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Sample records for liposomal geiv phthalocyanine

  1. Photodynamic efficacy of water-soluble Si(IV) and Ge(IV) phthalocyanines towards Candida albicans planktonic and biofilm cultures.

    PubMed

    Mantareva, Vanya; Angelov, Ivan; Kussovski, Veselin; Dimitrov, Roumen; Lapok, Lukasz; Whrle, Dieter

    2011-09-01

    Water-soluble phthalocyanine complexes of silicon (SiPc1) and germanium (GePc1) were synthesized. The absorbance of SiPc1 in water was with minor aggregation while GePc1 strongly aggregated in water. The fluorescence data in water showed low quantum yields of 0.073 (SiPc1) and 0.01 (GePc1) and similar lifetimes of 4.07 ns and 4.27 ns. The uptake of SiPc1 into Candida albicans cells was two orders of magnitude lower as compared to GePc1 and for both was dependent on the cell density. Fungal cells in suspension were completely inactivated after SiPc1 (1.8 ?M) at soft light radiation (50 J cm(-2), 60 mW cm(-2)). The fungal biofilm formed on denture acrylic resin was inactivated with 3 log after fractionated light irradiation. PMID:21816518

  2. Aluminum-chloride-phthalocyanine encapsulated in liposomes: activity against naturally occurring dog breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Martha S T; Lucci, Carolina M; Longo, Joo Paulo F; Galera, Paula D; Simioni, Andreza R; Lacava, Zulmira G M; Tedesco, Antnio C; Azevedo, Ricardo B

    2012-04-01

    Breast tumors represent the most common malignant tumors. Current treatments for humans and pets rely on tumor excision and adjuvant chemotherapy, which may affect both cancer cells and normal cells. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an approved treatment modality for a variety of cancers and was recently recommended as a first-line treatment for non-melanoma skin cancers for humans. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of PDT using aluminum-chloride-phthalocyanine that is encapsulated in liposomes and LED as a light source to kill naturally occurring female dog breast cancer in vitro. The cytotoxicity behavior of the encapsulated photosensitizer in the dark and under irradiation using the 670 nm laser were investigated using classical trypan blue and MTT cell viability tests, acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining to label organelles, and cell morphology. Cell morphology was evaluated using light and electron microscopy. Our results demonstrate a reduced cell viability that is associated with morphologic alterations. The neoplasic cell destruction was predominantly mediated via a necrotic process, which was assayed using acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining. These findings were confirmed using light and electronic microscopy. The photosensitizer or laser irradiation alone did not induce cytotoxicity or morphological alterations, indicating the safety and efficacy of PDT with chloro-aluminum-phthalocyanine that was encapsulated in liposomes for the treatment of breast cancer cells in vitro. PMID:22515076

  3. Enhanced photodynamic leishmanicidal activity of hydrophobic zinc phthalocyanine within archaeolipids containing liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Ana Paula; Casasco, Agustina; Schilrreff, Priscila; Defain Tesoriero, Maria Victoria; Duempelmann, Luc; Altube, Maria Julia; Higa, Leticia; Morilla, Maria Jose; Petray, Patricia; Romero, Eder L

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the in vitro anti-Leishmania activity of photodynamic liposomes made of soybean phosphatidylcholine, sodium cholate, total polar archaeolipids (TPAs) extracted from the hyperhalophile archaea Halorubrum tebenquichense and the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPcAL) was compared to that of ultradeformable photodynamic liposomes lacking TPAs (ZnPcUDLs). We found that while ZnPcUDLs and ZnPcALs (130 nm mean diameter and ?35 mV zeta potential) were innocuous against promastigotes, a low concentration (0.01 ?M ZnPc and 7.6 ?M phospholipids) of ZnPcALs irradiated at a very low-energy density (0.2 J/cm2) eliminated L. braziliensis amastigotes from J774 macrophages, without reducing the viability of the host cells. In such conditions, ZnPcALs were harmless for J774 macrophages, HaCaT keratinocytes, and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Therefore, topical photodynamic treatment would not likely affect skin-associated lymphoid tissue. ZnPcALs were extensively captured by macrophages, but ZnPcUDLs were not, leading to 2.5-fold increased intracellular delivery of ZnPc than with ZnPcUDLs. Despite mediating low levels of reactive oxygen species, the higher delivery of ZnPc and the multiple (caveolin- and clathrin-dependent plus phagocytic) intracellular pathway followed by ZnPc would have been the reason for the higher antiamastigote activity of ZnPcALs. The leishmanicidal activity of photodynamic liposomal ZnPc was improved by TPA-containing liposomes. PMID:25045264

  4. In vivo fluorescence and photodynamic activity of zinc phthalocyanine administered in liposomes.

    PubMed

    van Leengoed, H L; Cuomo, V; Versteeg, A A; van der Veen, N; Jori, G; Star, W M

    1994-05-01

    Zinc(II) phthalocyanine, a hydrophobic photosensitiser, was incorporated in unilamellar liposomes and studied in vivo for fluorescence kinetics and photodynamic activity. An observation chamber mounted in a dorsal skinfold of female WAG/Rij rats was used as a model system. In the chamber, an isogeneic mammary carcinoma was transplanted in the subcutaneous tissue. Phthalocyanine fluorescence was excited at 610 nm with a power density of 0.25 mW cm-2 and was detected above 665 nm through a high-pass filter using a two-stage image intensifier coupled to a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Following i.v. administration of 0.14 mg kg-1 of the drug, the fluorescence pharmacokinetics of the dye in vasculature, normal tissue and tumour tissue was determined as a function of time. Tumour fluorescence increased slowly to a maximum about 3 h post injection (p.i.), and remained well above the normal tissue fluorescence till 24 h p.i. Fluorescence in the circulation was always stronger than in the tissues. A treatment light dose at a wavelength of 675 nm was delivered 24 h p.i. One group of six animals received a total light dose of 150 J cm-2 (100 mW cm-2). A second group of six animals received a total light dose of 450 J cm-2 at the same dose rate. Vascular damage resulting from treatment was observed only at the final stages of the irradiation, despite the relatively high levels of fluorescence in the circulation. Immediate post-treatment (re)transplantation of the content of the chamber into the flank always resulted in tumour regrowth, confirming the presence of viable tumour cells following photodynamic therapy (PDT). When the chamber was left intact, the light dose of 450 J cm-2 yielded complete tissue necrosis. The role of the dye-carrier complex in shielding the vascular surrounding from photoproducts was studied in a third group of animals. The presence of peroxides was demonstrated in the serum of these animals after PDT with zinc phthalocyanine in liposomes (ZnPc-lip) using a total light dose of 450 J cm-2. This ex vivo observation supports the previously reported observations in vitro that the carrier complex is able to quench the photoproducts resulting from photoactivation of the photosensitiser which is present in the circulation. PMID:8180012

  5. Specific targeting and toxicity of sulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine photosensitised liposomes directed to cells by monoclonal antibody in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, J.; Gray, A. G.; Huehns, E. R.

    1989-01-01

    A partially purified fraction of the water soluble photosensitive dye sulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine (AlSPc) was encapsulated in liposomes which were then linked to a targeting monoclonal antibody 791T/36 using a heterobifunctional linking agent. The photocytotoxic effects of the liposomes were determined on two cell lines bearing an antigen with which the targeting antibody binds: 791T, an osteosarcoma and C170, a colorectal carcinoma; and a control cell line not bearing the antigen; DW-BCL, an Epstein-Barr virus immortalised B-cell line. Antibody dependent cytotoxicity was observed in 791T and C170 cells and was proportional to the number of antigens on the cells, the AlSPc concentration and the time of exposure to activating red light. No significant toxicity was seen using untargeted liposomes, control cells or free AlSPc fraction under similar conditions. Targeted cells and controls kept in the dark also showed no significant toxicity. A possible mechanism of action is postulated and simple adaptations which demonstrate the versatility of the model are discussed. Some suggestions as to the clinical situations to which this system might be applied in the form of photodynamic therapy (PDT) are made. PMID:2930700

  6. Phthalocyanine polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, B. N.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A method of forming 4,4',4'',4''' -tetraamino phthalocyanines involves reducing 4,4',4'',4''' -tetranitro phthalocyanines, polymerizing the metal tetraamino phthalocyanines with a tetracarboxylic dianhydride (preferably aromatic) or copolymerizing with a tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a diamine (preferably also aromatic) to produce amic acids which are then dehydrocyclized to imides. Thermally and oxidatively stable polymers result which form tough, flexible films, varnishes, adhesives, and fibers.

  7. Glycosylated Metal Phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Hanack, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the first part; the syntheses of mono-; di-; and tetra-glycosylated phthalonitriles is described; which are the most used starting materials for the preparation of the corresponding glycosylated metal (mostly zinc) phthalocyanines. In the second section; the preparation of symmetric and unsymmetric mono-; tetra-; and octa- glycosylated zinc phthalocyanines are reviewed; in which the sugar is attached to the phthalocyanine macrocycle; either anomerically or via another one of its OH-groups. PMID:26569201

  8. Liposomal chemotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Emanuela; Cilurzo, Felisa; Di Marzio, Luisa; Carafa, Maria; Ventura, Cinzia Anna; Wolfram, Joy; Paolino, Donatella; Celia, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Currently, six liposomal chemotherapeutics have received clinical approval and many more are in clinical trials or undergoing preclinical evaluation. Liposomes exhibit low toxicity and improve the biopharmaceutical features and therapeutic index of drugs, thereby increasing efficacy and reducing side effects. In this review we discuss the advantages of using liposomes for the delivery of chemotherapeutics. Gemcitabine and paclitaxel have been chosen as examples to illustrate how the performance of a metabolically unstable or poorly water-soluble drug can be greatly improved by liposomal incorporation. We look at the beneficial effects of liposomes in a variety of solid and blood-borne tumors, including thyroid cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer and multiple myeloma. PMID:24295415

  9. Investigation of factors affecting controlled release from photosensitive DMPC and DSPC liposomes.

    PubMed

    Aygun, Aysegul; Torrey, Kathryn; Kumar, Ashok; Stephenson, Larry D

    2012-06-01

    An investigation of liposomes comprised of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) or 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) lipids with cholesterol and zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPC) revealed that several fundamental liposome properties are influenced by composition and by lipid-specific features. DMPC and DSPC liposomes were synthesized, and their compositional changes, encapsulation capacities, morphologies, and release properties were evaluated. In this research, liposome degradation, lysis, and content release were initiated by photolysis, i.e., rupture induced by exposure to light. A controlled release mechanism was created through the introduction of photosensitizers (i.e., ZnPC) embedded within the cholesterol-stabilized liposome membrane. The light wavelength and light exposure time accelerated photodegradation properties of DMPC liposomes compared to DSPC liposomes, which exhibited a slower release rate. Morphological changes in the liposomes were strongly influenced by light wavelength and light exposure time. For both the DMPC and DSPC liposomes, visible light with wavelengths in the red end of the spectrum and broad spectrum ambient lighting (400-700 nm) were more effective for lysis than UV-A light (365 nm). Heating liposomes to 100 C decreased the stability of liposomes compared to liposomes kept at room temperatures. In addition, the optimal lipid-to-cholesterol-to-photoactivator ratio that produced the most stable liposomes was determined. PMID:22592778

  10. Metal phthalocyanine polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, B. N.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Metal 4, 4', 4", 4"'=tetracarboxylic phthalocyanines (MPTC) are prepared by reaction of trimellitic anhydride, a salt or hydroxide of the desired metal (or the metal in powdered form), urea and a catalyst. A purer form of MPTC is prepared than heretofore. These tetracarboxylic acids are then polymerized by heat to sheet polymers which have superior heat and oxidation resistance. The metal is preferably a divalent metal having an atomic radius close to 1.35A.

  11. New Directions in Phthalocyanine Pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were the following: (1) investigation of the synthesis of new phthalocyanines; (2) characterization of the new phthalocyanines synthesized; (3) investigate the properties of the newly synthesized phthalocyanines with emphasis on UV protection of plastics and coatings; and (4) utilize quantum mechanics to evaluate the structural relationships with possible properties and synthetic approaches. The proposed research targeted the synthesis of phthalocyanines containing an aromatic bridge between two phthalocyanine rings. The goal was to synthesize pigments which would protect plastics when exposed to the photodegradation effects of the sun in space. The stability and extended conjugation of the phthalocyanines offer a unique opportunity for energy absorption and numerous radiative and non-radiative energy loss mechanisms. Although the original targeted phthalocyanines were changed early in the project, several new and unique phthalocyanine compounds were prepared. The basic goals of this work were met and some unique and unexpected outcomes of the work were the result of the integral use of quantum mechanics and molecular modeling with the synthetic effort.

  12. Method of solubilizing phthalocyanines and metallophthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Rathke, J.W.; Chen, M.J.; Fendrick, C.M.

    1990-06-01

    A one-step method of manufacturing soluble phthalocyanines and metallophthalocyanines, like zinc phthalocyanine, by converting a phthalocyanine or a metallophthalocyanine to a trialkylsilyl-substituted derivative is disclosed. The phthalocyanine or metallophthalocyanine is converted to a soluble trialkylsilyl-substituted derivative by interacting the phthalocyanine or metallophthalocyanine with an active metal amide, like lithium 2,2,6, 6-tetra-methylpiperidide, and a halotrialkylsilane, like chlorotrimethylsilane, to provide a phthalocyanine compound, like phthalocyanine monomers, dimers or polymers, metalated or unmetalated, that are soluble in organic media.

  13. Phthalocyanine-Containing Supramolecular Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Yong; Lo, Pui-Chi; Ng, Dennis K. P.

    Phthalocyanines represent a versatile class of functional dyes which have found applications in various disciplines ranging from materials science, catalysis, nanotechnology to medicine. The intrinsic properties of the macrocycles as well as their molecular arrangements, both in solution and in the condensed phase, can be altered through rational chemical modification. Conjugation of other functional units to phthalocyanines can also complement the characteristics of the macrocycles. All these approaches can improve the performance of these macrocyclic compounds as advanced functional materials. The purpose of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of the current research status of phthalocyanine-containing supramolecular systems. The formation, structures, and properties of self-assembled phthalocyanines as well as the non-covalent hetero-arrays containing phthalocyanines and other functional units are reviewed herein.

  14. Doped colorimetric assay liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides compositions comprising colorimetric assay liposomes. The present invention also provides methods for producing colorimetric liposomes and calorimetric liposome assay systems. In preferred embodiments, these calorimetric liposome systems provide high levels of sensitivity through the use of dopant molecules. As these dopants allow the controlled destabilization of the liposome structure, upon exposure of the doped liposomes to analyte(s) of interest, the indicator color change is facilitated and more easily recognized.

  15. New directions in phthalocyanine pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Diep VO

    1994-01-01

    Phthalocyanines have been used as a pigment in coatings and related applications for many years. These pigments are some of the most stable organic pigments known. The phthalo blue and green pigments have been known to be ultraviolet (UV) stable and thermally stable to over 400 C. These phthalocyanines are both a semiconductor and photoconductor, exhibiting catalytic activity and photostabilization capability of polymers. Many metal free and metallic phthalocyanine derivatives have been prepared. Development of the new classes of phthalocyanine pigment could be used as coating on NASA spacecraft material such as glass to decrease the optical degradation from UV light, the outside of the space station modules for UV protection, and coating on solar cells to increase lifetime and efficiency.

  16. The use of phthalocyanines in cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyokong, Tebello; Gledhill, Igle

    2013-03-01

    Phthalocyanines are synthetic analogues of porphyrins employed as photosensitizers in cancer therapy. We present the history of photodynamic therapy and developments in the use of phthalocyanines as photosensitizers. New efforts in the development of more cancer-specific phthalocyanines are presented. The combination of phthalocyanines with nanoparticles for "combination therapy" of cancer is also discussed. The nanoparticles employed are quantum dots, gold, and magnetic nanoparticles.

  17. 21 CFR 73.3124 - Phthalocyanine green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phthalocyanine green. 73.3124 Section 73.3124 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3124 Phthalocyanine green. (a) Identity. The color additive is phthalocyanine green (CAS Reg. No. 1328-53-6), Colour Index No. 74260. (b)...

  18. 21 CFR 73.3124 - Phthalocyanine green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Phthalocyanine green. 73.3124 Section 73.3124 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3124 Phthalocyanine green. (a) Identity. The color additive is phthalocyanine green (CAS Reg. No. 1328-53-6), Colour Index No. 74260. (b)...

  19. Site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies to liposomes enhances photosensitizer uptake and photodynamic therapy efficacy.

    PubMed

    Broekgaarden, M; van Vught, R; Oliveira, S; Roovers, R C; van Bergen En Henegouwen, P M P; Pieters, R J; Van Gulik, T M; Breukink, E; Heger, M

    2016-03-17

    Photodynamic therapy for therapy-resistant cancers will greatly benefit from targeted delivery of tumor photosensitizing agents. In this study, a strategy for the site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies onto liposomes containing the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine was developed and tested. PMID:26954515

  20. Gold liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    Lipids are an important class of molecules, being found in membranes, HDL, LDL, and other natural structures, serving essential roles in structure and with varied functions such as compartmentalization and transport. Synthetic liposomes are also widely used as delivery and release vehicles for drugs, cosmetics, and other chemicals; soap is made from lipids. Lipids may form bilayer or multilammellar vesicles, micelles, sheets, tubes, and other structures. Lipid molecules may be linked to proteins, carbohydrates, or other moieties. EM study of this essential ingredient of life has lagged, due to lack of direct methods to visualize lipids without extensive alteration. OsO4 reacts with double bonds in membrane phospholipids, forming crossbridges. This has been the method of choice to both fix and stain membranes, thus far. An earlier work described the use of tungstate clusters (W{sub 11}) attached to lipid moieties to form lipid structures and lipid probes. With the development of gold clusters, it is now possible to covalently and specifically link a dense gold sphere to a lipid molecule; for example, reacting a mono-N-hydroxysuccinimide Nanogold cluster with the amino group on phosphatidyl ethanolaminine. Examples of a gold-fatty acid and a gold-phospholipid are shown.

  1. Liposomes as nanomedical devices

    PubMed Central

    Bozzuto, Giuseppina; Molinari, Agnese

    2015-01-01

    Since their discovery in the 1960s, liposomes have been studied in depth, and they continue to constitute a field of intense research. Liposomes are valued for their biological and technological advantages, and are considered to be the most successful drug-carrier system known to date. Notable progress has been made, and several biomedical applications of liposomes are either in clinical trials, are about to be put on the market, or have already been approved for public use. In this review, we briefly analyze how the efficacy of liposomes depends on the nature of their components and their size, surface charge, and lipidic organization. Moreover, we discuss the influence of the physicochemical properties of liposomes on their interaction with cells, half-life, ability to enter tissues, and final fate in vivo. Finally, we describe some strategies developed to overcome limitations of the “first-generation” liposomes, and liposome-based drugs on the market and in clinical trials. PMID:25678787

  2. Phthalocyanine Blends Improve Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Varotto, Alessandro; Nam, Chang-Yong; Radivojevic, Ivana; Tom, Joao; Cavaleiro, Jos A.S.; Black, Charles T.; Drain, Charles Michael

    2010-01-01

    A core phthalocyanine platform allows engineering the solubility properties the band gap; shifting the maximum absorption toward the red. A simple method to increase the efficiency of heterojunction solar cells uses a self-organized blend of the phthalocyanine chromophores fabricated by solution processing. PMID:20136126

  3. Multi-liposomal containers.

    PubMed

    Yaroslavov, A A; Sybachin, A V; Zaborova, O V; Zezin, A B; Talmon, Y; Ballauff, M; Menger, F M

    2015-12-01

    Small unilamellar liposomes, 40-60nm in diameter, composed of anionic diphosphatidylglycerol (cardiolipin, CL(2-)) or phosphatidylcerine (PS(1-)) and zwitter-ionic egg yolk lecithin (EL) or dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), electrostatically complex with polystyrene microspheres, ca. 100nm in diameter, grafted by polycationic chains ("spherical polycationic brushes", SPBs). Polymer/liposome binding studies were carried out using electrophoretic mobility (EPM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorescence, conductometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) as the main analytical tools. By these means a remarkably detailed picture emerges of molecular events inside a membrane. The following are among the most important conclusions that arose from the experiments: (a) binding of liposomes to SPBs is accompanied by flip-flop of anionic lipids from the inner to the outer leaflet of the liposomal membrane along with lateral lipid segregation into "islands". (b) The SPB-induced structural reorganization of the liposomal membrane, together with the geometry of anionic lipid molecules, determines the maximum molar fraction of anionic lipid (a key parameter designated as ?) that ensures the structural integrity of liposomes upon complexation: ?=0.3 for liposomes with conically-shaped CL(2-) and ?=0.5 for liposomes with anionic cylindrically-shaped PS(1-). (c) The number of intact liposomes per SPB particle varies from 40 for (?=0.1) to 13 (?=0.5). (d) By using a mixture of liposomes with variety of encapsulated substances, multi-liposomal complexes can be prepared with a high loading capacity and a controlled ratio of the contents. (e) In order to make the mixed anionic liposomes pH-sensitive, they are additionally modified by 30mol% of a morpholinocyclohexanol-based lipid that undergoes a conformational flip when changing pH. Being complexed with SPBs, such liposomes rapidly release their contents when the pH is reduced from 7.0 to 5.0. The results allow loaded liposomes to be concentrated within a rather small volume and, thereby, the preparation of multi-liposomal containers of promise in the drug delivery field. PMID:26372095

  4. Phthalocyanines functionalized with 2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazolylethoxy and 1,4,7-trioxanonyl moieties and the effect of metronidazole substitution on photocytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wierzchowski, Marcin; Sobotta, Lukasz; Skupin-Mrugalska, Paulina; Kruk, Justyna; Jusiak, Weronika; Yee, Michael; Konopka, Krystyna; Dzgne?, Nejat; Tykarska, Ewa; Gdaniec, Maria; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; Goslinski, Tomasz

    2013-10-01

    Four novel magnesium(II) and zinc(II) phthalocyanines bearing 1,4,7-trioxanonyl, polyether and/or (2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethoxy, heterocyclic substituents at their non-peripheral positions were synthesized and assessed in terms of physicochemical and biological properties. Magnesium phthalocyanine derivatives bearing polyether substituents (Pc-1), a mixed system of polyether and heterocyclic substituents (Pc-3), and four heterocyclic substituents (Pc-4), respectively, were synthesized following the Linstead macrocyclization reaction procedure. Zinc phthalocyanine (Pc-2) bearing polyether substituents at non-peripheral positions was synthesized following the procedure in n-pentanol with the zinc acetate, and DBU. Novel phthalocyanines were purified by flash column chromatography and characterized using NMR, MS, UV-Vis and HPLC. Moreover, two precursors in macrocyclization reaction phthalonitriles were characterized using X-ray. Photophysical properties of the novel macrocycles were evaluated, including UV-Vis spectra analysis and aggregation study. All macrocycles subjected to singlet oxygen generation and the oxidation rate constant measurements exhibited lower quantum yields of singlet oxygen generation in DMSO than in DMF. In addition, the Pc-2 molecule was found to be the most efficient singlet oxygen generator from the group of macrocycles studied. The photocytotoxicity evaluated on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line, HSC-3, for Pc-3 was significantly higher than that for Pc-1, Pc-2, and Pc-4. Interestingly, Pc-3 was found to be the most active macrocycle in vitro although its ability to generate singlet oxygen was significantly lower than those of Pc-1 and Pc-2. However, attempts to encapsulate phthalocyanines Pc-1-Pc-3 in liposomal membranes were unsuccessful. The phthalocyanine-nitroimidazole conjugate, Pc-4 was encapsulated in phosphatidylglycerol:phosphatidylcholine unilamellar liposomes and subjected to photocytotoxicity study. PMID:23872453

  5. Liposomes As Carriers Of Hydrophobic Photosensitizers In Vivo: Increased Selectivity Of Tumor Targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricchelli, Fernanda; Biolo, Roberta; Reddi, Elena; Tognon, Giuseppe; Jori, Giulio

    1988-02-01

    Unilamellar liposomes of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) incorporate a variety of hydrophobic photosensitizers (e.g. hematoporphyrin dimethylester, unsubstituted phthalo-cyanines, porphycene) into the phospholipid bilayer. The physico-chemical properties of the liposome-bound photosensitizers in the ground and electronically excited states can be characterized by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The liposome-drug system is stable under physiological conditions and, once injected into tumor-bearing animals, selectively delivers the photosensitizer to serum lipoproteins. As a consequence, the tumor uptake of the drug via receptor-mediated endocytosis of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is favoured. This leads to a larger ratio between the photosensitizer concentration in the tumor and adjacent normal tissues, hence to an increased efficacy of the photodynamic therapy (PDT).

  6. Hexacoordinate bonding and aromaticity in silicon phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang

    2010-12-23

    Si-E bondings in hexacoordinate silicon phthalocyanine were analyzed using bond order (BO), energy partition, atoms in molecules (AIM), electron localization function (ELF), and localized orbital locator (LOL). Bond models were proposed to explain differences between hexacoordinate and tetracoordinate Si-E bondings. Aromaticity of silicon phthalocyanine was investigated using nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS), harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA), conceptual density functional theory (DFT), ring critical point (RCP) descriptors, and delocalization index (DI). Structure, energy, bonding, and aromaticity of tetracoordinate silicon phthalocyanine were studied and compared with hexacoordinate one. PMID:21105726

  7. Synthesis of Metal Phthalocyanine Sheet Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, B. N.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    New method for synthesizing metal phthalocyanine tetracarboxylic acids (MPTCA's) yields high purity end product. In addition, high-purity metal phthalocyanine sheet polymers synthesized from compounds. Monomer formed into sheet polymer by heating. Units of polymer linked in manner similar to phenyl-group linkages in biphenyl: Conjugation extends throughout macromolecule, thereby increasing delocalization of TT-electrons. Increases conductivity and thermal stability of polymer.

  8. Adsorption of ammonia on multilayer iron phthalocyanine

    SciTech Connect

    Isvoranu, Cristina; Knudsen, Jan; Ataman, Evren; Andersen, Jesper N.; Schnadt, Joachim; Schulte, Karina; Wang Bin; Bocquet, Marie-Laure

    2011-03-21

    The adsorption of ammonia on multilayers of well-ordered, flat-lying iron phthalocyanine (FePc) molecules on a Au(111) support was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We find that the electron-donating ammonia molecules coordinate to the metal centers of iron phthlalocyanine. The coordination of ammonia induces changes of the electronic structure of the iron phthalocyanine layer, which, in particular, lead to a modification of the FePc valence electron spin.

  9. Binding to and photo-oxidation of cardiolipin by the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Myriam E.; Kim, Junhwan; Delos Santos, Grace B.; Azizuddin, Kashif; Berlin, Jeffrey; Anderson, Vernon E.; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2010-09-01

    Cardiolipin is a unique phospholipid of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Its peroxidation correlates with release of cytochrome c and induction of apoptosis. The phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 binds preferentially to the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Earlier Frster resonance energy transfer studies showed colocalization of Pc 4 and cardiolipin, which suggests cardiolipin as a target of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Pc 4. Using liposomes as membrane models, we find that Pc 4 binds to cardiolipin-containing liposomes similarly to those that do not contain cardiolipin. Pc 4 binding is also studied in MCF-7c3 cells and those whose cardiolipin content was reduced by treatment with palmitate. Decreased levels of cardiolipin are quantified by thin-layer chromatography. The similar level of binding of Pc 4 to cells, irrespective of palmitate treatment, supports the lack of specificity of Pc 4 binding. Thus, factors other than cardiolipin are likely responsible for the preferential localization of Pc 4 in mitochondria. Nonetheless, cardiolipin within liposomes is readily oxidized by Pc 4 and light, yielding apparently mono- and dihydroperoxidized cardiolipin. If similar products result from exposure of cells to Pc 4-PDT, they could be part of the early events leading to apoptosis following Pc 4-PDT.

  10. Viscoelasticity measurements inside liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shu; Gibson, Lachlan; Preece, Daryl; Nieminen, Timo A.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2014-09-01

    Microrheology, the study of the behavior of fluids on the microscopic scale, has been and continues to be one of the most important subjects that can be applied to characterize the behavior of biological fluids. It is extremely difficult to make rapid measurement of the viscoelastic properties of the interior of living cells. Liposomes are widely used as model system for studying different aspects of cell biology. We propose to develop a microrheometer, based on real-time control of optical tweezers, in order to investigate the viscoelastic properties of the fluid inside liposomes. This will give greater understanding of the viscoelastic properties of the fluids inside cells. In our experiment, the liposomes are prepared by different methods to find out both a better way to make GUVs and achieve efficient encapsulation of particle. By rotating the vaterite inside a liposome via spin angular momentum, the optical torque can be measured by measuring the change of polarization of the transmitted light, which allows the direct measurement of viscous drag torque since the optical torque is balanced by the viscous drag. We present an initial feasibility demonstration of trapping and manipulation of a microscopic vaterite inside the liposome. The applied method is simple and can be extended to sensing within the living cells.

  11. Liposome-mediated transfection.

    PubMed

    Whitt, M; Buonocore, L; Rose, J K

    2001-05-01

    Using liposomes to deliver DNA into different eukaryotic cell types results in higher efficiency and greater reproducibility than other transfection methods. In this unit, Basic Protocol the describes a transient expression system while an Alternate Protocol involves stable transformation and expression of DNA integrated into the genome of the transfected cell. In both protocols, plasmid DNA derived from either crude (miniprep) or purified (through CsCl) preparations is mixed with a liposome suspension comprised of cationic lipids and applied to monolayer cell cultures. PMID:18432679

  12. Structural studies of aliphatic substituted phthalocyanine-lipid multilayers.

    PubMed

    Zarbakhsh, Ali; Campana, Mario; Mills, David; Webster, John R P

    2010-10-01

    A Langmuir-Blodgett film of aliphatic substituted phthalocyanines on a C18 silane supporting layer coupled onto a silicon substrate has been investigated using neutron reflectometry. This multilayer structure is seen as a possible candidate for phthalocyanine-lipid biosensor devices. The results show the suitability of the C18 ligands as an anchoring layer for the phthalocyanines. The scattering length density profiles demonstrate the effectiveness of a lipid monolayer in partitioning the composition of phthalocyanine layers from that of the bulk liquid. The effectiveness of this barrier is a critical factor in the efficiency of such devices. PMID:20831252

  13. Liposome: classification, preparation, and applications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Liposomes, sphere-shaped vesicles consisting of one or more phospholipid bilayers, were first described in the mid-60s. Today, they are a very useful reproduction, reagent, and tool in various scientific disciplines, including mathematics and theoretical physics, biophysics, chemistry, colloid science, biochemistry, and biology. Since then, liposomes have made their way to the market. Among several talented new drug delivery systems, liposomes characterize an advanced technology to deliver active molecules to the site of action, and at present, several formulations are in clinical use. Research on liposome technology has progressed from conventional vesicles to second-generation liposomes, in which long-circulating liposomes are obtained by modulating the lipid composition, size, and charge of the vesicle. Liposomes with modified surfaces have also been developed using several molecules, such as glycolipids or sialic acid. This paper summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations in respect to industrial applicability and regulatory requirements concerning liposomal drug formulations based on FDA and EMEA documents. PMID:23432972

  14. Liposome: classification, preparation, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Rezaei-Sadabady, Rogaie; Davaran, Soodabeh; Joo, Sang Woo; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Hanifehpour, Younes; Samiei, Mohammad; Kouhi, Mohammad; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem

    2013-02-01

    Liposomes, sphere-shaped vesicles consisting of one or more phospholipid bilayers, were first described in the mid-60s. Today, they are a very useful reproduction, reagent, and tool in various scientific disciplines, including mathematics and theoretical physics, biophysics, chemistry, colloid science, biochemistry, and biology. Since then, liposomes have made their way to the market. Among several talented new drug delivery systems, liposomes characterize an advanced technology to deliver active molecules to the site of action, and at present, several formulations are in clinical use. Research on liposome technology has progressed from conventional vesicles to `second-generation liposomes', in which long-circulating liposomes are obtained by modulating the lipid composition, size, and charge of the vesicle. Liposomes with modified surfaces have also been developed using several molecules, such as glycolipids or sialic acid. This paper summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations in respect to industrial applicability and regulatory requirements concerning liposomal drug formulations based on FDA and EMEA documents.

  15. Phthalocyanine photodynamic therapy of experimental iris neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Miller, J W; Stinson, W G; Gregory, W A; el-Koumy, H A; Puliafito, C A

    1991-11-01

    Photodynamic therapy using chloroaluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine (CASPc) effectively closed experimental iris neovascularization induced in 6 eyes of cynomolgus monkeys by argon laser retinal vein occlusion. Neovascularization was followed by iris photography, fluorescein angiography, and histopathologic examination by light and electron microscopy. Intravenous injection of CASPc followed by irradiation with 675 nm light damaged endothelial cells and pericytes, leading to exposure of the basal lamina and thrombotic occlusion of the blood vessels. Surrounding tissue appeared preserved without evidence of thermal damage. Resorption of occluded vessels by macrophages began 2 to 3 days after photodynamic therapy. Neovascularization reappeared 7 days after photodynamic therapy, probably representing growth of new vessels. Photodynamic therapy with CASPc may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of iris neovascularization. The model is useful in elucidating the ultrastructural changes observed after photodynamic therapy using phthalocyanines. PMID:1724793

  16. Photophysics of silicon phthalocyanines in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Doane, Tennyson L; Chuang, Chi-Hung; Chomas, Andrew; Burda, Clemens

    2013-02-01

    Phthalocyanines have been used as photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents because of their uniquely favorable optical properties and high photostability. They have been shown to be highly successful for the treatment of cancer through efficient singlet-oxygen ((1)O(2)) production. However, due to their hydrophobic properties, the considerations of solubility and cellular location have made understanding their photophysics in vitro and in vivo difficult. Indeed, many quantitative assessments of PDT reagents are undertaken in purely organic solvents, presenting challenges for interpreting observations during practical application in vivo. With steady-state and time-resolved laser spectroscopy, we show that for axial ligated silicon phthalocyanines in aqueous media, both the water:lipophile ratio and the pH have drastic effects on their photophysics, and ultimately dictate their functionality as PDT drugs. We suggest that considering the presented photophysics for PDT drugs in aqueous solutions leads to guidelines for a next generation of even more potent PDT agents. PMID:23307629

  17. Surface chemistry of porphyrins and phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, J. Michael

    2015-11-01

    This review covers the surface chemistry of porphyrins, phthalocyanines, their metal complexes, and related compounds, with particular focus on chemical reactions at solid/vacuum interfaces. Porphyrins are not only important biomolecules, they also find, together with the artificial phthalocyanines, numerous technological and scientific applications, which often involve surface and interface related aspects. After a brief summary of fundamental properties of these molecules in the context of surface science, the following topics will be discussed: (1) Aspects of geometric structure, including self-assembly, conformation, mobility and manipulation of the adsorbed molecules. (2) Surface-related changes of the electronic structure and the magnetic properties. (3) The role of the metal center in the surface chemical bond. (4) On-surface coordination reactions, such as direct metalation and coordination of axial ligands. (5) The influence of axial ligands on the surface chemical bond and the magnetic properties.

  18. Phthalocyanine Tetraamine Epoxy-Curing Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fohlen, G. M.; Achar, B. N.; Parker, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Tough fire- and chemical-resistant epoxies produced by using metalphthalocyanine tetraamines (MPT's) of copper, cobalt, or nickel as curing agents. Synthesis of MPT's commercially realizable and gives pure compounds with almost 90-percent yield. Synthesis applicable for metals with atomic radii of about 1.35 angstroms, including Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Fe, Pt, Al, and V. Possible to use metal phthalocyanines to cure epoxy resins in homogeneous reaction.

  19. Raman spectroscopy of phthalocyanines and their sulfonated derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bro?ek-P?uska, B.; Szymczyk, I.; Abramczyk, H.

    2005-06-01

    The aggregation and photochemistry of the copper (II) 3, 4?, 4?, 4?-tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine, free base phthalocyanine and copper (II) phthalocyanine have been studied by UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS). The vibrational mode ?3 of (Cu(tsPc) 4- has been used as a probe in RRS measurements. The photochemistry of monomers and dimers of (Cu(tsPc) 4- has been studied in liquid solutions of H 2O and DMSO as well as in frozen matrices. Low temperature Raman measurements in a broad temperature range have been carried out for free base phthalocyanine and copper (II) phthalocyanine in DMSO to identify the nature of emissive bands observed in the Raman spectra. It has been shown that the dimerization equilibrium constant K for tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine Cu(tsPc) 4- is strongly shifted towards monomeric form in DMSO solutions and in human blood compared to aqueous systems. The emission band at around 682 nm in DMSO and aqueous solutions observed at 77 K for tetrasulfonated salt of copper(II) phthalocyanine in concentrated solutions has been assigned to the radical transient species generated during the photoinduced dissociation with the electron transfer between the molecules of phthalocyanines. The emission at 527 nm in DMSO and at 556 nm in water has been preliminarily assigned to the fluorescence from the higher excited triplet state T n?T 1.

  20. Propulsion of liposomes using bacterial motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenhai; Li, Zhifei; Yu, Wei; Li, Kejie; Xie, Zhihong; Shi, Zhiguo

    2013-05-01

    Here we describe the utilization of flagellated bacteria as actuators to propel spherical liposomes by attaching bacteria to the liposome surface. Bacteria were stably attached to liposomes using a cross-linking antibody. The effect of the number of attached bacteria on propulsion speed was experimentally determined. The effects of bacterial propulsion on the bacteria-antibody-liposome complex were stochastic. We demonstrated that liposomal mobility increased when bacteria were attached, and the propulsion speed correlated with the number of bacteria.

  1. Substitution of phthalocyanines affecting the properties of their films and heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertsimakha, Ya.; Mamykin, S.; Lutsyk, P.

    2012-08-01

    Optical and photovoltaic properties were studied for phthalocyanine derivatives: sulfonamide zinc phthalocyanine (ZPS), amine zinc phthalocyanine (ZPN) and amine metal-free phthalocyanine (HPN) thin films and thin-film heterostructures made of the phthalocyanine derivatives with organic semiconductors - N,N‧-dimethylperylene-tetracarboxylicacid diimide, pentacene, lead phthalocyanine. It was shown that sulphonamide substitution of phthalocyanine molecule practically does not affect the absorption spectra. NH2 substitution results in appearance of additional absorbance in long-wave range in comparison to the spectra of ZPS. The behavior can be explained by an increase of molecular aggregation due to more efficient interaction of NH2 substituted phthalocyanines. The photovoltaic sensitivity of the phthalocyanine films decreases in following sequence ZPS → ZPN → HPN. Thermal deposition of N,N‧-dimethylperylene-tetracarboxylicacid diimide and pentacene on thin films of the phthalocyanine derivatives results in formation of sufficiently high potential barrier at the interface. The highest photosensitivity was observed in the heterostructures with pentacene films.

  2. Room temperature ferromagnetism in a phthalocyanine based carbon material

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, Z. Sato, K.; Sakai, M.; Fukuda, T.; Kamata, N.; Hagiwara, M.; Kida, T.

    2014-02-07

    We report on a simple method to fabricate a magnetic carbon material that contains nitrogen-coordinated transition metals and has a large magnetic moment. Highly chlorinated iron phthalocyanine was used as building blocks and potassium as a coupling reagent to uniformly disperse nitrogen-coordinated iron atoms on the phthalocyanine based carbon material. The iron phthalocyanine based carbon material exhibits ferromagnetic properties at room temperature and the ferromagnetic phase transition occurs at T{sub c}?=?490??10?K. Transmission electron microscopy observation, X-ray diffraction analysis, and the temperature dependence of magnetization suggest that the phthalocyanine molecules form three-dimensional random networks in the iron phthalocyanine based carbon material.

  3. Ordered growth of vanadyl phthalocyanine (VOPc) on an iron phthalocyanine (FePc) monolayer.

    PubMed

    Rochford, Luke A; Ramadan, Alexandra J; Woodruff, D Phil; Heutz, Sandrine; Jones, Tim S

    2015-11-28

    The growth and characterisation of a non-planar phthalocyanine (vanadyl phthalocyanine, VOPc) on a complete monolayer (ML) of a planar phthalocyanine (Iron(II) phthalocyanine, FePc) on an Au(111) surface, has been investigated using ultra-high vacuum (UHV) scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). The surface mesh of the initial FePc monolayer has been determined and shown to correspond to an incommensurate overlayer, not commensurate as previously reported. Ordered islands of VOPc, with (1 1) epitaxy, grow on the FePc layer at submonolayer coverages. The individual VOPc molecules occupy sites directly atop the underlying FePc molecules, indicating that significant intermolecular bonding must occur. It is proposed that this interaction implies that the V[double bond, length as m-dash]O points down into the surface, allowing a Fe-O bond to form. The detailed appearance of the STM images of the VOPc molecules is consistent with previous studies in other VOPc growth studies in which this molecular orientation has been proposed. PMID:26477586

  4. Controlling Growth Orientation of Phthalocyanine Films by Electrical Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, S.; Banks, C. E.; Frazier, D. O.; Ila, D.; Muntele, I.; Penn, B. G.; Sharma, A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Organic Phthalocyanine films have many applications ranging from data storage to various non-linear optical devices whose quality is affected by the growth orientation of Phthalocyanine films. Due to the structural and electrical properties of Phthalocyanine molecules, the film growth orientation depends strongly on the substrate surface states. In this presentation, an electrical field up to 4000 V/cm is introduced during film growth. The Phthalocyanine films are synthesized on quartz substrates using thermal evaporation. An intermediate layer is deposited on some substrates for introducing the electrical field. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used for measuring surface morphology, film structure, and optical properties, respectively. The comparison of Phthalocyanine films grown with and without the electrical field reveals different morphology, film density, and growth orientation, which eventually change optical properties of these films. These results suggest that the growth method in the electrical field can be used to synthesized Phthalocyanine films with a preferred crystal orientation as well as propose an interaction mechanism between the substrate surface and the depositing molecules. The details of growth conditions and of the growth model of how the Phthalocyanine molecules grow in the electrical field will be discussed.

  5. Liposomal nanocarriers for plasminogen activators.

    PubMed

    Koudelka, Stepan; Mikulik, Robert; Mašek, Josef; Raška, Milan; Turánek Knotigová, Pavlína; Miller, Andrew D; Turánek, Jaroslav

    2016-04-10

    Several plasminogen activators (PAs) have been found effective in treating different thromboembolic diseases. However, administration of conventional thrombolytic therapy is limited by a low efficacy of present formulations of PAs. Conventional treatments using these therapeutic proteins are associated with several limitations including rapid inactivation and clearance, short half-life, bleeding complications or non-specific tissue targeting. Liposome-based formulations of PAs such as streptokinase, tissue-plasminogen activator and urokinase have been developed to improve the therapeutic efficacy of these proteins. Resulting liposomal formulations were found to preserve the original activity of PAs, promote their selective delivery and improve thrombus targeting. Therapeutic potential of these liposome-based PAs has been demonstrated successfully in various pre-clinical models in vivo. Reductions in unwanted side effects (e.g., hemorrhage or immunogenicity) as well as enhancements of efficacy and safety were achieved in comparison to currently existing treatment options based on conventional formulations of PAs. This review summarizes present achievements in: (i) preparation of liposome-based formulations of various PAs, (ii) development of PEGylated and targeted liposomal PAs, (iii) physico-chemical characterization of these developed systems, and (iv) testing of their thrombolytic efficacy. We also look to the future and the imminent arrival of theranostic liposomal formulations to move this field forward. PMID:26876783

  6. Phospholipid liposomes functionalized by protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Savostyanov, G. V.; Grishina, O. A.

    2015-03-01

    Finding new ways to deliver neurotrophic drugs to the brain in newborns is one of the contemporary problems of medicine and pharmaceutical industry. Modern researches in this field indicate the promising prospects of supramolecular transport systems for targeted drug delivery to the brain which can overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, the solution of this problem is actual not only for medicine, but also for society as a whole because it determines the health of future generations. Phospholipid liposomes due to combination of lipo- and hydrophilic properties are considered as the main future objects in medicine for drug delivery through the BBB as well as increasing their bioavailability and toxicity. Liposomes functionalized by various proteins were used as transport systems for ease of liposomes use. Designing of modification oligosaccharide of liposomes surface is promising in the last decade because it enables the delivery of liposomes to specific receptor of human cells by selecting ligand and it is widely used in pharmacology for the treatment of several diseases. The purpose of this work is creation of a coarse-grained model of bilayer of phospholipid liposomes, functionalized by specific to the structural elements of the BBB proteins, as well as prediction of the most favorable orientation and position of the molecules in the generated complex by methods of molecular docking for the formation of the structure. Investigation of activity of the ligand molecule to protein receptor of human cells by the methods of molecular dynamics was carried out.

  7. Optical nonlinearity measurements of copper phthalocyanine film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Li-hao; Fang, Yu; Chu, Xiang-yong; Wu, Xing-zhi; Yang, Junyi; Song, Ying-lin

    2013-09-01

    The nonlinear refractive response of a copper phthalocyanine film fabricated by the electro-deposition is investigated by a modified top-hat Z-scan with 19 picoseconds pulse at wavelength of 532 nm. Compared to the top-hat Z-scan, the curve of modified top-hat Z-scan for the nonlinear refraction shows a single peak rather than a peek-valley curve. Furthermore, the sensitivity of this new technique can be more than two orders of magnitude enhanced. The results show that the film has obvious response of nonlinear refraction. The theoretical simulation fit well with experimental results.

  8. One-dimensional magnetism in copper phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Yudkowsky, M.; Halperin, W. P.; Ogawa, M. Y.; Hoffman, B. M.

    1987-04-01

    Measurements of the proton spin-lattice relaxation rate, T-11, reveal that the organic insulator copper phthalocyanine Cu(PC) is a highly one-dimensional Heisenberg system. T-11 diverges as ?-1/2 down to 11.4 MHz without evidence of cutoff. It was found that ||J/kB||=0.286 K with the ratio ||J/J'||>=6103, where J and J' are the intrachain and interchain exchange interactions, indicating that Cu(PC) is an excellent model one-dimensional Heisenberg magnet.

  9. Axial functionalization of sterically hindered titanium phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Seikel, Elisabeth; Oelkers, Benjamin; Sundermeyer, Jrg

    2012-02-20

    Several axially functionalized, weakly aggregating titanium phthalocyanines (Pc) have been synthesized and characterized. Soluble titanium dichlorido tetrakis-(1,1,4,4-tetramethyl-6,7-tetralino)-porphyrazine [Pc(#)TiCl(2)] (5) has been prepared by reductive cyclotetramerization of the respective dinitrile precursor in the presence of TiCl(4). 5 and the analogous oxido compound [Pc(#)TiO] (1) are versatile starting materials for the formation of other axially functionalized titanium phthalocyanines such as organoimido (6, 7), alkoxido and aryloxido (8, 9), peroxido (10), sulfido (12), disulfido (11), selenido (14) or diselenido (13) species. Furthermore the deprotonated ligand salts [Pc(#)M(2)] (M = Li (2), Na (3), K (4) are described. The reactivity of the titanium compounds was studied in atom group transfer reactions and ethene polymerization. The crystal structures of 5 and the free ligand Pc(#)H(2) are reported. 5 crystallizes from dichloromethane in the cubic space group Im3. The two chlorido ligands exhibit a cis arrangement. The free ligand Pc(#)H(2) crystallizes in the trigonal space group R3. PMID:22316379

  10. Porphyrin-phospholipid liposomes with tunable leakiness.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dandan; Carter, Kevin A; Razi, Aida; Geng, Jumin; Shao, Shuai; Lin, Cuiyan; Ortega, Joaquin; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2015-12-28

    Drug bioavailability is a key consideration for drug delivery systems. When loaded with doxorubicin, liposomes containing 5 molar % porphyrin-phospholipid (HPPH liposomes) exhibited in vitro and in vivo serum stability that could be fine-tuned by varying the drug-to-lipid ratio. A higher drug loading ratio destabilized the liposomes, in contrast to standard liposomes which displayed an opposite and less pronounced trend. Following systemic administration of HPPH liposomes, near infrared laser irradiation induced vascular photodynamic damage, resulting in enhanced liposomal doxorubicin accumulation in tumors. In laser-irradiated tumors, the use of leaky HPPH liposomes resulted in improved doxorubicin bioavailability compared to stable standard liposomes. Using this approach, a single photo-treatment with 10mg/kg doxorubicin rapidly eradicated tumors in athymic nude mice bearing KB or MIA Paca-2 xenografts. PMID:26578438

  11. Molecular aggregation in soluble phthalocyanines - Chemical interactions vs. ?-stacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palewska, Krystyna; Sworakowski, Juliusz; Lipi?ski, Jzef

    2012-08-01

    Aggregation of soluble sulfonated phthalocyanines (Pcs) containing di- and trivalent central atoms in binary water-alcohol solvents has been studied. The equilibrium constants of dimerization in solutions of Pcs with divalent central atoms (Zn, Cu) were found dependent on the electrical permittivity of the solvent and on the degree of sulfonation (i.e., on the charge on the phthalocyanine anions). Our results show that in Pcs with the trivalent central atom (Al(OH)) the dimerization occurs preferentially by formation of oxygen bridges or hydrogen bonds. Disulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine anions dissolved in water-rich binary solvents seem to form both ?-stacked dimers and chemical dimers, due to a decrease in the Coulombic repulsive energy. The experiments reported in the paper indicate that the aggregation of soluble phthalocyanines can be controlled by the choice of a suitable electric permittivity of the solvent.

  12. Uranyl phthalocyanines show promise in the treatment of brain tumors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigerio, N. A.

    1967-01-01

    Processes synthesize sulfonated and nonsulfonated uranyl phthalocyanines for application in neutron therapy of brain tumors. Tests indicate that the compounds are advantageous over the previously used boron and lithium compounds.

  13. Syntheses of Octasubstituted Metal Phthalocyanines for Nonlinear Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Huaisong; Townsend, Cheryl; Sanghadasa, Mohan; Amai, Robert L. S.; Clark, Ronald D.; Penn, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    Many organic materials can be used as nonlinear optical media. Phthalocyanines are of special interest because they show an unusually large third order nonlinear response, they are thermally and photochemically stable and they can be formed into oriented thin films (Langmuir-Blodgett films). They also can be easily complexed by a large variety of metals, which place them at the interface between organics and organometallics, and allows for fine tuning of the macro cycle electronic properties by the coordinated metal and substituent groups. A series of 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octaalkoxy metal-free and metal phthalocyanines and 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octaalkoxy metal phthalocyanines has been synthesized. Their nonlinear optical properties have been measured. The physical properties of all the phthalocyanines synthesized in this work are subject to both acid and solvent effects.

  14. Complement activation by PEGylated liposomes containing prednisolone.

    PubMed

    van den Hoven, Jolanda M; Nemes, Reka; Metselaar, Josbert M; Nuijen, Bastiaan; Beijnen, Jos H; Storm, Gert; Szebeni, Janos

    2013-05-13

    Infusion of PEGylated liposomes can give rise to hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) in a relatively large number of patients. Previously it has been shown that these reactions can be caused by activation of the complement (C) system by a negative charge on the anchor molecule of PEG at the liposomal surface. In this study it is tested whether the activation of the C system by PEG-liposomes could be significantly reduced to values comparable to nonreactive liposomal formulations, by changing the PEGylation-profile on the liposomal surface. Therefore, the formation of C activation markers SC5b-9, C3a, C4d and Bb in normal human serum by both prednisolone loaded and empty liposomes with a variation of PEG chain length, PEG surface concentration, PEG anchor molecule and liposomal size was determined using in vitro assays. The tested liposomes caused no or only mild (30%) activation of C except for one formulation wherein the PEG2000 was anchored to cholesterol (CHOL-PEG2000). The latter liposomes caused paralleling rises in SC5b-9 and Bb levels, suggesting excess activation of the alternative pathway. While the relative safety of weak C activator liposomes remains to be confirmed in vivo, the unique, non-charge and non-antibody-mediated direct conversion of C3 by CHOL-PEG2000 liposomes (although argues against the clinical development of these vesicles) opens new opportunities to understand liposomal C activation at the molecular level. PMID:23528740

  15. Characterization of Liposomes for Cancer Cell Transfection

    PubMed Central

    Tatarkova, Svetlana A; Khaira, Satvinder

    2007-01-01

    We have characterized a broad range of liposome formulations with varying DcChol:DOPE ratio. Subsequent addition of DcChol to liposomes increases its positive surface charge. However, loading the nuclear acids did not neutralize the overall negative surface potential to a similar extent. The liposomes were tested by transfection of DNA in living cancer cells. PMID:19662129

  16. Modelling copper-phthalocyanine/cobalt-phthalocyanine chains: towards magnetic quantum metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei

    2014-07-23

    The magnetic properties of a theoretically designed molecular chain structure CuCoPc2, in which copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPc) alternate, have been investigated across a range of chain structures. The computed exchange interaction for the ?-phase CuCoPc2 is ? 5 K (ferromagnetic), in strong contrast to the anti-ferromagnetic interaction recently observed in CuPc and CoPc. The computed exchange interactions are strongly dependent on the stacking angle but weakly on the sliding angle, and peak at 20 K (ferromagnetic). These ferromagnetic interactions are expected to arise from direct exchange with the strong suppression of super-exchange interaction. These first-principles calculations show that ?-conjugated molecules, such as phthalocyanine, could be used as building blocks for the design of magnetic materials. This therefore extends the concept of quantum metamaterials further into magnetism. The resulting new magnetic materials could find applications in the studies such as organic spintronics. PMID:24990182

  17. Liposomal drug delivery systems: an update review.

    PubMed

    Samad, Abdus; Sultana, Y; Aqil, M

    2007-10-01

    The discovery of liposome or lipid vesicle emerged from self forming enclosed lipid bi-layer upon hydration; liposome drug delivery systems have played a significant role in formulation of potent drug to improve therapeutics. Recently the liposome formulations are targeted to reduce toxicity and increase accumulation at the target site. There are several new methods of liposome preparation based on lipid drug interaction and liposome disposition mechanism including the inhibition of rapid clearance of liposome by controlling particle size, charge and surface hydration. Most clinical applications of liposomal drug delivery are targeting to tissue with or without expression of target recognition molecules on lipid membrane. The liposomes are characterized with respect to physical, chemical and biological parameters. The sizing of liposome is also critical parameter which helps characterize the liposome which is usually performed by sequential extrusion at relatively low pressure through polycarbonate membrane (PCM). This mode of drug delivery lends more safety and efficacy to administration of several classes of drugs like antiviral, antifungal, antimicrobial, vaccines, anti-tubercular drugs and gene therapeutics. Present applications of the liposomes are in the immunology, dermatology, vaccine adjuvant, eye disorders, brain targeting, infective disease and in tumour therapy. The new developments in this field are the specific binding properties of a drug-carrying liposome to a target cell such as a tumor cell and specific molecules in the body (antibodies, proteins, peptides etc.); stealth liposomes which are especially being used as carriers for hydrophilic (water soluble) anticancer drugs like doxorubicin, mitoxantrone; and bisphosphonate-liposome mediated depletion of macrophages. This review would be a help to the researchers working in the area of liposomal drug delivery. PMID:17979650

  18. Capabilities of liposomes for topological transformation.

    PubMed

    Nomura, F; Nagata, M; Inaba, T; Hiramatsu, H; Hotani, H; Takiguchi, K

    2001-02-27

    Dynamic behaviors of liposomes caused by interactions between liposomal membranes and surfactant were studied by direct real-time observation by using high-intensity dark-field microscopy. Solubilization of liposomes by surfactants is thought to be a catastrophic event akin to the explosion of soap bubbles in the air; however, the actual process has not been clarified. We studied this process experimentally and found that liposomes exposed to various surfactants exhibited unusual behavior, namely continuous shrinkage accompanied by intermittent quakes, release of encapsulated liposomes, opening up, and inside-out topological inversion. PMID:11226241

  19. Photophysical studies of newly derivatized mono substituted phthalocyanines grafted onto silica nanoparticles via click chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fashina, Adedayo; Amuhaya, Edith; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-04-01

    This work reports on the synthesis, characterization and photophysical studies of newly derived phthalocyanine complexes and the phthalocyanine-silica nanoparticles conjugates. The derived phthalocyanine complexes have one terminal alkyne group. The derived phthalocyanine complexes showed improved photophysical properties (ФF, ФT, ΦΔ and τT) compared to the respective phthalocyanine complexes from which they were derived. The derived phthalocyanine complexes were conjugated to the surface of an azide functionalized silica nanoparticles via copper (1) catalyzed cyclo-addition reaction. All the conjugates showed lower triplet quantum yields ranging from 0.37 to 0.44 compared to the free phthalocyanine complexes. The triplet lifetimes ranged from 352 to 484 μs for the conjugates and from 341 to 366 μs for the free phthalocyanine complexes.

  20. Intramolecular aggregation and optical limiting properties of triazine-linked mono-, bis- and tris-phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Shuangqing; Hu, Rui; Li, Shayu; Ma, Jin Shi; Yang, Guoqiang

    2015-10-01

    A series of triazine-linked mono-, bis- and tris-phthalocyanines are synthesized, intramolecular aggregation is found in bis- and tris-phthalocyanines via ?-? stacking interaction. Theoretical and experimental studies reveal the formation of the intramolecular aggregation. The spectrographic, photophysical and nonlinear optical properties of these compounds are adjusted for the formation of the intramolecular aggregation. The bis-phthalocyanine dimer presents smaller fluorescence quantum yield, lower triplet formation yield and the triplet-minus-ground state extinction coefficient, which causes poorer optical limiting performance. It is interesting that the tris-phthalocyanine is composed of a mono-phthalocyanine part and a bis-phthalocyanine part, the optical limiting property of the tris-phthalocyanine is similar to that of mono-phthalocyanine. PMID:25974676

  1. Introducing copper phthalocyanine as a qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Marc; Din, Salahud; Gardener, Jules; Morley, Gavin W.; Wu, Wei; Stoneham, Marshall; Fisher, Andrew J.; Heutz, Sandrine; Kay, Christopher W. M.; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2012-02-01

    Quantum information processing (QIP) has been shown to solve certain useful problems faster than its classical counterpart. However finding a physical system upon which to execute these algorithms is a challenging task. One promising implementation is to use an electron spin in a magnetic field as the information bearing quantum system. Numerous options have been proposed along these lines. Here I discuss a new candidate qubit, copper phthalocyanine. The copper atom at the centre of the molecule carries an unpaired electron. Pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of relaxation times reveal that it has potential for QIP. We measure the spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times of this electron and demonstrate single qubit manipulations. Solid-state electronic devices can be built with this low cost material, which is optically active, and offers great opportunities for chemical and physical modification, leading to significant control of magnetic and other properties.

  2. Electronic transport properties of (fluorinated) metal phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadlallah, M. M.; Eckern, U.; Romero, A. H.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic and transport properties of the metal phthalocyanine (MPc) and F16MPc (M = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ag) families of molecules in contact with S–Au wires are investigated by density functional theory within the local density approximation, including local electronic correlations on the central metal atom. The magnetic moments are found to be considerably modified under fluorination. In addition, they do not depend exclusively on the configuration of the outer electronic shell of the central metal atom (as in isolated MPc and F16MPc) but also on the interaction with the leads. Good agreement between the calculated conductance and experimental results is obtained. For M = Ag, a high spin filter efficiency and conductance is observed, giving rise to a potentially high sensitivity for chemical sensor applications.

  3. Serum albumin as a vehicle for zinc phthalocyanine: photodynamic activities in solid tumour models.

    PubMed Central

    Larroque, C.; Pelegrin, A.; Van Lier, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) is a second-generation photosensitiser for the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. Unsubstituted ZnPc is, however, highly insoluble in most common solvents, and for clinical applications the material needs to be incorporated in liposomes. We report a simple, alternative procedure to formulate ZnPc through non-covalent binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA). Intravenous administration of ZnPc-BSA preparations, at a molar ratio of 11:1 and at a ZnPc dose equivalent to 0.5 mol kg-1, to tumour-bearing mice followed 24 h later by PDT was shown to provide tumour control in two different models, the EMT-6 tumour in Balb/c mice and the human colon T380 carcinoma in nude mice. Analysis of serum fractions from treated animals showed that ZnPc readily redistributes over the serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction. We also demonstrated the absence of hepatic toxicity of the ZnPc-BSA preparation by monitoring the hepatic cytochrome P450 activity in treated animals and the viability of human cultured hepatocytes. PMID:8980386

  4. Photodynamic pathogen inactivation in red cell concentrates with the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Hur, Ehud; Chan, Wai-Shun; Yim, Zachary; Zuk, Maria M.; Dayal, Vinay; Roth, Nathan; Heldman, Eli; Lazlo, A.; Valeri, C. R.; Horowitz, Bernard

    2000-03-01

    The silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4, a photosensitizer activated with red light, has been studied for pathogen inactivation in red blood cell concentrates (RBCC). Pc 4 targets the envelope of pathogenic viruses such as HIV. To protect RBC during the process two main approaches are used: 1) Inclusion of quenches of reactive oxygen species produced during treatment. Tocopherol succinate was found to be most effective for this purpose. 2) Formulation of Pc 4, a lipophilic compound, in liposomes that reduce its binding to RBC but not to viruses. As a light source we used a light emitting diode array emitting at 660-680 nm. An efficient mixing device ensures homogeneous light exposure during treatment of intact RBCC. Treatment of RBCC with 5 (mu) M Pc 4 a d light results in the inactivation of >= 5.5 log10 HIV, >= 6.6 log10 VSV, and >= 5 log10 of PRV and BVDV. Parasites that can be transmitted by blood transfusion are even more sensitive than viruses. Following treatment, RBCC can be stored for 28 days at 4 degrees C with hemolysis below 1 percent. Baboon RBC circulate with an acceptable 24 hour recovery and half-life. Genetic toxicological studies of Pc 4 with or without light exposure are negative. We conclude that a process using Pc 4 and red light can potentially reduce the risk of transmitting pathogens in RBCC used for transfusion.

  5. Liposome-like Nanostructures for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Weiwei; Hu, Che-Ming J.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Zhang, Liangfang

    2013-01-01

    Liposomes are a class of well-established drug carriers that have found numerous therapeutic applications. The success of liposomes, together with recent advancements in nanotechnology, has motivated the development of various novel liposome-like nanostructures with improved drug delivery performance. These nanostructures can be categorized into five major varieties, namely: (1) polymer-stabilized liposomes, (2) nanoparticle-stabilized liposomes, (3) core-shell lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles, (4) natural membrane-derived vesicles, and (5) natural membrane coated nanoparticles. They have received significant attention and have become popular drug delivery platforms. Herein, we discuss the unique strengths of these liposome-like platforms in drug delivery, with a particular emphasis on how liposome-inspired novel designs have led to improved therapeutic efficacy, and review recent progress made by each platform in advancing healthcare. PMID:24392221

  6. Design of liposomal formulations for cell targeting.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugénia; Gomes, Andreia C; Preto, Ana; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-12-01

    Liposomes have gained extensive attention as carriers for a wide range of drugs due to being both nontoxic and biodegradable as they are composed of substances naturally occurring in biological membranes. Active targeting for cells has explored specific modification of the liposome surface by functionalizing it with specific targeting ligands in order to increase accumulation and intracellular uptake into target cells. None of the Food and Drug Administration-licensed liposomes or lipid nanoparticles are coated with ligands or target moieties to delivery for homing drugs to target tissues, cells or subcellular organelles. Targeted therapies (with or without controlled drug release) are an emerging and relevant research area. Despite of the numerous liposomes reviews published in the last decades, this area is in constant development. Updates urgently needed to integrate new advances in targeted liposomes research. This review highlights the evolution of liposomes from passive to active targeting and challenges in the development of targeted liposomes for specific therapies. PMID:26454541

  7. Potential Tuning of Nanoarchitectures Based on Phthalocyanine Nanopillars: Construction of Effective Photocurrent Generation Systems.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Takuya; Okamura, Shota; Togashi, Takanari; Harada, Wataru; Hirahara, Mana; Miyake, Ryosuke; Haga, Masa-aki; Ishida, Takao; Kurihara, Masato; Kanaizuka, Katsuhiko

    2015-09-01

    Nanopillars composed of a photoresponsive phthalocyanine derivative have been conveniently fabricated using a continuous silane coupling reaction on a substrate. The chemical potentials of phthalocyanine nanopillars (PNs) are precisely controlled by changing the number of phthalocyanine derivatives on the substrate. In addition, photocurrent generation efficiencies have been strongly influenced by the number of phthalocyanine derivatives. High photocurrent conversion cells in a solid state have been obtained by the combination of PNs and a fullerene derivative. PMID:26288161

  8. Optical properties and recording characteristics of phthalocyanine-derivative LB films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Fuxi; Luo, Tao

    1993-08-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of tetra-neopentoxy phthalocyanine zinc and tetra-nonyl phthalocyanine copper are prepared. Their structures, optical properties, and temperature dependencies are investigated. Static optical recording tests by He-Ne laser are done in these LB films and the experimental results demonstrate that phthalocyanine derivates are useful for phase change type erasable data storage media.

  9. Continuous wasteless ecologically safe technology of propylenecarbonate production in presence of phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Afanasiev, Vladimir Vasilievich; Zefirov, Nikolai Serafimovich; Zalepugin, Dmitry Yurievich; Polyakov, Victor Stanislavovich; Tilkunova,Nataliya Alexandrovna; Tomilova, Larisa Godvigovna

    2009-09-08

    A continuous method of producing propylenecarbonate includes carboxylation of propylene oxide with carbon dioxide in presence of phthalocyanine catalyst on an inert carrier, using as the phthalocyanine catalyst at least one catalyst selected from the group consisting of not-substituted, methyl, ethyl, butyl, and tret butyl-substituted phthalocyanines of metals, including those containing counterions, and using as the carrier a hydrophobic carrier.

  10. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  15. Capacious and programmable multi-liposomal carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroslavov, Alexander A.; Sybachin, Andrey V.; Zaborova, Olga V.; Migulin, Vasiliy A.; Samoshin, Vyacheslav V.; Ballauff, Matthias; Kesselman, Ellina; Schmidt, Judith; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Menger, Fredric M.

    2015-01-01

    Spherical polycationic brushes (SPBs) were synthesized by grafting polycationic chains onto 100 nm polystyrene particles. These particles were exposed to unilamellar egg-lecithin (EL) liposomes with a mean diameter of 40 nm that had been rendered anionic via the presence of 10 molar% of phosphatidylserine (PS1-). The liposomes also contained 30 mole% of a morpholinocyclohexanol-based lipid (MOCH) that undergoes a conformational flip when the pH is decreased from 7.0 to 5.0. Mixtures of SPBs and liposomes at pH 7 gave an electrostatically-driven complex possessing, on average, about 40 liposomes for each SPB particle. It was found that the bound liposomes rapidly release much of their contents when the pH is reduced from 7.0 to 5.0 owing mostly to a MOCH conformational change that creates defects in the bilayer membrane. The drop in pH does not, however, induce a separation of the liposomes from the SPBs. Around 50-60% of the liposome contents escape before, it is reasoned, lateral and transmembrane motion of the membrane components heals the defects and prevents further release. Remarkably, the liposomes complexed with SPB release their cargo much faster than the identical but non-complexed liposomes.Spherical polycationic brushes (SPBs) were synthesized by grafting polycationic chains onto 100 nm polystyrene particles. These particles were exposed to unilamellar egg-lecithin (EL) liposomes with a mean diameter of 40 nm that had been rendered anionic via the presence of 10 molar% of phosphatidylserine (PS1-). The liposomes also contained 30 mole% of a morpholinocyclohexanol-based lipid (MOCH) that undergoes a conformational flip when the pH is decreased from 7.0 to 5.0. Mixtures of SPBs and liposomes at pH 7 gave an electrostatically-driven complex possessing, on average, about 40 liposomes for each SPB particle. It was found that the bound liposomes rapidly release much of their contents when the pH is reduced from 7.0 to 5.0 owing mostly to a MOCH conformational change that creates defects in the bilayer membrane. The drop in pH does not, however, induce a separation of the liposomes from the SPBs. Around 50-60% of the liposome contents escape before, it is reasoned, lateral and transmembrane motion of the membrane components heals the defects and prevents further release. Remarkably, the liposomes complexed with SPB release their cargo much faster than the identical but non-complexed liposomes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06037g

  16. Essential oils encapsulated in liposomes: a review.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Mirna; Charcosset, Catherine; Fessi, Hatem; Greige-Gerges, Hlne

    2013-12-01

    In the recent years there has been an increased interest toward the biological activities of essential oils. However, essential oils are unstable and susceptible to degradation in the presence of oxygen, light and temperature. So, attempts have been made to preserve them through encapsulation in various colloidal systems such as microcapsules, microspheres, nanoemulsions and liposomes. This review focuses specifically on encapsulation of essential oils into liposomes. First, we present the techniques used to prepare liposomes encapsulating essential oils. The effects of essential oils and other factors on liposome characteristics such as size, encapsulation efficiency and thermal behavior of lipid bilayers are then discussed. The composition of lipid vesicles membrane, especially the type of phospholipids, cholesterol content, the molar ratio of essential oils to lipids, the preparation method and the kind of essential oil may affect the liposome size and the encapsulation efficiency. Several essential oils can decrease the size of liposomes, homogenize the liposomal dispersions, increase the fluidity and reduce the oxidation of the lipid bilayer. Moreover, liposomes can protect the fluidity of essential oils and are stable at 4-5?C for 6 months at least. The applications of liposomes incorporating essential oils are also summarized in this review. Liposomes encapsulating essential oils are promising agents that can be used to increase the anti-microbial activity of the essential oils, to study the effect of essential oils on cell membranes, and to provide alternative therapeutic agents to treat several diseases. PMID:23879218

  17. A comparative photophysicochemical study of phthalocyanines encapsulated in core-shell silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fashina, Adedayo; Amuhaya, Edith; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-02-01

    This work presents the synthesis and characterization of a new zinc phthalocyanine complex tetrasubstituted with 3-carboxyphenoxy in the peripheral position. The photophysical properties of the new complex are compared with those of phthalocyanines tetra substituted with 3-carboxyphenoxy or 4-carboxyphenoxy at non-peripheral positions. Three phthalocyanine complexes were encapsulated within silica matrix to form a core shell and the hybrid nanoparticles particles obtained were spherical and mono dispersed. When encapsulated within the silica shell nanoparticles, phthalocyanines showed improved triplet quantum yields and singlet oxygen quantum yields than surface grafted derivatives. The improvements observed could be attributed to the protection provided for the phthalocyanine complexes by the silica matrix.

  18. A comparative photophysicochemical study of phthalocyanines encapsulated in core-shell silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fashina, Adedayo; Amuhaya, Edith; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-02-25

    This work presents the synthesis and characterization of a new zinc phthalocyanine complex tetrasubstituted with 3-carboxyphenoxy in the peripheral position. The photophysical properties of the new complex are compared with those of phthalocyanines tetra substituted with 3-carboxyphenoxy or 4-carboxyphenoxy at non-peripheral positions. Three phthalocyanine complexes were encapsulated within silica matrix to form a core shell and the hybrid nanoparticles particles obtained were spherical and mono dispersed. When encapsulated within the silica shell nanoparticles, phthalocyanines showed improved triplet quantum yields and singlet oxygen quantum yields than surface grafted derivatives. The improvements observed could be attributed to the protection provided for the phthalocyanine complexes by the silica matrix. PMID:25228037

  19. Application of Liposomes in Some Dairy Products.

    PubMed

    Khanniri, E; Bagheripoor-Fallah, N; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M; Khosravi-Darani, K; Mohammad, R

    2016-02-17

    The application of liposomes as potential carriers to deliver food components is considerably an innovative technology. While the application of liposome technology has been very limited to date, researches indicating the potential of liposomes for improving the flavor of ripened cheese using accelerated methods, the targeted delivery of functional food ingredients, the synergistic delivery of ascorbic acid and tocopherols for promoting antioxidant activity in foods, and the stabilization of minerals (such as iron) in milk have been performed. In the food industry, liposomes and nanoliposomes have been employed to encapsulate flavoring and nutritive agents, and also, they have been suitable candidates to deliver antimicrobials. In this paper, application of lipase, proteinase, nisin, and flavor-containing liposomes in products during the processing (such as cheese maturity) as well as the application of liposomes-encapsulated micronutrients (such as iron) in milk are reviewed. PMID:25574577

  20. Optical limiting of ?-octa-octyloxy-phthalocyanines for pecosecond pulses in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Duoyuan; Li, Yunjing; Nie, Yuxin

    2003-02-01

    The optical limiting performances for ?-octa-octyloxy phthalocyanines with initial linear transmission To = 88% to approximately 92% at 532 nm in a 5 mm spectroscopic cell in toluene have been measured with 35 ps pulses, in which ?-octa-octyloxy phthalocyanine free-base exhibits the strongest optical limiting ability through a reverse saturable absorption from S1 --> Sn excited singlet states with ?s1 = 4.0 x 10-17 cm2. The optical limiting thresholds are 50, 130 and 140 mJ/cm2 at T/To = 0.5 for phthalocyanine free base, nickel phthalocyanine, and lead phthalocyanine respectively. The throughput of the phthalocyanine free base is clamped down to 70 mJ/cm2 with the limiting nonlinear transmittance Tlim = 18% as the incident fluence reaching to 400 mJ/cm2. The solubility, aggregation behavior and photo-stability for ?-octa-octyloxy phthalocyanines have been studied. The solubility of the ?-octa-octyloxy phthalocyanines has an obvious improving, which dissolve in non-polar solvent more easily than in polar solvent. The aggregation equilibrium constant k = 5.6 x 103 in toluene for phthalocyanine free base is lager that in mixed solvent (k' = 1.4 x 103), which means that the ?-octa-octyloxy phthalocyanines aggregate more easily in non-polar solvent than in polar solvent through the ?-? interaction. The ?-octa-octyloxy lead phthalocyanine appeared a lower photo-stability among them.

  1. Single crystal magnetic study on ferromagnetic manganese (2) phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, S.; Gregson, A. K.; Hatfield, W. E.; Weller, R. R.

    1982-12-01

    A magnetic study has been carried out in the temperature range 1.2-25 K and magnetic field range 0 to 50 kOe on single crystals of manganese (II) phthalocyanine. At higher temperatures the magnetic properties of manganese (II) phthalocyanine exhibit chain-like characteristics which may be understood in terms of ferromagnetic Heisenberg intrachain exchange of S = 3/2 ions with a weak antiferromagnetic interchain interaction. In the ordered state, Tc, = 8.3 K, MnPc is a canted ferromagnet with easy axes of magnetization being along X1 and X3 directions. A zero-field splitting of the single ion 4A2 state of the manganese (II) ion gives rise to canted ferromagnetism which does not show complete saturation at the high field range of these experiments (50 kOe). The spin structure of manganese (II) phthalocyanine at low temperature is discussed.

  2. Bupivacaine Liposomal Versus Bupivacaine: Comparative Review

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Deirdre P.; Whalen, Karen; Guharoy, Roy; Hildreth, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bupivacaine liposomal injection was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a local anesthetic for use in management of postsurgical pain in adults. When compared to placebo, bupivacaine liposomal decreases postoperative pain and opioid use. This review examines the efficacy of bupivacaine liposomal when compared to conventional bupivacaine epinephrine using published and unpublished data provided to the FDA by the manufacturer. PMID:24958971

  3. Phthalocyanine-assisted photodynamic inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantareva, Vanya; Angelov, Ivan; Borissova, Ekaterina; Avramov, Latchezar; Kussovski, Vesselin

    2007-03-01

    The phthalocyanine zinc(II) and aluminum (III) complexes were studied to photoinactivate the bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus, methacillin-sensitive and methacillin-resistant, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one yeast Candida albicans. The binding of phthalocyanines to bacteria and fungi cells was evaluated by the means of laserinduced fluorescence technique. The fluorescent spectra of dyes (650 - 800 nm) after direct excitation (635 nm) were measured as follows: 1. for the aqua supernatants obtained after 10 min cell incubation with the respected phthalocyanines (1.6 ?mol.l -1), 2. for the washed from the unbound dye cells, and 3. for the organic extracts from the three times washed cells. Fluorescent intensities at the emission maximum (~690 nm) were compared to the spectra of the phthalocyanines in organic solutions. The phthalocyanines uptake data for bacteria and fungi were determined at different cell densities. Nevertheless the better fluorescence properties of AlPc (fluorescent quantum yield of 0.4 towards 0.3 for ZnPcs) the lower drug accumulation in microorganisms was obtained. PDI results indicated an intensive lowering of the bacterial survival of both strains of S. aureus treated with cationic ZnPcMe followed by the anionic ZnPcS, at irradiance of 100 mW cm -2 and fluence rate of 60 J cm -2. More resistant to phototreatment P. aeruginosa and morphologically complicated yeast C. albicans were successfully inactivated only with cationic ZnPcMe. These data indicate the promising future application of cationic phthalocyanine in photodynamic inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms.

  4. Photosensitizing Efficiencies Of Poryphyrins, Chlorins, And Phthalocyanines.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Kimel, Sol; Roberts, Walter G.; Berns, Michael W.

    1989-06-01

    A Clark-type microelectrode is used to measure oxygen consumption rates in laser-irradiated solutions of photosensitizer and photosensitizer-containing cells. The presence of a singlet oxygen-specific acceptor molecule, furfuryl alcohol, permits indirect determination of relative singlet oxygen generation efficiencies from oxygen consumption data. Solution and cell measurements are performed which compare photosensitizing efficiency of Photofrin-II (PII), tetraphenylporphine tetrasulfonate (TPPS4), mono-L-aspartyl chlorin e6 (MACE), and chloroaluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine (CASPc). Relative singlet oxygen generating efficiency, per-unit-weight and per-absorbed-photon, were determined to be: MACE > CASPc > TPPS4 > PII and TPPS4 > MACE > PII > CASPc, respectively. When these results are compared to oxygen consumption in photosensitizer-containing cells, differences in the order and magnitude of photosensitizing efficiencies are observed. The relative oxygen consumption rate in cells was: PII CASPc > MACE TPPS4. Additional information concerning cell killing efficiency is derived from clongenicity assays. These data indicate that consideration of singlet oxygen generating ability in solution must be considered in conjuntion with cellular assays in order to provide an in vitro estimate of photosensitizer efficacy.

  5. Controllable fabrication of copper phthalocyanine nanostructure crystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangmei; Sun, Jia; Xiao, Si; Huang, Wenglong; Tao, Shaohua; Zhang, Yi; Gao, Yongli; Yang, Junliang

    2015-06-01

    Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) nanostructure crystals, including nanoflower, nanoribbon, and nanowire, were controllably fabricated by temperature gradient physical vapor deposition (TG-PVD) through controlling the growth parameters. In a controllable growth system with carrier gas N2, nanoflower, nanoribbon, and nanowire crystals were formed in a high-temperature zone, medium-temperature zone, and low-temperature zone, respectively. They were proved to be ?-phase, coexist of ?-phase and ?-phase, and ?-phase respectively based on x-ray diffraction results. Furthermore, ultralong CuPc nanowires up to several millimeters could be fabricated by TG-PVD without carrier gas, and they were well-aligned to form large-area CuPc nanowire crystal arrays by the Langmuir-Blodgett method. The nanostructure crystals showed unusual optical absorption spectra from the ultraviolet-visible to near-infrared range, which was explained by the diffraction and scattering caused by the wavelength-sized nanostructures. These CuPc nanostructure crystals show potential applications in organic electronic and optoelectronic devices. PMID:25961155

  6. Controllable fabrication of copper phthalocyanine nanostructure crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangmei; Sun, Jia; Xiao, Si; Huang, Wenglong; Tao, Shaohua; Zhang, Yi; Gao, Yongli; Yang, Junliang

    2015-06-01

    Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) nanostructure crystals, including nanoflower, nanoribbon, and nanowire, were controllably fabricated by temperature gradient physical vapor deposition (TG-PVD) through controlling the growth parameters. In a controllable growth system with carrier gas N2, nanoflower, nanoribbon, and nanowire crystals were formed in a high-temperature zone, medium-temperature zone, and low-temperature zone, respectively. They were proved to be ?-phase, coexist of ?-phase and ?-phase, and ?-phase respectively based on x-ray diffraction results. Furthermore, ultralong CuPc nanowires up to several millimeters could be fabricated by TG-PVD without carrier gas, and they were well-aligned to form large-area CuPc nanowire crystal arrays by the Langmuir-Blodgett method. The nanostructure crystals showed unusual optical absorption spectra from the ultraviolet-visible to near-infrared range, which was explained by the diffraction and scattering caused by the wavelength-sized nanostructures. These CuPc nanostructure crystals show potential applications in organic electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  7. Capacious and programmable multi-liposomal carriers.

    PubMed

    Yaroslavov, Alexander A; Sybachin, Andrey V; Zaborova, Olga V; Migulin, Vasiliy A; Samoshin, Vyacheslav V; Ballauff, Matthias; Kesselman, Ellina; Schmidt, Judith; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Menger, Fredric M

    2015-02-01

    Spherical polycationic brushes (SPBs) were synthesized by grafting polycationic chains onto 100 nm polystyrene particles. These particles were exposed to unilamellar egg-lecithin (EL) liposomes with a mean diameter of 40 nm that had been rendered anionic via the presence of 10 molar% of phosphatidylserine (PS(1-)). The liposomes also contained 30 mole% of a morpholinocyclohexanol-based lipid (MOCH) that undergoes a conformational flip when the pH is decreased from 7.0 to 5.0. Mixtures of SPBs and liposomes at pH 7 gave an electrostatically-driven complex possessing, on average, about 40 liposomes for each SPB particle. It was found that the bound liposomes rapidly release much of their contents when the pH is reduced from 7.0 to 5.0 owing mostly to a MOCH conformational change that creates defects in the bilayer membrane. The drop in pH does not, however, induce a separation of the liposomes from the SPBs. Around 50-60% of the liposome contents escape before, it is reasoned, lateral and transmembrane motion of the membrane components heals the defects and prevents further release. Remarkably, the liposomes complexed with SPB release their cargo much faster than the identical but non-complexed liposomes. PMID:25554444

  8. Liposome adhesion generates traction stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrell, Michael P.; Voituriez, Raphal; Joanny, Jean-Franois; Nassoy, Pierre; Sykes, Ccile; Gardel, Margaret L.

    2014-02-01

    Mechanical forces generated by cells modulate global shape changes required for essential life processes, such as polarization, division and spreading. Although the contribution of the cytoskeleton to cellular force generation is widely recognized, the role of the membrane is considered to be restricted to passively transmitting forces. Therefore, the mechanisms by which the membrane can directly contribute to cell tension are overlooked and poorly understood. To address this, we directly measure the stresses generated during liposome adhesion. We find that liposome spreading generates large traction stresses on compliant substrates. These stresses can be understood as the equilibration of internal, hydrostatic pressures generated by the enhanced membrane tension built up during adhesion. These results underscore the role of membranes in the generation of mechanical stresses on cellular length scales and that the modulation of hydrostatic pressure due to membrane tension and adhesion can be channelled to perform mechanical work on the environment.

  9. Interpretation of STM images: copper-phthalocyanine on copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sautet, P.; Joachim, C.

    An interpretation of the constant-current STM image of a Cu-phthalocyanine molecule adsorbed on a Cu(100) surface is proposed based on an extension of the elastic scattering quantum chemistry (ESQC) technique to simulate STM images. After a brief description of the method, the dependence of the Cu-phthalocyanine image on the tip structure and the Fermi level is presented. The way in which atom positions of an adsorbate can be extracted from an experimental STM image using the STM-ESQC technique is also discussed.

  10. Nanoparticle Stabilized Liposomes for Acne Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Victoria

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease that affects over 40 million people in the United States alone. The main cause of acne vulgaris is Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), resides deep in the pores and follicles of the skin in order to feed on oil produced by the sebaceous glands. The liposome is a lipid based nanoparticle with numerous advantages over free drug molecules as an acne treatment alternative. Bare liposomes loaded with lauric acid (LipoLA) were found to show strong antimicrobial activity against P. acnes while generating minimal toxicity. However, the platform is limited by the spontaneous tendency of liposomes to fuse with each other. Attaching nanoparticles to the surface of liposomes can overcome this challenge by providing steric repulsion and reduce surface tension. Thus, carboxyl-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuC) were attached to the surface of liposomes (AuC-liposomes) loaded with doxycycline, a general tetracycline antibiotic. These particles were found to have a diameter of 120 nm and a zeta potential of 20.0 mV. Both fluorescent and antimicrobial studies demonstrated that based on electrostatic interaction, negatively charged AuC attached to the liposome's positively charged surface and stabilized liposomes in a neutral pH environment (pH = 7.4). Upon entering the skin's acidic environment (pH = 4), AuC detached from the liposome's surface and liposomes could fuse with P. acnes residing in the pores. Furthermore, toxicity studies showed that AuC-liposomes did not induce any significant toxicity, while two of the leading over-the-counter therapies, benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid, generated substantial skin irritation.

  11. Weak epitaxy growth and phase behavior of planar phthalocyanines on p-sexiphenyl monolayer film.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong; Yang, Junliang; Wang, Haibo; Zhu, Feng; Yan, Donghang

    2008-06-01

    We systematically investigated the weak epitaxy growth (WEG) behavior of a series of planar phthalocyanine compounds (MPc), i.e., metal-free phthalocyanine (H2Pc), nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc), copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc), iron phthalocyanine (FePc), cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc), grown on a p-sexiphenyl ( p-6P) monolayer film by selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Two types of epitaxial relations, named as incommensurate epitaxy and commensurate epitaxy, were identified between phthalocyanine compounds and the substrate of the p-6P film. The tiny variation of the lattice constant of phthalocyanine compounds can result in different crystal orientations. The change rule of incommensurate and commensurate epitaxy was extracted. The tendency of commensurate epitaxy becomes weaker as the lattice constant b increases, while it gets stronger as the substrate temperature is elevated. Large size and continuous H2Pc films can be obtained by controlling the growth conditions. The WEG method is generally applicable in the whole family of planar phthalocyanine compounds and may be used to fabricate other high-quality organic films. PMID:18461987

  12. The protein corona of circulating PEGylated liposomes.

    PubMed

    Palchetti, Sara; Colapicchioni, Valentina; Digiacomo, Luca; Caracciolo, Giulio; Pozzi, Daniela; Capriotti, Anna Laura; La Barbera, Giorgia; Lagan, Aldo

    2016-02-01

    Following systemic administration, liposomes are covered by a 'corona' of proteins, and preserving the surface functionality is challenging. Coating the liposome surface with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the most widely used anti-opsonization strategy, but it cannot fully preclude protein adsorption. To date, protein binding has been studied following in vitro incubation to predict the fate of liposomes in vivo, while dynamic incubation mimicking in vivo conditions remains largely unexplored. The main aim of this investigation was to determine whether shear stress, produced by physiologically relevant dynamic flow, could influence the liposome-protein corona. The corona of circulating PEGylated liposome was thoroughly compared with that formed by incubation in vitro. Systematic comparison in terms of size, surface charge and quantitative composition was made by dynamic light scattering, microelectrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS). Size of coronas formed under static vs. dynamic incubation did not appreciably differ from each other. On the other side, the corona of circulating liposomes was more negatively charged than its static counterpart. Of note, the variety of protein species in the corona formed in a dynamic flow was significantly wider. Collectively, these results demonstrated that the corona of circulating PEGylated liposomes can be considerably different from that formed in a static fluid. This seems to be a key factor to predict the biological activity of a liposomal formulation in a physiological environment. PMID:26607013

  13. Possible Side Effects of Liposomal Doxorubicin

    Cancer.gov

    Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Liposomal Doxorubicin (Table Version Date: October 24, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Liposomal Doxorubicin, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Hair loss Vomiting, nausea Sores in mouth and

  14. Methods for using redox liposome biosensors

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Quan; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and compositions for detecting the presence of biologically-important analytes by using redox liposome biosensors. In particular, the present invention provides liposome/sol-gel electrodes suitable for the detection of a wide variety of organic molecules, including but not limited to bacterial toxins.

  15. Excited-State Deactivation of Branched Phthalocyanine Compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huaning; Li, Yang; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Meng; Niu, Yingli; Zhang, Xinxing; Guo, Qianjin; Wang, Shuangqing; Yang, Guoqiang; Xia, Andong

    2015-12-01

    The excited-state relaxation dynamics and chromophore interactions in two phthalocyanine compounds (bis- and trisphthalocyanines) are studied by using steady-state and femtosecond transient absorption spectral measurements, where the excited-state energy-transfer mechanism is explored. By exciting phthalocyanine compounds to their second electronically excited states and probing the subsequent relaxation dynamics, a multitude of deactivation pathways are identified. The transient absorption spectra show the relaxation pathway from the exciton state to excimer state and then back to the ground state in bisphthalocyanine (bis-Pc). In trisphthalocyanine (tris-Pc), the monomeric and dimeric subunits are excited and the excitation energy transfers from the monomeric vibrationally hot S1 state to the exciton state of a pre-associated dimer, with subsequent relaxation to the ground state through the excimer state. The theoretical calculations and steady-state spectra also show a face-to-face conformation in bis-Pc, whereas in tris-Pc, two of the three phthalocyanine branches form a pre-associated face-to-face dimeric conformation with the third one acting as a monomeric unit; this is consistent with the results of the transient absorption experiments from the perspective of molecular structure. The detailed structure-property relationships in phthalocyanine compounds is useful for exploring the function of molecular aggregates in energy migration of natural photosynthesis systems. PMID:26436829

  16. Self-assembly of metal phthalocyanines modulated by different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wende; Jiang, Yuhang; Lian, Jichun; Liu, Liwei; Cheng, Zhihai; Gao, Li; Du, Shixuan; Gao, Hongjun

    2011-03-01

    The self-assembly of organic molecules on solid surfaces has made tremendous progresses due to potential applications in organic nano-devices. Among the organic molecular building blocks, metal phthalocyanines (MPcs) have been attracting considerable interests because of their novel electronic and magnetic properties. The self-assembly and physical properties of MPcs on various surfaces have been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS). In this presentation, we will report on the self-assembly of iron phthalocyanine (FePc), manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) and nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc) on Pb(111) and monolayer graphene (MG) epitaxy on Ru (0001) by means of low temperature (LT) STM. Highly ordered close-packed islands with square lattice are observed for all three kinds of MPcs growth on Pb(111), whereas regular dislocation lines are formed in the molecular islands of FePc on Pb(111). We find that the Kondo resonance of MnPc on Pb(111) is strongly location-dependant. For FePc, MnPc and NiPc growth on MG, dispersive single molecules, dispersive molecular lines and small patches of Kagome lattice are observed, respectively.

  17. Strong antiferromagnetic exchange between manganese phthalocyanine and ferromagnetic europium oxide.

    PubMed

    Wckerlin, Christian; Donati, Fabio; Singha, Aparajita; Baltic, Romana; Uldry, Anne-Christine; Delley, Bernard; Rusponi, Stefano; Dreiser, Jan

    2015-08-21

    We report on the antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between a submonolayer of Mn(II)-phthalocyanine molecules and a ferromagnetic Eu(II)-oxide thin film. The exchange energy is larger by nearly two orders of magnitude compared to previous studies involving oxidic substrates. PMID:26171839

  18. Neuronal chemotaxis by optically manipulated liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinato, G.; Lien, L. T.; D'Este, E.; Torre, V.; Cojoc, D.

    2011-08-01

    We probe chemotaxis of single neurons, induced by signalling molecules which were optically delivered from liposomes in the neighbourhood of the cells. We implemented an optical tweezers setup combined with a micro-dissection system on an inverted microscope platform. Molecules of Netrin-1 protein were encapsulated into micron-sized liposomes and manipulated to micrometric distances from a specific growth cone of a hippocampal neuron by the IR optical tweezers. The molecules were then released by breaking the liposomes with UV laser pulses. Chemotaxis induced by the delivered molecules was confirmed by the migration of the growth cone toward the liposome position. Since the delivery can be manipulated with high temporal and spatial resolution and the number of molecules released can be controlled quite precisely by tuning the liposome size and the solution concentration, this technique opens new opportunities to investigate the effect of physiological active compounds as Netrin-1 to neuronal signalling and guidance, which represents an important issue in neurobiology.

  19. Electrostatically driven complexation of liposomes with a star-shaped polyelectrolyte to low-toxicity multi-liposomal assemblies.

    PubMed

    Yaroslavov, Alexander A; Sybachin, Andrey V; Zaborova, Olga V; Pergushov, Dmitry V; Zezin, Alexander B; Melik-Nubarov, Nikolay S; Plamper, Felix A; Mller, Axel H E; Menger, Frederic M

    2014-04-01

    Anionic liposomes are electrostatically complexed to a star-shaped cationic polyelectrolyte. Upon complexation, the liposomes retain their integrity and the resulting liposome-star complexes do not dissociate in a physiological solution with 0.15?M NaCl. This provides a multi-liposomal container for possible use as a high-capacity carrier. PMID:24243764

  20. Investigation of the Qx -Qy Equilibrium in a Metal-Free Phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Baeten, Yannick; Fron, Eduard; Ruzi, Christian; Geerts, Yves Henri; Van Der Auweraer, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Phthalocyanines (Pcs) have attracted a lot of interest as small molecules for organic electronics. However, some excited-state properties of metal-free phthalocyanines, as for example, the dynamics of the transition between the nondegenerate Qx and Qy states in a metal-free phthalocyanine, have not been fully established. This effect results in a blue-shifted shoulder with low intensity in the Pc fluorescence spectrum. This shoulder was suggested to be related to emission from the more energetic Qy state. By using ultrafast femtosecond transient absorption, we have found a clear equilibrium between the Qx and Qy state of metal-free phthalocyanines in solution. PMID:26346288

  1. Liposomal nanomedicines: an emerging field.

    PubMed

    Fenske, David B; Chonn, Arcadio; Cullis, Pieter R

    2008-01-01

    Liposomal nanoparticles (LNs) encapsulating therapeutic agents, or liposomal nanomedicines (LNMs), represent one of the most advanced classes of drug delivery systems, with several currently on the market and many more in clinical trials. During the past 20 years, a variety of techniques have been developed for encapsulating both conventional drugs and the new genetic drugs (plasmid DNA-containing therapeutic genes, antisense oligonucleotides, and small, interfering RNA [siRNA]) within LNs encompassing a very specific set of properties: a diameter centered on 100 nm, a high drug-to-lipid ratio, excellent retention of the encapsulated drug, and a long (>6 hours) circulation lifetime. Particles with these properties tend to accumulate at sites of disease, such as tumors, where the endothelial layer is "leaky" and allows extravasation of particles with small diameters. Thus, LNs protect the drug during circulation, prevent it from reaching healthy tissues, and permit its accumulation at sites of disease. We will discuss recent advances in this field involving conventional anticancer drugs as well as gene-delivery, immunostimulatory, and gene-silencing applications involving the new genetic drugs. LNMs have the potential to offer new treatments in such areas as cancer therapy, vaccine development, and cholesterol management. PMID:18337218

  2. Topical and mucosal liposomes for vaccine delivery.

    PubMed

    Romero, Eder Lilia; Morilla, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    Mucosal (and in minor extent transcutanous) stimulation can induce local or distant mucosa secretory IgA. Liposomes and other vesicles as mucosal and transcutaneous adjuvants are attractive alternatives to parenteral vaccination. Liposomes can be massively produced under good manufacturing practices and stored for long periods, at high antigen/vesicle mass ratios. However, their uptake by antigen-presenting cells (APC) at the inductive sites remains as a major challenge. As neurotoxicity is a major concern in intranasal delivery, complexes between archaeosomes and calcium as well as cationic liposomes complexed with plasmids encoding for antigenic proteins could safely elicit secretory and systemic antigen-specific immune responses. Oral bilosomes generate intense immune responses that remain to be tested against challenge, but the admixing with toxins or derivatives is mandatory to reduce the amount of antigen. Most of the current experimental designs, however, underestimate the mucus blanket 100- to 1000-fold thicker than a 100-nm diameter liposome, which has first to be penetrated to access the underlying M cells. Overall, designing mucoadhesive chemoenzymatic resistant liposomes, or selectively targeted to M cells, has produced less relevant results than tailoring the liposomes to make them mucus penetrating. Opposing, the nearly 10 µm thickness stratum corneum interposed between liposomes and underlying APC can be surpassed by ultradeformable liposomes (UDL), with lipid matrices that penetrate up to the limit with the viable epidermis. UDL made of phospholipids and detergents, proved to be better transfection agents than conventional liposomes and niosomes, without the toxicity of ethosomes, in the absence of classical immunomodulators. PMID:21360692

  3. Liposome-encapsulated actinomycin for cancer chemotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Rahman, Yueh-Erh; Cerny, Elizabeth A.

    1976-01-01

    An improved method is provided for chemotherapy of malignant tumors by injection of antitumor drugs. The antitumor drug is encapsulated within liposomes and the liposomes containing the encapsulated drug are injected into the body. The encapsulated drug penetrates into the tumor cells where the drug is slowly released and induces degeneration and death of the tumor cells, while any toxicity to the host body is reduced. Liposome encapsulation of actinomycin D has been found to be particularly effective in treating cancerous abdominal tumors, while drastically reducing the toxicity of actinomycin D to the host.

  4. Spin Exchange Interaction in Substituted Copper Phthalocyanine Crystalline Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Naveen; Pan, Zhenwen; Lamarche, Cody J; Wetherby, Anthony; Waterman, Rory; Tokumoto, Takahisa; Cherian, Judy G; Headrick, Randall L; McGill, Stephen A; Furis, Madalina I

    2015-01-01

    The origins of spin exchange in crystalline thin films of Copper Octabutoxy Phthalocyanine (Cu-OBPc) are investigated using Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy. These studies are made possible by a solution deposition technique which produces highly ordered films with macroscopic grain sizes suitable for optical studies. For temperatures lower than 2?K, the contribution of a specific state in the valence band manifold originating from the hybridized lone pair in nitrogen orbitals of the Phthalocyanine ring, bears the Brillouin-like signature of an exchange interaction with the localized d-shell Cu spins. A comprehensive MCD spectral analysis coupled with a molecular field model of a ???-?d exchange analogous to sp-d interactions in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS) renders an enhanced Zeeman splitting and a modified g-factor of -4 for the electrons that mediate the interaction. These studies define an experimental tool for identifying electronic states involved in spin-dependent exchange interactions in organic materials. PMID:26559337

  5. Spin Exchange Interaction in Substituted Copper Phthalocyanine Crystalline Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Naveen; Pan, Zhenwen; Lamarche, Cody J.; Wetherby, Anthony; Waterman, Rory; Tokumoto, Takahisa; Cherian, Judy G.; Headrick, Randall L.; McGill, Stephen A.; Furis, Madalina I.

    2015-11-01

    The origins of spin exchange in crystalline thin films of Copper Octabutoxy Phthalocyanine (Cu-OBPc) are investigated using Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy. These studies are made possible by a solution deposition technique which produces highly ordered films with macroscopic grain sizes suitable for optical studies. For temperatures lower than 2?K, the contribution of a specific state in the valence band manifold originating from the hybridized lone pair in nitrogen orbitals of the Phthalocyanine ring, bears the Brillouin-like signature of an exchange interaction with the localized d-shell Cu spins. A comprehensive MCD spectral analysis coupled with a molecular field model of a ?????d exchange analogous to sp-d interactions in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS) renders an enhanced Zeeman splitting and a modified g-factor of ?4 for the electrons that mediate the interaction. These studies define an experimental tool for identifying electronic states involved in spin-dependent exchange interactions in organic materials.

  6. Copper phthalocyanine bonding with gel and their optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Haiping; Nogami, Masayuki

    2000-11-01

    (Tetracarboxyphalocyaninato)copper(II), (CuPc(COOH) 4) is incorporated in gel by a sol-gel process with using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (NH 2(CH 2) 3Si(OC 2H 5) 3, APTS) and 3-glycidoxypropl-trimethoxysilane (CH 2OCHCH 2O(CH 2) 3Si(OCH 3) 3, GPTMS) as precursors. The starting compound and the gel are in the dimer forms of copper phthalocyanine, which are identified from their UV/visible spectra. The aggregation of copper phthalocyanine dyes from sol to gel is effectively prevented by tethering them to sol-gel matrix through the reaction of CuPc(COOH) 4 on APTS. The linkage of CuPc(COOH) 4 and APTS is estimated and confirmed with FT-IR spectra. The primary optical limiting effects (OLE) of the gel induced by dimers are investigated with a frequency double Q-switched Nd 3+:YAG laser of 8 ns pulse.

  7. Colon Targeted Liposomal Systems (CTLS): Theranostic Potential.

    PubMed

    Jain, A; Jain, S K

    2015-01-01

    Colon targeted liposomal systems (CTLS) for the delivery of bioactives have been well addressed in therapeutic manifestations of colonic ailments. Number of approaches using various drug delivery systems for colon targeting has been worked out but CTLS are first time being lime lighted in this review. Although liposomes are not supposed to be suitable for colon targeting via oral route this review explicitly provides advances of CTLS using exploitable ligands such as peptides or proteins (e.g. RGD, NGR, fibronectin mimetic peptide, and transferrin), Sialyl Lewis X (SLX), low molecular weight ligand like folate, monoclonal antibodies, endostatin gene and sulfatide etc. Moreover, it is bringing forth the diagnostic (or imaging) potential of CTLS using (188)Re, (99)mTc, and (111)In, etc. This review presents nanotechnology based advances for liposome researchers engaged in design and development of colon targeted liposomes for theranostic exploration. PMID:26321756

  8. Liposomes as delivery systems for antineoplastic drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Luis Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Liposome drug formulations are defined as pharmaceutical products containing active drug substances encapsulated within the lipid bilayer or in the interior aqueous space of the liposomes. The main importance of this drug delivery system is based on its drastic reduction in systemic dose and concomitant systemic toxicity that in comparison with the free drug, results in an improvement of patient compliance and in a more effective treatment. There are several therapeutic drugs that are potential candidates to be encapsulated into liposomes; particular interest has been focused in therapeutic and antineoplastic drugs, which are characterized for its low therapeutic index and high systemic toxicity. The use of liposomes as drug carriers has been extensively justified and the importance of the development of different formulations or techniques to encapsulate therapeutic drugs has an enormous value in benefit of patients affected by neoplastic diseases.

  9. The production of copper phthalocyanine and/or its derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segawa, T.; Matsuzaki, K.; Sawada, H.; Ninomiya, R.; Suyama, M.

    1984-01-01

    This document discusses the production of copper phthalocyanine and/or its derivatives, which are useful for dye pigments. The method described uses urea, a copper compound and/or a catalyst which have been suspended in an inert reaction medium. The copper compound, catalyst and urea fused and the reaction is performed by using the obtained fusion. The advantages of the invention are listed.

  10. Decorating graphene nanosheets with electron accepting pyridyl-phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibmer, Leonie; Loureno, Leandro M. O.; Roth, Alexandra; Katsukis, Georgios; Neves, Maria G. P. M. S.; Cavaleiro, Jos A. S.; Tom, Joo P. C.; Torres, Toms; Guldi, Dirk M.

    2015-03-01

    We describe herein the preparation of novel exfoliated graphene-phthalocyanine nanohybrids, and the investigation of their photophysical properties. Pyridyl-phthalocyanines (Pcs) 1-3 are presented as novel electron accepting building blocks of variable strengths with great potential for the exfoliation of graphite via their immobilization onto the basal plane of graphene in dimethylformamide (DMF) affording single layered and turbostratic graphene based G1-G3. G1-G3 were fully characterized (AFM, TEM, Raman, steady-state and pump probe transient absorption spectroscopy) and were studied in terms of electron donor-acceptor interactions in the ground and excited states. In this context, electron transfer upon photoexcitation from graphene to the electron accepting Pcs with dynamics, for example, in G2 of <1 and 330 +/- 50 ps for charge separation and charge recombination, respectively, was corroborated in a series of steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy experiments.We describe herein the preparation of novel exfoliated graphene-phthalocyanine nanohybrids, and the investigation of their photophysical properties. Pyridyl-phthalocyanines (Pcs) 1-3 are presented as novel electron accepting building blocks of variable strengths with great potential for the exfoliation of graphite via their immobilization onto the basal plane of graphene in dimethylformamide (DMF) affording single layered and turbostratic graphene based G1-G3. G1-G3 were fully characterized (AFM, TEM, Raman, steady-state and pump probe transient absorption spectroscopy) and were studied in terms of electron donor-acceptor interactions in the ground and excited states. In this context, electron transfer upon photoexcitation from graphene to the electron accepting Pcs with dynamics, for example, in G2 of <1 and 330 +/- 50 ps for charge separation and charge recombination, respectively, was corroborated in a series of steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy experiments. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05719h

  11. Metal phthalocyanine intermediates for the preparation of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, B. N.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Metal 4, 4', 4"",-tetracarboxylic phthalocyanines (MPTC) are prepared by reaction of trimellitic anhydride, a salt or hydroxide of the desired metal (or the metal in powdered form), urea and a catalyst. A purer form of MPTC is prepared than heretofore. These tetracarboxylic acids are then polymerized by heat to sheet polymers which have superior heat and oxidation resistance. The metal is preferably a divalent metal having an atomic radius close to 1.35A.

  12. Origin of electronic transport of lithium phthalocyanine iodine crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Noritake; Oda, Masato; Shinozuka, Yuzo

    2013-12-04

    The electronic structures of Lithium Phthalocyanine Iodine are investigated using density functional theory. Comparing the band structures of several model crystals, the metallic conductivity of highly doped LiPcI{sub x} can be explained by the band of doped iodine. These results reveal that there is a new mechanism for electronic transport of doped organic semiconductors that the dopant band plays the main role.

  13. Liposomal drugs dispersed in hydrogels. Effect of liposome, drug and gel properties on drug release kinetics.

    PubMed

    Mourtas, Spyridon; Fotopoulou, Styliani; Duraj, Stela; Sfika, Vassiliki; Tsakiroglou, Christos; Antimisiaris, Sophia G

    2007-04-01

    Release of calcein and griseofulvin (GRF) from control (gels in which solutes are dissolved in) and liposomal gels was studied using agarose-assisted immobilization as a technique to separate gels from drug-receptor compartments. Liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) or distearoyl-glycero-PC and cholesterol (DSPC/Chol), and incorporating calcein or GRF were prepared by thin film hydration. After cleaning the liposomes they were dispersed in different hydrogels (carbopol 974 [1, 1.5 or 2% (w/w)], hydroxylethyl-cellulose (HEC) [4% (w/w)], or a mixture of the two), and release of calcein or GRF was followed by fluorescence or photometric technique, respectively. Results show that calcein release from liposomal gels is slower compared to control gels, and can be further retarded by using rigid-membrane liposomes (faster release from PC-liposome compared to DSPC/Chol-liposome gels). Additionally, calcein release is not affected by the lipid amount loaded (in the range from 2 to 8 mg/ml), therefore solute loading can be controlled according to needs. Oppositely, GRF release from liposomal gels is determined by drug loading. At high drug loading levels (compared to GRF aqueous solubility), GRF is released with constant rate from liposomal gels irrespective of liposome type (PC or DSPC/Chol). Thereby, for amphiphilic/lipophilic drugs, drug properties (solubility, log P) determine the system behavior. Calcein and GRF release from control carbopol gels is faster compared to HEC and mixture gels. The same is true for calcein in liposomal gels. Carbopol gel rheological properties were found to be significantly different (compared to the other gels), implying that these characteristics are important for drug diffusion from gels. PMID:17223020

  14. Phthalocyanines And Their Sulfonated Derivatives As Photosensitizers In Photodynamic Therapy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesz, Peter; Krishna, C. Murali

    1988-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of human tumors with hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) has achieved encouraging results. However, HpD is a complex mixture whose composition varies in different preparations and with time of storage. The future promise of PDT for cancer treatment depends on the development of new chemically defined sensitizers which absorb more strongly than HpD in the 600-800 nm region. A shift to higher wavelengths is desirable since it allows increased light penetration in human tissues. In vivo, these sensitizers should be non-toxic, localize selectively in tumors and generate cytotoxic species upon illumination with a high quantum yield. These damaging species may be singlet oxygen (1O2) produced by the transfer of energy from the triplet state of the sensitizer to oxygen (Type II) or superoxide anion radicals formed by electron transfer to oxygen or substrate radicals generated by electron or hydrogen transfer directly from the sensitizer (Type I). The recent work of several groups indicating that phthalocyanines and their water soluble derivatives are promising candidates for PDT is reviewed. The photophysics, photochemistry, photosensitized killing of cultured mammalian cells and the use for in vivo photodynamic therapy of phthalocyanines is outlined. Our studies of the post-illumination photohemolysis of human red blood cells as a model system for membrane photomodification sensitized by phthalocyanine sulfonates are consistent with the predominant role of 1O2 as the damaging species.

  15. Inverted methoxypyridinium phthalocyanines for PDI of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Leandro M O; Sousa, Andreina; Gomes, Maria C; Faustino, Maria A F; Almeida, Adelaide; Silva, Artur M S; Neves, Maria G P M S; Cavaleiro, José A S; Cunha, Ângela; Tomé, João P C

    2015-10-01

    Phthalocyanines (Pc) are photoactive molecules that can absorb and emit light in a large range of the UV-Vis spectrum with recognized potential for medical applications. Considering the biomedical applications an important limitation of these compounds is their low solubility in water. The use of suitable pyridinium groups on Pc is a good strategy to solve this drawback and to make them more effective to photoinactivate Gram-negative bacteria via a photodynamic inactivation (PDI) approach. Herein, an easy synthetic access to obtain inverted tetra- and octa-methoxypyridinium phthalocyanines (compounds 5 and 6) and also their efficiency to photoinactivate a recombinant bioluminescent strain of Escherichia coli is described. The obtained results were compared with the ones obtained when more conventional thiopyridinium phthalocyanines (compounds 7 and 8) were used. This innovative study comparing thiopyridinium and inverted methoxypyridinium moieties on cationic Pc is reported for the first time taking into account the efficiency of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) generation, water solubility and uptake properties. PMID:26214144

  16. Surface fractals in liposome aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo; Barnadas-Rodríguez, Ramon; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Estelrich, Joan; Callejas-Fernández, José

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the aggregation of charged liposomes induced by magnesium is investigated. Static and dynamic light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and cryotransmission electron microscopy are used as experimental techniques. In particular, multiple intracluster scattering is reduced to a negligible amount using a cross-correlation light scattering scheme. The analysis of the cluster structure, probed by means of static light scattering, reveals an evolution from surface fractals to mass fractals with increasing magnesium concentration. Cryotransmission electron microscopy micrographs of the aggregates are consistent with this interpretation. In addition, a comparative analysis of these results with those previously reported in the presence of calcium suggests that the different hydration energy between lipid vesicles when these divalent cations are present plays a fundamental role in the cluster morphology. This suggestion is also supported by infrared spectroscopy data. The kinetics of the aggregation processes is also analyzed through the time evolution of the mean diffusion coefficient of the aggregates.

  17. Surface fractals in liposome aggregation.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo; Barnadas-Rodríguez, Ramon; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Estelrich, Joan; Callejas-Fernández, José

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the aggregation of charged liposomes induced by magnesium is investigated. Static and dynamic light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and cryotransmission electron microscopy are used as experimental techniques. In particular, multiple intracluster scattering is reduced to a negligible amount using a cross-correlation light scattering scheme. The analysis of the cluster structure, probed by means of static light scattering, reveals an evolution from surface fractals to mass fractals with increasing magnesium concentration. Cryotransmission electron microscopy micrographs of the aggregates are consistent with this interpretation. In addition, a comparative analysis of these results with those previously reported in the presence of calcium suggests that the different hydration energy between lipid vesicles when these divalent cations are present plays a fundamental role in the cluster morphology. This suggestion is also supported by infrared spectroscopy data. The kinetics of the aggregation processes is also analyzed through the time evolution of the mean diffusion coefficient of the aggregates. PMID:19257067

  18. Octanol-assisted liposome assembly on chip.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Siddharth; Caspi, Yaron; Meijering, Anna E C; Dekker, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes are versatile supramolecular assemblies widely used in basic and applied sciences. Here we present a novel microfluidics-based method, octanol-assisted liposome assembly (OLA), to form monodisperse, cell-sized (5-20??m), unilamellar liposomes with excellent encapsulation efficiency. Akin to bubble blowing, an inner aqueous phase and a surrounding lipid-carrying 1-octanol phase is pinched off by outer fluid streams. Such hydrodynamic flow focusing results in double-emulsion droplets that spontaneously develop a side-connected 1-octanol pocket. Owing to interfacial energy minimization, the pocket splits off to yield fully assembled solvent-free liposomes within minutes. This solves the long-standing fundamental problem of prolonged presence of residual oil in the liposome bilayer. We demonstrate the unilamellarity of liposomes with functional ?-haemolysin protein pores in the membrane and validate the biocompatibility by inner leaflet localization of bacterial divisome proteins (FtsZ and ZipA). OLA offers a versatile platform for future analytical tools, delivery systems, nanoreactors and synthetic cells. PMID:26794442

  19. Octanol-assisted liposome assembly on chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Siddharth; Caspi, Yaron; Meijering, Anna E. C.; Dekker, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes are versatile supramolecular assemblies widely used in basic and applied sciences. Here we present a novel microfluidics-based method, octanol-assisted liposome assembly (OLA), to form monodisperse, cell-sized (5-20 μm), unilamellar liposomes with excellent encapsulation efficiency. Akin to bubble blowing, an inner aqueous phase and a surrounding lipid-carrying 1-octanol phase is pinched off by outer fluid streams. Such hydrodynamic flow focusing results in double-emulsion droplets that spontaneously develop a side-connected 1-octanol pocket. Owing to interfacial energy minimization, the pocket splits off to yield fully assembled solvent-free liposomes within minutes. This solves the long-standing fundamental problem of prolonged presence of residual oil in the liposome bilayer. We demonstrate the unilamellarity of liposomes with functional α-haemolysin protein pores in the membrane and validate the biocompatibility by inner leaflet localization of bacterial divisome proteins (FtsZ and ZipA). OLA offers a versatile platform for future analytical tools, delivery systems, nanoreactors and synthetic cells.

  20. Octanol-assisted liposome assembly on chip

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Siddharth; Caspi, Yaron; Meijering, Anna E. C.; Dekker, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes are versatile supramolecular assemblies widely used in basic and applied sciences. Here we present a novel microfluidics-based method, octanol-assisted liposome assembly (OLA), to form monodisperse, cell-sized (5–20 μm), unilamellar liposomes with excellent encapsulation efficiency. Akin to bubble blowing, an inner aqueous phase and a surrounding lipid-carrying 1-octanol phase is pinched off by outer fluid streams. Such hydrodynamic flow focusing results in double-emulsion droplets that spontaneously develop a side-connected 1-octanol pocket. Owing to interfacial energy minimization, the pocket splits off to yield fully assembled solvent-free liposomes within minutes. This solves the long-standing fundamental problem of prolonged presence of residual oil in the liposome bilayer. We demonstrate the unilamellarity of liposomes with functional α-haemolysin protein pores in the membrane and validate the biocompatibility by inner leaflet localization of bacterial divisome proteins (FtsZ and ZipA). OLA offers a versatile platform for future analytical tools, delivery systems, nanoreactors and synthetic cells. PMID:26794442

  1. Plasmon resonant liposomes for controlled drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knights-Mitchell, Shellie S.; Romanowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Nanotechnology use in drug delivery promotes a reduction in systemic toxicity, improved pharmacokinetics, and better drug bioavailability. Liposomes continue to be extensively researched as drug delivery systems (DDS) with formulations such as Doxil® and Ambisome® approved by FDA and successfully marketed in the United States. However, the limited ability to precisely control release of active ingredients from these vesicles continues to challenge the broad implementation of this technology. Moreover, the full potential of the carrier to sequester drugs until it can reach its intended target has yet to be realized. Here, we describe a liposomal DDS that releases therapeutic doses of an anticancer drug in response to external stimulus. Earlier, we introduced degradable plasmon resonant liposomes. These constructs, obtained by reducing gold on the liposome surface, facilitate spatial and temporal release of drugs upon laser light illumination that ultimately induces an increase in temperature. In this work, plasmon resonant liposomes have been developed to stably encapsulate and retain doxorubicin at physiological conditions represented by isotonic saline at 37o C and pH 7.4. Subsequently, they are stimulated to release contents either by a 5o C increase in temperature or by laser illumination (760 nm and 88 mW/cm2 power density). Successful development of degradable plasmon resonant liposomes responsive to near-infrared light or moderate hyperthermia can provide a new delivery method for multiple lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs with pharmacokinetic profiles that limit clinical utility.

  2. Copper phthalocyanine-based CMPs with various internal structures and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuesong; Han, Bao-Hang

    2015-08-18

    Several kinds of copper phthalocyanine-based conjugated microporous polymers have been synthesized, which present enhanced long-wavelength photon absorption capability and high efficiency for singlet oxygen generation under low energy light irradiation. This strategy opens a facile avenue towards expanding the scope of phthalocyanine-based porous materials with various internal structures and functionalities. PMID:26166552

  3. The preparation of organic infrared semiconductor phthalocyanine gadolinium (III) and its optical and structural characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Li-bin; Ji, Rong-bin; Song, Li-yuan; Chen, Xue-mei; Ma, Yu; Wang, Yi-feng; Qian, Ming; Song, Lei; Su, Hai-ying; Zhuang, Ji-sheng; Yang, Rui-yu

    2009-07-01

    In order to increase the species of organic infrared semiconductor, we synthesized organic infrared semiconductor phthalocyanine gadolinium by using o-phthalodinitrile and GdCl3 as reactants, ammonium molybdate as catalyzer. Under light and dark field modes of microscope, the translucency emerald-like powder of phthalocyanine gadolinium has been observed, the size of the small grain for the sample is around 5μm in diameter, the size of larger grain may reach to several tens of microns. The main vibrational peaks in FT-IR spectrum and Raman spectrum have been assigned. Elementary analysis shows that the experimental data of phthalocyanine gadolinium in the main agree with those of calculated data. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the sample indicates the sandwich-like structure of phthalocyanine gadolinium. The organic infrared semiconductor phthalocyanine gadolinium thin film on quartz substrate has been prepared with our synthesized powdered sample by using solution method. The characterizations of XRD and UV-Vis-NIR absorption have been carried out for the phthalocyanine gadolinium thin film on quartz substrate, XRD shows that phthalocyanine gadolinium diffractions occur at 2θ=6.851,8.290 and 8.820 degrees, the corresponding plane spacings (d) for the diffraction peaks are 12.8921, 10.6570, and 10.0176Å.The diffraction peaks locate at low diffraction angle, suggesting that the molecular size of the phthalocyanine gadolinium is big that causes the large spacing of crystal planes. The UV-Vis-NIR absorption of phthalocyanine gadolinium thin film on quartz substrate implies that within near infrared band there is a absorption in the 1.3~2.0μm wavelength range peaked at ca. 1.75μm, indicating the important potential application value of phthalocyanine gadolinium in the field of organic infrared optoelectronics.

  4. Liposome-entrapped plasmid DNA: characterisation studies.

    PubMed

    Perrie, Y; Gregoriadis, G

    2000-07-01

    Plasmid DNA pRc/CMV HBS (5.6 kb) (100 microg) encoding the S (small) region of hepatitis B surface antigen was incorporated by the dehydration-rehydration method into liposomes composed of 16 micromol egg phosphatidylcholine (PC), 8 micromol dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPE) and 1, 2-diodeoyl-3-(trimethylammonium)propane (DOTAP) (cationic liposomes) or phosphatidylglycerol (anionic liposomes) in a variety of molar ratios. The method, entailing mixing of small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) with the DNA, followed by dehydration and rehydration, yielded incorporation values of 95-97 and 48-54% of the DNA used, respectively. Mixing of preformed cationic liposomes with 100 microg plasmid DNA also led to high complexation values of 73-97%. As expected, the association of DNA with preformed anionic liposomes was low (9%). Further work with cationic PC/DOPE/DOTAP liposomes attempted to establish differences in the nature of DNA association with the vesicles after complexation and the constructs generated by the process of dehydration/rehydration. Several lines of evidence obtained from studies on vesicle size and zeta-potential, fluorescent microscopy and gel electrophoresis in the presence of the anion sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) indicate that, under the conditions employed, interaction of DNA with preformed cationic SUV as above, or with cationic SUV made of DOPE and DOTAP (1:1 molar ratio; ESCORT Transfection Reagent), leads to the formation of large complexes with externally bound DNA. For instance, such DNA is accessible to and can be dissociated by competing anionic SDS molecules. However, dehydration of the DNA-SUV complexes and subsequent rehydration, generates submicron size liposomes incorporating most of the DNA in a fashion that prevents DNA displacement through anion competition. It is suggested that, in this case, DNA is entrapped within the aqueous compartments, in between bilayers, presumably bound to the cationic charges. PMID:10832026

  5. A Review on Composite Liposomal Technologies for Specialized Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mufamadi, Maluta S.; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E.; Du Toit, Lisa C.; Modi, Girish; Naidoo, Dinesh; Ndesendo, Valence M. K.

    2011-01-01

    The combination of liposomes with polymeric scaffolds could revolutionize the current state of drug delivery technology. Although liposomes have been extensively studied as a promising drug delivery model for bioactive compounds, there still remain major drawbacks for widespread pharmaceutical application. Two approaches for overcoming the factors related to the suboptimal efficacy of liposomes in drug delivery have been suggested. The first entails modifying the liposome surface with functional moieties, while the second involves integration of pre-encapsulated drug-loaded liposomes within depot polymeric scaffolds. This attempts to provide ingenious solutions to the limitations of conventional liposomes such as short plasma half-lives, toxicity, stability, and poor control of drug release over prolonged periods. This review delineates the key advances in composite technologies that merge the concepts of depot polymeric scaffolds with liposome technology to overcome the limitations of conventional liposomes for pharmaceutical applications. PMID:21490759

  6. Anaphylaxis to Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, LR; Subedi, A; Shah, BK

    2014-01-01

    Liposomal doxorubicin is used for the treatment of various cancers like epithelial ovarian cancers, multiple myeloma and sarcomas. We report the first case of anaphylaxis to pegylated liposomal doxorubicin. PMID:25429486

  7. Liposomal encapsulated rhodomyrtone: a novel antiacne drug.

    PubMed

    Chorachoo, Julalak; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2013-01-01

    Rhodomyrtone isolated from the leaves of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa possesses antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities. Since rhodomyrtone is insoluble in water, it is rather difficult to get to the target sites in human body. Liposome exhibited ability to entrap both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds and easily penetrate to the target site. The present study aimed to develop a novel liposomal encapsulated rhodomyrtone formulations. In addition, characterization of liposome, stability profiles, and their antiacne activity were performed. Three different formulations of total lipid concentrations 60, 80, and 100? ? mol/mL were used. Formulation with 60? ? mol/mL total lipid (phosphatidylcholine from soybean and cholesterol from lanolin in 4?:?1, w/w) exhibited the highest rhodomyrtone encapsulation efficacy (65.47 1.7%), average particle size (209.56 4.8?nm), and ? -potential (-41.19 1.3?mV). All formulations demonstrated good stability when stored for 2 months in dark at 4C as well as room temperature. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration values of liposomal formulation against 11 clinical bacterial isolates and reference strains ranged from 1 to 4 and from 4 to 64? ? g/mL, respectively, while those of rhodomyrtone were 0.25-1 and 0.5-2? ? g/mL, respectively. The MIC and MBC values of liposome formulation were more effective than topical drugs against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PMID:23762104

  8. Surface Engineering of Liposomes for Stealth Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Okhil K.; Awasthi, Vibhudutta

    2013-01-01

    Liposomes are used as a delivery vehicle for drug molecules and imaging agents. The major impetus in their biomedical applications comes from the ability to prolong their circulation half-life after administration. Conventional liposomes are easily recognized by the mononuclear phagocyte system and are rapidly cleared from the blood stream. Modification of the liposomal surface with hydrophilic polymers delays the elimination process by endowing them with stealth properties. In recent times, the development of various materials for surface engineering of liposomes and other nanomaterials has made remarkable progress. Poly(ethylene glycol)-linked phospholipids (PEG-PLs) are the best representatives of such materials. Although PEG-PLs have served the formulation scientists amazingly well, closer scrutiny has uncovered a few shortcomings, especially pertaining to immunogenicity and pharmaceutical characteristics (drug loading, targeting, etc.) of PEG. On the other hand, researchers have also begun questioning the biological behavior of the phospholipid portion in PEG-PLs. Consequently, stealth lipopolymers consisting of non-phospholipids and PEG-alternatives are being developed. These novel lipopolymers offer the potential advantages of structural versatility, reduced complement activation, greater stability, flexible handling and storage procedures and low cost. In this article, we review the materials available as alternatives to PEG and PEG-lipopolymers for effective surface modification of liposomes. PMID:24300562

  9. Liposome-Loaded Cell Backpacks.

    PubMed

    Polak, Roberta; Lim, Rosanna M; Beppu, Marisa M; Pitombo, Ronaldo N M; Cohen, Robert E; Rubner, Michael F

    2015-12-01

    Cell backpacks, or micron-scale patches of a few hundred nanometers in thickness fabricated by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, are potentially useful vehicles for targeted drug delivery on the cellular level. In this work, echogenic liposomes (ELIPs) containing the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) are embedded into backpacks through electrostatic interactions and LbL assembly. Poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAH/PAA)n , and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/poly(styrene sulfonate) (PDAC/SPS)n film systems show the greatest ELIP incorporation of the films studied while maintaining the structural integrity of the vesicles. The use of ELIPs for drug encapsulation into backpacks facilitates up to three times greater DOX loading compared to backpacks without ELIPs. Cytotoxicity studies reveal that monocyte backpack conjugates remain viable even after 72 h, demonstrating promise as drug delivery vehicles. Because artificial vesicles can load many different types of drugs, ELIP containing backpacks offer a unique versatility for broadening the range of possible applications for cell backpacks. PMID:26616471

  10. Magnetic nanoparticles for "smart liposomes".

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yoshitaka; Mustapi?, Mislav; Ebrahimian, Haleh; Wagner, Pawel; Kim, Jung Ho; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; Horvat, Joseph; Martinac, Boris

    2015-12-01

    Liposomal drug delivery systems (LDDSs) are promising tools used for the treatment of diseases where highly toxic pharmacological agents are administered. Currently, destabilising LDDSs by a specific stimulus at a target site remains a major challenge. The bacterial mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) presents an excellent candidate biomolecule that could be employed as a remotely controlled pore-forming nanovalve for triggered drug release from LDDSs. In this study, we developed superparamagnetic nanoparticles for activation of the MscL nanovalves by magnetic field. Synthesised CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with the radius less than 10 nm were labelled by SH groups for attachment to MscL. Activation of MscL by magnetic field with the nanoparticles attached was examined by the patch clamp technique showing that the number of activated channels under ramp pressure increased upon application of the magnetic field. In addition, we have not observed any cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles in human cultured cells. Our study suggests the possibility of using magnetic nanoparticles as a specific trigger for activation of MscL nanovalves for drug release in LDDSs. PMID:26184724

  11. Water-soluble platinum phthalocyanines as potential antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Bologna, Giuseppina; Lanuti, Paola; D'Ambrosio, Primiano; Tonucci, Lucia; Pierdomenico, Laura; D'Emilio, Carlo; Celli, Nicola; Marchisio, Marco; d'Alessandro, Nicola; Santavenere, Eugenio; Bressan, Mario; Miscia, Sebastiano

    2014-06-01

    Breast cancer represents the second cause of death in the European female population. The lack of specific therapies together with its high invasive potential are the major problems associated to such a tumor. In the last three decades platinum-based drugs have been considered essential constituents of many therapeutic strategies, even though with side effects and frequent generation of drug resistance. These drugs have been the guide for the research, in last years, of novel platinum and ruthenium based compounds, able to overcome these limitations. In this work, ruthenium and platinum based phthalocyanines were synthesized through conventional techniques and their antiproliferative and/or cytotoxic actions were tested. Normal mammary gland (MCF10A) and several models of mammarian carcinoma at different degrees of invasiveness (BT474, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) were used. Cells were treated with different concentrations (5-100 ?M) of the above reported compounds, to evaluate toxic concentration and to underline possible dose-response effects. The study included growth curves made by trypan blue exclusion test and scratch assay to study cellular motility and its possible negative modulation by phthalocyanine. Moreover, we investigated cell cycle and apoptosis through flow cytometry and AMNIS Image Stream cytometer. Among all the tested drugs, tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine of platinum resulted to be the molecule with the best cytostatic action on neoplastic cell lines at the concentration of 30 ?M. Interestingly, platinum tetrasulfophtalocyanine, at low doses, had no antiproliferative effects on normal cells. Therefore, such platinum complex, appears to be a promising drug for mammarian carcinoma treatment. PMID:24699848

  12. Synthesis, characterization and spectral properties of novel zinc phthalocyanines derived from C2 symmetric diol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gk, Ya?ar; Gk, Halil Zeki

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we described the syntheses of new zinc(II) phthalocyanine compounds derived from (1R,2R)-1,2-diphenyl-1,2-ethanediol units. The phthalonitrile precursors 3 and 4 were synthesized by the reaction of 4,5-dichlorophthalonitrile with (1R,2R)-1,2-diphenyl-1,2-ethanediol. The synthesis of zinc(II) phthalocyanine 5 and zinc(II) phthalocyanine polymer 6 by cyclotetramerization of corresponding phthalonitrile derivative were accomplished in the presence of Zn(CH3CO2)2 in a Schlenk tube containing quinoline under nitrogen atmosphere. The zinc(II) phthalocyanine 5 showed enhanced solubility in various organic solvents. The aggregation behavior of phthalocyanines was investigated at different concentrations in different solvents. Both phthalocyanines were found to exist in non-aggregated form at concentrations between 10 10-6 and 1 10-6 mol dm-3. As the concentration increased to 5 10-5 mol dm-3, a deviation from ideality was observed for both phthalocyanines. The novel compounds were characterized by a combination of elemental analysis and 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, UV-Vis and MS spectral data.

  13. Magnetic interaction in oxygenated alpha Fe-phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmann, Ern?; Pechousek, Jiri; Cuda, Jan; Yin, Houping; Wei, Yen; Homonnay, Zoltn; Klencsr, Zoltn; Horvth, Attila; Machala, Libor; Kubuki, Shiro; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Zboril, Radek; Nath, Amar

    2014-10-01

    Alpha iron phthalocyanines (?-FePc) oxygenated at low temperatures were investigated with the help of 57Fe Mssbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements (SQUID) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Mssbauer spectroscopy revealed that upon oxygenation of ?-FePc, new species were formed which could be associated with FeIIIPc oxygen adducts. Unexpectedly, magnetically split spectrum of oxygenated ?-FePc was observed below 20 K. In-field Mssbauer spectra in a 5 T external magnetic field at 5K and magnetization measurements indicate antiferromagnetic coupling in oxygenated ?-FePc.

  14. Spectroscopic and microscopic investigations of phthalocyanine aggregates on Gold(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Krista Rachel Akiko

    Self-assembled organic pi systems are of interest because of their potential applications in light harvesting and electron transfer. Phthalocyanines (Pc) demonstrate desirable photonic and electronic properties, thus making them excellent candidates for functional nanostructures. The specific focus of this research has been the nanoscale aggregation of a metal-free organic dye, tetrasulfonic acid phthalocyanine (TSPc) and includes the use of UV-visible Spectroscopy, Resonance Light Scattering Spectroscopy (RLS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and ambient and ultra-high-vacuum Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS). The UV-visible absorption studies show that TSPc aggregates upon dissolution in water and obeys Beer's Law within the concentration range of 10 -7M to 10-4M, indicating that TSPc concentration has no further effect on aggregation in aqueous solution. In addition, both ionic strength in NaCl and pH changes in the presence of NaOH, HCl or acetic acid (HAc) do affect aggregation. The RSL studies confirm these effects of pH only in the presence of HAc. The XPS studies show that the ratio of non-protonated to protonated nitrogens does not change with decreasing solution pH. STM images of TSPc deposited from pH<1 solutions reveal ordered branched web-like assemblies hundreds of nanometers in length, generally 2 nm tall and having variable widths. STM imaging shows TSPc aggregates decrease in order as pH increases. STM images of TSPc deposited from solutions with pH>10 show monolayer coverage of TSPc in salt form. High-resolution UHV-STM images of TSPc aggregates deposited from pH 0 solution on Au(111) reveal detailed coherent columnar architecture with the phthalocyanine macrocycles orientated parallel to the substrate surface. OMTS was used to identify the HOMO and LUMO of the TSPc aggregates and the results are contrasted with the same molecular states in unsubstituted metallated phthalocyanines (MPc). The positions of the filled and the empty states of the TSPc are comparable to those of other unsubstituted MPc's indicating that the electronegative sulfonate substituents have minimal effect on the electronic properties of the macrocycle. The HOMO-LUMO separation of TSPc is slightly above 2 eV, a value consistent with the literature assignments for the Pc ring band gap.

  15. Polymeric gated organic field effect transistor using magnesium phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, K. R.; Menon, C. S.

    2014-10-01

    An organic thin film transistor has been fabricated using evaporated Magnesium Phthalocyanine as active layer. Parylene film prepared by chemical vapour deposition has been used as the organic gate insulator. Annealing of the samples is performed at 120 C for 3 hrs. At room temperature, these transistors exhibit the p-type conductivity with field-effect mobility ranging from 0.009 - 0.021 cm2/Vs and ( I on/I off) ratio ~103. The effect of annealing on the transistor characteristics is discussed.

  16. Photoluminescence of nitro-substituted europium (III) phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Ziminov, A. V. Polevaya, Yu. A.; Jourre, T. A.; Ramsh, S. M.; Mezdrogina, M. M.; Poletaev, N. K.

    2010-08-15

    Europium monophthalocyanine Eu(acac)Pc, europium monotetranitrophthalocyanine Eu(acac)Pc(NO{sub 2}){sub 4}, and heteroleptic europium tetranitrobisphthalocyanine Eu(Pc)(Pc(NO{sub 2}){sub 4}) are synthesized. The spectral characteristics of the phthalocyanine complexes in the visible and near-infrared regions are studied. The photoluminescence spectra are recorded. The luminescence bands are detected in the regions 450-500 nm (S{sub 2} {yields} S{sub 0}) and 670-730 nm (S{sub 1} {yields} S{sub 0}). The peaks are attributed to electronic transitions in the organic ligands.

  17. Measurements of Large Dielectric Constants in Phthalocyanine Tetramers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamam, Khalil; Burns, C. A.; Mezei, G.; Al-Amer, M.

    2011-04-01

    Understanding the dielectric constant of organic materials is important for applications including organic transistors and photovoltaics. We have measured the dielectric constant and dissipation factor of oligomer metal-phthalocyanine (MePcs) pellets. Zn and Cu based tetramers (MeC30H10N8O8)4 are water soluble materials with high dielectric constant. We investigated these materials in the frequency range 20--10^6 Hz and at temperatures up to 110 C. Both the dielectric constant and dissipation factor were found to increase strongly with temperature and to decrease with frequency.

  18. Magnetic interaction in oxygenated alpha Fe-phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmann, Ernő Homonnay, Zoltán; Horváth, Attila; Pechousek, Jiri; Cuda, Jan; Machala, Libor; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Zboril, Radek; Klencsár, Zoltán; Kubuki, Shiro; Nath, Amar

    2014-10-27

    Alpha iron phthalocyanines (α-FePc) oxygenated at low temperatures were investigated with the help of {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements (SQUID) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed that upon oxygenation of α-FePc, new species were formed which could be associated with Fe{sup III}Pc oxygen adducts. Unexpectedly, magnetically split spectrum of oxygenated α-FePc was observed below 20 K. In-field Mössbauer spectra in a 5 T external magnetic field at 5K and magnetization measurements indicate antiferromagnetic coupling in oxygenated α-FePc.

  19. Bioavailability of Polyphenol Liposomes: A Challenge Ahead

    PubMed Central

    Mignet, Nathalie; Seguin, Johanne; Chabot, Guy G.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols, including flavonoids, have long been recognized as a source of important molecules involved in the prevention of several diseases, including cancer. However, because of their poor bioavailability, polyphenols remain difficult to be employed clinically. Over the past few years, a renewed interest has been devoted to the use of liposomes as carriers aimed at increasing the bioavailability and, hence, the therapeutic benefits of polyphenols. In this paper, we review the causes of the poor bioavailability of polyphenols and concentrate on their liposomal formulations, which offer a means of improving their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The problems linked to their development and their potential therapeutic advantages are reviewed. Future directions for liposomal polyphenol development are suggested. PMID:24300518

  20. Dehydration resistance of liposomes containing trehalose glycolipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyberg, Kendra; Goulding, Morgan; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2010-03-01

    The pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has an unusual outer membrane containing trehalose glycolipids that may contribute to its ability to survive freezing and dehydration. Based on our recent discovery that trehalose glycolipids confer dehydration resistance to supported lipid monolayers (Biophys. J. 94: 4718-4724 (2008); Langmuir 25: 5193-5198, (2009)), we hypothesized that liposomes containing synthetic trehalose glycolipids may be dehydration-resistant as well. To test this, we measured the leakage of encapsulated fluorophores and larger macromolecular cargo from such liposomes subject to freeze drying. Both leakage assays and size measurements show that the liposomes are dehydration-resistant. In addition to demonstrating a possibly technologically useful encapsulation platform, our results corroborate the view that encapsulation in a trehalose-glycolipid-rich membrane is a biophysically viable route to protection of mycobacteria from environmental stresses.

  1. Light-Activated Content Release from Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Sarah J.; Romanowski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Successful integration of diagnostic and therapeutic actions at the level of individual cells requires new materials that combine biological compatibility with functional versatility. This review focuses on the development of liposome-based functional materials, where payload release is activated by light. Methods of sensitizing liposomes to light have progressed from the use of organic molecular moieties to the use of metallic plasmon resonant structures. This development has facilitated application of near infrared light for activation, which is preferred for its deep penetration and low phototoxicity in biological tissues. Presented mechanisms of light-activated liposomal content release enable precise in vitro manipulation of minute amounts of reagents, but their use in clinical diagnostic and therapeutic applications will require demonstration of safety and efficacy. PMID:23139729

  2. Photochemical decontamination of red blood cell concentrates with the silicon phthalocyanine PC 4 and red light.

    PubMed

    Ben-Hur, E; Chan, W S; Yim, Z; Zuk, M M; Dayal, V; Roth, N; Heldman, E; Lazo, A; Valeri, C R; Horowitz, B

    2000-01-01

    Various approaches are being developed for virus inactivation of red blood cell concentrates (RBCC) in order to increase the safety of the blood supply. We have been studying the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 for this purpose, a photosensitizer activated with red light. Pc 4 targets the envelope of pathogenic viruses such as HIV. To protect RBC during the process two main approaches are used: (i) inclusion of quenchers of reactive oxygen species produced during the treatment. Tocopherol succinate was found to be most effective for this purpose; (ii) formulation of Pc 4, a lipophilic compound, in liposomes that reduce its binding to RBC but not to viruses. As a light source we used a light emitting diode array emitting at 670-680 nm. An efficient mixing device ensures homogenous light exposure during treatment of intact RBCC. Treatment of 50 ml RBCC with 5 microM Pc 4 and 18 J/cm(2) light results in the inactivation of > or = 5.5 log(10) HIV, > or = 6.3 log(10), VSV and > or = 5 log(10) of PRV and BVDV. The relative sensitivities of these viruses based on the slope of virus kill versus light dose are 1.0, 1.25, 1.5 and 1.9 for HIV, VSV, PRV and BVDV, respectively. To achieve the same level of virus inactivation in 350 ml RBCC, the light dose needed is 40 J/cm(2). HIV actively replicating in CEM cells is as sensitive as cell-free and HIV in latently infected cells is 3-4 times more sensitive. Parasites that can be transmitted by blood transfusion (P. falciparum and T. cruzi) are even more sensitive than viruses. Following treatment, RBCC can be stored for 28 days at 4 degrees C with haemolysis below 1%. Previous studies under less favourable conditions showed that baboon RBC circulated with an acceptable 24 hr recovery and half-life. Genetic toxicological studies of Pc 4 with or without light exposure (mutagenicity in bacteria, mammalian cells in vitro and clastogenicity in vivo) were negative. We conclude that a process using Pc 4 and red light can potentially reduce the risk of transmitting pathogens in RBCC. PMID:10794102

  3. Liposomal boron delivery for neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Tumor cell destruction in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between (10)B and thermal neutrons. The thermal neutrons have an energy of 0.025 eV, clearly below the threshold energy required to ionize tissue components. However, neutron capture by (10)B produces lithium ion and helium (alpha-particles), which are high linear energy transfer (LET) particles, and dissipate their kinetic energy before traveling one cell diameter (5-9 microm) in biological tissues, ensuring their potential for precise cell killing. BNCT has been applied clinically for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, malignant melanoma, head and neck cancer, and hepatoma using two boron compounds: sodium borocaptate (Na(2)(10)B(12)H(11)SH; Na(2)(10)BSH) and l-p-boronophenylalanine (l-(10)BPA). These low molecular weight compounds are cleared easily from the cancer cells and blood. Therefore, high accumulation and selective delivery of boron compounds into tumor tissues are most important to achieve effective BNCT and to avoid damage of adjacent healthy cells. Much attention has been focused on the liposomal drug delivery system (DDS) as an attractive, intelligent technology of targeting and controlled release of (10)B compounds. Two approaches have been investigated for incorporation of (10)B into liposomes: (1) encapsulation of (10)B compounds into liposomes and (2) incorporation of (10)B-conjugated lipids into the liposomal bilayer. Our laboratory has developed boron ion cluster lipids for application of the latter approach. In this chapter, our boron lipid liposome approaches as well as recent developments of the liposomal boron delivery system are summarized. PMID:19913168

  4. Specific accumulation of technetium-99m radiolabelled, negative liposomes in the inflamed paws of rats with adjuvant induced arthritis: effect of liposome size.

    PubMed Central

    Love, W G; Amos, N; Kellaway, I W; Williams, B D

    1989-01-01

    Technetium-99m labelled, negatively charged liposomes accumulate in the inflamed tissue of rats with adjuvant induced arthritis. Up to 10 times more liposome accumulation was seen in inflamed paws than in paws of control rats, and this represented 5.3% of the injected liposome dose. The accumulation of liposomes in inflamed tissue was directly related to the liposome size, the maximal accumulation occurring with liposomes less than 100 nm in diameter. PMID:2930265

  5. Recent Trends of Polymer Mediated Liposomal Gene Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Soo; George Priya Doss, C.; Yagihara, Shin; Kim, Do-Young

    2014-01-01

    Advancement in the gene delivery system have resulted in clinical successes in gene therapy for patients with several genetic diseases, such as immunodeficiency diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) blindness, thalassemia, and many more. Among various delivery systems, liposomal mediated gene delivery route is offering great promises for gene therapy. This review is an attempt to depict a portrait about the polymer based liposomal gene delivery systems and their future applications. Herein, we have discussed in detail the characteristics of liposome, importance of polymer for liposome formulation, gene delivery, and future direction of liposome based gene delivery as a whole. PMID:25250340

  6. Accumulation, internalization and therapeutic efficacy of neuropilin-1-targeted liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Paoli, Eric E.; Ingham, Elizabeth S.; Zhang, Hua; Mahakian, Lisa M.; Fite, Brett Z.; Gagnon, M. Karen; Tam, Sarah; Kheirolomoom, Azadeh; Cardiff, Robert D.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in liposomal drug delivery have produced long circulating and very stable drug formulations. These formulations minimize systemic exposure; however, unfortunately, therapeutic efficacy has remained limited due to the slow diffusion of liposomal particles within the tumor and limited release or uptake of the encapsulated drug. Here, the carboxyl-terminated CRPPR peptide, with affinity for the receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP), which is expressed on both endothelial and cancer cells, was conjugated to liposomes to enhance the tumor accumulation. Using a pH sensitive probe, liposomes were optimized for specific NRP binding and subsequent cellular internalization using in vitro cellular assays. Liposomes conjugated with the carboxyl-terminated CRPPR peptide (termed C-LPP liposomes) bound to the NRP-positive primary prostatic carcinoma cell line (PPC-1) but did not bind to the NRP-negative PC-3 cell line, and binding was observed with liposomal peptide concentrations as low as 0.16 mol%. Binding of the C-LPP liposomes was receptor-limited, with saturation observed at high liposome concentrations. The identical peptide sequence bearing an amide terminus did not bind specifically, accumulating only with a high (2.5 mol%) peptide concentration and adhering equally to NRP positive and negative cell lines. The binding of C-LPP liposomes conjugated with 0.63 mol% of the peptide was 83-fold greater than liposomes conjugated with the amide version of the peptide. Cellular internalization was also enhanced with C-LPP liposomes, with 80% internalized following 3hr incubation. Additionally, fluorescence in the blood pool (~40% of the injected dose) was similar for liposomes conjugated with 0.63 mol% of carboxyl-terminated peptide and non-targeted liposomes at 24 hr after injection, indicating stable circulation. Prior to doxorubicin treatment, in vivo tumor accumulation and vascular targeting were increased for peptide-conjugated liposomes compared to non-targeted liposomes based on confocal imaging of a fluorescent cargo, and the availability of the vascular receptor was confirmed with ultrasound molecular imaging. Finally, over a 4-week course of therapy, tumor knockdown resulting from doxorubicin-loaded, C-LPP liposomes was similar to non-targeted liposomes in syngeneic tumor-bearing FVB mice and C-LPP liposomes reduced doxorubicin accumulation in the skin and heart and eliminated skin toxicity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that a carboxyl-terminated RXXR peptide sequence, conjugated to liposomes at a concentration of 0.63 mol%, retains long circulation but enhances binding and internalization, and reduces toxicity. PMID:24434424

  7. [Determination of content and entrapment efficiency of clindamycin phosphate liposome].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weihua; Zhang, Yangde; He, Jiantai

    2009-06-01

    This study was conducted to prepare and determine the content and entrapment efficiency of Clindamycin Phosphate liposome. Evaporating and Ultrasound method was used for preparing Clindamycin Phosphate liposome. HPLC was used for determining the concentration and the entrapment efficiency of Clindamycin Phosphate liposome. The results indicated that Clindamycin Phosphate had a good linear relation in a range of 5.0-50.0 microg/ml. The entrapment efficiency of Clindamycin Phosphate liposome in three groups reached 52.26%, 50.13%, 53.75% respectively. Accordingly, the technique of preparing Clindamycin Phosphate liposome was noted to be feasible, and the method of quality control was shown simple and accurate. PMID:19634674

  8. Microfluidic-Enabled Liposomes Elucidate Size-Dependent Transdermal Transport

    PubMed Central

    Junqueira, Mariana; Vreeland, Wyatt N.; Quezado, Zenaide; Finkel, Julia C.; DeVoe, Don L.

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic synthesis of small and nearly-monodisperse liposomes is used to investigate the size-dependent passive transdermal transport of nanoscale lipid vesicles. While large liposomes with diameters above 105 nm are found to be excluded from deeper skin layers past the stratum corneum, the primary barrier to nanoparticle transport, liposomes with mean diameters between 31–41 nm exhibit significantly enhanced penetration. Furthermore, multicolor fluorescence imaging reveals that the smaller liposomes pass rapidly through the stratum corneum without vesicle rupture. These findings reveal that nanoscale liposomes with well-controlled size and minimal size variance are excellent vehicles for transdermal delivery of functional nanoparticle drugs. PMID:24658111

  9. Recent trends of polymer mediated liposomal gene delivery system.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Shyamal Kumar; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Lee, Sang-Soo; Sharma, Garima; Doss, C George Priya; Yagihara, Shin; Kim, Do-Young; Nam, Ju-Suk; Chakraborty, Chiranjib

    2014-01-01

    Advancement in the gene delivery system have resulted in clinical successes in gene therapy for patients with several genetic diseases, such as immunodeficiency diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) blindness, thalassemia, and many more. Among various delivery systems, liposomal mediated gene delivery route is offering great promises for gene therapy. This review is an attempt to depict a portrait about the polymer based liposomal gene delivery systems and their future applications. Herein, we have discussed in detail the characteristics of liposome, importance of polymer for liposome formulation, gene delivery, and future direction of liposome based gene delivery as a whole. PMID:25250340

  10. Application of fluorescence labeled liposome nanoparticles in the cell imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jianbing; Li, Huimin; He, Xiaoxiao; Gong, Ping; Wang, Kemin; Zhang, Shouchun

    2007-05-01

    Fluorescence labeled liposome nanoparticles were prepared by dispersion of film method. The size of nanoparticles was around 50 nm. DPPE-FITC synthesized in our lab was used to label the liposome nanoparticles. Anti-cytokeratins 19 antibody was connected to the surface of the fluorescence liposome nanoparticles. After incubation with MGC cells and COS-7 cells for 30 min, MGC cells were selectively recognized by anti-cytokeratins 19 antibody modified liposome nanoparticles and well imaged under laser confocal microscope. This fluorescence labeled liposome nanoparticles is expected to have good applications in cell recognition and tumor diagnosis.

  11. Stabilization of retinol through incorporation into liposomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Cheol; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Hwang, Yong-Il; Ludescher, Richard D

    2002-07-31

    Chemical and photochemical processes during storage and preparation rapidly degrade retinol, the most active form of vitamin A. Therefore, the efficacy of incorporation into liposomes in order to modulate the kinetics of retinol degradation was investigated. Retinol was readily incorporated into multilamellar liposomes that were prepared from soybean phosphatidylcholine; the extent of the incorporation was 98.14 +/- 0.93% at pH 9.0 at a ratio of 0.01 : 1 (wt : wt) retinol : phospholipid. It was only marginally lower at higher retinol concentrations. The pH of the hydration buffer had a small effect. The incorporation efficiency ranged from 99.25 +/- 0.47% at pH 3 to 97.45 +/- 1.13% at pH 11. The time course of the retinol degradation in the aqueous solution in liposomes was compared to that of free retinol and free retinol with alpha-tocopherol under a variety of conditions of pH (3, 7, and 11), temperature (4, 25, 37, and 50 degrees ), and light exposure (dark, visible, and UV). The retinol that was incorporated into the liposomes degraded significantly slower than the free retinol or retinol with alpha-tocopherol at pH 7 and 11. At pH 3, where the free retinol degrades rapidly, the degradation kinetics were similar in liposomes and the presence of alpha-tocopherol. At pH 7.0 and 4 degrees in the light, for example, free aqueous retinol was completely degraded within 2 days, while only 20% of the retinol in the liposomes were degraded after 8 days. In general, the protective effect of the liposome incorporation was greater at low temperatures, at neutral and high pH, and in the dark. The results suggest that protection is greater in the solid, gel phase than in the fluid liquid crystalline phase lipids. These results indicate that the incorporation into liposomes can extend the shelf-life of retinol under a variety of conditions of temperature, pH, and ambient light conditions. PMID:12296993

  12. Liposomal contrast agents in brain tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Ghaghada, Ketan B; Colen, Rivka R; Hawley, Catherine R; Patel, Neil; Mukundan, Srinivasan

    2010-08-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme remains a major challenge despite advances in standard therapy, including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. The field of nanomedicine is expected to have a major impact on the treatment and management of brain tumors. Over the past decade, significant efforts have been made in using nanoparticles for diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors. One class of nanoparticles, liposomes, have received considerable attention for use as nanocarriers for delivery of therapeutics and contrast agents. The purpose of this article is to present the advances in the design and functional characteristics of liposomes for applications in brain tumor imaging. PMID:20708552

  13. Unprecedented Phthalocyanines Bearing Eight Di-butylamino Peripheral Substituents: Synthesis, Spectroscopy, and Structure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuxiang; Cao, Wei; Wang, Kang; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2015-10-19

    Unprecedented 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis(di-butylamino)phthalocyanine compounds M{Pc[N(C4H9)2]8} (M = 2H, Mg, Cu, Zn) (1-4) were prepared and structurally characterized on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, representing the first structurally characterized alkylamino-substituted phthalocyanine examples. These novel phthalocyanine derivatives have also been characterized by a wide range of spectroscopic methods including MALDI-TOF mass spectra, NMR, electronic absorption, and IR spectroscopy in addition to elemental analysis. Their electrochemistry was also studied by cyclic voltammetry. PMID:26436994

  14. Application of phthalocyanines in flow- and sequential-injection analysis and microfluidics systems: A review.

    PubMed

    van Staden, Jacobus Koos Frederick

    2015-07-01

    Phthalocyanines and metallophthalocyanines play a very important role in the metabolism of living organisms through biological pigments or biochromes and are therefore also employed in numerous applications in analytical chemistry. In flow-, and sequential-injection analysis and microfluidic systems the role of phthalocyanines and metallophthalocyanines is centered as either that of analyte or that of a reagent or modifier in the determination of other species. This paper covers the attributes of phthalocyanines and metallophthalocyanines complexes as enhancements in chemical analysis in flow- and sequential injection analysis and microfluidic systems and points out the advantages and disadvantages in the implementation thereof. PMID:25882411

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on axially ligated phosphorus-phthalocyanine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Azwar; Shivashimpi, Gururaj M.; Nishimura, Terumi; Fujikawa, Naotaka; Ogomi, Yuhei; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Pandey, Shyam S.; Ma, Tingli; Hayase, Shuzi

    2015-04-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells with axially anchored phosphorous-phthalocyanine dyes were fabricated for the first time. Although the phosphorus-phthalocyanine dyes do not have a conventional anchoring group (-COOH), these dyes could be absorbed on a TiO2 semiconductor surface. After the optimization of energy levels, a 24% incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) was observed at 710 nm with an IPCE curve edge of 800 nm. The efficiency was 2.67%, which was higher than those of previously reported dye-sensitized solar cells with axially anchored phthalocyanine dyes (less than 1%).

  16. Titanium and Ruthenium Phthalocyanines for NO(2) Sensors: A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Anna Maria; Pennesi, Giovanna; Rossi, Gentilina; Generosi, Amanda; Paci, Barbara; Albertini, Valerio Rossi

    2009-01-01

    This review presents studies devoted to the description and comprehension of phenomena connected with the sensing behaviour towards NO(2) of films of two phthalocyanines, titanium bis-phthalocyanine and ruthenium phthalocyanine. Spectroscopic, conductometric, and morphological features recorded during exposure to the gas are explained and the mechanisms of gas-molecule interaction are also elucidated. The review also shows how X-ray reflectivity can be a useful tool for monitoring morphological parameters such as thickness and roughness that are demonstrated to be sensitive variables for monitoring the exposure of thin films of sensor materials to NO(2) gas. PMID:22346697

  17. Titanium and Ruthenium Phthalocyanines for NO2 Sensors: A Mini-Review

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, Anna Maria; Pennesi, Giovanna; Rossi, Gentilina; Generosi, Amanda; Paci, Barbara; Albertini, Valerio Rossi

    2009-01-01

    This review presents studies devoted to the description and comprehension of phenomena connected with the sensing behaviour towards NO2 of films of two phthalocyanines, titanium bis-phthalocyanine and ruthenium phthalocyanine. Spectroscopic, conductometric, and morphological features recorded during exposure to the gas are explained and the mechanisms of gas-molecule interaction are also elucidated. The review also shows how X-ray reflectivity can be a useful tool for monitoring morphological parameters such as thickness and roughness that are demonstrated to be sensitive variables for monitoring the exposure of thin films of sensor materials to NO2 gas. PMID:22346697

  18. Quick self-healing and thermo-reversible liposome gel.

    PubMed

    Rao, Zhi; Inoue, Motoki; Matsuda, Miyuki; Taguchi, Tetsushi

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembled liposome gel from liposome and cholesterol-end capped polyethylene glycol, was systematically investigated by rheological method, especially in the aspect of its recovery ability upon either mechanical deformation or temperature change. The liposome gel was found to have rheological behavior similar to that of Maxwell model. The dynamic shear modulus of the liposome gel was dependent on both the liposome concentration and the polymer concentration. At low liposome concentration range (5-20 mM), dynamic shear modulus decreased considerably with the liposome concentration, implying the decrease of effective cross-linking density inside gel network due to the addition of liposome. The liposome gel network had a fast, self-healing ability even after high deformation, and the injectability of the gel was confirmed by injection experiment in vitro. The liposome gel also exhibited temperature stimuli responsive behavior and thermo-reversibility. Dynamic light scattering studies proved that the particle size of liposome remained almost unchanged before and after the addition of the polymer. PMID:20855187

  19. Overcoming cellular and tissue barriers to improve liposomal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohli, Aditya G.

    Forty years of liposome research have demonstrated that the anti-tumor efficacy of liposomal therapies is, in part, driven by three parameters: 1) liposome formulation and lipid biophysics, 2) accumulation and distribution in the tumor, and 3) release of the payload at the site of interest. This thesis outlines three studies that improve on each of these delivery steps. In the first study, we engineer a novel class of zwitterlipids with an inverted headgroup architecture that have remarkable biophysical properties and may be useful for drug delivery applications. After intravenous administration, liposomes accumulate in the tumor by the enhanced permeability and retention effect. However, the tumor stroma often limits liposome efficacy by preventing distribution into the tumor. In the second study, we demonstrate that depletion of hyaluronan in the tumor stroma improves the distribution and efficacy of DoxilRTM in murine 4T1 tumors. Once a liposome has distributed to the therapeutic site, it must release its payload over the correct timescale. Few facile methods exist to quantify the release of liposome therapeutics in vivo. In the third study, we outline and validate a simple, robust, and quantitative method for tracking the rate and extent of release of liposome contents in vivo. This tool should facilitate a better understanding of the pharmacodynamics of liposome-encapsulated drugs in animals. This work highlights aspects of liposome behavior that have prevented successful clinical translation and proposes alternative approaches to improve liposome drug delivery.

  20. Characterisation of gene delivery using liposomal bubbles and ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshima, Risa; Suzuki, Ryo; Oda, Yusuke; Hirata, Keiichi; Nomura, Tetsuya; Negishi, Yoichi; Utoguchi, Naoki; Kudo, Nobuki; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2011-09-01

    The combination of nano/microbubbles and ultrasound is a novel technique for a non-viral gene deliver. We have previously developed novel ultrasound sensitive liposomes (Bubble liposomes) which contain the ultrasound imaging gas perfluoropropane. In this study, Bubble liposomes were compared with cationic lipid (CL)-DNA complexes as potential gene delivery carriers into tumors in vivo. The delivery of genes by bubble liposomes depended on the intensity of the applied ultrasound. The transfection efficiency plateaued at 0.7 W/cm2 ultrasound intensity. Bubble liposomes efficiently transferred genes into cultured cells even when the cells were exposed to ultrasound for only 1 s. In addition, bubble liposomes were able to introduce the luciferase gene more effectively than CL-DNA complexes into mouse ascites tumor cells. We conclude that the combination of Bubble liposomes and ultrasound is a good method for gene transfer in vivo.

  1. Potential Effect of Liposomes and Liposome-Encapsulated Botulinum Toxin and Tacrolimus in the Treatment of Bladder Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Janicki, Joseph J; Chancellor, Michael B; Kaufman, Jonathan; Gruber, Michele A; Chancellor, David D

    2016-01-01

    Bladder drug delivery via catheter instillation is a widely used treatment for recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. Intravesical instillation of liposomal botulinum toxin has recently shown promise in the treatment of overactive bladder and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, and studies of liposomal tacrolimus instillations show promise in the treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis. Liposomes are lipid vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surrounding an aqueous core that can encapsulate hydrophilic and hydrophobic drug molecules to be delivered to cells via endocytosis. This review will present new developments on instillations of liposomes and liposome-encapsulated drugs into the urinary bladder for treating lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:26999210

  2. Paramagnetic liposomes: inner versus outer membrane relaxivity of DPPC liposomes incorporating lipophilic gadolinium complexes.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Sophie; Elst, Luce Vander; Thirifays, Coralie; Muller, Robert N

    2008-04-15

    Proton relaxometric properties of unilamellar DPPC liposomes embedding an amphiphilic paramagnetic chelate (Gd-DTPA-BC(14)A) in both layers of the phospholipid membrane or only in the external one are compared. The results show that the membrane's water permeability is able to quench the effect of the paramagnetic complexes located in the internal layer of DPPC liposomes, leading thus to an apparent lower global relaxivity. PMID:18338913

  3. Electrophoretic deposition of phthalocyanine in organic solutions containing trifluoroacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Nabeen K; Kohn, Hideki; Imamura, Mitsuharu; Irie, Kazunobu; Ogihara, Hitoshi; Saji, Tetsuo

    2010-11-16

    The absorption spectra of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) solutions containing trifluoroacetic acid (TFAA) shows that the number of protons coordinating to the CuPc molecule was 1 and 2 for the first and second proton adducts, respectively, which indicates the formations of CuPcH(+) and CuPcH(2)(2+). This CuPc molecule may act as a catalyst to dissociate TFAA into trifluoroacetate anion (A(-)) and H(+) and form the proton adducts. The electrical conductivity dependence of the solution on CuPc concentration also supports this mechanism. A dense film of CuPc was deposited on an indium tin oxide cathode plate by electrophoresis of the solution. Similar dense films of a wide variety of phthalocyanines (MPc; M = Cu, H(2), Fe, Ni, Zn, Pb, VO) were also deposited using this method. Similar films of CuPc were also formed using dichloromethane (DCM) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE) in place of DCE. Depositions are ascribed to the migration of positively charged monomers (i.e., protonated MPc). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these films are composed of fibrous crystallites, size of which was found to increase with the electrophoresis time, the strength of the applied electrical field and the concentration of CuPc in the bath. The influence of the dielectric constant of the organic solvent on the film growth is discussed. PMID:20886893

  4. Spin Exchange Interaction in Substituted Copper Phthalocyanine Crystalline Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Naveen; Pan, Zhenwen; Lamarche, Cody J.; Wetherby, Anthony; Waterman, Rory; Tokumoto, Takahisa; Cherian, Judy G.; Headrick, Randall L.; McGill, Stephen A.; Furis, Madalina I.

    2015-01-01

    The origins of spin exchange in crystalline thin films of Copper Octabutoxy Phthalocyanine (Cu-OBPc) are investigated using Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy. These studies are made possible by a solution deposition technique which produces highly ordered films with macroscopic grain sizes suitable for optical studies. For temperatures lower than 2 K, the contribution of a specific state in the valence band manifold originating from the hybridized lone pair in nitrogen orbitals of the Phthalocyanine ring, bears the Brillouin-like signature of an exchange interaction with the localized d-shell Cu spins. A comprehensive MCD spectral analysis coupled with a molecular field model of a σπ − d exchange analogous to sp-d interactions in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS) renders an enhanced Zeeman splitting and a modified g-factor of −4 for the electrons that mediate the interaction. These studies define an experimental tool for identifying electronic states involved in spin-dependent exchange interactions in organic materials. PMID:26559337

  5. Rational Design of a Zinc Phthalocyanine Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Mutter, Andrew C.; Norman, Jessica A.; Tiedemann, Michael T.; Singh, Sunaina; Sha, Sha; Morsi, Sara; Ahmed, Ismail; Stillman, Martin J.; Koder, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Phthalocyanines have long been used as primary donor molecules in synthetic light-powered devices due to their superior properties when compared to natural light activated molecules such as chlorophylls. Their use in biological contexts, however, has been severely restricted due to their high degree of self-association, and its attendant photoquenching, in aqueous environments. To this end we report the rational redesign of a de novo four helix bundle di-heme binding protein into a heme and Zinc(II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc) dyad in which the ZnPc is electronically and photonically isolated. The redesign required transformation of the homodimeric protein into a single chain four helix bundle and the addition of a negatively charge sulfonate ion to the ZnPc macrocycle. To explore the role of topology on ZnPc binding two constructs were made and the resulting differences in affinity can be explained by steric interference of the newly added connecting loop. Singular binding of ZnPc was verified by absorption, fluorescence, and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy. The engineering guidelines determined here, which enable the simple insertion of a monomeric ZnPc binding site into an artificial helical bundle, are a robust starting point for the creation of functional photoactive nanodevices. PMID:23827257

  6. Properties of liposomal membranes containing lysolecithin.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, T; Inoue, K; Nojima, S

    1976-06-01

    Liposomes have been prepared with lysolecithin (1-acyl-sn-3-glycerylphosphorylcholine), egg lecithin (3-sn-phosphatidylcholine), dicetyl phosphate, and cholesterol. The ability to function as a barrier to the diffusion of glucose marker and the sensitivities of the liposomes to hypotonic treatment and other reagents which modified the permeability were examined. Generally, lysolecithin incorporation decreased the effectiveness of the membranes as a barrier to glucose and made the membranes more "osmotically fragile." Cholesterol incorporation counteracted the effect of incorporated lysolecithin. The more cholesterol incorporated into liposomes, the more lysolecthin could be incorporated into the membrane without loss of function as a barrier. With more than 50 mole% of colesterol, lysolecithin alone could form membranes which were practically impermeable to glucose. The hemolytic activity of lysolecithin was affected by mixing with various lecithins or cholesterol. Liposomes containing lysolecithin, which have the ability to trap glucose marker, showed poor hemolytic activity, while lipid micelles with lysolecithin (which could trap little glucose) showed almost the same hemolytic activity as lysolecithin itself. There seems to be a close correlation between hemolytic activity and barrier function of lipid micelles. PMID:986392

  7. Highly positive-charged zinc(II) phthalocyanine as non-aggregated and efficient antifungal photosensitizer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing-Shu; Guo, Jun; Zhuang, Jing-Jing; Zheng, Bi-Yuan; Ke, Mei-Rong; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2015-06-01

    A new tetra-α-substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine containing dodeca-amino groups (compound 4) and its quaternized analogue (compound 5) have been prepared and evaluated for their photoactivities against Candida albicans. Compared with the dodeca-amino phthalocyanine 4, the dodeca-cationic phthalocyanine 5 exhibits a higher photodynamic inactivation against C. albicans with an IC90 value down to 1.46 μM, which can be attributed to its non-aggregated nature in aqueous environments and more efficient cellular uptake. More interestingly, 5 shows a higher photodynamic inactivation on C. albicans due to its stronger affinity to C. albicans cells than mammalian cells. These results suggest that the highly positive-charged phthalocyanine 5 is a potential non-aggregated antifungal photosensitizer, which shows some selectivity toward the fungus. PMID:25911302

  8. Influence of different peripheral substituents on the nonlinear optical properties of cobalt phthalocyanine core

    SciTech Connect

    Derkowska, B.; Wojdyla, M.; Bala, W.; Jaworowicz, K.; Karpierz, M.; Grote, James G.; Krupka, O.; Kajzar, F.; Sahraoui, B.

    2007-04-15

    In this article, we show how the substituting different peripheral substituents around the cobalt phthalocyanine core correlate with nonlinear optical properties. We present the results on nonlinear optical properties of solution of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc), cobalt phthalocyanine with DNA-CTMA surfactant complex (CoPc-DNA-CTMA), and cobalt phthalocyanine with liquid crystal (CoPc-LC) measured by degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) method at the 532 nm wavelength region. We found that the values of third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility ({chi}{sup <3>}) of CoPc-LC and CoPc-DNA-CTMA increase in comparison with the value of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of CoPc. We supposed that this is caused by increase of the charge-transfer effects and of the dipole moments of the molecule with the increase of the chain length.

  9. Thin films prepared by simultaneous deposition of copper and free-base phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fejfar, A.; Takaoka, G.; Yamada, I.

    1993-09-01

    Composite films of metals and dielectrics attracted considerable attention in the past for their novel optical and mechanical properties which can be tailored precisely by changing their structure and composition. In this work we present a probe into a related but hitherto unexplored field of composites where metal is combined with molecular semiconductor. As model materials we chose free-base phthalocyanine and copper. Films were prepared by simultaneous deposition of copper and free-base phthalocyanine in the dual ICB system. An answer to two basic questions was sought after: 1) does the copper combine with freebase phthalocyanine to form a copper phthalocyanine complex, 2) what is the structure of the films if there is non-stoichiometric surplus of copper in the films? We report results of structural study by a transmission electron microscope. Optical behaviour of the composite was characterized by optical reflectance and transmittance measurement in UV/VIS/NIR range and complemented by FT IR spectra.

  10. Synthesis, spectral and magnetic susceptibility studies on tetrachloro metal(II)phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somashekarappa, M. P.; Venugopala Reddy, K. R.; Harish, M. N. K.; Keshavayya, J.

    2005-10-01

    The present paper describes a simple method for the synthesis of symmetrically substituted 1,8,15,22-tetrachloro phthalocyanines of copper, cobalt, nickel and zinc. The title complexes are synthesized from the corresponding tetraamino metal phthalocyanines by modified Sandmeyers method and in turn the tetraamino metal phthalocyanines are prepared from 3-nitrophthalic acid. The bluish-green coloured tetrachloro metal phthalocyanine complexes are characterized by elemental, electronic, IR, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray powder diffraction studies to check the purity and the structural integrity. The magnetic susceptibility studies revealed that, the experimental values are higher than that of the spin only value magnetic moment, and the presence of intermolecular co-operative effects.

  11. Heteroleptic naphthalo-phthalocyaninates of lutetium: synthesis and spectral and conductivity properties.

    PubMed

    Dubinina, Tatiana V; Kosov, Anton D; Petrusevich, Elizaveta F; Maklakov, Sergey S; Borisova, Nataliya E; Tomilova, Larisa G; Zefirov, Nikolay S

    2015-05-01

    Novel heteroleptic naphthalo-phthalocyaninates of lutetium possessing a symmetrical substituted naphthalocyanine deck were synthesized on the basis of two preformed synthetic blocks: naphthalocyanine ligand and lutetium phthalocyaninates. The compounds obtained were characterized by (1)H NMR and high-resolution MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. The correlation between the nature of the substituents and the spectral properties of the target complexes was determined by the introduction of electron-donating (aryl-, aryloxy-) or electron-withdrawing (chloro-) substituents into the phthalocyanine deck. In addition, the nature of peripheral substituents was shown not to affect drastically the phthalocyanine conductivity and activation energy. Conductivity properties depend on thin film morphology which, in turn, relies on intermolecular ?-? interactions. PMID:25826576

  12. Modeling the interactions of phthalocyanines in water: From the Cu(II)-tetrasulphonate to the metal-free phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martn, Elisa I.; Martnez, Jose M.; Marcos, Enrique Snchez

    2011-01-01

    A quantum and statistical study on the effects of the ions Cu^{2+} and SO3- in the solvent structure around the metal-free phthalocyanine (H2Pc) is presented. We developed an ab initio interaction potential for the system CuPc-H2O based on quantum chemical calculations and studied its transferability to the H2Pc-H2O and [CuPc(SO3)4]^{4-}-H2O interactions. The use of the molecular dynamics technique allows the determination of energetic and structural properties of CuPc, H2Pc, and [CuPc(SO3)4]^{4-} in water and the understanding of the keys for the different behaviors of the three phthalocyanine (Pc) derivatives in water. The inclusion of the Cu^{2+} cation in the Pc structure reinforces the appearance of two axial water molecules and second-shell water molecules in the solvent structure, whereas the presence of SO3{}^- anions implies a well defined hydration shell of about eight water molecules around them making the macrocycle soluble in water. Debye-Waller factors for axial water molecules have been obtained in order to examine the potential sensitivity of the extended x-ray absorption fine structure technique to detect the axial water molecules.

  13. Nanocomposite liposomes containing quantum dots and anticancer drugs for bioimaging and therapeutic delivery: a comparison of cationic, PEGylated and deformable liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Chih-Jen; Sung, Calvin T.; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A.; Huang, Yu-Jie; Fang, Jia-You

    2013-08-01

    Multifunctional liposomes loaded with quantum dots (QDs) and anticancer drugs were prepared for simultaneous bioimaging and drug delivery. Different formulations, including cationic, PEGylated and deformable liposomes, were compared for their theranostic efficiency. We had evaluated the physicochemical characteristics of these liposomes. The developed liposomes were examined using experimental platforms of cytotoxicity, cell migration, cellular uptake, in vivo melanoma imaging and drug accumulation in tumors. The average size of various nanocomposite liposomes was found to be 92-134 nm. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of QDs within liposomal bilayers. The incorporation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Span 20 into the liposomes greatly increased the fluidity of the bilayers. The liposomes provided sustained release of camptothecin and irinotecan. The cytotoxicity and cell migration assay demonstrated superior activity of cationic liposomes compared with other carriers. Cationic liposomes also showed a significant fluorescence signal in melanoma cells after internalization. The liposomes were intratumorally administered to a melanoma-bearing mouse. Cationic liposomes showed the brightest fluorescence in tumors, followed by classical liposomes. This signal could last for up to 24 h for cationic nanosystems. Intratumoral accumulation of camptothecin from free control was 35 nmol g-1 it could be increased to 50 nmol g-1 after loading with cationic liposomes. However, encapsulation of irinotecan into liposomes did not further increase intratumoral drug accumulation. Cationic liposomes were preferable to other liposomes as nanocarriers in both bioimaging and therapeutic approaches.

  14. Liposomal Encapsulated Rhodomyrtone: A Novel Antiacne Drug

    PubMed Central

    Chorachoo, Julalak; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P.

    2013-01-01

    Rhodomyrtone isolated from the leaves of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa possesses antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities. Since rhodomyrtone is insoluble in water, it is rather difficult to get to the target sites in human body. Liposome exhibited ability to entrap both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds and easily penetrate to the target site. The present study aimed to develop a novel liposomal encapsulated rhodomyrtone formulations. In addition, characterization of liposome, stability profiles, and their antiacne activity were performed. Three different formulations of total lipid concentrations 60, 80, and 100 μmol/mL were used. Formulation with 60 μmol/mL total lipid (phosphatidylcholine from soybean and cholesterol from lanolin in 4 : 1, w/w) exhibited the highest rhodomyrtone encapsulation efficacy (65.47 ± 1.7%), average particle size (209.56 ± 4.8 nm), and ζ-potential (–41.19 ± 1.3 mV). All formulations demonstrated good stability when stored for 2 months in dark at 4°C as well as room temperature. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration values of liposomal formulation against 11 clinical bacterial isolates and reference strains ranged from 1 to 4 and from 4 to 64 μg/mL, respectively, while those of rhodomyrtone were 0.25–1 and 0.5–2 μg/mL, respectively. The MIC and MBC values of liposome formulation were more effective than topical drugs against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PMID:23762104

  15. Communication: Influence of graphene interlayers on the interaction between cobalt phthalocyanine and Ni(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Uihlein, Johannes; Peisert, Heiko; Glaser, Mathias; Polek, Malgorzata; Adler, Hilmar; Petraki, Fotini; Chasse, Thomas; Ovsyannikov, Ruslan; Bauer, Maximilian

    2013-02-28

    The influence of graphene interlayers on electronic interface properties of cobalt phthalocyanine on Ni(111) is studied using both photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A charge transfer associated with a redistribution of the d-electrons at the Co-atom of the phthalocyanine occurs at the interface to Ni(111). Even a graphene buffer layer cannot prevent the charge transfer at the interface to Ni(111); however, the detailed electronic situation is different.

  16. A Bottom-up Synthesis of Antiaromatic Expanded Phthalocyanines: Pentabenzotriazasmaragdyrins, i.e. Norcorroles of Superphthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Furuyama, Taniyuki; Sato, Takehito; Kobayashi, Nagao

    2015-11-01

    The first example of an antiaromatic expanded phthalocyanine, classified as a norcorrole of a superphthalocyanine has been prepared and fully characterized. The newly developed phthalonitrile dimerization reaction was a crucial step, which allowed for the bottom-up synthesis of expanded phthalocyanines. Their structure was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The 20 ? antiaromaticity of the macrocycles was suggested by optical and theoretical calculations. PMID:26471859

  17. Evaluation of percutaneous absorption of naproxen from different liposomal formulations.

    PubMed

    Puglia, Carmelo; Bonina, Francesco; Rizza, Luisa; Cortesi, Rita; Merlotti, Elena; Drechsler, Markus; Mariani, Paolo; Contado, Catia; Ravani, Laura; Esposito, Elisabetta

    2010-06-01

    The present study concerns the percutaneous absorption of naproxen (NPX), as model anti-inflammatory drug, included in liposome formulations constituted of different lipids: stratum corneum lipids (SCL) and phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (PC/CHOL). Liposome dispersions were produced using two different methods: reverse-phase evaporation (REV) and thin layer evaporation (TLE). Morphology and dimensions of the disperse phase were characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and photon correlation spectroscopy, respectively. X-ray diffraction was employed to determine the structural organization of the vesicles. In vitro diffusion was studied by Franz cell on liposome dispersions viscosized by carbomer. Tape stripping was performed to investigate in vivo the performance of differently composed liposomes as NPX delivery system. Cryo-TEM showed spherical vesicles and bigger irregular elongated nanoparticles for TLE SCL liposomes. REV resulted in spherical and elongated multilamellar vesicles. Also X-ray diffraction evidenced L alpha or L beta multilamellar vesicles for PC/CHOL and SCL liposome respectively. The in vitro study showed a lower NPX flux for SCL with respect to PC/CHOL liposome. Tape stripping corroborate the in vitro findings regarding SCL, suggesting that liposomes create a drug reservoir mixing with SC lipids, whilst PC/CHOL liposome promoted NPX permeation through the skin. Liposome lipid composition seems to affect NPX permeation through the skin. PMID:20039387

  18. Liposome disposition in vivo. VI: Delivery to the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Abra, R.M.; Hunt, C.A.; Lau, D.T.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of negatively charged liposome components and vesicle size on the time course and dose dependency of liposome disposition in mice was studied with a view to optimizing liposome delivery to the lung. The disposition of large multilamellar liposomes was followed using 125I-labeled p-hydroxybenzamidine phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Of the three negatively charged liposome compositions studied (phosphatidyl choline-X-cholesterol-alpha-tocopherol, molar ratio: 4:1:5:0.1; X . phosphatidyl serine, dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid, or phosphatidyl glycerol), phosphatidyl serine liposomes resulted in the greatest accumulation in lungs. Lung levels decreased up to 95 h postdose, at which time 6% of the liposome dose present at 2 h still remained. The disposition of phosphatidyl serine-containing liposomes was independent of dose for the range 0.04-21 mumol/animal. When liposomes containing phosphatidyl choline were prepared using a variety of extrusion and dialysis conditions, a strong link between liposome size and lung accumulation was revealed. A maximum lung accumulation of 30.9% of the administered dose was achieved with no detectable gross pathological lung lesions up to 24 h postdose.

  19. Liposomal Conjugates for Drug Delivery to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Frieder; Fricker, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Treatments of central nervous system (CNS) diseases often fail due to the blood–brain barrier. Circumvention of this obstacle is crucial for any systemic treatment of such diseases to be effective. One approach to transfer drugs into the brain is the use of colloidal carrier systems—amongst others, liposomes. A prerequisite for successful drug delivery by colloidal carriers to the brain is the modification of their surface, making them invisible to the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and to target them to specific surface epitopes at the blood–brain barrier. This study characterizes liposomes conjugated with cationized bovine serum albumin (cBSA) as transport vectors in vitro in porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCEC) and in vivo in rats using fluorescently labelled liposomes. Experiments with PBCEC showed that sterically stabilized (PEGylated) liposomes without protein as well as liposomes conjugated to native bovine serum albumin (BSA) were not taken up. In contrast, cBSA-liposomes were taken up and appeared to be concentrated in intracellular vesicles. Uptake occurred in a concentration and time dependent manner. Free BSA and free cBSA inhibited uptake. After intravenous application of cBSA-liposomes, confocal fluorescence microscopy of brain cryosections from male Wistar rats showed fluorescence associated with liposomes in brain capillary surrounding tissue after 3, 6 and 24 h, for liposomes with a diameter between 120 and 150 nm, suggesting successful brain delivery of cationized-albumin coupled liposomes. PMID:25835091

  20. Liposomes with polyribonucleotides as model of precellular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza, Isabel; Ibañez, Miguel; Lazcano, Antonio; Santiago, Carlos; Arguello, Carlos; Wong, Carlos; Oró, J.

    1987-09-01

    A study of the encapsulation of poly(U) and poly(C) within liposomes made from dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline (DPPC), from egg yold phosphatidyl choline (PC), and from PC with cholesterol (CHOL) was made. The liposomes were prepared under anoxic conditions following the reverse-phase evaporation method. Determinations showed that 36 to 70% of the available lipids form liposomes and 2 to 5% of the polyribonucleotides can be entrapped by liposomes. The encapsulation of polyribonucleotides has also been measured in the presence of urea, cyanamide and Zn++, condensing agents in prebiotic polymerization reactions. DPPC and PC:CHOL liposomes were formed in the presence of 1.0 M urea, although no PC liposomes were formed. The three types of liposomes were readily formed at 0.01 M urea, but in no case an enhancement of encapsulation efficiency of poly(U) was observed due to the presence of urea. Similar results were obtained with cyanamide. An enhanced encapsulation of poly(U) by the three types of liposomes was observed when Zn++ was in the range of 0.001 to 0.01 M. Poly(U) encapsulation was 15 to 25 times higher when liposomes were prepared from DPPC at 0.01 M Zn++. Similar results were obtained with poly(C). The advantages of DPPC-polyribonucleotide liposomes as precellular systems are discussed.

  1. Effects of the degree of substitution on the physicochemical properties and photodynamic activity of zinc and aluminum phthalocyanine polycations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, D. A.; Kuznetsova, N. A.; Yuzhakova, O. A.; Savvina, L. P.; Kaliya, O. L.; Lukyanets, E. A.; Negrimovskii, V. M.; Strakhovskaya, M. G.

    2009-06-01

    A series of zinc and aluminum phthalocyanines containing 3-8 pyridiniomethyl or cholinyl substituents on average were synthesized. As the number of cation substituents increased, in aqueous solutions, the aggregation ability of phthalocyanines decreased, while the quantum yields of fluorescence and singlet oxygen generation increased. The photodynamic inactivation of coliform bacteria sensitized by zinc and aluminum phthalocyanine polycations with an increase in the substitution degree became more effective.

  2. Preparation of novel double liposomes using the glass-filter method.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Ken; Kato, Yoshinori; Onishi, Hiraku; Nagai, Tsuneji; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2002-11-01

    The glass-filter method, a newly developed preparative method for liposomes, was applied for preparation of novel double liposomes. Double liposomes were prepared by filtering a suspension of liposomes prepared using a G4 filter (pore size: 10-16 microm) into a G3 filter (pore size: 40-100 microm) coated with a similar lipid layer. The morphological structure of the double liposomes was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy by the freeze-fracture method to be multivesicular vesicles consisting of small liposomes enveloped in larger liposomes. The diameter of liposomes prepared using the G4 filter was 0.8-2 microm and that of liposomes prepared using the G3 filter or double liposomes was 5-10 microm. These results suggested that the particle size of liposomes is dependent on the pore size of the glass-filter. The encapsulation efficiencies of double liposomes for brilliant blue FCF (BB) and erythrosine (ER) were higher than those of liposomes prepared by the standard Bangham method. Double liposomes showed suppressed release of BB or ER compared with normal liposomes. In particular, no release of BB was observed from the double liposomes prepared with stearylamine. These findings implied that the outer lipid layer protects the inner liposomes. The glass-filter method is the only method that we can get the double liposomes in a short period, and double liposomes prepared by this novel method had adequate size and good stability in vitro. PMID:12429463

  3. Photodynamic therapy of melanoma using new, synthetic porphyrins and phthalocyanines as photosensitisers a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    BALDEA, IOANA; ION, RODICA-MARIANA; OLTEANU, DIANA ELENA; NENU, IULIANA; TUDOR, DIANA; FILIP, ADRIANA GABRIELA

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma, a cancer that arises from melanocytes, is one of the most unresponsive cancers to known therapies and has a tendency to produce early metastases. Several studies showed encouraging results of the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in melanoma, in different experimental settings in vitro and in vivo, as well as several clinical reports. Aims Our study focuses on testing the antimelanoma efficacy of several new, synthetic photosensitisers (PS), from two different chemical classes, respectively four porphyrins and six phthalocyanines. Methods These PS were tested in terms of cell toxicity and phototoxicity against a radial growth phase melanoma cell line (WM35), in vitro. Cells were exposed to different concentrations of the PS for 24h, washed, then irradiatied with red light (630 nm) 75 mJ/cm2 for the porphyrins and 1 J/cm2 for the phthalocyanines. Viability was measured using the MTS method. Results Two of the synthetic porphyrins, TTP and THNP, were active photosensitizers against WM35 melanoma in vitro. Phthalocyanines were effective in producing a dose dependent PDT-induced decrease in viability in a dose-dependent manner. The most efficient was Indium (III) Phthalocyanine chloride, a metal substituted phthalocyanine. Conclusions The most efficient photosensitizers for PDT in melanoma cells were the phthalocyanines in terms of tumor cell photokilling and decreased dark toxicity. PMID:26528068

  4. The quest for biocompatible phthalocyanines for molecular imaging: Photophysics, relaxometry and cytotoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Sara M A; Tomé, Vanessa A; Calvete, Mário J F; Pereira, Mariette M; Burrows, Hugh D; Cardoso, Ana M S; Pallier, Agnès; C A Castro, M Margarida; Tóth, Éva; Geraldes, Carlos F G C

    2016-01-01

    Water soluble phthalocyanines bearing either four PEG500 or four choline substituents in the macrocyclic structure, as well as their Zn(II) and Mn(III) complexes were synthesized. The metal-free and Zn(II) complexes present relatively high fluorescence quantum yields (up to 0.30), while the Mn(III) complexes show no fluorescence as a consequence of rapid non-radiative deactivation of the Mn(III) phthalocyanine excited states through low-lying metal based or charge-transfer states. The effect of DMSO on the aggregation of the phthalocyanines was studied. It was not possible to obtain the Mn(II) complexes by reduction of the corresponding Mn(III) complexes due to the presence of electron donating substituents at the periphery of the phthalocyanines. The (1)H NMRD plots of the PEG500 and choline substituted Mn(III)-phthalocyanine complexes are typical of self-aggregated Mn(III) systems with r1 relaxivities of 4.0 and 5.7mM(-1)s(-1) at 20MHz and 25°C. The Mn(III)-phthalocyanine-PEG4 complex shows no significant cytotoxicity to HeLa cell cultures after 2h of incubation up to 2mM concentration. After 24h of cell exposure to the compound, significant toxicity was observed for all the concentrations tested with IC50 of 1.105mM. PMID:26583704

  5. Photophysical property of a polymeric nanoparticle loaded with an aryl benzyl ester silicon (IV) phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Sujuan; Ma, Dongdong; Chen, Xiuqin; Wang, Yuhua; Yang, Hongqin; Peng, Yiru

    2014-09-01

    Because of their excellent near-infrared (NIR) optical properties, phthalocyanines (Pcs) have been regarded as promising therapy agents for fluorescence image-guided drug delivery and noninvasive treatment of tumors by photodynamic therapy (PDT). Nevertheless, phthalocyanines are substantially limited in clinical applications owing to their poor solubility, aggregation and insufficient selectivity for cancer cells. To address these issues, we have developed a novel dendrimer-based theranostic nanoparticle for tumor-targeted delivery of phthalocyanine. The preparation procedure involved the modification of the silicon (IV) phthalocyanine molecule with a dendritic axially substitution, which significantly enhances their photophysical property. In order to improve biocompatibility and tumor-targeted delivery, the hydrophobic dendritic phthalocyanine was encapsulated by diblock amphiphilic copolymer poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (Epsilon-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) to form a polymeric nanoparticle. The polymeric nanoparticle is spherical with a diameter at about 90 nm. The photophysical property of the polymeric nanoparticle was studied by UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. Compared with the free dendritic phthalocyanine, the Q band of the polymeric nanoparticle was red-shifted, and the fluorescence intensity decreased. Furthermore, the polymeric nanoparticle has a relatively high loading amount and encapsulation rate. Therefore, the polymeric nanoparticle would be a promising third-generation photosensitizer (PS) for PDT.

  6. Phthalocyanine photosensitizers as contrast agents for in vivo photoacoustic tumor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Amalina Bte Ebrahim; Balasundaram, Ghayathri; Driessen, Wouter; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Olivo, Malini

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for contrast agents for non-invasive diagnostic imaging of tumors. Herein, Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) was employed to evaluate phthalocyanines commonly used in photodynamic therapy as photoacoustic contrast agents. We studied the photoacoustic activity of three water-soluble phthalocyanine photosensitizers: phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (PcS4), Zn(II) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (ZnPcS4) and Al(III) phthalocyanine chloride tetrasulfonic acid (AlPcS4) in phantom and in tumor-bearing mice to investigate the biodistribution and fate of the phthalocyanines in the biological tissues. PcS4 was observed to grant good contrast between the different reticuloendothelial organs and accumulate in the tumor within an hour of post-administration. ZnPcS4 and AlPcS4 offered little contrast in photoacoustic signals between the organs. PcS4 is a promising photoacoustic contrast agent and can be exploited as a photodiagnostic agent. PMID:25780748

  7. Advances and Challenges of Liposome Assisted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sercombe, Lisa; Veerati, Tejaswi; Moheimani, Fatemeh; Wu, Sherry Y.; Sood, Anil K.; Hua, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The application of liposomes to assist drug delivery has already had a major impact on many biomedical areas. They have been shown to be beneficial for stabilizing therapeutic compounds, overcoming obstacles to cellular and tissue uptake, and improving biodistribution of compounds to target sites in vivo. This enables effective delivery of encapsulated compounds to target sites while minimizing systemic toxicity. Liposomes present as an attractive delivery system due to their flexible physicochemical and biophysical properties, which allow easy manipulation to address different delivery considerations. Despite considerable research in the last 50 years and the plethora of positive results in preclinical studies, the clinical translation of liposome assisted drug delivery platforms has progressed incrementally. In this review, we will discuss the advances in liposome assisted drug delivery, biological challenges that still remain, and current clinical and experimental use of liposomes for biomedical applications. The translational obstacles of liposomal technology will also be presented. PMID:26648870

  8. Investigating the Stability of eLiposomes at Elevated Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Husseini, Ghaleb A; Pitt, William G; Javadi, Marjan

    2015-08-01

    eLiposomes encapsulate a perfluorocarbon nanoemulsion droplet inside a liposome. Ultrasound is then used as a trigger mechanism to vaporize the perfluorocarbon, break the liposome, and release the desired drug to the tumor tissue. The purpose of this research is to show that eLiposomes synthesized using perfluoropentane are stable above the normal boiling point of the perfluoropentane and at body temperature and thus has potential for use in vivo. Experiments involving the release of fluorescent calcein molecules were performed on eLiposomes to measure the release of calcein at various temperatures in the absence of ultrasound. Results showed that eLiposomes are stable at body temperatures and that as the temperature increases above 40C, calcein release from these novel nanocarriers increases. PMID:25261070

  9. Dissociation of cerium(III) and neodymium(III) phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomova, T. N.

    2015-07-01

    The kinetics of dissociation of phthalocyanine complexes with cerium(III) and neodymium(III) (X)LnPc (X = Cl-, Br-, AcO-) under the action of acetic acid in ethanol with isolation of the macrocyclic ligand depending on the temperature was studied. The kinetic equations with the numerical values of rate constants, activation parameters, and the stoichiometric mechanisms with the limiting simple reaction between the nonionized AcOH molecule and (phthalocyaninato)lanthanide(III) in the axially coordinated ((X)LnPc, cerium complexes) or axially ionized ([(AcOH)LnPc]+X-, neodymium complexes) state were derived by solving the direct and inverse problems. As shown by a comparative analysis of quantitative kinetic data, the state is determined by the electronic structure of the metal cation and the mutual effect of the axial and equatorial ligands in the first coordination sphere.

  10. Reaction of Phthalocyanines with Graphene on Ir(111).

    PubMed

    Altenburg, Simon J; Lattelais, Marie; Wang, Bin; Bocquet, Marie-Laure; Berndt, Richard

    2015-07-29

    Iron phthalocyanine (FePc) is adsorbed to graphene on Ir(111) at cryogenic temperature. In addition to mobile FePc with four lobes, imaging and spectroscopy with a scanning tunneling microscope reveal immobile molecules that exhibit fewer lobes. A reversible transformation between four- and three-lobed molecules has been induced by current injection. The data are consistent with chemical bonding of lobes to graphene on Ir, pinning down the graphene area toward Ir. Similar observations are made from NiPc, CoPc, CuPc, and H2Pc. The experimental findings can be explained by ab initio calculations, which suggest that a Diels-Alder-type reaction may be involved with an allyl unit of graphene in the top-fcc moiré registry. PMID:26147789

  11. Giant ferromagnetic ? -d interaction in a phthalocyanine molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakawa, H.; Kanda, A.; Ikeda, M.; Matsuda, M.; Hanasaki, N.

    2015-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that the ferromagnetic intramolecular ? -d interaction works between an itinerant ? -electron spin and a localized d -electron's magnetic moment in the iron-phthalocyanine (Pc) molecular compound. The evaluation of the hidden ? -d coupling is achieved by preparing the isolated Fe(Pc )(CN ) 2 molecular solution with unpaired ? - and d -electron spins, which is generated through the oxidization by iodine bromide (IBr). The monotonic increase of the magnetization with IBr addition and the saturation value of the Curie constant indicate the ferromagnetic ? -d coupling. Furthermore, through the magnetization measurements of the single crystals of neutral ? radical Fe(Pc )(CN ) 2.2 CHCl3 , we reveal that the on-site ? -d interaction in Fe(Pc )(CN ) 2 is extremely large (J? d/kB>500 K ) among those in other molecular materials.

  12. Anomalous photoelectric emission from Ag on zinc-phthalocyanine film

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Senku; Otani, Tomohiro; Fukuzawa, Ken; Hiromitsu, Ichiro; Ogawa, Koji; Azuma, Junpei; Yamamoto, Isamu; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Kamada, Masao

    2014-05-12

    Photoelectric emission from organic and metal thin films is generally observed with irradiation of photon energy larger than 4?eV. In this paper, however, we report photoelectric emission from Ag on a zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) layer at a photon energy of 3.4?eV. The threshold energy for this photoelectric emission is much smaller than the work function of Ag estimated by conventional photoelectron spectroscopy. The photoelectric emission by low-energy photons is significant for Ag thicknesses of less than 1?nm. Photoelectron spectroscopy and morphological study of the Ag/ZnPc suggest that the anomalous photoelectric emission from the Ag surface is caused by a vacuum level shift at the Ag/ZnPc interface and by surface plasmons of the Ag nanoparticles.

  13. Nonlinear Optothermal Properties of Metal-Free Phthalocyanine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A.; Frazier, Donald O.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Smith, David D.; Banks, Curtis E.

    1998-01-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of metal-free phthalocyanine (MFPC) thin films were examined using the second harmonic at 532 nm from a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, and the cw He-Ne , and Ar+ lasers. The He-Ne laser transmission at fixed input intensity was found to increase temporally within a time scale of twelve hours. The origin of this temporal change of transmission is discussed. The third order nonlinear susceptibilities (chi (exp(3))) by four-wave mixing were measured for films of different thickness. The saturation intensity of MFPC, and its absorption cross section, at 633 nm from a He-Ne laser, are reported. An optical bistability was recorded using a He-Ne laser. An AND logic gate was also demonstrated in the system. These phenomena in the system are attributed to refractive index modulation by thermal excitations.

  14. Optical limiting processes in derivatized fullerenes and porphyrins/phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Kohlman, R.; Klimov, V.; Shi, X.

    1998-07-01

    The authors review their results from spectral studies of the ultrafast excited-state absorption in fullerenes and derivatized fullerenes. These results allow determination of both the spectral response of reverse saturable absorption (RSA) nonlinearities such as optical limiting (OL) in fullerenes, and the dynamical response for different morphologies. The authors have investigated the effects of thin film and various sol-gel glass environments on the nanosecond OL and femtosecond dynamics of derivatized fullerenes. These data provide evidence of decay pathways which compete with the intersystem crossing to a triplet from the initial singlet states. With appropriate processing, however, the OL response of derivatized-fullerene sol-gel glasses can be enhanced to approach that of the same molecule in solution, while significantly enhancing the optical damage threshold. The optical limiting of these derivatized fullerenes is compared with that of various porphyrin and phthalocyanine molecules.

  15. Hybrid structures of polycationic aluminum phthalocyanines and quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Maksimov, E G; Gvozdev, D A; Strakhovskaya, M G; Paschenko, V Z

    2015-03-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (CdSe/ZnS quantum dots, QDs) were used as inorganic focusing antenna, allowing for the enhancement of fluorescence and photosensitizing activity of polycationic aluminum phthalocyanines (PCs). It was found that QDs form stable complexes with PCs in aqueous solutions due to electrostatic interactions. In such hybrid complexes, we observed highly efficient nonradiative energy transfer from QD to PC, leading to a sharp increase in the effective absorption cross section of PC in the absorption bands of the CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. When hybrid complexes are excited within these bands, the intensity of PC fluorescence and the rate of photosensitized singlet oxygen generation increases significantly (up to 500 and 350%, correspondingly) compared to free PC at the same concentration. The observed effect is of interest for modeling primary stages of photosynthesis and increasing photosensitizing activity of dyes used in photodynamic therapy. PMID:25761686

  16. Percutaneous permeation measurement of topical phthalocyanine by photoacoustic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Emanoel P. O.; Barja, Paulo R.; Cardoso, Luiz E.; Beltrame, Milton

    2012-11-01

    This investigation have studied photoacoustic (PA) technique to percutaneous permeation of topical hydroxy-(29H,31H-phthalocyaninate) aluminum (PcAlOH) on pig ear skin. The PcAlOH was incorporated in an emulsion (O/W) (1 mg/dl) with assessed stability parameters of: pH, short and long term stability tests (in the several conditions). The skin was prepared through a heat separation technique, and with a scalpel, the outer skin of the cartilage was removed. The skins were then cut into 4 cm2 pieces and treated with sodium bromide 2 mol/L for 6 h at 37 C. The epidermis layer was washed with purified water, dried, and stored under reduced pressure until use. The skin permeation kinetics was determined by photoacoustic technique in an open photoacoustic cell. Short (after preparation) and long-term stability tests showed no phase separation. The emulsion developed pH 7.6 and after incorporating the pH was unchanged. The typical times for percutaneous permeation of the emulsion base and emulsion + PcAlOH were 182 (6) and 438 (3) s, respectively. This study indicated that the formulations containing PcAlOH have stabile characteristics and show promising results in absorption into the skin. The presence of the photosensitive agent in the formulation contributed significantly to the greater absorption time than observed in the base formulation. The used photoacoustic technical to examine the penetration kinetics of PcAlOH in pig ear skin was adequate and may be employed in the determination of the percutaneous permeation of phthalocyanines.

  17. Tetra-triethyleneoxysulfonyl substituted zinc phthalocyanine for photodynamic cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kuzyniak, Weronika; Ermilov, Eugeny A; Atilla, Devrim; Gürek, Ayşe Gül; Nitzsche, Bianca; Derkow, Katja; Hoffmann, Björn; Steinemann, Gustav; Ahsen, Vefa; Höpfner, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as an effective and minimally invasive treatment option for several diseases, including some forms of cancer. However, several drawbacks of the approved photosensitizers (PS), such as insufficient light absorption at therapeutically relevant wavelengths hampered the clinical effectiveness of PDT. Phthalocyanines (Pc) are interesting PS-candidates with a strong light absorption in the favourable red spectral region and a high quantum yield of cancer cell destroying singlet oxygen generation. Here, we evaluated the suitability of tetra-triethyleneoxysulfonyl substituted zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) as novel PS for PDT. ZnPc-induced phototoxicity, induction of apoptosis as well as cell cycle arresting effects was studied in the human gastrointestinal cancer cell lines of different origin. Photoactivation of ZnPc-pretreated (1-10μM) cancer cells was achieved by illumination with a broad band white light source (400-700nm) at a power density of 10J/cm(2). Photoactivation of ZnPc-loaded cells revealed strong phototoxic effects, leading to a dose-dependent decrease of cancer cell proliferation of up to almost 100%, the induction of apoptosis and a G1-phase arrest of the cell cycle, which was associated with decrease in cyclin D1 expression. By contrast, ZnPc-treatment without illumination did not induce any cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest or decreased cell growth. Antiangiogenic effects of ZnPc-PDT were investigated in vivo by performing CAM assays, which revealed a marked degradation of blood vessels and the capillary plexus of the chorioallantoic membrane of fertilized chicken eggs. Based on our data we think that ZnPc may be a promising novel photosensitizer for innovative PDT. PMID:26162500

  18. Galactodendritic Phthalocyanine Targets Carbohydrate-Binding Proteins Enhancing Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia M. R.; Silva, Sandrina; Cavaleiro, José A. S.; Ribeiro, Carlos A. F.; Tomé, João P. C.; Fernandes, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Photosensitizers (PSs) are of crucial importance in the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer. Due to their high reactive oxygen species production and strong absorption in the wavelength range between 650 and 850 nm, where tissue light penetration is rather high, phthalocyanines (Pcs) have been studied as PSs of excellence. In this work, we report the evaluation of a phthalocyanine surrounded by a carbohydrate shell of sixteen galactose units distributed in a dendritic manner (PcGal16) as a new and efficient third generation PSs for PDT against two bladder cancer cell lines, HT-1376 and UM-UC-3. Here, we define the role of galacto-dendritic units in promoting the uptake of a Pc through interaction with GLUT1 and galectin-1. The photoactivation of PcGal16 induces cell death by generating oxidative stress. Although PDT with PcGal16 induces an increase on the activity of antioxidant enzymes immediately after PDT, bladder cancer cells are unable to recover from the PDT-induced damage effects for at least 72 h after treatment. PcGal16 co-localization with galectin-1 and GLUT1 and/or generation of oxidative stress after PcGal16 photoactivation induces changes in the levels of these proteins. Knockdown of galectin-1 and GLUT1, via small interfering RNA (siRNA), in bladder cancer cells decreases intracellular uptake and phototoxicity of PcGal16. The results reported herein show PcGal16 as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of bladder cancer, which is the fifth most common type of cancer with the highest rate of recurrence of any cancer. PMID:24763311

  19. [Novel possibilities of development and therapeutical application of liposomes].

    PubMed

    Bozó, Tamás; Pál, Szilárd; Dévay, Attila

    2008-01-01

    Properties and possibilities of application of liposomal drug delivery systems are summarized in this review. Technological and biopharmeceutical criteria that have to be taken into consideration in the course of development of biocompatible liposomes are discussed. The manner and possibilities of active and passive targeting are shown according to the literary data and special liposome-based drug delivery systems responsible for pathologic or arteficial stimuli are introduced. PMID:18986087

  20. Liposomes and MTT cell viability assay: an incompatible affair.

    PubMed

    Angius, Fabrizio; Floris, Alice

    2015-03-01

    The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay is commonly used to evaluate the cytotoxicity potential of drugs vehicled by liposomes. However, liposome delivering drugs could produce inconsistent values of MTT absorbance. On the basis of previous experiments demonstrating the MTT affinity for lipid droplets, this paper aims to show that empty-liposomes interfere, per se, on MTT assay due to its lipidic nature. This brings into question the use of MTT testing cytotoxicity when liposomes are involved in delivering drugs. PMID:25481524

  1. Application of long-circulating liposomes to cancer photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Oku, N; Saito, N; Namba, Y; Tsukada, H; Dolphin, D; Okada, S

    1997-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a cancer treatment is notable for its quite low side effects in comparison with those of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, the accumulation of porphyrin derivatives used in PDT into tumor tissues is rather low. Since long-circulating liposomes are known to accumulate passively into tumor tissues, we liposomalized a porphyrin derivative, benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA), and used these liposomes to investigate the usefulness of PDT for tumor-bearing mice. BPD-MA was liposomalized into glucuronate-modified liposomes, which are known to be long-circulating. These liposomes were injected i.v. into Balb/c mice bearing Meth A sarcoma, and tumor regression and survival time were monitored after irradiation with laser light. Tumor regression and complete curing of tumor (80% cure rate by the treatment with 6 mg/kg BPD-MA) were observed when long circulating liposomalized BPD-MA was injected and laser-irradiated. In contrast, only a 20% cure rate was obtained when the animals were treated with BPD-MA solution or BPD-MA entrapped in conventional liposomes. These results suggest that a long-circulating liposomal formulation of photo-sensitive agents is useful for PDT. PMID:9212988

  2. pH-triggered echogenicity and contents release from liposomes.

    PubMed

    Nahire, Rahul; Hossain, Rayat; Patel, Rupa; Paul, Shirshendu; Meghnani, Varsha; Ambre, Avinash H; Gange, Kara N; Katti, Kalpana S; Leclerc, Estelle; Srivastava, D K; Sarkar, Kausik; Mallik, Sanku

    2014-11-01

    Liposomes are representative lipid nanoparticles widely used for delivering anticancer drugs, DNA fragments, or siRNA to cancer cells. Upon targeting, various internal and external triggers have been used to increase the rate for contents release from the liposomes. Among the internal triggers, decreased pH within the cellular lysosomes has been successfully used to enhance the rate for releasing contents. However, imparting pH sensitivity to liposomes requires the synthesis of specialized lipids with structures that are substantially modified at a reduced pH. Herein, we report an alternative strategy to render liposomes pH sensitive by encapsulating a precursor which generates gas bubbles in situ in response to acidic pH. The disturbance created by the escaping gas bubbles leads to the rapid release of the encapsulated contents from the liposomes. Atomic force microscopic studies indicate that the liposomal structure is destroyed at a reduced pH. The gas bubbles also render the liposomes echogenic, allowing ultrasound imaging. To demonstrate the applicability of this strategy, we have successfully targeted doxorubicin-encapsulated liposomes to the pancreatic ductal carcinoma cells that overexpress the folate receptor on the surface. In response to the decreased pH in the lysosomes, the encapsulated anticancer drug is efficiently released. Contents released from these liposomes are further enhanced by the application of continuous wave ultrasound (1 MHz), resulting in substantially reduced viability for the pancreatic cancer cells (14%). PMID:25271780

  3. Analyzing Protein-Phosphoinositide Interactions with Liposome Flotation Assays.

    PubMed

    Busse, Ricarda A; Scacioc, Andreea; Schalk, Amanda M; Krick, Roswitha; Thumm, Michael; Khnel, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Liposome flotation assays are a convenient tool to study protein-phosphoinositide interactions. Working with liposomes resembles physiological conditions more than protein-lipid overlay assays, which makes this method less prone to detect false positive interactions. However, liposome lipid composition must be well-considered in order to prevent nonspecific binding of the protein through electrostatic interactions with negatively charged lipids like phosphatidylserine. In this protocol we use the PROPPIN Hsv2 (homologous with swollen vacuole phenotype 2) as an example to demonstrate the influence of liposome lipid composition on binding and show how phosphoinositide binding specificities of a protein can be characterized with this method. PMID:26552682

  4. pH-Triggered Echogenicity and Contents Release from Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes are representative lipid nanoparticles widely used for delivering anticancer drugs, DNA fragments, or siRNA to cancer cells. Upon targeting, various internal and external triggers have been used to increase the rate for contents release from the liposomes. Among the internal triggers, decreased pH within the cellular lysosomes has been successfully used to enhance the rate for releasing contents. However, imparting pH sensitivity to liposomes requires the synthesis of specialized lipids with structures that are substantially modified at a reduced pH. Herein, we report an alternative strategy to render liposomes pH sensitive by encapsulating a precursor which generates gas bubbles in situ in response to acidic pH. The disturbance created by the escaping gas bubbles leads to the rapid release of the encapsulated contents from the liposomes. Atomic force microscopic studies indicate that the liposomal structure is destroyed at a reduced pH. The gas bubbles also render the liposomes echogenic, allowing ultrasound imaging. To demonstrate the applicability of this strategy, we have successfully targeted doxorubicin-encapsulated liposomes to the pancreatic ductal carcinoma cells that overexpress the folate receptor on the surface. In response to the decreased pH in the lysosomes, the encapsulated anticancer drug is efficiently released. Contents released from these liposomes are further enhanced by the application of continuous wave ultrasound (1 MHz), resulting in substantially reduced viability for the pancreatic cancer cells (14%). PMID:25271780

  5. Factors affecting ultrasonic release from eLiposomes.

    PubMed

    Lattin, James R; Pitt, William G

    2015-04-01

    Liposomes containing emulsion droplets (eLiposomes) were studied as ultrasound-responsive liposomal drug carriers. This paper presents the effects of temperature, eLiposome size, and ultrasound parameters on the ultrasonically actuated release of calcein, to test hypotheses concerning the physics of acoustic droplet vaporization with regard to vapor pressure and Laplace pressure. Small (200 nm) eLiposomes containing 100-nm emulsion droplets were formed and compared with large (800 nm) eLiposomes containing 100- or 450-nm droplets. Calcein release was quantified by spectroscopic methods. Various experiments examined the influence of perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplet size, vesicle size, temperature, PFC composition and vapor pressure, insonation time, and insonation frequency. Results showed that eLiposome samples released significantly more calcein than their conventional liposome counterparts. Surprisingly, temperature (which directly controls vapor pressure) did not have a strong effect on ultrasound-induced calcein release. In general, calcein release decreased with decreasing droplet size, as hypothesized based on Laplace pressure. Release decreased with increased ultrasound frequency if the pressure amplitude and exposure time were maintained constant, indicating that the gas-phase nucleation rate may have an important role in rupture of eLiposomes. Interestingly, when ultrasound of the same mechanical index was applied at two frequencies, the amount of release correlated strongly with the mechanical index. PMID:25641709

  6. Adsorbed liposome deformation studied with quartz crystal microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reviakine, Ilya; Gallego, Marta; Johannsmann, Diethelm; Tellechea, Edurne

    2012-02-01

    Deformation of surface-adsorbed liposomes is an important parameter that governs the kinetics of their transformations, but one that is very difficult to measure in the case of nm-size liposomes. We investigate the deformation of dimyristoyl phosphatidyl choline liposomes by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) as a function of temperature and show that it follows the dependence of this lipid's bending modulus on temperature, as expected from theoretical considerations. To corroborate our approach, we model QCM response from adsorbed liposomes by explicitly considering their shape and mechanical properties.

  7. Copper-topotecan complexation mediates drug accumulation into liposomes.

    PubMed

    Taggar, Amandeep S; Alnajim, Jehan; Anantha, Malathi; Thomas, Anitha; Webb, Murray; Ramsay, Euan; Bally, Marcel B

    2006-08-10

    These studies describe the role of transition metal ions in the liposomal encapsulation of topotecan. Liposomes (1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and cholesterol (CH) (55:45, mole ratio)) were prepared with manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) or cobalt (Co) ion gradients (metal inside). Subsequently, topotecan was added to the liposome exterior (final drug-to-lipid ratio (mol/mol) of 0.2) and drug encapsulation was measured as a function of time and temperature. No drug loading was achieved with liposomes containing Co or Zn. Topotecan could be encapsulated into Mn-containing liposomes only in the presence of the ionophore, A23187 suggesting that a transmembrane pH gradient was necessary. However, Cu-containing liposomes, in the presence or absence of an imposed pH gradient, efficiently encapsulated topotecan. It has been reported that Cu(II) can form transition metal complexes with camptothecin; therefore, the Cu-topotecan interaction was characterized in solution as a function of pH. These investigations demonstrated that topotecan inhibited formation of an insoluble Cu hydroxide precipitate. Cryo-TEM analysis of the topotecan-loaded Cu liposomes showed electron-dense intravesicular precipitates. Further studies demonstrated that only the active lactone form of the drug was encapsulated and this form predominated in Cu-containing liposomes. Copper complexation reactions define a viable methodology to prepare liposomal camptothecin formulations. PMID:16842880

  8. Current trends in the use of liposomes for tumor targeting

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Pranali P; Biswas, Swati; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2013-01-01

    The use of liposomes for drug delivery began early in the history of pharmaceutical nanocarriers. These nanosized, lipid bilayered vesicles have become popular as drug delivery systems owing to their efficiency, biocompatibility, nonimmunogenicity, enhanced solubility of chemotherapeutic agents and their ability to encapsulate a wide array of drugs. Passive and ligand-mediated active targeting promote tumor specificity with diminished adverse off-target effects. The current field of liposomes focuses on both clinical and diagnostic applications. Recent efforts have concentrated on the development of multifunctional liposomes that target cells and cellular organelles with a single delivery system. This review discusses the recent advances in liposome research in tumor targeting. PMID:23914966

  9. Modeling the sustained release of lipophilic drugs from liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Like; Wu, Xiaoyi

    2010-08-01

    The bilayered structure of liposomes enables the encapsulation of lipophilic drugs in their lipid bilayers and water-soluble molecules in the interior aqueous compartments. We develop a convection-driven drug release model that considers the structural characteristics of liposomes and reversible drug-lipid interaction. An analytical solution to the model is obtained. The solution agrees well with experimental data on the sustained release of lipophilic anticancer drugs from liposomes. The model provides a useful tool for the rational design of liposomal drug delivery systems.

  10. Liposome-encapsulated dexamethasone attenuates ventilator-induced lung inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hegeman, MA; Cobelens, PM; Kamps, JAAM; Hennus, MP; Jansen, NJG; Schultz, MJ; van Vught, AJ; Molema, G; Heijnen, CJ

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Systemic glucocorticoid therapy may effectively attenuate lung inflammation but also induce severe side-effects. Delivery of glucocorticoids by liposomes could therefore be beneficial. We investigated if liposome-encapsulated dexamethasone inhibited ventilator-induced lung inflammation. Furthermore, we evaluated whether targeting of cellular Fc?-receptors (Fc?Rs) by conjugating immunoglobulin G (IgG) to liposomes, would improve the efficacy of dexamethasone-liposomes in attenuating granulocyte infiltration, one of the hallmarks of lung inflammation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Mice were anaesthetized, tracheotomized and mechanically ventilated for 5 h with either low tidal volumes ?7.5 mLkg?1 (LVT) or high tidal volumes ?15 mLkg?1 (HVT). At initiation of ventilation, we intravenously administered dexamethasone encapsulated in liposomes (Dex-liposomes), dexamethasone encapsulated in IgG-modified liposomes (IgG-Dex-liposomes) or free dexamethasone. Non-ventilated mice served as controls. KEY RESULTS Dex-liposomes attenuated granulocyte infiltration and IL-6 mRNA expression after LVT-ventilation, but not after HVT-ventilation. Dex-liposomes also down-regulated mRNA expression of IL-1? and KC, but not of CCL2 (MCP-1) in lungs of LVT and HVT-ventilated mice. Importantly, IgG-Dex-liposomes inhibited granulocyte influx caused by either LVT or HVT-ventilation. IgG-Dex-liposomes diminished IL-1? and KC mRNA expression in both ventilation groups, and IL-6 and CCL2 mRNA expression in the LVT-ventilated group. Free dexamethasone prevented granulocyte influx and inflammatory mediator expression induced by LVT or HVT-ventilation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Fc?R-targeted IgG-Dex-liposomes are pharmacologically more effective than Dex-liposomes particularly in inhibiting pulmonary granulocyte infiltration. IgG-Dex-liposomes inhibited most parameters of ventilator-induced lung inflammation as effectively as free dexamethasone, with the advantage that liposome-encapsulated dexamethasone will be released locally in the lung thereby preventing systemic side-effects. PMID:21391981

  11. Increased Liposome Extravasation in Selected Tissues: Effect of Substance P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenecker, Joseph; Zhang, Weiming; Hong, Keelung; Lausier, James; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Yoshihara, Shigemi; Papahadjopoulos, Demetrios; Nadel, Jay A.

    1996-07-01

    We have used a pharmacologic mediator to open intercellular connections in selected vessels to allow liposomes to escape from the blood stream and to extravasate into tissues that have appropriate receptors. We have examined the effects of substance P (SP), a peptide known to increase vascular permeability in selected tissues, such as trachea, esophagus, and urinary bladder in rats. We used quantitative fluorescence analysis of tissues to measure two fluorescent markers, one attached to the lipid (rhodamine-phosphatidylethanolamine) and another, doxorubicin (an antitumor drug), encapsulated within the aqueous interior. We have also examined the deposition of liposomes microscopically by the use of encapsulated colloidal gold and silver enhancement. Analysis of the biochemical and morphological observations indicate the following: (i) Injection of SP produces a striking increase in both liposome labels, but only in tissues that possess receptors for SP in postcapillary venules; (ii) liposome material in these tissues has extravasated and is found extracellularly near a variety of cells beyond the endothelial layer over the first few hours; (iii) 24 h following injection of liposomes and SP, liposome material is found in these tissues, localized intracellularly in both endothelial cells and macrophages. We propose that appropriate application of tissue-specific mediators can result in liposome extravasation deep within tissues that normally do not take up significant amounts of liposomes from the blood. Such liposomes are able to carry a variety of pharmacological agents that can be released locally within selected target tissues for therapeutic purposes.

  12. Liposomes in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Nelson; Martins, Albino; Reis, Rui L.; Neves, Nuno M.

    2014-01-01

    Liposomes are vesicular structures made of lipids that are formed in aqueous solutions. Structurally, they resemble the lipid membrane of living cells. Therefore, they have been widely investigated, since the 1960s, as models to study the cell membrane, and as carriers for protection and/or delivery of bioactive agents. They have been used in different areas of research including vaccines, imaging, applications in cosmetics and tissue engineering. Tissue engineering is defined as a strategy for promoting the regeneration of tissues for the human body. This strategy may involve the coordinated application of defined cell types with structured biomaterial scaffolds to produce living structures. To create a new tissue, based on this strategy, a controlled stimulation of cultured cells is needed, through a systematic combination of bioactive agents and mechanical signals. In this review, we highlight the potential role of liposomes as a platform for the sustained and local delivery of bioactive agents for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches. PMID:25401172

  13. Targeting liposomal nanomedicine to cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhong, J; Dai, L C

    2012-10-01

    Drug delivery systems (DDS) are designed to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic effect. In the past few decades, there are some problems that impeded applications of particulate DDS have been resolved, with several DDS formulations of anticancer now approved for clinical use. Liposomal nanoparticles (LNs) encapsulating therapeutic agents have been recognized as one of the most advanced classes of DDS. Liposomal nanoparticles (LNs) could encapsulate both conventional anticancer drugs and the new genetic drugs with several properties such as high drug-to-lipid ratio, excellent retention of drug and a long circulation lifetime. These excellent properties of LNs have the potentials to offer new treatments in area of cancer therapy. Here, we will discuss recent advances in this field involving conventional anticancer drugs as well as the new genetic drugs. PMID:22475065

  14. Electronic structure at transition metal phthalocyanine-transition metal oxide interfaces: Cobalt phthalocyanine on epitaxial MnO films

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, Mathias; Peisert, Heiko Adler, Hilmar; Aygl, Umut; Ivanovic, Milutin; Chass, Thomas; Nagel, Peter; Merz, Michael; Schuppler, Stefan

    2015-03-14

    The electronic structure of the interface between cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) and epitaxially grown manganese oxide (MnO) thin films is studied by means of photoemission (PES) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Our results reveal a flat-lying adsorption geometry of the molecules on the oxide surface which allows a maximal interaction between the ?-system and the substrate. A charge transfer from MnO, in particular, to the central metal atom of CoPc is observed by both PES and XAS. The change of the shape of N-K XAS spectra at the interface points, however, to the involvement of the Pc macrocycle in the charge transfer process. As a consequence of the charge transfer, energetic shifts of MnO related core levels were observed, which are discussed in terms of a Fermi level shift in the semiconducting MnO films due to interface charge redistribution.

  15. Liposomes from soya phospholipids as percutaneous drug carriers. 2nd communication: quantitative in vivo investigations with radioactively labelled liposomes.

    PubMed

    Artmann, C; Rding, J; Ghyczy, M; Pratzel, H G

    1990-12-01

    The percutaneous absorption of liposomes (prepared from NAT 106) was investigated with radioactively labelled substances in comparison with percutaneous absorption without liposomes (controls) in vivo on the skin of young pigs. Radioactivity was monitored as a function of time in skin tissue, plasma or blood and in urine. Elevated tissue levels, increased absorption and renal elimination of the various liposomal preparations in comparison to the controls were measured. PMID:1965621

  16. Effect of liposomal fluidity on skin permeation of sodium fluorescein entrapped in liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Subongkot, Thirapit; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultradeformable liposome components, Tween 20 and terpenes, on vesicle fluidity. The fluidity was evaluated by electron spin resonance spectroscopy using 5-doxyl stearic acid and 16-doxyl stearic acid as spin labels for phospholipid bilayer fluidity at the C5 atom of the acyl chain near the polar head group (hydrophilic region) and the C16 atom of the acyl chain (lipophilic region), respectively. The electron spin resonance study revealed that Tween 20 increased the fluidity at the C5 atom of the acyl chain, whereas terpenes increased the fluidity at the C16 atom of the acyl chain of the phospholipid bilayer. The increase in liposomal fluidity resulted in the increased skin penetration of sodium fluorescein. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that ultradeformable liposomes with terpenes increase the skin penetration of sodium fluorescein by enhancing hair follicle penetration. PMID:26229462

  17. Thioaptamer conjugated liposomes for tumor vasculature targeting.

    PubMed

    Mann, Aman P; Bhavane, Rohan C; Somasunderam, Anoma; Liz Montalvo-Ortiz, Brenda; Ghaghada, Ketan B; Volk, David; Nieves-Alicea, Ren; Suh, K Stephen; Ferrari, Mauro; Annapragada, Ananth; Gorenstein, David G; Tanaka, Takemi

    2011-04-01

    Recent developments in multi-functional nanoparticles offer a great potential for targeted delivery of therapeutic compounds and imaging contrast agents to specific cell types, in turn, enhancing therapeutic effect and minimizing side effects. Despite the promise, site specific delivery carriers have not been translated into clinical reality. In this study, we have developed long circulating liposomes with the outer surface decorated with thioated oligonucleotide aptamer (thioaptamer) against E-selectin (ESTA) and evaluated the targeting efficacy and PK parameters. In vitro targeting studies using Human Umbilical Cord Vein Endothelial Cell (HUVEC) demonstrated efficient and rapid uptake of the ESTA conjugated liposomes (ESTA-lip). In vivo, the intravenous administration of ESTA-lip resulted in their accumulation at the tumor vasculature of breast tumor xenografts without shortening the circulation half-life. The study presented here represents an exemplary use of thioaptamer and liposome and opens the door to testing various combinations of thioaptamer and nanocarriers that can be constructed to target multiple cancer types and tumor components for delivery of both therapeutics and imaging agent. PMID:21666286

  18. Phototriggerable Liposomes: Current Research and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Anu

    2013-01-01

    The field of cancer nanomedicine is considered a promising area for improved delivery of bioactive molecules including drugs, pharmaceutical agents and nucleic acids. Among these, drug delivery technology has made discernible progress in recent years and the areas that warrant further focus and consideration towards technological developments have also been recognized. Development of viable methods for on-demand spatial and temporal release of entrapped drugs from the nanocarriers is an arena that is likely to enhance the clinical suitability of drug-loaded nanocarriers. One such approach, which utilizes light as the external stimulus to disrupt and/or destabilize drug-loaded nanoparticles, will be the discussion platform of this article. Although several phototriggerable nanocarriers are currently under development, I will limit this review to the phototriggerable liposomes that have demonstrated promise in the cell culture systems at least (but not the last). The topics covered in this review include (i) a brief summary of various phototriggerable nanocarriers; (ii) an overview of the application of liposomes to deliver payload of photosensitizers and associated technologies; (iii) the design considerations of photoactivable lipid molecules and the chemical considerations and mechanisms of phototriggering of liposomal lipids; (iv) limitations and future directions for in vivo, clinically viable triggered drug delivery approaches and potential novel photoactivation strategies will be discussed. PMID:24662363

  19. A Combination of Targeted Sunitinib Liposomes and Targeted Vinorelbine Liposomes for Treating Invasive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ji-Feng; Sun, Meng-Ge; Li, Xiu-Ying; Zhao, Yao; Ju, Rui-Jun; Mu, Li-Min; Yan, Yan; Li, Xue-Tao; Zeng, Fan; Lu, Wan-Liang

    2015-09-01

    Regular chemotherapy cannot eradicate invasive breast cancer cells and the residual cancer cells will form vasculogenic mimicry (VM) channels under hypoxic conditions to provide nutrients for cancer masses prior to angiogenesis. This phenomenon is a major reason for the recurrence of invasive breast cancer after treatment. In this study, a novel type of targeted liposomes was developed by modifying a mitochondria-tropic material, D-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate- triphenylphosphine conjugate (TPGS1000-TPP), to encapsulate sunitinib and vinorelbine separately and a combination of the two targeted drug liposomes was used to treat invasive breast cancer as well as VM channels. Evaluations were performed in breast cancer MCF-7 cells and highly invasive breast cancer MDA-MB-435S cells in vitro and in mice. The results determined that the functional material (TPGS1000-TPP) and suitable size of the liposomes (90-100 nm) resulted in prolonged blood circulation, an enhanced permeability retention (EPR) effect in cancer tissue, and a mitochondrial targeting effect. Targeted drug liposomes were internalized via cellular uptake and accumulated in the mitochondria of invasive breast cancer cells or VM channel-forming cancer cells to induce acute cytotoxic injury and apoptosis. Activated apoptotic enzymes caspase 9 and caspase 3 as well as down-regulated VM channel-forming indicators (MMP-9, EphA2, VE-Cadherin, FAK and HIF-1?) contributed to significantly enhanced efficacy. Therefore, a combination of targeted sunitinib liposomes and targeted vinorelbine liposomes may provide an effective strategy for treating invasive breast cancer and prevent relapse arising from VM channels. PMID:26485927

  20. Interaction of liposomal formulations of meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (temoporfin) with serum proteins: protein binding and liposome destruction.

    PubMed

    Reshetov, Vadzim; Zorin, Vladimir; Siupa, Agnieszka; D'Hallewin, Marie-Ange; Guillemin, Franois; Bezdetnaya, Lina

    2012-01-01

    mTHPC is a non polar photosensitizer used in photodynamic therapy. To improve its solubility and pharmacokinetic properties, liposomes were proposed as drug carriers. Binding of liposomal mTHPC to serum proteins and stability of drug carriers in serum are of major importance for PDT efficacy; however, neither was reported before. We studied drug binding to human serum proteins using size-exclusion chromatography. Liposomes destruction in human serum was measured by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Inclusion of mTHPC into conventional (Foslip()) and PEGylated (Fospeg()) liposomes does not affect equilibrium serum protein binding compared with solvent-based mTHPC. At short incubation times the redistribution of mTHPC from Foslip() and Fospeg() proceeds by both drug release and liposomes destruction. At longer incubation times, the drug redistributes only by release. The release of mTHPC from PEGylated vesicles is delayed compared with conventional liposomes, alongside with greatly decreased liposomes destruction. Thus, for long-circulation times the pharmacokinetic behavior of Fospeg() could be influenced by a combination of protein- and liposome-bound drug. The study highlights the modes of interaction of photosensitizer-loaded nanovesicles in serum to predict optimal drug delivery and behavior in vivo in preclinical models, as well as the novel application of NTA to assess the destruction of liposomes. PMID:22607362

  1. Liposomal nanoparticles as a drug delivery vehicle against osteosarcoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhule, Santosh Subhashrao

    The delivery of curcumin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, has been explored in the form of liposomal nanoparticles to treat osteosarcoma (OS). Curcumin is water insoluble and an effective delivery route is through encapsulation in cyclodextrins followed by a second encapsulation in liposomes. Liposomal curcumin's potential was evaluated against cancer models of mesenchymal (OS) and epithelial origin (breast cancer). The resulting 2-Hydroxypropyl-gamma-cyclodextrin/curcumin - liposome complex shows promising anticancer potential both in vitro and in vivo against KHOS OS cell line and MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. An interesting aspect is that liposomal curcumin initiates the caspase cascade that leads to apoptotic cell death in vitro in comparison with DMSO-curcumin induced autophagic cell death. In addition, the efficiency of the liposomal curcumin formulation was confirmed in vivo using a xenograft OS model. Curcumin-loaded gamma-cyclodextrin liposomes indicate significant potential as delivery vehicles for the treatment of cancers of different tissue origin. The second part of this study examines the anti-tumor potential of curcumin and C6 ceramide (C6) against osteosarcoma cell lines when both are encapsulated in the bilayer of liposomal nanoparticles. Curcumin in combination with C6 showed 1.5 times enhanced cytotoxic effect in the case of MG-63 and KHOS OS cell lines, in comparison with systems with curcumin alone. Interestingly, C6-curcumin liposomes were found to be less toxic on untransformed human cells in comparison to OS cell lines. In addition, cell cycle assays on a KHOS cell line after treatment revealed that curcumin only liposomes induced G 2/M arrest by upregulation of cyclin B1, while C6 only liposomes induced G1 arrest by downregulation of cyclin D1. C6-curcumin liposomes induced G2/M arrest and showed a combined effect in the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1. Using pegylated liposomes to increase the plasma half-life and tagging with folate for targeted delivery in vivo, a significant reduction in tumor size was observed with C6-curcumin-folate liposomes. The encapsulation of two water insoluble drugs, curcumin and C6, in the lipid bilayer of liposomes enhances the cytotoxic effect and validates the potential of combined drug therapy.

  2. Technetium-99m labelled liposomes to image experimental arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Boerman, O.; Oyen, W.; Storm, G.; Corvo, M; van Bloois, L.; van der Meer, J. W M; Corstens, F.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVESLiposomes sterically stabilised with polyethylene glycol (PEG) labelled with technetium-99m were tested for their ability to image adjuvant arthritis in a rat model.?METHODSAdjuvant arthritis was induced in the ankle joint of the left hind foot by injection of Mycobacterium butyricum in Freund's incomplete adjuvant in the foot pad. Seven days later animals received the following radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 99mTc (a) non-PEG-liposomes, (b) PEG-liposomes or (c) non-specific human polyclonal IgG. For each of the radiopharmaceuticals the in vivo distribution of the radiolabel was monitored both scintigraphically as well as by counting the dissected tissues at two, eight, and 24hours after injection.?RESULTSThe pharmacokinetics of the radiopharmaceuticals differed considerably (half life in the blood: PEG-liposomes (18hours)>99mTc-IgG (3hours)>non-PEG liposomes (1hour)). The inflamed focus was visualised with each of the agents. The uptake of each of the radiopharmaceuticals in the inflamed ankle region correlated with their residence time in the blood (inflamed joint uptake: PEG liposomes (1.15% injected dose (ID)/g)>99mTc-IgG (0.35% ID/g)>non-PEG-liposomes (0.05% ID/g)). Quantitative analysis of the images showed that the inflamed ankle to background ratio was highest with the PEG-liposomes (7.5at 24hours after injection), while with the other two agents this ratio did not exceed 4.?CONCLUSIONThis study shows that 99mTc-labelled PEG-liposomes may be an excellent agent to visualise arthritis. Increased label uptake in the inflamed joint and increased target to background ratios can be obtained with PEG-liposomes because of their long circulating properties. In addition to their use as vehicles for scintigraphic imaging of arthritis PEG-liposomes might also be used for the site specific delivery of antirheumatic drugs.?? PMID:9227166

  3. Binding of Diphtheria Toxin to Phospholipids in Liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alving, Carl R.; Iglewski, Barbara H.; Urban, Katharine A.; Moss, Joel; Richards, Roberta L.; Sadoff, Jerald C.

    1980-04-01

    Diphtheria toxin bound to the phosphate portion of some, but not all, phospholipids in liposomes. Liposomes consisting of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol did not bind toxin. Addition of 20 mol% (compared to dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine) of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid, dicetyl phosphate, phosphatidylinositol phosphate, cardiolipin, or phosphatidylserine in the liposomes resulted in substantial binding of toxin. Inclusion of phosphatidylinositol in dimyristol phosphatidylcholine / cholesterol liposomes did not result in toxin binding. The calcium salt of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid was more effective than the sodium salt, and the highest level of binding occurred with liposomes consisting only of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (calcium salt) and cholesterol. Binding of toxin to liposomes was dependent on pH, and the pattern of pH dependence varied with liposomes having different compositions. Incubation of diphtheria toxin with liposomes containing dicetyl phosphate resulted in maximal binding at pH 3.6, whereas binding to liposomes containing phosphatidylinositol phosphate was maximal above pH 7. Toxin did not bind to liposomes containing 20 mol% of a free fatty acid (palmitic acid) or a sulfated lipid (3-sulfogalactosylceramide). Toxin binding to dicetyl phosphate or phosphatidylinositol phosphate was inhibited by UTP, ATP, phosphocholine, or p-nitrophenyl phosphate, but not by uracil. We conclude that (a) diphtheria toxin binds specifically to the phosphate portion of certain phospholipids, (b) binding to phospholipids in liposomes is dependent on pH, but is not due only to electrostatic interaction, and (c) binding may be strongly influenced by the composition of adjacent phospholipids that do not bind toxin. We propose that a minor membrane phospholipid (such as phosphatidylinositol phosphate or phosphatidic acid), or that some other phosphorylated membrane molecule (such as a phosphoprotein) may be important in the initial binding of diphtheria toxin to cells.

  4. Cationic liposomes evoke proinflammatory mediator release and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) toward human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Hsu, Ching-Yun; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Chen, Chun-Han; Chang, Yuan-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-04-01

    Cationic liposomes are widely used as nanocarriers for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. The cationic components of liposomes can induce inflammatory responses. This study examined the effect of cationic liposomes on human neutrophil activation. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate (SME) was incorporated into liposomes as the cationic additive. The liposomes' cytotoxicity and their induction of proinflammatory mediators, intracellular calcium, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were investigated. The interaction of the liposomes with the plasma membrane triggered the stimulation of neutrophils. CTAB liposomes induced complete leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) at all concentrations tested, whereas SME liposomes released LDH in a concentration-dependent manner. CTAB liposomes proved to more effectively activate neutrophils compared with SME liposomes, as indicated by increased superoxide anion and elastase levels. Calcium influx increased 9-fold after treatment with CTAB liposomes. This influx was not changed by SME liposomes compared with the untreated control. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunofluorescence images indicated the presence of NETs after treatment with cationic liposomes. NETs could be quickly formed, within minutes, after CTAB liposomal treatment. In contrast to this result, NET formation was slowly and gradually increased by SME liposomes, within 4h. Based on the data presented here, it is important to consider the toxicity of cationic liposomes during administration in the body. This is the first report providing evidence of NET production induced by cationic liposomes. PMID:25731102

  5. Synthesis of the iron phthalocyaninate radical cation μ-nitrido dimer and its interaction with hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishina, E. S.; Makarova, A. S.; Kudrik, E. V.; Makarov, S. V.; Koifman, O. I.

    2016-03-01

    The iron phthalocyaninate μ-nitrido dimer radical cation, as well as the μ-nitrido dimer complexes of iron phthalocyaninate, was found to have high catalytic activity in the oxidation of organic compounds. It was concluded that this compound is of interest as a model of active intermediates—catalase and oxidase enzymes.

  6. Antibacterial effect of cationic porphyrazines and anionic phthalocyanine and their interaction with plasmid DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, Leila; Hakimian, Fatemeh; Safaei, Elham; Fazeli, Zahra

    2013-11-01

    Resistance to antibiotics is a public health issue and identification of new antibacterial agents is one of the most important goals of pharmacological research. Among the novel developed antibacterial agents, porphyrin complexes and their derivatives are ideal candidates for use in medical applications. Phthalocyanines differ from porphyrins by having nitrogen atoms link the individual pyrrol units. The aza analogues of the phthalocyanines (azaPcs) such as tetramethylmetalloporphyrazines are heterocyclic Pc analogues. In this investigation, interaction of an anionic phthalocyanine (Cu(PcTs)) and two cationic tetrapyridinoporphyrazines including [Cu(2,3-tmtppa)]4+ and [Cu(3,4-tmtppa)]4+ complexes with plasmid DNA was studied using spectroscopic and gel electrophoresis methods. In addition, antibacterial effect of the complexes against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria was investigated using dilution test method. The results indicated that both porphyrazines have significant antibacterial properties, but Cu(PcTs) has weak antibacterial effect. Compairing the binding of the phthalocyanine and the porphyrazines to DNA demonstrated that the interaction of cationic porphyrazines is stronger than the anionic phthalocyanine remarkably. The extent of hypochromicity and red shift of absorption spectra indicated preferential intercalation of the two porphyrazine into the base pairs of DNA helix. Gel electrophoresis result implied Cu(2,3-tmtppa) and Cu(3,4-tmtppa) are able to perform cleavage of the plasmid DNA. Consequently, DNA binding and cleavage might be one of the antibacterial mechanisms of the complexes.

  7. Phthalocyanines and Their Analogs Applied in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiyou; Wang, Haixia; Wu, Haixia

    In this chapter, recent progress in the application of phthalocyanines and related tetrapyrrole metal complexes in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is summarized and analyzed. Three categories of phthalocyanines defined by the connecting positions of anchoring groups, namely symmetrically substituted phthalocyanines, asymmetrically substituted phthalocyanines and axially substituted phthalocyanines, are discussed separately. The effects of the distance of the dye molecule from the surface of the semiconductor nanoparticles, the redox potentials and the directionality of the anchoring groups on the performance of the dyes were reviewed. Porphyrins are good sensitizers to wide band semiconductors too. The performance of these sensitizers is predominantly affected by the nature, the connection position of the anchoring groups and the central metal ions. Modifications on the molecular structure of porphyrin by introducing different groups at different positions aimed at extending the absorption spectra, tuning the electronic configuration of the excited states, and inhibiting the aggregation are reviewed. The application of natural porphyrins as sensitizers in DSSCs is also discussed at the end of this chapter.

  8. Gas sensing mechanism in chemiresistive cobalt and metal-free phthalocyanine thin films.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Forest I; Sharoni, Amos; Colesniuc, Corneliu; Park, Jeongwon; Schuller, Ivan K; Kummel, Andrew C; Trogler, William C

    2007-05-01

    The gas sensing behaviors of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) and metal-free phthalocyanine (H2Pc) thin films were investigated with respect to analyte basicity. Chemiresistive sensors were fabricated by deposition of 50 nm thick films on interdigitated gold electrodes via organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE). Time-dependent current responses of the films were measured at constant voltage during exposure to analyte vapor doses. The analytes spanned a range of electron donor and hydrogen-bonding strengths. It was found that, when the analyte exceeded a critical base strength, the device responses for CoPc correlated with Lewis basicity, and device responses for H2Pc correlated with hydrogen-bond basicity. This suggests that the analyte-phthalocyanine interaction is dominated by binding to the central cavity of the phthalocyanine with analyte coordination strength governing CoPc sensor responses and analyte hydrogen-bonding ability governing H2Pc sensor responses. The interactions between the phthalocyanine films and analytes were found to follow first-order kinetics. The influence of O2 on the film response was found to significantly affect sensor response and recovery. The increase of resistance generally observed for analyte binding can be attributed to hole destruction in the semiconductor film by oxygen displacement, as well as hole trapping by electron donor ligands. PMID:17411043

  9. Elaboration of ammonia gas sensors based on electrodeposited polypyrrole--cobalt phthalocyanine hybrid films.

    PubMed

    Patois, Tilia; Sanchez, Jean-Baptiste; Berger, Franck; Fievet, Patrick; Segut, Olivier; Moutarlier, Virginie; Bouvet, Marcel; Lakard, Boris

    2013-12-15

    The electrochemical incorporation of a sulfonated cobalt phthalocyanine (sCoPc) in conducting polypyrrole (PPy) was done, in the presence or absence of LiClO4, in order to use the resulting hybrid material for the sensing of ammonia. After electrochemical deposition, the morphological features and structural properties of polypyrrole/phthalocyanine hybrid films were investigated and compared to those of polypyrrole films. A gas sensor consisting in platinum microelectrodes arrays was fabricated using silicon microtechnologies, and the polypyrrole and polypyrrole/phthalocyanine films were electrochemically deposited on the platinum microelectrodes arrays of this gas sensor. When exposed to ammonia, polymer-based gas sensors exhibited a decrease in conductance due to the electron exchange between ammonia and sensitive polymer-based layer. The characteristics of the gas sensors (response time, response amplitude, reversibility) were studied for ammonia concentrations varying from 1 ppm to 100 ppm. Polypyrrole/phthalocyanine films exhibited a high sensitivity and low detection limit to ammonia as well as a fast and reproducible response at room temperature. The response to ammonia exposition of polypyrrole films was found to be strongly enhanced thanks to the incorporation of the phthalocyanine in the polypyrrole matrix. PMID:24209308

  10. Synthesis of phthalocyanine doped sol-gel materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    The synthesis of sol-gel silica materials doped with three different types of metallophthalocyanines has been studied. Homogeneous materials of good optical quality were prepared and the first optical limiting measurements of dyes in sol-gel hosts were carried out. The properties of these solid state limiters are similar to limiters based on phthalocyanine (Pc) in solution. Sol-gel silica materials containing copper, tin and germanium phthalocyanines were investigated. The initial step in all cases was to prepare silica sols by the sonogel method using tetramethoxy silane (TMOS), HCl and distilled water. Thereafter, the synthesis depended upon the specific Pc and its solubility characteristics. Copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetra sodium salt (CuPc4S) is soluble in water and various doping levels (1 x 10 (exp -4) M to 1 x 10 (exp -5) M) were added to the sol. The group IV Pc's, SnPc(OSi(n-hexyl)3)2 and GePc(OSi(n-hexyl)3)2, are insoluble in water and the process was changed accordingly. In these cases, the compounds were dissolved in THF and then added to the sol. The Pc concentration in the sol was 2 x 10(exp -5)M. The samples were then aged and dried in the standard method of making xerogel monoliths. Comparative nanosecond optical limiting experiments were performed on silica xerogels that were doped with the different metallophthalocyanines. The ratio of the net excited state absorption cross section (sigma(sub e)) to the ground state cross section (sigma(sub g)) is an important figure of merit that is used to characterize these materials. By this standard the SnPc sample exhibits the best limiting for the Pc doped sol-gel materials. Its cross section ratio of 19 compares favorably with the value of 22 that was measured in toluene. The GePc materials appear to not be as useful as those containing SnPc. The GePc doped solids exhibit a higher onset energy (2.5 mj and lower cross section ratio, 7. The CuPc4S sol-gel material has a still lower cross section ratio, 4, however, the tetrasulfonate groups make the dye soluble in water which greatly facilitates its incorporation into the sol-gel matrix. The nonlinear transmission of CuPc4S in a pH 2 buffer solution and in a silica xerogel were compared. It is evident that the CuPc4S preserves its optical limiting behavior in the sol-gel matrix, indicating that the fundamental excited state absorption process is essentially the same for a molecule in solution or in the solid state. Although the spectroscopic details of energy level lifetimes are unknown, the significance is that passive optical limiting has been achieved in the solid state via incorporation of a dye into an inorganic host. The only compromise occurs at the extremely high energy regime where photobleaching is observed. This is a result of the limited mobility of the dye molecules in the solid silica host relative to a liquid host. The effects of photodegradation in the xerogel are additive, whereas the solution provides a supply of fresh molecules that are free to enter the active volume between pulses.

  11. Preparation, characterization, cytotoxicity and pharmacokinetics of liposomes containing docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Immordino, Maria Laura; Brusa, Paola; Arpicco, Silvia; Stella, Barbara; Dosio, Franco; Cattel, Luigi

    2003-09-01

    The taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel, are anticancer agents used in clinical trials against ovarian carcinoma, breast, lung and head/neck cancer. Paclitaxel, very insoluble in water, is generally formulated using Cremophor EL. Docetaxel, more soluble in water, is formulated using Tween 80 and ethanol. Tween 80, albeit less toxic than Cremophor EL, may be responsible of some toxic effects. To eliminate these vehicles and improve the drug's antitumor efficacy, taxanes have been incorporated in liposomes. We compared formulation, stability, biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of docetaxel in conventional and PEGylated liposomes. Of the several formulations examined, docetaxel-liposomes composed of ePC/PG/CHOL 9:1:2 and ePC/PG/DSPE-PEG2000/CHOL 9:1:2:0.7 were the most effective. Both conventional and PEGylated docetaxel-liposomes were stable at 4 degrees C after 15 days, whereas in the presence of serum at 37 degrees C they were less stable. The IC50 values of docetaxel-liposomes, evaluated on HT-29 and Igrov1 cell lines, remained very high. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution were evaluated in Balb/c mice after i.v. injection of [14C]docetaxel, formulated in Tween 80 or in 3H-labeled conventional or PEGylated liposomes. The t(1/2)beta, which was low for docetaxel (52.3 min), rose to 260 min for conventional docetaxel-liposomes and to 665 min for PEGylated docetaxel liposomes. Biodistribution studies confirmed the pharmacokinetics. PMID:12932719

  12. Differential inhibition of macrophage microbicidal activity by liposomes.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbreath, M J; Swartz, G M; Alving, C R; Nacy, C A; Hoover, D L; Meltzer, M S

    1985-01-01

    In vitro culture of murine resident peritoneal macrophages with lymphokine (LK)-rich leukocyte culture fluids induces enhanced microbicidal activity against amastigotes of the protozoan parasite Leishmania tropica. Macrophages infected with Leishmania and treated with LKs after infection acquire the capacity to kill the intracellular parasite within 72 h. When compared with control macrophage cultures treated with medium lacking LKs, 80 to 90% fewer macrophages treated with LKs contained amastigotes. In experiments designed to test liposome delivery of LKs to infected macrophages, addition of multilamellar liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine (molar ratio, 7:3) completely abrogated LK-induced microbicidal activity. Liposomes containing only phosphatidylcholine were not inhibitory. Inhibition of LK activity by the liposomes occurred regardless of whether the liposomes contained LKs. Liposomal inhibition of activated macrophage effector activity was limited to intracellular killing; LK-induced macrophage extracellular cytolysis (i.e., tumor cytotoxicity) was not affected by liposome treatment. These data indicate that elucidation of the effects of liposome composition on acquired host defense mechanisms may be useful for the design of drug delivery systems that allow expression or augmentation of immunologically induced mechanisms for the intracellular destruction of infectious agents. PMID:3967927

  13. Liposome/Graphene Oxide Interaction Studied by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; Wang, Feng; Liu, Juewen

    2016-03-15

    The interaction between graphene oxide (GO) and lipid bilayers is important for fundamental surface science and many applications. In this work, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), cryo-TEM, and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to study the adsorption of three types of liposomes. Heat release was observed when GO was mixed with zwitterionic DOPC liposomes, while heat absorption occurred with cationic DOTAP liposomes. For comparison, anionic DOPG liposomes released heat when mixed with DOTAP. DOPC was adsorbed as intact liposomes, but DOTAP ruptured and induced stacking and folding of GO sheets. This study suggests the release of more water molecules from the GO surface when mixed with DOTAP liposomes. This can be rationalized by the full rupture of the DOTAP liposomes interacting with the whole GO surface, including hydrophobic regions, while DOPC liposomes only interact with a small area on GO near the edge, which is likely to be more hydrophilic. This interesting biointerfacial observation has enhanced our fundamental understanding of lipid/GO interactions. PMID:26908113

  14. Formulation and stabilization of riboflavin in liposomal preparations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iqbal; Arsalan, Adeel; Ali, Syed Abid; Sheraz, Muhammad Ali; Ahmed, Sofia; Anwar, Zubair; Munir, Iqra; Shah, Muhammad Raza

    2015-12-01

    A study of the formulation of liposomal preparations of riboflavin (RF) with compositional variations in the content of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and their entrapment efficiency (26-42%) have been conducted. Light transmission characteristics of the liposomal preparations have been determined to evaluate their effect on the amount of light passing through the system to initiate a photochemical reaction. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to study the physical characteristics of liposomes. The liposomal preparations of RF have been subjected to photolysis using visible light and the apparent first- order rate constant, kobs, for the degradation of RF have been determined. The values of kobs (1.73-2.2910(-3)min(-1)) have been found to decrease linearly with an increase in PC concentration in the range of 12.15 to 14.85mM. Thus, an increase in PC concentration of liposomes leads to an increase in the stability of RF. RF and its main photoproduct, lumichrome (LC), formed in liposomes have been assayed by a two-component spectrometric method at 356 and 445nm using an irrelevant absorption correction to compensate for the interference of liposomal components. The fluorescence measurements of RF in liposomes indicate excited singlet state quenching and the formation of a charge-transfer complex between RF and PC. It results in electron transfer from PC to RF to cause photoreduction and stabilization of RF. PMID:26546920

  15. Disterolphospholipids: nonexchangeable lipids and their application to liposomal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhaohua; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Szoka, Francis C

    2009-01-01

    Extreme makeover of cholesterol: Cholesterol exchange is a major reason for the instability of liposomes in blood. The formation of a covalent hybrid between cholesterol and glycerophosphocholine preserves the bilayer-stabilizing effect of free cholesterol but prevents its transfer from the bilayer. Thus, disterolphospholipids (e.g. 1) are valuable new components for liposome formulation. PMID:19425026

  16. Nerve growth factor-mediated targeting of liposomes to cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hawrot, E.; Rosenberg, M.B.; Preston, P.E.; Breakefield, X.O.

    1986-05-01

    Derivatives of beta-nerve growth factor (NGF), modified by biotinylation of carboxyl groups, were used to target the specific binding of liposomes to cultured rat and human cells bearing NGF receptors. Streptavidin was conjugated via peptide bonds to amino groups on liposomes. Biotinylated NGF, but not unmodified NGF, mediated the binding of radiolabeled streptavidin-liposomes to rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells in suspension at 4/sup 0/C. In contrast, biotinylated NGF did not increase the binding of hemoglobin-conjugated liposomes tested as a control for specificity. Biotinylated NGF also mediated the specific binding of streptavidin-liposomes containing fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran to PC12 cells and human melanoma HS294 cells. When HS294 cells were incubated at 37/sup 0/C following liposome binding at 4/sup 0/C, the cell-associated fluorescence appeared to become internalized, in that some cells displayed a perinuclear pattern of fluorescence similar to that observed when lysosomes were stained with acridine orange. Trypsin treatment abolished cell-associated fluorescence when cells were held at 4/sup 0/C but did not affect the fluorescence in cells following incubation at 37/sup 0/C. When liposomes containing carboxyfluorescein, a dye that can diffuse out of acidic compartments, were targeted to HS294 cells, incubation at 37/sup 0/C resulted in diffuse cytoplasmic fluorescence, suggesting that internalized liposomes encounter lysosomal or prelysosomal organelles.

  17. Sustainable proliferation of liposomes compatible with inner RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Gakushi; Fujii, Satoshi; Sunami, Takeshi; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2016-01-19

    Although challenging, the construction of a life-like compartment via a bottom-up approach can increase our understanding of life and protocells. The sustainable replication of genome information and the proliferation of phospholipid vesicles are requisites for reconstituting cell growth. However, although the replication of DNA or RNA has been developed in phospholipid vesicles, the sustainable proliferation of phospholipid vesicles has remained difficult to achieve. Here, we demonstrate the sustainable proliferation of liposomes that replicate RNA within them. Nutrients for RNA replication and membranes for liposome proliferation were combined by using a modified freeze-thaw technique. These liposomes showed fusion and fission compatible with RNA replication and distribution to daughter liposomes. The RNAs in daughter liposomes were repeatedly used as templates in the next RNA replication and were distributed to granddaughter liposomes. Liposome proliferation was achieved by 10 cycles of iterative culture operation. Therefore, we propose the use of culturable liposomes as an advanced protocell model with the implication that the concurrent supplement of both the membrane material and the nutrients of inner reactions might have enabled protocells to grow sustainably. PMID:26711996

  18. Designing liposomal adjuvants for the next generation of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Perrie, Yvonne; Crofts, Fraser; Devitt, Andrew; Griffiths, Helen R; Kastner, Elisabeth; Nadella, Vinod

    2016-04-01

    Liposomes not only offer the ability to enhance drug delivery, but can effectively act as vaccine delivery systems and adjuvants. Their flexibility in size, charge, bilayer rigidity and composition allow for targeted antigen delivery via a range of administration routes. In the development of liposomal adjuvants, the type of immune response promoted has been linked to their physico-chemical characteristics, with the size and charge of the liposomal particles impacting on liposome biodistribution, exposure in the lymph nodes and recruitment of the innate immune system. The addition of immunostimulatory agents can further potentiate their immunogenic properties. Here, we outline the attributes that should be considered in the design and manufacture of liposomal adjuvants for the delivery of sub-unit and nucleic acid based vaccines. PMID:26576719

  19. Liposomal resiquimod for the treatment of Leishmania donovani infection

    PubMed Central

    Peine, Kevin J.; Gupta, Gaurav; Brackman, Deanna J.; Papenfuss, Tracey L.; Ainslie, Kristy M.; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Bachelder, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The imidazoquinoline family of drugs are Toll-like receptor 7/8 agonists that have previously been used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Because of the hydrophobic nature of imidazoquinolines, they are traditionally not administered systemically for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. We formulated liposomal resiquimod, an imidazoquinoline, for the systemic treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. Methods By using lipid film hydration with extrusion, we encapsulated resiquimod in liposomes. These liposomes were then injected intravenously to treat BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania donovani. Results Treatment with liposomal resiquimod significantly decreased the parasite load in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. In addition, resiquimod treatment increased interferon-γ and interleukin-10 production in an antigen recall assay. Resiquimod was shown to be non-toxic in histology and in vitro culture experiments. Conclusions FDA-approved resiquimod, in a liposomal formulation, displays promising results in treating visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:23956375

  20. Microfabrication of three-dimensional filters for liposome extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldacchini, Tommaso; Nuez, Vicente; LaFratta, Christopher N.; Grech, Joseph S.; Vullev, Valentine I.; Zadoyan, Ruben

    2015-03-01

    Liposomes play a relevant role in the biomedical field of drug delivery. The ability of these lipid vesicles to encapsulate and transport a variety of bioactive molecules has fostered their use in several therapeutic applications, from cancer treatments to the administration of drugs with antiviral activities. Size and uniformity are key parameters to take into consideration when preparing liposomes; these factors greatly influence their effectiveness in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. A popular technique employed to achieve the optimal liposome dimension (around 100 nm in diameter) and uniform size distribution is repetitive extrusion through a polycarbonate filter. We investigated two femtosecond laser direct writing techniques for the fabrication of three-dimensional filters within a microfluidics chip for liposomes extrusion. The miniaturization of the extrusion process in a microfluidic system is the first step toward a complete solution for lab-on-a-chip preparation of liposomes from vesicles self-assembly to optical characterization.

  1. Chiral Selective Adsorption of Ibuprofen on a Liposome Membrane.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yukihiro; Kishi, Yusuke; Ishigami, Takaaki; Suga, Keishi; Umakoshi, Hiroshi

    2016-03-17

    We investigated the key factors that affect enantioselective adsorption of ibuprofen (IBU) on a liposome membrane by changing its lipid composition: the liposome membrane shows different membrane fluidity, surface charge, content of chiral components, and heterogeneity (nanodomain). Nonspecific interactions (hydrophobic and electrostatic) were revealed to be an important factor in enhancing the adsorbed amount of IBU, based on adsorption experiments carried out using single lipids (DPPC, DMPC, DOPC, and DLPC) and positively charged liposomes (DOTAP and liposome containing DC-Ch). Furthermore, control of the boundary edge (i.e., the nanodomain size) derived from the membrane heterogeneity was important for enantioselective adsorption; as well as multiple weak interactions between lipid molecules and IBU enantiomers. The above findings provided a good index for constructing liposomal chiral adsorbents. PMID:26923279

  2. Enhanced antitumor effect of novel dual-targeted paclitaxel liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Shuyan; Su, Bo; Li, Wei; Ding, Yongmei; Tang, Liang; Zhou, Wei; Song, Yin; Li, Heyan; Zhou, Caicun

    2010-10-01

    A novel dual-targeted peptide containing an alpha V integrins specific ligand and a neuropilin-1 specific motif was developed which showed an increased specific targeting affinity to tumors. Active dual-targeted liposomes were then produced with this peptide and exhibited greater binding activity than single-targeted liposomes in vitro. Paclitaxel entrapped in this formulation greatly increased the uptake of paclitaxel in the targeting cells and significantly suppressed the growth of HUVEC and A549 cells compared with general paclitaxel injections (Taxol) and single-targeted paclitaxel liposomes. The treatment of tumor xenograft models with dual-targeted paclitaxel liposomes also resulted in better tumor growth inhibition than any other treatment groups. Therefore, the dual-targeted paclitaxel liposomes prepared in the present study might be a more promising drug for cancer treatment. Furthermore, the dual-targeting approach may produce synergistic effects that can be applied in the development of new targeted drug delivery systems.

  3. Electromagnetic field triggered drug and chemical delivery via liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Liburdy, R.P.

    1993-03-02

    The present invention relates to a system and to a method of delivering a drug to a preselected target body site of a patient, comprising the steps of encapsulating the chemical agent within liposomes, essentially temperature insensitive, i.e. not having a specific predetermined phase transition temperature within the specific temperature range of drug administration; administering the liposomes to the target body site; and subjecting the target body site to nonionizing electromagnetic fields in an area of the preselected target body in order to release the chemical agent from the liposomes at a temperature of between about +10 and 65 C. The invention further relates to the use of the liposomes to bind to the surface of or to enter target tissue or an organ in a living system, and, when subjected to a nonionizing field, to release a drug from the liposomes into the target site.

  4. Cerebrovascular involvement in liposome-induced cardiopulmonary distress in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bodo, Michael; Szebeni, Janos; Baranyi, Lajos; Savay, Sandor; Pearce, Frederick J; Alving, Carl R; Bnger, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    Intravenous administration of liposomes, including Doxil, can cause severe life-threatening hemodynamic changes in pigs. The reaction is due to complement activation, and it is characterized by massive pulmonary hypertension, systemic hypotension, and severe cardiac abnormalities including falling cardiac output, tachy-or bradycardia with arrhythmia. There were no data suggesting the involvement of cerebrovascular changes in this reaction; however, clinical observations allowed this hypothesis. Here we measured the accompanying changes during liposome infusion by monitoring pulsatile electrical impedance (rheoencephalogram- REG) on the skull (n=24 pigs, 57 trials, 19 types of liposomes). A transient but significant decrease of REG pulse amplitudes followed the injection of liposomes (78.43% in the total sample, and 91.66% in the Doxil subgroup; P=0.003, n=12), indicating the involvement of cerebrovascular reaction during liposome infusion. PMID:16194924

  5. Multimodal targeted high relaxivity thermosensitive liposome for in vivo imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijten, Maayke M. P.; Hannah Degeling, M.; Chen, John W.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Waterman, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Azzi, Jamil; Nicolay, Klaas; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes are spherical, self-closed structures formed by lipid bilayers that can encapsulate drugs and/or imaging agents in their hydrophilic core or within their membrane moiety, making them suitable delivery vehicles. We have synthesized a new liposome containing gadolinium-DOTA lipid bilayer, as a targeting multimodal molecular imaging agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. We showed that this liposome has a much higher molar relaxivities r1 and r2 compared to a more conventional liposome containing gadolinium-DTPA-BSA lipid. By incorporating both gadolinium and rhodamine in the lipid bilayer as well as biotin on its surface, we used this agent for multimodal imaging and targeting of tumors through the strong biotin-streptavidin interaction. Since this new liposome is thermosensitive, it can be used for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery at specific sites, such as tumors, and can be guided by magnetic resonance imaging.

  6. Sterically stabilized liposomes: improvements in pharmacokinetics and antitumor therapeutic efficacy.

    PubMed Central

    Papahadjopoulos, D; Allen, T M; Gabizon, A; Mayhew, E; Matthay, K; Huang, S K; Lee, K D; Woodle, M C; Lasic, D D; Redemann, C

    1991-01-01

    The results obtained in this study establish that liposome formulations incorporating a synthetic polyethylene glycol-derivatized phospholipid have a pronounced effect on liposome tissue distribution and can produce a large increase in the pharmacological efficacy of encapsulated antitumor drugs. This effect is substantially greater than that observed previously with conventional liposomes and is associated with a more than 5-fold prolongation of liposome circulation time in blood, a marked decrease in uptake by tissues such as liver and spleen, and a corresponding increased accumulation in implanted tumors. These and other properties described here have expanded considerably the prospects of liposomes as an effective carrier system for a variety of pharmacologically active macromolecules. Images PMID:1763060

  7. Shrinkage of pegylated and non-pegylated liposomes in serum.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Joy; Suri, Krishna; Yang, Yong; Shen, Jianliang; Celia, Christian; Fresta, Massimo; Zhao, Yuliang; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2014-02-01

    An essential requisite for the design of nanodelivery systems is the ability to characterize the size, homogeneity and zeta potential of nanoparticles. Such properties can be tailored in order to create the most efficient drug delivery platforms. An important question is whether these characteristics change upon systemic injection. Here, we have studied the behavior of phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol liposomes exposed to serum proteins. The results reveal a serum-induced reduction in the size and homogeneity of both pegylated and non-pegylated liposomes, implicating the possible role of osmotic forces. In addition, changes to zeta-potential were observed upon exposing liposomes to serum. The liposomes with polyethylene glycol expressed different characteristics than their non-polymeric counterparts, suggesting the potential formation of a denser protein corona around the non-pegylated liposomes. PMID:24216620

  8. Shrinkage of pegylated and non-pegylated liposomes in serum

    PubMed Central

    Wolfram, Joy; Suri, Krishna; Yang, Yong; Shen, Jianliang; Celia, Christian; Fresta, Massimo; Zhao, Yuliang; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    An essential requisite for the design of nanodelivery systems is the ability to characterize the size, homogeneity and zeta potential of nanoparticles. Such properties can be tailored in order to create the most efficient drug delivery platforms. An important question is whether these characteristics change upon systemic injection. Here, we have studied the behavior of phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol liposomes exposed to serum proteins. The results reveal a serum-induced reduction in the size and homogeneity of both pegylated and non-pegylated liposomes, implicating the possible role of osmotic forces. In addition, changes to zeta-potential were observed upon exposing liposomes to serum. The liposomes with polyethylene glycol expressed different characteristics than their non-polymeric counterparts, suggesting the potential formation of a denser protein corona around the non-pegylated liposomes. PMID:24216620

  9. Mechanical properties of a giant liposome studied using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitamichi, Yoko; Ichikawa, Masatoshi; Kimura, Yasuyuki

    2009-09-01

    The mechanical properties of a micrometer-sized giant liposome are studied by deforming it from the inside using dual-beam optical tweezers. As the liposome is extended, its shape changes from a sphere to a lemon shape, and finally, a tubular part is generated. The surface tension σ and the bending rigidity κ of the lipid membrane are obtained from the measured force-extension curve. In a one-phase liposome, it was found that σ increases as the charged component increases but κ remains approximately constant. In a two-phase liposome, the characteristic deformation and the force-extension curve differ from those observed for the one-phase liposome.

  10. Multimodal targeted high relaxivity thermosensitive liposome for in vivo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kuijten, Maayke M. P.; Hannah Degeling, M.; Chen, John W.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Waterman, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Azzi, Jamil; Nicolay, Klaas; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes are spherical, self-closed structures formed by lipid bilayers that can encapsulate drugs and/or imaging agents in their hydrophilic core or within their membrane moiety, making them suitable delivery vehicles. We have synthesized a new liposome containing gadolinium-DOTA lipid bilayer, as a targeting multimodal molecular imaging agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. We showed that this liposome has a much higher molar relaxivities r1 and r2 compared to a more conventional liposome containing gadolinium-DTPA-BSA lipid. By incorporating both gadolinium and rhodamine in the lipid bilayer as well as biotin on its surface, we used this agent for multimodal imaging and targeting of tumors through the strong biotin-streptavidin interaction. Since this new liposome is thermosensitive, it can be used for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery at specific sites, such as tumors, and can be guided by magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26610702

  11. Recent Applications of Liposomes in Ophthalmic Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gyan P.; Bagui, Mahuya; Tamboli, Viral; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2011-01-01

    Liposomal formulations were significantly explored over the last decade for the ophthalmic drug delivery applications. These formulations are mainly composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and other constituents such as cholesterol and lipid-conjugated hydrophilic polymers. Liposomes are biodegradable and biocompatible in nature. Current approaches for topical delivery of liposomes are focused on improving the corneal adhesion and permeation by incorporating various bioadhesive and penetration enhancing polymers. In the case of posterior segment disorders improvement in intravitreal half life and targeted drug delivery to the retina is achieved by liposomes. In this paper we have attempted to summarize the applications of liposomes in the field of ophthalmic drug delivery by citing numerous investigators over the last decade. PMID:21490757

  12. Recent Developments in Liposome-Based Veterinary Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in nanomedicine have been studied in the veterinary field and have found a wide variety of applications. The past decade has witnessed a massive surge of research interest in liposomes for delivery of therapeutic substances in animals. Liposomes are nanosized phospholipid vesicles that can serve as delivery platforms for a wide range of substances. Liposomes are easily formulated, highly modifiable, and easily administered delivery platforms. They are biodegradable and nontoxic and have long in vivo circulation time. This review focuses on recent and ongoing research that may have relevance for veterinary medicine. By examining the recent developments in liposome-based therapeutics in animal cancers, vaccines, and analgesia, this review depicts the current significance and future directions of liposome-based delivery in veterinary medicine. PMID:24222862

  13. Preparation and characterization of clove essential oil-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sebaaly, Carine; Jraij, Alia; Fessi, Hatem; Charcosset, Catherine; Greige-Gerges, Hlne

    2015-07-01

    In this study, suitable formulations of natural soybean phospholipid vesicles were developed to improve the stability of clove essential oil and its main component, eugenol. Using an ethanol injection method, saturated (Phospholipon 80H, Phospholipon 90H) and unsaturated soybean (Lipoid S100) phospholipids, in combination with cholesterol, were used to prepare liposomes at various eugenol and clove essential oil concentrations. Liposomal batches were characterized and compared for their size, polydispersity index, Zeta potential, loading rate, encapsulation efficiency and morphology. The liposomes were tested for their stability after storing them for 2 months at 4C by monitoring changes in their mean size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency (EE) values. It was found that liposomes exhibited nanometric oligolamellar and spherical shaped vesicles and protected eugenol from degradation induced by UV exposure; they also maintained the DPPH-scavenging activity of free eugenol. Liposomes constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of volatile unstable essential oil constituents. PMID:25704683

  14. Electromagnetic field triggered drug and chemical delivery via liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Liburdy, Robert P. (1820 Mountain View Rd., Tiburon, CA 94920)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system and to a method of delivering a drug to a preselected target body site of a patient, comprising the steps of encapsulating the chemical agent within liposomes, essentially temperature insensitive, i.e. not having a specific predetermined phase transition temperature within the specific temperature range of drug administration; administering the liposomes to the target body site; and subjecting the target body site to nonionizing electromagnetic fields in an area of the preselected target body in order to release said chemical agent from the liposomes at a temperature of between about +10 and 65.degree. C. The invention further relates to the use of said liposomes to bind to the surface of or to enter target tissue or an organ in a living system, and, when subjected to a nonionizing field, to release a drug from the liposomes into the target site.

  15. Ultrasound triggered drug delivery with liposomal nested microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Wallace, N; Wrenn, S P

    2015-12-01

    When ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles are nested within a liposome, damage to the liposome membrane caused by both stable and inertial cavitation of the microbubble allows for release of the aqueous core of the liposome. Triggered release was not accomplished unless microbubbles were present within the liposome. Leakage was tested using fluorescence assays developed specifically for this drug delivery vehicle and qualitative measurements using an optical microscope. These studies were done using a 1 MHz focused ultrasound transducer while varying parameters including peak negative ultrasound pressure, average liposome diameter, and microbubble concentration. Two regimes exist for membrane disruption caused by cavitating microbubbles. A faster release rate, as well as permanent membrane damage are seen for samples exposed to high pressure (2.1-3.7 MPa). A slower release rate and dilation/temporary poration are characteristic of stable cavitation for low pressure studies (0.54-1.7 MPa). PMID:26152887

  16. Cell penetrating peptide conjugated liposomes as transdermal delivery system of Polygonum aviculare L. extract.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon Sik; Kim, Sun Young; Kong, Bong Ju; Kim, Kyeong Jin; Noh, Geun Young; Im, Na Ri; Lim, Ji Won; Ha, Ji Hoon; Kim, Junoh; Park, Soo Nam

    2015-04-10

    In this study, Polygonum aviculare L. extract, which has superior antioxidative and cellular membrane protective activity, was loaded onto cell penetrating peptide (CPP) conjugated liposomes to enhance transdermal delivery. The physical characteristics of typical liposomes and CPP-conjugated liposomes containing P. aviculare extract were evaluated. The particle sizes of both liposomes were approximately 150 nm. Whereas the zeta potential of typical liposomes was -45 mV, that of CPP-conjugated liposomes was +42 mV. The loading efficiency of P. aviculare extract in both liposomes was calculated to be about 83%. Fluorescent-labeled liposomes were prepared to evaluate cellular uptake and skin permeation efficiency. Using flow cytometry, we found that CPP-conjugated liposomes improved cellular uptake of the fluorescent dye as compared with the typical liposomes. In addition, the skin permeation of CPP-conjugated liposomes was proved higher than that of typical liposomes by confocal laser scanning microscopy studies and Franz diffusion cell experiments. The improved cellular uptake and skin permeation of the CPP-conjugated liposomes were due to the cationic arginine-rich peptide. In vivo studies also determined that the CPP-conjugated liposomes were more effective in depigmentation and anti-wrinkle studies than typical liposomes. These results indicate that the CPP-conjugated liposomes could be effective for transdermal drug delivery of antioxidant and anti-aging therapeutics. PMID:25623491

  17. Light induced cytosolic drug delivery from liposomes with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lajunen, Tatu; Viitala, Lauri; Kontturi, Leena-Stiina; Laaksonen, Timo; Liang, Huamin; Vuorimaa-Laukkanen, Elina; Viitala, Tapani; Le Guvel, Xavier; Yliperttula, Marjo; Murtomki, Lasse; Urtti, Arto

    2015-04-10

    Externally triggered drug release at defined targets allows site- and time-controlled drug treatment regimens. We have developed liposomal drug carriers with encapsulated gold nanoparticles for triggered drug release. Light energy is converted to heat in the gold nanoparticles and released to the lipid bilayers. Localized temperature increase renders liposomal bilayers to be leaky and triggers drug release. The aim of this study was to develop a drug releasing system capable of releasing its cargo to cell cytosol upon triggering with visible and near infrared light signals. The liposomes were formulated using either heat-sensitive or heat- and pH-sensitive lipid compositions with star or rod shaped gold nanoparticles. Encapsulated fluorescent probe, calcein, was released from the liposomes after exposure to the light. In addition, the pH-sensitive formulations showed a faster drug release in acidic conditions than in neutral conditions. The liposomes were internalized into human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and did not show any cellular toxicity. The light induced cytosolic delivery of calcein from the gold nanoparticle containing liposomes was shown, whereas no cytosolic release was seen without light induction or without gold nanoparticles in the liposomes. The light activated liposome formulations showed a controlled content release to the cellular cytosol at a specific location and time. Triggering with visual and near infrared light allows good tissue penetration and safety, and the pH-sensitive liposomes may enable selective drug release in the intracellular acidic compartments (endosomes, lysosomes). Thus, light activated liposomes with gold nanoparticles are an attractive option for time- and site-specific drug delivery into the target cells. PMID:25701610

  18. Image-Guided Predictions of Liposome Transport in Solid Tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapleton, Shawn

    Due to the ability to preferentially accumulate and deliver drug payloads to solid tumours, liposomes have emerged as an exciting therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy. Unfortunately, the initial excitement was dampened by limited clinical results, where only negligible increases in patient survival following liposome therapy have been observed. What are the reasons for the limited clinical efficacy? Is the nanoparticle formulation optimal? Is the enhanced permeability and retention effect overstated? What are the barriers limiting the delivery of drugs to cancer cells? What is the optimal dosing and treatment schedule? Addressing these questions requires developing quantitative tools to understand the behaviour of liposomes in vivo, such as pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, intra-tumoural accumulation, and drug release. Central to each of these questions is the concept of transport - the collection of biophysical processes responsible for the delivery of molecules to tissues. Understanding transport means understanding the crucial links between the spatio-temporal accumulation of liposomes, the physicochemical properties of liposomes, and properties of the tumour microenvironment. In this thesis, a biophysical mathematical transport model is developed that when used in combination with non-invasive imaging methods can predict liposome transport in solid tumours. The mathematical transport framework is validated in its ability to predict the bulk and intra-tumoural accumulation of liposomes based on biophysical transport properties of solid tumours. Furthermore, novel imaging methods are developed and used to elucidate the crucial links between transport barriers and spatial heterogeneity in liposome accumulation. Finally, methods are presented to integrate quantitative imaging and mathematical modelling such that an accurate prediction of liposome transport in solid tumours is possible. In summary, this thesis presents and validates an image-guided mathematical framework that can be used to guide the rational application of liposomes for the treatment of solid tumours.

  19. Interaction kinetics of serum proteins with liposomes and their effect on phospholipase-induced liposomal drug release.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Hiroko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Haishima, Yuji; Kawanishi, Toru; Okuda, Haruhiro; Goda, Yukihiro

    2015-11-30

    We used surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to measure the affinity and kinetics of the interaction between serum proteins and both conventional and PEGylated liposomes. The effect of the interactions on secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-induced release of a model drug from liposomes was also assessed. SPR analysis of 12 serum proteins revealed that the mode of interaction between serum proteins and liposomes greatly varies depending on the type of protein. For example, albumin bound to liposomes at slower association/dissociation rates with higher affinity and prevented sPLA2-induced drug release from PEGylated liposomes. Conversely, fibronectin bound at faster association/dissociation rates with lower affinity and demonstrated little impact on the drug release. These results indicate that the effect of serum proteins on sPLA2 phospholipid hydrolysis varies with the mode of interaction between proteins and liposomes. Understanding how the proteins interact with liposomes and impact sPLA2 phospholipid hydrolysis should aid the rational design of therapeutic liposomal formulations. PMID:26410758

  20. A systematic analysis of peptide linker length and liposomal polyethylene glycol coating on cellular uptake of peptide-targeted liposomes.

    PubMed

    Stefanick, Jared F; Ashley, Jonathan D; Kiziltepe, Tanyel; Bilgicer, Basar

    2013-04-23

    PEGylated liposomes are attractive pharmaceutical nanocarriers; however, literature reports of ligand-targeted nanoparticles have not consistently shown successful results. Here, we employed a multifaceted synthetic strategy to prepare peptide-targeted liposomal nanoparticles with high purity, reproducibility, and precisely controlled stoichiometry of functionalities to evaluate the role of liposomal PEG coating, peptide EG-linker length, and peptide valency on cellular uptake in a systematic manner. We analyzed these parameters in two distinct disease models where the liposomes were functionalized with either HER2- or VLA-4-antagonistic peptides to target HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells or VLA-4-overexpressing myeloma cells, respectively. When targeting peptides were tethered to nanoparticles with an EG45 (?PEG2000) linker in a manner similar to a more traditional formulation, their cellular uptake was not enhanced compared to non-targeted versions regardless of the liposomal PEG coating used. Conversely, reduction of the liposomal PEG to PEG350 and the peptide linker to EG12 dramatically enhanced cellular uptake by ?9 fold and ?100 fold in the breast cancer and multiple myeloma cells, respectively. Uptake efficiency reached a maximum and a plateau with ?2% peptide density in both disease models. Taken together, these results demonstrate the significance of using the right design elements such as the appropriate peptide EG-linker length in coordination with the appropriate liposomal PEG coating and optimal ligand density in efficient cellular uptake of liposomal nanoparticles. PMID:23421406

  1. Liposomes from soya phospholipids as percutaneous drug carriers. 1st communication: qualitative in vivo investigations with antibody-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Artmann, C; Rding, J; Ghyczy, M; Pratzel, H G

    1990-12-01

    The penetration behaviour of liposome (prepared from NAT 106)-incorporated proteins was investigated in vivo by use of monoclonal antibodies (MOAB) as model substances on the skin of young pigs. Within 20 min of topical application, an even distribution of liposome-incorporated antibodies through all skin layers could be shown by means of an immunohistochemical stain. PMID:2095134

  2. Highly ordered phthalocyanine thin films on a technically relevant polymer substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peisert, H.; Liu, X.; Olligs, D.; Petr, A.; Dunsch, L.; Schmidt, T.; Chass, T.; Knupfer, M.

    2004-10-01

    We have studied the molecular orientation of well-known representatives of organic semiconductors from the family of the phthalocyanines [copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and its perfluorinated relative (CuPcF16)] on a conducting polymer thin film using polarization-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy. As a polymer substrate PEDOT:PSS [a mixture of poly-3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene (PEDOT) and polystyrenesulfonate (PSS), which is often applied as an electrode material in (all-)organic semiconductor devices] was spin coated onto indium-tin-oxide substrates. Even if the interfaces themselves are relatively ill defined (we found recently a mixing of the two organic materials and charge-transfer processes), a very high degree of molecular ordering is observed in the 20-50nm thick phthalocyanine films.

  3. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Evaluation of Two Novel Glycosylated Zinc(II)-Phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Bchle, Felix; Hanack, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In continuation of our work on glycoconjugated phthalocyanines, two new water soluble, non-ionic zinc(II) phthalocyanines have been prepared and fully characterized by means of H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MALDI-TOF, ESI-TOF, UV-Vis spectroscopy, emission spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime measurements. The carbohydrate-containing phthalonitrile precursors were synthesized through a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The 2-methoxyethoxymethyl protecting group (MEM) was used to protect the carbohydrate moieties. It resisted the harsh basic cyclotetramerization conditions and could be easily cleaved under mild acidic conditions. The glycoconjugated zinc(II) phthalocyanines described here have molar extinction coefficents ?max > 10? m(-1) cm(-1) and absorption maxima ? > 680 nm, which make them attractive photosensitizers for photo-dynamic therapy. PMID:26473808

  4. The substitution effect on the reorganization energy of metal free phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choongkeun; Sohlberg, Karl

    2009-03-01

    Many discotic (disk like) materials such as phthalocyanine are of interest for use in organic electronic devices because of their high charge mobility. The mobility of various discotic materials has been studied using the Marcus formalism. In the Marcus formalism, charge mobility is depends on two parameters, reorganization energy and coupling matrix constant. Of these two parameters the reorganization energy has more influence on the charge hopping rate. A small change in reorganization energy leads to a large change of charge mobility. We have employed electronic structure methods to describe substitution effects on the reorganization energy of phthalocyanine. The substitutions on the external phenyl rings have almost no influence on reorganization energy, but the substitutions on the internal nitrogen in phthalocyanine have strong influence on reorganization energy. The detailed relation between reorganization energy and substitution will be presented.

  5. Ultrafast dynamics of excited state of phenoxy-phthalocyanines in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Cheng-Bao; Yan, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Da-Wei; Sui, Yan-Li; Li, Jin; Sun, Wen-Jun; Li, Qiang-Hua; Yang, Shou-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast dynamics of the excited state of 2,9,16,23-phenoxy-phthalocyanine (Pc1) and 2,9,16,23-phenoxy-phthalocyanine-zinc (Pc2) has been investigated using femtosecond transient absorption (TA) and time-resolved fluorescence (TRFL) techniques. The observed dynamics of femtosecond TA and TRFL experiments are similar, which demonstrated the intrinsic properties of the excitation and the relaxation processes in both kinds of phthalocyanines with two decay components. A multi level model has been proposed to explain the photophysical processes after Soret-band excitation. The results show that the fast decay component dynamics comes from the intramolecular vibrational relaxation, the slower ones from the internal conversion. The samples are expected to be a potential candidate for optical applications and photodynamic therapy.

  6. Clearance and localization of intravitreal liposomes in the aphakic vitrectomized eye

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, W.H.; Heath, T.D.; Lewis, G.P.; Guerin, C.J.; Erickson, P.A.; Lopez, N.G.; Hong, K.L.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have examined the fate of intravitreally injected liposomes in the aphakic, vitrectomized eye of the rabbit. Liposomes labelled with /sup 125/(I)-p-hydroxybenzimidylphosphatidylethanolamine were eliminated rapidly from the intraocular fluid. Nonetheless, a significant fraction of these liposomes were found to bind to various ocular tissues including the retina, iris, sclera, and cornea. Ultrastructural studies with gold colloid-loaded liposomes revealed that retinal bound liposomes were attached to the inner limiting lamina but did not penetrate to the internal cells of the retina. Epiretinal cells bound and internalized gold colloid-loaded liposomes suggesting that these cells may be very sensitive to liposome mediated drug delivery.

  7. Amphiphilic zinc phthalocyanine photosensitizers: synthesis, photophysicochemical properties and in vitro studies for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    ak?r, Dilek; Gksel, Meltem; ak?r, Volkan; Durmu?, Mahmut; Biyiklioglu, Zekeriya; Kantekin, Halit

    2015-05-28

    Peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-substituted zinc(ii) phthalocyanines bearing 2-(2-{2-[3-(dimethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy}ethoxy)ethoxy and 2-(2-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy}ethoxy)ethoxy groups (, , and ) were synthesized by cyclotetramerization of the corresponding phthalonitriles (, , and ). Their quaternized ionic derivatives (, , and ) were also synthesized by the reaction of them with methyl iodide. The novel compounds were characterized by using standard spectroscopic techniques such as FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, UV-vis, mass and elemental analyses. The obtained quaternized phthalocyanines (, , and ) showed amphiphilic behaviour with excellent solubility in both organic and aqueous solutions, which makes them potential photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. The photophysical (fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes) and photochemical (singlet oxygen and photodegradation quantum yields) properties of these novel phthalocyanines were studied in DMSO for both non-ionic and ionic quaternized derivatives. However, these properties were examined in both DMSO and phosphate buffer solution (PBS) for quaternized ionic phthalocyanines. The effects of the positions of substituents (peripheral or non-peripheral) and the quaternization of the nitrogen atoms on the substituents about their photophysical and photochemical properties were also compared in this study. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding behaviours of the studied quaternized ionic zinc(ii) phthalocyanines were also described in PBS solutions. The quaternized phthalocyanines (, , and ) successfully displayed light-dependent photodamage in HeLa and HuH-7 cancer cells in photodynamic therapy treatment. The photosensitivity and the intensity of damage were found directly related to the concentration of the photosensitizers. PMID:25923925

  8. Commensurism at electronically weakly interacting phthalocyanine/PTCDA heterointerfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruenewald, Marco; Sauer, Christoph; Peuker, Julia; Meissner, Matthias; Sojka, Falko; Schll, Achim; Reinert, Friedrich; Forker, Roman; Fritz, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    Interfaces in multilayered electronic devices are of paramount importance, especially for layer thicknesses in the nanometer range. Among the interfacial processes are charge injection or extraction and excitonic dissociation, the latter being particularly relevant if molecular components are involved. Highly ordered superstructures are preferable to prevent undesired losses of charge carriers and/or excitons. Epitaxial organic-inorganic systems have already received eminent attention, but only few studies have dealt with organic-organic heterointerfaces so far. Here, we focus on the adsorption of metal-phthalocyanines (MePc, Me = Sn or Cu) on 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) in the form of stacked monolayers (ML) on Ag(111). Using scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction we reveal an initial nonordered growth for dilute SnPc submonolayers and consecutively three condensed phases at coverages ranging up to 1 ML each possessing a distinct commensurate registry with the underlying PTCDA. By applying in situ optical differential reflectance spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy we find that neither the SnPc nor the CuPc phases exhibit significant electronic or optical coupling with the PTCDA interlayer. Therefore, our results demonstrate that commensurism does not necessarily imply chemisorption, as stated previously in the literature, but that physisorption may be accompanied by commensurate superstructures.

  9. New approaches to photodynamic therapy of tumors with Al phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoulovskaya, Elena G.; Chental, V. V.; Kuvshinov, Yury P.; Poddubny, Boris K.

    1999-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumors of different localization and histology with new photosensitizer aluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine (Photosense, Russia). PDT have been provided in 106 patients with different tumors. The initial dose (2.0 - 2.5 mg/kg) of PHS was significantly reduced till 0.5 - 0.8 mg/kg during clinical trials because of phototoxicity. The results of PDT, side effects and ways of their correction and prevention, as well as possibility to work out less toxic regimes of PDT with photosense, choice of laser and type of irradiation are discussed. Efficacy of PDT depended on tumor size and it's histological type. Using low doses of PHS we've reduced the phototoxicity of sensitizer with the same direct effectiveness of treatment. Undesirable changes in plasma content of antioxidants by means of high pressure liquid chromatography have been found in patients after PHS injection. Influence of short-term and long-term supplementation with beta- carotene and vitamin E on this parameters are discussed.

  10. Tissue Distribution Of Chloroaluminium Sulfonated Phthalocyanine In Dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. M.; H. C.; Newman

    1989-06-01

    Chloroaluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine (A1PCS) was administered intravenously to clinically normal dogs, and A1PCS levels were determined in tissues using a sensitive assay. A1PCS accumulated to high levels in liver, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, and lung. These tissue levels confirm previous determinations in mice and rats. Only a small amount of dye was retained in skin and very small amounts in muscle and brain. A1PCS was cleared from the blood within 24 h, and excreted primarily by urine. Serum clearance was faster in males than in females. There were also significant tissue distribution differences between the genders, particularly during the first 12 h. The low levels of A1PCS in skin suggest that cutaneous photosensitivity and toxic skin reactions using this photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy of cancer may be eliminated. The difference in tissue distribution between genders is not only intriguing, but indicates that the optimal time window for treatment of various tissue sites may vary by gender.

  11. Preclinical evaluation of zinc phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate-based PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgatti-Jeffreys, Antonella; Hooser, Stephen B.; Miller, Margaret A.; Thomas, Rose M.; deGortari, Amalia; Lucroy, Michael D.

    2005-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the light activation of a drug within a tumor causing selective tumor cell death. Unfortunately, some photosensitizing drugs have been associated with adverse reactions in veterinary patients. Zinc phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (ZnPcS4) is a promising second-generation photosensitizer for use in veterinary medicine, however, it cannot be applied clinically until safety and efficacy data are available. ZnPcS4 was given to Swiss Webster mice to assess acute toxicity. Doses >100 mg/kg were associated with acute toxicity and mortality, and doses >100 mg/kg resulted in renal tubular nephrosis, suggesting that the minimum toxic dose is approximately 100 mg/kg. Based on these data, a Phase I clinical trial of ZnPcS4-based PDT in tumor-bearing dogs is underway, with ZnPcS4 doses up to 2 mg/kg producing no apparent toxicity. Tumor response has been observed after ZnPcS4-based PDT using doses as low as 0.25 mg/kg, suggesting that conventional phase I clinical trials may not be appropriate for PDT protocols.

  12. Charge-transfer at silver/phthalocyanines interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgoi, Mihaela; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.

    2006-05-01

    Valence band photoemission spectroscopy (VB-PES) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES) were employed to determine the occupied and unoccupied density of states upon silver deposition onto layers of two phthalocyanines (H 2Pc and CuPc). The two different Pc molecules give rise to very distinct behaviour already during the initial stage of silver deposition. While in the CuPc case no shift occurs in the energy levels, the H 2Pc highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) are shifting simultaneously by 0.3 eV, i.e., the HOMO shifts away from the Fermi level while LUMO shifts towards the Fermi level. As the silver quantity increases the HOMO levels of both Pcs are shifting towards the Fermi level. When the Fermi level is resolved in the VB spectra, the characteristic features of H 2Pc and CuPc are smeared out to some extent. Shifts in HOMO and LUMO energy positions as well as changes in line shapes are discussed in terms of charge-transfer and chemical reactions at the interfaces.

  13. Regiospecific synthesis of tetrasubstituted phthalocyanines and their liquid crystalline order.

    PubMed

    Apostol, Petru; Bentaleb, Ahmed; Rajaoarivelo, Mbolotiana; Clérac, Rodolphe; Bock, Harald

    2015-03-28

    Metal-free and metal(II) all-endo-tetraalkoxy-phthalocyanines of C4h symmetry are synthesised regiospecifically from 3-(2-butyloctyloxy)phthalonitrile with lithium octanolate and subsequent metal ion exchange. The voluminous, yet not overly large, and racemically disordered alkoxy substituent not only renders the cyclotetramerisation regiospecific, but also leads to liquid crystalline self-assembly with attainable clearing temperatures and persisting columnar organisation at room temperature. A rare hexagonal mesophase with twelve columns per hexagonal unit cell is found in the metal-free homologue, whereas the metal complexes show rectangular mesophases. The clearing temperature increases with increasing axial component of the metal ion coordination sphere. At low temperature, significant antiferromagnetic exchange between magnetic centres is observed for the Co(II) homologue, whereas the magnetic centres are magnetically independent in the Cu(II) derivative, in line with the observed higher clearing temperature in the Co(II) case that testifies of stronger interdisk interactions. PMID:25697075

  14. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical properties of thiadiazole substituted metallo-phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirbaş, Ümit; Akyüz, Duygu; Barut, Burak; Bayrak, Rıza; Koca, Atıf; Kantekin, Halit

    2016-01-01

    4-Thiadiazole substituted phthalonitrile and peripherally tetra-substituted phthalocyanine Cu(II), Fe(II) and Ti(IV)O complexes have been synthesized for the first time. Electrochemical properties of these complexes were determined with voltammetric and in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements. CuPc has redox inactive Cu2 + center, therefore it gave three Pc based reduction and two Pc based oxidation processes. TiOPc and FePc complexes gave metal based redox processes in addition to Pc based redox reactions due to the redox activity of Ti4 +O and Fe2 + metal centers. Although FePc also gave three reduction and two oxidation reactions, peak potentials of these processes are different than those of CuPc due to the different assignments of the redox reactions. TiOPc went to five reduction and one oxidation reactions. Assignments of the redox processes were carried out with in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements. Spectra and color of the electrogenerated redox species of the complexes were also determined with in situ spectroelectrochemical and in situ electrocolorimetric measurements. Distinct color differences between the electrogenerated redox species were observed, which indicated their possible electrochromic usages.

  15. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical properties of thiadiazole substituted metallo-phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Demirbaş, Ümit; Akyüz, Duygu; Barut, Burak; Bayrak, Rıza; Koca, Atıf; Kantekin, Halit

    2016-01-15

    4-Thiadiazole substituted phthalonitrile and peripherally tetra-substituted phthalocyanine Cu(II), Fe(II) and Ti(IV)O complexes have been synthesized for the first time. Electrochemical properties of these complexes were determined with voltammetric and in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements. CuPc has redox inactive Cu(2+) center, therefore it gave three Pc based reduction and two Pc based oxidation processes. TiOPc and FePc complexes gave metal based redox processes in addition to Pc based redox reactions due to the redox activity of Ti(4+)O and Fe(2+) metal centers. Although FePc also gave three reduction and two oxidation reactions, peak potentials of these processes are different than those of CuPc due to the different assignments of the redox reactions. TiOPc went to five reduction and one oxidation reactions. Assignments of the redox processes were carried out with in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements. Spectra and color of the electrogenerated redox species of the complexes were also determined with in situ spectroelectrochemical and in situ electrocolorimetric measurements. Distinct color differences between the electrogenerated redox species were observed, which indicated their possible electrochromic usages. PMID:26291672

  16. High rectification in organic diodes based on liquid crystalline phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Apostol, Petru; Eccher, Juliana; Dotto, Marta Elisa Rosso; Costa, Cassiano Batesttin; Cazati, Thiago; Hillard, Elizabeth A; Bock, Harald; Bechtold, Ivan H

    2015-12-28

    The optical and electrical properties of mesogenic metal-free and metalated phthalocyanines (PCs) with a moderately sized and regioregular alkyl periphery were investigated. In solution, the individualized molecules show fluorescence lifetimes of 4-6 ns in THF. When deposited as solid thin films the materials exhibit significantly shorter fluorescence lifetimes with bi-exponential decay (1.4-1.8 ns; 0.2-0.4 ns) that testify to the formation of aggregates viaπ-π intermolecular interactions. In diode structures, their pronounced columnar order outbalances the unfavorable planar alignment and leads to excellent rectification behavior. Field-dependent charge carrier mobilities are obtained from the J-V curves in the trap-limited space-charge-limited current regime and demonstrate that the metalated PCs display an improved electrical response with respect to the metal-free homologue. The excited-state lifetime characterization suggest that the π-π intermolecular interactions are stronger for the metal-free PC, confirming that the metallic centre plays an important role in the charge transport inside these materials. PMID:26585027

  17. Mixed configuration ground state in iron(II) phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernndez-Rodrguez, Javier; Toby, Brian; van Veenendaal, Michel

    2015-06-01

    We calculate the angular dependence of the x-ray linear and circular dichroism at the L2 ,3 edges of ? -Fe(II) Phthalocyanine (FePc) thin films using a ligand-field model with full configuration interaction. We find the best agreement with the experimental spectra for a mixed ground state of 3Eg(a1g 2eg3b2g 1) and 3B2 g(a1g 1eg4b2g 1) with the two configurations coupled by the spin-orbit interaction. The 3Eg(b ) and 3B2 g states have easy-axis and easy-plane anisotropies, respectively. Our model accounts for an easy-plane magnetic anisotropy and the measured magnitudes of the in-plane orbital and spin moments. The proximity in energy of the two configurations allows a switching of the magnetic anisotropy from easy plane to easy axis with a small change in the crystal field, as recently observed for FePc adsorbed on an oxidized Cu surface. We also discuss the possibility of a quintet ground state (5A1 g is 250 meV above the ground state) with planar anisotropy by manipulation of the Fe-C bond length by depositing the complex on a substrate that is subjected to a mechanical strain.

  18. Development of Liposomal Bubbles with Perfluoropropane Gas as Gene Delivery Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Kazuo; Suzuki, Ryo; Sawamura, Kaori; Takizawa, Tomoko; Utoguchi, Naoki; Negishi, Yoichi

    2007-05-01

    Liposomes have some advantages as drug, antigen and gene delivery carriers. Their size can be easily controlled and they can be modified to add a targeting function. Based on liposome technology, we developed novel liposomal bubbles (Bubble liposomes) containing the ultrasound imaging gas, perfluoropropane. We assessed the feasibility of Bubble liposomes as carriers for gene delivery after cavitation induced by ultrasound. At first, we investigated their ability to deliver genes with Bubble liposomes and ultrasound to various types of cells such as mouse sarcoma cells, mouse melanoma cells, human T cell line and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The results showed that the Bubble liposomes could deliver plasmid DNA to many cell types without cytotoxicity. In addition, we found that Bubble liposomes could effectively deliver plasmid DNA into mouse femoral artery in vivo. The gene transduction with Bubble liposomes was more effectively than conventional lipofection. We conclude that Bubble liposomes are unique and efficient gene delivery carriers in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Analysis of individual lipoproteins and liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, D.L.; Keller, R.A.; Nolan, J.P.

    1997-08-01

    We describe the application of single molecule detection (SMD) technologies for the analysis of natural (serum lipoproteins) and synthetic (liposomes) transport systems. The need for advanced analytical procedures of these complex and important systems is presented with the specific enhancements afforded by SMD with flowing sample streams. In contrast to bulk measurements which yield only average values, measurement of individual species allows creation of population histograms from heterogeneous samples. The data are acquired in minutes and the analysis requires relatively small sample quantities. Preliminary data are presented from the analysis of low density lipoprotein, and multilamellar and unilamellar vesicles.

  20. Photoreduction of methylviologen catalyzed by phthalocyanine complexes of yttrium(III) and lanthanoid(III) metals

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuga, Kuninobu; Takahashi, Seiji; Tsukahara, Keiichi ); Ohno, Takeshi )

    1990-01-24

    The preparation of phthalocyanine complexes of yttrium, samarium, gadolinium, ytterbium, and lutetium is reported. The PcLnAcO complex (Pc = phthalocyanine dianion and AcO = acetate anion) was found to act as the sensitizer for the photoreduction of methylviologen chloride (MVCl{sub 2}) in a methanol solution upon irradiation with visible light. On the basis of data from visible spectrophotometric studies and laser flash-photolysis studies, the observation is made that the photoreduction of metalophthalocyanine complexes proceeds via an oxidative process, and a reaction scheme is proposed. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Influence of film thickness and air exposure on the transport gap of manganese phthalocyanine

    SciTech Connect

    Haidu, F.; Fechner, A.; Salvan, G.; Gordan, O. D.; Fronk, M.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Lehmann, D.; Mahns, B.; Knupfer, M.

    2013-06-15

    The interface formation between manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) and cobalt was investigated combining ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy. The transport band gap of the MnPc increases with the film thickness up to a value of (1.2 {+-} 0.3) eV while the optical band gap as determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry amounts to 0.5 eV. The gap values are smaller compared to other phthalocyanines due to metallic Mn 3d states close to the Fermi level. The transport band gap was found to open upon air exposure as a result of the disappearance of the occupied 3d electronic states.

  2. Spectroscopic studies of alpha tocopherol interaction with a model liposome and its influence on oxidation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krilov, Dubravka; Kosovi?, Marin; Serec, Kristina

    2014-08-01

    The influence of ?-tocopherol on the surface conformation of liposome, as a model component of lipoproteins, and its role in oxidation process were studied. FT-IR spectra from suspensions of neat liposome, mixtures of liposome and ?-tocopherol and liposome with incorporated ?-tocopherol were analyzed. When ?-tocopherol was incorporated into liposome, intensities of some bands were decreased or increased in comparison with the spectra of liposome and ?-tocopherol mixture. These changes reflect the different localization of ?-tocopherol in two types of liposome suspensions. The oxidation of liposome suspensions was initiated by addition of cupric ions. After prolonged oxidation, the differences in FT-IR spectra of oxidized samples were recorded. Differences were observed in comparison with spectra of native and oxidized liposomes were analyzed. The rate of oxidation was measured by EPR oximetry. Oxidation was generally very slow, but faster in liposome without ?-tocopherol, indicating the protective role of ?-tocopherol against liposome oxidation. On the other hand, liposome suspensions with EDTA in the buffer were not oxidized at all, while those with ?-tocopherol and liposome mixture were only slightly oxidized. In this case the consumption of oxygen was the result of liposome oxidation supported by ?-tocopherol. These results reflect the ambivalent role of ?-tocopherol in liposome oxidation, similarly to findings in studies of lipoprotein oxidation.

  3. Effect of iron liposomes on anemia of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Geng, Lina; Ge, Lan; Yu, Peng; Duan, Xianglin; Chen, Jun; Chang, Yanzhong

    2013-09-15

    Supplementation with iron-fortified foods is an effective method for treating iron deficiency diseases. However, traditional iron agents used to treat anemia of inflammation (AI) have little effect. In this study, two types of iron liposomes, heme liposomes (HEME-LIP) and ferric citrate liposomes (FAC-LIP), were prepared by the rotary-evaporated film-ultrasonication method, and the encapsulation efficiencies, microstructures, size distributions and zeta potentials were assessed. Both types of iron liposomes showed stable physical characteristics. When used to treat rat models of AI, FAC-LIP and HEME-LIP could increase serum iron levels by 119% and 54% higher than did ferric citrate (FAC) and heme, respectively. Furthermore, the hepcidin, a key regulator of iron homeostasis was up-regulated by these iron liposomes, especially by HEME-LIP. These results indicate that the absorption of iron liposomes was improved over that of unencapsulated iron agents. Thus, iron liposomes may be used to fortify food in treating iron deficiency diseases, especially AI. PMID:23850818

  4. Liposome micropatterning based on laser-induced forward transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla-Papavlu, Alexandra; Paraico, Iurie; Shaw-Stewart, James; Dinca, Valentina; Savopol, Tudor; Kovacs, Eugenia; Lippert, Thomas; Wokaun, Alexander; Dinescu, Maria

    2011-03-01

    The numerous properties of liposomes, i.e., nontoxicity, biodegradability, and their ability to encapsulate different biological active substances in aqueous and lipid phase, make them perfect models of biomembranes. Liposomes made up of phospholipids may be used to study new applications such as cell targeting or, under specific experimental conditions, may be applied in micro and nano-sized biosensors. This study demonstrates the capability of direct laser printing of liposomes in micron-scale patterns for the realization of biosensors or drug delivery systems. The transfer experiments were carried out onto ordinary glass substrates, and optical microscopy images reveal that well-defined patterns without splashes can be obtained for a narrow range of laser transfer fluences using 193 nm irradiation and an intermediate triazene polymer. The triazene polymer with different thicknesses was used as sacrificial layer with the purpose of protecting the liposome solution from direct laser irradiation. It was found that the thickness of the sacrificial layer should exceed 150 nm to obtain clean, debris-free patterns. Moreover, the integrity of the liposomes after laser transfer was maintained as demonstrated through fluorescence microscopy. Raman spectroscopy data suggest that the chemical composition of the liposomes does not change for transfer fluences in the range of 40 to 60 mJ/cm2. Following these results, one can envision that liposome patterns obtained by LIFT can be ultimately applied for in vitro and in vivo studies.

  5. HPLC analysis as a tool for assessing targeted liposome composition.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Mira; Platscher, Michael; Geissler, Simon; Goepferich, Achim

    2016-01-30

    Functionalized phospholipids are indispensable materials for the design of targeted liposomes. Control over the quality and quantity of phospholipids is thereby key in the successful development and manufacture of such formulations. This was also the case for a complex liposomal preparation composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), Cholesterol (CHO), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[amino(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG2000). To this end, an RP-HPLC method was developed. Detection was done via evaporative light scattering (ELS) for liposomal components. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, sensitivity and robustness. The liposomal compounds had a non-linear quadratic response in the concentration range of 0.012-0.42mg/ml with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.99 with an accuracy of method confirmed 95-105% of the theoretical concentration. Furthermore, degradation products from the liposomal formulation could be identified. The presented method was successfully implemented as a control tool during the preparation of functionalized liposomes. It underlined the benefit of HPLC analysis of phospholipids during liposome preparation as an easy and rapid control method for the functionalized lipid at each preparation step as well as for the quantification of all components. PMID:26570988

  6. Development of liposomal salbutamol sulfate dry powder inhaler formulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Hua; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Wu, Heng; Wong, Yuen-Fan; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Liu, Liang

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to develop a formulation of liposomal salbutamol sulfate (SBS) dry powder inhaler (DPI) for the treatment of asthma. Liposomes of high encapsulation efficiency (more than 80%) were prepared by a vesicular phospholipid gel (VPG) technique. SBS VPG liposomes were subjected to lyophilization using different kinds of cryoprotectants in various mass ratios. Coarse lactose (63-106 microm) in different mass ratios was used as a carrier. Magnesium stearate (0.5%) was added as a lubricator. The dry liposomal powders were then crushed by ball milling and sieved through a 400-mesh sieve to control the mean particle size at about 10 microm. The effects of different kinds of cryoprotectants and the amount of lactose carrier on the fine particle fraction (FPF) of SBS were investigated. The results showed that the developed formulation of liposomal dry powder inhaler was obtained using lactose as a cryoprotectant with a mass ratio of lyophilized powder to carrier lactose at 1 : 5; 0.5% magnesium stearate was used as a lubricator. The value of FPF for SBS was 41.51+/-2.22% for this formulation. Sustained release of SBS from the VPG liposomes was found in the in vitro release study. The study results offer the promising possibility of localized pulmonary liposomal SBS delivery in the anhydrous state. PMID:20190418

  7. Fusigenic viral liposome for gene therapy in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Dzau, V J; Mann, M J; Morishita, R; Kaneda, Y

    1996-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of liposome-mediated DNA transfer as a tool for gene therapy, we have developed a fusigenic liposome vector based on principles of viral cell fusion. The fusion proteins of hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ; also Sendai virus) are complexed with liposomes that encapsulate oligodeoxynucleotide or plasmid DNA. Subsequent fusion of HVJ-liposomes with plasma membranes introduces the DNA directly into the cytoplasm. In addition, a DNA-binding nuclear protein is incorporated into the HVJ-liposome particle to enhance plasmid transgene expression. The fusigenic viral liposome vector has proven to be efficient for the intracellular introduction of oligodeoxynucleotide, as well as intact genes up to 100 kbp, both in vitro and in vivo. Many animal tissues have been found to be suitable targets for fusigenic viral liposome DNA transfer. In the cardiovascular system, we have documented successful cytostatic gene therapy in models of vascular proliferative disease using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides against cell cycle genes, double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides as "decoys" to trap the transcription factor E2F, and expression of a transgene encoding the constitutive endothelial cell form of nitric oxide synthase. Similar strategies are also effective for the genetic engineering of vein grafts and for the treatment of a mouse model of immune-mediated glomerular disease. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8876150

  8. Complexation of anionic liposomes with spherical polycationic brushes.

    PubMed

    Sybachin, Andrey V; Ballauff, Matthias; Kesselman, Ellina; Schmidt, Judith; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Tsarkova, Larisa; Menger, Fredric M; Yaroslavov, Alexander A

    2011-05-01

    Spherical polycationic brushes, consisting of polystyrene particles with linear cationic macromolecules grafted onto their surfaces, were electrostatically complexed with small unilamellar anionic liposomes. Complexation was monitored using a multimethod approach that included laser electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, fluorescence, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, and conductivity. Liposomes adsorb onto the outer edges of the brushes rather than penetrate into their dense polycationic layer. The integrity of the liposomes remains unaltered when the liposomes reside on the polycationic brushes. The resulting complexes (roughly 40 liposomes per brush) do not dissociate into their components upon exposure to physiological solutions. The system is potentially useful in that liposomes are gathered into well-defined clusters with a high encapsulating potential. Multicomponent constructs can be easily prepared if polycationic brushes are allowed to bind to a mixture of liposomes that encapsulate different guests. This work provides an example of "systems chemistry" whereby as many as eight components, each with its own particular location and function (i.e., polystyrene core, polycationic graft, egg lecithin, cardiolipin, two fluorescent dyes, water, and buffer), collectively self-assemble. PMID:21449568

  9. Liposomes loaded with histone deacetylase inhibitors for breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Urbinati, Giorgia; Marsaud, Vronique; Plassat, Vincent; Fattal, Elias; Lesieur, Sylviane; Renoir, Jack-Michel

    2010-09-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACi) of the class I trichostatin A (TSA), CG1521 (CG), and PXD101 (PXD) were incorporated at a high rate (approximately 1mM) in liposomes made of egg phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol/distearoylphosphoethanolamine-polyethylenglycol(2000) (64:30:6). Physicochemical parameters (size, zeta potential, loading, stability, release kinetics) of these HDACi-loaded pegylated liposomes were optimized and their cytotoxicity (MTT test) was measured in MCF-7, T47-D, MDA-MB-231 and SkBr3 breast cancer cell lines. In MCF-7 cells, TSA and PXD were efficient inducers of proteasome-mediated estradiol receptor alpha degradation and they both affected estradiol-induced transcription (TSA>PXD) contrary to CG. Moreover, TSA most efficiently altered breast cancer cell viability as compared to the free drug, CG-liposomes being the weakest, while unloaded liposomes had nearly no cytotoxicity. Pegylated liposomes loaded with TSA or PXD remained stable in size, charge and biological activity for one month when stored at 4 degrees C. All HDACi-loaded liposomes released slowly the encapsulated drug in vitro, CG-loaded liposomes showed the slowest release kinetic. These formulations could improve the efficacy of HDACi not only in breast cancers but also in other solid tumors because most of these drugs are poor water soluble and unstable in vivo, and their administration remains a challenge. PMID:20603204

  10. Sterically stabilized liposomes as a potent carrier for shikonin.

    PubMed

    Kontogiannopoulos, K N; Tsermentseli, S K; Assimopoulou, A N; Papageorgiou, V P

    2014-09-01

    The ability of pegylated liposomes (sterically stabilized liposomes-SSL) to localize in solid tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, partly depends on their long circulating properties which can be achieved by grafting polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the liposomes' surface. Alkannin and shikonin (A/S) are naturally occurring hydroxynaphthoquinones with a well-established spectrum of wound healing, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and recently established antitumor activity. The purpose of this work was to prepare and characterize shikonin-loaded pegylated liposomes as a new drug carrier for shikonin, as a continuation of authors' previous work on conventional shikonin-loaded liposomal formulations. Three new pegylated liposomal formulations of shikonin (DSPC-PEG2000, EPC-PEG2000, and DPPC-PEG2000) were prepared and characterized in terms of physicochemical characteristics, pharmacokinetics, and stability (at 4?C, for 28?d) and compared with the corresponding conventional ones. Particle size distribution, ?-potential, entrapment efficiency, and release profile of the entrapped drug were measured. Results indicated the successful incorporation of shikonin into liposomes alongside with their good physicochemical characteristics, high entrapment efficiency, satisfactory in vitro release profile, and good physical stability. The results are considered promising and could be used as a road map for designing further in vivo experiments. PMID:24597496

  11. In-vivo studies on dexamethasone sodium phosphate liposomes.

    PubMed

    Al-Muhammed, J; Ozer, A Y; Ercan, M T; Hincal, A A

    1996-01-01

    Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate (DSP) is a water soluble anti-inflammatory steroid commonly used in the therapy of serious types of ophthalmic inflammation. It has been demonstrated that unless the corneal epithelium is damaged, DSP is poorly absorbed by the cornea (Kupferman et al. 1974). Thus, it is doubtful whether such a drug would cure inflammation of the anterior segments. For this purpose, several liposomal DSP formulations containing phospholipid: charge inducer: cholesterol in molar ratios of 10:1:4 were investigated. Both gel state (PL 90H: SA: Cho1) and liquid state (PL 100: SA: Cho1) liposomes were prepared. For the preparation of liposomes, the film method followed by bath sonication was used. Liposomes were labelled with (99m)-Tc and administered intra-ocularly to New Zealand white rabbits weighing 2.5-3 kg for in vivo experiments. The biodistribution of the labelled liposomes were determined. For this purpose, eye segments (such as cornea, lens, iris, ciliar body, vitreous, aqueous humor, conjuctiva and sclera) and RES organs (such as liver, pancreas, spleen) were removed at fixed time intervals. In the present study, the efficiency of liposomes for the delivery of water-soluble drugs was evaluated in rabbit eyes using DSP as a model drug in different liposomal formulations. PMID:8860685

  12. Biological Hydrogels Formed by Swollen Multilamellar Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Yang; Wang, Ting-Yu; Tung, Shih-Huang

    2015-12-15

    The self-assembly of lecithin-bile salt mixtures in solutions has long been an important research topic, not only because they are both biosurfactants closely relevant to physiological functions but also for the potential biomedical applications. In this paper, we report an unusual biological hydrogel formed by mixing bile salts and lecithin at low bile salt/lecithin molar ratios (B0) in water. The gel can be prepared at a total lipid concentration as low as ?15 wt %, and the solidlike property of the solutions was confirmed by dynamic rheological measurements. We used cryo-TEM and SAXS/SANS techniques to probe the self-assembled structure and clearly evidence that the gel is made up of jammed swollen multilamellar vesicles (liposomes), instead of typical fibrous networks found in conventional gels. A mechanism-based on the strong repulsion between bilayers due to the incorporation of negatively charged bile salts is proposed to explain the swelling of the liposomes. In addition to gel, a series of phases, including viscoelastic, gel-like, and low-viscosity fluids, can be created by increasing B0. Such a variety of phase behaviors are caused by the transformation of bilayers into cylindrical and spheroidal micelles upon the change of the effective molecular geometry with B0. PMID:26574777

  13. Droplet-Based Production of Liposomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackley, Donald E.; Forster, Anita

    2009-01-01

    A process for making monodisperse liposomes having lipid bilayer membranes involves fewer, simpler process steps than do related prior methods. First, a microfluidic, cross junction droplet generator is used to produce vesicles comprising aqueous solution droplets contained in single layer lipid membranes. The vesicles are collected in a lipid-solvent mix that is at most partially soluble in water and is less dense than is water. A layer of water is dispensed on top of the solvent. By virtue of the difference in densities, the water sinks to the bottom and the solvent floats to the top. The vesicles, which have almost the same density as that of water, become exchanged into the water instead of floating to the top. As there are excess lipids in the solvent solution, in order for the vesicles to remain in the water, the addition of a second lipid layer to each vesicle is energetically favored. The resulting lipid bilayers present the hydrophilic ends of the lipid molecules to both the inner and outer membrane surfaces. If lipids of a second kind are dissolved in the solvent in sufficient excess before use, then asymmetric liposomes may be formed.

  14. Enhanced transdermal delivery of acyclovir sodium via elastic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanjay K; Gupta, Yashwant; Jain, Anekant; Rai, Kavita

    2008-01-01

    The elastic liposomes bearing acyclovir sodium were prepared for its enhanced transdermal delivery by conventional rotary evaporation method and characterized for various parameters such as vesicle shape and surface morphology, size and size distribution, entrapment efficiency, elasticity, polydispersity index, turbidity and in vitro release pattern. Permeability studies of acyclovir sodium incorporated in elastic liposomes were performed across artificial membranes and rat skin. Skin permeation potential of the developed formulation was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy, that revealed an enhanced permeation of the formulation to the deeper layers of the skin (up to 160 microm) following channel like pathways. Skin permeation profile of elastic liposomal formulation bearing acyclovir sodium was observed and the investigations revealed an enhanced transdermal flux (6.21 +/- 1.8 microg/cm(2)/hr) and decreased lag time (0.6 hr) for acyclovir sodium. The obtained flux was nearly 2.0 and 6.3 times higher than conventional liposomal formulation bearing acyclovir sodium and plain drug solution, respectively (p < 0.01). The elastic liposomal formulation for transdermal delivery of acyclovir sodium provides better transdermal flux, higher entrapment efficiency, ability as a self-penetration enhancer and effectiveness for transdermal delivery as compared with conventional liposomes. In vivo studies showed that on transdermal application of elastic liposomes, the concentration of acyclovir sodium in plasma was found to be 105 +/- 9.4 ng/ml after 24 hr which is about 4.2 times compared with conventional liposomes. Thus it is concluded that the elastic liposomes may be promising vehicles for the transdermal delivery of acyclovir sodium. PMID:18379926

  15. Enzymatic action of phospholipase A₂ on liposomal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anders H; Mouritsen, Ole G; Arouri, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    The overexpression of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) in tumors has opened new avenues for enzyme-triggered active unloading of liposomal antitumor drug carriers selectively at the target tumor. However, the effects of the liposome composition, drug encapsulation, and tumor microenvironment on the activity of sPLA2 are still not well understood. We carried out a physico-chemical study to characterize the sPLA2-assisted breakdown of liposomes using dye-release assays in the context of drug delivery and under physiologically relevant conditions. The influence of temperature, lipid concentration, enzyme concentration, and drug loading on the hydrolysis of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC, Tm=42°C) liposomes with snake venom sPLA2 was investigated. The sensitivity of human sPLA2 to the liposome composition was checked using binary lipid mixtures of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) phospholipids with C14 and C16 acyl chains. Increasing temperature (36-41°C) was found to mainly shorten the enzyme lag-time, whereas the effect on lipid hydrolysis rate was modest. The enzyme lag-time was also found to be inversely dependent on the lipid-to-enzyme ratio. Drug encapsulation can alter the hydrolysis profile of the carrier liposomes. The activity of human sPLA2 was highly sensitive to the phospholipid acyl-chain length and negative surface charge density of the liposomes. We believe our work will prove useful for the optimization of sPLA2-susceptible liposomal formulations as well as will provide a solid ground for predicting the hydrolysis profile of the liposomes in vivo at the target site. PMID:26056930

  16. Giant Liposome Preparation for Imaging and Patch-Clamp Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Marcus D.; Gordon, Sharona E.

    2013-01-01

    The reconstitution of ion channels into chemically defined lipid membranes for electrophysiological recording has been a powerful technique to identify and explore the function of these important proteins. However, classical preparations, such as planar bilayers, limit the manipulations and experiments that can be performed on the reconstituted channel and its membrane environment. The more cell-like structure of giant liposomes permits traditional patch-clamp experiments without sacrificing control of the lipid environment. Electroformation is an efficient mean to produce giant liposomes >10 μm in diameter which relies on the application of alternating voltage to a thin, ordered lipid film deposited on an electrode surface. However, since the classical protocol calls for the lipids to be deposited from organic solvents, it is not compatible with less robust membrane proteins like ion channels and must be modified. Recently, protocols have been developed to electroform giant liposomes from partially dehydrated small liposomes, which we have adapted to protein-containing liposomes in our laboratory. We present here the background, equipment, techniques, and pitfalls of electroformation of giant liposomes from small liposome dispersions. We begin with the classic protocol, which should be mastered first before attempting the more challenging protocols that follow. We demonstrate the process of controlled partial dehydration of small liposomes using vapor equilibrium with saturated salt solutions. Finally, we demonstrate the process of electroformation itself. We will describe simple, inexpensive equipment that can be made in-house to produce high-quality liposomes, and describe visual inspection of the preparation at each stage to ensure the best results. PMID:23851612

  17. Application of liposomes in medicine and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Daraee, Hadis; Etemadi, Ali; Kouhi, Mohammad; Alimirzalu, Samira; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-02-01

    Liposomes provide an established basis for the sustainable development of different commercial products for treatment of medical diseases by the smart delivery of drugs. The industrial applications include the use of liposomes as drug delivery vehicles in medicine, adjuvants in vaccination, signal enhancers/carriers in medical diagnostics and analytical biochemistry, solubilizers for various ingredients as well as support matrices for various ingredients and penetration enhancers in cosmetics. In this review, we summarize the main applications and liposome-based commercial products that are currently used in the medical field. PMID:25222036

  18. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of octyl methoxycinnamate liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Varjão Mota, Aline de Carvalho; Faria de Freitas, Zaida Maria; Júnior, Eduardo Ricci; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela Maria; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph; Ozzetti, Rafael Antonio; Vergnanini, André Luiz; Ribeiro, Vanessa Lira; Silva, Ronald Santos; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Solar radiation causes damage to human skin, and photoprotection is the main way to prevent these harmful effects. The development of sunscreen formulations containing nanosystems is of great interest in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries because of the many potential benefits. This study aimed to develop and evaluate an octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) liposomal nanosystem (liposome/OMC) to obtain a sunscreen formulation with improved safety and efficacy by retaining OMC for longer on the stratum corneum. Methods The liposome/OMC nanostructure obtained was tested for enzymatic hydrolysis with lipase from Rhizomucor miehei and biodistribution with liposomes labeled with technetium-99m. The liposome/OMC formulation was then incorporated in a gel formulation and tested for ocular irritation using the hen’s egg test-chorio-allantoic membrane (HET-CAM) assay, in vitro and in vivo sun protection factor, in vitro release profile, skin biometrics, and in vivo tape stripping. Results The liposome/OMC nanosystem was not hydrolyzed from R. miehei by lipase. In the biodistribution assay, the liposome/OMC formulation labeled with technetium-99m had mainly deposited in the skin, while for OMC the main organ was the liver, showing that the liposome had higher affinity for the skin than OMC. The liposome/OMC formulation was classified as nonirritating in the HET-CAM test, indicating good histocompatibility. The formulation containing liposome/OMC had a higher in vivo solar photoprotection factor, but did not show increased water resistance. Inclusion in liposomes was able to slow down the release of OMC from the formulation, with a lower steady-state flux (3.9 ± 0.33 μg/cm2/hour) compared with the conventional formulation (6.3 ± 1.21 μg/cm2/hour). The stripping method showed increased uptake of OMC in the stratum corneum, giving an amount of 22.64 ± 7.55 μg/cm2 of OMC, which was higher than the amount found for the conventional formulation (14.57 ± 2.30 μg/cm2). Conclusion These results indicate that liposomes are superior carriers for OMC, and confer greater safety and efficacy to sunscreen formulations. PMID:24376350

  19. Liposomal Drug Products: A Quality by Design Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoming

    Quality by Design (QbD) principles has been applied to the development of two liposomal formulations, containing a hydrophilic small molecule therapeutic (Tenofovir) and a protein therapeutic (superoxide dismutase). The goal of the research is to provide critical information on 1) how to reduce the preparation variability in liposome formulations, and 2) how to increase drug encapsulation inside liposomes to reduce manufacturing cost. Most notably, an improved liposome preparation method was developed which increased the encapsulation efficiency of hydrophilic molecules. In particular, this method allows for very high encapsulation efficiency. For example, encapsulation efficiencies of up to 50% have been achieved, whereas previously only 20% or less have been reported. Another significant outcome from this research is a first principle mathematical model to predict the encapsulation efficiency of hydrophilic drugs in unilamellar liposomes. This mathematical model will be useful in: formulation development to rapidly achieve optimized formulations; comparison of drug encapsulation efficiencies of liposomes prepared using different methods; and assisting in the development of suitable process analytical technologies to achieve real-time monitoring and control of drug encapsulation during manufacturing. A novel two-stage reverse dialysis in vitro release testing method has also been developed for passively targeted liposomes, which uses the first stage to mimic the circulation of liposomes in the body and the second stage to imitate the drug release process at the target. The developed in vitro release testing method can be used to distinguish formulations with varied compositions for quality control testing purposes. This developed method may pave the way to the development of more biorelevant quality control testing methods for liposomal drug products in the future. The QbD case studies performed in this research are examples of how this approach can be used to obtain design space for liposome products to achieve the desired in vivo product performance criteria. From an industrial perspective, this study provides an in-depth understanding of the parameters (risks) involved in liposome formulation and processing. From a regulatory perspective, the development of QbD principles for liposomal drug products will facilitate their regulation assuring safety and efficacy of these complex delivery systems.

  20. Studies on precellular evolution - The encapsulation of polyribonucleotides by liposomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baeza, I.; Ibanez, M.; Santiago, J. C.; Wong, C.; Lazcano, A.

    1986-01-01

    Liposomes have been suggested as possible models of precellular systems formed in the early Archean earth from lipids of nonenzymatic origin. Since it is generally accepted that RNA molecules preceded double-stranded DNA molecules as genetic material, the encapsulation of polyribonucleotides within liposomes (made from dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and from egg yolk phosphatidylcholine) was studied. Quantitative determinations show that approximately 50 percent of the available lipids form liposomes, and that up to 5 percent of the polyribonucleotides can be entrapped by them. Also studied was the encapsulation of polyribonucleotides in the presence of urea and cyanamide and of Zn(2+) and Pb(2+).

  1. External beam radiotherapy synergizes 188Re-liposome against human esophageal cancer xenograft and modulates 188Re-liposome pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Hsien; Liu, Shin-Yi; Chi, Chih-Wen; Yu, Hsiang-Lin; Chang, Tsui-Jung; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Lee, Te-Wei; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) treats gross tumors and local microscopic diseases. Radionuclide therapy by radioisotopes can eradicate tumors systemically. Rhenium 188 (188Re)-liposome, a nanoparticle undergoing clinical trials, emits gamma rays for imaging validation and beta rays for therapy, with biodistribution profiles preferential to tumors. We designed a combinatory treatment and examined its effects on human esophageal cancer xenografts, a malignancy with potential treatment resistance and poor prognosis. Human esophageal cancer cell lines BE-3 (adenocarcinoma) and CE81T/VGH (squamous cell carcinoma) were implanted and compared. The radiochemical purity of 188Re-liposome exceeded 95%. Molecular imaging by NanoSPECT/CT showed that BE-3, but not CE81T/VGH, xenografts could uptake the 188Re-liposome. The combination of EBRT and 188Re-liposome inhibited tumor regrowth greater than each treatment alone, as the tumor growth inhibition rate was 30% with EBRT, 25% with 188Re-liposome, and 53% with the combination treatment at 21 days postinjection. Combinatory treatment had no additive adverse effects and significant biological toxicities on white blood cell counts, body weight, or liver and renal functions. EBRT significantly enhanced the excretion of 188Re-liposome into feces and urine. In conclusion, the combination of EBRT with 188Re-liposome might be a potential treatment modality for esophageal cancer. PMID:26056445

  2. Meta-analysis of inter-patient pharmacokinetic variability of liposomal and non-liposomal anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Ryan F.; Sidone, Brian J.; Caron, Whitney P.; Walsh, Mark D.; Zamboni, Beth A.; Ramanathan, Ramesh K.; Zamboni, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the inter-patient pharmacokinetic (PK) variability of liposomal and small molecule (SM) anticancer agents. Methods Inter-patient PK variability of 9 liposomal and SM formulations of the same drug were evaluated. PK variability was measured as coefficient of variance (CV%) of area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) and the fold-difference between AUCmax and AUCmin (AUC range). Results CV% of AUC and AUC ranges were 2.7-fold (P<0.001) and 16.7-fold (P=0.13) greater, respectively, for liposomal compared with SM drugs. There was an inverse linear relationship between the clearance (CL) of liposomal agents and PK variability with a lower CL associated with greater PK variability (R2 = 0.39). PK variability of liposomal agents was greater when evaluated from 0336 h compared with 024 h. Conclusion PK variability of liposomes is significantly greater than SM. The factors associated with the PK variability of liposomal agents needs to be evaluated. PMID:23891988

  3. Tetra methyl substituted Cu(II) phthalocyanine as alternative hole transporting material for organometal halide perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfyri, Georgia; Kumar, Challuri Vijay; Wang, Yu-Long; Xu, Zong-Xiang; Krontiras, C. A.; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Copper phthalocyanine is a promising hole transporting material, which can be employed with solid state perovskite solar cells. Tetra methyl substituted copper phthalocyanine was presently studied as a hole transporting material and demonstrated improved performance with respect to unsubstituted copper phthalocyanine. This material shows a strong absorption in the Visible and Near IR part of the electromagnetic spectrum contributing to the absorption of photons. Its LUMO and HOMO level are favourably positioned for injecting electrons and scavenging holes. Methyl substitution facilitates closer molecular packing leading to a stronger extinction coefficient, stronger π-π interaction and higher charge carrier mobility.

  4. Synthesis of mesogenic phthalocyanine-C60 donoracceptor dyads designed for molecular heterojunction photovoltaic devices

    PubMed Central

    Debever, Olivier; Amato, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Summary A series of phthalocyanine-C60 dyads 2ad was synthesized. Key steps in their synthesis are preparation of the low symmetry phthalocyanine intermediate by the statistical condensation of two phthalonitriles, and the final esterification of the fullerene derivative bearing a free COOH group. Structural characterization of the molecules in solution was performed by NMR spectroscopy, UVvis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Preliminary studies suggest formation of liquid crystalline (LC) mesophases for some of the prepared dyads. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of LC phthalocyanine-C60 dyads. PMID:19936269

  5. Hybrid phthalocyanine/lead sulphide nanocomposite for bistable memory switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khozaee, Zahra; Sosa-Vargas, Lydia; Cammidge, Andrew N.; Cook, Michael J.; Ray, Asim K.

    2015-09-01

    A simple, one-step method is employed to produce, at room temperature, a single layer of an organic-inorganic nanocomposite containing non-aggregated lead sulphide (PbS) quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a 130 nm thick solution processed film of the organic semiconductor 6PcH2 (metal-free, non-peripherally substituted octahexyl phthalocyanine) on indium tin oxide. The mean size of PbS QDs is found from x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques to be much smaller than the Bohr radius. Further evidence of the quantum confinement effect is provided by a blue shift in the absorption spectrum and the increased band gap of 1.95 eV with respect to bulk PbS. The current-voltage characteristics of the hybrid and pristine 6PcH2 films, both in a sandwich configuration with the aluminium top electrode, exhibit bistable switching type hysteresis. The on-off ratio of the nanocomposite device is at least three orders of magnitude higher than that for 6PcH2 organic films, while both devices operate at a very low bias voltage of 0.5 V. The inclusion of the PbS QDs into the 6PcH2 film enhances the conductivity by nearly two orders of magnitude over that of a comparable pristine 6PcH2 film due to the formation of a charge transfer complex with PbS QDs and 6PcH2 acting as acceptors and donors of electrons, respectively.

  6. Phthalocyanine-labeled LDL for tumor imaging and photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Marotta, Diane; Kim, Soungkyoo; Chance, Britton; Glickson, Jerry D.; Busch, Theresa M.; Zheng, Gang

    2005-01-01

    Current limitation of both near-infrared (NIR) tumor imaging and photodynamic therapy (PDT) is their lack of sufficient tumor-to-tissue contrast due to the relatively non-specific nature of delivering dye to the tumor, which has led to false negatives for NIR imaging and inadequate therapeutic ratio for PDT. Hence, agents targeting "cancer signatures", i.e. molecules that accumulate selectively in cancer cells, are particular attractive. One of these signatures is low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), which is overexpressed in many tumors. We have developed pyropheophorbide cholesterol oleate reconstituted LDL as a LDLR-targeting photosensitizer (PS) and demonstrated its LDLR-mediated uptake in vitro and in vivo. To improve the labeling efficiency for achieving high probe/protein ratio, tetra-t-butyl silicon phthalocyanine bearing two oleate moieties at its axial positions, (tBu)4SiPcBOA, was designed and synthesized. This compound was designed to 1) prevent the PS aggregation; 2) improve the PS solubility in non-polar solvent; and 3) maximize the PS binding to LDL phospholipid monolayer. Using this novel strategy, (tBu)4SiPcBOA was reconstituted into LDL (r-SiPcBOA-LDL) with a very high payload (500:1 molar ratio). In addition, (tBu)4SiPcBOA reconstituted acetylated LDL (r-SiPcBOA)-AcLDL with similar payload was also prepared. Since Ac-LDL cannot bind to LDLR, (r-SiPcBOA)-AcLDL can serve as the negative control to evaluate LDLR targeting specificity. For biological evaluation of these new agents, confocal microscopy and in vitro PDT protocols were performed using LDLR-overexpressing human hepatoblastoma G2 (HepG2) tumor model. These studies suggest that LDL serves as a delivery vehicle to bring large amount of the NIR/PDT agents selectively to tumor cells overexpressing LDLR.

  7. The Photodynamic Antibacterial Effects of Silicon Phthalocyanine (Pc) 4

    PubMed Central

    Dimaano, Matthew L.; Rozario, Chantal; Nerandzic, Michelle M.; Donskey, Curtis J.; Lam, Minh; Baron, Elma D.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains in facultative anaerobic Gram-positive coccal bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a global health issue. Typically, MRSA strains are found associated with institutions like hospitals but recent data suggest that they are becoming more prevalent in community-acquired infections. It is thought that the incidence and prevalence of bacterial infections will continue to increase as (a) more frequent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppressive medications; (b) increased number of invasive medical procedures; and (c) higher incidence of neutropenia and HIV infections. Therefore, more optimal treatments, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), are warranted. PDT requires the interaction of light, a photosensitizing agent, and molecular oxygen to induce cytotoxic effects. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and characterized the mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by photodynamic therapy sensitized by silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 on (a) methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (ATCC 25923); (b) community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) (ATCC 43300); and (c) hospital acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) (PFGE type 300). Our data include confocal image analysis, which confirmed that Pc 4 is taken up by all S. aureus strains, and viable cell recovery assay, which showed that concentrations as low as 1.0 μM Pc 4 incubated for 3 h at 37 °C followed by light at 2.0 J/cm2 can reduce cell survival by 2–5 logs. These results are encouraging, but before PDT can be utilized as an alternative treatment for eradicating resistant strains, we must first characterize the mechanism of cell death that Pc 4-based PDT employs in eliminating these pathogens. PMID:25856680

  8. Comparative photodynamic therapy study using two phthalocyanine derivatives

    PubMed Central

    YSLAS, EDITH INÉS; MILLA, LAURA NATALIA; ROMANINI, SILVIA; DURANTINI, EDGARDO NÉSTOR; BERTUZZI, MABEL; RIVAROLA, VIVIANA ALICIA

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, a comparative photodynamic therapy (PDT) study was performed using the phthalocyanine derivatives, ZnPc(OCH3)4 and ZnPc(CF3)4, in a mouse tumor model, under identical experimental procedures. We studied the ablation of tumors induced by PDT. The end-point was to compare the photodynamic efficacy of ZnPc(OCH3)4 and ZnPc(CF3)4. ZnPc(OCH3)4 and ZnPc(CF3)4 were administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg body weight. The injections of drugs were carried out in Balb/c mice bearing subcutaneously inoculated LM2 mouse mammary adenocarcinoma. Histological examination and serum biochemical parameters were used to evaluate hepatic and renal toxicity and function. Phototherapeutic studies were achieved employing a light intensity of 210 J/cm2. After PDT, tumoral regression analyses were carried out, and the degree of tumor cell death was measured utilizing the vital stain Evan’s blue. In this pilot study, we revealed that the cytotoxic effect of ZnPc(OCH3)4 after PDT led to a higher success rate compared to ZnPc(CF3)4-PDT when both were intraperitoneally injectioned. Both phthalocynanine derivatives were able to induce ablation in the tumors. In summary, these results demonstrate the feasibility of ZnPc(OCH3)4- or ZnPc(CF3)4-PDT and its potential as a treatment for small tumors. PMID:22993594

  9. Tuning coercivity via iron chains in phthalocyanine thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werber, Mathew Stephen

    We investigated the properties of magnetic hysteresis loops of Iron Phthalocyanine (FePc) thin films using a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The FePc thin films were deposited onto heated silicon substrates. During deposition the FePc molecules self-assemble into small crystallites ranging in size from 30 to 300 nm on average. Due to the planar shape of the molecule, chains of iron atoms are formed. The magnetic interaction within a chain is much stronger than between chains, making these thin films quasi-one-dimensional magnetic systems. The average length of the major axis of the grains increases with the temperature of the substrate (deposition temperature). Essentially the thin films are made up of many randomly oriented iron chains of variable length, which are parallel to the substrate surface. We show that the coercivity of hysteresis loops measured at 2 K increases linearly with the average major axis grain length. From interpolation, the minimum average grain length for hysteresis to occur is 8 nm, and every additional nano-meter in length increases the coercivity by 72 Oe. By measuring hysteresis loops of many thin films of varying thickness we found that the saturation magnetization is 31 emu/cm3. This corresponds to 2.0 +/- 0.6 micro B per iron ion, as compared to 2.22 microB for iron in a 3D lattice at 0 K. The choice of substrate also affects the hysteresis properties. Samples deposited on silicon substrates that had first been coated in gold with a rms roughness of approximately 1 nm will show much lower coercivity than corresponding silicon substrate samples. The planar gold surface allows for a different growth pattern in which the chains form vertically, perpendicular to the substrate. This lower coercivity suggests that the chains are shorter when vertically oriented.

  10. Interface energetics in zinc phthalocyanine growth on Ag(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mahboob, Abdullah; Sadowski, Jerzy T.

    2016-02-01

    The nucleation and growth of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) thin films on a Ag(100) surface are studied employing in situ, real-time low-energy electron microscopy and complementary density functional theory (DFT) calculation to elucidate the role of incorporation kinetics of planar molecules in phase selection during nucleation and apply this knowledge to the fabrication of highly crystalline ZnPc films. We show that the nucleation of crystalline ZnPc islands requires a large concentration of diffusing molecules. The required amount of nominal deposition to initiate the growth of monolayer (ML) high two-dimensional crystalline islands is dependent on both growth temperature and crystalline phase. At room temperature (RT) and slightly above (RT to ˜430 K), ZnPc crystalline islands have double-domain R 33.69 structures with average domain sizes in the submicrometer range. At higher temperatures, a 5 × 5 commensurate ZnPc structure nucleates. DFT calculations reveal significant differences in interfacial energies of an isolated ZnPc molecule on a substrate, depending on an adsorption site and azimuthal orientation of the molecule relative to the substrate atomic lattice. The observed delay in the onset of the nucleation of an island is caused by the existence of a large energy barrier for molecule incorporation into an island. At certain growth conditions it is possible to induce a structural transition from the 5 × 5 to the R 33.69 phase when the nominal coverage reaches 1 ML. The resulting film has excellent crystallinity with individual domains of hundreds of micrometers in size.

  11. Photophysical efficiency-boost of aqueous aluminium phthalocyanine by hybrid formation with nano-clays.

    PubMed

    Staniford, Mark C; Lezhnina, Marina M; Gruener, Malte; Stegemann, Linda; Kuczius, Rauni; Bleicher, Vera; Strassert, Cristian A; Kynast, Ulrich H

    2015-09-11

    Novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials comprising nanoscaled layered silicates and native aluminium hydroxide phthalocyanine (Al(OH)Pc) allowed for the first time the exploitation of their unique photophysical properties in aqueous ambience. In particular, we were able to observe the efficient emission of Al(OH)Pc-nanoclay hybrids and generation of singlet oxygen in aqueous solution. PMID:26221639

  12. Fabrication and characterization of organic solar cells using metal complex of phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kida, Tomoyasu; Suzuki, Atsushi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Oku, Takeo

    2015-02-01

    Fabrication and characterization of organic solar cells using shuttle-cock-type phthalocyanines were carried out. Photovoltaic properties of the solar cells with inverted structures were investigated by current density-voltage characteristics. Effects of phase transition between H and J aggregates on the photovoltaic and optical properties were investigated. The photovoltaic mechanisms, energy levels and band gap of active layers were discussed.

  13. Incorporation of phthalocyanines by cationic and anionic clays via ion exchange and direct synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Carrado, K.A.; Botto, R.E.; Winans, R.E. ); Forman, J.E. )

    1993-04-01

    Phthalocyanines (Pc) and metallophthalocyanines were incorporated into the galleries of anionic and cationic clays via ion exchange and in situ crystallization of the synthetic clay layers. Intercalation compounds between the layered magnesium silicate clay hectorite and cationic phthalocyanines were directly prepared by refluxing for 2 days aqueous solutions of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide, lithium flouride, and either alcian blue dyes (Cu(II)Pc) or 15-crown-5 tetra-substituted phthalocyanine (15C5Pc). The CuPc dyes are tetrapositively charged through peripheral quaternary ammonium groups, whereas the 15C5Pc is electrically neutral. Anionic clays prepared by hydrolysis of mixed solutions of aluminum nitrate, magnesium nitrate, and copper(II) phthalocyaninetetrasulfonic acid, tetrasodium salt (CuPcTs) in sodium hydroxide resulted in crystallization of an intercalation compound between a layered double hydroxide (LDH) and this anionic Pc. The material prepared by ion exchange of CuPcTs into a wet, freshly prepared LDH was superior in crystallinity. The phthalocyanines are oriented parallel to cationic hectorite clay layers (gallery heights 4.5-6.5[angstrom]) and perpendicular to anionic layered double hydroxide clay layers (gallery height 18,2[angstrom]) in correlation with their hosts' respective layer charge densities. 32 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Efficient epoxidation of olefins by H2O2 catalyzed by iron "helmet" phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Skobelev, Igor Y; Kudrik, Evgeny V; Zalomaeva, Olga V; Albrieux, Florian; Afanasiev, Pavel; Kholdeeva, Oxana A; Sorokin, Alexander B

    2013-06-21

    High yields of epoxides were obtained in the oxidation of a large range of olefins using 1.2-2 equiv. of H2O2 in the presence of iron helmet phthalocyanines. The involvement of high-valent iron oxo species was evidenced using cryospray mass spectrometry. PMID:23677241

  15. Synthesis of phthalocyanines with an extended system of π-electron conjugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinina, T. V.; Tomilova, L. G.; Zefirov, N. S.

    2013-09-01

    Synthetic approaches to phthalocyanines with an extended system of π-electron conjugation are described. Compounds of planar and sandwich structure are presented that possess intensive absorption in the near-IR region of the spectrum. Particular attention is devoted to electronic absorption spectra of these systems and their correlation with structure. The bibliography includes 97 references.

  16. Spectroscopic fingerprints of work-function-controlled phthalocyanine charging on metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Borghetti, Patrizia; El-Sayed, Afaf; Goiri, Elizabeth; Rogero, Celia; Lobo-Checa, Jorge; Floreano, Luca; Ortega, Jose Enrique; de Oteyza, Dimas G

    2014-12-23

    The electronic character of a ?-conjugated molecular overlayer on a metal surface can change from semiconducting to metallic, depending on how molecular orbitals arrange with respect to the electrode's Fermi level. Molecular level alignment is thus a key property that strongly influences the performance of organic-based devices. In this work, we report how the electronic level alignment of copper phthalocyanines on metal surfaces can be tailored by controlling the substrate work function. We even show the way to finely tune it for one fixed phthalocyanine-metal combination without the need to intercalate substrate-functionalizing buffer layers. Instead, the work function is trimmed by appropriate design of the phthalocyanine's supramolecular environment, such that charge transfer into empty molecular levels can be triggered across the metal-organic interface. These intriguing observations are the outcome of a powerful combination of surface-sensitive electron spectroscopies, which further reveal a number of characteristic spectroscopic fingerprints of a lifted LUMO degeneracy associated with the partial phthalocyanine charging. PMID:25426520

  17. Molecular Interactions Between Alcohols and Metal Phthalocyanine Thin Films for Optical Gas Sensor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttiya, Sureeporn; Kladsomboon, Sumana; Chamlek, Onanong; Suwannet, Wiriya; Osotchan, Tanakorn; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat; Brinkmann, Martin; Pratontep, Sirapat

    Optically active organic gas sensors represent a promising molecular sensing device with low power consumption. We report experimental and computational investigations into the molecular interactions of metal phthalocyanine thin films with alcohol vapor. In the gas-sensing regime, the interactions of zinc phthalocyanine and alcohol molecules were studied by the Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, in comparison to the x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The DFT results reveal a reversible charge interaction mechanism between the zinc atom and the oxygen atom in the alcohol OH group, which corresponds to a shift in the x-ray absorption edge of the zinc atom. In the irreversible interaction regime, the effect of saturated alcohol vapor on spin-coated zinc phthalocyanine films was studied by the phase contrast microscopy, the optical absorption spectroscopy, and the transmission electron microscopy. Annealing the spin-coated films in saturated methanol vapor was found to induce an irreversible structural transformation from an amorphous to a crystalline phase, similar to the effect of a thermal annealing process. These crystallization processes of the zinc phthalocyanine films were also found to enhance their stability and alcohol sensing performance.

  18. Stability of benzotriazolyl-substituted phthalocyanines with respect to thermal oxidative decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Znoiko, S. A.; Maizlish, V. E.; Shaposhnikov, G. P.; Lebedeva, N. Sh.; Mal'kova, E. A.

    2013-03-01

    The thermal oxidative decomposition of benzotriazolyl-substituted phthalocyanines and their copper complexes is investigated by means of thermogravimetric, elemental, and spectroscopic analysis. It is shown that the nature of peripheral substituents exerts the greatest effect on the thermal stability of the compounds.

  19. Reverse optical changing and rewrite recording properties of Langmuir-Blodgett films of phthalocyanine copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Fuxi; Luo, Tao

    1994-01-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of tetra-nonyl phthalocyanine copper (TNPcCu) were prepared and annealed at different temperatures. Their optical spectra and optical constants were measured, the structural changes of the films were studied by x-ray diffraction. Optical recording properties were measured at a static optical recording tester.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of organic solar cells using metal complex of phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Kida, Tomoyasu Suzuki, Atsushi Akiyama, Tsuyoshi Oku, Takeo

    2015-02-27

    Fabrication and characterization of organic solar cells using shuttle-cock-type phthalocyanines were carried out. Photovoltaic properties of the solar cells with inverted structures were investigated by current density-voltage characteristics. Effects of phase transition between H and J aggregates on the photovoltaic and optical properties were investigated. The photovoltaic mechanisms, energy levels and band gap of active layers were discussed.

  1. Towards Clarifying the Role of O2 during the Phthalocyanine Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kang; Pan, Houhe; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2015-12-01

    The role of O2 within the synthesis of phthalocyanines (Pcs) has remained unclear in the past century. Here, we demonstrate that O2 , in cooperation with the solvent n-pentanol, participates in the cyclic tetramerization of phthalonitriles over the half-sandwich complex template [Lu(Pc)(acac)] (acac=acetylacetonate) and terminates the reaction at the stage of uncyclized isoindole oligomeric derivatives rather than the phthalocyanine chromophores, resulting in the isolation of the heteroleptic (phthalocyaninato)(triisoindole-1-one) lutetium double-decker complexes [(Pc)Lu(TIO-I)] (TIO-I=3,4,7,8,11,12-sexi(2,6-diisopropylphenoxy)-15-[4,5-di(2,6-diisopropylphenoxy)-2-cyanobenzimidamido]triisoindole-1-one) and [(Pc)Lu(TIO-II)] (TIO-II=3,4,7,8,11,12-sexi(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-15-[4,5-di(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-cyanobenzimidamido]triisoindole-1-one) with the help of bulky substituents at the phthalonitrile periphery and an unsubstituted phthalocyanine ligand in the double-decker skeleton. Nevertheless, the cyclic tetramerization of the phthalonitriles was revealed to be sensitive to O2 with the reaction progression also depending on the oxygen concentration/content, leading to the O2 -senstive and -dependent nature for the isolation of phthalocyanine derivatives. PMID:26526528

  2. WASTES FROM MANUFACTURE OF DYES AND PIGMENTS. VOLUME 8. PHTHALOCYANINE DYES AND PIGMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A preliminary study of the manufacture of phthalocyanine dyes and pigments was conducted to determine if process waste streams might contain hazardous material. The study first identifies the dyes and pigments that belong to this segment of the industry, the amounts produced, and...

  3. Metal (2) 4,4',4",4'" phthalocyanine tetraamines as curing agents for epoxy resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, B. N.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Metal, preferably divalent copper, cobalt or nickel, phthalocyanine tetraamines are used as curing agents for epoxides. The resulting copolymers have high thermal and chemical resistance and are homogeneous. They are useful as binders for laminates, e.g., graphite cloth laminate.

  4. Theoretical study of NMR, infrared and Raman spectra on triple-decker phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Oku, Takeo

    2016-02-01

    Electronic structures and magnetic properties of multi-decker phthalocyanines were studied by theoretical calculation. Electronic structures, excited processes at multi-states, isotropic chemical shifts of 13C, 14N and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), principle V-tensor in electronic field gradient (EFG) tensor and asymmetry parameters (η), vibration mode in infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of triple-decker phthalocyanines were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT using B3LYP as basis function. Electron density distribution was delocalized on the phthalocyanine rings with electron static potential. Considerable separation of chemical shifts in 13C, 14N and 1H-NMR was originated from nuclear spin interaction between nitrogen and carbon atoms, nuclear quadrupole interaction based on EFG and η of central metal under crystal field. Calculated optical absorption at multi-excited process was derived from overlapping π-orbital on the phthalocyanine rings. The vibration modes in IR and Raman spectra were based on in-plane deformation and stretching vibrations of metal-ligand coordination bond on the deformed structure.

  5. Effects of the liposomal formulation on the behavior and physical characteristics of acoustic liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sax, Nicolas; Horie, Sachiko; Li, Li; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2012-09-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are nano/microbubbles that contain air or a highmolecular-weight, low-solubility gas encapsulated in a lipid or albumin shell. Previous studies have developed acoustic liposomes (ALs), liposomes that encapsulate perfluoropropane (C3F8) gas. These ALs can be used as just UCAs, for early diagnostic or observation of angiogenesis. They can also be used for drug delivery, through their ultrasound-induced destruction leading to permeabilization of the neighboring cells. However, the echogenicity of ALs decreases within minutes, raising the need for more stable preparations. Here we show that the in vitro stability of ALs is affected by fluidity changes in the bilayer, the presence of anionic phospholipids and the density of the PEG coating layer. These results allowed the preparation of "optimized" ALs displaying a 50% enhanced detection time in vitro. We anticipate their stability to be enhanced in a similar manner, in vivo. Further research aims at further improvement of the stability of gas encapsulation by surface modification and coating of the liposomes, and in vivo characterization of the optimized ALs.

  6. Platelets directed liposomes for the delivery of streptokinase: development and characterization.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar; Agrawal, G P; Vyas, Suresh P

    2011-12-18

    The present study was aimed to study the effect of RGD peptide conjugation on the bio-distribution behaviour of long circulatory liposomes in the thrombosed rat model. Further, thrombolysis study was also performed to evaluate the therapeutic activity of the prepared liposomes. Liposomes were prepared by film hydration method and peptide was subsequently conjugated on the preformed liposomes using carbodiimide chemistry. Prepared liposomes were characterized for size and size distribution, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. In vitro targeting ability of the liposomes was determined by platelets binding assay. In vivo studies were performed in the rat model containing human blood clot inoculated in the carotid artery. Results of the study showed that RGD peptide conjugated liposomes significantly accumulated to the site of blood clot and higher thrombolytic activity was observed with peptide modified liposomes as compared to plain streptokinase solution and long circulatory liposomes. PMID:22009110

  7. Thermal and photic stimuli-responsive polydiacetylene liposomes with reversible fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiaojuan; An, Xueqin

    2013-06-01

    A novel reversible fluorescent switch of a polydiacetylene liposome (PDA liposome) was realized by alternating heating and UV irradiation processes. The reversible fluorescence switching of the PDA liposome was mainly caused by the microstructural changes of the PDA backbone in the PDA liposomes under the alternating conditions of heating and UV irradiation.A novel reversible fluorescent switch of a polydiacetylene liposome (PDA liposome) was realized by alternating heating and UV irradiation processes. The reversible fluorescence switching of the PDA liposome was mainly caused by the microstructural changes of the PDA backbone in the PDA liposomes under the alternating conditions of heating and UV irradiation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The preparation method, cytotoxicity and biocompatibility assays and HREM images of PDA liposomes. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00954h

  8. Cholesterol Derivatives Based Charged Liposomes for Doxorubicin Delivery: Preparation, In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yu; Ji, Li; Ding, Hong; Xie, Li; Li, Li; He, Bin; Wu, Yao; Gu, Zhongwei

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol plays a critical role in liposome composition. It has great impact on the behavior of liposome in vitro and in vivo. In order to verify the possible effects from cholesterol charge, surface shielding and chemical nature, two catalogs of liposomes with charged and PEGylated cholesterols were synthesized. Anionic liposomes (AL) and cationic liposomes (CL) were prepared, with charges from hemisuccinate and lysine in cholesterol derivatives, respectively. Characteristics of different formulated liposomes were investigated after doxorubicin encapsulation, using neutral liposomes (NL) as control. Results showed that after PEGylation, AL and CL liposomes displayed prolonged retention release profile, while kept similar size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, low cytotoxicity and hemolysis comparing with NL. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry experiments confirmed the significantly higher cell uptake from AL and CL vesicles than the NL in mouse breast carcinoma and melanoma cells, human epithelial carcinoma and hepatoma cells. It was in accordance with our corresponding cellular mortality studies of DOX-loaded liposomes. The in vivo anti-tumor effect experiments from charged liposomes also presented much higher tumor inhibition effect (70% vs 45%, p < 0.05) than NL liposomes. This is the first time reporting anti-cancer effect from charged cholesterol liposome with/without PEGylation. It may give deeper understanding on the liposome formulation which is critical for liposome associated drug research and development. PMID:23227125

  9. Effect of surface properties on liposomal siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yuqiong; Tian, Jie; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-02-01

    Liposomes are one of the most widely investigated carriers for siRNA delivery. The surface properties of liposomal carriers, including the surface charge, PEGylation, and ligand modification can significantly affect the gene silencing efficiency. Three barriers of systemic siRNA delivery (long blood circulation, efficient tumor penetration and efficient cellular uptake/endosomal escape) are analyzed on liposomal carriers with different surface charges, PEGylations and ligand modifications. Cationic formulations dominate siRNA delivery and neutral formulations also have good performance while anionic formulations are generally not proper for siRNA delivery. The PEG dilemma (prolonged blood circulation vs. reduced cellular uptake/endosomal escape) and the side effect of repeated PEGylated formulation (accelerated blood clearance) were discussed. Effects of ligand modification on cationic and neutral formulations were analyzed. Finally, we summarized the achievements in liposomal siRNA delivery, outlined existing problems and provided some future perspectives. PMID:26695117

  10. Liposomes with polyribonucleotides as model of precellular systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baeza, Isabel; Ibanez, Miguel; Santiago, Carlos; Lazcano, Antonio; Arguello, Carlos

    1987-01-01

    Three types of liposomes were prepared under anoxic conditions: from dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC), from egg yolk phosphatidyl choline (PC), and from PC with cholesterol (PC:Chol). These were used for encapsulation of poly(U) and poly(C). It was found that 36 to 70 percent of the available liposome lipids and 2 to 5 percent of the polyribonucleotides could be entrapped. An enhanced encapsulation of poly(U) and poly(C) by all three types of liposomes was observed in the presence of 0.001 to 0.01 M Zn(2+), with the effect being greatest with DPPC. The presence of 1.0 M urea inhibited the formation of PC liposomes.

  11. Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Svarnas, P.; Aleiferis, Sp.; Matrali, S. H.; Gazeli, K.; Clement, F.; Antimisiaris, S. G.

    2012-12-24

    The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterization including gas temperature calculation.

  12. Syntheses and characterization of liposome-incorporated adamantyl aminoguanidines.

    PubMed

    ekutor, Marina; timac, Adela; Mlinari?-Majerski, Kata; Frkanec, Rua

    2014-08-21

    A series of mono and bis-aminoguanidinium adamantane derivatives has been synthesized and incorporated into liposomes. They combine two biomedically significant molecules, the adamantane moiety and the guanidinium group. The adamantane moiety possesses the membrane compatible features while the cationic guanidinium subunit was recognized as a favourable structural feature for binding to complementary molecules comprising phosphate groups. The liposome formulations of adamantyl aminoguanidines were characterized and it was shown that the entrapment efficiency of the examined compounds is significant. In addition, it was demonstrated that liposomes with incorporated adamantyl aminoguanidines effectively recognized the complementary liposomes via the phosphate group. These results indicate that adamantane derivatives bearing guanidinium groups might be versatile tools for biomedical application, from studies of molecular recognition processes to usage in drug formulation and cell targeting. PMID:24988293

  13. [Liposomal boron delivery system for neutron capture therapy].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2008-02-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary cancer treatment based on the nuclear reaction of two essentially nontoxic species, (10)B and thermal neutrons. High accumulation and selective delivery of boron into tumor tissue are the most important requirements to achieve efficient neutron capture therapy of cancers. This review focuses on the liposomal boron delivery system (BDS) as a recent promising approach that meets these requirements for BNCT. BDS involves two strategies: (1) encapsulation of boron in the aqueous core of liposomes and (2) accumulation of boron in the liposomal bilayer. Various boronated liposomes have been developed and significant boron accumulation into tumor tissue with high tumor/blood boron ratios has been achieved by BDS. PMID:18239367

  14. Assessment of liposome disruption to quantify drug delivery in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugnia; Cruz, Clia F; Loureiro, Ana; Nogueira, Patrcia; Freitas, Jaime; Moreira, Alexandra; Carmo, Alexandre M; Gomes, Andreia C; Preto, Ana; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-02-01

    Efficient liposome disruption inside the cells is a key for success with any type of drug delivery system. The efficacy of drug delivery is currently evaluated by direct visualization of labeled liposomes internalized by cells, not addressing objectively the release and distribution of the drug. Here, we propose a novel method to easily assess liposome disruption and drug release into the cytoplasm. We propose the encapsulation of the cationic dye Hoechst 34580 to detect an increase in blue fluorescence due to its specific binding to negatively charged DNA. For that, the dye needs to be released inside the cell and translocated to the nucleus. The present approach correlates the intensity of detected fluorescent dye with liposome disruption and consequently assesses drug delivery within the cells. PMID:26589183

  15. Bioreactor droplets from liposome-stabilized all-aqueous emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, Daniel C.; Strulson, Christopher A.; Cacace, David N.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Keating, Christine D.

    2014-08-01

    Artificial bioreactors are desirable for in vitro biochemical studies and as protocells. A key challenge is maintaining a favourable internal environment while allowing substrate entry and product departure. We show that semipermeable, size-controlled bioreactors with aqueous, macromolecularly crowded interiors can be assembled by liposome stabilization of an all-aqueous emulsion. Dextran-rich aqueous droplets are dispersed in a continuous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-rich aqueous phase, with coalescence inhibited by adsorbed ~130-nm diameter liposomes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and dynamic light scattering data indicate that the liposomes, which are PEGylated and negatively charged, remain intact at the interface for extended time. Inter-droplet repulsion provides electrostatic stabilization of the emulsion, with droplet coalescence prevented even for submonolayer interfacial coatings. RNA and DNA can enter and exit aqueous droplets by diffusion, with final concentrations dictated by partitioning. The capacity to serve as microscale bioreactors is established by demonstrating a ribozyme cleavage reaction within the liposome-coated droplets.

  16. Remote loading of preencapsulated drugs into stealth liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sur, Surojit; Fries, Anja C; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Zhou, Shibin; Vogelstein, Bert

    2014-02-11

    Loading drugs into carriers such as liposomes can increase the therapeutic ratio by reducing drug concentrations in normal tissues and raising their concentrations in tumors. Although this strategy has proven advantageous in certain circumstances, many drugs are highly hydrophobic and nonionizable and cannot be loaded into liposomes through conventional means. We hypothesized that such drugs could be actively loaded into liposomes by encapsulating them into specially designed cyclodextrins. To test this hypothesis, two hydrophobic drugs that had failed phase II clinical trials because of excess toxicity at deliverable doses were evaluated. In both cases, the drugs could be remotely loaded into liposomes after their encapsulation (preloading) into cyclodextrins and administered to mice at higher doses and with greater efficacy than possible with the free drugs. PMID:24474802

  17. Technology of Liposomal Tiosens, Cifelin and Lysomustin for Industrial Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanarova, E. V.; Kotova, E. A.; Lantsova, A. V.

    2012-02-01

    This work is devoted to the development of national antineoplastic drug (Tiosens, Cifelin, Lysomustin) liposomal dosage form (LDF) circuit technology and their manufacturing technology. In modern oncology liposomes, which are hollow phospholipid vesicles, are used as delivery systems protected drugs from biodegradation, and healthy cells from the toxic effect of chemotherapeutic agents. The technology of their production is stretching and multistage. It is also necessary to give consideration a lot of factors that influence on the finished product quality.

  18. Photosensitive liposomes as potential drug delivery vehicles for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Christopher G.; Mitchell, A. C.; Chowdhary, R. K.

    1991-11-01

    Light-sensitive liposomes incorporating a photochromic phospholipid (Bis-Azo PC) have been developed which exhibit light-activated release of entrapped contents and intervesicular fusion. The trapping and light-induced release of inorganic ions, fluorescent market dyes, and the antitumor drug methotrexate have been demonstrated. These results are discussed together with some of the potential therapeutic applications of light-sensitive liposomes.

  19. Liposomes as siRNA delivery vectors.

    PubMed

    Bochicchio, Sabrina; Dalmoro, Annalisa; Barba, Anna Angela; Grassi, Gabriele; Lamberti, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic Acid Based Drugs (NABDs) constitute a class of promising and powerful therapeutic new agents with limited side effects, potentially useable against a wide range of diseases, including cancer. Among them, the short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), represent very effective molecules. Despite their in vitro efficacy, the major drawback that limits siRNAs usage consists in a difficult delivery due to their very low stability in physiological fluids, and to their limited membrane-permeability through physiological barriers. On the other hand, the liposomes (lipid bilayers closed in vesicles of various sizes) represent interesting drug delivery systems (DDSs) which can be tailored in order to get the best performance in terms of load, vesicle size and transfection yield. In this work, the current state of study in these two fields, and the connections between them, are briefly summarized. PMID:25658127

  20. Ultrasonic Activation of Thermally Sensitive Liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylonopouloua, Eleonora; Arvanitisa, Costas D.; Bazan-Peregrinoa, Miriam; Arora, Manish; Coussios, Constantin C.

    2010-03-01

    Cancerous cells are known to be more vulnerable to mild hyperthermia than healthy cells, which can survive temperatures above 43 C for brief periods of time. Currently in phase III clinical trials for liver cancer, ThermoDox (Celsion Corporation) is a drug delivery system containing doxorubicin, a common anti-cancer agent, encapsulated within a thermally sensitive liposome designed to release its contents above 39.5 C. Activation of such an agent with the use of HIFU, which can generate localized heating non-invasively, would combine the benefits of targeted chemotherapy and hyperthermia while minimizing undesirable systemic side-effects. To that end, the resolution and reliability with which HIFU-induced hyperthermia can achieve Thermodox release was investigated using a novel agar-based gel embedding liposomes at clinically relevant concentrations (0.02 mg/ml). The gel was exposed to 1.15 MHz HIFU (Sonic Concepts H102) using a range of clinically relevant pressure amplitudes (0-6 MPa peak rarefactional), duty cycles (10-100%) and exposure durations to identify optimal insonation conditions for complete doxorubicin release. The corresponding temperature profiles were mapped with 0.5 mm spatial resolution using an embedded needle thermocouple; drug release was quantified using fluorimetry. Complete release over the HIFU focal area was obtained for 6-s continuous wave exposure at 5.2 MPa peak rarefactional pressure, i.e. under exposure conditions for which the temperature exceeded 43 C throughout the focal volume. For a given HIFU energy input, both the final temperature reached and the rate of heating were found to affect release significantly. However, ThermoDox release was achieved only due to thermal effects of HIFU, and not by other ultrasound effects, such as cavitation without heating, showing robustness of HIFU-induced hyperthermia as a release mechanism.

  1. Fluorescence Behaviour of an Aluminium Octacarboxy Phthalocyanine--NaYGdF4:Yb/Er Nanoparticle Conjugate.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jessica; Litwinski, Christian; Nyokong, Tebello; Antunes, Edith

    2015-05-01

    Using a methanol assisted thermal decomposition approach, sphere shaped NaYGdF4:Yb/Er upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) were successfully synthesized. The chemical, spectroscopic and fluorescence properties of the UCNPs were fully characterized. Characteristic upconversion fluorescence emissions were produced by the NPs in the green, red and NIR regions and the NPs were also shown to possess paramagnetic properties. The influence of the UCNPs on the spectroscopic and fluorescence properties of an aluminium octacarboxy phthalocyanine AlOCPc was investigated. Covalent conjugation to an AlOCPc resulted in a large blue shift of the phthalocyanine's Q band, which was accompanied by a decrease in the Pc's fluorescence lifetime in DMSO. By combining the phthalocyanine and upconversion nanoparticle, we present a system capable of multimodal imaging, using both the upconversion nanoparticle's and phthalocyanine's emission, and magnetic resonance imaging (as a result of doping the upconversion nanoparticles with Gd(3+) ions). PMID:25744527

  2. [Efficacy of RNA interference mediated by cationic liposomes].

    PubMed

    Han, Wenqi; Zhen, Yuhong; Zhang, Shubiao; Zhao, Yinan; Sun, Yong; Guo, Xin; Wang, Enxia; Liu, Zi; Sun, Yaoting

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the cytotoxicity of the homemade peptide cationic liposome CDO14 and its efficacy of RNA interference (RNAi). MTT method was used to determine the cytotoxicity of the liposome to a human lung cancer cell line Luc-A549 that can express luciferase stably. Luciferase siRNA (Luc-siRNA) was transfected into Luc-A549 cells by CDO14. Contents of luciferase in the transfected cells were detected by luminous instrument and contents of total protein in these cells were detected by BCA method. Nude mice were inoculated with Luc-A549 cells in axilla to establish xenograft tumor model. Complexes of Luc-siRNA and the cationic liposomes were injected into the modeling mice via tail vein. Contents of luciferase in the transfected mice were detected by the whole body imaging system. The cytotoxicity of the homemade cationic liposome was similar to that of commercial liposome DOTAP, and lower than that of Lipo2000. The siRNA transfection efficacy mediated by CDO14 was higher than that mediated by DOTAP. The homemade peptide cationic liposome CDO14 is expected to serve as delivery vector in gene therapy because of its low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency. PMID:26762045

  3. Peptide Anchor for Folate-Targeted Liposomal Delivery.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugnia; Mangialavori, Irene C; Loureiro, Ana; Azoia, Nuno G; Srria, Marisa P; Nogueira, Patrcia; Freitas, Jaime; Hrmark, Johan; Shimanovich, Ulyana; Rollett, Alexandra; Lacroix, Ghislaine; Bernardes, Gonalo J L; Guebitz, Georg; Hebert, Hans; Moreira, Alexandra; Carmo, Alexandre M; Rossi, Juan Pablo F C; Gomes, Andreia C; Preto, Ana; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-09-14

    Specific folate receptors are abundantly overexpressed in chronically activated macrophages and in most cancer cells. Directed folate receptor targeting using liposomes is usually achieved using folate linked to a phospholipid or cholesterol anchor. This link is formed using a large spacer like polyethylene glycol. Here, we report an innovative strategy for targeted liposome delivery that uses a hydrophobic fragment of surfactant protein D linked to folate. Our proposed spacer is a small 4 amino acid residue linker. The peptide conjugate inserts deeply into the lipid bilayer without affecting liposomal integrity, with high stability and specificity. To compare the drug delivery potential of both liposomal targeting systems, we encapsulated the nuclear dye Hoechst 34580. The eventual increase in blue fluorescence would only be detectable upon liposome disruption, leading to specific binding of this dye to DNA. Our delivery system was proven to be more efficient (2-fold) in Caco-2 cells than classic systems where the folate moiety is linked to liposomes by polyethylene glycol. PMID:26241560

  4. Folate receptor targeted liposomes encapsulating anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Anumita; Das, Surajit

    2015-01-01

    Among all available lipid based nanoparticulate systems, the success of liposomal drug delivery system is evident by the number of liposomal products available in the market or under advanced stages of preclinical and clinical trials. Liposome has the ability to deliver chemotherapeutic agents to the targeted tissues or even inside the cancerous cells by enhanced intracellular penetration or improved tumour targeting. In the last decade, folate receptor mediated tumour targeting has emerged as an attractive alternative method of active targeting of cancer cells through liposomes due to its numerous advantages over other targeting methods. Folate receptors, also known as folate binding proteins, allow the binding and internalization of folate or folic acid into the cells by a method called folate receptor mediated endocytosis. They have restricted presence in normal cells and are mostly expressed during malignant transformation. In this review article, folate receptor targeting capability of liposomes has been described. This review article has focussed on the different cancer drugs which have been encapsulated in folate receptor targeted liposomes and their in vitro as well as in vivo efficacies in several tumour models. PMID:25601598

  5. Modification of wool surface by liposomes for dyeing with weld.

    PubMed

    Montazer, Majid; Zolfaghari, Alireza; Toliat, Taibeh; Moghadam, Mohammad Bameni

    2009-01-01

    In this research work, wool surface has been modified by liposome to investigate its effects on dyeing with weld, a yellow natural dye. To do this, samples were first treated with aluminium sulphate and afterward with different concentrations of liposomes at various temperatures for 30 minutes and, finally, dyed with weld at 75, 85, and 95 degrees C for 30, 45, and 60 minutes. K/S values of fabric samples were calculated and washing, light and rub fastness properties of the samples were indicated. The results proposed that the sample treated with 1% liposomes and dyed at 75 degrees C for 60 min has the highest K/S value. The central composite design (CCD) used for the experimental plan with three variables on the results of color strength and statistical analysis confirms the optimum conditions obtained by the experimental results. It was also found that washing, light, wet, and dry rub fastness properties of samples dyed with weld, including liposomes, have not significantly changed. The results of water drop absorption indicated that the hydrophobicity is higher for the samples pretreated with liposomes. The SEM picture of wool sample treated with mordant and liposomes and finally dyed with weld shows a coated layer on the fiber surface. PMID:19552578

  6. Interaction of imatinib with liposomes: voltammetric and AFM characterization.

    PubMed

    Diculescu, Victor C; Chiorcea-Paquim, Ana-Maria; Tugulea, Laura; Vivan, Marilene; Oliveira-Brett, Ana-Maria

    2009-02-01

    The interaction of imatinib with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 2-oleoyl-1-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (OSPC) liposomes and the adsorption of DPPC and OSPC were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) at highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and differential pulse voltammetry at glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The HOPG induces the rupture of the liposomes and allows the lipids to adsorb along one of the three axes of symmetry of the HOPG basal planes, forming well-ordered lamellar structures. After interaction, both DPPC monolayers and DPPC-imatinib complexes are adsorbed onto HOPG. The OSPC-imatinib complexes self-organize only into ordered but larger domains of parallel stripes that maintain the threefold symmetry of the HOPG, due to an easier imatinib penetration into the unsaturated OSPC liposome bilayers. The voltammetric results show that upon interaction, the electrochemical active moiety of imatinib is incorporated into the lipid bilayer becoming unavailable to the GCE surface for oxidation, leading to local structural modifications of the lipid bilayer which were also electrochemically detected. A model is proposed for the liposome-imatinib interaction considering that imatinib interacts primarily by van der Waals and hydrogen bonds with the phosphatidylcholine headgroups, leading to defects in the liposome bilayer and allowing further incorporation of imatinib into the liposome lamellae. PMID:19119081

  7. Pharmacokinetics and in vivo activity of liposome-encapsulated gentamicin.

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, C E; Stewart, K A; Hammett, J L; Fitzsimmons, W E; Ginsberg, R S

    1990-01-01

    Gentamicin sulfate was encapsulated in liposomes composed solely of egg phosphatidylcholine and administered via intravenous injection to rats and mice. The total gentamicin activity (regardless of whether it was free or liposome associated) in serum and selected tissues was determined for 24 h (serum) or up to 15 weeks (tissues) by using a microbiological assay. The mean half-lives in serum of a single 20-mg/kg dose of free (nonencapsulated) gentamicin in mice and rats were estimated to be 1.0 and 0.6 h, respectively, whereas a similar dose of encapsulated drug had apparent mean half-lives of 3.8 h in mice and 4.0 h in rats. In both species, the apparent half-life in serum of the liposomal formulation increased as the dose increased. Liposome encapsulation resulted in higher and more prolonged activity in organs rich in reticuloendothelial cells (especially spleen and liver). In acute septicemia infections in mice, the liposomal formulation showed enhanced prophylactic activity (as determined by calculation of the 50% protective dose). In a model of murine salmonellosis, liposomal gentamicin greatly enhanced survival when given as a single dose (10 mg/kg) at 1 or 2 days after infection as well as up to 7 days before infection. PMID:2183715

  8. (18)F-labeled-bioorthogonal liposomes for in vivo targeting.

    PubMed

    Emmetiere, Fabien; Irwin, Christopher; Viola-Villegas, Nerissa Therese; Longo, Valerie; Cheal, Sarah M; Zanzonico, Pat; Pillarsetty, Nagavarakishore; Weber, Wolfgang A; Lewis, Jason S; Reiner, Thomas

    2013-11-20

    Liposomes are attractive vehicles for the controlled release of drugs and cytotoxins and have a long-standing history in medical research and clinical practice. In addition to established therapeutic indications, liposomes have several favorable properties for molecular imaging, including high stability and the ability to be labeled with radioisotopes, as well as paramagnetic and fluorescent contrast agents. However, long circulation times and difficulties in creating targeted liposomes have proven challenges for imaging. In this study, we have addressed these limitations using a recently developed strategy for bioorthogonal conjugation, the reaction between tetrazines and trans-cyclooctenes. By coating radiolabeled liposomes with trans-cyclooctene and pretargeting with a tetrazine coupled to a targeted peptide, we were able to selectively enhance the retention of liposomes and bind them to tumor tissue in live animals. The rapid reaction between tetrazines and trans-cyclooctenes allowed imaging to be performed with the short-lived PET tracer (18)F, yielding signal-to-background activity ratios of 7:1. The covalent, bioorthogonally driven tumor-targeting of liposomes by in vivo click chemistry is promising and should be explored for more selective and rapid delivery of radiodiagnostics and radiotherapeutics, two classes of drugs which particularly benefit from fast clearance, low nonspecific binding, and the associated reduced toxicity to kidneys and bone marrow. PMID:24180480

  9. Liposome distribution after intravenous and selective intraarterial infusion in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, K.C.; Kasi, L.P.; Jahns, M.S.; Hashimoto, S.; Wallace, S. )

    1990-09-01

    In an effort to improve hepatic uptake of liposomes for drug delivery, empty vesicles were administered by means of selective arterial infusion. Negatively charged, multilamellar liposomes were labeled with technetium-99m and infused into healthy adult dogs. Each dog received 100 mg/m2 of lipid over 10 minutes at 2 mL/min. Liposomes were administered via the common hepatic artery after proximal occlusion of the gastroduodenal artery, via the cranial mesenteric artery, and via the cephalic vein. Distribution (liver, spleen, and lungs) was determined by computer-assisted external imaging techniques. On the average, after arterial infusion, 69.2% of the total activity was located in the liver, 3.6% in the spleen, 3.2% in the lungs, and 3.5% in the general circulation. Following venous injection, 50.7% of the radioactivity was found in the liver, 9.1% in the spleen, 8.6% in the lungs, and 6.7% in the peripheral blood. Once the liposomes entered the systemic circulation, they were cleared at the same rate (half-life beta = 21.5 hours) independent of their route of administration. Increased hepatic liposome uptake should translate into higher local and lower systemic liposomal drug levels.

  10. The Use of Adjuvants in Experimental Vaccines : III. Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Tull, D E

    1996-01-01

    The use of artificial lipid bilayers in the form of vesicles has been described as an efficient means of presenting antigens (1, 2 and Chapter 9 ). A large variety of natural phospholipids or other polar amphiphiles can be used in an aqueous solution of an antigen to form either unilamellar or multilamellar spherules. The antigen(s) may either be lipid-soluble and insert into the artificial lipid bilayer, bmd to the bilayer, or become entrapped inside the spherule. In the multilamellar liposomes the antigen(s) may also be trapped in the aqueous compartments between the lipid bilayers. The surface of the liposome may also be positively or negatively charged by the addition of suitable charged amphiphiles. Many of the natural adjuvant substances are amphiphilic and may insert into the lipo-some through hydrophobic groups (3, 4). It has been my experience that the purity of the phosphohpid does affect the stability of the final preparation of liposomes and their leakiness. For instance, Gregoriadis (1) points out that plasma high-density lipoproteins will remove low-melting phospholipids from liposomes and cause leakiness. With high-melting phospholipids or with an excess of cholesterol, the lipid bilayers become rigid at 37C, the result being a slower release of the antigen. There is not space here to record the many combinations that could be used; the preparation of a pure sample of phosphatidylcholine (ovo-lecithin) and positively and negatively charged liposomes will be given as examples. PMID:21359701

  11. Development of a liposomal formulation of the natural flavonoid fisetin.

    PubMed

    Mignet, Nathalie; Seguin, Johanne; Ramos Romano, Miriam; Brull, Laura; Touil, Yasmine S; Scherman, Daniel; Bessodes, Michel; Chabot, Guy G

    2012-02-14

    The natural flavonoid fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) has been shown to possess antiangiogenic and anticancer properties. Because of the limited water solubility of fisetin, our aim was to design and optimize a liposomal formulation that could facilitate its in vivo administration, taking into account the availability and cost of the various components. Several methods were evaluated such as probe sonication, homogeneization, film hydration and lipid cake formation. A selection of lipid and lipid-PEG was also performed via their incorporation in different formulations based on the size of the liposomes, their polydispersity index (PDI) and the fisetin encapsulation yield. An optimal liposomal formulation was developed with P90G and DODA-GLY-PEG2000, possessing a diameter in the nanometer scale (175nm), a high homogeneity (PDI 0.12) and a high fisetin encapsulation (73%). Fisetin liposomes were stable over 59 days for their particle diameter and still retained 80% of their original fisetin content on day 32. Moreover, liposomal fisetin retained the cytotoxicity and typical morphological effect of free fisetin in different tumour and endothelial cell lines. In conclusion, based on its physico-chemical properties and retention of fisetin biological effects, the developed liposomal fisetin preparation is therefore suitable for in vivo administration. PMID:21571054

  12. Electronic structure differences between H2-, Fe-, Co-, and Cu-phthalocyanine highly oriented thin films observed using NEXAFS spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willey, T. M.; Bagge-Hansen, M.; Lee, J. R. I.; Call, R.; Landt, L.; van Buuren, T.; Colesniuc, C.; Monton, C.; Valmianski, I.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2013-07-01

    Phthalocyanines, a class of macrocyclic, square planar molecules, are extensively studied as semiconductor materials for chemical sensors, dye-sensitized solar cells, and other applications. In this study, we use angular dependent near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy as a quantitative probe of the orientation and electronic structure of H2-, Fe-, Co-, and Cu-phthalocyanine molecular thin films. NEXAFS measurements at both the carbon and nitrogen K-edges reveal that phthalocyanine films deposited on sapphire have upright molecular orientations, while films up to 50 nm thick deposited on gold substrates contain prostrate molecules. Although great similarity is observed in the carbon and nitrogen K-edge NEXAFS spectra recorded for the films composed of prostrate molecules, the H2-phthalocyanine exhibits the cleanest angular dependence due to its purely out-of-plane ?* resonances at the absorption onset. In contrast, organometallic-phthalocyanine nitrogen K-edges have a small in-plane resonance superimposed on this ?* region that is due to a transition into molecular orbitals interacting with the 3dx2-y2 empty state. NEXAFS spectra recorded at the metal L-edges for the prostrate films reveal dramatic variations in the angular dependence of specific resonances for the Cu-phthalocyanines compared with the Fe-, and Co-phthalocyanines. The Cu L3,2 edge exhibits a strong in-plane resonance, attributed to its b1g empty state with dx2-y2 character at the Cu center. Conversely, the Fe- and Co- phthalocyanine L3,2 edges have strong out-of-plane resonances; these are attributed to transitions into not only b1g (dz2) but also eg states with dxz and dyz character at the metal center.

  13. Features of the spectral dependences of transmittance of organic semiconductors based on tert-butyl substituted lutetium phthalocyanine molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Belogorokhov, I. A.; Tikhonov, E. V.; Dronov, M. A.; Belogorokhova, L. I.; Ryabchikov, Yu. V.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R.

    2011-11-15

    Vibronic properties of organic semiconductors based on tert-butyl substituted phthalocyanine lutetium diphthalocyanine molecules are studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that substitution of several carbon atoms in initial phthalocyanine (Pc) ligands with {sup 13}C isotope atoms causes a spectral shift in the main absorption lines attributed to benzene, isoindol, and peripheral C-H groups. A comparison of spectral characteristics showed that the shift can vary from 3 to 1 cm{sup -1}.

  14. Photophysical and photochemical studies of a novel amphiphilic zinc phthalocyanine and its interaction with calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Linxin; Gui, Li; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Quanquan; Zhou, Lin; Wei, Shaohua

    2016-04-01

    β-tetra (aminophenoxy) sulfonic substituted zinc phthalocyanines (SNZnPc), a novel amphiphilic zinc phthalocyanine (Pc), was synthesized. The photophysical, photochemical, and photobiology properties were studied. Results indicated that the synthesized SNZnPc has good amphiphilic property and high reactive oxygen species (ROSs) generation ability. Furthermore, SNZnPc has strong affinity to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) through intercalation ways and can effectively cleavage CT-DNA after irradiation by light with appropriate wavelength. PMID:26775097

  15. Kinetic of the Intracellular Incorporation of New Phthalocyanines Synthesized in mexico and Its Potential as Photosensibilizers in the Photodynamic Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon-Aguilar, Hector; Ramon-Gallegos, Eva; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco Jesus; Cruz-Orea, Alfredo; Sosa-Sanchez, Jose Luis; Garcia Miranda, Maribel

    2008-08-11

    The search of more specific and efficient photosensitizer in low oxygen tensions is a need in the Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). Phthalocyanines have demonstrated to have the above mentioned activity. The aim of this work was to determine the efficiency of PDT using two phthalocyanines synthesized in Mexico to eliminate melanoma cells. B16F0 melanoma mouse cells were exposed to concentrations from 8.95x10{sup -5} to 0.733 m/mL of F16VoPc and F16NbPcC13 during 24h, afterwards cellular mortality was measured. One kinetic was realized to determine the intracellular incorporation of phthalocyanines by confocal microscopy at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 h of exposition. The PDT was applied exposing the cells to innocuous concentration (that does not provoke cellular death with out irradiation) and irradiating with an argon laser at 100 J/cm{sup 2}. For each phthalocyanine a control group was used; one group was not treated neither with light nor with phthalocyanine, the other group it was only irradiated. 24 h after treatment the citotoxicity was measured by Alamar blue assay. The innocuous concentration found for the phthalocyanines F16VoPc and F16NbPcC13 were 4.58x10-2 and 2.29xl0{sup -2} mg/mL, respectively. The time of maximum intracellular accumulation for both phthalocyanines was 24 h. Only the F16VoPc had anticancerous activity and induced 31.7% of cellular death. The PDT might offer a potential alternative to the treatment of this cancer when is used the phthalocyanine F16VoPc.

  16. Improved syntheses of high hole mobility phthalocyanines: A case of steric assistance in the cyclo-oligomerisation of phthalonitriles

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Daniel J; Anmian, Rmi; Nanan, Suwat; Warriner, Stuart L; Whitaker, and Benjamin J

    2012-01-01

    Summary It has been shown that the base-initiated cyclo-oligomerisation of phthalonitriles is favoured by bulky ?-substituents making it possible to obtain the metal-free phthalocyanine directly and in high yield. The phthalocyanine with eight ?-isoheptyl substituents gives a high time-of-flight hole mobility of 0.14 cm2V?1s?1 within the temperature range of the columnar hexagonal phase, that is 169189 C. PMID:22423280

  17. The preparation and modification of phthalocyanine containing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korth, Bryan D.

    Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are highly conjugated, 18 pi-electron cyclic molecules composed of four isoindoline units that exhibit unique optical, electrical and chemical properties. While originally used as dyes and pigments, the use of Pcs in modern technology has increased dramatically due to improved understanding and processing capabilities. Work in this dissertation outlines a number of methods to prepare Pc-containing materials for use in various applications. Chapter 1 provides a brief review of methods used to prepare Pc-containing polymeric materials from both symmetric and asymmetric macrocycles. Discussion will focus on methods that incorporate symmetric Pcs as the focal point, with particular attention being paid to the influence of the peripheral substitution of the Pc on macromolecular structure and properties. Further discussion will focus on the utilization of asymmetric Pcs as auxiliary functionalities, such as at the terminus or as pendant groups, of larger macromolecular materials. Chapter 2 describes the preparation of linear Pc-containing polymers through ring-opening metathesis polymerization of a Pc monomer. Through proper selection of catalyst, well-defined polymers with Pcs as pendant groups were prepared. Due to the controlled nature of ROMP, polymers of varying architectures, composition, and size were synthesized. The effect of Pc metallation, polymer composition and architecture on the site-isolation of the chromophore was investigated in both solution and condensed-phase thin films. Chapter 3 reports on efforts to prepare linear polymers with companion functionalities for post-polymerization coupling of asymmetric Pcs. Polymers with pendant furan groups were prepared for coupling with asymmetric Pcs through Diels-Alder cycloaddition. Investigation indicated that while coupling was achievable, the presence of the Pc in the resultant polymer promoted undesired crosslinking when stored at ambient conditions in light. Attempts to mitigate this problem through alternation of functionality locations were attempted by placing the furan functionality on the Pc, but degradation of the furan occurred to quickly to perform coupling sufficiently. Chapter 4 discusses the preparation of Pc-containing networks through Diels-Alder cycloaddition of furan and maleimide containing tetrasubstituted Pcs. Following preparation of the various Pcs, network formation in various states was conducted including solution, molded thick films, and patterned assemblies. Chapter 5 summarizes the results presented in Chapters 2-4 and provides an outlook for some future directions based upon the work herein. In addition, some preliminary results of some of these directions will also be presented.

  18. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns modified by liposomes for characterization of analyte-liposome interactions by capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Moravcov, Dana; Planeta, Josef; Wiedmer, Susanne K

    2013-11-22

    This study introduces a silica-based monolith in a capillary format (0.1 mm 100 mm) as a support for immobilization of liposomes and its characterization in immobilized liposome chromatography. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns prepared by acidic hydrolysis of tetramethoxysilane in the presence of polyethylene glycol and urea were modified by (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane, whereby amino groups were introduced to the monolithic surface. These groups undergo reaction with glutaraldehyde to form an iminoaldehyde, allowing covalent binding of pre-formed liposomes containing primary amino groups. Two types of phospholipid vesicles were used for column modification; these were 2-oleoyl-1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidyl choline with and without 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine. The prepared columns were evaluated under isocratic separation conditions employing 20mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 as a mobile phase and a set of unrelated drugs as model analytes. The liposome layer on the synthesized columns significantly changed the column selectivity compared to the aminopropylsilylated monolithic stationary phase. Monolithic columns modified by liposomes were stable under the separation conditions, which proved the applicability of the suggested preparation procedure for the synthesis of capillary columns dedicated to study analyte-liposome interactions. The column efficiency originating from the silica monolith was preserved and reached, e.g., more than 120,000 theoretical plates/m for caffeine as a solute. PMID:23978749

  19. Tablets of pre-liposomes govern in situ formation of liposomes: concept and potential of the novel drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Vani?, eljka; Planinek, Odon; kalko-Basnet, Nataa; Tho, Ingunn

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel drug delivery system for challenging drugs with potential for scale-up manufacturing and controlled release of incorporated drug. Pre-liposomes powder containing metronidazole, lecithin and mannitol, prepared by spray-drying, was mixed with different tableting excipients (microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, mannitol, dibasic calcium phosphate, pregelatinized starch, pectin or chitosan) and compressed into tablets. The delivery system was characterized with respect to (i) dry powder characteristics, (ii) mechanical tablet properties and drug release, and (iii) liposomal characteristics. The pre-liposomes powder was free-flowing, and tablets of similarly high qualities as tablets made of physical mixtures were prepared with all excipients. Liposomes were formed in situ upon tablet disintegration, dissolution or erosion depending on the type of tablet excipient used. The liposomal characteristics and drug release were found to depend on the tablet excipient. The new delivery system offers a unique synergy between the ability of liposomes to encapsulate and protect drugs and increased stability provided by compressed formulations. It can be adjusted for drug administration via various routes, e.g. oral, buccal and vaginal. PMID:24929211

  20. Laser-induced release of liposome-encapsulated dye to monitor tissue temperature: study of different liposome compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmettre, Thomas; Mordon, Serge R.; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Soulie-Begu, Sylvie

    1995-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the interest of several liposome compositions (DPPC, DSPC, DPPA) to control specific ranges of temperature and to assess the possible use of temperature sensitive liposomes in an established model such as the liver as a new approach to monitor tissue temperature under laser irradiation. Temperature sensitive liposomes (DPPC or DSPC or DPPA) loaded with carboxy-fluorescein were injected to Wistar rats. The liver was exposed and irradiated with a 100 W Nd:YAG laser (single pulse mode, pulses ranging from 100 to 260 ms, spot diameter: 4 mm) to avoid direct absorption by the dye entrapped in the liposomes. The temperature was measured with an infrared camera during laser irradiation. The animals were then sacrificed and the liver was surgically removed. Immediately after, the fluorescence was measured -- ex vivo -- with a fluorescent imaging system. We were not able to prepare stable high transition temperature liposomes (DPPE). Concerning DPPC, the mechanism of dye release at the basal temperature led to a complete leakage of the dye in less than 5 minutes. Only background fluorescence was observed but no specific response due to laser irradiation. Nevertheless the results obtained using DSPC liposomes meet to a large extent our requirements since a useful monitoring of temperature is feasible from 42 degree(s)C to 62 degree(s)C. In fact the critical temperature of most tissues varies from 53 degree(s)C to 58 degree(s)C.

  1. The Combined Effect of Encapsulating Curcumin and C6 Ceramide in Liposomal Nanoparticles against Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Dhule, Santosh S; Penfornis, Patrice; He, Jibao; Harris, Michael R; Terry, Treniece; John, Vijay; Pochampally, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the anti-tumor potential of curcumin and C6 ceramide (C6) against osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines when both are encapsulated in the bilayer of liposomal nanoparticles. Three liposomal formulations were prepared – curcumin liposomes, C6 liposomes and C6-curcumin liposomes. Curcumin in combination with C6 showed 1.5 times enhanced cytotoxic effect in the case of MG-63 and KHOS OS cell lines, in comparison with curcumin liposomes alone. Importantly, C6-curcumin liposomes were found to be less toxic on untransformed human cells (human mesenchymal stem cells) in comparison to OS cell lines. In addition, cell cycle assays on a KHOS cell line after treatment revealed that curcumin only liposomes induced G2/M arrest by upregulation of cyclin B1, while C6 only liposomes induced G1 arrest by downregulation of cyclin D1. C6-curcumin liposomes induced G2/M arrest and showed a combined effect in the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1. The efficiency of the preparations was tested in vivo using a human osteosarcoma xenograft assays. Using pegylated liposomes to increase the plasma half-life and tagging with folate (FA) for targeted delivery in vivo, a significant reduction in tumor size was observed with C6-curcumin-FA liposomes. The encapsulation of two water insoluble drugs, curcumin and C6, in the lipid bilayer of liposomes enhances the cytotoxic effect and validates the potential of combined drug therapy. PMID:24380633

  2. Stealth liposomes: review of the basic science, rationale, and clinical applications, existing and potential

    PubMed Central

    Immordino, Maria Laura; Dosio, Franco; Cattel, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    Among several promising new drug-delivery systems, liposomes represent an advanced technology to deliver active molecules to the site of action, and at present several formulations are in clinical use. Research on liposome technology has progressed from conventional vesicles (first-generation liposomes) to second-generation liposomes, in which long-circulating liposomes are obtained by modulating the lipid composition, size, and charge of the vesicle. Liposomes with modified surfaces have also been developed using several molecules, such as glycolipids or sialic acid. A significant step in the development of long-circulating liposomes came with inclusion of the synthetic polymer poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in liposome composition. The presence of PEG on the surface of the liposomal carrier has been shown to extend blood-circulation time while reducing mononuclear phagocyte system uptake (stealth liposomes). This technology has resulted in a large number of liposome formulations encapsulating active molecules, with high target efficiency and activity. Further, by synthetic modification of the terminal PEG molecule, stealth liposomes can be actively targeted with monoclonal antibodies or ligands. This review focuses on stealth technology and summarizes pre-clinical and clinical data relating to the principal liposome formulations; it also discusses emerging trends of this promising technology. PMID:17717971

  3. Liposome chaperon in cell-free membrane protein synthesis: one-step preparation of KcsA-integrated liposomes and electrophysiological analysis by the planar bilayer method.

    PubMed

    Ando, M; Akiyama, M; Okuno, D; Hirano, M; Ide, T; Sawada, S; Sasaki, Y; Akiyoshi, K

    2016-01-26

    Chaperoning functions of liposomes were investigated using cell-free membrane protein synthesis. KcsA potassium channel-reconstituted liposomes were prepared directly using cell-free protein synthesis. In the absence of liposomes, all synthesized KcsA protein aggregated. In the presence of liposomes, however, synthesized KcsA spontaneously integrated into the liposome membrane. The KscA-reconstituted liposomes were transferred to the planar bilayer across a small hole in a thin plastic sheet and the channel function of KcsA was examined. The original electrophysiological activities, such as voltage- and pH-dependence, were observed. These results suggested that in cell-free membrane protein synthesis, liposomes act as chaperones, preventing aggregation and assisting in folding and tetrameric formation, thereby allowing full channel activity. PMID:26548774

  4. Liposome-mediated DNA immunisation via the subcutaneous route.

    PubMed

    Perrie, Y; McNeil, S; Vangala, A

    2003-01-01

    Compared to naked DNA immunisation, entrapment of plasmid-based DNA vaccines into liposomes by the dehydration-rehydration method has shown to enhance both humoural and cell-mediated immune responses to encoded antigens administered by a variety of routes. In this paper, we have investigated the application of liposome-entrapped DNA and their cationic lipid composition on such potency after subcutaneous immunisation. Plasmid pI.18Sfi/NP containing the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of A/Sichuan/2/87 (H3N2) influenza virus in the pI.18 expression vector was incorporated by the dehydration-rehydration method into liposomes composed of 16 micromol egg phosphatidylcholine (PC), 8 micromoles dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) or cholesterol (Chol) and either the cationic lipid 1,2-diodeoyl-3-(trimethylammonium) propane (DOTAP) or cholesteryl 3-N-(dimethyl amino ethyl) carbamate (DC-Chol). This method, entailing mixing of small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) with DNA, followed by dehydration and rehydration, yielded incorporation values of 90-94% of the DNA used. Mixing or rehydration of preformed cationic liposomes with 100 microg plasmid DNA also led to similarly high complexation values (92-94%). In an attempt to establish differences in the nature of DNA association with these various liposome preparations their physico-chemical characteristics were investigated. Studies on vesicle size, zeta potential and gel electrophoresis in the presence of the anion sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) indicate that, under the conditions employed, formulation of liposomal DNA by the dehydration-rehydration generated submicron size liposomes incorporating most of the DNA in a manner that prevents DNA displacement through anion competition. The bilayer composition of these dehydration-rehydration vesicles (DRV(DNA)) can also further influence these physico-chemical characteristics with the presence of DOPE within the liposome bilayer resulting in a reduced vesicle zeta potential. Subcutaneous liposome-mediated DNA immunisation employing two DRV(DNA) formulations as well as naked DNA revealed that humoural responses (immunoglobulin total IgG, and subclasses IgG1 and 1gG2a) engendered by the plasmid encoded NP were substantially higher after dosing twice, 28 days apart with 10 microg liposome-entrapped DNA compared to naked DNA. At all time points measured, mice immunised with naked DNA showed no greater immune response compared to the control, non-immunised group. In contrast, as early as day 49, responses were significantly higher in mice injected with DNA entrapped in DRV liposomes containing DOTAP compared to the control group and mice immunised with naked DNA. By day 56, all total IgG responses from mice immunised with both DRV formulations were significantly higher. Comparison between the DRV formulations revealed no significant difference in immune responses elicited except at day 114, where the humoural responses of the group injected with liposomal formulation containing DC-Chol dropped to significantly lower levels that those measured in mice which received the DOTAP formulation. Similar results were found when the IgG1 and IgG2a subclass responses were determined. These results suggest that, not only can DNA be effectively entrapped within liposomes using the DRV method but that such DRV liposomes containing DNA may be a useful system for subcutaneous delivery of DNA vaccines. PMID:15203925

  5. Microfluidic directed formation of liposomes of controlled size.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Andreas; Vreeland, Wyatt N; DeVoe, Don L; Locascio, Laurie E; Gaitan, Michael

    2007-05-22

    A new method to tailor liposome size and size distribution in a microfluidic format is presented. Liposomes are spherical structures formed from lipid bilayers that are from tens of nanometers to several micrometers in diameter. Liposome size and size distribution are tailored for a particular application and are inherently important for in vivo applications such as drug delivery and transfection across nuclear membranes in gene therapy. Traditional laboratory methods for liposome preparation require postprocessing steps, such as sonication or membrane extrusion, to yield formulations of appropriate size. Here we describe a method to engineer liposomes of a particular size and size distribution by changing the flow conditions in a microfluidic channel, obviating the need for postprocessing. A stream of lipids dissolved in alcohol is hydrodynamically focused between two sheathed aqueous streams in a microfluidic channel. The laminar flow in the microchannel enables controlled diffusive mixing at the two liquid interfaces where the lipids self-assemble into vesicles. The liposomes formed by this self-assembly process are characterized using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation combined with quasi-elastic light scattering and multiangle laser-light scattering. We observe that the vesicle size and size distribution are tunable over a mean diameter from 50 to 150 nm by adjusting the ratio of the alcohol-to-aqueous volumetric flow rate. We also observe that liposome formation depends more strongly on the focused alcohol stream width and its diffusive mixing with the aqueous stream than on the sheer forces at the solvent-buffer interface. PMID:17451256

  6. Liposomes targeted to deliver antisecretory agents to jejunal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Uwiera, R R; Romancyia, D A; Wong, J P; Forsyth, G W

    1992-01-01

    The B subunit of cholera toxin has been covalently attached to the surface of liposomes made from a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. Adenylate cyclase inhibitors and chloride conductance inhibitors were encapsulated within the liposomes. These "targeted" liposomes were used to study the combined effects of this novel delivery system, and a limited number of possible antisecretory agents, on net fluid flux into the pig jejunum. A state of net secretory fluid flux was induced in isolated jejunal loops in weanling pigs by adding theophylline or cholera toxin to the lumen of the isolated loops. There was no reduction in net fluid secretion when liposome suspensions without encapsulated secretory inhibitors were added to fluid in the lumen of loops treated with theophylline. There was also no reduction in net fluid secretion when miconazole, alpha-phenylcinnamate or 5 nitro-2-(3-phenethylamino)benzoate were encapsulated within targeted liposomes added to isolated jejunal loops. The net fluid flux induced by exposure of jejunal loops to theophylline was significantly reduced by adding targeted liposomes containing 2'-deoxy-3'-AMP. The reduction involved a reversal of net secretory fluid flux to an absorptive value. The net fluid secretory response to treatment of loops with cholera toxin was also inhibited by treating loops with targeted liposomes containing 2'-deoxy-3'-AMP. However, the reversal of secretion was less complete for secretion induced by cholera toxin than for secretion induced by theophylline. The reduced antisecretory efficacy versus cholera toxin was not improved by encapsulating higher concentrations of 2'-deoxy-3'-AMP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1423062

  7. Liposome, gel and lipogelosome formulations containing sodium hyaluronate.

    PubMed

    Duman, Glengl; Aslan, ?smail; zer, A Yekta; ?nan, ?brahim; Taralp, Alpay

    2014-12-01

    The moisture-imparting effect of sodium hyaluronate (Na-HA) was investigated in liposome, gel and lipogelosome topical formulations. Sixteen liposome formulations were prepared with or without Na-HA (45 kDa) using various ratios of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and phospholipon 100H. The liposomes were characterized in terms of their structure, composition, zeta potential, Na-HA-entrapment capacity and stability. In particular, scanning electron microscopy, polarized light microscopy, dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy were utilized to probe appearance, size and size distribution and lamellarity. The work was then extended to gels using the gelling agents poloxamer (PXM 188 or 407) and Carbopol or Ultrez 21 (U-21), yielding liposome-loaded gel formulations (i.e. lipogelosomes). The in vitro release kinetics of Na-HA from liposomes, lipogelosomes and commercial Na-HA reference formulations were studied via a flow-through cell method. Among the liposomal formulations tested, L6, comprising of Na-HA-loaded phospholipon 100H:stearylamine:cholesterol (7:1:2), displayed optimal traits. The mean particle size, zeta potential and entrapment capacity of L6 were determined as 1900 nm, -20.9 mV and 15.0%. The optimum lipogelosome, LG4, was obtained by incorporating liposome L6 into a U-21 gel at a ratio of 1:1 (w/w). In clinical trials, in-house formulations were applied twice daily to 15 female volunteers. The two-week benefits were assessed against a commercial product; and in all cases, changes of skin humidity, sebum content, pH and wrinkle depth were promising. In particular, the LG4 lipogelosome-based formulation had significantly improved skin hydration and compliance, as evidenced by a moisture content gain of 30.4%. PMID:24724824

  8. Specific accumulation of cholesterol-rich liposomes in the inflammatory tissue of rats with adjuvant arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Love, W G; Amos, N; Kellaway, I W; Williams, B D

    1990-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography has shown that after intravenous injection cholesterol-poor liposomes (100 nm) are unstable and their phospholipid is redistributed. Under identical conditions cholesterol-rich liposomes remain structurally intact within the circulation. When injected intravenously cholesterol-rich liposomes accumulate within the inflamed paws of rats with adjuvant induced arthritis to the same extent as cholesterol-poor liposomes. Uptake in inflamed tissue of three cholesterol-rich liposome preparations was always significantly greater than the uptake noted in normal tissue. The degree of accumulation in inflamed tissue was found to depend on the size of the liposome, with the greatest uptake, 7% of the injected dose, achieved by the smallest vesicle (100 nm). These results indicate that intact liposomes accumulate at inflamed joint tissue sites. Therefore the passive targeting of anti-inflammatory drugs encapsulated within these liposomes could be contemplated. PMID:2396866

  9. Enhanced combination therapy effect on paclitaxel-resistant carcinoma by chloroquine co-delivery via liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Menghua; Xu, Yuzhen; Qiu, Liyan

    2015-01-01

    A novel composite liposomal system co-encapsulating paclitaxel (PTX) with chloroquine phosphate (CQ) was designed for treating PTX-resistant carcinoma. It was confirmed that liposomal CQ can sensitize PTX by means of autophagy inhibition and competitively binding with multidrug-resistance transporters. Furthermore, according to the in vitro cytotoxicity and apoptosis assay, real-time observation of cellular uptake, and in vivo tissue distribution study, co-encapsulation of PTX and CQ in liposomes was validated as superior to the mixture of PTX liposome plus CQ liposome due to the simultaneous delivery and synergetic effect of the two drugs. Consequently, this composite liposome achieved significantly stronger anticancer efficacy in vivo than the PTX liposome plus CQ liposome mixture. This study helps to guide and enlighten ongoing and future clinical trials about the optimal administration modes for drug combination therapy. PMID:26543365

  10. Etoposide Incorporated into Camel Milk Phospholipids Liposomes Shows Increased Activity against Fibrosarcoma in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M.; Aljarbou, Ahmad N.; Alorainy, Mohammed S.; Alsharidah, Mansour S.; Khan, Masood A.

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP) was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP) and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes) and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes). The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs. PMID:25821817

  11. Curcumin liposomes prepared with milk fat globule membrane phospholipids and soybean lecithin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Hao; Lu, Qun; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-01

    Using thin film ultrasonic dispersion method, the curcumin liposomes were prepared with milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) phospholipids and soybean lecithins, respectively, to compare the characteristics and stability of the 2 curcumin liposomes. The processing parameters of curcumin liposomes were investigated to evaluate their effects on the encapsulation efficiency. Curcumin liposomes were characterized in terms of size distribution, ?-potential, and in vitro release behavior, and then their storage stability under various conditions was evaluated. The curcumin liposomes prepared with MFGM phospholipids had an encapsulation efficiency of about 74%, an average particle size of 212.3nm, and a ?-potential of -48.60mV. The MFGM liposomes showed higher encapsulation efficiency, smaller particle size, higher absolute value of ?-potential, and slower in vitro release than soybean liposomes. The retention rate of liposomal curcumin was significantly higher than that of free curcumin. The stability of the 2 liposomes under different pH was almost the same, but MFGM liposomes displayed a slightly higher stability than soybean liposomes under the conditions of Fe(3+), light, temperature, oxygen, and relative humidity. In conclusion, MFGM phospholipids have potential advantages in the manufacture of curcumin liposomes used in food systems. PMID:26774724

  12. In Vitro Gene Delivery Mediated by Asialofetuin-Appended Cationic Liposomes Associated with ?-Cyclodextrin into Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Motoyama, Keiichi; Nakashima, Yoshihiro; Aramaki, Yukihiko; Hirayama, Fumitoshi; Uekama, Kaneto; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate in vitro gene delivery mediated by asialofetuin-appended cationic liposomes (AF-liposomes) associating cyclodextrins (CyD/AF-liposomes) as a hepatocyte-selective nonviral vector. Of various CyDs, AF-liposomes associated with plasmid DNA (pDNA) and ?-cyclodextrin (?-CyD) (pDNA/?-CyD/AF-liposomes) showed the highest gene transfer activity in HepG2 cells without any significant cytotoxicity. In addition, ?-CyD enhanced the encapsulation ratio of pDNA with AF-liposomes, and also increased gene transfer activity as the entrapment ratio of pDNA into AF-liposomes was increased. ?-CyD stabilized the liposomal membrane of AF-liposomes and inhibited the release of calcein from AF-liposomes. The stabilizing effect of ?-CyD may be, at least in part, involved in the enhancing gene transfer activity of pDNA/?-CyD/AF-liposomes. Therefore, these results suggest the potential use of ?-CyD for an enhancer of transfection efficiency of AF-liposomes. PMID:21490752

  13. Enhanced localization of anticancer drug in tumor tissue using polyethylenimine-conjugated cationic liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hee Dong; Byeon, Yeongseon; Jeon, Hat Nim; Shin, Byung Cheol

    2014-05-01

    Liposome-based drug delivery systems hold great potential for cancer therapy. However, to enhance the localization of payloads, an efficient method of systemic delivery of liposomes to tumor tissues is required. In this study, we developed cationic liposomes composed of polyethylenimine (PEI)-conjugated distearoylglycerophosphoethanolamine (DSPE) as an enhanced local drug delivery system. The particle size of DSPE-PEI liposomes was 130 ± 10 nm and the zeta potential of liposomes was increased from -25 to 30 mV by the incorporation of cationic PEI onto the liposomal membrane. Intracellular uptake of DSPE-PEI liposomes by tumor cells was 14-fold higher than that of DSPE liposomes. After intratumoral injection of liposomes into tumor-bearing mice, DSPE-PEI liposomes showed higher and sustained localization in tumor tissue compared to DSPE liposomes. Taken together, our findings suggest that DSPE-PEI liposomes have the potential to be used as effective drug carriers for enhanced intracellular uptake and localization of anticancer drugs in tumor tissue through intratumoral injection.

  14. Depopulation of Single-Phthalocyanine Molecular Orbitals upon Pyrrolic-Hydrogen Abstraction on Graphene.

    PubMed

    Néel, Nicolas; Lattelais, Marie; Bocquet, Marie-Laure; Kröger, Jörg

    2016-02-23

    Single-molecule chemistry with a scanning tunneling microscope has preponderantly been performed on metal surfaces. The molecule-metal hybridization, however, is often detrimental to genuine molecular properties and obscures their changes upon chemical reactions. We used graphene on Ir(111) to reduce the coupling between Ir(111) and adsorbed phthalocyanine molecules. By local electron injection from the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope the two pyrrolic H atoms were removed from single phthalocyanines. The detachment of the H atom pair induced a strong modification of the molecular electronic structure, albeit with no change in the adsorption geometry. Spectra and maps of the differential conductance combined with density functional calculations unveiled the entire depopulation of the highest occupied molecular orbital upon H abstraction. Occupied π states of intact molecules are proposed to be emptied via intramolecular electron transfer to dangling σ states of H-free N atoms. PMID:26812093

  15. Surface Modification of Boron-Doped Diamond with Microcrystalline Copper Phthalocyanine: Oxygen Reduction Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gan, Patrick; Foord, John S; Compton, Richard G

    2015-10-01

    Surface modification of boron-doped diamond (BDD) with copper phthalocyanine was achieved using a simple and convenient dropcast deposition, giving rise to a microcrystalline structure. Both unmodified and modified BDD electrodes of different surface terminations (namely hydrogen and oxygen) were compared via the electrochemical reduction of oxygen in aqueous solution. A significant lowering of the cathodic overpotential by about 500?mV was observed after modification of hydrogen-terminated (hydrophobic) diamond, while no voltammetric peak was seen on modified oxidised (hydrophilic) diamond, signifying greater interaction between copper phthalocyanine and the hydrogen-terminated BDD. Oxygen reduction was found to undergo a two-electron process on the modified hydrogen-terminated diamond, which was shown to be also active for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The lack of a further conversion of the peroxide was attributed to its rapid diffusion away from the triple phase boundary at which the reaction is expected to exclusively occur. PMID:26491640

  16. Molecular arrangement investigation of copper phthalocyanine grown on hydrogen passivated Si(1 1 1) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbi, I.; Ben Hamada, B.; Souissi, A.; Menzli, S.; Ben Azzouz, C.; Laribi, A.; Akremi, A.; Chefi, C.

    2014-06-01

    Chemical, electronic and structural properties of ultra thin films of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) grown on hydrogen passivated silicon (1 1 1) surfaces were investigated in situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS), X-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) and electron diffraction (LEED). The early stages of copper phthalocyanine adsorption (1-2) were characterized by the saturation of surface defects and by a flat lying disposition on the surface. Upon further CuPc coverage, the passivation of Si surfaces resulted in the molecule taking a standing position in films. The molecular packing deduced from these studies appears very close to the one in the bulk ? phase of CuPc. The work function of the films was found to be decreasing during the growth and was correlated with the molecular orientation.

  17. Enhanced Reverse Saturable Absorption and Optical Limiting in Heavy-Atom Substituted Phthalocyanines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. W.; Mansour, K.; Marder, S. R.; Alvarez, D., Jr.; Perry, K. J.; Choong, I.

    1994-01-01

    The reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting response of metal phthalocyaninies can be enhanced by using the heavy-atom effect. Phthalocyanines containing heavy metal atoms, such as In, Sn, and Pb show nearly a factor of two enhancement in the ratio of effective excited-state to ground-state absorption cross sections compared to those containing lighter atoms, such as Al and Si. In an f/8 optical geometry, homogeneous solutions of heavy metal phthalocyanines, at 30% linear transmission, limit 8-ns, 532-nm laser pulses to less than or equal to 3 (micro)J (the energy for 50% probability of eye damage) for incident pulses up to 800 (micro)J.

  18. Phthalocyanine identification in paintings by reflectance spectroscopy. A laboratory and in situ study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poldi, G.; Caglio, S.

    2013-06-01

    The importance of identifying pigments using non invasive (n.i.) analyses has gained increasing importance in the field of spectroscopy applied to art conservation and art studies. Among the large set of pigments synthesized and marketed during 20th century, surely phthalocyanine blue and green pigments occupy an important role in the field of painting (including restoration) and printing, thanks to their characteristics like brightness and fastness. This research focused on the most used phthalocyanine blue (PB15:1 and PB15:3) and green pigments (PG7), and on the possibility to identify these organic compounds using a methodology like reflectance spectroscopy in the UV, visible and near IR range (UV-vis-NIR RS), performed easily through portable instruments. Laboratory tests and three examples carried out on real paintings are discussed.

  19. Near-infrared organic light emitting diodes based on heavy metal phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenow, Thomas Conrad; Walzer, Karsten; Leo, Karl

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrate near-infrared (NIR) organic light-emitting diodes containing the phthalocyanines of copper (CuPc), palladium (PdPc), and platinum (PtPc) as emitting material. The devices show NIR emission from the triplet excitonic states of those phthalocyanines at 1095, 1025, and 966nm, respectively. A yellow singlet emitter serves as host for the emitter materials, reducing triplet exciton quenching and improving energy transfer to the emitter. Using the emitter PtPc as guest and the yellow singlet emitter as host, an external quantum efficiency of 0.3% is achieved for infrared light emission at 966nm. Due to the use of electrically doped charge transport layers, operation at voltages significantly below 3V is possible. Light output reaches 80?W/cm2 at a current density of 140mA/cm2.

  20. Photophysical properties of zinc phthalocyanine-uridine single walled carbon nanotube--conjugates.

    PubMed

    Ogbodu, Racheal O; Amuhaya, Edith K; Mashazi, Philani; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-10-01

    The photophysical properties of the conjugate of uridine and zinc mono carboxy phenoxy phthalocyanine (ZnMCPPc-uridine, 4) are reported in this work. The conjugate was also adsorbed onto single walled carbon nanotubes (ZnMCPPc-uridine-SWCNT, 5). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of 4 showed three N 1s peaks while that of 5 showed four N 1s peak, a new peak at 399.4 eV of 5 was assigned to pyrrolidonic nitrogen, due to the interaction of the pyrrolic nitrogen of 4 with the oxygen moiety of SWCNT-COOH in 5. The triplet lifetime, triplet and singlet oxygen quantum yields of the zinc mono carboxy phenoxy phthalocyanine increased by over 40% in the presence of uridine. SWCNTs resulted in only a small quenching of the triplet state parameters of 4. PMID:25965170

  1. Graphene-enhanced intermolecular interaction at interface between copper- and cobalt-phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wei-Dong; Huang, Shu-Ping; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-10-01

    Interfacial electronic structures of copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc), cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPc), and graphene were investigated experimentally by using photoelectron spectroscopy. While the CuPc/graphene interface shows flat band structure and negligible interfacial dipole indicating quite weak molecule-substrate interaction, the CuPc/CoPc/graphene interface shows a large interfacial dipole and obvious energy level bending. Controlled experiments ruled out possible influences from the change in film structure of CuPc and pure ?-? interaction between CoPc and CuPc. Analysis based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory reveals that the decrease in the work function for the CuPc/CoPc/graphene system is induced by the intermolecular interaction between CuPc and CoPc which is enhanced owning to the peculiar electronic properties at the CoPc-graphene interface. PMID:26450327

  2. Development and Evaluation of Nanoemulsions Containing Phthalocyanines for Use in Photodynamic Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Senna, Juliana P; Ricci-Jnior, Eduardo; Mansur, Claudia R E

    2015-06-01

    This work reports the development of oil in water (o/w) nanoemulsions containing poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymer surfactant for the formulation of a delivery system for endovenous zinc and chloroaluminum phthalocyanines. A solubility study suggested clove oil and its combination with ethanol as the best candidates for the oil phase composition. The nanoemulsions were obtained using a high-pressure homogenizer and analyzed for droplet size to determine their short- and long-term stability. Formulations containing 7 and 10% oil phase and 12% surfactant presented higher stability and allowed the incorporation of a bigger amount of phthalocyanines in the formulation. Rheological analyses showed the prevailing Newtonian behavior of the nanoemulsions. Studies of toxicity and phototoxicity determined that the nanoemulsions produced were capable of inhibiting the growth of adenocarcinoma tumor cells. The nanoemulsions proved to be a good alternative for use in photodynamic therapy. PMID:26369031

  3. ZnO and cobalt phthalocyanine hybridized graphene: efficient photocatalysts for degradation of rhodamine B

    PubMed Central

    Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Oki, Aderemi; Luo, Zhiping

    2014-01-01

    A novel method has been developed to synthesize graphene-ZnO composite as a highly efficient catalyst by reduction of graphite oxide and in-situ deposition of ZnO nanoparticles by chemical reduction reaction. The graphene-ZnO catalyst is capable of complete degradation of rhodamine B under exposure to natural sunlight. Further, the catalytic efficiency of graphene-ZnO catalyst was enhanced by sensitizing with cobalt phthalocyanine. The formation of graphene-ZnO pcatalyst and its further sensitization with cobalt phthalocyanine was characterized using UV-vis, ATR-IR and Raman spectroscopy, powder XRD and thermogravimetric analysis. The morphology of both graphene-ZnO and graphene-ZnO-CoPC catalysts was analyzed using scanning and transmission electron microscopes. PMID:24972296

  4. Surface Modification of Boron-Doped Diamond with Microcrystalline Copper Phthalocyanine: Oxygen Reduction Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Patrick; Foord, John S; Compton, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Surface modification of boron-doped diamond (BDD) with copper phthalocyanine was achieved using a simple and convenient dropcast deposition, giving rise to a microcrystalline structure. Both unmodified and modified BDD electrodes of different surface terminations (namely hydrogen and oxygen) were compared via the electrochemical reduction of oxygen in aqueous solution. A significant lowering of the cathodic overpotential by about 500 mV was observed after modification of hydrogen-terminated (hydrophobic) diamond, while no voltammetric peak was seen on modified oxidised (hydrophilic) diamond, signifying greater interaction between copper phthalocyanine and the hydrogen-terminated BDD. Oxygen reduction was found to undergo a two-electron process on the modified hydrogen-terminated diamond, which was shown to be also active for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The lack of a further conversion of the peroxide was attributed to its rapid diffusion away from the triple phase boundary at which the reaction is expected to exclusively occur. PMID:26491640

  5. Mechanism of Charge Transport in Cobalt and Iron Phthalocyanine Thin Films Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Arvind; Samanta, Soumen; Singh, Ajay; Debnath, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

    2011-12-12

    Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc), iron phthalocyanine (FePc) and their composite (CoPc-FePc) films have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies showed that composite films has better structural ordering compared to individual CoPc and FePc films. The temperature dependence of resistivity (in the temperature range 25 K- 100 K) showed that composite films are metallic, while individual CoPc and FePc films are in the critical regime of metal-to-insulator (M-I) transition The composite films show very high mobility of 110 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} at room temperature i.e. nearly two order of magnitude higher compared to pure CoPc and FePc films.

  6. Phthalocyanine/chitosan-TiO2 photocatalysts: Characterization and photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, A.; Boufi, S.; Bouattour, S.

    2015-06-01

    Chitosan (CS) was used as a template to prepare a hybrid chitosan-phthalocyanine-TiO2 (PC/CS-TiO2) photocatalyst at room temperature without any calcination treatment. The as-prepared hybrid photocatalyst (PC/CS-TiO2) was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The results of the photodegradation of aniline, used as a model pollutant, revealed that the hybrid photocatalyst (PC/CS-TiO2) exhibited a photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. The enhanced activity of the hybrid catalyst is attributed to the cooperative role of the three components of the photocatalyst; chitosan as a template for the immobilization crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles, phthalocyanine that promote the light absorption in the visible range and TiO2 acting as an acceptor of electrons generated by the photons absorption to produce superoxide radicals.

  7. Solvent-assisted growth of metal phthalocyanine thin films on Au(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Tskipuri, Levan; Shao Qian; Reutt-Robey, Janice

    2012-05-15

    Thin films of metal phthalocyanine (MPc) are grown on an Au(111) support with a newly developed aerosol molecular beam deposition source and characterized in situ via ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy. MPcs are delivered to Au(111) in a series of N{sub 2}-entrained microsized solvent droplets of variable surface residence time. Phthalocyanine film registration to the herringbone reconstruction of the Au(111) surface, indicative of thermodynamically favored structure, is observed at submonolayer coverages for aromatic solvents with long residence times. Aerosol-deposited monolayer film structures are noncrystalline with tilted MPc orientations and vacancy nanocavities. Upon annealing, MPc molecules adopt flat-lying orientations with respect to the substrate and vacancies are eliminated. Film morphologies indicate solvation-mediated film nucleation and growth, with less long-range ordering that in vapor-generated films.

  8. Apoptosis induction by aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate-based sonodynamic therapy in HL-60 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Yumiko; Yumita, Nagahiko; Nishi, Koji; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Fukai, Toshio; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Chen, Fu-shih; Momose, Yasunori; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2015-07-01

    The present study aims to investigate sonodynamically-induced apoptosis using the phthalocyanine, chloroaluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcTS). HL-60 cells were exposed to ultrasound for up to 3 min in the absence and presence of AlPcTS. Apoptosis was analyzed by cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3 activity. Electron spin resonance was used to measure reactive oxygen species. The number of apoptotic cells showing membrane blebbing and cell shrinkage after combined treatment (ultrasound and AlPcTS) was significantly higher than following other treatments, including ultrasound alone and AlPcTS alone. Furthermore, DNA ladder formation, caspase-3 activation and enhanced nitroxide generation were observed in cells treated with ultrasound and AlPcTS. Sonodynamically induced apoptosis, caspase-3 activation, and nitroxide generation were significantly suppressed by histidine. The significant reduction by histidine indicated that ultrasonically generated reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen, is an important mediator of sonodynamically-induced apoptosis.

  9. Electronic properties and morphology of Cu-phthalocyanineC{sub 60} composite mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, Friedrich; Arion, Tiberiu; Darlatt, Erik; Gottwald, Alexander; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2014-01-21

    Phthalocyanines in combination with C{sub 60} are benchmark materials for organic solar cells. Here, we have studied the morphology and electronic properties of co-deposited mixtures (blends) of these materials forming a bulk heterojunction as a function of the concentration of the two constituents. For a concentration of 1:1 of Cu-Phthalocyanine (CuPc):C{sub 60}, a phase separation into about 100?nm size domains is observed, which results in electronic properties similar to layered systems. For low C{sub 60} concentrations (10:1 CuPc:C{sub 60}), the morphology, as indicated by Low-Energy Electron Microscopy images, suggests a growth mode characterized by (amorphous) domains of CuPC, whereby the domain boundaries are decorated with C{sub 60}. Despite of these markedly different growth modes, the electronic properties of the heterojunction films are essentially unchanged.

  10. Giant magnetocrystalline anisotropy of 5d transition metal-based phthalocyanine sheet.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qian; Sun, Qiang; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Jena, Puru

    2015-07-14

    Large magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) is a critical requirement for nanomagnets for applications in magnetic memory and storage devices. Due to small spin-orbit interaction the MAE of ferromagnetic films or single molecule magnets based on 3d metals is small and in typical magnetic nanostructures it is of the order of 2-3 meV. We show that MAE as high as 140 meV can be achieved by applying an external electric field or a biaxial tensile strain to phthalocyanine sheets decorated by 5d transition metal atoms such as Os and Ir. Our observation is based on a systematic study of 5d transition metal absorbed ploy phthalocyanine (Pc) sheets using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) combined with self consistently determined Hubbard U that accounts for the strong correlation energy. We attribute the high MAE values to dxy and dx(2)-y(2) (dxz and dyz) interaction in Ir (Os) adsorbed structure. PMID:26073550

  11. Second- and third-order nonlinear properties of chiral phthalocyanine films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Tsuyoshi; Sassa, Takafumi; Aoyama, Tetsuya; Kimura, Mutsumi; Shirai, Hirofusa; Wada, Tatsuo

    2004-10-01

    Vanadyl phthalocyanine derivatives having optically active side chains and the corresponding racemic isomers were synthesized and examined as nonlinear optical materials. These dyes were soluble in organic solvents and gave uniform thin films using spin coating. The thin films (neat or polymer doped) of each phthalocyanines showed the second- and third-order nonlinear optical responses under appropriate experimental conditions. The nonlinear optical susceptibilities of the optically active derivatives are larger than those of the corresponding racemic isomers. To clarify this enhancement phenomenon, we measured the electronic absorption- and circular dichloic spectra, and X-ray diffraction of the thin films. These results suggested that the optically active dyes forms one-dimensional columnar aggregates with one-handed helical sense and the columns further aligned into honeycomb-like chiral superstructures. It was surmised from the experimental results that the chiral superstructures enhance the nonlinear optical responses relative to the racemic analogues.

  12. In-situ spectro-microscopy on organic films: Mn-Phthalocyanine on Ag(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mahboob A.; Vescovo, E.; Sadowski, J.T.

    2013-08-18

    Metal phthalocyanines are attracting significant attention, owing to their potential for applications in chemical sensors, solar cells and organic magnets. As the electronic properties of molecular films are determined by their crystallinity and molecular packing, the optimization of film quality is important for improving the performance of organic devices. Here, we present the results of in situ low-energy electron microscopy / photoemission electron microscopy (LEEM/PEEM) studies of incorporation-limited growth [1] of manganese-phthalocyanine (MnPc) on Ag(100) surfaces. MnPc thin films were grown on both, bulk Ag(100) surface and thin Ag(100)/Fe(100) films, where substrate spin-polarized electronic states can be modified through tuning the thickness of the Ag film [2]. We also discuss the electronic structure and magnetic ordering in MnPc thin films, investigated by angle- and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

  13. Dry etching of copper phthalocyanine thin films: effects on morphology and surface stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Van Dijken, Jaron G; Brett, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of copper phthalocyanine thin films as they are etched with argon plasma. Significant morphological changes occur as a result of the ion bombardment; a planar surface quickly becomes an array of nanopillars which are less than 20 nm in diameter. The changes in morphology are independent of plasma power, which controls the etch rate only. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that surface concentrations of copper and oxygen increase with etch time, while carbon and nitrogen are depleted. Despite these changes in surface stoichiometry, we observe no effect on the work function. The absorbance and X-ray diffraction spectra show no changes other than the peaks diminishing with etch time. These findings have important implications for organic photovoltaic devices which seek nanopillar thin films of metal phthalocyanine materials as an optimal structure. PMID:22922282

  14. Experimental and theoretical study of electronic structure of lutetium bi-phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Bidermane, I; Lder, J; Boudet, S; Zhang, T; Ahmadi, S; Grazioli, C; Bouvet, M; Rusz, J; Sanyal, B; Eriksson, O; Brena, B; Puglia, C; Witkowski, N

    2013-06-21

    Using Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) Spectroscopy, the thickness dependent formation of Lutetium Phthalocyanine (LuPc2) films on a stepped passivated Si(100)21 reconstructed surface was studied. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to gain detailed insights into the electronic structure. Photoelectron spectroscopy measurements have not revealed any noticeable interaction of LuPc2 with the H-passivated Si surface. The presented study can be considered to give a comprehensive description of the LuPc2 molecular electronic structure. The DFT calculations reveal the interaction of the two molecular rings with each other and with the metallic center forming new kinds of orbitals in between the phthalocyanine rings, which allows to better understand the experimentally obtained NEXAFS results. PMID:23802970

  15. Electronic structures and magnetic/optical properties of metal phthalocyanine complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Shintaro; Suzuki, Atsushi; Oku, Takeo

    2016-02-01

    Electronic structures and magnetic / optical properties of metal phthalocyanine complexes were studied by quantum calculations using density functional theory. Effects of central metal and expansion of π orbital on aromatic ring as conjugation system on the electronic structures, magnetic, optical properties and vibration modes of infrared and Raman spectra of metal phthalocyanines were investigated. Electron and charge density distribution and energy levels near frontier orbital and excited states were influenced by the deformed structures varied with central metal and charge. The magnetic parameters of chemical shifts in 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR), principle g-tensor, A-tensor, V-tensor of electric field gradient and asymmetry parameters derived from the deformed structures with magnetic interaction of nuclear quadruple interaction based on electron and charge density distribution with a bias of charge near ligand under crystal field.

  16. Design considerations for liposomal vaccines: Influence of formulation parameters on antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to liposome associated antigens

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Douglas S.; Endsley, Aaron N.; Huang, Leaf

    2012-01-01

    Liposomes (phospholipid bilayer vesicles) are versatile and robust delivery systems for induction of antibody and T lymphocyte responses to associated subunit antigens. In the last 15 years, liposome vaccine technology has matured and now several vaccines containing liposome-based adjuvants have been approved for human use or have reached late stages of clinical evaluation. Given the intensifying interest in liposome-based vaccines, it is important to understand precisely how liposomes interact with the immune system and stimulate immunity. It has become clear that the physicochemical properties of liposomal vaccines – method of antigen attachment, lipid composition, bilayer fluidity, particle charge, and other properties – exert dramatic effects on the resulting immune response. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the physicochemical properties of liposomal vaccines and how they influence immune responses. A discussion of novel and emerging immunomodulators that are suitable for inclusion in liposomal vaccines is also presented. Through a comprehensive analysis of the body of liposomal vaccine literature, we enumerate a series of principles that can guide the rational design of liposomal vaccines to elicit immune responses of a desired magnitude and quality. We also identify major unanswered questions in the field, pointing the direction for future study. PMID:22306376

  17. Interactions of cyclodextrins with DPPC liposomes. Differential scanning calorimetry studies.

    PubMed

    Nishijo, J; Mizuno, H

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of cyclodextrins (CDs) with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The phase transition temperature and the enthalpy change due to the gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition of the liposomes were measured in the presence of alpha-CD, beta-CD, gamma-CD, heptakis (2,6-di-O-methyl)-beta-CD (DOM-beta-CD), heptakis (2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-beta-CD (TOM-beta-CD) and 2-hydroxylpropyl beta-CD, respectively. The effects on the change of enthalpy of the transition temperature were remarkable in the order of DOM-beta-CD > alpha-CD > TOM-beta-CD. The residual CDs caused scarcely detectable changes in the enthalpy changes and the transition temperatures. In order to clarify the DSC curves in the presence of the CDs mentioned above, the type of interactions which occurred between CDs and DPPC liposomes were studied. Consequently, it was found that DOM-beta-CD forms a soluble complex and alpha-CD forms an insoluble complex with DPPC liposomes, whereas only a slight amount of TOM-beta-CD was suggested to penetrate the matrix of the liposomes. PMID:9468643

  18. In vitro spectroscopic study of piperine-encapsulated nanosize liposomes.

    PubMed

    Pentak, Danuta

    2016-03-01

    Black pepper is a source of effective antioxidants. It contains several powerful antioxidants and is thus one of the most important spices for preventing and curtailing oxidative stress. There is considerable interest in the development of a drug-delivery systems that would result in the selective delivery of antioxidants to tissues in sufficient concentrations to ameliorate oxidant-induced tissue injuries. Liposomes are biocompatible, biodegradable and nontoxic artificial phospholipid vesicles that offer the possibility of carrying hydrophilic, hydrophobic and amphiphilic molecules. This article focuses on the use of liposomes for the delivery of antioxidants in the prevention or treatment of pathological conditions related to oxidative stress. Liposome formulations of piperine were analyzed with various spectroscopic methods. The formulation with the highest entrapment efficiency (90.5%) was formulated with an L-?-phosphatidylcholine dipalmitoyl (DPPC):piperine, 30:1 molar ratio, and total lipid count of 19.47mg/ml in the final liposomal preparation. The liposome formulation was found to be stable after storage at 4C, protected from light, for a minimum of 3weeks. The incremental process of piperine penetration through the phospholipid membrane was analyzed using the FT-IR, UV-Vis and NMR methods. Temperature stability studies carried out at 37C showed the highest percentage of piperine release in the first 3h of incubation. PMID:26493066

  19. Studies on precellular evolution: The encapsulation of polyribonucleotides by liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza, I.; Ibañez, M.; Santiago, J. C.; Wong, C.; Lazcano, A.; Oró, J.

    Liposomes are 5 to 50 micron vesicles with an internal aqueous environment, whose amphiphilic lipidic components self-assemble into systems with at least one double-layered membrane. Liposomes have been suggested as possible models of precellular systems formed in the early Archean Earth from lipids of non-enzymatic origin. Since it is generally accepted that RNA molecules preceded double-stranded DNA molecules as genetic material, we have studied the encapsulation of polyribonucleotides within liposomes made from dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, and from egg yolk phosphatidylcholine to which cholesterol was added in some cases. The liposomes were prepared under anoxic conditions following the reverse phase evaporation method described by Szoka and Papahadjopoulos /1/. Quantitative determinations show that approximately 50% of the available lipids form liposomes, and that up to 5% of the polyribonucleotides can be entrapped by them. We have also studied the encapsulation of polyribonucleotides in the presence of 1) urea and cyanamide, two non-electrolytes that have been used as prebiotic condensing agents, and 2) of Zn++ and Pb++, two cations employed in the non-enzymatic template-directed synthesis of polyribonucleotides from activated nucleotides.

  20. Development and Characterization of Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride with Palm Oil

    PubMed Central

    Sabeti, Bahareh; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Mohd, Shaharuddin; Hashim, Rosnani; Akbari Javar, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The usage of natural products in pharmaceuticals has steadily seen improvements over the last decade, and this study focuses on the utilization of palm oil in formulating liposomal doxorubicin (Dox). The liposomal form of Dox generally minimizes toxicity and enhances target delivery actions. Taking into account the antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of palm oil, the aim of this study is to design and characterize a new liposomal Dox by replacing phosphatidylcholine with 5% and 10% palm oil content. Liposomes were formed using the freeze_thaw method, and Dox was loaded through pH gradient technique and characterized through in vitro and ex vivo terms. Based on TEM images, large lamellar vesicles (LUV) were formed, with sizes of 438 and 453?nm, having polydispersity index of 0.21 0.8 and 0.22 1.3 and zeta potentials of about ?31 and ?32?mV, respectively. In both formulations, the entrapment efficiency was about 99%, and whole Dox was released through 96 hours in PBS (pH = 7.4) at 37C. Comparing cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of LUV with CaelyxR on MCF7 and MDA-MBA 231 breast cancer cell lines indicated suitable uptake and lower IC50 of the prepared liposomes. PMID:24795894

  1. Liposomes self-assembled from electrosprayed composite microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Deng-Guang; Yang, Jun-He; Wang, Xia; Tian, Feng

    2012-03-01

    Composite microparticles, consisting of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), naproxen (NAP) and lecithin (PC), have been successfully prepared using an electrospraying process and exploited as templates to manipulate molecular self-assembly for the synthesis of liposomes in situ. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations demonstrate that the microparticles have an average diameter of 960 140 nm and a homogeneous structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) results verify that the building blocks NAP and PC are scattered in the polymer matrix in a molecular way owing to the very fast drying of the electrospraying process and the favorable secondary interactions among the components. FESEM, scanning probe microscope (SPM) and TEM observations demonstrate that the liposomes can be achieved through molecular self-assembly in situ when the microparticles contact water thanks to like prefers like and by means of the confinement effect of the microparticles. The liposomes have an encapsulation rate of 91.3%, and 80.7% of the drug in the liposomes can be freed into the dissolution medium in a sustained way and by a diffusion mechanism over a period of 24 h. The developed strategy not only provides a new, facile, and effective method to assemble and organize molecules of multiple components into liposomes with electrosprayed microparticles as templates, but also opens a new avenue for nanofabrication in a step-by-step and controllable way.

  2. An efficient liposome based method for antioxidants encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Paini, Marco; Daly, Sean Ryan; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Fathi, Ali; Tehrany, Elmira Arab; Perego, Patrizia; Dehghani, Fariba; Valtchev, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Apigenin is an antioxidant that has shown a preventive activity against different cancer and cardiovascular disorders. In this study, we encapsulate apigenin with liposome to tackle the issue of its poor bioavailability and low stability. Apigenin loaded liposomes are fabricated with food-grade rapeseed lecithin in an aqueous medium in absence of any organic solvent. The liposome particle characteristics, such as particle size and polydispersity are optimised by tuning ultrasonic processing parameters. In addition, to measure the liposome encapsulation efficiency accurately, we establish a unique high-performance liquid chromatography technique in which an alkaline buffer mobile phase is used to prevent apigenin precipitation in the column;. salt is added to separate lipid particles from the aqeuous phase. Our results demonstrate that apigenin encapsulation efficiency is nearly 98% that is remarkably higher than any other reported value for encapsulation of this compound. In addition, the average particle size of these liposomes is 158.96.1nm that is suitable for the formulation of many food products, such as fortified fruit juice. The encapsulation method developed in this study, therefore have a high potential for the production of innovative, functional foods or nutraceutical products. PMID:26590900

  3. Crosslinked Multilamellar Liposomes for Controlled Delivery of Anticancer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Kye-Il; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Shuanglong; Liu, Yarong; Lee, Chi-Lin; Conti, Peter S.; Wong, Michael K.; Li, Zibo; Wang, Pin

    2014-01-01

    Liposomes constitute one of the most popular nanocarriers for the delivery of cancer therapeutics. However, since their potency is limited by incomplete drug release and inherent instability in the presence of serum components, their poor delivery occurs in certain circumstances. In this study, we address these shortcomings and demonstrate an alternative liposomal formulation, termed crosslinked multilamellar liposome (CML). With its properties of improved sustainable drug release kinetics and enhanced vesicle stability, CML can achieve controlled delivery of cancer therapeutics. CML stably encapsulated the anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) in the vesicle and exhibited a remarkably controlled rate of release compared to that of the unilamellar liposome (UL) with the same lipid composition or Doxil-like liposome (DLL). Our imaging study demonstrated that the CMLs were mainly internalized through a caveolin-dependent pathway and were further trafficked through the endosome-lysosome compartments. Furthermore, in vivo experiments showed that the CML-Dox formulation reduced systemic toxicity and significantly improved therapeutic activity in inhibiting tumor growth compared to that of UL-Dox or DLL-Dox. This drug packaging technology may therefore provide a new treatment option to better manage cancer and other diseases. PMID:23375392

  4. Thermosensitive liposomal drug delivery systems: state of the art review

    PubMed Central

    Kneidl, Barbara; Peller, Michael; Winter, Gerhard; Lindner, Lars H; Hossann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Thermosensitive liposomes are a promising tool for external targeting of drugs to solid tumors when used in combination with local hyperthermia or high intensity focused ultrasound. In vivo results have demonstrated strong evidence that external targeting is superior over passive targeting achieved by highly stable long-circulating drug formulations like PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin. Up to March 2014, the Web of Science listed 371 original papers in this field, with 45 in 2013 alone. Several formulations have been developed since 1978, with lysolipid-containing, low temperature-sensitive liposomes currently under clinical investigation. This review summarizes the historical development and effects of particular phospholipids and surfactants on the biophysical properties and in vivo efficacy of thermosensitive liposome formulations. Further, treatment strategies for solid tumors are discussed. Here we focus on temperature-triggered intravascular and interstitial drug release. Drug delivery guided by magnetic resonance imaging further adds the possibility of performing online monitoring of a heating focus to calculate locally released drug concentrations and to externally control drug release by steering the heating volume and power. The combination of external targeting with thermosensitive liposomes and magnetic resonance-guided drug delivery will be the unique characteristic of this nanotechnology approach in medicine. PMID:25258529

  5. Translational siRNA therapeutics using liposomal carriers: prospects & challenges.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Dhiraj; Subramanian, Krishnakumar; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari

    2012-08-01

    Gene silencing has emerged as a promising strategy for molecular therapy of various malignant, viral, hereditary and inflammatory disorders. However, its translation from lab to clinic is yet to gain momentum due to the numerous problems that plague its development. A multi-functional siRNA delivery system with desired properties such as enhanced immune compatibility, target specificity, high cell uptake and excellent silencing efficiency is required to understand the challenges involved in the selection and modification of small interfering RNA (siRNA), factors influencing the complexation process and the response of the biological system to the formulation. Liposomes have been used as delivery systems due to its versatility in handling different types of drugs, tunable size, charge and surface functionalities that improve its effectiveness in vivo. This review highlights the challenges involved in gene silencing and describes the progression of liposomal systems used in gene silencing. The rationale in introducing chemical modifications in siRNA, synthesizing designer cationic lipids and evolution of hybrid liposomal systems has been elaborated, emphasizing their merits and short-comings. Finally, a description of the current state of clinical trials involving liposomal formulations has been included to provide an unbiased perspective of the future of liposomal systems and gene silencing tools as therapeutic tools. PMID:22856607

  6. Mimicking Liver Iron Overload Using Liposomal Ferritin Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Wood, John C.; Fassler, Joe D.; Meade, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Close monitoring of liver iron content is necessary to prevent iron overload in transfusion-dependent anemias. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard; however, MRI potentially offers a noninvasive alternative. Iron metabolism and storage is complicated and tissue/disease-specific. This report demonstrates that iron distribution may be more important than iron speciation with respect to MRI signal changes. Simple synthetic analogs of hepatic lysosomes were constructed from noncovalent attachment of horse-spleen ferritin to 0.4 ?m diameter phospholipid liposomes suspended in agarose. Graded iron loading was achieved by varying ferritin burden per liposome as well as liposomal volume fraction. T1 and T2 relaxation times were measured on a 60 MHz NMR spectrometer and compared to simple ferritin-gel combinations. Liposomal-ferritin had 6-fold stronger T2 relaxivity than unaggregated ferritin but identical T1 relaxivity. Liposomal-ferritin T2 relaxivity also more closely matched published results from hemosiderotic marmoset liver, suggesting a potential role as an iron-calibration phantom. PMID:15004804

  7. Application of Liposomes in Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Quo Vadis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sachin Kumar; Gulati, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The most common treatments for rheumatoid arthritis include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and some biological agents. However, none of the treatments available is able to achieve the ultimate goal of treatment, that is, drug-free remission. This limitation has shifted the focus of treatment to delivery strategies with an ability to deliver the drugs into the synovial cavity in the proper dosage while mitigating side effects to other tissues. A number of approaches like microemulsions, microspheres, liposomes, microballoons, cocrystals, nanoemulsions, dendrimers, microsponges, and so forth, have been used for intrasynovial delivery of these drugs. Amongst these, liposomes have proven to be very effective for retaining the drug in the synovial cavity by virtue of their size and chemical composition. The fast clearance of intra-synovially administered drugs can be overcome by use of liposomes leading to increased uptake of drugs by the target synovial cells, which in turn reduces the exposure of nontarget sites and eliminates most of the undesirable effects associated with therapy. This review focuses on the use of liposomes in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and summarizes data relating to the liposome formulations of various drugs. It also discusses emerging trends of this promising technology. PMID:24688450

  8. Long Term Storage of Lyophilized Liposomal Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Payton, N.M.; Wempe, M.F.; Xu, Y.; Anchordoquy, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Because aqueous liposomal formulations containing multiply unsaturated lipids are susceptible to chemical degradation, these formulations are often lyophilized. Despite their limited chemical stability, interest in the use of multiply unsaturated lipids to promote intracellular delivery has increased considerably in recent years. The goal of the current study was to examine the long term storage stability of lyophilized formulations containing lipids with increasing levels of unsaturation, and various strategies which can be employed to improve stability. Aqueous lipid-trehalose formulations containing 1,2-dilinolenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLinPC) or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) were lyophilized and stored at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 60°C. We observed that the lipid degradation rate increased as the storage temperature and unsaturation level were increased. Even the cleanest sugars which are available commercially contain iron contaminants, and it was observed that the chelation of these iron contaminants significantly improved the stability of DLPC during storage. However, the glass transition temperature of the sugar which was included in the formulation, the reduction of the oxygen in the aqueous sample prior to lyophilization, the inclusion of helper lipids (i.e., cholesterol), and the rate of freezing did not significantly improve stability. PMID:25308534

  9. Propylene glycol liposomes as a topical delivery system for miconazole nitrate: comparison with conventional liposomes.

    PubMed

    Elmoslemany, Riham M; Abdallah, Ossama Y; El-Khordagui, Labiba K; Khalafallah, Nawal M

    2012-06-01

    Propylene glycol (PG)-phospholipid vesicles have been advocated as flexible lipid vesicles for enhanced skin delivery of drugs. To further characterize the performance of these vesicles and to address some relevant pharmaceutical issues, miconazole nitrate(MN)-loaded PG nanoliposomes were prepared and characterized for vesicle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, and vesicle stability. An issue of pharmaceutical importance is the time-dependent, dilution-driven diffusion of propylene glycol out of the vesicles. This was addressed by assessing propylene glycol using gas chromatography in the separated vesicles and monitoring its buildup in the medium after repeated dispersion of separated vesicles in fresh medium. Further, the antifungal activity of liposomal formulations under study was assessed using Candida albicans, and their in vitro skin permeation and retention were studied using human skin. At all instances, blank and drug-loaded conventional liposomes were included for comparison. The results provided evidence of controlled MN delivery, constant percent PG uptake in the vesicles (?45.5%) in the PG concentration range 2.5 to 10%, improved vesicle stability, and enhanced skin deposition of MN with minimum skin permeation. These are key issues for different formulation and performance aspects of propylene glycol-phospholipid vesicles. PMID:22566173

  10. Single-crystal field-effect transistors based on copper phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeis, R.; Siegrist, T.; Kloc, Ch.

    2005-01-01

    Copper phthalocyanine (Cu-Pc) single crystals were grown by physical vapor transport and field-effect transistors (FETs) on the surface of these crystals were prepared. These FETs function as p-channel accumulation-mode devices. Charge carrier mobilities of up to 1cm2/Vs combined with a low field-effect threshold were obtained. These remarkable FET characteristics, along with the highly stable chemical nature of Cu-Pc, make it an attractive candidate for device applications.

  11. New route to unsymmetrical phthalocyanine analogues by the use of structurally distorted subphthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Nagao; Kondo, Ryoko; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Osa, Tetsuo )

    1990-12-19

    In addition to traditional uses as dyes and in photocopying devices, phthalocyanines (Pcs) are now rapidly growing in importance in many fields such as chemical sensors, electrochromism, batteries, photodynamic cancer therapy, molecular metals, photochemical hole burning, and liquid crystals. In this communication, the authors present a completely new method for the preparation of monosubstituted type unsymmetrical Pcs and Pc analogues, which utilizes the so-called subphthalocyanines (SubPcs).

  12. Peripheral Substitution of a Near-IR-Absorbing Soluble Phthalocyanine Using "Click" Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mayukh, Mayank; Lu, Chin-Wei; Hernandez, Edgardo; McGrath, Dominic V.

    2011-06-10

    A series of near-IR-absorbing soluble phthalocyanines (Pcs) with eight alkyne moieties as side chains of the chromophore have been synthesized. One of these Pcs has been used as a scaffold for functional group modification using alkyne–azide click chemistry with various azides. This led to a small library of Pcs with photo and thermal crosslinkable, dendritic, and hydrophilic moieties starting from a single Pc molecule. A patterned thin film was fabricated by photocrosslinking one of these Pc derivatives.

  13. Phthalocyanine adsorption to graphene on Ir(111): Evidence for decoupling from vibrational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Endlich, M. Gozdzik, S.; Nel, N.; Krger, J.; Rosa, A. L. da; Frauenheim, T.; Wehling, T. O.

    2014-11-14

    Phthalocyanine molecules have been adsorbed to Ir(111) and to graphene on Ir(111). From a comparison of scanning tunneling microscopy images of individual molecules adsorbed to the different surfaces alone it is difficult to discern potential differences in the molecular adsorption geometry. In contrast, vibrational spectroscopy using inelastic electron scattering unequivocally hints at strong molecule deformations on Ir(111) and at a planar adsorption geometry on graphene. The spectroscopic evidence for the different adsorption configurations is supported by density functional calculations.

  14. Direct observation of molecular images of lanthanide phthalocyanines: III. Structural defects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W P; Kuo, K H; Dorset, D L; Hou, Y F; Ni, J Z

    1989-04-01

    The crystal imperfections in thin films of lanthanide phthalocyanines (LnPc2H, Ln = Nd, Tb, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) grown expitaxially on KCl have been observed by molecular imaging. Grain and twin boundaries, stacking faults, point defects, vacancies, mosaic structures, and sometimes even some amorphous islands exist in the well-crystallized specimens. Combined with the results reported earlier, the packing characteristics of planar LnPc2H molecules can be well understood. PMID:2723815

  15. Aqueous Speciation and Electrochemical Properties of a Water-Soluble Manganese Phthalocyanine Complex#

    PubMed Central

    Blakemore, James D.; Hull, Jonathan F.

    2012-01-01

    The speciation behavior of a water-soluble manganese(III) tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine complex was investigated with UV-visible and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies, as well as cyclic voltammetry. Parallel-mode EPR (in dimethylformamide:pyridine solvent mix) reveals a six-line hyperfine signal, centered at a g-value of 8.8, for the manganese(III) monomer, characteristic of the d4 S=2 system. The color of an aqueous solution containing the complex is dependent upon the pH of the solution; the phthalocyanine complex can exist as a water-bound monomer, a hydroxide-bound monomer, or an oxo-bridged dimer. Addition of coordinating bases such as borate or pyridine changes the speciation behavior by coordinating the manganese center. From the UV-visible spectra, complete speciation diagrams are plotted by global analysis of the pH-dependent UV-visible spectra, and a complete set of pKa values is obtained by fitting the data to a standard pKa model. Electrochemical studies reveal a pH-independent quasi-reversible oxidation event for the monomeric species, which likely involves oxidation of the organic ligand to the radical cation species. Adsorption of the phthalocyanine complex on the carbon working electrode was sometimes observed. The pKa values and electrochemistry data are discussed in the context of the development of mononuclear water-oxidation catalysts. PMID:22585306

  16. Understanding domain symmetry in vanadium oxide phthalocyanine monolayers on Au (111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochford, L. A.; Hancox, I.; Jones, T. S.

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the growth of organic semiconductors on solid surfaces is of key importance for the field of organic electronics. Non planar phthalocyanines have shown great promise in organic photovoltaic (OPV) applications, but little of the fundamental surface characterization to understand their structure and properties has been performed. Acquiring a deeper understanding of the molecule/substrate interaction in small molecule systems is a vital step in controlling structure/property relationships. Here we characterize the vanadium oxide phthalocyanine (VOPc)/Au (111) surface using a combination of low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), obtaining complex diffraction patterns which can be understood using two dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) analysis of STM images. These measurements reveal coexistence of three symmetrically equivalent in-plane orientations with respect to the substrate, each of which is imaged simultaneously within a single area. Combining scanning probe and diffraction measurements allows symmetrically related domains to be visualized and structurally analyzed, providing fundamental information useful for the structural engineering of non-planar phthalocyanine interfaces.

  17. Reversible phase transition and third-order nonlinearity of phthalocyanine derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Yasumasa; Shigehara, Kiyotaka; Yamada, Akira; Matsuda, Hiro; Okada, Shuji; Masaki, Atsushi; Nakanishi, Hachiro

    1991-12-01

    Two different liquid crystalline phases and the reversible phase transition between them have been found for the spin coated thin film of tetrakis(octylthio)phthalocyanines both with and without copper (II): Phase 1 of as-prepared films changed with time lapse at room temperature into phase 2 which had a new absorption maximum at the longer wavelength and the longer spacing of crystalline lattice, and the phase 2 returned to the phase 1 when heated up to 100 degree(s)C and cooled down to room temperature. The phase 2 gave several times larger (chi) (3) values than the phase 1 by THG measurements at the same resonant wavelengths. On the other hand, tetrakis(alkylthio)phthalocyanine with the alkylchain shorter than butyl and octakis(octylthio)phthalocyaninato copper (II) with symmetric molecular structure were found not to give the phase 2 and their (chi) (3) values were small, i.e., in the order of 10-12 esu. Thus, phthalocyanines that do not form a tight inclined stack but a loose dimeric aggregation due to permanent dipole and flexible alkyl chains are estimated to be better candidates for third-order nonlinear optics.

  18. Metal-phthalocyanine ordered layers on Au(110): Metal-dependent adsorption energy

    SciTech Connect

    Massimi, Lorenzo Angelucci, Marco; Gargiani, Pierluigi; Betti, Maria Grazia; Montoro, Silvia; Mariani, Carlo

    2014-06-28

    Iron-phthalocyanine and cobalt-phthalocyanine chains, assembled along the Au(110)-(12) reconstructed channels, present a strong interaction with the Au metallic states, via the central metal ion. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy from the metal-2p core-levels and valence band high-resolution ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy bring to light signatures of the interaction of the metal-phthalocyanine single-layer with gold. The charge transfer from Au to the molecule causes the emerging of a metal-2p core level component at lower binding energy with respect to that measured in the molecular thin films, while the core-levels associated to the organic macrocycle (C and N 1s) are less influenced by the adsorption, and the macrocycles stabilize the interaction, inducing a strong interface dipole. Temperature Programmed Desorption experiments and photoemission as a function of temperature allow to estimate the adsorption energy for the thin-films, mainly due to the molecule-molecule van der Waals interaction, while the FePc and CoPc single-layers remain adsorbed on the Au surface up to at least 820 K.

  19. NIR photocleavage of the Si-C bond in axial Si-phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Doane, Tennyson; Cheng, Yu; Sodhi, Nipun; Burda, Clemens

    2014-11-13

    The use of light-triggered photolysis provides a powerful tool for unique syntheses and for applications that require remote operation such as drug delivery or molecular switches. Here, we describe the photochemistry of a recently developed alkylsilicon phthalocyanine Pc 227, which undergoes an exchange of the alkyl ligand for a ligand derived from the solvent when the axial Si-C bond is photolyzed in a solvent with low-energy visible light. In this work with methanol as the solvent, we investigate the formation of the methoxy analogue of the therapeutic drug Pc 4, (termed Pc 233) upon irradiation. Using steady-state spectroscopy and characterization of the photoproducts, the competing pathways between direct ligand exchange on the central silicon atom and delocalization of the radical produced by homolysis on the phthalocyanine ring is observed. The delocalized radical intermediate is quite long-lived. At long times this intermediate decomposes without significant formation of Pc 233. The results of this investigation provide insights into recent work utilizing Pc 227 for drug delivery applications and for future work on the use of phthalocyanines as long-wavelength phototriggers. PMID:25153643

  20. Enhanced Charge Separation Efficiency in Pyridine-Anchored Phthalocyanine-Sensitized Solar Cells by Linker Elongation.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, Takuro; Agrawal, Saurabh; Ezoe, Masayuki; Mori, Shogo; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2015-11-01

    A series of zinc phthalocyanine sensitizers (PcS22-24) having a pyridine anchoring group are designed and synthesized to investigate the structural dependence on performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. The pyridine-anchor zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer PcS23 shows 79?% incident-photon to current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) and 6.1?% energy conversion efficiency, which are comparable with similar phthalocyanine dyes having a carboxylic acid anchoring group. Based on DFT calculations, the high IPCE is attributed with the mixture of an excited-state molecular orbital of the sensitizer and the orbitals of TiO2 . Between pyridine and carboxylic acid anchor dyes, opposite trends are observed in the linker-length dependence of the IPCE. The red-absorbing PcS23 is applied for co-sensitization with a carboxyl-anchor organic dye D131 that has a complementary spectral response. The site-selective adsorption of PcS23 and D131 on the TiO2 surface results in a panchromatic photocurrent response for the whole visible-light region of sun light. PMID:26222758

  1. Numerical analyses on optical limiting performances of chloroindium phthalocyanines with different substituent positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu-Jin, Zhang; Xing-Zhe, Li; Ji-Cai, Liu; Chuan-Kui, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Optical limiting properties of two soluble chloroindium phthalocyanines with ?- and ?-alkoxyl substituents in nanosecond laser field have been studied by solving numerically the coupled singlettriplet rate equation together with the paraxial wave field equation under the CrankNicholson scheme. Both transverse and longitudinal effects of the laser field on photophysical properties of the compounds are considered. Effective transfer time between the ground state and the lowest triplet state is defined in reformulated rate equations to characterize dynamics of singlettriplet state population transfer. It is found that both phthalocyanines exhibit good nonlinear optical absorption abilities, while the compound with ?-substituent shows enhanced optical limiting performance. Our ab-initio calculations reveal that the phthalocyanine with ?-substituent has more obvious electron delocalization and lower frontier orbital transfer energies, which are responsible for its preferable photophysical properties. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No.2011CB808100), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos.11204078 and 11574082), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No.2015MS54).

  2. An Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Multisensor System Based on Phthalocyanine Nanostructured Films: Discrimination of Musts.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Hernandez, Celia; Medina-Plaza, Cristina; Garcia-Cabezon, Cristina; Martin-Pedrosa, Fernando; del Valle, Isabel; Antonio de Saja, Jose; Rodríguez-Méndez, Maria Luz

    2015-01-01

    An array of electrochemical quartz crystal electrodes (EQCM) modified with nanostructured films based on phthalocyanines was developed and used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes. Nanostructured films of iron, nickel and copper phthalocyanines were deposited on Pt/quartz crystals through the Layer by Layer technique by alternating layers of the corresponding phthalocyanine and poly-allylamine hydrochloride. Simultaneous electrochemical and mass measurements were used to study the mass changes accompanying the oxidation of electroactive species present in must samples obtained from six Spanish varieties of grapes (Juan García, Prieto Picudo, Mencía Regadío, Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha and Tempranillo). The mass and voltammetric outputs were processed using three-way models. Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) was successfully used to discriminate the must samples according to their variety. Multi-way partial least squares (N-PLS) evidenced the correlations existing between the voltammetric data and the polyphenolic content measured by chemical methods. Similarly, N-PLS showed a correlation between mass outputs and parameters related to the sugar content. These results demonstrated that electronic tongues based on arrays of EQCM sensors can offer advantages over arrays of mass or voltammetric sensors used separately. PMID:26610494

  3. An Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Multisensor System Based on Phthalocyanine Nanostructured Films: Discrimination of Musts

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Hernandez, Celia; Medina-Plaza, Cristina; Garcia-Cabezon, Cristina; Martin-Pedrosa, Fernando; del Valle, Isabel; de Saja, Jose Antonio; Rodríguez-Méndez, Maria Luz

    2015-01-01

    An array of electrochemical quartz crystal electrodes (EQCM) modified with nanostructured films based on phthalocyanines was developed and used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes. Nanostructured films of iron, nickel and copper phthalocyanines were deposited on Pt/quartz crystals through the Layer by Layer technique by alternating layers of the corresponding phthalocyanine and poly-allylamine hydrochloride. Simultaneous electrochemical and mass measurements were used to study the mass changes accompanying the oxidation of electroactive species present in must samples obtained from six Spanish varieties of grapes (Juan García, Prieto Picudo, Mencía Regadío, Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha and Tempranillo). The mass and voltammetric outputs were processed using three-way models. Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) was successfully used to discriminate the must samples according to their variety. Multi-way partial least squares (N-PLS) evidenced the correlations existing between the voltammetric data and the polyphenolic content measured by chemical methods. Similarly, N-PLS showed a correlation between mass outputs and parameters related to the sugar content. These results demonstrated that electronic tongues based on arrays of EQCM sensors can offer advantages over arrays of mass or voltammetric sensors used separately. PMID:26610494

  4. AC-electronic and dielectric properties of semiconducting phthalocyanine compounds: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hraibat, Safa'a. M.; M-L. Kitaneh, Rushdi; Abu-Samreh, Mohammad M.; Saleh, Abdelkarim M.

    2013-11-01

    The AC-electronic and dielectric properties of different phthalocyanine films (ZnPc, CuPc, FePc, and H2Pc) were investigated over a wide range of temperature. Both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant (ɛ = ɛ1 - iɛ2) were found to be influenced by temperature and frequency. Qualitatively the behavior was the same for those compounds; however, the central atom, film thickness, and the electrode type play an important role in the variation of their values. The relaxation time, τ, was strongly frequency-dependent at all temperatures and low frequencies, while a weak dependency is observed at higher frequencies. The relaxation activation energy was derived from the slopes of the fitted lines of ln τ and the reciprocal of the temperature (1/T). The values of the activation energy were accounted for the hopping process at low temperatures, while a thermally activated conduction process was dominant at higher temperatures. The maximum barrier height, Wm, was found to be temperature and frequency dependent for all phthalocyanine compounds. The value Wm depends greatly on the nature of the central atom and electrode material type. The correlated barrier hopping model was found to be the appropriate mechanism to describe the charge carrier's transport in phthalocyanine films.

  5. Inhomogeneous charge transfer within monolayer zinc phthalocyanine absorbed on TiO{sub 2}(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Shun; Ahmadi, Sareh; Adibi, Pooya Tabib Zadeh; Chow, Winnie; Goethelid, Mats; Sun, Chenghua; Pietzsch, Annette

    2012-04-21

    The d-orbital contribution from the transition metal centers of phthalocyanine brings difficulties to understand the role of the organic ligands and their molecular frontier orbitals when it adsorbs on oxide surfaces. Here we use zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc)/TiO{sub 2}(110) as a model system where the zinc d-orbitals are located deep below the organic orbitals leaving room for a detailed study of the interaction between the organic ligand and the substrate. A charge depletion from the highest occupied molecular orbital is observed, and a consequent shift of N1s and C1s to higher binding energy in photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). A detailed comparison of peak shifts in PES and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy illustrates a slightly uneven charge distribution within the molecular plane and an inhomogeneous charge transfer screening between the center and periphery of the organic ligand: faster in the periphery and slower at the center, which is different from other metal phthalocyanine, e.g., FePc/TiO{sub 2}. Our results indicate that the metal center can substantially influence the electronic properties of the organic ligand at the interface by introducing an additional charge transfer channel to the inner molecular part.

  6. Electronic absorption band broadening and surface roughening of phthalocyanine double layers by saturated solvent vapor treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jinhyun; Yim, Sanggyu

    2012-10-15

    Variations in the electronic absorption (EA) and surface morphology of three types of phthalocyanine (Pc) thin film systems, i.e. copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) single layer, zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) single layer, and ZnPc on CuPc (CuPc/ZnPc) double layer film, treated with saturated acetone vapor were investigated. For the treated CuPc single layer film, the surface roughness slightly increased and bundles of nanorods were formed, while the EA varied little. In contrast, for the ZnPc single layer film, the relatively high solubility of ZnPc led to a considerable shift in the absorption bands as well as a large increase in the surface roughness and formation of long and wide nano-beams, indicating a part of the ZnPc molecules dissolved in acetone, which altered their molecular stacking. For the CuPc/ZnPc film, the saturated acetone vapor treatment resulted in morphological changes in mainly the upper ZnPc layer due to the significantly low solubility of the underlying CuPc layer. The treatment also broadened the EA band, which involved a combination of unchanged CuPc and changed ZnPc absorption.

  7. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of gamma-oryzanol-loaded liposome formulations for topical use.

    PubMed

    Viriyaroj, Amornrat; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Sukma, Monrudee; Akkaramongkolporn, Prasert; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to prepare the gamma-oryzanol-loaded liposomes and investigate their physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity intended for cosmetic applications. Liposomes, Composing phosphatidylCholine (PC) and Cholesterol (Chol), CHAPS or sodium taurocholate (NaTC) were prepared by sonication method. Gamma-oryzanol-loaded liposomes were prepared by using 3, 5 and 10% gamma-oryzanol as an initial concentration. The formulation factors in a particular type and composition of lipid and initial drug loading on the physicochemical properties (i.e., particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug release) and antioxidant activity were studied. The particle sizes of bare liposomes were in nanometer range. The gamma-oryzanol-loaded liposomes in formulations of PC/CHAPS and PC/NaTC liposomes were smaller than PC/Chol liposomes. The incorporation efficiency of 10% gamma-oryzanol-loaded PC/Chol liposomes was less than gamma-oryzanol-loaded PC/CHAPS liposomes and PC/NaTC liposomes allowing higher in vitro release rate due to higher free gamma-oryzanol in buffer solution. The antioxidant activity of gamma-oryzanol-loaded liposomes was not different from pure gamma-oryzanol. Both gamma-oryzanol-loaded PC/CHAPS liposomes and PC/NaTC liposomes were showed to enhance the antioxidant activity in NHF cells. gamma-oryzanol-loaded PC/Chol liposomes demonstrated the lowest cytotoxicity in NHF cells. It was conceivably concluded that liposomes prepared in this study are suitable for gamma-oryzanol incorporation without loss of antioxidant activity. PMID:19883256

  8. Amyloid ?-peptide insertion in liposomes containing GM1-cholesterol domains.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Maria Carmela; Spigolon, Dario; Librizzi, Fabio; Moran, Oscar; Ortore, Maria Grazia; Bulone, Donatella; Biagio, Pier Luigi San; Carrotta, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal membrane damage is related to the early impairments appearing in Alzheimer's disease due to the interaction of the amyloid ?-peptide (A?) with the phospholipid bilayer. In particular, the ganglioside GM1, present with cholesterol in lipid rafts, seems to be able to initiate A? aggregation on membrane. We studied the thermodynamic and structural effects of the presence of GM1 on the interaction between A? and liposomes, a good membrane model system. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry highlighted the importance of the presence of GM1 in recruiting monomeric A? toward the lipid bilayer. Light and Small Angle X-ray Scattering revealed a different pattern for GM1 containing liposomes, both before and after interaction with A?. The results suggest that the interaction with GM1 brings to insertion of A? in the bilayer, producing a structural perturbation down to the internal layers of the liposome, as demonstrated by the obtained electron density profiles. PMID:26259785

  9. Double emulsion templated monodisperse phospholipid liposomes incorporating Doxorubicin hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Mingtan; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    We present a novel approach for fabricating monodisperse phospholipid liposomes incorporating water soluble anticancer drug Doxorubicin hydrochloride using controlled w/o/w double emulsions as templates. Glass-capillary microfluidics is used to generate monodisperse w/o/w double emulsion templates and double emulsion droplet size is from 20 to 100 um according to different flow rates. We show that the high uniformity in size and shape of the templates are maintained in the final phospholipid liposomes after a solvent removal step by Nikon eclipse microscopy. The lipid bilayers encapsulating anticancer drug inside is retained after the emulsion drops are converted to vesicles. The liposomes vesicles are promising water soluble anticancer drug delivery vehicles.

  10. Design of liposomal colloidal systems for ocular delivery of ciprofloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Ehab I.; El-Anazi, Magda H.; El-Bagory, Ibrahim M.; Bayomi, Mohsen A.

    2013-01-01

    Ophthalmic drug bioavailability is limited due to protective mechanisms of the eye which require the design of a system to enhance ocular delivery. In this study several liposomal formulations containing ciprofloxacin (CPX) have been formulated using reverse phase evaporation technique with final dispersion of pH 7.4. Different types of phospholipids including Phosphatidylcholine, Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and Dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were utilized. The effect of formulation factors such as type of phospholipid, cholesterol content, incorporation of positively charging inducing agents and ultrasonication on the properties of the liposomal vesicles was studied. Bioavailability of selected liposomal formulations in rabbit eye aqueous humor has been investigated and compared with that of commercially available CPX eye drops (Ciprocin®). Pharmacokinetic parameters including Cmax, Tmax, elimination rate constant, t1/2, MRT and AUC0–∞, were determined. The investigated formulations showed more than three folds of improvement in CPX ocular bioavailability compared with the commercial product. PMID:25061409

  11. Liposomes as a potential ocular delivery system of distamycin A.

    PubMed

    Chetoni, Patrizia; Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Matteoli, Barbara; Ceccherini-Nelli, Luca; Subissi, Alessando; Burgalassi, Susi

    2015-08-15

    Liposomes containing Distamycin A (DA) may be clinically useful in the treatment of ocular HSV infections, especially in acyclovir-resistant HSV keratitis. This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo performance of a topical controlled release liposomal formulation containing DA (DA-Lipo) aimed at reducing the toxicity of the encapsulated active agent and improving drug uptake by ocular tissues. The bioavailability of DA in the tear fluid and the DA uptake into the cornea were increased after instillation of DA-Lipo in rabbits, reaching the DA corneal concentration corresponding to IC50 values against HSV without any sign of transcorneal permeation of drug. DA-Lipo was definitely less cytotoxic then plain DA in rabbit corneal epithelial cells. These results provide new insights into the correlation between the in vitro data and the drug kinetics following ocular applications of liposomal vesicles. PMID:26183332

  12. Liposomal extended-release bupivacaine for postsurgical analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Lambrechts, Mark; OBrien, Michael J; Savoie, Felix H; You, Zongbing

    2013-01-01

    When physicians consider which analgesia to use postsurgery, the primary goal is to relieve pain with minimal adverse side effects. Bupivacaine, a commonly used analgesic, has been formulated into an aqueous suspension of multivesicular liposomes that provide long-lasting analgesia for up to 72 hours, while avoiding the adverse side effects of opioids. The increased efficacy of liposomal extended-release bupivacaine, compared to bupivacaine hydrochloride, has promoted its usage in a variety of surgeries including hemorrhoidectomy, bunionectomy, inguinal hernia repair, total knee arthroplasty, and augmentation mammoplasty. However, like other bupivacaine formulations, the liposomal extended-release bupivacaine does have some side effects. In this brief review, we provide an update of the current knowledge in the use of bupivacaine for postsurgical analgesia. PMID:24043932

  13. Recent Trends in Multifunctional Liposomal Nanocarriers for Enhanced Tumor Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Perche, Federico; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2013-01-01

    Liposomes are delivery systems that have been used to formulate a vast variety of therapeutic and imaging agents for the past several decades. They have significant advantages over their free forms in terms of pharmacokinetics, sensitivity for cancer diagnosis and therapeutic efficacy. The multifactorial nature of cancer and the complex physiology of the tumor microenvironment require the development of multifunctional nanocarriers. Multifunctional liposomal nanocarriers should combine long blood circulation to improve pharmacokinetics of the loaded agent and selective distribution to the tumor lesion relative to healthy tissues, remote-controlled or tumor stimuli-sensitive extravasation from blood at the tumor's vicinity, internalization motifs to move from tumor bounds and/or tumor intercellular space to the cytoplasm of cancer cells for effective tumor cell killing. This review will focus on current strategies used for cancer detection and therapy using liposomes with special attention to combination therapies. PMID:23533772

  14. Novel methods for the encapsulation of meglumine antimoniate into liposomes.

    PubMed

    Frézard, F; Michalick, M S; Soares, C F; Demicheli, C

    2000-07-01

    The antimonial drug, meglumine antimoniate, was successfully encapsulated in dehydration-rehydration vesicles and in freeze-dried empty liposomes (FDELs). High encapsulation efficiencies (from 28 to 58%) and low weight ratios of lipids to encapsulated antimony (from 1:0.15 to 1:0.3) were achieved. These formulations, contrary to those obtained by conventional methods, can be stored as intermediate lyophilized forms and reconstituted just before use. The efficacy of FDEL-encapsulated meglumine antimoniate was evaluated in hamsters experimentally infected with Leishmania chagasi. A significant reduction of liver parasite burdens was observed in animals treated with this preparation, when compared to control animals treated with empty liposomes. In contrast, free meglumine antimoniate was found to be inefficient when administered at a comparable dose of antimony. This novel liposome-based meglumine antimoniate formulation appears to be promising as a pharmaceutical product for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:10881061

  15. PEG Minocycline-Liposomes Ameliorate CNS Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ben, Li-Hong; Cravens, Petra D.; Singh, Mahendra P.; Frohman, Elliot M.; Eagar, Todd N.; Racke, Michael K.; Kieseier, Bernd C.; Stve, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Background Minocycline is an oral tetracycline derivative with good bioavailability in the central nervous system (CNS). Minocycline, a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, attenuates disease activity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Potential adverse effects associated with long-term daily minocycline therapy in human patients are concerning. Here, we investigated whether less frequent treatment with long-circulating polyethylene glycol (PEG) minocycline liposomes are effective in treating EAE. Findings Performing in vitro time kinetic studies of PEG minocycline-liposomes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), we determined that PEG minocycline-liposome preparations stabilized with CaCl2 are effective in diminishing MMP-9 activity. Intravenous injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes every five days were as effective in ameliorating clinical EAE as daily intraperitoneal injections of minocycline. Treatment of animals with PEG minocycline-liposomes significantly reduced the number of CNS-infiltrating leukocytes, and the overall expression of MMP-9 in the CNS. There was also a significant suppression of MMP-9 expression and proteolytic activity in splenocytes of treated animals, but not in CNS-infiltrating leukocytes. Thus, leukocytes gaining access to the brain and spinal cord require the same absolute amount of MMP-9 in all treatment groups, but minocycline decreases the absolute cell number. Conclusions Our data indicate that less frequent injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes are an effective alternative pharmacotherapy to daily minocycline injections for the treatment of CNS autoimmune diseases. Also, inhibition of MMP-9 remains a promising treatment target in EAE and patients with MS. PMID:19127301

  16. Liposome functionalization with copper-free "click chemistry".

    PubMed

    Oude Blenke, Erik; Klaasse, Gruson; Merten, Hannes; Plckthun, Andreas; Mastrobattista, Enrico; Martin, Nathaniel I

    2015-03-28

    The modification of liposomal surfaces is of interest for many different applications and a variety of chemistries are available that makes this possible. A major disadvantage of commonly used coupling chemistries (e.g. maleimide-thiol coupling) is the limited control over the site of conjugation in cases where multiple reactive functionalities are present, leading to heterogeneous products and in some cases dysfunctional conjugates. Bioorthogonal coupling approaches such as the well-established copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) "click" reaction are attractive alternatives as the reaction kinetics are favorable and azide-containing reagents are widely available. In the work described here, we prepared lipids containing a reactive cyclooctyne group and, after incorporation into liposomes, demonstrated successful conjugation of both a small molecule dye (5'-TAMRA-azide) as well as a larger azide-containing model protein based upon a designed ankyrin repeat protein (azido-DARPin). By applying the strain-promoted azido-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) the use of Cu(I) as a catalyst is avoided, an important advantage considering the known deleterious effects associated with copper in cell and protein studies. We demonstrate complete control over the number of ligands coupled per liposome when using a small molecule azide with conjugation occurring at a reasonable reaction rate. By comparison, the conjugation of a larger azide-modified protein occurs more slowly, however the number of protein ligands coupled was found to be sufficient for liposome targeting to cells. Importantly, these results provide a strong proof of concept for the site-specific conjugation of protein ligands to liposomal surfaces via SPAAC. Unlike conventional approaches, this strategy provides for the homogeneous coupling of proteins bearing a single site-specific azide modification and eliminates the chance of forming dysfunctional ligands on the liposome. Furthermore, the absence of copper in the reaction process should also make this approach much more compatible with cell-based and in vivo applications. PMID:25626085

  17. Electropolymerizable peripherally tetra-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy} substituted as well as axially (4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propanoxy-disubstituted silicon phthalocyanines and their electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Biyiklioglu, Zekeriya; Alp, Hakan

    2015-11-21

    A novel type of peripherally tetra-substituted as well as axially disubstituted silicon(iv) phthalocyanine containing electropolymerizable ligands was designed and synthesized for the first time. Axial bis-hydroxy silicon phthalocyanine 2 was prepared from 2(3),9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy}phthalocyanine 1 in dichloromethane by using 1.8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) and trichlorosilane. Peripherally tetra and axially di-substituted silicon phthalocyanine 4 was synthesized from 2(3),9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy}silicon(iv)phthalocyanine dihydroxide 2 with 1-(3-chloropropyl)-4-phenylpiperazine 3 in toluene in the presence of NaH at 120 C. These complexes were fully characterized by various spectroscopy techniques such as (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, IR, UV-Vis, and MALDI-TOF spectroscopy and elemental analysis as well. Electropolymerization properties of silicon(IV) phthalocyanine complexes were investigated by cyclic and square wave voltammetry. Electrochemical studies reveal that silicon(IV) phthalocyanine complexes were electropolymerized on the working electrode during the anodic potential scan. This study is the first example of electropolymerization of both peripherally tetra and axially di-substituted silicon phthalocyanines on the same molecule. PMID:26478450

  18. Preparation of phthalocyanine and octacyanophthalocyanine films by CVD on metal surfaces, and in SITU observation of the molecular processes by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Kikujiro; Mitsumura, Satoshi; Hibino, Yukinobu; Hagiwara, Ryoji; Nakayama, Hideyuki

    1988-09-01

    Copper phthalocyanine and copper octacyanophthalocyanine films were prepared by direct thermal reactions of phthalonitrile or tetracyanobenzene vapors on copper surfaces. Although the reaction rates were very slow, homogeneous films of phthalocyanines were obtained. Raman spectra were measured during the reactions, and intermediate molecular states were found to exist during the process of film formation.

  19. Octadecyl ferulate behavior in 1,2-Dioleoylphosphocholine liposomes.

    PubMed

    Evans, Kervin O; Compton, David L; Whitman, Nathan A; Laszlo, Joseph A; Appell, Michael; Vermillion, Karl E; Kim, Sanghoon

    2016-01-15

    Octadecyl ferulate was prepared using solid acid catalyst, monitored using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and purified to a 42% yield. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements determined octadecyl ferulate to have melting/solidification phase transitions at 67 and 39C, respectively. AFM imaging shows that 5-mol% present in a lipid bilayer induced domains to form. Phase behavior measurements confirmed that octadecyl ferulate increased transition temperature of phospholipids. Fluorescence measurements demonstrated that octadecyl ferulate stabilized liposomes against leakage, maintained antioxidant capacity within liposomes, and oriented such that the feruloyl moiety remained in the hydrophilic region of the bilayer. Molecular modeling calculation indicated that antioxidant activity was mostly influenced by interactions within the bilayer. PMID:26332862

  20. Octadecyl ferulate behavior in 1,2-Dioleoylphosphocholine liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Kervin O.; Compton, David L.; Whitman, Nathan A.; Laszlo, Joseph A.; Appell, Michael; Vermillion, Karl E.; Kim, Sanghoon

    2016-01-01

    Octadecyl ferulate was prepared using solid acid catalyst, monitored using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and purified to a 42% yield. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements determined octadecyl ferulate to have melting/solidification phase transitions at 67 and 39 °C, respectively. AFM imaging shows that 5-mol% present in a lipid bilayer induced domains to form. Phase behavior measurements confirmed that octadecyl ferulate increased transition temperature of phospholipids. Fluorescence measurements demonstrated that octadecyl ferulate stabilized liposomes against leakage, maintained antioxidant capacity within liposomes, and oriented such that the feruloyl moiety remained in the hydrophilic region of the bilayer. Molecular modeling calculation indicated that antioxidant activity was mostly influenced by interactions within the bilayer.

  1. The cellular internalization of liposome encapsulated protoporphyrin IX by HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Przybylo, Magdalena; Glogocka, Daria; Dobrucki, Jerzy W; Fraczkowska, Kaja; Podbielska, Halina; Kopaczynska, Marta; Borowik, Tomasz; Langner, Marek

    2016-03-31

    The proper lipid composition of liposomes designed to carry drugs determines their surface properties ensuring their accumulation within selected tissue. The electrostatic potential and surface topology of liposomes affect the internalization by single cells. The high-resolution imaging of cancer cells and the distribution of protoporphyrin-loaded liposomes within the cytoplasm and its dependence on the liposome surface properties are presented. In the paper, HeLa cells were used to investigate the uptake of porphyrin-loaded liposomes and liposomes alone by means of confocal and differential interference contrast microscopies. The effect of liposomes surface electrostatic potential and surface topology on their intracellular distribution was evaluated. The time evolution of the intracellular distribution of liposomes labelled with Rhodamine-PE was examined on HeLa cells. These studies allow for the identification of the liposome lipid composition so the efficient delivery of the active substance to cancer cells will be achieved. The obtained results showed that neutral PC-liposomes are the most efficiently internalized by HeLa cells. Moreover, results showed that properties of liposomes affect not only the internalization efficiency of the photosensitizer but also its distribution within the cells, as revealed by colocalization measurements. PMID:26827924

  2. Quantum Dot-Loaded Liposomes to Evaluate the Behavior of Drug Carriers after Oral Administration

    PubMed Central

    Tahara, Kohei; Fujimoto, Shiho; Fujii, Fumihiko; Tozuka, Yuichi; Jin, Takashi; Takeuchi, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    We have developed submicron-sized liposomes modified with a mucoadhesive polymer to enhance peptide drug absorption after oral administration. Liposomal behavior in the gastrointestinal tract is a critical factor for effective peptide drug delivery. The purpose of this study was to prepare quantum dot- (QD-) loaded submicron-sized liposomes and examine liposomal behavior in the body after oral administration using in vivo fluorescence imaging. Two types of CdSe/CdZnS QDs with different surface properties were used: hydrophobic (unmodified) QDs and hydrophilic QDs with glutathione (GSH) surface modifications. QD- and GSH-QD-loaded liposomes were prepared by a thin film hydration method. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that QDs were embedded in the liposomal lipid bilayer. Conversely, GSH-QDs were present in the inner aqueous phase. Some of the GSH-QDs were electrostatically associated with the lipid membrane of stearylamine-bearing cationic liposomes. QD-loaded liposomes were detected in Caco-2 cells after exposure to the liposomes, and these liposomes were not toxic to the Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, we evaluated the in vivo bioadhesion and intestinal penetration of orally administered QD-loaded liposomes by observing the intestinal segment using confocal laser scanning microscopy. PMID:26555997

  3. Factorial design studies of antiretroviral drug-loaded stealth liposomal injectable: PEGylation, lyophilization and pharmacokinetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar, Beeravelli; Krishna, Mylangam Chaitanya; Murthy, Kolapalli Venkata Ramana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate the ritonavir-loaded stealth liposomes by using 32 factorial design and intended to delivered by parenteral delivery. Liposomes were prepared by ethanol injection method using 32 factorial designs and characterized for various physicochemical parameters such as drug content, size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. The optimization process was carried out using desirability and overlay plots. The selected formulation was subjected to PEGylation using 10 % PEG-10000 solution. Stealth liposomes were characterized for the above-mentioned parameters along with surface morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, differential scanning calorimeter, stability and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats. Stealth liposomes showed better result compared to conventional liposomes due to effect of PEG-10000. The in vivo studies revealed that stealth liposomes showed better residence time compared to conventional liposomes and pure drug solution. The conventional liposomes and pure drug showed dose-dependent pharmacokinetics, whereas stealth liposomes showed long circulation half-life compared to conventional liposomes and pure ritonavir solution. The results of statistical analysis showed significance difference as the p value is (<0.05) by one-way ANOVA. The result of the present study revealed that stealth liposomes are promising tool in antiretroviral therapy.

  4. In vivo behavior of liposomes modified with a novel galactosyllipid derivative.

    PubMed

    Murahashi, N; Sasaki, A

    1996-03-01

    We studied the in vivo behavior of galactosyllipid-modified liposomes for targeting the asialoglycoprotein receptor present on the surface of liver parenchymal cells. We examined the effects of the lipid composition of liposomes on the in vivo behavior of galactosyllipid-modified liposomes, and found good accumulation in the liver of liposomes of a high cholesterol content and liposomes made of lipids of a high gel-liquid crystalline phase transition temperature. The amount of modification with the galactosyllipid derivative required for effective targeting to the liver was found to be more than 5% of the total lipids. The concentration of galactosyllipid-modified liposomes was lower than that of control liposomes in all the organs except for the liver, showing high selectivity of galactosyllipid-modified liposomes for the liver. Hepatic accumulation of liposomes was inhibited by preinjection of asialofetuin. This result suggests that hepatic accumulation of 8-(2-hexadecyloctadecanoylamido)-3,6-dioxaoctyl-beta-D-gal actoside (Gal-t-psa) liposome was involved with the asialoglycoprotein receptor in the liver. Therefore, it was concluded that our neogalactolipid-modified liposomes are useful for selective delivery to the liver. PMID:8924912

  5. Characteristics and photo-responsive release property of liposome containing 7-acetoxy coumarin.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hee Jin; Kim, Jin-Chul

    2011-11-01

    A photo-responsive liposome was developed by loading 7-acetoxy coumarin (ATC) in egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) liposome. ATC was derivetized from 7-hydroxy coumarin using sodium acetate. The ATC-loaded liposomes were prepared by suspending the dry mixture film of ATC/EPC in distilled water and sonicating the suspension. When the ATC to EPC ratio was less than 1:8, homogeneous liposomal suspensions were obtained without any precipitate. On 1H NMR spectra, the unsaturated chains of liposomal EPCs were somewhat deteriorated by a subsequent irradiation, the irradiation of lambda = 365 nm and then the irradiation of lambda = 254 nm. On TEM photos, the size of liposomes incorporating ATC markedly increased by the subsequent irradiation. Photo-dimerization (under lambda = 365 nm) and de-dimerization (under lambda = 254 nm) of ATC took a place even in EPC liposomes. Upon the irradiation of lambda = 254 nm, liposome containing ATC dimers exhibited an enhanced release of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein compared with liposome containing ATC monomer and liposome free of ATC. The de-dimerization of ATC dimers is believed to fluidize the liposomal membrane and promote the release. PMID:22413374

  6. Factorial design studies of antiretroviral drug-loaded stealth liposomal injectable: PEGylation, lyophilization and pharmacokinetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar, Beeravelli; Krishna, Mylangam Chaitanya; Murthy, Kolapalli Venkata Ramana

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate the ritonavir-loaded stealth liposomes by using 32 factorial design and intended to delivered by parenteral delivery. Liposomes were prepared by ethanol injection method using 32 factorial designs and characterized for various physicochemical parameters such as drug content, size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. The optimization process was carried out using desirability and overlay plots. The selected formulation was subjected to PEGylation using 10 % PEG-10000 solution. Stealth liposomes were characterized for the above-mentioned parameters along with surface morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, differential scanning calorimeter, stability and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats. Stealth liposomes showed better result compared to conventional liposomes due to effect of PEG-10000. The in vivo studies revealed that stealth liposomes showed better residence time compared to conventional liposomes and pure drug solution. The conventional liposomes and pure drug showed dose-dependent pharmacokinetics, whereas stealth liposomes showed long circulation half-life compared to conventional liposomes and pure ritonavir solution. The results of statistical analysis showed significance difference as the p value is (<0.05) by one-way ANOVA. The result of the present study revealed that stealth liposomes are promising tool in antiretroviral therapy.

  7. Liposome Surface Functionalization Based on Different Anchoring Lipids via Staudinger Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Vabbilisetty, Pratima; Sun, Xue-Long

    2014-01-01

    Liposome surface functionalization facilitates enormous potential applications of liposomes, such as enhanced stability, bioactive liposome conjugates, and targeted drug, gene and image agent delivery. Anchoring lipids are needed for grafting ligands of interest and play important roles in ligands grafting density, liposome stability, and liposome chemical and physical characteristics as well. In this report, glyco-functionalized liposome systems based on two kinds of anchoring lipid, phosphatidylethonalamine (PE) and cholesterol (Chol) were prepared by post chemically selective functionalization via Staudinger ligation. The size and stability of the liposomes were confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Particularly, the impact of anchor lipids on the stability of glyco-functionalized liposomes was investigated by comparing two different anchor lipids, namely Chol-PEG2000-TP and DSPE-PEG2000-TP. In addition, the encapsulation and releasing capacity of the glycosylated liposome based on the two anchoring lipids were investigated by entrapping 5, 6-carboxyfluorescein (CF) dye and monitoring the fluorescence leakage, respectively. Furthermore, the density and accessibility of grafted carbohydrate residues on the liposome surface were evaluated for the two anchoring lipids-derived liposomes with lectin binding, respectively. PMID:24413731

  8. Mixture of cholesterol end-capped polyethylene glycol with DSPC liposomal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Soheil

    2015-07-01

    The dynamic of network of self-assembled liposome by end-capped polymer was investigated using dynamic light scattering. The liposome network, physically cross-linked by mixed liposome solutions with three different length scale of cholesterol end-capped polyethylene glycol. The network of liposome is dependent on both the polymer concentration and length scale. In the pure liposome, one motion at low time scale is observed by DLS. In the higher concentration of polymer in liposome, several motion is observed that the fast motion is alpha relaxation and other two slow motion are beta and gamma relaxations. The distance between diffusion coefficient of fast and slow relaxation is increased with increase of length scale of endcapped polymers. The SAXS data is fitted with a Percus-Yevick hard sphere model and it shows that the size of liposome increasing with increase of polymer length scale in the mixture system.

  9. Exploring Cellular Interactions of Liposomes Using Protein Corona Fingerprints and Physicochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Bigdeli, Arafeh; Palchetti, Sara; Pozzi, Daniela; Hormozi-Nezhad, Mohammad Reza; Baldelli Bombelli, Francesca; Caracciolo, Giulio; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2016-03-22

    To control liposomes fate and transport upon contact with biofluids, it is essential to consider several parameters affecting the synthetic and biological identity of liposomes, as well as liposome-protein corona (PC) aspects. As a powerful tool in this data mining adventure, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approach is used to correlate physicochemical properties of liposomes and their PC fingerprints to multiple quantified biological responses. In the present study, the relationship between cellular interactions of a set of structurally diverse liposomal formulations and their physicochemical and PC properties has been investigated via linear and nonlinear QSAR models. Significant parameters affecting cellular uptake and cell viability of liposomes in two important cancer cell lines (PC3 and HeLa) have been identified. The developed QSARs have the capacity to be implemented in advanced targeted delivery of liposomal drugs. PMID:26882007

  10. N-trimethyl chitosan chloride-coated liposomes for the oral delivery of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huanlei; Wu, Jun; Sun, Min; Guo, Chenyu; Yu, Aihua; Cao, Fengliang; Zhao, Liyan; Tan, Qi; Zhai, Guangxi

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were to design the formulation of curcumin (CUR) liposomes coated with N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC) and to evaluate in vitro release characteristics and in vivo pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of TMC-coated CUR liposomes in rats. The structure of synthesized TMC was examined by infrared spectroscopy, with the presence of trimethyl groups, and by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, indicating the high degree of substitution quaternization (65.6%). Liposomes, composed of soybean phosphotidylcholine, cholestrol, and D-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate, were prepared by a thin-film dispersion method. Characteristics of the CUR liposomes, including entrapment efficiency (86.67%), drug-loading efficiency (2.33%), morphology, particle size (221.4?nm for uncoated liposomes and 657.7?nm for TMC-coated liposomes), and zeta potential (-9.63 mV for uncoated liposomes and +15.64 mV for TMC-coated liposomes) were investigated. Uncoated CUR liposomes and TMC-coated CUR liposomes showed a similar in vitro release profile. Nearly 50% of CUR was released from liposomes, whereas 80% of CUR was released from CUR propylene glycol solution. CUR incorporated into TMC-coated liposomes exhibited different pharmacokinetic parameters and enhanced bioavailability (C(max)?=?46.13 ?g/L, t(1/2)?=?12.05 hours, AUC?=?416.58 ?g/Lh), compared with CUR encapsulated by uncoated liposomes (C(max)?=?32.12 ?g/L, t(1/2)?=?9.79 hours, AUC?=?263.77 ?g/Lh) and CUR suspension (C(max)?=?35.46 ?g/L, t(1/2)?=?3.85 hours, AUC?=?244.77 ?g/Lh). In conclusion, oral delivery of coated CUR liposomes is a promising strategy for poorly water-soluble CUR. PMID:22007962

  11. N-trimethyl chitosan chloride-coated liposomes for the oral delivery of curcumin.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Chen H; Wu J; Sun M; Guo C; Yu A; Cao F; Zhao L; Tan Q; Zhai G

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were to design the formulation of curcumin (CUR) liposomes coated with N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC) and to evaluate in vitro release characteristics and in vivo pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of TMC-coated CUR liposomes in rats. The structure of synthesized TMC was examined by infrared spectroscopy, with the presence of trimethyl groups, and by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, indicating the high degree of substitution quaternization (65.6%). Liposomes, composed of soybean phosphotidylcholine, cholestrol, and D-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate, were prepared by a thin-film dispersion method. Characteristics of the CUR liposomes, including entrapment efficiency (86.67%), drug-loading efficiency (2.33%), morphology, particle size (221.4?nm for uncoated liposomes and 657.7?nm for TMC-coated liposomes), and zeta potential (-9.63 mV for uncoated liposomes and +15.64 mV for TMC-coated liposomes) were investigated. Uncoated CUR liposomes and TMC-coated CUR liposomes showed a similar in vitro release profile. Nearly 50% of CUR was released from liposomes, whereas 80% of CUR was released from CUR propylene glycol solution. CUR incorporated into TMC-coated liposomes exhibited different pharmacokinetic parameters and enhanced bioavailability (C(max)?=?46.13 ?g/L, t(1/2)?=?12.05 hours, AUC?=?416.58 ?g/Lh), compared with CUR encapsulated by uncoated liposomes (C(max)?=?32.12 ?g/L, t(1/2)?=?9.79 hours, AUC?=?263.77 ?g/Lh) and CUR suspension (C(max)?=?35.46 ?g/L, t(1/2)?=?3.85 hours, AUC?=?244.77 ?g/Lh). In conclusion, oral delivery of coated CUR liposomes is a promising strategy for poorly water-soluble CUR.

  12. Liposomes as vaccine delivery systems: a review of the recent advances.

    PubMed

    Schwendener, Reto A

    2014-11-01

    Liposomes and liposome-derived nanovesicles such as archaeosomes and virosomes have become important carrier systems in vaccine development and the interest for liposome-based vaccines has markedly increased. A key advantage of liposomes, archaeosomes and virosomes in general, and liposome-based vaccine delivery systems in particular, is their versatility and plasticity. Liposome composition and preparation can be chosen to achieve desired features such as selection of lipid, charge, size, size distribution, entrapment and location of antigens or adjuvants. Depending on the chemical properties, water-soluble antigens (proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, haptens) are entrapped within the aqueous inner space of liposomes, whereas lipophilic compounds (lipopeptides, antigens, adjuvants, linker molecules) are intercalated into the lipid bilayer and antigens or adjuvants can be attached to the liposome surface either by adsorption or stable chemical linking. Coformulations containing different types of antigens or adjuvants can be combined with the parameters mentioned to tailor liposomal vaccines for individual applications. Special emphasis is given in this review to cationic adjuvant liposome vaccine formulations. Examples of vaccines made with CAF01, an adjuvant composed of the synthetic immune-stimulating mycobacterial cordfactor glycolipid trehalose dibehenate as immunomodulator and the cationic membrane forming molecule dimethyl dioctadecylammonium are presented. Other vaccines such as cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDCs) and other adjuvants like muramyl dipeptide, monophosphoryl lipid A and listeriolysin O are mentioned as well. The field of liposomes and liposome-based vaccines is vast. Therefore, this review concentrates on recent and relevant studies emphasizing current reports dealing with the most studied antigens and adjuvants, and pertinent examples of vaccines. Studies on liposome-based veterinary vaccines and experimental therapeutic cancer vaccines are also summarized. PMID:25364509

  13. PLGA/liposome hybrid nanoparticles for short-chain ceramide delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Peng; Stern, Stephan T.; Sun, Duxin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Rapid premature release of lipophilic drugs from liposomal lipid bilayer to plasma proteins and biological membranes is a challenge for targeted drug delivery. The purpose of this study is to reduce premature release of lipophilic short-chain ceramides by encapsulating ceramides into liposomal aqueous interior with the aid of poly( lactic-coglycolicacid) (PLGA). Methods BODIPY FL labeled ceramide (FL-ceramide) and BODIPY-TR labeled ceramide (TR-ceramide) were encapsulated into carboxy-terminated PLGA nanoparticles. The negatively charged PLGA nanoparticles were then encapsulated into cationic liposomes to obtain PLGA/liposome hybrids. As a control, FL-ceramide and/or TR ceramide co-loaded liposomes without PLGA were prepared. The release of ceramides from PLGA/liposome hybrids and liposomes in rat plasma, cultured MDA-MB-231 cells, and rat blood circulation was compared using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between FL-ceramide (donor) and TR-ceramide (acceptor). Results FRET analysis showed that FL-ceramide and TR-ceramide in liposomal lipid bilayer were rapidly released during incubation with rat plasma. In contrast, the FL-ceramide and TR-ceramide in PLGA/liposome hybrids showed extended release. FRET images of cells revealed that ceramides in liposomal bilayer were rapidly transferred to cell membranes. In contrast, ceramides in PLGA/liposome hybrids were internalized into cells with nanoparticles simultaneously. Upon intravenous administration to rats, ceramides encapsulated in liposomal bilayer were completely released in 2 minutes. In contrast, ceramides encapsulated in the PLGA core were retained in PLGA/liposome hybrids for 4 hours. Conclusions The PLGA/liposome hybrid nanoparticles reduced in vitro and in vivo premature release of ceramides and offer a viable platform for targeted delivery of lipophilic drugs. PMID:24065591

  14. Large anti-HER2/neu liposomes for potential targeted intraperitoneal therapy of micrometastatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sofou, Stavroula; Enmon, Richard; Palm, Stig; Kappel, Barry; Zanzonico, Pat; McDevitt, Michael R.; Scheinberg, David A.; Sgouros, George

    2011-01-01

    Effective targeting and killing of intraperitoneally disseminated micrometastases remains a challenge. Objective/Methods In this work, we evaluated the potential of antibody-labeled PEGylated large liposomes as vehicles for direct intraperitoneal (i.p.) drug delivery with the aim to enhance the tumor-to-normal organ ratio and to improve the bioexposure of cancer cells to the delivered therapeutics while shifting the toxicities toward the spleen. These targeted liposomes are designed to combine: (1) specific targeting to and internalization by cancer cells mediated by liposome-conjugated tumor-specific antibodies, (2) slow clearance from the peritoneal cavity, and (3) shift of normal organ toxicities from the liver to the spleen due to their relatively large size. Results Conjugation of anti-HER2/neu antibodies to the surface of large (approximately 600 nm in diameter) PEGylated liposomes results in fast, specific binding of targeted liposomes to cancer cells in vitro, followed by considerable cellular internalization. In vivo, after i.p. administration, these liposomes exhibit fast, specific binding to i.p. cancerous tumors. Large liposomes are slowly cleared from the peritoneal cavity, and they exhibit increased uptake by the spleen relative to the liver, while targeted large liposomes demonstrate specific tumor uptake at early times. Although tissue and tumor uptake are greater for cationic liposomes, the tumor-to-liver and spleen-to-liver ratios are similar for both membrane compositions, suggesting a primary role for the liposomes size, compared to the liposomes surface charge. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that large targeted liposomes administered i.p. could be a potent drug-delivery strategy for locoregional therapy of i.p. micrometastatic tumors. PMID:20070139

  15. [Study on preparation and thermosensitive release property of composite phospholipid liposomes containing total alkaloids from Strychnos nux-vomica].

    PubMed

    He, Chao-Qin; Hu, Meng-Ya; Zhang, Hui; Chang, Hao; Chen, Jun; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2013-05-01

    To prepare composite phospholipid liposomes containing total alkaloids of Strychnos nux-vomica with hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) and 1, 2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphacholine (DPPC), and compare with normal DPPC thermosensitive liposomes for thermosensitive release property. Total alkaloids were extracted from S. nux-vomica with the impregnation method and further purified. Liposomes containing total alkaloids, thermosensitive liposomes and conventional thermosensitive liposomes without thermosensitive release property were prepared by ammonium sulfate transmembrane gradients and stealth liposome technique. Their encapsulation efficiency (EE), grain size, zeta potential and drug release behavior were compared. Their EEs and zeta potentials were almost identical; but the grain sizes of composite phospholipid liposomes and thermosensitive liposomes were significantly smaller than conventional liposomes. After comparing release behaviors of the three liposomes at 37, 43 degrees C, we found that the release of composite phospholipid liposomes was significantly lower than that of thermosensitive liposomes at 37 degrees C, but higher than that of thermosensitive liposomes at 43 degrees C. Meanwhile, conventional liposomes, with a very high phase-transition temperature, showed only slight release behavior at both temperatures. The study results showed that composite phospholipid liposomes had a better thermosensitive release behavior when the dosage of lysophosphatidic was reduced by 2. 5 times. PMID:23944070

  16. Development and characterization of an innovative heparin coating to stabilize and protect liposomes against adverse immune reactions.

    PubMed

    Duehrkop, Claudia; Leneweit, Gero; Heyder, Christoph; Fromell, Karin; Edwards, Katarina; Ekdahl, Kristina N; Nilsson, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Liposomes have been recognized as excellent drug delivery systems, but when they come in direct contact with different blood components they may trigger an immediate activation of the innate immune system. The aim of the present study was to produce long-circulating, blood-compatible liposomes by developing a construct of liposomes covered by a novel unique heparin complex (CHC; 70 heparin molecules per complex) to avoid recognition by the innate immune system. Unilamellar, cationic liposomes were produced by hand extrusion through a 100-nm polycarbonate membrane. Coating of liposomes with the macromolecular CHC was accomplished by electrostatic interactions. Dynamic light scattering as well as QCM-D measurements were used to verify the electrostatic deposition of the negatively charged CHC to cationic liposomes. The CHC-coated liposomes did not aggregate when in contact with lepirudin anti-coagulated plasma. Unlike previous attempts to coat liposomes with heparin, this technique produced freely moveable heparin strands sticking out from the liposome surface, which exposed AT binding sites reflecting the anticoagulant potentials of the liposomes. In experiments using lepirudin-anticoagulated plasma, CHC-coated liposomes, in contrast to non-coated control liposomes, did not activate the complement system, as evidenced by low C3a and sC5b-9 generation and reduced leakage from the liposomes. In conclusion, we show that liposomes can be successfully coated with the biopolymer CHC, resulting in biocompatible and stable liposomes that have significant application potential. PMID:26897551

  17. Microwave-assisted synthesis, characterization and spectral properties of non-peripherally tetra-substituted phthalocyanines containing eugenol moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, Cihan; ?ahin, Zarife Sibel; Bykgngr, Orhan; ?a?maz, Selami

    2015-06-01

    The microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of novel non-peripherally eugenol substituted metallophthalocyanines (M: Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II)) have been reported for the first time in this study. All the new compounds were characterized by a combination of FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and UV/vis spectroscopy techniques. The crystal structure of compound (1) was also determined by the single crystal diffraction technique. Newly synthesized eugenol substituted phthalocyanines have more redshift Q bands (about 17-18 nm) than previously reported eugenol substituted phthalocyanines. Zinc(II)phthalocyanine (1d) has an extra absorption band at 746 nm that calling "X band" at UV/vis spectrum.

  18. New metal phthalocyanines/metal simple hydroxide multilayers: experimental evidence of dipolar field-driven magnetic behavior.

    PubMed

    Bourzami, Riadh; Eyele-Mezui, Sraphin; Delahaye, Emilie; Drillon, Marc; Rabu, Pierre; Parizel, Nathalie; Choua, Sylvie; Turek, Philippe; Rogez, Guillaume

    2014-01-21

    A series of new hybrid multilayers has been synthesized by insertion-grafting of transition metal (Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II)) tetrasulfonato phthalocyanines between layers of Cu(II) and Co(II) simple hydroxides. The structural and spectroscopic investigations confirm the formation of new layered hybrid materials in which the phthalocyanines act as pillars between the inorganic layers. The magnetic investigations show that all copper hydroxide-based compounds behave similarly, presenting an overall antiferromagnetic behavior with no ordering down to 1.8 K. On the contrary, the cobalt hydroxide-based compounds present a ferrimagnetic ordering around 6 K, regardless of the nature of the metal phthalocyanine between the inorganic layers. The latter observation points to strictly dipolar interactions between the inorganic layers. The amplitude of the dipolar field has been evaluated from X-band and Q-band EPR spectroscopy investigation (Bdipolar ? 30 mT). PMID:24400974

  19. Spectroscopic investigation of different concentrations of the vapour deposited copper phthalocyanine as a "guest" in polyimide matrix.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Anton; Yordanov, Dancho; Dimov, Dean; Assa, Jacob; Spassova, Erinche; Danev, Gencho

    2015-04-01

    Nanocomposite layers 250 nm copper phthalocyanine/polyimide prepared by simultaneous vapour deposition of three different sources were studied. Different concentrations of copper phthalocyanine as a "guest" in polyimide matrix as a function of conditions of the preparation have been determined by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) and UV-VIS (Ultraviolet-Visible) spectroscopies. The aim was to estimate the possibility of the spectroscopic methods for quantitative determination of the "guest" and compare with the quality of the polyimide thin films in relation to the "guest" concentration. The band at 1334 cm(-1) has been used for quantitative estimation of "guest" in polyimide matrix. The concentrations of the copper phthalocyanine less than 20% require curve fitting techniques with Fourier self deconvolution. The relationship between "guest" concentrations and degree of imidization, as well as the electronic UV-VIS spectra are discussed in relation to the composition, imidization degree and the two crystallographic modification of the embedded chromophore. PMID:25638427

  20. Ammonia adsorption on iron phthalocyanine on Au(111): Influence on adsorbate-substrate coupling and molecular spin

    SciTech Connect

    Isvoranu, Cristina; Ataman, Evren; Knudsen, Jan; Andersen, Jesper N.; Schnadt, Joachim; Wang Bin; Bocquet, Marie-Laure; Schulte, Karina

    2011-03-21

    The adsorption of ammonia on Au(111)-supported monolayers of iron phthalocyanine has been investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. The ammonia-induced changes of the x-ray photoemission lines show that a dative bond is formed between ammonia and the iron center of the phthalocyanine molecules, and that the local spin on the iron atom is quenched. This is confirmed by density functional theory, which also shows that the bond between the iron center of the metalorganic complex and the Au(111) substrate is weakened upon adsorption of ammonia. The experimental results further show that additional adsorption sites exist for ammonia on the iron phthalocyanine monolayer.

  1. Phthalocyanine-Aggregated Polymeric Nanoparticles as Tumor-Homing Near-Infrared Absorbers for Photothermal Therapy of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chang-Keun; Shin, Jiyoung; Lee, Yong-Deok; Kim, Jungahn; Oh, Keun Sang; Yuk, Soon Hong; Jeong, Seo Young; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Sehoon

    2012-01-01

    Phthalocyanine-aggregated Pluronic nanoparticles were constructed as a novel type of near-infrared (NIR) absorber for photothermal therapy. Tiny nanoparticles (~ 60 nm, FPc NPs) were prepared by aqueous dispersion of phthalocyanine-aggregated self-assembled nanodomains that were phase-separated from the melt mixture with Pluronic. Under NIR laser irradiation, FPc NPs manifested robust heat generation capability, superior to an individual cyanine dye and cyanine-aggregated nanoparticles. Micro- and macroscopic imaging experiments showed that FPc NPs are capable of internalization into live cancer cells as well as tumor accumulation when intravenously administered into living mice. It is shown here that continuous NIR irradiation of the tumor-targeted FPc NPs can cause phototherapeutic effects in vitro and in vivo through excessive local heating, demonstrating potential of phthalocyanine-aggregated nanoparticles as an all-organic NIR nanoabsorber for hyperthermia. PMID:23082099

  2. Perfluorinated phthalocyanines for optical limiting: Evidence for the direct correlation between substituent electron withdrawing character and the nonlinear optical effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dini, Danilo; Yang, Guo Ying; Hanack, Michael

    2003-09-01

    The optical limiting performance exhibited by phthalocyanines substituted with electron withdrawing atoms such as F, results considerably enhanced with respect to the optical limiting effect produced by unsubstituted or differently substituted phthalocyanines. This enhancement is verified by comparing under analogous conditions the nonlinear optical transmission of hexadecafluorophthalocyaninato complexes containing TiIV, VIV, ZrIII, and InIII as coordination central atoms, and tetra- or octaalkylsubstituted phthalocyaninato complexes with the same central atoms by means of the Z-scan technique. The remarkable variations of the nonlinear transmittance of perfluorinated phthalocyanines in solution indicates the strong influence that electron-withdrawing groups exhibit upon the variations of the transition dipole moments involved in the electronic transition, which effectively limits the intense radiation.

  3. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hlne; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure. PMID:26735920

  4. Antifungal Lock Therapy With Liposomal Amphotericin B: A Prospective Trial.

    PubMed

    McGhee, William; Michaels, Marian G; Martin, Judith M; Mazariegos, George V; Green, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a prospective pilot study to evaluate the potential role of combined systemic antifungal and liposomal amphotericin B lock therapy in children with intestinal insufficiency with fungal catheter-related bloodstream infections whose central venous catheters had not been removed. Our results provide supportive evidence for the conduct of larger clinical trials to confirm the efficacy and safety of this approach. PMID:26908494

  5. Chiral recognition of bilirubin and biliverdin in liposomes and micelles.

    PubMed

    Novotn, Pavlna; Krlk, Frantiek; Urbanov, Marie

    2015-10-01

    The structural formula of biologically important chiral pigments bilirubin and biliverdin differs only by one double bond. We showed that this results in dissimilar interactions with two models of membranes: cationic liposomes composed of 3?-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl]cholesterol and zwitterionic micelles from 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). While the liposomes recognized the P-form of bilirubin, the micelles recognized its M-form. Both recognized the P-form of biliverdin. Our study also comprised ternary systems consisting of the pigments, model membranes and serum albumin (human and bovine). Bilirubin preferentially interacted with the albumins even in the presence of the liposomes. On the other hand, biliverdin preferred the liposomes. Remarkably, the presence of CHAPS completely changed the biliverdin binding to the protein. Because our study was oriented on different chiral interactions, a chiroptical method of electronic circular dichroism was chosen as the principal method to study our systems. As complementary methods, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission were used. PMID:26071845

  6. Damaged hair retrieval with ceramide-rich liposomes.

    PubMed

    Mndez, Sandra; Manich, Albert M; Mart, Meritxell; Parra, Jos L; Coderch, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Lipids from human hair consist mainly of cholesterol esters, free fatty acids, cholesterol, ceramides, and cholesterol sulfate. They are structured as lipid bilayers in the cell membrane complex (CMC) and make a large contribution to diffusion, cell cohesion, and mechanical strength. The loss of these lipids could impair the integrity of the hair, leading to deterioration in its tensile properties. Internal wool lipids (IWL) resemble those of the membranes of other keratinic tissues such as human hair or stratum corneum. The application of IWL structured as liposomes on pretreated hair samples has been demonstrated to restore the natural properties of the fibers. This study seeks to apply IWL liposomes to untreated hair fibers and to hair fibers subjected to chemical treatment. Differences in the lipidic composition of all chemically treated hairs were found with respect to the untreated ones. Lipid recovery of damaged hair due to the application of IWL liposomes was corroborated by lipid analysis of the hair. A high resistance to break of hair samples post-treated with IWL liposomes was observed. An increase in hydrogen bonds and electrostatic forces and an improvement in the cohesion between matrix and filaments were detected, probably because of some lipid recovery. PMID:22682400

  7. Capillary electrophoresis of liposomes functionalized for protein binding.

    PubMed

    Bilek, Gerhard; Kremser, Leopold; Blaas, Dieter; Kenndler, Ernst

    2006-10-01

    CE enabled assessing the attachment of hexa-histidine-tagged proteins to functionalized phospholipid liposomes. The liposomes were made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine, cholesterol and distearoyl-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-methoxy(polyethylene glycol) in a molar ratio of 29:26:40:5. The unilamellar vesicles, which had an average diameter of 170 nm, were labelled by inclusion of FITC-dextran for fluorescence detection. CE was carried out in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-coated capillaries at 25 degrees C with a BGE consisting of Tris-HCl (50 mM, pH 8.0). For conjugation of the liposomes with the proteins (soluble synthetic receptor fragments with molecular mass of 60 and 70 kDa, respectively), Ni(2+) was implanted into the vesicle surface by an anchor lipid containing a nitrilotriacetate acid (NTA) group as complexation agent for the metal ions. The difference in surface charge enabled the separation of the different species of interest by CE: plain vesicles, vesicles functionalised with Ni-NTA, vesicle-protein complexes and the species formed upon removal of the Ni-ions by complexation with EDTA. Loss of the Ni-ions resulted in the release of the proteins and the reappearance of the plain Ni-free NTA-liposome species in the electropherograms. PMID:16983637

  8. Liposomal bupivacaine: a review of a new bupivacaine formulation

    PubMed Central

    Chahar, Praveen; Cummings, Kenneth C

    2012-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to increase the duration of local anesthetic action. One avenue of investigation has focused on encapsulating local anesthetics within carrier molecules to increase their residence time at the site of action. This article aims to review the literature surrounding the recently approved formulation of bupivacaine, which consists of bupivacaine loaded in multivesicular liposomes. This preparation increases the duration of local anesthetic action by slow release from the liposome and delays the peak plasma concentration when compared to plain bupivacaine administration. Liposomal bupivacaine has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for local infiltration for pain relief after bunionectomy and hemorrhoidectomy. Studies have shown it to be an effective tool for postoperative pain relief with opioid sparing effects and it has also been found to have an acceptable adverse effect profile. Its kinetics are favorable even in patients with moderate hepatic impairment, and it has been found not to delay wound healing after orthopedic surgery. More studies are needed to establish its safety and efficacy for use via intrathecal, epidural, or perineural routes. In conclusion, liposomal bupivacaine is effective for treating postoperative pain when used via local infiltration when compared to placebo with a prolonged duration of action, predictable kinetics, and an acceptable side effect profile. However, more adequately powered trials are needed to establish its superiority over plain bupivacaine. PMID:23049275

  9. Stability of a liposomal formulation containing lipoyl or dihydrolipoyl acylglycerides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acylglycerides of lipoic and dihydrolipoic acids may serve as slow-release sources for cutaneous delivery of these antioxidants when formulated in a liposomal vehicle. Testing was conducted to determine the storage stability of the lipoic derivatives and of the soybean phospholipids in which the...

  10. Optically Guided Controlled Release from Liposomes With Tunable Plasmonic Nanobubbles

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Lindsey; Hansen, Eric; Lukianova-Hleb, Ekaterina Y.; Hafner, Jason H.; Lapotko, Dmitri O.

    2010-01-01

    A new method of optically guided controlled release was experimentally evaluated with liposomes containing a molecular load and gold nanoparticles (NPs). NPs were exposed to short laser pulses to induce transient vapor bubbles around the NPs, plasmonic nanobubbles, in order to disrupt the liposome and eject its molecular contents. The release efficacy was tuned by varying the lifetime and size of the nanobubble with the fluence of the laser pulse. Optical scattering by nanobubbles correlated to the molecular release and was used to guide the release. The release of two fluorescent proteins from individual liposomes has been directly monitored by fluorescence microscopy, while the generation of the plasmonic nanobubbles was imaged and measured with optical scattering techniques. Plasmonic nanobubble-induced release was found to be a mechanical, nonthermal process that requires a single laser pulse and ejects of the liposome contents within a millisecond timescale without damage to the molecular cargo and that can be controlled through the fluence of laser pulse. PMID:20156498

  11. Single cell targeting using plasmon resonant gold-coated liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Sarah J.; Romanowski, Marek

    2012-03-01

    We have developed an experimental system with the potential for the delivery and localized release of an encapsulated agent with high spatial and temporal resolution. We previously introduced liposome-supported plasmon resonant gold nanoshells; in this composite structure, the liposome allows for the encapsulation of substances, such as therapeutic agents, neurotransmitters, or growth factors, and the plasmon resonant structure facilitates the rapid release of encapsulated contents upon laser light illumination. More recently, we demonstrated that these gold-coated liposomes are capable of releasing their contents in a spectrally-controlled manner, where plasmon resonant nanoparticles only release content upon illumination with a wavelength of light matching their plasmon resonance band. We now show that this release mechanism can be used in a biological setting to deliver a peptide derivative of cholecystokinin to HEK293 cells overexpressing the CCK2 receptor. Using directed laser light, we may enable localized release from gold-coated liposomes to enable accurate perturbation of cellular functions in response to released compounds; this system may have possible applications in signaling pathways and drug discovery.

  12. Biocompatible anionic polyelectrolyte for improved liposome based gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Zeng, Zhiying; Qu, Xiaohuan; Tang, Yaqin; Long, Qipeng; Feng, Xuli

    2015-07-25

    Cationic liposomes have been widely used as efficient gene carriers. However, the serious cytotoxicity caused by exposed positive charges restricts the further application of those kinds of gene vectors. Thus, it is challenging to develop biocompatiable non-positive charge carriers to achieve high gene transfection efficiencies. Herein, we report a novel design by pasting biocompatible anionic polyelectrolyte, namely alginic acid, hyaluronic acid, pectin and polyglutamic acid, to the positive charge surface of liposome/pDNA complex. Through shielding the positive charges, the new gene carriers show decreased cytotoxicity while still maintaining high transfection efficiency. To be noted, the complex formed by coating polyglutamic acid to the surface of liposome/pDNA greatly enhanced the transfection efficiency in HepG2 cells, and the use of pectin shows increased transfection in MCF-7 cells. Hemolysis assay proved a possible mechanism that when the new gene complex was internalized into cells, as acidity increases, more side chains become hydrophobic, and thus destabilizing the endosomal membrane to accelerate DNA escape. The present results suggest that such anionic polyelectrolyte covered liposome based carrier possess promising application for clinical gene delivery. PMID:26004001

  13. pH-sensitive liposomes: characterization and application

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, J.

    1986-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that liposomes composed of dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and palmitoylhomocysteine (PHC) have the ability to fuse with adjacent membranes upon exposure to mildly acid pH. The ability of liposomes to fuse is absolutely dependent on the presence of DOPE and a weakly acidic amphiphile. The acid induced fusion event is a leaky process, but the leakage can be reduced by 50%, with only a small loss of fusion ability, by the inclusion of 40 mole percent cholesterol. Using an established monoclonal antibody targeting system. pH-sensitive immunoliposomes were prepared which successfully delivered entrapped calcein to the cytoplasm of target cells. The addition of chloroquine, which raises the internal pH of cellular vacuoles, blocks the cytoplasmic delivery of the pH-sensitive immunoliposomes. pH-insensitive immunoliposomes delivered calcein only to the endosome/lysosome system and not the cytoplasm. /sup 31/P-NMR and light scattering of DOPE:OA liposomes under acidic conditions demonstrate that the effect of the protons and the divalent cations is to force the DOPE to revert to the hexagonal II configuration. In vivo experiments with DOPE:OA immunoliposomes indicate that the liposomes rapidly aggregate and release their contents upon exposure to plasma. These results indicate that pH-sensitive immunoliposomes are an effective tool for in vitro cytoplasmic delivery but are ineffective for in vivo delivery at this point in development.

  14. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hélène; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure. PMID:26735920

  15. Enhancing Methotrexate Tolerance with Folate Tagged Liposomes in Arthritic Mice.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugnia; Lager, Franck; Le Roux, Delphine; Nogueira, Patrcia; Freitas, Jaime; Charvet, Celine; Renault, Gilles; Loureiro, Ana; Almeida, Catarina R; Ohradanova-Repic, Anna; Machacek, Christian; Bernardes, Gonalo J L; Moreira, Alexandra; Stockinger, Hannes; Burnet, Michael; Carmo, Alexandre M; Gomes, Andreia C; Preto, Ana; Bismuth, Georges; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-12-01

    Methotrexate is the first line of treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Since many patients become unresponsive to methotrexate treatment, only very expensive biological therapies are effective and increased methotrexate tolerance strategies need to be identified. Here we propose the encapsulation of methotrexate in a new liposomal formulation using a hydrophobic fragment of surfactant protein conjugated to a linker and folate to enhance their tolerance and efficacy. In this study we aim to evaluate the efficiency of this system to treat rheumatoid arthritis, by targeting folate receptor ? present at the surface of activated macrophages, key effector cells in this pathology. The specificity of our liposomal formulation to target folate receptor ? was investigated both in vitro as in vivo using a mouse model of arthritis (collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1J mice strain). In both systems, the liposomal constructs were shown to be highly specific and efficient in targeting folate receptor ?. These liposomal formulations also significantly increase the clinical benefit of the encapsulated methotrexate in vivo in arthritic mice, together with reduced expression of CD39 and CD73 ectonucleotidases by joint-infiltrating macrophages. Thus, our formulation might be a promising cost effective way to treat rheumatoid arthritis and delay or reduce methotrexate intolerance. PMID:26510317

  16. LeciPlex, invasomes, and liposomes: A skin penetration study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sanket M; Ashtikar, Mukul; Jain, Ankitkumar S; Makhija, Dinesh T; Nikam, Yuvraj; Gude, Rajiv P; Steiniger, Frank; Jagtap, Aarti A; Nagarsenker, Mangal S; Fahr, Alfred

    2015-07-25

    The present study compares three vesicular systems, cationic LeciPlex, invasomes, and conventional liposomes for their ability to deliver drugs deep into the skin. Skin penetration ability of the three vesicular systems was studied for two drugs namely idebenone (antioxidant/anticancer) and azelaic acid (antiacne). All systems showed sizes in nanometer range with small polydispersity indices. Vesicular systems were characterized by CryoTEM studies to understand the differences in morphology of the vesicular systems. Ex vivo human skin penetration studies suggested a pattern in penetration of drugs in different layers of the skin: LeciPlex showed higher penetration for idebenone whereas invasomes showed higher penetration of azelaic acid. Ex vivo study using a fluorescent dye (DiI) was performed to understand the differences in the penetration behavior of the three vesicular systems on excised human skin. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on B16F10 melanoma cell lines revealed, when loaded with idebenone, LeciPlex formulations had the superior activity followed by invasomes and liposomes. In vitro antimicrobial study of azelaic acid loaded systems on Propionibacterium acne revealed high antimicrobial activity for DDAB leciplex followed by almost equal activity for invasomes and CTAB LeciPlex followed by liposomes. Whereas antiacne efficacy study in rats for azelaic acid loaded systems, invasomes exhibited the best antiacne efficacy followed by liposomes and LeciPlex. PMID:26002568

  17. Mucoadhesive liposomes as new formulation for vaginal delivery of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Berginc, Katja; Suljakovi?, Sabina; kalko-Basnet, Nataa; Kristl, Albin

    2014-05-01

    Local delivery to the affected area represents the optimal means by which advantageous pharmacological properties of curcumin may be fully exploited as currently, due to the biopharmaceutical limitations associated with this polyphenol, its full beneficial effects remain limited. Curcumin-containing liposomes coated with bioadhesive polymers of natural and synthetic origin (chitosan and Carbopol) were evaluated in vitro. For these purposes, an in vitro model of vaginal mucus was developed allowing the monitoring of curcumin permeability in the conditions mimicking vaginal environment. The model was optimized by varying the amounts of glycoproteins, as compared to the permeabilities determined through isolated bovine mucus. The strength of bioadhesion was evaluated using the isolated bovine mucosa. Both curcumin solution and non-coated curcumin liposomes served as controls. Bioadhesive polymers enabled significantly higher (p<0.05) curcumin permeability through the artificial and isolated bovine mucus compared to the controls. Polymer coating of liposomes resulted in an increase in their bioadhesiveness. Mucoadhesive liposomes can be considered as potential novel drug delivery systems intended for vaginal administration of curcumin. PMID:24534774

  18. Porphyrin-phospholipid liposomes permeabilized by near-infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Kevin A.; Shao, Shuai; Hoopes, Matthew I.; Luo, Dandan; Ahsan, Bilal; Grigoryants, Vladimir M.; Song, Wentao; Huang, Haoyuan; Zhang, Guojian; Pandey, Ravindra K.; Geng, Jumin; Pfeifer, Blaine A.; Scholes, Charles P.; Ortega, Joaquin; Karttunen, Mikko; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2014-04-01

    The delivery of therapeutic compounds to target tissues is a central challenge in treating disease. Externally controlled drug release systems hold potential to selectively enhance localized delivery. Here we describe liposomes doped with porphyrin-phospholipid that are permeabilized directly by near-infrared light. Molecular dynamics simulations identified a novel light-absorbing monomer esterified from clinically approved components predicted and experimentally demonstrated to give rise to a more stable porphyrin bilayer. Light-induced membrane permeabilization is enabled with liposomal inclusion of 10 molar % porphyrin-phospholipid and occurs in the absence of bulk or nanoscale heating. Liposomes reseal following laser exposure and permeability is modulated by varying porphyrin-phospholipid doping, irradiation intensity or irradiation duration. Porphyrin-phospholipid liposomes demonstrate spatial control of release of entrapped gentamicin and temporal control of release of entrapped fluorophores following intratumoral injection. Following systemic administration, laser irradiation enhances deposition of actively loaded doxorubicin in mouse xenografts, enabling an effective single-treatment antitumour therapy.

  19. Liposome (Lipodine)-mediated DNA vaccination by the oral route.

    PubMed

    Perrie, Yvonne; Obrenovic, Mia; McCarthy, David; Gregoriadis, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    Plasmid DNA pRc/CMV HBS encoding the S (small) region of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was incorporated by the dehydration-rehydration method into Lipodine liposomes composed of 16 micro moles phosphatidylcholine (PC) or distearoyl phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), 8 micro moles of (dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) or cholesterol and 4 micro moles of the cationic lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-3-(trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP) (molar ratios 1 : 0.5 : 0.25). Incorporation efficiency was high (89-93% of the amount of DNA used) in all four formulations tested and incorporated DNA was shown to be resistant to displacement in the presence of the competing anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate molecules. This is consistent with the notion that most of the DNA is incorporated within the multilamellar vesicles structure rather than being vesicle surface-complexed. Stability studies performed in simulated intestinal media also demonstrated that dehydration-rehydration vesicles (DRV) incorporating DNA (DRV(DNA)) were able to retain significantly more of their DNA content compared to DNA complexed with preformed small unilamellar vesicles (SUV-DNA) of the same composition. Moreover, after 4h incubation in the media, DNA loss for DSPC DRV(DNA) was only minimal, suggesting this to be the most stable formulation. Oral (intragastric) liposome-mediated DNA immunisation studies employing a variety of DRV(DNA) formulations as well as naked DNA revealed that secreted IgA responses against the encoded HBsAg were (as early as three weeks after the first dose) substantially higher after dosing with 100 micro g liposome-entrapped DNA compared to naked DNA. Throughout the fourteen week investigation, IgA responses in mice were consistently higher with the DSPC DRV(DNA) liposomes compared to naked DNA and correlated well with their improved DNA retention when exposed to model intestinal fluids. To investigate gene expression after oral (intragastric) administration, mice were given 100 micro g of naked or DSPC DRV liposome-entrapped plasmid DNA expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (pCMV.EGFP). Expression of the gene, in terms of fluorescence intensity in the draining mesenteric lymph nodes, was much greater in mice dosed with liposomal DNA than in animals dosed with the naked DNA. These results suggest that DSPC DRV liposomes containing DNA (Lipodine) may be a useful system for the oral delivery of DNA vaccines. PMID:12604053

  20. Liposome-mediated DNA vaccination: the effect of vesicle composition.

    PubMed

    Perrie, Y; Frederik, P M; Gregoriadis, G

    2001-04-30

    Liposome-entrapped DNA has been shown to enhance the potency of DNA vaccines, possibly by facilitating uptake of the plasmid by antigen-presenting cells (APC). In this paper, we have investigated the influence of the liposomal composition and surface charge on such potency. Plasmid DNA pRc/CMV HBS encoding the S (small) region of hepatitis B surface antigen was entrapped within cationic liposomes of various compositions and surface charges with high efficiency (88-97% of the amount used) by the dehydration-rehydration method that generates dehydration-rehydration vesicles (DRV). Cryo-electron microscopy revealed that DNA-containing DRV (DRV(DNA)) were multilamellar. In immunisation studies, female Balb/c mice were given two to four intramuscular injections of 10 microg naked or liposome-entrapped pRc/CMV HBS and bled at time intervals. Results indicate that the lipid composition of the DRV(DNA) influences the strength of the humoural response (immunoglobulin (Ig)G subclasses) with inclusion of dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) or phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in the liposomal structure contributing to greater responses. DRV(DNA) in which the DOPE or PE were omitted or substituted with cholesterol led to significant reduction of humoural responses against the encoded antigen. Replacing phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the DRV(DNA) with the high-melting distearoyl phosphatidylcholine also contributed to lower responses. In other experiments, IgG responses were monitored in mice immunised with pRc/CMV HBS entrapped in DRV composed of PC and DOPE as before but incorporating increasing amounts of DOTAP (1-16 micromol). Maximal IgG responses were observed at 10 weeks after the first of four injections and suggested a trend of higher responses when 4 or 8 micromol DOTAP was present in the DRV(DNA) formulation. Cell-mediated immunity (measured in terms of endogenous antigen-specific splenic interferon-gamma) in mice immunised with pRc/CMV HBS entrapped in liposomes composed of PC, DOPE and DOTAP (16:8:4 molar ratio) was much greater than in animals treated with naked plasmid. These results indicate that liposome-mediated DNA immunisation is more effective than the use of naked DNA, and also suggest that the presence of fusogenic phosphatidylethanolamine in DRV in conjunction with a low-melting phosphatidylcholine and an appropriate content of cationic lipid might contribute to more effective liposomal DNA vaccines. The notion that liposomes improve immune responses to the plasmid-encoded vaccine by facilitating the latter's uptake by APC was supported by the observation that in Balb/c mice injected intramuscularly with liposome-entrapped pCMV. Enhanced green fluorescent protein, expression of the gene in terms of fluorescence intensity in the draining lymph nodes, was much greater than in animals treated with the naked plasmid. PMID:11312029

  1. Vitamin C-driven epirubicin loading into liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Lipka, Dominik; Gubernator, Jerzy; Filipczak, Nina; Barnert, Sabine; Sss, Regine; Legut, Mateusz; Kozubek, Arkadiusz

    2013-01-01

    The encapsulation of anticancer drugs in a liposome structure protects the drug during circulation and increases drug accumulation in the cancer tissue and antitumor activity while decreasing drug toxicity. This paper presents a new method of active drug loading based on a vitamin C pH/ion gradient. Formulations were characterized in terms of the following parameters: optimal external pH, time and drug-to-lipid ratio for the purpose of remote loading, and in vitro stability. In the case of the selected drug, epirubicin (EPI), its coencapsulation increases its anticancer activity through a possibly synergistic effect previously reported by other groups for a free nonencapsulated drug/vitamin C cocktail. The method also has another advantage over other remote-loading methods: it allows faster drug release through liposome destabilization at the tumor site, thanks to the very good solubility of the EPI vitamin C salt, as seen on cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images. This influences the drug-release process and increases the anticancer activity of the liposome formulation. The liposomes are characterized as stable, with very good pharmacokinetics (half-life 18.6 hours). The antitumor activity toward MCF-7 and 4T-1 breast cancer cells was higher in the case of EPI loaded via our gradient than via an ammonium sulfate gradient. Finally, the EPI liposomal formulation and the free drug were tested using the murine 4T-1 breast cancer model. The antitumor activity of the encapsulated drug was confirmed (tumor-growth inhibition over 40% from day 16 until the end of the experiment), and the free drug was shown to have no anticancer activity at the tested dose. PMID:24101870

  2. Liposome-encapsulated peptides protect against experimental allergic encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Belogurov, Alexey A.; Stepanov, Alexey V.; Smirnov, Ivan V.; Melamed, Dobroslav; Bacon, Andrew; Mamedov, Azad E.; Boitsov, Vitali M.; Sashchenko, Lidia P.; Ponomarenko, Natalia A.; Sharanova, Svetlana N.; Boyko, Alexey N.; Dubina, Michael V.; Friboulet, Alain; Genkin, Dmitry D.; Gabibov, Alexander G.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a severe inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease with an autoimmune background. Despite the variety of therapeutics available against MS, the development of novel approaches to its treatment is of high importance in modern pharmaceutics. In this study, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Dark Agouti rats has been treated with immunodominant peptides of the myelin basic protein (MBP) encapsulated in mannosylated small unilamellar vesicles. The results show that liposome-encapsulated MBP4662 is the most effective in reducing maximal disease score during the first attack, while MBP124139 and MBP147170 can completely prevent the development of the exacerbation stage. Both mannosylation of liposomes and encapsulation of peptides are critical for the therapeutic effect, since neither naked peptides nor nonmannosylated liposomes, loaded or empty, have proved effective. The liposome-mediated synergistic effect of the mixture of 3 MBP peptides significantly suppresses the progression of protracted EAE, with the median cumulative disease score being reduced from 22 to 14 points, compared to the placebo group; prevents the production of circulating autoantibodies; down-regulates the synthesis of Th1 cytokines; and induces the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. Thus, the proposed formulation ameliorates EAE, providing for a less severe first attack and rapid recovery from exacerbation, and offers a promising therapeutic modality in MS treatment.Belogurov, A. A., Jr., Stepanov, A. V., Smirnov, I. V., Melamed, D., Bacon, A., Mamedov, A. E., Boitsov, V. M., Sashchenko, L. P., Ponomarenko, N. A., Sharanova, S. N., Boyko, A. N., Dubina, M. V., Friboulet, A., Genkin, D. D., Gabibov, A. G. Liposome-encapsulated peptides protect against experimental allergic encephalitis. PMID:23047895

  3. Parenteral emulsions and liposomes to treat drug overdose.

    PubMed

    Damitz, Robert; Chauhan, Anuj

    2015-08-01

    Drug overdoses from both pharmaceutical and recreational drugs are a major public health concern. Although some overdoses may be treated with specific antidotes, the most common treatment involves providing supportive care to allow the body to metabolize and excrete the toxicant. In many cases, supportive care is limiting, ineffective, and expensive. There is a clear medical need to improve the effectiveness of detoxification, in particular by developing more specific therapies or antidotes for these overdoses. Intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) have been investigated as a potential treatment for overdoses of local anesthetics and other hydrophobic drugs. While ILE therapy has been successful in several cases, its use beyond local anesthetic systemic toxicity is controversial and its mechanism of detoxification remains a subject of debate. ILEs were not originally developed to treat overdose, but clarifying the mechanisms of detoxification observed with ILE may allow us to design more effective future treatments. Liposomes are highly biocompatible and versatile formulations, thus it was a natural step to explore their use for drug overdose therapy as well. Several researchers have designed liposomes using a variety of approaches including surface charge, pH gradients, and inclusion of enzymes in the liposome core to optimize the formulations for detoxification of a specific drug or toxicant. The in vitro results for drug sequestration by liposomes are very promising and animal trials have in some cases shown comparable performance to ILE at reduced lipid dosing. This narrative review summarizes the current status and advances in the use of emulsions and liposomes for detoxification and also suggests several areas in which studies are needed for developing future therapies. PMID:26086091

  4. Novel planar binuclear zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells: Synthesis and spectral, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Baiqing; Zhang, Xuejun; Han, Mingliang; Deng, Pengfei; Li, Qiaoling

    2015-01-01

    A planar binuclear zinc phthalocyanine was newly synthesized for use in dye-sensitized solar cells, based on Schiff base and asymmetric amino zinc phthalocyanine. The novel compounds were characterized using FTIR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, cyclic voltammetry and elemental analysis. From the reduction and oxidation behavior, it is proved that APC and bi-NPC have negative LUMO levels and positive HOMO levels, satisfying the energy gap rule, and can be employed as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) applications.

  5. Two-photon absorption cross section of aluminium phthalocyanine excited by a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser

    SciTech Connect

    Meshalkin, Yu P; Chunosova, S S

    2005-06-30

    The two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section is measured to be 543{+-}16 GM for aluminium phthalocyanine excited by a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. The TPA cross section at the Ti:sapphire laser wavelength of 800 nm exceeds by more than 40 times the TPA cross section measured earlier at the Nd:YAG laser wavelength of 1064 nm. The role of the resonance TPA enhancement caused by the presence of the real 14815-cm{sup -1} S{sub 1u} level near the virtual 12594-cm{sup -1} level in phthalocyanine is discussed. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  6. Structural transitions in different monolayers of cobalt phthalocyanine film grown on Bi(1 1 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Min-Long; Tu, Yu-Bing; Sun, Kai; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Xin; Li, Zhao-Bing; Hao, Shao-Jie; Xiao, Hua-Fang; Ye, Juan; Wang, Jun-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The structural evolution of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) thin films grown on a Bi(1 1 1) surface from the sub-monolayer to the third layer has been investigated with low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Two crucial transitions have been identified during the film epitaxial growth: one is the structural transition from zigzag chains to linear dimerized chains in the monolayer regime; the other is the molecular orientational transition from a flat-lying to a standing-up configuration in the multilayer regime. These results are helpful in understanding the growth mechanism of transition-metal phthalocyanine films on semi-metallic surfaces.

  7. Superresolution and Fluorescence Dynamics Evidence Reveal That Intact Liposomes Do Not Cross the Human Skin Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Dreier, Jes; Sørensen, Jens A.; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we use the combination of super resolution optical microscopy and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) to study the mechanism of action of liposomes as transdermal drug delivery systems in human skin. Two different compositions of liposomes were applied to newly excised human skin, a POPC liposome and a more flexible liposome containing the surfactant sodium cholate. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED) images of intact skin and cryo-sections of skin treated with labeled liposomes were recorded displaying an optical resolution low enough to resolve the 100 nm liposomes in the skin. The images revealed that virtually none of the liposomes remained intact beneath the skin surface. RICS two color cross correlation diffusion measurements of double labeled liposomes confirmed these observations. Our results suggest that the liposomes do not act as carriers that transport their cargo directly through the skin barrier, but mainly burst and fuse with the outer lipid layers of the stratum corneum. It was also found that the flexible liposomes showed a greater delivery of the fluorophore into the stratum corneum, indicating that they functioned as chemical permeability enhancers. PMID:26751684

  8. Lymph node localization of non-specific antibody-coated liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Mangat, S.; Patel, H.M.

    1985-05-20

    Subcutaneously injected small unilamellar liposomes are drained into the lymphatics and localized in the regional lymph nodes, and thus they can be used for the detection of metastatic spread in breast cancer patients and for delivery of drugs to diseased lymph nodes. An aqueous phase marker, (/sup 125/I)-polyvinylpyrrolidone, and a lipid phase marker, (/sup 3/H)-cholesterol, were used to study the lymph node localization of IgG-coated liposomes injected subcutaneously into mouse and rat footpads. The results show that human immunoglobulin G (IgG) coated liposomes are rapidly removed from the site of injection and are localized in the regional lymph nodes to a greater extent than control liposomes (i.e. liposomes without IgG). Free IgG was found to inhibit the uptake of IgG-coated liposomes by the lymph nodes. The localization of IgG-coated liposomes in the regional lymph nodes is influenced by charge of the liposomes. The results presented here suggest that antibody-coated liposomes may provide a more efficient way of delivering therapeutic agents to the lymph nodes in the treatment of diseases such as breast cancer with lymph node involvement. Similarly, monoclonal antibody-coated liposomes containing lymphoscintigraphic material may improve the detection of lymph node metastases. 26 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Physicochemical aspects of the liposome-wool interaction in wool dyeing.

    PubMed

    Martí, Meritxell; Barsukov, Leonid I; Fonollosa, Jordi; Parra, José Luis; Sukhanov, Stanislav V; Coderch, Luisa

    2004-04-13

    Despite the promising application of liposomes in wool dyeing, little is known about the mechanism of liposome interactions with the wool fiber and dyestuffs. The kinetics of wool dyeing by two dyes, Acid Green 27 (hydrophobic) and Acid Green 25 (hydrophilic), were compared in three experimental protocols: (1) without liposomes, (2) in the presence of phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes, and (3) with wool previously treated with PC liposomes. Physicochemical interactions of liposomes with wool fibers were studied under experimental dyeing conditions with particular interest in the liposome affinity to the fiber surface and changes in the lipid composition of the wool fibers. The results obtained indicate that the presence of liposomes favors the retention of these two dyes in the dyeing bath, this effect being more pronounced in case of the hydrophobic dye. Furthermore, the liposome treatment is accompanied by substantial absorption of PC by wool fibers with simultaneous partial solubilization of their polar lipids (more evident at higher temperatures). This may result in structural modification of the cell membrane complex of wool fibers, which could account for a high level of the dye exhaustion observed at the end of the liposome dyeing process. PMID:15875831

  10. Topical drug delivery to retinal pigment epithelium with microfluidizer produced small liposomes.

    PubMed

    Lajunen, T; Hisazumi, K; Kanazawa, T; Okada, H; Seta, Y; Yliperttula, M; Urtti, A; Takashima, Y

    2014-10-01

    Drug delivery from topically instilled eye drops to the posterior segment of the eye has long been one of the greatest challenges of ocular drug development. We developed methods of liposome preparation utilizing a microfluidizer to achieve adjustable nanoparticle size (even less than 80 nm) and high loading capacity of plasmid DNA. The microfluidizing process parameters were shown to affect the size of the liposomes. Higher operating pressures and passage for at least 10 times through the microfluidizer produced small liposomes with narrow size distribution. The liposomes were physically stable for several months at +4C. In vivo distribution of the optimized liposome formulations in the rat eyes was investigated with confocal microscopy of the histological specimens. Transferrin was used as a targeting ligand directed to retinal pigment epithelium. Size dependent distribution of liposomes to different posterior segment tissues was seen. Liposomes with the diameter less than 80 nm permeated to the retinal pigment epithelium whereas liposomes with the diameter of 100 nm or more were distributed to the choroidal endothelium. Active targeting was shown to be necessary for liposome retention to the target tissue. In conclusion, these microfluidizer produced small liposomes in eye drops are an attractive option for drug delivery to the posterior segment tissues of the eye. PMID:24810393

  11. Pirfenidone-loaded liposomes for lung targeting: preparation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Hui; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to develop novel pirfenidone (PFD)-loaded liposomes for targeting to the lung. Methods The liposomes were prepared by the film hydration method, and their in vitro/vivo characteristics were evaluated. Results The PFD liposomes appeared visually as green to yellowish suspensions and were spherical in shape. The particle size was 582.3±21.6 nm and the entrapment efficiency was relatively high (87.2%±5.7%). The liposomes showed typical sustained and prolonged drug-release behavior in vitro and fitted well with the Weibull distribution equation. The relatively slower time taken to reach a minimal plasma PFD concentration in vivo suggests that PFD liposomes have a sustained-release profile, which is consistent with the results of the in vitro release study. The PFD liposomes showed the largest area under the curve for the lung. The high distribution of PFD achieved in the lungs using this liposomal formulation may be explained by physical entrapment of the liposomes in the vascular network of the lung. Histopathological results indicated that liposomal PFD could alleviate pathological injury in lung tissue. Conclusion This liposomal formulation can enable sustained release of PFD and increase targeting to the lung. PMID:26185416

  12. Antibiotic delivery by liposomes from prokaryotic microorganisms: Similia cum similis works better.

    PubMed

    Colzi, Ilaria; Troyan, Anna N; Perito, Brunella; Casalone, Enrico; Romoli, Riccardo; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša; Adessi, Alessandra; Rossi, Federico; Gonnelli, Cristina; Ristori, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    To date the effectiveness of antibiotics is undermined by microbial resistance, threatening public health worldwide. Enhancing the efficacy of the current antibiotic arsenal is an alternative strategy. The administration of antimicrobials encapsulated in nanocarriers, such as liposomes, is considered a viable option, though with some drawbacks related to limited affinity between conventional liposomes and bacterial membranes. Here we propose a novel "top-down" procedure to prepare unconventional liposomes from the membranes of prokaryotes (PD-liposomes). These vectors, being obtained from bacteria with limited growth requirements, also represent low-cost systems for scalable biotechnology production. In depth physico-chemical characterization, carried out with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), indicated that PD-liposomes can be suitable for the employment as antibiotic vectors. Specifically, DLS showed that the mean diameter of loaded liposomes was ∼200-300nm, while SAXS showed that the structure was similar to conventional liposomes, thus allowing a direct comparison with more standard liposomal formulations. Compared to free penicillin G, PD-liposomes loaded with penicillin G showed minimal inhibitory concentrations against E. coli that were up to 16-times lower. Noteworthy, the extent of the bacterial growth inhibition was found to depend on the microorganisms from which liposomes were derived. PMID:26117185

  13. Superresolution and Fluorescence Dynamics Evidence Reveal That Intact Liposomes Do Not Cross the Human Skin Barrier.

    PubMed

    Dreier, Jes; Sørensen, Jens A; Brewer, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    In this study we use the combination of super resolution optical microscopy and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) to study the mechanism of action of liposomes as transdermal drug delivery systems in human skin. Two different compositions of liposomes were applied to newly excised human skin, a POPC liposome and a more flexible liposome containing the surfactant sodium cholate. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED) images of intact skin and cryo-sections of skin treated with labeled liposomes were recorded displaying an optical resolution low enough to resolve the 100 nm liposomes in the skin. The images revealed that virtually none of the liposomes remained intact beneath the skin surface. RICS two color cross correlation diffusion measurements of double labeled liposomes confirmed these observations. Our results suggest that the liposomes do not act as carriers that transport their cargo directly through the skin barrier, but mainly burst and fuse with the outer lipid layers of the stratum corneum. It was also found that the flexible liposomes showed a greater delivery of the fluorophore into the stratum corneum, indicating that they functioned as chemical permeability enhancers. PMID:26751684

  14. Doxorubicin liposomes as an investigative model to study the skin permeation of nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Boakye, Cedar H A; Patel, Ketan; Singh, Mandip

    2015-07-15

    The objectives of this study were to develop an innovative investigative model using doxorubicin as a fluorophore to evaluate the skin permeation of nanocarriers and the impact of size and surface characteristics on their permeability. Different doxorubicin-loaded liposomes with mean particle size <130 nm and different surface chemistry were prepared by ammonium acetate gradient method using DPPC, DOPE, Cholesterol, DSPE-PEG 2000 and 1,1-Di-((Z)-octadec-9-en-1-yl) pyrrolidin-1-ium chloride (CY5)/DOTAP/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DOPA) as the charge modifier. There was minimal release of doxorubicin from the liposomes up to 8h; indicating that fluorescence observed within the skin layers was due to the intact liposomes. Liposomes with particle sizes >600 nm were restricted within the stratum corneum. DOTAP (p<0.01) and CY5 (p<0.05) liposomes demonstrated significant permeation into the skin than DOPA and PEG liposomes. Tape stripping significantly (p<0.01) enhanced the skin permeation of doxorubicin liposomes but TAT-decorated doxorubicin liposomes permeated better (p<0.005). Blockage of the hair follicles resulted in significant reduction in the extent and intensity of fluorescence observed within the skin layers. Overall, doxorubicin liposomes proved to be an ideal fluorophore-based model. The hair follicles were the major route utilized by the liposomes to permeate skin. Surface charge and particle size played vital roles in the extent of permeation. PMID:25910414

  15. Lead Ions Encapsulated in Liposomes and Their Effect on Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Kensova, Renata; Blazkova, Iva; Konecna, Marie; Kopel, Pavel; Chudobova, Dagmar; Zitka, Ondrej; Vaculovicova, Marketa; Hynek, David; Adam, Vojtech; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was the preparation of a liposome complex with encapsulated lead ions, which were electrochemically detected. In particular, experiments were focused on the potential of using an electrochemical method for the determination of free and liposome-encapsulated lead and determination of the encapsulation efficiency preventing the lead toxicity. Primarily, encapsulation of lead ions in liposomes and confirmation of successful encapsulation by electrochemical methods was done. Further, the reduction effect of the liposome matrix on the detected electrochemical signal was monitored. Besides encapsulation itself, comparison of toxicity of free lead ions and lead ions encapsulated in liposome was tested. The calculated IC50 values for evaluating the lead cytotoxicity showed significant differences between the lead enclosed in liposomes (28 µM) and free lead ions (237 µM). From the cytotoxicity studies on the bacterial strain of S. aureus it was observed that the free lead ions are less toxic in comparison with lead encapsulated in liposomes. Liposomes appear to be a suitable carrier of various substances through the inner cavity. Due to the liposome structure the lead enclosed in the liposome is more easily accepted into the cell structure and the toxicity of the enclosed lead is higher in comparison to free lead ions. PMID:24317385

  16. Sorafenib and gadolinium co-loaded liposomes for drug delivery and MRI-guided HCC treatment.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yanan; Liu, Yongjun; Yang, Shaomei; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Tianqi; Jiang, Dandan; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Dexin; Zhang, Na

    2016-05-01

    To improve the poor water solubility of sorafenib and to monitor its distribution and the early feedback effects on its in vivo treatment efficacy in a precise manner, sorafenib (SF) and gadolinium (Gd) co-loaded liposomes (SF/Gd-liposomes) were prepared. The simultaneous imaging and therapy efficacies of the SF/Gd-liposomes were tested. The solubility of SF in SF/Gd-liposomes was significantly increased from 0.21μg/mL to 250μg/mL. The imaging capability of SF/Gd-liposomes were tested by in-vitro and the in-vivo imaging ability tests and the results confirmed that SF/Gd-liposomes could be served as an effective contrast agent. The design of SF/Gd-liposomes allowed the MRI-guided in vivo visualization of the delivery and biodistribution of liposome. In the in vivo antitumor studies, SF/Gd-liposomes had better antitumor effects in H22 tumor-bearing mice than SF solution (oral or i.v. administration) (P<0.05). These findings indicated that the SF/Gd-liposomes could be used as the promising nano-carriers for the MRI-guided in vivo visualization of the delivery and HCC treatment. PMID:26844644

  17. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy of recombinant tuberculosis vaccine antigen with anionic liposomes reveals formation of flattened liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Christopher B; Mulligan, Sean K; Sung, Joyce; Dowling, Quinton M; Fung, H W Millie; Vedvick, Thomas S; Coler, Rhea N

    2014-01-01

    Development of lipid-based adjuvant formulations to enhance the immunogenicity of recombinant vaccine antigens is a focus of modern vaccine research. Characterizing interactions between vaccine antigens and formulation excipients is important for establishing compatibility between the different components and optimizing vaccine stability and potency. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a highly informative analytical technique that may elucidate various aspects of protein- and lipid-based structures, including morphology, size, shape, and phase structure, while avoiding artifacts associated with staining-based TEM. In this work, cryogenic TEM is employed to characterize a recombinant tuberculosis vaccine antigen, an anionic liposome formulation, and antigenliposome interactions. By performing three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction analysis, the formation of a population of protein-containing flattened liposomes, not present in the control samples, was detected. It is shown that cryogenic TEM provides unique information regarding antigenliposome interactions not detectable by light-scattering-based methods. Employing a suite of complementary analytical techniques is important to fully characterize interactions between vaccine components. PMID:24648734

  18. Computer-aided design of liposomal drugs: In silico prediction and experimental validation of drug candidates for liposomal remote loading.

    PubMed

    Cern, Ahuva; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Tropsha, Alexander; Goldblum, Amiram

    2014-01-10

    Previously we have developed and statistically validated Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR) models that correlate drugs' structural, physical and chemical properties as well as experimental conditions with the relative efficiency of remote loading of drugs into liposomes (Cern et al., J. Control. Release 160 (2012) 147-157). Herein, these models have been used to virtually screen a large drug database to identify novel candidate molecules for liposomal drug delivery. Computational hits were considered for experimental validation based on their predicted remote loading efficiency as well as additional considerations such as availability, recommended dose and relevance to the disease. Three compounds were selected for experimental testing which were confirmed to be correctly classified by our previously reported QSPR models developed with Iterative Stochastic Elimination (ISE) and k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN) approaches. In addition, 10 new molecules with known liposome remote loading efficiency that were not used by us in QSPR model development were identified in the published literature and employed as an additional model validation set. The external accuracy of the models was found to be as high as 82% or 92%, depending on the model. This study presents the first successful application of QSPR models for the computer-model-driven design of liposomal drugs. PMID:24184343

  19. Liposomes as vaccine delivery systems: a review of the recent advances

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Liposomes and liposome-derived nanovesicles such as archaeosomes and virosomes have become important carrier systems in vaccine development and the interest for liposome-based vaccines has markedly increased. A key advantage of liposomes, archaeosomes and virosomes in general, and liposome-based vaccine delivery systems in particular, is their versatility and plasticity. Liposome composition and preparation can be chosen to achieve desired features such as selection of lipid, charge, size, size distribution, entrapment and location of antigens or adjuvants. Depending on the chemical properties, water-soluble antigens (proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, haptens) are entrapped within the aqueous inner space of liposomes, whereas lipophilic compounds (lipopeptides, antigens, adjuvants, linker molecules) are intercalated into the lipid bilayer and antigens or adjuvants can be attached to the liposome surface either by adsorption or stable chemical linking. Coformulations containing different types of antigens or adjuvants can be combined with the parameters mentioned to tailor liposomal vaccines for individual applications. Special emphasis is given in this review to cationic adjuvant liposome vaccine formulations. Examples of vaccines made with CAF01, an adjuvant composed of the synthetic immune-stimulating mycobacterial cordfactor glycolipid trehalose dibehenate as immunomodulator and the cationic membrane forming molecule dimethyl dioctadecylammonium are presented. Other vaccines such as cationic liposome–DNA complexes (CLDCs) and other adjuvants like muramyl dipeptide, monophosphoryl lipid A and listeriolysin O are mentioned as well. The field of liposomes and liposome-based vaccines is vast. Therefore, this review concentrates on recent and relevant studies emphasizing current reports dealing with the most studied antigens and adjuvants, and pertinent examples of vaccines. Studies on liposome-based veterinary vaccines and experimental therapeutic cancer vaccines are also summarized. PMID:25364509

  20. Cerebral Hypoperfusion-assisted Intraarterial Deposition of Liposomes in Normal and Glioma-bearing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shailendra; Singh-Moon, Rajinder P.; Ellis, Jason A.; Chaudhuri, Durba B.; Wang, Mei; Reif, Roberto; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Bigio, Irving J.; Straubinger, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Optimizing liposomal vehicles for targeted delivery to the brain has important implications for the treatment of brain tumors. The promise of efficient, brain-specific delivery of chemotherapeutic compounds via liposomal vehicles has yet to be achieved in clinical practice. Intra-arterial injection of specially designed liposomes may facilitate efficient delivery to the brain and to gliomas. Objective To test the hypothesis that cationic liposomes may be effectively delivered to both normal and glioma-bearing brain tissue utilizing a strategy of intra-arterial injection during transient cerebral hypoperfusion. Methods Cationic, anionic, and neutral liposomes were separately injected via the internal carotid artery of healthy rats during transient cerebral hypoperfusion. Rats bearing C6 gliomas were similarly injected with cationic liposomes. Liposomes were loaded with DilC18(5) dye whose concentrations can be measured by light absorbance and fluorescence methods. Results After intra-arterial injection, a robust uptake of cationic as compared to anionic and neutral liposomes into brain parenchyma was observed by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Post mortem multispectral fluorescence imaging revealed that liposomal cationic charge was associated with more efficient delivery to the brain. Cationic liposomes were also readily observed within glioma tissue after intra-arterial injection. However, over time, cationic liposomes were retained longer and at higher concentrations in the surrounding, peri-tumoral brain than in the tumor core. Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility of cationic liposome delivery to brain and glioma tissue after intra-arterial injection. Highly cationic liposomes directly delivered to the brain via an intracarotid route may represent an effective method for delivering anti-glioma agents. PMID:25525695