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in human subjects. Metal-dependent redox reactions, including those mediated by copper, have been implicated in the pathogenesis ofatherosclerosis. Despite its widespread use and possible biological significance, key elements of the mechanism are not clear. For example, although it is evident that copper acts as a catalyst, which implies a redox cycle between the Cu(II) and Cu(I) redox states, the reductants remain uncertain. In LDL these could include alpha-tocopherol, amino acid residues on the protein and LOOH. However, both alpha-tocopherol and amino acid residues are probably consumed before the most rapid phase of lipid peroxidation occurs, suggesting that another reductant must be donating electrons to Cu(II), the most likely candidate being LOOH. This role has been disputed, since LDLs nominally devoid of LOOH are still capable of reducing Cu(II) to Cu(I) and thermodynamic calculations for this reaction are not favourable. Direct investigation of the role of LOOH as reductant has not been reported and in the present study, using simple lipid systems and LDL, we have re-examined this issue using the Cu(I) chelator bathocuproine. We have shown that Cu(II) may promote lipid peroxidation in liposomes, which do not contain either protein or alpha-tocopherol, and that this is associated with reduction to Cu(I). The data also indicate that an equilibrium between free Cu(II) and LOOH exists, which only in the presence of an oxidizable substrate, i.e. unsaturated fatty acids, is shifted towards formation of Cu(I) and lipid-derived peroxyl radicals. We propose that reduction of Cu(II) by LOOH is a necessary component in sustaining the propagation of lipid peroxidation and that the formation of peroxyl radicals and their products in a lipid environment is sufficient to overcome thermodynamic

  9. Probiotic Soy Product Supplemented with Isoflavones Improves the Lipid Profile of Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso Umbelino Cavallini, Daniela; Jovenasso Manzoni, Marla Simone; Bedani, Raquel; Roselino, Mariana Nougalli; Celiberto, Larissa Sbaglia; Vendramini, Regina Célia; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Saes Parra Abdalla, Dulcinéia; Aparecida Pinto, Roseli; Rosetto, Daniella; Roberto Valentini, Sandro; Antonio Rossi, Elizeu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that specific probiotics affect the host’s metabolism and may influence the cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an isoflavone-supplemented soy product fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416 on cardiovascular risk markers in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial Setting: São Paulo State University in Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Participants: 49 male healthy men with total cholesterol (TC) >5.17 mmol/L and <6.21 mmol/L Intervention: The volunteers have consumed 200 mL of the probiotic soy product (group SP-1010 CFU/day), isoflavone-supplemented probiotic soy product (group ISP–probiotic plus 50 mg of total isoflavones/100 g) or unfermented soy product (group USP-placebo) for 42 days in a randomized, double-blind study. Main outcome measures: Lipid profile and additional cardiovascular biomarkers were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 42. Urine samples (24 h) were collected at baseline and at the end of the experiment so as to determine the isoflavones profile. Results: After 42 days, the ISP consumption led to improved total cholesterol, non-HDL-C (LDL + IDL + VLDL cholesterol fractions) and electronegative LDL concentrations (reduction of 13.8%, 14.7% and 24.2%, respectively, p < 0.05). The ISP and SP have prevented the reduction of HDL-C level after 42 days. The C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels were not improved. The equol production by the ISP group subjects was inversely correlated with electronegative LDL concentration. Conclusions: The results suggest that a regular consumption of this probiotic soy product, supplemented with isoflavones, could contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in moderately hypercholesterolemic men, through the an improvement in

  10. Defects of Lipid Synthesis Are Linked to the Age-Dependent Demyelination Caused by Lamin B1 Overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Rolyan, Harshvardhan; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Hernandez, Marylens; Amoscato, Andrew A.; Sparvero, Louis J.; Nmezi, Bruce C.; Lu, Yue; Estécio, Marcos R. H.; Lin, Kevin; Chen, Junda; He, Rong-Rong; Gong, Pin; Rigatti, Lora H.; Dupree, Jeffrey; Bayır, Hülya; Kagan, Valerian E.; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Lamin B1 is a component of the nuclear lamina and plays a critical role in maintaining nuclear architecture, regulating gene expression and modulating chromatin positioning. We have previously shown that LMNB1 gene duplications cause autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD), a fatal adult onset demyelinating disease. The mechanisms by which increased LMNB1 levels cause ADLD are unclear. To address this, we used a transgenic mouse model where Lamin B1 overexpression is targeted to oligodendrocytes. These mice showed severe vacuolar degeneration of the spinal cord white matter together with marked astrogliosis, microglial infiltration, and secondary axonal damage. Oligodendrocytes in the transgenic mice revealed alterations in histone modifications favoring a transcriptionally repressed state. Chromatin changes were accompanied by reduced expression of genes involved in lipid synthesis pathways, many of which are known to play important roles in myelin regulation and are preferentially expressed in oligodendrocytes. Decreased lipogenic gene expression resulted in a significant reduction in multiple classes of lipids involved in myelin formation. Many of these gene expression changes and lipid alterations were observed even before the onset of the phenotype, suggesting a causal role. Our findings establish, for the first time, a link between LMNB1 and lipid synthesis in oligodendrocytes, and provide a mechanistic framework to explain the age dependence and white matter involvement of the disease phenotype. These results have implications for disease pathogenesis and may also shed light on the regulation of lipid synthesis pathways in myelin maintenance and turnover. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD) is fatal neurological disorder caused by increased levels of the nuclear protein, Lamin B1. The disease is characterized by an age-dependent loss of myelin, the fatty sheath that covers nerve fibers. We have studied a mouse model where Lamin B

  11. Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) on Heavy Metal (Nickel II and ChromiumVI) Induced Alteration of Serum Lipid Profile in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amrita Das; Das, Swastika N.; Dhundasi, Salim A.; Das, Kusal K.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the effect of simultaneous oral treatment of aqueous garlic extract (Allium sativum) on heavy metal (nickel II and chromium VI) induced changes in serum lipid profile. Nickel sulfate and potassium dichromate treated rats showed a significant increase in serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) level as well as decrease in serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Simultaneous garlic administration with nickel sulfate showed improvement in serum LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C and TG level. But in case of potassium dichromate, garlic administration did not show satisfactory improvement in lipid profile except VLDL-C and TG level. The results indicate that garlic (Allium sativum) has some beneficial effect in preventing heavy metal (nickel and chromium VI) induced alteration of lipid profile. PMID:19139532

  12. Cell proliferation and progesterone synthesis depend on lipid metabolism in bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Elis, Sebastien; Desmarchais, Alice; Maillard, Virginie; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Monget, Philippe; Dupont, Joëlle

    2015-03-15

    In dairy cows, lipids are essential to support energy supplies for all biological functions, especially during early lactation. Lipid metabolism is crucial for sustaining proper reproductive function. Alteration of lipid metabolism impacts follicular development and affects oocyte developmental competence. Indeed, nonesterified fatty acids are able to decrease granulosa cell (GC) proliferation and affect estradiol synthesis, thus potentially affecting follicular growth and viability. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of lipid metabolism on bovine GCs, through the use of the lipid metabolism inhibitors etomoxir, an inhibitor of fatty acid (FA) oxidation through inhibition of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1), and C75, an inhibitor of FA synthesis through inhibition of fatty acid synthase. We showed that etomoxir and C75 significantly inhibited DNA synthesis in vitro; C75 also significantly decreased progesterone synthesis. Both inhibitors significantly reduced AMPK (5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation. Etomoxir also affected the AKT (protein kinase B) signaling pathway. Combined, these data suggest that both FA oxidation and synthesis are important for the bovine GCs to express a proliferative and steroidogenic phenotype and, thus, for sustaining follicular growth. Despite these findings, it is important to note that the changes caused by the inhibitors of FA metabolism on GCs in vitro are globally mild, suggesting that lipid metabolism is not as critical in GCs as was observed in the oocyte-cumulus complex. Further studies are needed to investigate the detailed mechanisms by which lipid metabolism interacts with GC functions. PMID:25583222

  13. Invariant natural killer T cells direct B cell responses to cognate lipid antigen in an interleukin 21- dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    King, Irah L; Fortier, Anne; Tighe, Michael; Dibble, John; Watts, Gerald FM; Veerapen, Natacha; Haberman, Ann M; Besral, Gurdyal S; Mohrs, Markus; Brenner, Michael B; Leadbetter, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    Murine invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells provide cognate and non-cognate help for lipid and protein-specific B cells, respectively. However, the long term B cell outcome following cognate iNKT help is currently unknown. We show that cognate iNKT cell help resulted in a B cell differentiation program characterized by extrafollicular plasmablasts, germinal center formation, affinity maturation and a robust primary IgG antibody response that was uniquely dependent on iNKT-derived interleukin 21 (IL-21). However, cognate iNKT cell help did not generate an enhanced humoral memory response. Thus, iNKT cell cognate help for lipid-specific B cells induces a unique signature which is a hybrid of classic T-dependent (TD) and T-independent type 2 (TI-2) B cell responses. PMID:22120118

  14. Effects of a high-intensity intermittent training program on aerobic capacity and lipid profile in trained subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Khammassi, Marwa; Boukorraa, Sami; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the effect of training on plasma lipids are controversial. Most studies have addressed continuous or long intermittent training programs. The present study evaluated the effect of short-short high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on aerobic capacity and plasma lipids in soccer players. Methods The study included 24 male subjects aged 21–26 years, divided into three groups: experimental group 1 (EG1, n=8) comprising soccer players who exercised in addition to regular short-short HIIT twice a week for 12 weeks; experimental group 2 (EG2, n=8) comprising soccer players who exercised in a regular football training program; and a control group (CG, n=8) comprising untrained subjects who did not practice regular physical activity. Maximal aerobic velocity and maximal oxygen uptake along with plasma lipids were measured before and after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of the respective training program. Results Compared with basal values, maximal oxygen uptake had significantly increased in EG1 (from 53.3±4.0 mL/min/kg to 54.8±3.0 mL/min/kg at 6 weeks [P<0.05] and to 57.0±3.2 mL/min/kg at 12 weeks [P<0.001]). Maximal oxygen uptake was increased only after 12 weeks in EG2 (from 52.8±2.7 mL/min/kg to 54.2±2.6 mL/min/kg, [P<0.05]), but remain unchanged in CG. After 12 weeks of training, maximal oxygen uptake was significantly higher in EG1 than in EG2 (P<0.05). During training, no significant changes in plasma lipids occurred. However, after 12 weeks, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels had decreased (by about 2%) in EG1 but increased in CG. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased in EG1 and EG2, but decreased in CG. Plasma triglycerides decreased by 8% in EG1 and increased by about 4% in CG. Conclusion Twelve weeks of short-short HIIT improves aerobic capacity. Although changes in the lipid profile were not significant after this training program, they may have a beneficial impact on health. PMID:25378960

  15. The role of lipid profile in determining the risk of ischemic stroke in the elderly: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Denti, Licia; Cecchetti, Alessandra; Annoni, Valentina; Merli, Maria Francesca; Ablondi, Fabrizio; Valenti, Giorgio

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the association of lipids with ischemic stroke and its different subtypes in elderly patients. In particular, lipid parameters not extensively investigated so far in previous case-control studies specifically focused in the old population, such as lipoprotein Lp (a) and Apoproteins AI (ApoAI) and B (ApoB), have been taken into account. Seventy nine patients (mean age 83 +/- 7.4, range 67-99), consecutively admitted to a Geriatric Ward between January 1998 and June 2000 with acute stroke (first event) were studied. A complete clinical and laboratory assessment, including neurological evaluation, head CT scan, carotid ultrasonography and ECG, was employed to define the clinical and etiologic stroke subtype, according to standardized criteria. Fasting blood samples were collected within 48 h from admission, for determination of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), High Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), Lp(a), ApoAI and ApoB; Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C) was estimated by Friedwald formula. Eighty eight age and sex-matched outpatients, referred to the hospital for non-inflammatory disorders of joints and musculoskeletal system, served as controls. Patients showed HDL-C and HDL-C/ApoAI ratio significantly lower than controls, with higher LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Analysis on quartiles of lipoprotein concentrations showed also a significant increase in odds of stroke for LDL-C concentrations over 100 mg/dl, in absence of a linear relationship between LDL-C levels and risk. Multiple logistic regression, adjusting for non-lipid risk factors for stroke, confirmed the independent association of low HDL-C and HDL-C/ApoAI with all strokes, as well as with each subtype. In conclusion, these data suggest that lipids give some contribution to stroke risk even in the elderly, with a more prevalent role for HDL than LDL, and that lipid profile assessment must be taken into account in estimating the individual risk of stroke. PMID

  16. Effect of synbiotic supplementation and dietary fat sources on broiler performance, serum lipids, muscle fatty acid profile and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, H A; Shivazad, M; Mirzapour Rezaei, S S; Karimi Torshizi, M A

    2016-01-01

    A 42-d trial was conducted to investigate the effect of adding a synbiotic supplement to diets containing two different types of fat on performance, blood lipids and fatty acid (FA) composition and oxidative stability of breast and thigh meat in broilers. A total of 800 one-d-old male broiler chickens were randomly assigned into 1 of 8 treatments with 4 replicates of 25 birds per treatment. The experiment consisted of a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 4 concentrations of synbiotic (0, 0.5, 1 or 1.5 g/kg diet) and 2 types of fat [sunflower oil (SO) or canola oil (CO)] at an inclusion rate of 50 g/kg diet. Dietary fat type did not affect body weight gain (BWG) or feed conversion ratio (FCR) during the overall experimental period (0-42 d). However, fat type modified serum lipid profile and FA composition and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content in breast and thigh meat. The addition of synbiotic to the diet linearly improved overall BWG and FCR and also decreased serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. The TBARS value in thigh meat after 30 d of storage at 4°C was linearly decreased as the synbiotic inclusion concentrations in the diets increased. Dietary synbiotic also decreased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in thigh meat, whereas the FA profile of breast meat was not affected by synbiotic supplementation. Moreover, the PUFA/SFA ratio in the breast meat was linearly increased when synbiotic was included in the CO-containing diets. In conclusion, the addition of synbiotic to broiler diets had a positive effect on growth performance, blood lipid profile and meat quality. The results also support the use of synbiotic to increase the capacity of canola oil for enhancing PUFA/SFA ratio of breast meat in broilers. PMID:26654967

  17. Transcriptome profiling identifies p53 as a key player during calreticulin deficiency: Implications in lipid accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Vig, Saurabh; Talwar, Puneet; Kaur, Kirandeep; Srivastava, Rohit; Srivastava, Arvind K; Datta, Malabika

    2015-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident calcium binding protein that is involved in several cellular activities. Transcriptome analyses in CRT knockdown HepG2 cells revealed 253 altered unique genes and subsequent in silico protein-protein interaction network and MCODE clustering identified 34 significant clusters, of which p53 occupied the central hub node in the highest node-rich cluster. Toward validation, we show that CRT knockdown leads to inhibition of p53 protein levels. Both, CRT and p53 siRNA promote hepatic lipid accumulation and this was accompanied by elevated SREBP-1c and FAS levels. p53 was identified to bind at −219 bp on the SREBP-1c promoter and in the presence of CRT siRNA, there was decreased occupancy of p53 on this binding element. This was associated with increased SREBP-1c promoter activity and both, mutation in this binding site or p53 over-expression antagonised the effects of CRT knockdown. We, therefore, identify a negatively regulating p53 binding site on the SREBP-1c promoter that is critical during hepatic lipid accumulation. These results were validated in mouse primary hepatocytes and toward a physiological relevance, we report that while the levels of CRT and p53 are reduced in the fatty livers of diabetic db/db mice, SREBP-1c levels are significantly elevated. Our results suggest that decreased CRT levels might be involved in the development of a fatty liver by preventing p53 occupancy on the SREBP-1c promoter and thereby facilitating SREBP-1c up-regulation and consequently, lipid accumulation. PMID:25946468

  18. Cohort Profile: The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) Study.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Dugas, Erika N; Brunet, Jennifer; DiFranza, Joseph; Engert, James C; Gervais, Andre; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Karp, Igor; Low, Nancy C; Sabiston, Catherine; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Tyndale, Rachel F; Auger, Nathalie; Auger, Nathalie; Mathieu, Belanger; Tracie, Barnett; Chaiton, Michael; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Constantin, Evelyn; Contreras, Gisèle; Kakinami, Lisa; Labbe, Aurelie; Maximova, Katerina; McMillan, Elizabeth; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Pabayo, Roman; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Tremblay, Michèle; Wellman, Robert J; Hulst, Andraeavan; Paradis, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study is a prospective cohort investigation of 1294 students recruited in 1999-2000 from all grade 7 classes in a convenience sample of 10 high schools in Montreal, Canada. Its primary objectives were to study the natural course and determinants of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in novice smokers. The main source of data was self-report questionnaires administered in class at school every 3 months from grade 7 to grade 11 (1999-2005), for a total of 20 survey cycles during high school education. Questionnaires were also completed after graduation from high school in 2007-08 and 2011-12 (survey cycles 21 and 22, respectively) when participants were aged 20 and 24 years on average, respectively. In addition to its primary objectives, NDIT has embedded studies on obesity, blood pressure, physical activity, team sports, sedentary behaviour, diet, genetics, alcohol use, use of illicit drugs, second-hand smoke, gambling, sleep and mental health. Results to date are described in 58 publications, 20 manuscripts in preparation, 13 MSc and PhD theses and 111 conference presentations. Access to NDIT data is open to university-appointed or affiliated investigators and to masters, doctoral and postdoctoral students, through their primary supervisor (www.nditstudy.ca). PMID:25022274

  19. Detection and Quantification of Rotenoids from Clitoria fairchildiana and its Lipids Profile.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rauldenis A F; David, Jorge M; David, Juceni P

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the isolation and quantification of rotenoids from crude organic extracts of different parts of Clitoria fairchildiana R. A. Howard (Leguminosae) by HPLC-DAD. The lipid composition and the Artemia salina cytotoxic activities of the isolates were also conducted. Clitoriacetal (1), 6-deoxyclitoriacetal (2), stemonal and stemonone were isolated by chromatographic procedures and identified by usual spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. Clitoriacetal and 6-deoxyclitoriacetal were not found in all parts of the plant, such as leaves and petals, but in the roots they occur in higher concentration. The activity against brine shrimp revealed that the root extract (LD50 = 158 ppm) was the more active. PMID:27319136

  20. Comparative Proteomics Profile of Lipid-Cumulating Oleaginous Yeast: An iTRAQ-Coupled 2-D LC-MS/MS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiahua; Feng, Huixing; Lee, Jaslyn; Ning Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular lipid in oleaginous yeast cells has been studied for providing an alternative supply for energy, biofuel. Numerous studies have been conducted on increasing lipid content in oleaginous yeasts. However, few explore the mechanism of the high lipid accumulation ability of oleaginous yeast strains at the proteomics level. In this study, a time-course comparative proteomics analysis was introduced to compare the non-oleaginous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with two oleaginous yeast strains, Cryptococcus albidus and Rhodosporidium toruloides at different lipid accumulation stages. Two dimensional LC-MS/MS approach has been applied for protein profiling together with isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labelling method. 132 proteins were identified when three yeast strains were all at early lipid accumulation stage; 122 and 116 proteins were found respectively within cells of three strains collected at middle and late lipid accumulation stages. Significantly up-regulation or down-regulation of proteins were experienced among comparison. Essential proteins correlated to lipid synthesis and regulation were detected. Our approach provides valuable indication and better understanding for lipid accumulation mechanism from proteomics level and would further contribute to genetic engineering of oleaginous yeasts. PMID:24386479

  1. Impact of some commonly used Egyptian diets on plasma lipids profiles of rats.

    PubMed

    Metwalli, O M; al-Okbi, S Y; Abbas, A E

    1993-09-01

    Seven types of diets commonly consumed in Egypt were studied in hyperlipemic rats. Each of the seven diets were fed to a group of hyperlipemic rats. The diets contain white beans and whole wheat bread (Diet 1); cabbage and peas (2); spinach and carrots (3); whole wheat bread and bean sprouts (4); whole wheat bread, white beans and peas (5); white beans and carrots (6) and the last diet contains peas and carrots (7). The experiment continued for 5 weeks, at the end of which different plasma lipids and biological parameters were compared to hyperlipemic rats fed the control diet for 5 weeks. Results showed that plasma total cholesterol of rats of all groups showed significant decrease, except in rats fed diet 6 in which no significant change was noticed. Plasma total lipids of rats fed diet 5 decreased significantly. Plasma phospholipids of rats fed diets 3 and 7 increased significantly. Rats fed diet 3 showed decreased levels of plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Body weight gain of rats fed diets 1, 2 and 3 decreased significantly. Total food intake was noticed to decrease on feeding diets 1 and 6. Significant decrease was produced in food efficiency ratio of rats fed diets 1, 5 and 6. Feeding any type of the previous seven diets produced significant increase of feces weight. PMID:8237082

  2. Mechanistic profiling of the siRNA delivery dynamics of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Stefano; Cun, Dongmei; Remaut, Katrien; Bunker, Matt; Zhang, Jianxin; Martin-Bertelsen, Birte; Yaghmur, Anan; Braeckmans, Kevin; Nielsen, Hanne M; Foged, Camilla

    2015-03-10

    Understanding the delivery dynamics of nucleic acid nanocarriers is fundamental to improve their design for therapeutic applications. We investigated the carrier structure-function relationship of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) consisting of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanocarriers modified with the cationic lipid dioleoyltrimethyl-ammoniumpropane (DOTAP). A library of siRNA-loaded LPNs was prepared by systematically varying the nitrogen-to-phosphate (N/P) ratio. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) combined with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies suggested that the siRNA-loaded LPNs are characterized by a core-shell structure consisting of a PLGA matrix core coated with lamellar DOTAP structures with siRNA localized both in the core and in the shell. Release studies in buffer and serum-containing medium combined with in vitro gene silencing and quantification of intracellular siRNA suggested that this self-assembling core-shell structure influences the siRNA release kinetics and the delivery dynamics. A main delivery mechanism appears to be mediated via the release of transfection-competent siRNA-DOTAP lipoplexes from the LPNs. Based on these results, we suggest a model for the nanostructural characteristics of the LPNs, in which the siRNA is organized in lamellar superficial assemblies and/or as complexes entrapped in the polymeric matrix. PMID:25540904

  3. Evaluation of the Relationship between Serum Lipid Profile andOral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Davoodi, Farnaz; Gholizadeh, Narges; Damghani, Hossein; Helli, Sanaz; Safarnavadeh, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immunologic disorder. A large number of studies have reported that lipid rafts have a key role in receptor signaling of lymphocytes. Here, we explore the potential of lipid rafts as targets for the development of a new class of agents to down-modulate immune responses and treat autoimmune diseases. Materials and methods. The present cross-sectional study evaluated 88 patients referring to the Department of Oral Medicine in 3 groups (Group 1: erosive OLP; Group 2: non-erosive OLP; Group 3: healthy). A total of 3 mL of blood sample was taken from each subject and the serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL were determined. The mean outcomes of each group were compared with each other and analyzed two by two. Results. The results of statistical analyses showed no significant differences in mean HDL and LDL serum levels between the three groups. The results of post hoc LSD test showed that mean serum levels of subjects with erosive and non-erosive lichen planus were higher than those in healthy subjects. In relation to triglyceride serum levels, the mean serum levels of triglycerides were higher in erosive and non-erosive OLP patients compared to healthy subjects. Conclusion. Triglyceride and cholesterol can be considered to have a critical role in the incidence of lichen planus and in its manifestations as predisposing factors. PMID:26889364

  4. Impact of Improving Quality of Dialysis Fluid on Oxidative Stress and Lipid Profile in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Elkabbaj, Driss; Bahadi, Abdelali; Cherrah, Yahia; Errasfa, Mourad; Eljaoudi, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of malondialdehyde as an oxidative stress marker in the same hemodialysis patients after changing the quality of dialysate with ultrapure dialysis fluid. Methods. This prospective study concerns hemodialysis patients; all patients were in the first step treated with conventional dialysate, and in the second step (three months later) the same patients were treated with online produced ultrapure dialysis fluid. The malondialdehyde, C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, fibrinogen, and albumin were quantified before the two steps. Results. Thirty-seven patients completed the study. Ultrapure dialysis fluid reduced but not significantly the malondialdehyde concentrations. Both dialysis fluids were associated with improvement in the malondialdehyde level before and after the hemodialysis session. In lipid parameters, there was a significant decrease with conventional dialysis fluid versus ultrapure dialysis fluid of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein in patients' blood. Instead, the level of low-density lipoprotein, fibrinogen, albumin, and C-reactive protein does not change significantly. Conclusion. The lipid parameters were improved for triglycerides and total cholesterol. Malondialdehyde increases following the hemodialysis session, and the conventional dialysate increased malondialdehyde levels more than the ultrapure dialysis but the differences were not statistically significant. PMID:24967229

  5. Comprehensive and quantitative profiling of lipid species in human milk, cow milk and a phospholipid-enriched milk formula by GC and MS/MSALL

    PubMed Central

    Sokol, Elena; Ulven, Trond; Færgeman, Nils J; Ejsing, Christer S

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a workflow for in-depth analysis of milk lipids that combines gas chromatography (GC) for fatty acid (FA) profiling and a shotgun lipidomics routine termed MS/MSALL for structural characterization of molecular lipid species. To evaluate the performance of the workflow we performed a comparative lipid analysis of human milk, cow milk, and Lacprodan® PL-20, a phospholipid-enriched milk protein concentrate for infant formula. The GC analysis showed that human milk and Lacprodan have a similar FA profile with higher levels of unsaturated FAs as compared to cow milk. In-depth lipidomic analysis by MS/MSALL revealed that each type of milk sample comprised distinct composition of molecular lipid species. Lipid class composition showed that the human and cow milk contain a higher proportion of triacylglycerols (TAGs) as compared to Lacprodan. Notably, the MS/MSALL analysis demonstrated that the similar FA profile of human milk and Lacprodan determined by GC analysis is attributed to the composition of individual TAG species in human milk and glycerophospholipid species in Lacprodan. Moreover, the analysis of TAG molecules in Lacprodan and cow milk showed a high proportion of short-chain FAs that could not be monitored by GC analysis. The results presented here show that complementary GC and MS/MSALL analysis is a powerful approach for characterization of molecular lipid species in milk and milk products. Practical applications : Milk lipid analysis is routinely performed using gas chromatography. This method reports the total fatty acid composition of all milk lipids, but provides no structural or quantitative information about individual lipid molecules in milk or milk products. Here we present a workflow that integrates gas chromatography for fatty acid profiling and a shotgun lipidomics routine termed MS/MSALL for structural analysis and quantification of molecular lipid species. We demonstrate the efficacy of this complementary workflow by a

  6. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile: An Observational Study on a Large Cohort From South Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S; Irace, Concetta

    2016-02-01

    Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk.Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods.We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women.Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  7. Transcriptional profile reveals altered hepatic lipid and cholesterol metabolism in hyposulfatemic NaS1 null mice.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul Anthony; Gardiner, Brooke; Grimmond, Sean; Markovich, Daniel

    2006-07-12

    Sulfate plays an essential role in human growth and development, and its circulating levels are maintained by the renal Na+-SO42- cotransporter, NaS1. We previously generated a NaS1 knockout (Nas1-/-) mouse, an animal model for hyposulfatemia, that exhibits reduced growth and liver abnormalities including hepatomegaly. In this study, we investigated the hepatic gene expression profile of Nas1-/- mice using oligonucleotide microarrays. The mRNA expression levels of 92 genes with known functional roles in metabolism, cell signaling, cell defense, immune response, cell structure, transcription, or protein synthesis were increased (n = 51) or decreased (n = 41) in Nas1-/- mice when compared with Nas1+/+ mice. The most upregulated transcript levels in Nas1-/- mice were found for the sulfotransferase genes, Sult3a1 (approximately 500% increase) and Sult2a2 (100% increase), whereas the metallothionein-1 gene, Mt1, was among the most downregulated genes (70% decrease). Several genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism, including Scd1, Acly, Gpam, Elov16, Acsl5, Mvd, Insig1, and Apoa4, were found to be upregulated (> or = 30% increase) in Nas1-/- mice. In addition, Nas1-/- mice exhibited increased levels of hepatic lipid (approximately 16% increase), serum cholesterol (approximately 20% increase), and low-density lipoprotein (approximately 100% increase) and reduced hepatic glycogen (approximately 50% decrease) levels. In conclusion, these data suggest an altered lipid and cholesterol metabolism in the hyposulfatemic Nas1-/- mouse and provide new insights into the metabolic state of the liver in Nas1-/- mice. PMID:16621889

  8. Clostridium Perfringens Epsilon Toxin Binds to Membrane Lipids and Its Cytotoxic Action Depends on Sulfatide

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Carles; Dorca-Arévalo, Jonatan; Blasi, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Epsilon toxin (Etx) is one of the major lethal toxins produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, being the causal agent of fatal enterotoxemia in animals, mainly sheep and goats. Etx is synthesized as a non-active prototoxin form (proEtx) that becomes active upon proteolytic activation. Etx exhibits a cytotoxic effect through the formation of a pore in the plasma membrane of selected cell targets where Etx specifically binds due to the presence of specific receptors. However, the identity and nature of host receptors of Etx remain a matter of controversy. In the present study, the interactions between Etx and membrane lipids from the synaptosome-enriched fraction from rat brain (P2 fraction) and MDCK cell plasma membrane preparations were analyzed. Our findings show that both Etx and proEtx bind to lipids extracted from lipid rafts from the two different models as assessed by protein-lipid overlay assay. Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Binding of proEtx to sulfatide, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol (3)-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol (5)-phosphate was detected. Removal of the sulphate groups via sulfatase treatment led to a dramatic decrease in Etx-induced cytotoxicity, but not in proEtx-GFP binding to MDCK cells or a significant shift in oligomer formation, pointing to a role of sulfatide in pore formation in rafts but not in toxin binding to the target cell membrane. These results show for the first time the interaction between Etx and membrane lipids from host tissue and point to a major role for sulfatides in C. perfringens epsilon toxin pathophysiology. PMID:26452234

  9. Clostridium Perfringens Epsilon Toxin Binds to Membrane Lipids and Its Cytotoxic Action Depends on Sulfatide.

    PubMed

    Gil, Carles; Dorca-Arévalo, Jonatan; Blasi, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Epsilon toxin (Etx) is one of the major lethal toxins produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, being the causal agent of fatal enterotoxemia in animals, mainly sheep and goats. Etx is synthesized as a non-active prototoxin form (proEtx) that becomes active upon proteolytic activation. Etx exhibits a cytotoxic effect through the formation of a pore in the plasma membrane of selected cell targets where Etx specifically binds due to the presence of specific receptors. However, the identity and nature of host receptors of Etx remain a matter of controversy. In the present study, the interactions between Etx and membrane lipids from the synaptosome-enriched fraction from rat brain (P2 fraction) and MDCK cell plasma membrane preparations were analyzed. Our findings show that both Etx and proEtx bind to lipids extracted from lipid rafts from the two different models as assessed by protein-lipid overlay assay. Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Binding of proEtx to sulfatide, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol (3)-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol (5)-phosphate was detected. Removal of the sulphate groups via sulfatase treatment led to a dramatic decrease in Etx-induced cytotoxicity, but not in proEtx-GFP binding to MDCK cells or a significant shift in oligomer formation, pointing to a role of sulfatide in pore formation in rafts but not in toxin binding to the target cell membrane. These results show for the first time the interaction between Etx and membrane lipids from host tissue and point to a major role for sulfatides in C. perfringens epsilon toxin pathophysiology. PMID:26452234

  10. The protein and lipid composition of the membrane of milk fat globules depends on their size.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Argov-Argaman, Nurit; Anggrek, Jeni; Boeren, Sjef; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; Hettinga, Kasper Arthur

    2016-06-01

    In bovine milk, fat globules (MFG) have a heterogeneous size distribution with diameters ranging from 0.1 to 15 µm. Although efforts have been made to explain differences in lipid composition, little is known about the protein composition of MFG membranes (MFGM) in different sizes of MFG. In this study, protein and lipid analyses were combined to study MFG formation and secretion. Two different sized MFG fractions (7.6±0.9 µm and 3.3±1.2 µm) were obtained by centrifugation. The protein composition of MFGM in the large and small MFG fractions was compared using mass-spectrometry-based proteomics techniques. The lipid composition and fatty acid composition of MFG was determined using HPLC-evaporative light-scattering detector and gas chromatography, respectively. Two frequently studied proteins in lipid droplet biogenesis, perilipin-2 and TIP47, were increased in the large and small MFG fractions, respectively. In the large MFG fraction, besides perilipin-2, cytoplasmic vesicle proteins (heat shock proteins, 14-3-3 proteins, and Rabs), microfilaments and intermediate filament-related proteins (actin and vimentin), host defense proteins (cathelicidins), and phosphatidylinositol were higher in concentration. On the other hand, cholesterol synthesis enzymes [lanosterol synthase and sterol-4-α-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating)], cholesterol, unsaturated fatty acids, and phosphatidylethanolamine were, besides TIP47, higher in concentration in the small MFG fraction. These results suggest that vesicle proteins, microfilaments and intermediate filaments, cholesterol, and specific phospholipids play an important role in lipid droplet growth, secretion, or both. The observations from this study clearly demonstrated the difference in protein and lipid composition between small and large MFG fractions. Studying the role of these components in more detail in future experiments may lead to a better understanding of fat globule formation and secretion. PMID

  11. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruit aqueous extracton lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sailaja, K V; Shivaranjani, V Leela; Poornima, H; Rahamathulla, S B Md; Devi, K Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at a dose of 85 mg/kg body weight for two consecutive days intraperitoneally at an interval of 24 h. ISO induced myocardial infarction (MI) was confirmed by disturbances in serum lipid profile, heart tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. There was a significant increase in the levels of serum total cholesterol (32.60 %), triglycerides (41.30 %), very low density lipoproteins (81.81 %), low density lipoproteins (84%) and phospholipids (38.88 %) and a significant decrease in the levels of high density lipoproteins (33.33 %) in the ISO control group when compared to normal controls. Additionally, there is a significant decrease in the levels of heart tissue antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and depletion of reduced glutathione, which indicates enhanced lipid peroxidation(172 %). Pretreatment with extract significantly showed a protective effect against ISO altered lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. The present study showed therapeutic effect of TTFAEt on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in experimental rats. PMID:26417233

  12. The Water Permeability and Pore Entrance Structure of Aquaporin-4 Depend on Lipid Bilayer Thickness.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jihong; Wu, Zhe; Briggs, Margaret M; Schulten, Klaus; McIntosh, Thomas J

    2016-07-12

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the primary water channel in glial cells of the mammalian brain, plays a critical role in water transport in the central nervous system. Previous experiments have shown that the water permeability of AQP4 depends on the cholesterol content in the lipid bilayer, but it was not clear whether changes in permeability were due to direct cholesterol-AQP4 interactions or to indirect effects caused by cholesterol-induced changes in bilayer elasticity or bilayer thickness. To determine the effects resulting only from bilayer thickness, here we use a combination of experiments and simulations to analyze AQP4 in cholesterol-free phospholipid bilayers with similar elastic properties but different hydrocarbon core thicknesses previously determined by x-ray diffraction. The channel (unit) water permeabilities of AQP4 measured by osmotic-gradient experiments were 3.5 ± 0.2 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s (mean ± SE), 3.0 ± 0.3 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s, 2.5 ± 0.2 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s, and 0.9 ± 0.1 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s in bilayers containing (C22:1)(C22:1)PC, (C20:1)(C20:1)PC, (C16:0)(C18:1)PC, and (C13:0)(C13:0)PC, respectively. Channel permeabilities obtained by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were 3.3 ± 0.1 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s and 2.5 ± 0.1 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s in (C22:1)(C22:1)PC and (C14:0)(C14:0)PC bilayers, respectively. Both the osmotic-gradient and MD-simulation results indicated that AQP4 channel permeability decreased with decreasing bilayer hydrocarbon thickness. The MD simulations also suggested structural modifications in AQP4 in response to changes in bilayer thickness. Although the simulations showed no appreciable changes to the radius of the pore located in the hydrocarbon region of the bilayers, the simulations indicated that there were changes in both pore length and α-helix organization near the cytoplasmic vestibule of the channel. These structural changes, caused by mismatch between the hydrophobic length of AQP4 and the bilayer hydrocarbon

  13. Evaluation of Glycemic and Lipid Profile of Offspring of Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Malpighia emarginata Juice

    PubMed Central

    Barbalho, Sandra M.; Damasceno, Débora C.; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; Palhares, Miréia; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Sazaki, Viviane; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis

    2011-01-01

    Knowing that maternal diabetes is related to hyperglycemia and fetal hyperinsulinemia, which affect the lipid metabolism, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Malpighia emarginata (acerola) juice on the glycemic and lipid profile of offspring of diabetic and nondiabetic Wistar rats. The adult offspring of non-diabetic dams and of dams with severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes were divided into groups: G1, offspring (of control dams) treated with water, G2, offspring (of diabetic dams) treated with water, G3, male offspring (of control dams) treated with acerola juice, and G4, male offspring (of diabetic dams) treated with acerola juice. The offspring of diabetic dams treated with acerola juice showed significantly decreased levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and increased HDL-c. The use of acerola juice is a potential strategy to aid in the prevention of DM and dyslipidemia and its complications or to act as an auxiliary in the treatment of these diseases. PMID:21318139

  14. Alterations in lipid profile, oxidative stress and hepatic function in rat fed with saccharin and methyl-salicylates

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Kamal Adel; AlMuzafar, Hessah Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food additives attract consumers, improve foods quality, control weight, and replace sugar in foods, while it may affect seriously children and adults health. Aim: To investigate the adverse effects of saccharin and methylsalicyltaes on lipid profile, blood glucose, renal, hepatic function, and oxidative stress/antioxidant (lipid peroxidation, Catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) in liver tissues). Methods: 46 young male albino rats were used. Saccharin and methylsalicylate were giving orally as low and high dose for 30 days. Rats were divided into 5 groups, 1st control group, 2nd and 3rd low and high saccharin-treated groups and 4th and 5th low and high methylsalicylate-treated group. Results: Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose levels and body weight gain were decreased in saccharin high dose compared to control. Rats ingested high dose of saccharin presented a significant reduction in serum triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL levels. Low and high doses of saccharin exhibited a significant increase in liver function marker of ALT, AST, ALP activity, total proteins and albumin levels and renal function test (urea and creatinine levels) in comparison with control group. Saccharin high dose induce a significant decline in hepatic GSH levels, catalase and SOD activities while increased in hepatic MDA level. Conclusion: It could be concluded that, saccharin affects harmfully and alters biochemical markers in hepatic and renal tissues not only at greater doses but also at low doses. Whereas uses of metylsalicylates would not pose a risk for renal function and hepatic oxidative markers. PMID:26131217

  15. Effect of Dietary Processed Sulfur Supplementation on Water-holding Capacity, Color, and Lipid Profiles of Pork

    PubMed Central

    Yang, FengQi; Kim, Ji-Han; Yeon, Su Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Park, Woojoon; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary processed sulfur supplementation on water-holding capacity, color, and lipid profiles of pork according to the level of dietary processed sulfur (0%, CON; 0.3%, S). The pigs were slaughtered at an average final weight of 120 kg, and the longissimus dorsi muscles were collected from the carcasses. As results, pork processed with sulfur had significantly higher moisture and ash contents compared to those of CON but lower crude fat, pH, expressible drip, lower redness and yellowness, and greater lightness. Pork processed with sulfur showed significantly lower total lipid content, triglycerides, and atherosclerosis index but significantly higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Feeding processed sulfur significantly lowered myristic acid, heptadecanoic acid, and stearic acid contents, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids and oleic acids were significantly higher compared to those in the CON. Higher amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-6 fatty acids were observed in the pork processed with sulfur than that of the CON. Therefore, supplementing pigs with dietary sulfur improved nutrient and meat quality. PMID:26877643

  16. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin-mediated alterations in cell permeability, lipid and protein profiles of steroid-transforming Arthrobacter simplex.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanbing; Liang, Jingting; Li, Huanan; Wang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) enhances steroid 1-dehydrogenation biotransformation by Arthrobacter simplex. In this work, HP-β-CD-induced improvement of A. simplex CPCC 140451 cell envelope permeability which had positive effects on the steroid bioconversion was confirmed by a comparative investigation which showed a lower dehydrogenase activity and higher cell permeability of the cells after being incubated with HP-β-CD. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy micrographs showed that HP-β-CD altered the size, sharpness, and surface structure of the cell envelope. The analysis of lipid composition revealed that the proportion of extractable lipids decreased and the fatty acids profile was considerably altered. The contents of unsaturated fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids were reduced by 11.77 and 14.98%, respectively. The total leakage of protein level increased to 8%. Proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette superfamily and major facilitator superfamily were observed outside the cell. These alterations can explain the change of permeability on the molecular level under HP-β-CD treatment. Results showed the material basis and mechanisms underlying the cellular changes, thus most likely contributing to the conversion rate in addition to cyclodextrins known effects on substrate solubility. PMID:25277411

  17. Neil3-dependent base excision repair regulates lipid metabolism and prevents atherosclerosis in Apoe-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Skarpengland, Tonje; Holm, Sverre; Scheffler, Katja; Gregersen, Ida; Dahl, Tuva B.; Suganthan, Rajikala; Segers, Filip M.; Østlie, Ingunn; Otten, Jeroen J. T.; Luna, Luisa; Ketelhuth, Daniel F. J.; Lundberg, Anna M.; Neurauter, Christine G.; Hildrestrand, Gunn; Skjelland, Mona; Bjørndal, Bodil; Svardal, Asbjørn M.; Iversen, Per O.; Hedin, Ulf; Nygård, Ståle; Olstad, Ole K.; Krohg-Sørensen, Kirsten; Slupphaug, Geir; Eide, Lars; Kuśnierczyk, Anna; Folkersen, Lasse; Ueland, Thor; Berge, Rolf K.; Hansson, Göran K.; Biessen, Erik A. L.; Halvorsen, Bente; Bjørås, Magnar; Aukrust, Pål

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative DNA damage accumulates in atherosclerosis. Recently, we showed that a genetic variant in the human DNA repair enzyme NEIL3 was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction. Here, we explored the role of Neil3/NEIL3 in atherogenesis by both clinical and experimental approaches. Human carotid plaques revealed increased NEIL3 mRNA expression which significantly correlated with mRNA levels of the macrophage marker CD68. Apoe−/−Neil3−/− mice on high-fat diet showed accelerated plaque formation as compared to Apoe−/− mice, reflecting an atherogenic lipid profile, increased hepatic triglyceride levels and attenuated macrophage cholesterol efflux capacity. Apoe−/−Neil3−/− mice showed marked alterations in several pathways affecting hepatic lipid metabolism, but no genotypic alterations in genome integrity or genome-wide accumulation of oxidative DNA damage. These results suggest a novel role for the DNA glycosylase Neil3 in atherogenesis in balancing lipid metabolism and macrophage function, potentially independently of genome-wide canonical base excision repair of oxidative DNA damage. PMID:27328939

  18. Turning the spotlight on protein-lipid interactions in cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Tao; Yuan, Xiaoqiu; Hang, Howard C.

    2014-01-01

    Protein function is largely dependent on coordinated and dynamic interactions of the protein with biomolecules including other proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. While powerful methods for global profiling of protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions are available, proteome-wide mapping of protein-lipid interactions is still challenging and rarely performed. The emergence of bifunctional lipid probes with photoactivatable and clickable groups offers new chemical tools for globally profiling protein-lipid interactions under cellular contexts. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the development of bifunctional lipid probes for studying protein-lipid interactions. We also highlight how in vivo photocrosslinking reactions contribute to the characterization of lipid-binding proteins and lipidation-mediated protein-protein interactions. PMID:25129056

  19. Effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. on Lipid Profile and Atherogenic Indices in Obese Females: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Nikniaz, Zeinab; Mahdavi, Reza; Nikniaz, Leila; Ebrahimi, Aliasghar; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2016-11-01

    In the present randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled study, the effect of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (EA) whole fruit and medulla powders on anthropometric indices, serum lipid profile, and atherogenic indices in females with knee osteoarthritis (OA) was investigated. Ninety females with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to one of three groups-medulla powder, whole fruit powder, or placebo. The subjects received 15 g/day of medulla powder of EA, whole fruit powder of EA, or placebo. Lipid profile, weight, and dietary intake were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Body mass index and atherogenic indices were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 13.0, and Paired t tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA), analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and the Tukey post hoc test were used to compare within-group and between-group values. After 8 weeks of supplementations, compared with the baseline, significant reductions in total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein/high density lipoprotein (LDL/HDL), and TC/HDL ratios were observed in the two supplemented groups; however, the reduction of these values was not statistically significant in the placebo group. There were significant differences between the patients who received medulla powder and placebo group in the case of changes in TC/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios (p < .001). However, no significant differences were found between the two supplemented groups in the case of changes in studied values (p > .05). Generally, whole fruit and medulla powders of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. had positive effects, especially in decreasing total cholesterol and atherogenic indices in females with knee OA. PMID:26930244

  20. Psyllium Supplementation in Adolescents Improves Fat Distribution & Lipid Profile: A Randomized, Participant-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Bock, Martin; Derraik, José G. B.; Brennan, Christine M.; Biggs, Janene B.; Smith, Greg C.; Cameron-Smith, David; Wall, Clare R.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2012-01-01

    Aims We aimed to assess the effects of psyllium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and other parameters of the metabolic syndrome in an at risk adolescent population. Methods This study encompassed a participant-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Subjects were 47 healthy adolescent males aged 15–16 years, recruited from secondary schools in lower socio-economic areas with high rates of obesity. Participants received 6 g/day of psyllium or placebo for 6 weeks, with a two-week washout before crossing over. Fasting lipid profiles, ambulatory blood pressure, auxological data, body composition, activity levels, and three-day food records were collected at baseline and after each 6-week intervention. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Matsuda method using glucose and insulin values from an oral glucose tolerance test. Results 45 subjects completed the study, and compliance was very high: 87% of participants took >80% of prescribed capsules. At baseline, 44% of subjects were overweight or obese. 28% had decreased insulin sensitivity, but none had impaired glucose tolerance. Fibre supplementation led to a 4% reduction in android fat to gynoid fat ratio (p = 0.019), as well as a 0.12 mmol/l (6%) reduction in LDL cholesterol (p = 0.042). No associated adverse events were recorded. Conclusions Dietary supplementation with 6 g/day of psyllium over 6 weeks improves fat distribution and lipid profile (parameters of the metabolic syndrome) in an at risk population of adolescent males. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000888268 PMID:22848584

  1. Hawthorn Fruit Extract Elevates Expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and Improves Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Liu, Yanan; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) extract on the lipid profiles and antioxidant properties in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. After ovariectomy, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: the non-OVX control (Sham), the OVX-control (OVX), the OVX + 100 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OL), and the OVX + 200 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OH). The final body weights of the OVX group were significantly increased, but the increment was significantly decreased in hawthorn groups (p < 0.05). The serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly elevated in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups showed a significant decrease in these levels (p < 0.05). The hepatic triglyceride (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly reduced in the hawthorn groups compared with the OVX group (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly decreased in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups exhibited a significant increase in expression (p < 0.05). The protein expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, and GPx were lower in the OVX group than the Sham group (p < 0.05). The oral administration of hawthorn extract reversed the suppression of protein levels. These results suggest that hawthorn extract could have protective effects in OVX rats by improving lipid profiles, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving the antioxidant defense system. PMID:27187458

  2. Hawthorn Fruit Extract Elevates Expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and Improves Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Liu, Yanan; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) extract on the lipid profiles and antioxidant properties in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. After ovariectomy, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: the non-OVX control (Sham), the OVX-control (OVX), the OVX + 100 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OL), and the OVX + 200 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OH). The final body weights of the OVX group were significantly increased, but the increment was significantly decreased in hawthorn groups (p < 0.05). The serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly elevated in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups showed a significant decrease in these levels (p < 0.05). The hepatic triglyceride (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly reduced in the hawthorn groups compared with the OVX group (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly decreased in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups exhibited a significant increase in expression (p < 0.05). The protein expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, and GPx were lower in the OVX group than the Sham group (p < 0.05). The oral administration of hawthorn extract reversed the suppression of protein levels. These results suggest that hawthorn extract could have protective effects in OVX rats by improving lipid profiles, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving the antioxidant defense system. PMID:27187458

  3. HdhQ111 Mice Exhibit Tissue Specific Metabolite Profiles that Include Striatal Lipid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Jeffrey B.; Deik, Amy; Fossale, Elisa; Weston, Rory M.; Guide, Jolene R.; Arjomand, Jamshid; Kwak, Seung; Clish, Clary B.; MacDonald, Marcy E.

    2015-01-01

    The HTT CAG expansion mutation causes Huntington’s Disease and is associated with a wide range of cellular consequences, including altered metabolism. The mutant allele is expressed widely, in all tissues, but the striatum and cortex are especially vulnerable to its effects. To more fully understand this tissue-specificity, early in the disease process, we asked whether the metabolic impact of the mutant CAG expanded allele in heterozygous B6.HdhQ111/+ mice would be common across tissues, or whether tissues would have tissue-specific responses and whether such changes may be affected by diet. Specifically, we cross-sectionally examined steady state metabolite concentrations from a range of tissues (plasma, brown adipose tissue, cerebellum, striatum, liver, white adipose tissue), using an established liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry pipeline, from cohorts of 8 month old mutant and wild-type littermate mice that were fed one of two different high-fat diets. The differential response to diet highlighted a proportion of metabolites in all tissues, ranging from 3% (7/219) in the striatum to 12% (25/212) in white adipose tissue. By contrast, the mutant CAG-expanded allele primarily affected brain metabolites, with 14% (30/219) of metabolites significantly altered, compared to wild-type, in striatum and 11% (25/224) in the cerebellum. In general, diet and the CAG-expanded allele both elicited metabolite changes that were predominantly tissue-specific and non-overlapping, with evidence for mutation-by-diet interaction in peripheral tissues most affected by diet. Machine-learning approaches highlighted the accumulation of diverse lipid species as the most genotype-predictive metabolite changes in the striatum. Validation experiments in cell culture demonstrated that lipid accumulation was also a defining feature of mutant HdhQ111 striatal progenitor cells. Thus, metabolite-level responses to the CAG expansion mutation in vivo were tissue specific and most evident

  4. Length and sequence dependence in the association of Huntingtin protein with lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawahery, Sudi; Nagarajan, Anu; Matysiak, Silvina

    2013-03-01

    There is a fundamental gap in our understanding of how aggregates of mutant Huntingtin protein (htt) with overextended polyglutamine (polyQ) sequences gain the toxic properties that cause Huntington's disease (HD). Experimental studies have shown that the most important step associated with toxicity is the binding of mutant htt aggregates to lipid membranes. Studies have also shown that flanking amino acid sequences around the polyQ sequence directly affect interactions with the lipid bilayer, and that polyQ sequences of greater than 35 glutamine repeats in htt are a characteristic of HD. The key steps that determine how flanking sequences and polyQ length affect the structure of lipid bilayers remain unknown. In this study, we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to study the interactions between lipid membranes of varying compositions and polyQ peptides of varying lengths and flanking sequences. We find that overextended polyQ interactions do cause deformation in model membranes, and that the flanking sequences do play a role in intensifying this deformation by altering the shape of the affected regions.

  5. Lipid and oxylipin profiles during aging and sprout development in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Fauconnier, Marie Laure; Welti, Ruth; Blée, Elizabeth; Marlier, Michel

    2003-07-21

    Potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Bintje) were stored at 20 degrees C for 210 days without desprouting to study the lipoxygenase pathway during aging. After 15 days of storage, potato tubers sprouted, while after 45-60 days, apical dominance was lost and multiple sprouts developed. Analysis of the fatty acid hydroperoxides (HPOs) revealed that 9-S-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid (9-HPOD) was the main oxylipin formed. Between 45 and 60 days of storage, increases in the levels of 9-HPOD and colneleic acid were observed. Analysis of phospholipids and galactolipids by electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) showed that a decrease in the levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) occurred between 0 and 45 days of aging. The decrease in the amount of linoleic acid in complex lipids correlates well with the amount of 9-HPOD and colneleic acid produced. PMID:12880871

  6. The transcriptomic profile of Pseudozyma aphidis during production of mannosylerythritol lipids.

    PubMed

    Günther, Michael; Grumaz, Christian; Lorenz, Stefan; Stevens, Philip; Lindemann, Elena; Hirth, Thomas; Sohn, Kai; Zibek, Susanne; Rupp, Steffen

    2015-02-01

    The basidiomycetous fungus Pseudozyma aphidis is able to convert vegetable oils to abundant amounts of the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL) with a unique product pattern of MEL-A, MEL-B, MEL-C, and MEL-D. To investigate the metabolism of MEL production, we analyzed the transcriptome of P. aphidis DSM 70725 under MEL-inducing and non-inducing conditions using deep sequencing. Following manual curation of the previously described in silico gene models based on RNA-Seq data, we were able to generate an experimentally verified gene annotation containing 6347 genes. Using this database, our expression analysis revealed that only four of the five cluster genes required for MEL synthesis were clearly induced by the presence of soybean oil. The acetyltransferase encoding gene PaGMAT1 was expressed on a much lower level, which may explain the secretion of MEL with different degrees of acetylation in P. aphidis. In parallel to MEL synthesis, microscopic observations showed morphological changes accompanied by expression of genes responsible for cell development, indicative of a coregulation between MEL synthesis and cell morphology. In addition a set of transcription factors was identified which may be responsible for regulation of MEL synthesis and cell development. The upregulation of genes required for nitrogen metabolism and other assimilation processes indicate additional metabolic pathways required under the MEL-inducing conditions used. We also searched for a conserved gene cluster for cellobiose lipids (CL) but only found seven genes with limited homology distributed over the genome. However, we detected characteristic TLC spots in fermentations using P. aphidis DSM 70725, indicative of CL secretion. PMID:25586580

  7. Proteomic profiling of lipid rafts in a human breast cancer model of tumorigenic progression

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Joseph A.; Stemmer, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor biomarkers assist in the early detection of cancer, act as therapeutic targets for intervention, and function as diagnostic indicators for the evaluation of therapeutic responses. To identify novel human breast cancer biomarkers, we have analyzed the protein content of lipid rafts isolated from a series of human mammary epithelial cell lines with increasing tumorigenic potential. Since lipid rafts function as platforms for protein interaction critical to several biological processes, we hypothesized that the abundance of proteins associated with proliferation, invasion and metastasis would be dysregulated in highly transformed cells. For this purpose, the MCF10A epithelial lineage, which include benign MCF10A cells, premalignant AT and TG3B cells, and malignant CA1a tumor cells, was utilized. Detergent-resistant membranes were isolated from each line and proteins were identified and relatively quantitated using iTRAQ™ reagents and tandem mass spectrometry. 57 proteins were identified, and 1667 peptide identifications, mapping to 49 proteins, contained sufficient information for semi-quantitative analysis. When comparing malignant to benign cells, we observed consistent alterations in groups of proteins, such as a 5.7-fold average decrease in G protein content (n=5), 2.7-fold decrease glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked proteins (n=7) and 3.3-fold increase in intermediate filaments (n=9). Several of the identified proteins, including caveolin-1, filamin A, keratins 5,6 & 17, and vimentin, are bona fide or candidate biomarkers in clinical studies, underscoring the usefulness of the MCF10A series as a model to better understand the biological mechanisms underlying cancer progression. PMID:21533873

  8. DNA and its cationic lipid complexes induce CpG motif-dependent activation of murine dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinaga, Takaharu; Yasuda, Kei; Ogawa, Yoshiyuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2007-01-01

    Unmethylated CpG motifs in bacterial DNA, but not in vertebrate DNA, are known to trigger an inflammatory response of antigen-presenting cells (APC). In this study, we investigated the cytokine release from murine dendritic cells (DC) by the addition of various types of DNA in the free or complexed form with cationic lipids. Naked plasmid DNA and Escherichia coli DNA with immunostimulatory unmethylated CpG motifs induced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion from granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-cultured bone marrow-derived DC and the DC cell-line, DC2.4 cells, though vertebrate calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) with less CpG motifs did not. These characteristics differed from mouse peritoneal resident macrophages that do not respond to any naked DNA. The amount of cytokines released from the DC was significantly increased by complex formation with cationic lipids when CpG-motif positive DNAs were used. Unlike murine macrophages or Flt-3 L cultured DC, GM-CSF DC did not release inflammatory cytokines in response to the addition of CT DNA/cationic lipid complex, suggesting that the activation is completely dependent on CpG motifs. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that murine DC produce pro-inflammatory cytokines upon stimulation with CpG-containing DNAs and the responses are enhanced by cationic lipids. These results also suggest that DC are the major cells that respond to naked CpG DNA in vivo, although both DC and macrophages will release inflammatory cytokines after the administration of a DNA/cationic lipid complex. PMID:17199803

  9. Fullerenol C60(OH)24 increases ion permeability of lipid membranes in a pH-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Rokitskaya, Tatyana I; Antonenko, Yuri N

    2016-06-01

    Fullerenols are water-soluble analogs of fullerene exhibiting both antioxidant and prooxidant activities in vitro and in vivo. Here we report, for the first time, that fullerenol C60(OH)24 can induce ion permeability of a planar lipid bilayer membrane via the formation of ion pores or conductive defects with a preference for cations over anions. The fullerenol-mediated electrical current displayed non-linear concentration dependence and was reversibly enhanced by alkalinization. Calcium and magnesium ions decreased the fullerenol-induced potassium ion permeability. Voltage dependence of the current was sensitive to membrane composition, with the conductance being well pronounced in fully saturated diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine. Fullerenol did not induce carboxyfluorescein leakage from liposomes, suggesting a small size of fullerenol-induced pores. In contrast to ion permeability, the binding of C60(OH)24 to liposomes increased at acidic pH, as measured by fluorescence quenching of pyrene-labeled lipid. In line with this, the photodynamic action of fullerenol on the peptide gramicidin A also increased at low pH. It is hypothesized that aggregates of fullerenol may stabilize transient conductive lipid defects or pores formed under a variety of stress conditions. PMID:26874205

  10. The ras-related protein rad associates with the cytoskeleton in a non-lipid-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Bilan, P J; Moyers, J S; Kahn, C R

    1998-08-01

    Rad is the prototypic member of a new family of Ras-related proteins (Rad, Gem, and Kir) which lack typical C-terminal amino acid motifs for isoprenylation. In mouse C2C12 muscle cell lines about 50% of Rad protein resides in the cytosol and behaves as a hydrophilic protein partitioning away from TX-114. The remainder of Rad is associated with plasma and internal membranes. The association of Rad with the membrane does not occur through the lipid bilayer, but instead depends on the interaction of Rad with the cytoskeleton or membrane skeleton. In contrast to Ras, biosynthetic labeling of cellular proteins in C2Cl2 cells with [3H]palmitic acid demonstrates that Rad is not modified with this fatty acid, and inhibition of isoprenylation with lovastatin treatment has no effect on Rad subcellular distribution. Furthermore, removal of the C-terminal 11 amino acids that are precisely conserved in all three Rad family members has no effect on Rad subcellular distribution. Addition of the 9 amino acids from the C-terminus of H-Ras to the truncated Rad protein results in a redistribution of Rad from the cytosol to the membrane skeleton without the presence of any detectable lipid modification of the chimeric protein. These data suggest that Rad possesses unique cellular localization signals which, in contrast to other Ras-related family members, do not depend on the lipid modification of the C-terminus. PMID:9683526

  11. Intestinal inflammation requires FOXO3 and prostaglandin E2-dependent lipogenesis and elevated lipid droplets.

    PubMed

    Heller, Sandra; Cable, Chloe; Penrose, Harrison; Makboul, Rania; Biswas, Debjani; Cabe, Maleen; Crawford, Susan E; Savkovic, Suzana D

    2016-05-15

    Intestinal inflammation has been recently characterized by the dysregulation of lipids as metabolic and energy sources, revealing a novel feature of its pathophysiology. Because intracellular lipids, stored in dynamic lipid droplets (LDs), provide energy for cellular needs, we investigated whether they play a role in intestinal inflammation. In the inflamed intestine of mice, elevated LDs were found in colonic and infiltrating immune cells as shown by staining for the LD coat protein PLIN2 and for lipids with BODIPY. In colonic cells, TNF stimulated LD increases by receptor signaling rely on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation. Downstream, TNF triggered a negative regulatory loop between LDs and the transcription factor FOXO3. This was shown in the colon of Foxo3-deficient mice, where elevation in PLIN2 and lipids were further facilitated by inflammation and were more prominent relative to wild-type, whereas, in colonic cells, inhibition of lipogenesis blocked the TNF-mediated loss of FOXO3. Furthermore, blockade of PGE2 synthesis abrogated TNF-stimulated increases in LDs and FOXO3 inactivation. We found in colonic tissue of Foxo3-deficient mice higher levels of cyclooxygenase-2, a mediator of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis, supporting involvement of PGE2 in the LD-FOXO3 regulatory loop. Ultimately, TNF-stimulated lipogenesis leading to elevated LDs facilitated NF-κB-mediated increases in IL-8 protein, which is associated with the surface of LDs found in the lumina of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. This novel immunometabolic mechanism of colonic inflammation involving elevated LDs could provide opportunities for new treatment options. PMID:26968210

  12. The comparison of two speed-dependent Voigt line profile models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protasevich, A. E.

    2013-07-01

    Numerical calculations of the ratio of line width and maximum value of two speed-dependent Voigt line profiles to the respective values of their speed-independent analogs are performed in the high-pressure limit. The intercomparison demonstrates considerable disagreement between different speed-dependent models.

  13. Manipulation of culture conditions alters lipid content and fatty acid profiles of a wide variety of known and new oleaginous yeasts species

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Sestric, Ryan; Ignatia, Laura; Levin, David; German, J. Bruce; Gillies, Laura A.; Almada, Luis A.G.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

    2013-01-01

    Oleaginous yeasts have been studied for oleochemical production for over 80 years. Only a few species have been studied intensely. To expand the diversity of oleaginous yeasts available for lipid research, we surveyed a broad diversity of yeasts with indicators of oleaginicity including known oleaginous clades, and buoyancy. Sixty-nine strains representing 17 genera and 50 species were screened for lipid production. Yeasts belonged to Ascomycota families, Basidiomycota orders, and the yeast-like algal genus Prototheca. Total intracellular lipids and fatty acid composition were determined under different incubation times and nitrogen availability. Thirteen new oleaginous yeast species were discovered, representing multiple ascomycete and basidiomycete clades. Nitrogen starvation generally increased intracellular lipid content. The fatty acid profiles varied with the growth conditions regardless of taxonomic affiliation. The dominant fatty acids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid. Yeasts and culture conditions that produced fatty acids appropriate for biodiesel were identified. PMID:23891835

  14. Influence of seasonal and environmental patterns on the lipid content and fatty acid profiles in gonads of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Siliani, Silvia; Melis, Riccardo; Loi, Barbara; Guala, Ivan; Baroli, Maura; Sanna, Roberta; Uzzau, Sergio; Roggio, Tonina; Addis, Maria Filippa; Anedda, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    The influence of seasonal and environmental patterns on the lipid fraction of Paracentrotus lividus gonads was investigated. For this purpose, sea urchins were collected monthly over a year from two Sardinian coastal areas. Total lipids in gonads follow an annual cyclical trend, described by a sine wave curve, that it is more influenced by season than by growing area. The lowest lipid content in gonads corresponds to a high percentage of mature reproductive stages (i.e. winter season), independently of sampling area. A variation in total lipid content follows a change in photoperiod, while it is related to sea surface temperature. Multivariate analysis on fatty acid profiles of gonads, detected by gas chromatography, clusters the collected specimens mainly according to the sampling area, secondly according to the sites within the same sampling area and finally according to season. PMID:26713559

  15. Bioconversion of Raw Glycerol Generated from the Synthesis of Biodiesel by Different Oleaginous Yeasts: Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Profile of Biomass.

    PubMed

    Spier, Franciela; Buffon, Jaqueline G; Burkert, Carlos A V

    2015-12-01

    In this work, 12 different yeast strains were evaluated to gauge their ability to accumulate lipids using raw glycerol as the main carbon source. Lipomyces lipofer NRRL Y-1155 stood out above the other strains, achieving 9.48 g/l biomass, 57.64 % lipid content and 5.46 g/l lipid production. The fatty acid profile was similar to vegetable oils commonly used in the synthesis of biodiesel, with the predominance of polyunsaturated acids, especially linoleic acid, reaching 68.3 % for Rhodotorula glutinis NRRL YB-252. The occurrence of palmitic acid (39.3 % for Lipomyces starkeyi NRRL Y-11557) was also notable. Thus, yeast biomass with high lipid content can be a sustainable and renewable alternative as a raw material for the biodiesel industry. PMID:26543267

  16. Alcohol and Race/Ethnicity Elicit Different Changes in Lipid Profiles in HIV-Infected Individuals Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Míguez-Burbano, Maria J.; Lewis, John E.; Malow, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the impact of alcohol consumption (88 hazardous and 76 nonhazardous drinkers) and race/ethnicity on lipid profiles in individuals starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). At baseline, Whites and Hispanics had the most adverse lipid profiles, whereas Blacks had the least atherogenic. Whites and Hispanics showed higher increases in cholesterol (W = 11%; H = 6%), triglycerides (W = 40%; H = 24%), and low-density lipoprotein (10%) than Blacks (cholesterol = 4%; triglycerides = 9%; low-density lipoprotein = 4%). Hazardous alcohol consumption was correlated with increased lipids in each group. Hispanics had a clear trait risk for hypertriglyceridemia with HAART (1.9-fold) and with hazardous drinking (3.2-fold; p = .04). The highest risk for hypertriglyceridemia was found in heavy drinkers (3.75-fold; p = .05). Results underscore the importance of an alcohol/race interactive effect on HAART-associated dyslipidemia and the need for assessment and treatment of alcohol disorders. PMID:19427595

  17. Molecular Depth Profiling of Buried Lipid Bilayers Using C60-SIMS

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Caiyan; Wucher, Andreas; Winograd, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    An organic delta layer system made of alternating Langmuir Blodgett multilayers of barium arachidate (AA) and barium dimyristoyl phosphatidate (DMPA) was constructed to elucidate the factors that control depth resolution in molecular depth profile experiments. More specifically, one or several bilayers of DMPA (4.4 nm) were embedded in relatively thick (51 to 105 nm) multilayer stacks of AA, resulting in a well-defined delta-layer model system closely resembling a biological membrane. 3-D imaging ToF-SIMS depth profile analysis was performed on this system using a focused buckminsterfullerene (C60) cluster ion beam. The delta layer depth response function measured in these experiments exhibits similar features as those determined in inorganic depth profiling, namely an asymmetric shape with quasi-exponential leading and trailing edges and a central Gaussian peak. The effects of sample temperature, primary ion kinetic energy and incident angle on the depth resolution were investigated. While the information depth of the acquired SIMS spectra was found to be temperature independent, the depth resolution was found to be significantly improved at low temperature. Ion induced mixing is proposed to be largely responsible for the broadening, rather than topography, as determined by AFM, therefore depth resolution can be optimized using lower kinetic energy, glancing angle and liquid nitrogen temperature. PMID:21121691

  18. Lipid, fatty acid and energy density profiles of white sharks: insights into the feeding ecology and ecophysiology of a complex top predator.

    PubMed

    Pethybridge, Heidi R; Parrish, Christopher C; Bruce, Barry D; Young, Jock W; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are major sources of metabolic energy in sharks and are closely linked to environmental conditions and biological cycles, such as those related to diet, reproduction and migration. In this study, we report for the first time, the total lipid content, lipid class composition and fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver tissue of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, of various lengths (1.5-3.9 m), sampled at two geographically separate areas off southern and eastern Australia. Muscle tissue was low in total lipid content (<0.9% wet mass, wm) and was dominated by phospholipids (>90% of total lipid) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (34±12% of total fatty acids). In contrast, liver was high in total lipid which varied between 51-81% wm and was dominated by triacylglycerols (>93%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (36±12%). With knowledge of total lipid and dry tissue mass, we estimated the energy density of muscle (18.4±0.1 kJ g-1 dm) and liver (34.1±3.2 kJ g-1 dm), demonstrating that white sharks have very high energetic requirements. High among-individual variation in these biochemical parameters and related trophic markers were observed, but were not related to any one biological or environmental factor. Signature fatty acid profiles suggest that white sharks over the size range examined are generalist predators with fish, elasmobranchs and mammalian blubber all contributing to the diet. The ecological applications and physiological influences of lipids in white sharks are discussed along with recommendations for future research, including the use of non-lethal sampling to examine the nutritional condition, energetics and dietary relationships among and between individuals. Such knowledge is fundamental to better understand the implications of environmental perturbations on this iconic and threatened species. PMID:24871223

  19. Lipid, Fatty Acid and Energy Density Profiles of White Sharks: Insights into the Feeding Ecology and Ecophysiology of a Complex Top Predator

    PubMed Central

    Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Parrish, Christopher C.; Bruce, Barry D.; Young, Jock W.; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are major sources of metabolic energy in sharks and are closely linked to environmental conditions and biological cycles, such as those related to diet, reproduction and migration. In this study, we report for the first time, the total lipid content, lipid class composition and fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver tissue of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, of various lengths (1.5–3.9 m), sampled at two geographically separate areas off southern and eastern Australia. Muscle tissue was low in total lipid content (<0.9% wet mass, wm) and was dominated by phospholipids (>90% of total lipid) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (34±12% of total fatty acids). In contrast,