Science.gov

Sample records for liposomal geiv phthalocyanine

  1. New liposome-bound Ge(IV)-phthalocyanine (CGP 55398) for photodynamic therapy of tumors: preliminary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segalla, Anna; Re, G.; Milanesi, Carla; Jori, Giulio; Capraro, Hans-Georg; Schieweck, Klaus; Isele, Ute

    1994-03-01

    A phthalocyanine derivative with two cholesterol moieties as axial ligands to the central Ge(IV) ion efficiently photosensitizes the oxidative modification of L-tryptophan. Administration of liposome-bound GePc to Balb/c mice bearing a MS-2 fibrosarcoma yields a quantitative release of the dye to serum lipoproteins, followed by a selective accumulation in the tumor as well as a low content in the skin. At 24 h after injection of 0.76 mg/kg GePc, the tumor was irradiated with 600 - 700 nm light; tumor necrosis appeared in all treated mice as a consequence of extensive damage of cellular and stromal elements.

  2. Aluminum-chloride-phthalocyanine encapsulated in liposomes: activity against naturally occurring dog breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Martha S T; Lucci, Carolina M; Longo, João Paulo F; Galera, Paula D; Simioni, Andreza R; Lacava, Zulmira G M; Tedesco, Antônio C; Azevedo, Ricardo B

    2012-04-01

    Breast tumors represent the most common malignant tumors. Current treatments for humans and pets rely on tumor excision and adjuvant chemotherapy, which may affect both cancer cells and normal cells. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an approved treatment modality for a variety of cancers and was recently recommended as a first-line treatment for non-melanoma skin cancers for humans. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of PDT using aluminum-chloride-phthalocyanine that is encapsulated in liposomes and LED as a light source to kill naturally occurring female dog breast cancer in vitro. The cytotoxicity behavior of the encapsulated photosensitizer in the dark and under irradiation using the 670 nm laser were investigated using classical trypan blue and MTT cell viability tests, acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining to label organelles, and cell morphology. Cell morphology was evaluated using light and electron microscopy. Our results demonstrate a reduced cell viability that is associated with morphologic alterations. The neoplasic cell destruction was predominantly mediated via a necrotic process, which was assayed using acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining. These findings were confirmed using light and electronic microscopy. The photosensitizer or laser irradiation alone did not induce cytotoxicity or morphological alterations, indicating the safety and efficacy of PDT with chloro-aluminum-phthalocyanine that was encapsulated in liposomes for the treatment of breast cancer cells in vitro. PMID:22515076

  3. In vitro phototoxicity of ultradeformable liposomes containing chloroaluminum phthalocyanine against New World Leishmania species.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Indira Paola; Montanari, Jorge; Valdivieso, Wilfredo; Morilla, Maria Jose; Romero, Eder Lilia; Escobar, Patricia

    2012-12-01

    The use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) based on chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc) is a promissory alternative therapy. The main purpose of this article was to assess the internalization and in vitro phototoxic activities of ClAlPc encapsulated in ultradeformable liposomes (UDL-ClAlPc) in Leishmania parasites and mammalian cells. Cell internalization was determined by fluorescence microscopy, cell and parasite damage by standard MTT or direct microscopic analysis and a phototoxic index (PI) was calculated as the compound activity (IC(50)) at 0 J/cm(2)/IC(50) at 17 J/cm(2). Liposomal and free ClAlPc were internalized by infected and non-infected THP-1 cells and co-localized in the mitochondria. Treatment of UDL-ClAlPc was almost 10 times more photoactive than free ClAlPc on THP-1 cells and promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania panamensis. Liposomal compounds were active on non-irradiated and irradiated cells however PI higher than 50 were calculated. PI for amphotericin B referential drug were lower than 1.2. Empty liposomes tested at the same lipid concentration of active ClPcAl-liposomes were non-toxic. Upon photodynamic treatment a nonselective-parasite activity against intracellular amastigotes were observed and loss of membrane integrity resulting in a release of parasites was detected. Further studies oriented to evaluate both the state of infection after PDT and the effectiveness of UDL as delivery vehicles of ClAlPc in CL experimental models are required. PMID:23123595

  4. Enhanced photodynamic leishmanicidal activity of hydrophobic zinc phthalocyanine within archaeolipids containing liposomes.

    PubMed

    Perez, Ana Paula; Casasco, Agustina; Schilrreff, Priscila; Tesoriero, Maria Victoria Defain; Duempelmann, Luc; Pappalardo, Juan Sebastián; Altube, Maria Julia; Higa, Leticia; Morilla, Maria Jose; Petray, Patricia; Romero, Eder L

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the in vitro anti-Leishmania activity of photodynamic liposomes made of soybean phosphatidylcholine, sodium cholate, total polar archaeolipids (TPAs) extracted from the hyperhalophile archaea Halorubrum tebenquichense and the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPcAL) was compared to that of ultradeformable photodynamic liposomes lacking TPAs (ZnPcUDLs). We found that while ZnPcUDLs and ZnPcALs (130 nm mean diameter and -35 mV zeta potential) were innocuous against promastigotes, a low concentration (0.01 μM ZnPc and 7.6 μM phospholipids) of ZnPcALs irradiated at a very low-energy density (0.2 J/cm(2)) eliminated L. braziliensis amastigotes from J774 macrophages, without reducing the viability of the host cells. In such conditions, ZnPcALs were harmless for J774 macrophages, HaCaT keratinocytes, and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Therefore, topical photodynamic treatment would not likely affect skin-associated lymphoid tissue. ZnPcALs were extensively captured by macrophages, but ZnPcUDLs were not, leading to 2.5-fold increased intracellular delivery of ZnPc than with ZnPcUDLs. Despite mediating low levels of reactive oxygen species, the higher delivery of ZnPc and the multiple (caveolin- and clathrin-dependent plus phagocytic) intracellular pathway followed by ZnPc would have been the reason for the higher antiamastigote activity of ZnPcALs. The leishmanicidal activity of photodynamic liposomal ZnPc was improved by TPA-containing liposomes. PMID:25045264

  5. Enhanced photodynamic leishmanicidal activity of hydrophobic zinc phthalocyanine within archaeolipids containing liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Ana Paula; Casasco, Agustina; Schilrreff, Priscila; Defain Tesoriero, Maria Victoria; Duempelmann, Luc; Altube, Maria Julia; Higa, Leticia; Morilla, Maria Jose; Petray, Patricia; Romero, Eder L

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the in vitro anti-Leishmania activity of photodynamic liposomes made of soybean phosphatidylcholine, sodium cholate, total polar archaeolipids (TPAs) extracted from the hyperhalophile archaea Halorubrum tebenquichense and the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPcAL) was compared to that of ultradeformable photodynamic liposomes lacking TPAs (ZnPcUDLs). We found that while ZnPcUDLs and ZnPcALs (130 nm mean diameter and −35 mV zeta potential) were innocuous against promastigotes, a low concentration (0.01 μM ZnPc and 7.6 μM phospholipids) of ZnPcALs irradiated at a very low-energy density (0.2 J/cm2) eliminated L. braziliensis amastigotes from J774 macrophages, without reducing the viability of the host cells. In such conditions, ZnPcALs were harmless for J774 macrophages, HaCaT keratinocytes, and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Therefore, topical photodynamic treatment would not likely affect skin-associated lymphoid tissue. ZnPcALs were extensively captured by macrophages, but ZnPcUDLs were not, leading to 2.5-fold increased intracellular delivery of ZnPc than with ZnPcUDLs. Despite mediating low levels of reactive oxygen species, the higher delivery of ZnPc and the multiple (caveolin- and clathrin-dependent plus phagocytic) intracellular pathway followed by ZnPc would have been the reason for the higher antiamastigote activity of ZnPcALs. The leishmanicidal activity of photodynamic liposomal ZnPc was improved by TPA-containing liposomes. PMID:25045264

  6. Specific targeting and toxicity of sulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine photosensitised liposomes directed to cells by monoclonal antibody in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, J.; Gray, A. G.; Huehns, E. R.

    1989-01-01

    A partially purified fraction of the water soluble photosensitive dye sulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine (AlSPc) was encapsulated in liposomes which were then linked to a targeting monoclonal antibody 791T/36 using a heterobifunctional linking agent. The photocytotoxic effects of the liposomes were determined on two cell lines bearing an antigen with which the targeting antibody binds: 791T, an osteosarcoma and C170, a colorectal carcinoma; and a control cell line not bearing the antigen; DW-BCL, an Epstein-Barr virus immortalised B-cell line. Antibody dependent cytotoxicity was observed in 791T and C170 cells and was proportional to the number of antigens on the cells, the AlSPc concentration and the time of exposure to activating red light. No significant toxicity was seen using untargeted liposomes, control cells or free AlSPc fraction under similar conditions. Targeted cells and controls kept in the dark also showed no significant toxicity. A possible mechanism of action is postulated and simple adaptations which demonstrate the versatility of the model are discussed. Some suggestions as to the clinical situations to which this system might be applied in the form of photodynamic therapy (PDT) are made. PMID:2930700

  7. Photodynamic therapy disinfection of carious tissue mediated by aluminum-chloride-phthalocyanine entrapped in cationic liposomes: an in vitro and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Longo, João Paulo F; Leal, Soraya C; Simioni, Andreza R; de Fátima Menezes Almeida-Santos, Maria; Tedesco, Antônio C; Azevedo, Ricardo B

    2012-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique employed in the treatment of several superficial infections, such as caries. PDT uses a non-toxic drug termed photosensitizer (PS) followed by light irradiation. The cytotoxic effects of the therapy are related to the production of reactive species produced after light activation of a photosensitizer, which reacts with surrounding molecules and disrupts several of the cell's functions. Within this context, this study aimed to develop a clinical protocol involving PDT application mediated by aluminum-chloride-phthalocyanine (AlClPc) entrapped in cationic liposomes against cariogenic bacteria in caries lesions. Cationic liposomes were used to delivery AlClPc preferentially to bacterial cells due to the strong anionic superficial charges of these cell types. The results are represented in two fundamental steps: (1) in vitro evaluation of AlClPc delivery to cariogenic bacteria and pulp cells, as well as its potential phototoxicity; (2) a clinical study involving volunteer patients that were treated with the PDT protocol mediated by AlClPc-cationic liposome. The main results showed that the AlClPc-cationic liposome was preferentially absorbed by bacterial cells compared to eukaryotic dental pulp cells, and it was efficient in the reduction of microbial load from bacterial cultures. In addition, the clinical study showed a mean reduction of 82% of total bacterial in the treated cavities after PDT application. Taken together, the results presented in this study showed that the antimicrobial PDT protocol mediated by cationic liposomes containing AlClPc is safety for clinical application and is efficient in the reduction of bacterial load in caries lesions. PMID:21809069

  8. Spectroscopic probing of the acid-base properties and photosensitization of a fluorinated phthalocyanine in organic solutions and liposomes.

    PubMed

    Weitman, H; Schatz, S; Gottlieb, H E; Kobayashi, N; Ehrenberg, B

    2001-05-01

    A perfluorinated derivative of phthalocyanine was synthesized as the free base, hexadeca-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy) phthalocyanine (H2F48Pc), and as a zinc complex, hexadeca-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-phthalocyaninatozinc (ZnF48Pc), and their spectroscopic and photochemical properties were studied. The absorption bands are shifted bathochromically relative to simple phthalocyanines, exhibiting the longest wavelength band near 735 nm (H2F48Pc) and 705 (ZnF48Pc). The solvatochromism of both compounds was modeled by Reichardt's ET(30) parameter and Kamlet, Abboud and Taft multiparameter approach. The former, simpler, model was found to be adequate. We found that H2F48Pc undergoes unique basic and acidic titrations in organic solvents. These titration processes are accompanied by spectral changes that are explained on the basis of the chromophore's symmetry. Singular value decomposition was employed to resolve the spectra into the contributions of the species at various stages of protonation and to obtain the equilibrium constants. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (1H, 19F and 13C) for the free base were obtained in a tetrahydrofurand8 solution. The carbon spectrum, taken as a function of temperature, provided evidence for the presence of a tautomerization process, which switches the two internal hydrogens between the four central nitrogen atoms. As far as we know, this is the first report of the measurement of the free energy of activation for such process (delta G = 10.6-11.4 kcal mol-1 between 217 and 330 K) for a phthalocyanine, in solution. Like most other phthalocyanines these two compounds also act as photosensitizers and as generators of singlet molecular oxygen. The absolute quantum yields (phi delta) for ZnF48Pc was 0.58 +/- 0.01 in benzene and 0.35 +/- 0.01 in lipid vesicles. H2F48Pc had lower yields, 0.16 and 0.005, respectively. Either protonation or deprotonation of the pyrrole nitrogens in H2F48Pc lowered the phi delta. PMID:11367567

  9. METAL PHTHALOCYANINES

    DOEpatents

    Frigerio, N.A.

    1962-03-27

    A process is given for preparing heavy metal phthalocyanines, sulfonated or not. The process comprises mixing an inorganic metal salt with dimethyl formamide or methyl sulfoxide; separating the metal complex formed from the solution; mixing the complex with an equimolar amount of sodium, potassium, lithium, magnesium, or beryllium sulfonated or unsulfonated phthalocyanine whereby heavy-metal phthalocyanine crystals are formed; and separating the crystals from the solution. Uranyl, thorium, lead, hafnium, and lanthanide rare earth phthalocyanines can be produced by the process. (AEC)

  10. Phthalocyanine polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, B. N.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A method of forming 4,4',4'',4''' -tetraamino phthalocyanines involves reducing 4,4',4'',4''' -tetranitro phthalocyanines, polymerizing the metal tetraamino phthalocyanines with a tetracarboxylic dianhydride (preferably aromatic) or copolymerizing with a tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a diamine (preferably also aromatic) to produce amic acids which are then dehydrocyclized to imides. Thermally and oxidatively stable polymers result which form tough, flexible films, varnishes, adhesives, and fibers.

  11. Photodynamic ultradeformable liposomes: Design and characterization.

    PubMed

    Montanari, J; Perez, A P; Di Salvo, F; Diz, V; Barnadas, R; Dicelio, L; Doctorovich, F; Morilla, M J; Romero, E L

    2007-02-01

    Hydrophobic ([tetrakis(2,4-dimetil-3-pentyloxi)-phthalocyaninate]zinc(II)) (ZnPc) and hydrophilic ([tetrakis(N,N,N-trimethylammoniumetoxi)-phthalocyaninate]zinc(II) tetraiodide) (ZnPcMet) phthalocyanines were synthesized and loaded in ultradeformable liposomes (UDL) of soybean phosphatidylcholine and sodium cholate (6:1, w/w, ratio), resulting 100 nm mean size vesicles of negative Zeta potential, with encapsulation efficiencies of 85 and 53%, enthalpy of phase transition of 5.33 and 158 J/mmol for ZnPc and ZnPcMet, respectively, indicating their deep and moderate partition into UD matrices. Matrix elasticity of UDL-phthalocyanines resulted 28-fold greater than that of non-UDL, leaking only 25% of its inner aqueous content after passage through a nanoporous barrier versus 100% leakage for non-UDL. UDL-ZnPc made ZnPc soluble in aqueous buffer while kept the monomeric state, rendering singlet oxygen quantum yield (Phi(Delta)) similar to that obtained in ethanol (0.61), whereas UDL-ZnPcMet had a four-fold higher Phi(Delta) than that of free ZnPcMet (0.21). Free phthalocyanines were non-toxic at 1 and 10 microM, both in dark or upon irradiation at 15 J/cm2 on Vero and J-774 cells (MTT assay). Only liposomal ZnPc at 10 microM was toxic for J-774 cells under both conditions. Additionally, endo-lysosomal confinement of the HPTS dye was kept after irradiation at 15 J/cm2 in the presence of UDL-phtalocyanines. This could lead to improve effects of singlet oxygen against intra-vesicular pathogen targets inside the endo-lysosomal system. PMID:17157460

  12. Metal phthalocyanine polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, B. N.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Metal 4, 4', 4", 4"'=tetracarboxylic phthalocyanines (MPTC) are prepared by reaction of trimellitic anhydride, a salt or hydroxide of the desired metal (or the metal in powdered form), urea and a catalyst. A purer form of MPTC is prepared than heretofore. These tetracarboxylic acids are then polymerized by heat to sheet polymers which have superior heat and oxidation resistance. The metal is preferably a divalent metal having an atomic radius close to 1.35A.

  13. Photodynamic therapy with aluminum-chloro-phthalocyanine induces necrosis and vascular damage in mice tongue tumors.

    PubMed

    Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; Lozzi, Silene Paulino; Simioni, Andreza Ribeiro; Morais, Paulo César; Tedesco, Antônio Cláudio; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we describe the efficacy of the liposomal-AlClPc (aluminum-chloro-phthalocyanine) formulation in PDT study against Ehrlich tumor cells proliferation in immunocompetent swiss mice tongue. Experiments were conduced in sixteen tumor induced mice that were divided in three control groups: (1) tumor without treatment; (2) tumor with 100J/cm(2) laser (670nm) irradiation; and (3) tumor with AlClPc peritumoral injection; and a PDT experimental group when tumors received AlClPc injection followed by tumor irradiation. Control groups present similar macroscopically and histological patterns after treatments, while PDT treatment induced 90% of Ehrlich tumor necrosis after 24h of one single application, showing the efficacy of liposome-AlClPc (aluminum-chloro-phthalocyanine) mediated PDT on the treatment of oral cancer. PMID:19097802

  14. Doped colorimetric assay liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides compositions comprising colorimetric assay liposomes. The present invention also provides methods for producing colorimetric liposomes and calorimetric liposome assay systems. In preferred embodiments, these calorimetric liposome systems provide high levels of sensitivity through the use of dopant molecules. As these dopants allow the controlled destabilization of the liposome structure, upon exposure of the doped liposomes to analyte(s) of interest, the indicator color change is facilitated and more easily recognized.

  15. Site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies to liposomes enhances photosensitizer uptake and photodynamic therapy efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broekgaarden, M.; van Vught, R.; Oliveira, S.; Roovers, R. C.; van Bergen En Henegouwen, P. M. P.; Pieters, R. J.; van Gulik, T. M.; Breukink, E.; Heger, M.

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy for therapy-resistant cancers will greatly benefit from targeted delivery of tumor photosensitizing agents. In this study, a strategy for the site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies onto liposomes containing the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine was developed and tested.Photodynamic therapy for therapy-resistant cancers will greatly benefit from targeted delivery of tumor photosensitizing agents. In this study, a strategy for the site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies onto liposomes containing the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine was developed and tested. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and methods. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00014b

  16. Method of solubilizing phthalocyanines and metallophthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Rathke, J.W.; Chen, M.J.; Fendrick, C.M.

    1990-06-01

    A one-step method of manufacturing soluble phthalocyanines and metallophthalocyanines, like zinc phthalocyanine, by converting a phthalocyanine or a metallophthalocyanine to a trialkylsilyl-substituted derivative is disclosed. The phthalocyanine or metallophthalocyanine is converted to a soluble trialkylsilyl-substituted derivative by interacting the phthalocyanine or metallophthalocyanine with an active metal amide, like lithium 2,2,6, 6-tetra-methylpiperidide, and a halotrialkylsilane, like chlorotrimethylsilane, to provide a phthalocyanine compound, like phthalocyanine monomers, dimers or polymers, metalated or unmetalated, that are soluble in organic media.

  17. New Directions in Phthalocyanine Pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were the following: (1) investigation of the synthesis of new phthalocyanines; (2) characterization of the new phthalocyanines synthesized; (3) investigate the properties of the newly synthesized phthalocyanines with emphasis on UV protection of plastics and coatings; and (4) utilize quantum mechanics to evaluate the structural relationships with possible properties and synthetic approaches. The proposed research targeted the synthesis of phthalocyanines containing an aromatic bridge between two phthalocyanine rings. The goal was to synthesize pigments which would protect plastics when exposed to the photodegradation effects of the sun in space. The stability and extended conjugation of the phthalocyanines offer a unique opportunity for energy absorption and numerous radiative and non-radiative energy loss mechanisms. Although the original targeted phthalocyanines were changed early in the project, several new and unique phthalocyanine compounds were prepared. The basic goals of this work were met and some unique and unexpected outcomes of the work were the result of the integral use of quantum mechanics and molecular modeling with the synthetic effort.

  18. New directions in phthalocyanine pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Diep VO

    1994-01-01

    Phthalocyanines have been used as a pigment in coatings and related applications for many years. These pigments are some of the most stable organic pigments known. The phthalo blue and green pigments have been known to be ultraviolet (UV) stable and thermally stable to over 400 C. These phthalocyanines are both a semiconductor and photoconductor, exhibiting catalytic activity and photostabilization capability of polymers. Many metal free and metallic phthalocyanine derivatives have been prepared. Development of the new classes of phthalocyanine pigment could be used as coating on NASA spacecraft material such as glass to decrease the optical degradation from UV light, the outside of the space station modules for UV protection, and coating on solar cells to increase lifetime and efficiency.

  19. Site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies to liposomes enhances photosensitizer uptake and photodynamic therapy efficacy.

    PubMed

    Broekgaarden, M; van Vught, R; Oliveira, S; Roovers, R C; van Bergen En Henegouwen, P M P; Pieters, R J; Van Gulik, T M; Breukink, E; Heger, M

    2016-03-17

    Photodynamic therapy for therapy-resistant cancers will greatly benefit from targeted delivery of tumor photosensitizing agents. In this study, a strategy for the site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies onto liposomes containing the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine was developed and tested. PMID:26954515

  20. 21 CFR 73.3124 - Phthalocyanine green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Phthalocyanine green. 73.3124 Section 73.3124 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3124 Phthalocyanine green. (a) Identity. The color additive is phthalocyanine green (CAS Reg. No. 1328-53-6), Colour Index No. 74260. (b)...

  1. 21 CFR 73.3124 - Phthalocyanine green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phthalocyanine green. 73.3124 Section 73.3124 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3124 Phthalocyanine green. (a) Identity. The color additive is phthalocyanine green (CAS Reg. No. 1328-53-6), Colour Index No. 74260. (b)...

  2. Gold liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    Lipids are an important class of molecules, being found in membranes, HDL, LDL, and other natural structures, serving essential roles in structure and with varied functions such as compartmentalization and transport. Synthetic liposomes are also widely used as delivery and release vehicles for drugs, cosmetics, and other chemicals; soap is made from lipids. Lipids may form bilayer or multilammellar vesicles, micelles, sheets, tubes, and other structures. Lipid molecules may be linked to proteins, carbohydrates, or other moieties. EM study of this essential ingredient of life has lagged, due to lack of direct methods to visualize lipids without extensive alteration. OsO4 reacts with double bonds in membrane phospholipids, forming crossbridges. This has been the method of choice to both fix and stain membranes, thus far. An earlier work described the use of tungstate clusters (W{sub 11}) attached to lipid moieties to form lipid structures and lipid probes. With the development of gold clusters, it is now possible to covalently and specifically link a dense gold sphere to a lipid molecule; for example, reacting a mono-N-hydroxysuccinimide Nanogold cluster with the amino group on phosphatidyl ethanolaminine. Examples of a gold-fatty acid and a gold-phospholipid are shown.

  3. Liposome technology. Volume I: Preparation of liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Gregoriadis, G.

    1984-01-01

    These three volumes cover liposome technology in pharmacology and medicine. Contributors emphasize methodology used in their own laboratories, and include a brief introduction, coverage of relevant literature, applications and critical evaluations for the methods they describe. Volume I examine methods for the preparation of liposomes and auxiliary techniques.

  4. [Photolumimescence character of novel phthalocyanine].

    PubMed

    Xia, Dao-cheng; Gao, Fu-bin; Ma, Chun-yu; Yu, Shu-kun; Ji, Dong-mei; Du, Xi-guang; Du, Guo-tong

    2008-08-01

    In the present paper, the authors study the photolumimescence spectra of the novel 2,3-tetra-(2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzoyl) hydrogen phthalocyanine casting film and vacuum-deposited film. Photolumimescence spectras of casting film on the quartz substrate were measured at 10, 77, 177 and 300 K, and the photolumimescence spectra of vacuum-deposited film with a thickness of about 200 nm on the silicon substrate was studied at room temperature (300 K). For 2,3-tetra-(2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzoyl) hydrogen phthalocyanine, the casting films all show fluorescence peaks at 942, 937, 942 and 942 nm and phosphorescence peaks at 1114, 1057, 1114 and 1114 nm in the photolumimescence spectra at 10, 77, 177 and 300 K, respectively. In the cases of 2,3-tetra-(2-isopropyl-5-methyl -benzoyl) hydrogen phthalocyanine, the peaks of excimers, which are related with the resistance ability of molecular aggregation, were found around 1673 nm as observed from photolumimescence spectra of the novel phthalocyanine casting films at 177 and 300 K. And the peak of excimers at 300 K is stronger than at 177 K also as can be seen from photolumimescence spectra of its casting films. With the increase in the temperature, the fluorescence peak was weakened and the peaks of excimers became stronger from the photoluminescence spectra of 2,3-tetra-(2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzoyl) hydrogen phthalocyanine casting films at 10, 77, 177 and 300 K. At the same time, the authors discussed the reason for coming into being 2,3-tetra-(2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzoyl) hydrogen phthalocyanine excimers as can be concluded from the structure of 2,3-tetra-(2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzoyl) hydrogen phthalocyanine molecules through the parameters of Chem 3D Ultra 9.0 MM2 calculation and simulated diagram of C4h isomer of 2,3-tetra-(2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzoyl) hydrogen phthalocyanine. The peaks of casting film and vacuum-deposited film of 2,3-tetra-(2-isopropyl-5-methyl -benzoyl) hydrogen phthalocyanine presented different maximum emission wavelength and full width at half maximum. The peak of 2,3-tetra-(2-isopropyl-5-methyl-benzoyl) hydrogen phthalocyanine vacuum-deposited films displays the maximum emission wavelengths around 1140 nm, while the maximum emission wavelengths of casting films show obvious differences compared with the vacuum-deposited films. The usual full width at half maximum is approximately 300 nm for casting film, which is in contrasts with that the full width at half maximum is about 100 nm for the vacuum-deposited film as can be seen from photolumimescence spectra of 2,3-tetra-(2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzoyl) hydrogen phthalocyanine casting film and photolumimescence spectra of 2,3-tetra-(2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzoyl) hydrogen phthalocyanine vacuum-deposited film. PMID:18975794

  5. Liposomes as nanomedical devices

    PubMed Central

    Bozzuto, Giuseppina; Molinari, Agnese

    2015-01-01

    Since their discovery in the 1960s, liposomes have been studied in depth, and they continue to constitute a field of intense research. Liposomes are valued for their biological and technological advantages, and are considered to be the most successful drug-carrier system known to date. Notable progress has been made, and several biomedical applications of liposomes are either in clinical trials, are about to be put on the market, or have already been approved for public use. In this review, we briefly analyze how the efficacy of liposomes depends on the nature of their components and their size, surface charge, and lipidic organization. Moreover, we discuss the influence of the physicochemical properties of liposomes on their interaction with cells, half-life, ability to enter tissues, and final fate in vivo. Finally, we describe some strategies developed to overcome limitations of the “first-generation” liposomes, and liposome-based drugs on the market and in clinical trials. PMID:25678787

  6. Multi-liposomal containers.

    PubMed

    Yaroslavov, A A; Sybachin, A V; Zaborova, O V; Zezin, A B; Talmon, Y; Ballauff, M; Menger, F M

    2015-12-01

    Small unilamellar liposomes, 40-60 nm in diameter, composed of anionic diphosphatidylglycerol (cardiolipin, CL(2-)) or phosphatidylcerine (PS(1-)) and zwitter-ionic egg yolk lecithin (EL) or dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), electrostatically complex with polystyrene microspheres, ca. 100 nm in diameter, grafted by polycationic chains ("spherical polycationic brushes", SPBs). Polymer/liposome binding studies were carried out using electrophoretic mobility (EPM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorescence, conductometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) as the main analytical tools. By these means a remarkably detailed picture emerges of molecular events inside a membrane. The following are among the most important conclusions that arose from the experiments: (a) binding of liposomes to SPBs is accompanied by flip-flop of anionic lipids from the inner to the outer leaflet of the liposomal membrane along with lateral lipid segregation into "islands". (b) The SPB-induced structural reorganization of the liposomal membrane, together with the geometry of anionic lipid molecules, determines the maximum molar fraction of anionic lipid (a key parameter designated as ν) that ensures the structural integrity of liposomes upon complexation: ν=0.3 for liposomes with conically-shaped CL(2-) and ν=0.5 for liposomes with anionic cylindrically-shaped PS(1-). (c) The number of intact liposomes per SPB particle varies from 40 for (ν=0.1) to 13 (ν=0.5). (d) By using a mixture of liposomes with variety of encapsulated substances, multi-liposomal complexes can be prepared with a high loading capacity and a controlled ratio of the contents. (e) In order to make the mixed anionic liposomes pH-sensitive, they are additionally modified by 30 mol% of a morpholinocyclohexanol-based lipid that undergoes a conformational flip when changing pH. Being complexed with SPBs, such liposomes rapidly release their contents when the pH is reduced from 7.0 to 5.0. The results allow loaded liposomes to be concentrated within a rather small volume and, thereby, the preparation of multi-liposomal containers of promise in the drug delivery field. PMID:26372095

  7. Liposomes in chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cserháti, T; Szögyi, M

    2010-12-01

    The newest achievements in the application of liposomes in different chromatographic technologies such as high-performance liquid chromatography and electrically driven separation methods was compiled and critically evaluated. The employment of chromatographic methodologies for the determination of molecular parameters of biological importance is also discussed in detail. The future trends of the use of liposomes is also shortly discussed. PMID:21077245

  8. Fused liposome and acid induced method for liposome fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.; Connor, J.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a method of fusing liposomes. It comprises: preparing a suspension of liposomes containing at least one lipid which has a tendency to form the inverted hexagonal phase and at least 20 mol percent of palmitoylhomocysteine; and in the absence of externally added divalent cations, proteins or other macromolecules, acidifying the liposome suspension to reduce the pH of the liposomes to below pH 7, such that at least about 20% of the liposomes fuse to one another.

  9. Phthalocyanine Blends Improve Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Varotto, Alessandro; Nam, Chang-Yong; Radivojevic, Ivana; Tomé, Joao; Cavaleiro, José A.S.; Black, Charles T.; Drain, Charles Michael

    2010-01-01

    A core phthalocyanine platform allows engineering the solubility properties the band gap; shifting the maximum absorption toward the red. A simple method to increase the efficiency of heterojunction solar cells uses a self-organized blend of the phthalocyanine chromophores fabricated by solution processing. PMID:20136126

  10. Phthalocyanines functionalized with 2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazolylethoxy and 1,4,7-trioxanonyl moieties and the effect of metronidazole substitution on photocytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wierzchowski, Marcin; Sobotta, Lukasz; Skupin-Mrugalska, Paulina; Kruk, Justyna; Jusiak, Weronika; Yee, Michael; Konopka, Krystyna; Düzgüneş, Nejat; Tykarska, Ewa; Gdaniec, Maria; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; Goslinski, Tomasz

    2013-10-01

    Four novel magnesium(II) and zinc(II) phthalocyanines bearing 1,4,7-trioxanonyl, polyether and/or (2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethoxy, heterocyclic substituents at their non-peripheral positions were synthesized and assessed in terms of physicochemical and biological properties. Magnesium phthalocyanine derivatives bearing polyether substituents (Pc-1), a mixed system of polyether and heterocyclic substituents (Pc-3), and four heterocyclic substituents (Pc-4), respectively, were synthesized following the Linstead macrocyclization reaction procedure. Zinc phthalocyanine (Pc-2) bearing polyether substituents at non-peripheral positions was synthesized following the procedure in n-pentanol with the zinc acetate, and DBU. Novel phthalocyanines were purified by flash column chromatography and characterized using NMR, MS, UV-Vis and HPLC. Moreover, two precursors in macrocyclization reaction phthalonitriles were characterized using X-ray. Photophysical properties of the novel macrocycles were evaluated, including UV-Vis spectra analysis and aggregation study. All macrocycles subjected to singlet oxygen generation and the oxidation rate constant measurements exhibited lower quantum yields of singlet oxygen generation in DMSO than in DMF. In addition, the Pc-2 molecule was found to be the most efficient singlet oxygen generator from the group of macrocycles studied. The photocytotoxicity evaluated on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line, HSC-3, for Pc-3 was significantly higher than that for Pc-1, Pc-2, and Pc-4. Interestingly, Pc-3 was found to be the most active macrocycle in vitro although its ability to generate singlet oxygen was significantly lower than those of Pc-1 and Pc-2. However, attempts to encapsulate phthalocyanines Pc-1-Pc-3 in liposomal membranes were unsuccessful. The phthalocyanine-nitroimidazole conjugate, Pc-4 was encapsulated in phosphatidylglycerol:phosphatidylcholine unilamellar liposomes and subjected to photocytotoxicity study. PMID:23872453

  11. Ultrasound-responsive liposomes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shao-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound-responsive liposomes are drug-loaded liposomes that contain a small amount of gas (often air). Co-encapsulation of a pharmaceutic along with this gas renders the liposomes acoustically active, allowing for ultrasound imaging as well as controlled release of the contents through ultrasound stimulation. Methods for the facile production of gas-containing liposomes with simultaneous drug encapsulation are available. Conventional procedures are used to prepare liposomes composed of phospholipid and cholesterol, namely, hydration of the lipid film followed by sonication. After sonication, the gas is introduced by one of two methods. The first method involves freezing and lyophilizing the sonicated liposomes in the presence of mannitol, the relevant property of which appears to be that it accentuates freezing damage to the lipid membranes. The other technique employs freezing of liposomes under elevated pressure of the desired gas. The concept of ultrasound-mediated drug delivery has many potential applications to specific clinical conditions such as cancer, thrombus, arterial restenosis, myocardial infarction, and angiogenesis because of its ability to localize the delivery of therapeutic agents that would cause side effects if given in large amounts systemically. PMID:20072876

  12. Hexacoordinate bonding and aromaticity in silicon phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang

    2010-12-23

    Si-E bondings in hexacoordinate silicon phthalocyanine were analyzed using bond order (BO), energy partition, atoms in molecules (AIM), electron localization function (ELF), and localized orbital locator (LOL). Bond models were proposed to explain differences between hexacoordinate and tetracoordinate Si-E bondings. Aromaticity of silicon phthalocyanine was investigated using nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS), harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA), conceptual density functional theory (DFT), ring critical point (RCP) descriptors, and delocalization index (DI). Structure, energy, bonding, and aromaticity of tetracoordinate silicon phthalocyanine were studied and compared with hexacoordinate one. PMID:21105726

  13. Viscoelasticity measurements inside liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shu; Gibson, Lachlan; Preece, Daryl; Nieminen, Timo A.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2014-09-01

    Microrheology, the study of the behavior of fluids on the microscopic scale, has been and continues to be one of the most important subjects that can be applied to characterize the behavior of biological fluids. It is extremely difficult to make rapid measurement of the viscoelastic properties of the interior of living cells. Liposomes are widely used as model system for studying different aspects of cell biology. We propose to develop a microrheometer, based on real-time control of optical tweezers, in order to investigate the viscoelastic properties of the fluid inside liposomes. This will give greater understanding of the viscoelastic properties of the fluids inside cells. In our experiment, the liposomes are prepared by different methods to find out both a better way to make GUVs and achieve efficient encapsulation of particle. By rotating the vaterite inside a liposome via spin angular momentum, the optical torque can be measured by measuring the change of polarization of the transmitted light, which allows the direct measurement of viscous drag torque since the optical torque is balanced by the viscous drag. We present an initial feasibility demonstration of trapping and manipulation of a microscopic vaterite inside the liposome. The applied method is simple and can be extended to sensing within the living cells.

  14. Liposomes in silicosis investigations.

    PubMed Central

    Erdogdu, G; Hasirci, V N

    1983-01-01

    The effects of quartz and sodium metasilicate on liposomes were studied in order to understand the mechanism of silicosis. 8-Hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid was tested for its in situ silicosis-prevention capacity. Two types of liposomes--(A) those incorporating cholesterol and (B) those without cholesterol--were used. The tests consisted of measuring permeability changes caused by the above-mentioned chemicals. Permeabilities were found to depend on membrane composition. Tests on quartz action led us to the conclusion that liposomes of this composition did not simulate the erythrocytes very well. It was also observed that absence or presence of cholesterol and the mode of contact altered the effect of quartz. Silicate destabilized type A liposomes, but this was less than that caused by quartz. This was explained by the concentration of monosilicic acid that dissolves out from quartz and silicate. When quartz was pretreated with the preventive, the type A liposomes were stabilized, but a slight destabilizing effect was observed on type B. 8-Hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid augmented the destabilizing effect of silicate, whereas it decreased the hemolytic activity of uncoated quartz, indicating a preventive potential in in vivo. Images FIGURE 1. PMID:6416823

  15. Binding to and photo-oxidation of cardiolipin by the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Myriam E.; Kim, Junhwan; Delos Santos, Grace B.; Azizuddin, Kashif; Berlin, Jeffrey; Anderson, Vernon E.; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2010-09-01

    Cardiolipin is a unique phospholipid of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Its peroxidation correlates with release of cytochrome c and induction of apoptosis. The phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 binds preferentially to the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Earlier Förster resonance energy transfer studies showed colocalization of Pc 4 and cardiolipin, which suggests cardiolipin as a target of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Pc 4. Using liposomes as membrane models, we find that Pc 4 binds to cardiolipin-containing liposomes similarly to those that do not contain cardiolipin. Pc 4 binding is also studied in MCF-7c3 cells and those whose cardiolipin content was reduced by treatment with palmitate. Decreased levels of cardiolipin are quantified by thin-layer chromatography. The similar level of binding of Pc 4 to cells, irrespective of palmitate treatment, supports the lack of specificity of Pc 4 binding. Thus, factors other than cardiolipin are likely responsible for the preferential localization of Pc 4 in mitochondria. Nonetheless, cardiolipin within liposomes is readily oxidized by Pc 4 and light, yielding apparently mono- and dihydroperoxidized cardiolipin. If similar products result from exposure of cells to Pc 4-PDT, they could be part of the early events leading to apoptosis following Pc 4-PDT.

  16. Studies of phthalocyanine-containing polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pui Sze Priscilla

    This thesis reports the synthesis, spectroscopic and photophysical properties, and in vitro photodynamic activities of several series of phthalocyanine-containing polymers including poly(norbornene), poly(anhydride), and poly(epsilon-caprolactone). Chapter 1 gives a general overview of phthalocyanines including their synthesis and applications. Special emphasis has been placed on hydrophilic and non-aggregated phthalocyanines and their use in photodynamic therapy. In addition, different classes of phthalocyanine-containing polymers will also be mentioned. Chapter 2 discusses the synthesis, characterization, and photophysical properties of a series of poly(norbornene)s with zinc(II) phthalocyanine and amino acid moieties. The copolymers were prepared by copolymerization of 2-(2-norbornenylmethoxy)phthalocyaninatozinc(II) with 5-norbornenes substituted with phenylalanine and tyrosine. As shown by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, phthalocyanines in this series of polymer exhibit a rather strong aggregation tendency. Chapter 3 presents the synthesis, characterization, photophysical properties, and in vitro photodynamic activities of a related series of amino acid- and sugar-containing poly(norbornene)s connected axially to a silicon(IV) phthalocyanine core. These polymers exhibit a good solubility in common organic solvents. Due to the axial polymeric substituents, these compounds are free from aggregation and give a high singlet oxygen quantum yield. These polymers in Cremophor EL emulsions also show a high photodynamic activity against HepG2 cells, in particular the polymer with protected galactose moieties. Chapter 4 reports a series of silicon(IV) phthalocyanines substituted with two poly(sebacic anhydride) chains as the axial ligands. The polymers form nanoparticles in water in the presence of surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS). The degradation of the nanoparticles was carried out in alkaline media and was followed by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser light scattering. It was found that phthalocyanines are gradually released during degradation. Chapter 5 describes the preparation, characterization, photophysical properties, and in vitro photodynamic activities of homo- and co-polymers of epsilon-caprolactone and/or 5-ethylene ketyl epsilon-caprolactone connected axially to silicon(IV) phthalocyanine. Again, these polymers are non-aggregated in solution as shown by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Enzymatic degradation of the nanoparticles formed from these polymers with Lipase PS leads to a graduate release of phthalocyanines. In addition, these polymers show high in vitro photodynamic activities toward HepG2 cells, showing that this novel polymer-based colloidal system is potentially useful for the delivery and release of photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy. In addition to polymeric phthalocyanines, a series of symmetrical and unsymmetrical galactose-containing silicon(IV) phthalocyanines has also been prepared. Chapter 6 describes the preparation and properties of these novel compounds, including their in vitro photoactivity toward HepG2 cells. Appendix A gives characterizing data for all the new compounds. Crystallographic details for the X-ray structure determinations are listed in Appendix B.

  17. Photodynamic effects of silicon phthalocyanines in model cells and tumors (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleinick, Nancy L.; Zaidi, Syed I. A.; Rihter, Boris D.; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Clay, Marian E.; Antunez, Antonio R.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    1992-06-01

    A series of silicon and aluminum phthalocyanines is being investigated in this laboratory for their potential as photosensitizers for photodynamic tumor therapy (PDT). Of these, one of the silicon phthalocyanines [SiPc(OH)OSi(CH3)2(CH2)3N(CH3)2] (Pc IV) has proven to be highly efficient in a series of in vitro assays and in PDT in vivo. When compared to sulfonated or non-sulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine and/or Photofrin II, Pc IV produced greater effects at lower concentrations in a clonogenic assay with V79 cells, and in photoenhancement of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocyte membranes. Physiological responses of treated cells in vitro appeared similar to those produced by PDT with other sensitizers; however, the responses, such as the induction of apoptosis in murine lymphoma, occurred with greater efficiency when Pc IV served as photosensitizer. In order to evaluate the efficacy of Pc IV in vivo, the dye was suspended in corn oil or incorporated into liposomes and injected intraperitoneally into C3H mice bearing RIF-1 tumors. Pharmacokinetic studies showed efficient uptake of Pc IV into the tumor, as well as into liver and kidney. For PDT, tumors were irradiated with 675 nm light from an argon-pumped dye laser. Treatment of tumors up to 100 mm3 with 1.0 mg/kg Pc IV and 135 J/cm2 produced ablation of the tumor within 48 hours. Tumors > 200 mm3 could be ablated with 2.0 mg/kg Pc IV. The data suggest that Pc IV may be a highly efficient photosensitizer for tumor PDT.

  18. Liposomes: Technologies and Analytical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesorka, Aldo; Orwar, Owe

    2008-07-01

    Liposomes are structurally and functionally some of the most versatile supramolecular assemblies in existence. Since the beginning of active research on lipid vesicles in 1965, the field has progressed enormously and applications are well established in several areas, such as drug and gene delivery. In the analytical sciences, liposomes serve a dual purpose: Either they are analytes, typically in quality-assessment procedures of liposome preparations, or they are functional components in a variety of new analytical systems. Liposome immunoassays, for example, benefit greatly from the amplification provided by encapsulated markers, and nanotube-interconnected liposome networks have emerged as ultrasmall-scale analytical devices. This review provides information about new developments in some of the most actively researched liposome-related topics.

  19. Boronated liposome development and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, M.F.

    1995-11-01

    The boronated liposome development and evaluation effort consists of two separate tasks. The first is the development of new boron compounds and the synthesis of known boron species with BNCT potential. These compounds are then encapsulated within liposomes for the second task, biodistribution testing in tumor-bearing mice, which examines the potential for the liposomes and their contents to concentrate boron in cancerous tissues.

  20. N-isopropylacrylamide copolymers for the preparation of pH-sensitive liposomes and polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Leroux, J; Roux, E; Le Garrec, D; Hong, K; Drummond, D C

    2001-05-14

    Hydrophobically-modified copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide bearing a pH-sensitive moiety were investigated for the preparation of pH-responsive liposomes and polymeric micelles. The copolymers having the hydrophobic anchor randomly distributed within the polymeric chain were found to more efficiently destabilize egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC)/cholesterol liposomes than the alkyl terminated polymers. Release of both a highly-water soluble fluorescent contents marker, pyranine, and an amphipathic cytotoxic anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin, from copolymer-modified liposomes was shown to be dependent on pH, the concentration of copolymer, the presence of other polymers such as polyethylene glycol, and the method of preparation. Both polymers were able to partially stabilize EPC liposomes in human serum. These polymers were found to self-assemble to form micelles. The critical association concentration was low (9--34 mg/l) and influenced by the position of the alkyl chains. In phosphate buffered saline, the micelles had a bimodal size distribution with the predominant population having a mean diameter of 35 nm. The polymeric micelles were studied as a delivery system for the photosensitizer aluminum chloride phthalocyanine, (AlClPc), currently evaluated in photodynamic therapy. pH-Responsive polymeric micelles loaded with AlClPc were found to exhibit increased cytotoxicity against EMT-6 mouse mammary cells in vitro than the control Cremophor EL formulation. PMID:11389986

  1. Liposomes for HIV prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Malavia, Nikita; Zurakowski, David; Schroeder, Avi; Princiotto, Amy; Laury, Anna Ray; Epstein-Barash, Hila; Sodroski, Joseph; Langer, Robert; Madani, Navid; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    There are approximately 33.4 million adults living with HIV worldwide of which an estimated 15.7 million are women. Although there has been enormous progress in the therapy of HIV/AIDS, treatment is not curative. Prevention is therefore of paramount importance, but vaccine-based and microbicidal approaches are still in their infancy. Since women acquire the virus largely through sexual intercourse, we developed liposomal systems potentially suitable for intravaginal use to prevent HIV-1 infection. We formulated liposomes from a range of naturally-occurring and synthetic lipids with varying physicochemical properties, and tested their ability to inhibit infection of transformed cells that express receptors specific to the virus. We identified formulations with the most favorable balance between decreasing HIV infection and causing cytotoxicity (i.e. therapeutic index). The therapeutic index improved with increasing cardiolipin content, and degree of unsaturation. Tissue reaction to these formulations was benign after intravaginal instillation in an in vivo female mouse model. These results support the potential use of cardiolipin-based liposomes enriched with synthetic lipids as microbicides for the prevention of HIV infection in women. PMID:21862123

  2. Ligation Strategies for Targeting Liposomal Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Marqués-Gallego, Patricia; de Kroon, Anton I. P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Liposomes have been exploited for pharmaceutical purposes, including diagnostic imaging and drug and gene delivery. The versatility of liposomes as drug carriers has been demonstrated by a variety of clinically approved formulations. Since liposomes were first reported, research of liposomal formulations has progressed to produce improved delivery systems. One example of this progress is stealth liposomes, so called because they are equipped with a PEGylated coating of the liposome bilayer, leading to prolonged blood circulation and improved biodistribution of the liposomal carrier. A growing research area focuses on the preparation of liposomes with the ability of targeting specific tissues. Several strategies to prepare liposomes with active targeting ligands have been developed over the last decades. Herein, several strategies for the functionalization of liposomes are concisely summarized, with emphasis on recently developed technologies for the covalent conjugation of targeting ligands to liposomes. PMID:25126543

  3. Efficient synthesis of ABAB functionalized phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Ettore; Jaramillo-García, Javier; de la Torre, Gema; Torres, Tomás

    2014-09-19

    ABAB-type Zn(II) phthalocyanines, crosswise-functionalized with two and four iodine atoms, respectively, have been efficiently prepared using statistical condensation procedures. Key to the selective preparation of the opposite ABAB isomers versus the adjacent AABB ones is the use of bulky 3,6-(3',5'-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)phthalonitrile with hampered self-condensation capabilities. PMID:25181582

  4. Liposome: classification, preparation, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Rezaei-Sadabady, Rogaie; Davaran, Soodabeh; Joo, Sang Woo; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Hanifehpour, Younes; Samiei, Mohammad; Kouhi, Mohammad; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem

    2013-02-01

    Liposomes, sphere-shaped vesicles consisting of one or more phospholipid bilayers, were first described in the mid-60s. Today, they are a very useful reproduction, reagent, and tool in various scientific disciplines, including mathematics and theoretical physics, biophysics, chemistry, colloid science, biochemistry, and biology. Since then, liposomes have made their way to the market. Among several talented new drug delivery systems, liposomes characterize an advanced technology to deliver active molecules to the site of action, and at present, several formulations are in clinical use. Research on liposome technology has progressed from conventional vesicles to `second-generation liposomes', in which long-circulating liposomes are obtained by modulating the lipid composition, size, and charge of the vesicle. Liposomes with modified surfaces have also been developed using several molecules, such as glycolipids or sialic acid. This paper summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations in respect to industrial applicability and regulatory requirements concerning liposomal drug formulations based on FDA and EMEA documents.

  5. Photochemical decontamination of red cell concentrates with the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 and red light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Hur, Ehud; Zuk, Maria M.; Oetjen, Joyce; Chan, Wai-Shun; Lenny, Leslie; Horowitz, Bernard

    1999-07-01

    Virus inactivation in red blood cells concentrates (RBCC) is being studied in order to increase the safety of the blood supply. For this purpose we have been studying the silicon phthalocyanine (Pc 4), a photosensitizer activated with red light. Two approaches were used to achieve enhanced selectivity of Pc 4 for virus inactivation. One was formulation of Pc 4 in liposomes that reduce its binding to red cells. The other was the use of a light emitting diode (LED) array emitting at 700 nm. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infectivity served as an endpoint for virus kill in treated RBCC. Red cell hemolysis and circulatory survival in rabbits served as measures for red cell damage. Treatment of small aliquots of human RBCC with 2 (mu) M Pc 4 in liposomes and 10 J/cm2 of 700 nm LED light in the presence of the quenches of reactive oxygen species glutathione and trolox resulted in 6 log10 inactivation of VSV. Under these conditions hemolysis of treated red cells stored at 4 degree(s)C for 21 days was only slightly above that of control cells. Rabbit RBCC similarly treated circulated with a half life of 7.5 days compared with 10.5 days of control. It is concluded that Pc 4 used as described here may be useful for viral decontamination of RBCC, pending toxicological and clinical studies.

  6. Structural studies of aliphatic substituted phthalocyanine-lipid multilayers.

    PubMed

    Zarbakhsh, Ali; Campana, Mario; Mills, David; Webster, John R P

    2010-10-01

    A Langmuir-Blodgett film of aliphatic substituted phthalocyanines on a C18 silane supporting layer coupled onto a silicon substrate has been investigated using neutron reflectometry. This multilayer structure is seen as a possible candidate for phthalocyanine-lipid biosensor devices. The results show the suitability of the C18 ligands as an anchoring layer for the phthalocyanines. The scattering length density profiles demonstrate the effectiveness of a lipid monolayer in partitioning the composition of phthalocyanine layers from that of the bulk liquid. The effectiveness of this barrier is a critical factor in the efficiency of such devices. PMID:20831252

  7. Propulsion of liposomes using bacterial motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenhai; Li, Zhifei; Yu, Wei; Li, Kejie; Xie, Zhihong; Shi, Zhiguo

    2013-05-01

    Here we describe the utilization of flagellated bacteria as actuators to propel spherical liposomes by attaching bacteria to the liposome surface. Bacteria were stably attached to liposomes using a cross-linking antibody. The effect of the number of attached bacteria on propulsion speed was experimentally determined. The effects of bacterial propulsion on the bacteria-antibody-liposome complex were stochastic. We demonstrated that liposomal mobility increased when bacteria were attached, and the propulsion speed correlated with the number of bacteria.

  8. Surface chemistry of porphyrins and phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, J. Michael

    2015-11-01

    This review covers the surface chemistry of porphyrins, phthalocyanines, their metal complexes, and related compounds, with particular focus on chemical reactions at solid/vacuum interfaces. Porphyrins are not only important biomolecules, they also find, together with the artificial phthalocyanines, numerous technological and scientific applications, which often involve surface and interface related aspects. After a brief summary of fundamental properties of these molecules in the context of surface science, the following topics will be discussed: (1) Aspects of geometric structure, including self-assembly, conformation, mobility and manipulation of the adsorbed molecules. (2) Surface-related changes of the electronic structure and the magnetic properties. (3) The role of the metal center in the surface chemical bond. (4) On-surface coordination reactions, such as direct metalation and coordination of axial ligands. (5) The influence of axial ligands on the surface chemical bond and the magnetic properties.

  9. Photophysics of silicon phthalocyanines in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Doane, Tennyson L; Chuang, Chi-Hung; Chomas, Andrew; Burda, Clemens

    2013-02-01

    Phthalocyanines have been used as photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents because of their uniquely favorable optical properties and high photostability. They have been shown to be highly successful for the treatment of cancer through efficient singlet-oxygen ((1)O(2)) production. However, due to their hydrophobic properties, the considerations of solubility and cellular location have made understanding their photophysics in vitro and in vivo difficult. Indeed, many quantitative assessments of PDT reagents are undertaken in purely organic solvents, presenting challenges for interpreting observations during practical application in vivo. With steady-state and time-resolved laser spectroscopy, we show that for axial ligated silicon phthalocyanines in aqueous media, both the water:lipophile ratio and the pH have drastic effects on their photophysics, and ultimately dictate their functionality as PDT drugs. We suggest that considering the presented photophysics for PDT drugs in aqueous solutions leads to guidelines for a next generation of even more potent PDT agents. PMID:23307629

  10. Liposome Technology for Industrial Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Andreas; Vorauer-Uhl, Karola

    2011-01-01

    Liposomes, spherical vesicles consisting of one or more phospholipid bilayers, were first described in the mid 60s by Bangham and coworkers. Since then, liposomes have made their way to the market. Today, numerous lab scale but only a few large-scale techniques are available. However, a lot of these methods have serious limitations in terms of entrapment of sensitive molecules due to their exposure to mechanical and/or chemical stress. This paper summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations in respect to industrial applicability. An additional point of view was taken to regulatory requirements concerning liposomal drug formulations based on FDA and EMEA documents. PMID:21490754

  11. Phthalocyanine Tetraamine Epoxy-Curing Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fohlen, G. M.; Achar, B. N.; Parker, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Tough fire- and chemical-resistant epoxies produced by using metalphthalocyanine tetraamines (MPT's) of copper, cobalt, or nickel as curing agents. Synthesis of MPT's commercially realizable and gives pure compounds with almost 90-percent yield. Synthesis applicable for metals with atomic radii of about 1.35 angstroms, including Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Fe, Pt, Al, and V. Possible to use metal phthalocyanines to cure epoxy resins in homogeneous reaction.

  12. NLO properties of chiral phthalocyanine films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Tsuyoshi; Wada, Tatsuo; Sassa, Takafumi; Kimura, Mutsumi; Shirai, Hirofusa

    2003-11-01

    We studied linear and nonlinear optical properties of four different phthalocyanines: vanadyl and copper phthalocyanines substituted with chiral branched side chains, (S)(OMeBu)8VOPc, (S)(OMeBu)8CuPc; a racemic analogue (R,S)(OMeBu)8VOPc; vanadyl phthalocyanine substituted with linear side chains, (OBu)8VOPc. We investigate the molecule packing and their third-order nonlinear optical response in terms of chirality, planarity, and side chain structures. Molecular arrangement of (S)(OMeBu)8VOPc in the thin films was determined to be a columnar phase with rectangular 2D crystals by X-ray diffraction studies. The thin films of (S)(OMeBu)8VOPc diplayed CD activity. While, a chloroform solution of this compound did not show any CD. Therefore, we conclude that the CD in the films must result from the chiral aggregation of the molecules. The Χ(3) value of the flims of (S)(OMeBu)8VOPc was determined for 6.7×10-11 esu by third harmonic generation at 1.907 μm and this value was larger than those of (R,S)(OMeBu)8VOPc, (R,S)(OMeBu)8CuPc, and (OBu)8VOPc.

  13. Substitution of phthalocyanines affecting the properties of their films and heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertsimakha, Ya.; Mamykin, S.; Lutsyk, P.

    2012-08-01

    Optical and photovoltaic properties were studied for phthalocyanine derivatives: sulfonamide zinc phthalocyanine (ZPS), amine zinc phthalocyanine (ZPN) and amine metal-free phthalocyanine (HPN) thin films and thin-film heterostructures made of the phthalocyanine derivatives with organic semiconductors - N,N‧-dimethylperylene-tetracarboxylicacid diimide, pentacene, lead phthalocyanine. It was shown that sulphonamide substitution of phthalocyanine molecule practically does not affect the absorption spectra. NH2 substitution results in appearance of additional absorbance in long-wave range in comparison to the spectra of ZPS. The behavior can be explained by an increase of molecular aggregation due to more efficient interaction of NH2 substituted phthalocyanines. The photovoltaic sensitivity of the phthalocyanine films decreases in following sequence ZPS → ZPN → HPN. Thermal deposition of N,N‧-dimethylperylene-tetracarboxylicacid diimide and pentacene on thin films of the phthalocyanine derivatives results in formation of sufficiently high potential barrier at the interface. The highest photosensitivity was observed in the heterostructures with pentacene films.

  14. Liposome encapsulation of chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Rahman, Yueh Erh

    1976-01-13

    A method for transferring a chelating agent across a cellular membrane by encapsulating the charged chelating agent within liposomes and carrying the liposome-encapsulated chelating agent to the cellular membrane where the liposomes containing the chelating agent will be taken up by the cells, thereby transferring the chelating agent across the cellular membrane. A chelating agent can be introduced into the interior of a cell of a living organism wherein the liposomes will be decomposed, releasing the chelating agent to the interior of the cell. The released chelating agent will complex intracellularly deposited toxic heavy metals, permitting the more soluble metal complex to transfer across the cellular membrane from the cell and subsequently be removed from the living organism.

  15. 99m tc labeled liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.T.; Klipper, R.W.; Timmons, J.H.; Rudolph, A.S.

    1992-10-27

    This patent describes a method of preparing stable gamma-emitting radionuclide-labeled alkyleneamine oxime, the incubating being for a period of time sufficient to form labeled liposome-encapsulated protein.

  16. Room temperature ferromagnetism in a phthalocyanine based carbon material

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, Z. Sato, K.; Sakai, M.; Fukuda, T.; Kamata, N.; Hagiwara, M.; Kida, T.

    2014-02-07

    We report on a simple method to fabricate a magnetic carbon material that contains nitrogen-coordinated transition metals and has a large magnetic moment. Highly chlorinated iron phthalocyanine was used as building blocks and potassium as a coupling reagent to uniformly disperse nitrogen-coordinated iron atoms on the phthalocyanine based carbon material. The iron phthalocyanine based carbon material exhibits ferromagnetic properties at room temperature and the ferromagnetic phase transition occurs at T{sub c} = 490 ± 10 K. Transmission electron microscopy observation, X-ray diffraction analysis, and the temperature dependence of magnetization suggest that the phthalocyanine molecules form three-dimensional random networks in the iron phthalocyanine based carbon material.

  17. Phospholipid liposomes functionalized by protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Savostyanov, G. V.; Grishina, O. A.

    2015-03-01

    Finding new ways to deliver neurotrophic drugs to the brain in newborns is one of the contemporary problems of medicine and pharmaceutical industry. Modern researches in this field indicate the promising prospects of supramolecular transport systems for targeted drug delivery to the brain which can overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, the solution of this problem is actual not only for medicine, but also for society as a whole because it determines the health of future generations. Phospholipid liposomes due to combination of lipo- and hydrophilic properties are considered as the main future objects in medicine for drug delivery through the BBB as well as increasing their bioavailability and toxicity. Liposomes functionalized by various proteins were used as transport systems for ease of liposomes use. Designing of modification oligosaccharide of liposomes surface is promising in the last decade because it enables the delivery of liposomes to specific receptor of human cells by selecting ligand and it is widely used in pharmacology for the treatment of several diseases. The purpose of this work is creation of a coarse-grained model of bilayer of phospholipid liposomes, functionalized by specific to the structural elements of the BBB proteins, as well as prediction of the most favorable orientation and position of the molecules in the generated complex by methods of molecular docking for the formation of the structure. Investigation of activity of the ligand molecule to protein receptor of human cells by the methods of molecular dynamics was carried out.

  18. Liposomal nanocarriers for plasminogen activators.

    PubMed

    Koudelka, Stepan; Mikulik, Robert; Mašek, Josef; Raška, Milan; Turánek Knotigová, Pavlína; Miller, Andrew D; Turánek, Jaroslav

    2016-04-10

    Several plasminogen activators (PAs) have been found effective in treating different thromboembolic diseases. However, administration of conventional thrombolytic therapy is limited by a low efficacy of present formulations of PAs. Conventional treatments using these therapeutic proteins are associated with several limitations including rapid inactivation and clearance, short half-life, bleeding complications or non-specific tissue targeting. Liposome-based formulations of PAs such as streptokinase, tissue-plasminogen activator and urokinase have been developed to improve the therapeutic efficacy of these proteins. Resulting liposomal formulations were found to preserve the original activity of PAs, promote their selective delivery and improve thrombus targeting. Therapeutic potential of these liposome-based PAs has been demonstrated successfully in various pre-clinical models in vivo. Reductions in unwanted side effects (e.g., hemorrhage or immunogenicity) as well as enhancements of efficacy and safety were achieved in comparison to currently existing treatment options based on conventional formulations of PAs. This review summarizes present achievements in: (i) preparation of liposome-based formulations of various PAs, (ii) development of PEGylated and targeted liposomal PAs, (iii) physico-chemical characterization of these developed systems, and (iv) testing of their thrombolytic efficacy. We also look to the future and the imminent arrival of theranostic liposomal formulations to move this field forward. PMID:26876783

  19. Ordered growth of vanadyl phthalocyanine (VOPc) on an iron phthalocyanine (FePc) monolayer.

    PubMed

    Rochford, Luke A; Ramadan, Alexandra J; Woodruff, D Phil; Heutz, Sandrine; Jones, Tim S

    2015-11-28

    The growth and characterisation of a non-planar phthalocyanine (vanadyl phthalocyanine, VOPc) on a complete monolayer (ML) of a planar phthalocyanine (Iron(II) phthalocyanine, FePc) on an Au(111) surface, has been investigated using ultra-high vacuum (UHV) scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). The surface mesh of the initial FePc monolayer has been determined and shown to correspond to an incommensurate overlayer, not commensurate as previously reported. Ordered islands of VOPc, with (1 1) epitaxy, grow on the FePc layer at submonolayer coverages. The individual VOPc molecules occupy sites directly atop the underlying FePc molecules, indicating that significant intermolecular bonding must occur. It is proposed that this interaction implies that the V[double bond, length as m-dash]O points down into the surface, allowing a Fe-O bond to form. The detailed appearance of the STM images of the VOPc molecules is consistent with previous studies in other VOPc growth studies in which this molecular orientation has been proposed. PMID:26477586

  20. Stability of dry liposomes in sugar glasses.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, W Q; Leopold, A C; Crowe, L M; Crowe, J H

    1996-01-01

    Sugars, particularly trehalose and sucrose, are used to stabilize liposomes during hydration (freeze-drying and air-drying). As a result, dry liposomes are trapped in a sugar glass, a supersaturated and thermodynamically unstable solid solution. We investigated the effects of the glassy state on liposome fusion and solute retention in the dry state. Solute leakage from dry liposomes was extremely slow at temperatures below the glass transition temperature (Tg); however, it increased exponentially as temperature increased to near or above the Tg, indicating that the glassy state had to be maintained for dry liposomes to retain trapped solutes. The leakage of solutes from dry liposomes followed the law of first-order kinetics and was correlated linearly with liposome fusion. The kinetics of solute leakage showed an excellent fit with the Arrhenius equation at temperatures both above and below the Tg, with a transitional break near the Tg. The activation energy of solute leakage was 1320 kJ/mol at temperatures above the Tg, but increased to 1991 kJ/mol at temperatures below the Tg. The stabilization effect of sugar glass on dry liposomes may be associated with the elevated energy barrier for liposome fusion and the physical separation of dry liposomes in the glassy state. The half-life of solute retention in dry liposomes may be prolonged by storing dry liposomes at temperatures below the Tg and by increasing the Tg of the dry liposome preparation. PMID:8785336

  1. Controlling Growth Orientation of Phthalocyanine Films by Electrical Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, S.; Banks, C. E.; Frazier, D. O.; Ila, D.; Muntele, I.; Penn, B. G.; Sharma, A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Organic Phthalocyanine films have many applications ranging from data storage to various non-linear optical devices whose quality is affected by the growth orientation of Phthalocyanine films. Due to the structural and electrical properties of Phthalocyanine molecules, the film growth orientation depends strongly on the substrate surface states. In this presentation, an electrical field up to 4000 V/cm is introduced during film growth. The Phthalocyanine films are synthesized on quartz substrates using thermal evaporation. An intermediate layer is deposited on some substrates for introducing the electrical field. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used for measuring surface morphology, film structure, and optical properties, respectively. The comparison of Phthalocyanine films grown with and without the electrical field reveals different morphology, film density, and growth orientation, which eventually change optical properties of these films. These results suggest that the growth method in the electrical field can be used to synthesized Phthalocyanine films with a preferred crystal orientation as well as propose an interaction mechanism between the substrate surface and the depositing molecules. The details of growth conditions and of the growth model of how the Phthalocyanine molecules grow in the electrical field will be discussed.

  2. Optically Active Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine Systems.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hua; Kobayashi, Nagao

    2016-05-25

    This review highlights and summarizes various optically active porphyrin and phthalocyanine molecules prepared using a wide range of structural modification methods to improve the design of novel structures and their applications. The induced chirality of some illustrative achiral bis-porphyrins with a chiral guest molecule is introduced because these systems are ideal for the identification and separation of chiral biologically active substrates. In addition, the relationship between CD signal and the absolute configuration of the molecule is analyzed through an analysis of the results of molecular modeling calculations. Possible future research directions are also discussed. PMID:27186902

  3. Complement activation by PEGylated liposomes containing prednisolone.

    PubMed

    van den Hoven, Jolanda M; Nemes, Reka; Metselaar, Josbert M; Nuijen, Bastiaan; Beijnen, Jos H; Storm, Gert; Szebeni, Janos

    2013-05-13

    Infusion of PEGylated liposomes can give rise to hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) in a relatively large number of patients. Previously it has been shown that these reactions can be caused by activation of the complement (C) system by a negative charge on the anchor molecule of PEG at the liposomal surface. In this study it is tested whether the activation of the C system by PEG-liposomes could be significantly reduced to values comparable to nonreactive liposomal formulations, by changing the PEGylation-profile on the liposomal surface. Therefore, the formation of C activation markers SC5b-9, C3a, C4d and Bb in normal human serum by both prednisolone loaded and empty liposomes with a variation of PEG chain length, PEG surface concentration, PEG anchor molecule and liposomal size was determined using in vitro assays. The tested liposomes caused no or only mild (30%) activation of C except for one formulation wherein the PEG2000 was anchored to cholesterol (CHOL-PEG2000). The latter liposomes caused paralleling rises in SC5b-9 and Bb levels, suggesting excess activation of the alternative pathway. While the relative safety of weak C activator liposomes remains to be confirmed in vivo, the unique, non-charge and non-antibody-mediated direct conversion of C3 by CHOL-PEG2000 liposomes (although argues against the clinical development of these vesicles) opens new opportunities to understand liposomal C activation at the molecular level. PMID:23528740

  4. Environment-Responsive Multifunctional Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Amit A.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Liposomal nanocarriers modified with cell-penetrating peptide and a pH-sensitive PEG shield demonstrate simultaneously a better systemic circulation and site-specific exposure of the cell-penetrating peptide. PEG chains were incorporated into the liposome membrane via the PEG-attached phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) residue with PEG and PE being conjugated with the lowered pH-degradable hydrazone bond (PEG-HZ-PE), while cell-penetrating peptide (TATp) was added as TATp-PEG-PE conjugate. Under normal conditions, liposome-grafted PEG “shielded” liposome-attached TATp moieties, since the PEG spacer for TATp attachment (PEG(1000)) was shorter than protective PEG(2000). PEGylated liposomes accumulate in targets via the EPR effect, but inside the “acidified” tumor or ischemic tissues lose their PEG coating because of the lowered pH-induced hydrolysis of HZ and penetrate inside cells via the now-exposed TATp moieties. pH-responsive behavior of these constructs is successfully tested in cell cultures in vitro as well as in tumors in experimental mice in vivo. These nanocarriers also showed enhanced pGFP transfection efficiency upon intratumoral administration in mice, compared to control pH nonsensitive counterpart. These results can be considered as an important step in the development of tumor-specific stimuli-sensitive drug and gene delivery systems. PMID:20072884

  5. Liposomal drug delivery systems: an update review.

    PubMed

    Samad, Abdus; Sultana, Y; Aqil, M

    2007-10-01

    The discovery of liposome or lipid vesicle emerged from self forming enclosed lipid bi-layer upon hydration; liposome drug delivery systems have played a significant role in formulation of potent drug to improve therapeutics. Recently the liposome formulations are targeted to reduce toxicity and increase accumulation at the target site. There are several new methods of liposome preparation based on lipid drug interaction and liposome disposition mechanism including the inhibition of rapid clearance of liposome by controlling particle size, charge and surface hydration. Most clinical applications of liposomal drug delivery are targeting to tissue with or without expression of target recognition molecules on lipid membrane. The liposomes are characterized with respect to physical, chemical and biological parameters. The sizing of liposome is also critical parameter which helps characterize the liposome which is usually performed by sequential extrusion at relatively low pressure through polycarbonate membrane (PCM). This mode of drug delivery lends more safety and efficacy to administration of several classes of drugs like antiviral, antifungal, antimicrobial, vaccines, anti-tubercular drugs and gene therapeutics. Present applications of the liposomes are in the immunology, dermatology, vaccine adjuvant, eye disorders, brain targeting, infective disease and in tumour therapy. The new developments in this field are the specific binding properties of a drug-carrying liposome to a target cell such as a tumor cell and specific molecules in the body (antibodies, proteins, peptides etc.); stealth liposomes which are especially being used as carriers for hydrophilic (water soluble) anticancer drugs like doxorubicin, mitoxantrone; and bisphosphonate-liposome mediated depletion of macrophages. This review would be a help to the researchers working in the area of liposomal drug delivery. PMID:17979650

  6. Syntheses of Octasubstituted Metal Phthalocyanines for Nonlinear Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Huaisong; Townsend, Cheryl; Sanghadasa, Mohan; Amai, Robert L. S.; Clark, Ronald D.; Penn, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    Many organic materials can be used as nonlinear optical media. Phthalocyanines are of special interest because they show an unusually large third order nonlinear response, they are thermally and photochemically stable and they can be formed into oriented thin films (Langmuir-Blodgett films). They also can be easily complexed by a large variety of metals, which place them at the interface between organics and organometallics, and allows for fine tuning of the macro cycle electronic properties by the coordinated metal and substituent groups. A series of 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octaalkoxy metal-free and metal phthalocyanines and 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octaalkoxy metal phthalocyanines has been synthesized. Their nonlinear optical properties have been measured. The physical properties of all the phthalocyanines synthesized in this work are subject to both acid and solvent effects.

  7. Uranyl phthalocyanines show promise in the treatment of brain tumors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigerio, N. A.

    1967-01-01

    Processes synthesize sulfonated and nonsulfonated uranyl phthalocyanines for application in neutron therapy of brain tumors. Tests indicate that the compounds are advantageous over the previously used boron and lithium compounds.

  8. Liposome-like Nanostructures for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Weiwei; Hu, Che-Ming J.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Zhang, Liangfang

    2013-01-01

    Liposomes are a class of well-established drug carriers that have found numerous therapeutic applications. The success of liposomes, together with recent advancements in nanotechnology, has motivated the development of various novel liposome-like nanostructures with improved drug delivery performance. These nanostructures can be categorized into five major varieties, namely: (1) polymer-stabilized liposomes, (2) nanoparticle-stabilized liposomes, (3) core-shell lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles, (4) natural membrane-derived vesicles, and (5) natural membrane coated nanoparticles. They have received significant attention and have become popular drug delivery platforms. Herein, we discuss the unique strengths of these liposome-like platforms in drug delivery, with a particular emphasis on how liposome-inspired novel designs have led to improved therapeutic efficacy, and review recent progress made by each platform in advancing healthcare. PMID:24392221

  9. Design of liposomal formulations for cell targeting.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugénia; Gomes, Andreia C; Preto, Ana; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-12-01

    Liposomes have gained extensive attention as carriers for a wide range of drugs due to being both nontoxic and biodegradable as they are composed of substances naturally occurring in biological membranes. Active targeting for cells has explored specific modification of the liposome surface by functionalizing it with specific targeting ligands in order to increase accumulation and intracellular uptake into target cells. None of the Food and Drug Administration-licensed liposomes or lipid nanoparticles are coated with ligands or target moieties to delivery for homing drugs to target tissues, cells or subcellular organelles. Targeted therapies (with or without controlled drug release) are an emerging and relevant research area. Despite of the numerous liposomes reviews published in the last decades, this area is in constant development. Updates urgently needed to integrate new advances in targeted liposomes research. This review highlights the evolution of liposomes from passive to active targeting and challenges in the development of targeted liposomes for specific therapies. PMID:26454541

  10. Enhancement of ultrasonically induced cell damage by phthalocyanines in vitro.

    PubMed

    Milowska, Katarzyna; Gabryelak, Teresa

    2008-12-01

    In this work, erythrocytes from carp were used as a nucleated cell model to test the hypothesis that the phthalocyanines (zinc--ZnPc and chloroaluminium -AlClPc) enhance ultrasonically induced damage in vitro. In order to confirm and complete our earlier investigation, the influence of ultrasound (US) and phthalocyanines (Pcs) on unresearched cellular components, was studied. Red blood cells were exposed to 1 MHz continuous ultrasound wave (0.61 and/or 2.44 W/cm(2)) in the presence or absence of phthalocyanines (3 microM). To identify target cell damage, we studied hemolysis, membrane fluidity and morphology of erythrocytes. To demonstrate the changes in the fluidity of plasma membrane we used the spectrofluorimetric methods using two fluorescence probes: 1-[4-(trimethylamino)phenyl]-6-phenyl-1,3,5,-hexatriene (TMA-DPH) and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). The effect of US and Pcs on nucleated erythrocytes morphology was estimated on the basis of microscopic observation. The enhancement of ultrasonically induced membrane damage by both phthalocyanines was observed in case of hemolysis, and membrane surface fluidity, in comparison to ultrasound. The authors also observed changes in the morphology of erythrocytes. The obtained results support the hypothesis that the Pcs enhance ultrasonically induced cell damage in vitro. Furthermore, the influence of ultrasound on phthalocyanines (Pcs) in medium and in cells was tested. The authors observed changes in the phthalocyanines absorption spectra in the medium and the increase in the intensity of phthalocyanines fluorescence in the cells. These data can suggest changes in the structure of phthalocyanines after ultrasound action. PMID:18495194

  11. Synthesis and photophysical studies of phthalocyanine-gold nanoparticle conjugates.

    PubMed

    Nombona, Nolwazi; Antunes, Edith; Litwinski, Christian; Nyokong, Tebello

    2011-11-28

    This work reports on the synthesis, characterization and photophysical studies of phthalocyanine-gold nanoparticle conjugates. The phthalocyanine complexes are: tris-(5-trifluoromethyl-2-mercaptopyridine)-2-(carboxy)phthalocyanine (3), 2,9,17,23-tetrakis-[(1, 6-hexanedithiol) phthalocyaninato]zinc(II) (8) and [8,15,22-tris-(naptho)-2(amidoethanethiol) phthalocyanato] zinc(II)(10). The gold nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy where the size was confirmed to be ∼5 nm. The phthalocyanine Au nanoparticle conjugates showed lower fluorescence quantum yield values with similar fluorescence lifetimes compared to the free phthalocyanines. The Au nanoparticle conjugates of 3 and 10 also showed higher triplet quantum yields of 0.69 to 0.71, respectively. A lower triplet quantum yield was obtained for the conjugate compared to free phthalocyanine for complex 8. The triplet lifetimes ranged from 70 to 92 μs for the conjugates and from 110 to 304 μs for unbound Pc complexes. PMID:21971707

  12. Topical photodynamic therapy using transfersomal aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate: in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Kassab, Kawser; El Fadeel, Doaa Abd; Fadel, Maha

    2013-09-01

    The efficacy of transfersomes (flexible liposomes) as a novel technique for topical delivery of the hydrophilic tetra-anionic photodynamic sensitizer aluminum (III) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcS4) was investigated, on mammalian fibroblasts and on Balb/c mice dorsal skin. AlPcS4 was loaded in transfersomes composed of phosphatidylcholine/sodium deoxycholate (5:1, 10:1, and 15:1 w/w, ratios), resulting in 110-, 160-, and 200-nm mean size vesicles with encapsulation efficiencies of 16, 25, and 30 %, respectively. In vitro studies on baby hamster kidney-21 fibroblasts revealed twofold enhancement of the photocytotoxicity of AlPcS4 loaded in transfersomes (Trans-AlPcS4), compared to free AlPcS4 dissolved in culture medium. The photocytotoxicity of Trans-AlPcS4 was less dependent on the incubation time with cells, compared to free AlPcS4. Topical application on the dorsal skin of Balb/c mice revealed that both free AlPcS4 and Trans-AlPcS4 exhibited evident photosensitization towards mice skin, but acquiring different regions of skin. PMID:23291878

  13. Photodynamic pathogen inactivation in red cell concentrates with the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Hur, Ehud; Chan, Wai-Shun; Yim, Zachary; Zuk, Maria M.; Dayal, Vinay; Roth, Nathan; Heldman, Eli; Lazlo, A.; Valeri, C. R.; Horowitz, Bernard

    2000-03-01

    The silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4, a photosensitizer activated with red light, has been studied for pathogen inactivation in red blood cell concentrates (RBCC). Pc 4 targets the envelope of pathogenic viruses such as HIV. To protect RBC during the process two main approaches are used: 1) Inclusion of quenches of reactive oxygen species produced during treatment. Tocopherol succinate was found to be most effective for this purpose. 2) Formulation of Pc 4, a lipophilic compound, in liposomes that reduce its binding to RBC but not to viruses. As a light source we used a light emitting diode array emitting at 660-680 nm. An efficient mixing device ensures homogeneous light exposure during treatment of intact RBCC. Treatment of RBCC with 5 (mu) M Pc 4 a d light results in the inactivation of >= 5.5 log10 HIV, >= 6.6 log10 VSV, and >= 5 log10 of PRV and BVDV. Parasites that can be transmitted by blood transfusion are even more sensitive than viruses. Following treatment, RBCC can be stored for 28 days at 4 degrees C with hemolysis below 1 percent. Baboon RBC circulate with an acceptable 24 hour recovery and half-life. Genetic toxicological studies of Pc 4 with or without light exposure are negative. We conclude that a process using Pc 4 and red light can potentially reduce the risk of transmitting pathogens in RBCC used for transfusion.

  14. Photophysical studies of newly derivatized mono substituted phthalocyanines grafted onto silica nanoparticles via click chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fashina, Adedayo; Amuhaya, Edith; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-04-01

    This work reports on the synthesis, characterization and photophysical studies of newly derived phthalocyanine complexes and the phthalocyanine-silica nanoparticles conjugates. The derived phthalocyanine complexes have one terminal alkyne group. The derived phthalocyanine complexes showed improved photophysical properties (ФF, ФT, ΦΔ and τT) compared to the respective phthalocyanine complexes from which they were derived. The derived phthalocyanine complexes were conjugated to the surface of an azide functionalized silica nanoparticles via copper (1) catalyzed cyclo-addition reaction. All the conjugates showed lower triplet quantum yields ranging from 0.37 to 0.44 compared to the free phthalocyanine complexes. The triplet lifetimes ranged from 352 to 484 μs for the conjugates and from 341 to 366 μs for the free phthalocyanine complexes.

  15. Capacious and programmable multi-liposomal carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroslavov, Alexander A.; Sybachin, Andrey V.; Zaborova, Olga V.; Migulin, Vasiliy A.; Samoshin, Vyacheslav V.; Ballauff, Matthias; Kesselman, Ellina; Schmidt, Judith; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Menger, Fredric M.

    2015-01-01

    Spherical polycationic brushes (SPBs) were synthesized by grafting polycationic chains onto 100 nm polystyrene particles. These particles were exposed to unilamellar egg-lecithin (EL) liposomes with a mean diameter of 40 nm that had been rendered anionic via the presence of 10 molar% of phosphatidylserine (PS1-). The liposomes also contained 30 mole% of a morpholinocyclohexanol-based lipid (MOCH) that undergoes a conformational flip when the pH is decreased from 7.0 to 5.0. Mixtures of SPBs and liposomes at pH 7 gave an electrostatically-driven complex possessing, on average, about 40 liposomes for each SPB particle. It was found that the bound liposomes rapidly release much of their contents when the pH is reduced from 7.0 to 5.0 owing mostly to a MOCH conformational change that creates defects in the bilayer membrane. The drop in pH does not, however, induce a separation of the liposomes from the SPBs. Around 50-60% of the liposome contents escape before, it is reasoned, lateral and transmembrane motion of the membrane components heals the defects and prevents further release. Remarkably, the liposomes complexed with SPB release their cargo much faster than the identical but non-complexed liposomes.Spherical polycationic brushes (SPBs) were synthesized by grafting polycationic chains onto 100 nm polystyrene particles. These particles were exposed to unilamellar egg-lecithin (EL) liposomes with a mean diameter of 40 nm that had been rendered anionic via the presence of 10 molar% of phosphatidylserine (PS1-). The liposomes also contained 30 mole% of a morpholinocyclohexanol-based lipid (MOCH) that undergoes a conformational flip when the pH is decreased from 7.0 to 5.0. Mixtures of SPBs and liposomes at pH 7 gave an electrostatically-driven complex possessing, on average, about 40 liposomes for each SPB particle. It was found that the bound liposomes rapidly release much of their contents when the pH is reduced from 7.0 to 5.0 owing mostly to a MOCH conformational change that creates defects in the bilayer membrane. The drop in pH does not, however, induce a separation of the liposomes from the SPBs. Around 50-60% of the liposome contents escape before, it is reasoned, lateral and transmembrane motion of the membrane components heals the defects and prevents further release. Remarkably, the liposomes complexed with SPB release their cargo much faster than the identical but non-complexed liposomes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06037g

  16. Electronic transport properties of (fluorinated) metal phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadlallah, M. M.; Eckern, U.; Romero, A. H.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic and transport properties of the metal phthalocyanine (MPc) and F16MPc (M = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ag) families of molecules in contact with S-Au wires are investigated by density functional theory within the local density approximation, including local electronic correlations on the central metal atom. The magnetic moments are found to be considerably modified under fluorination. In addition, they do not depend exclusively on the configuration of the outer electronic shell of the central metal atom (as in isolated MPc and F16MPc) but also on the interaction with the leads. Good agreement between the calculated conductance and experimental results is obtained. For M = Ag, a high spin filter efficiency and conductance is observed, giving rise to a potentially high sensitivity for chemical sensor applications.

  17. Nonequilibrium spin crossover in copper phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, Benjamin; Donarini, Andrea; Grifoni, Milena

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate the nonequilibrium tip induced control of the spin state of copper phthalocyanine on an insulator coated substrate. We find that, under the condition of energetic proximity of many-body neutral excited states to the anionic ground state, the system can undergo a population inversion towards these excited states. The resulting state of the system is accompanied by a change in the total spin quantum number. Experimental signatures of the crossover are the appearance of additional nodal planes in the topographical scanning tunneling microscopy images as well as a strong suppression of the current near the center of the molecule. The robustness of the effect against moderate charge conserving relaxation processes has also been tested.

  18. Continuous wasteless ecologically safe technology of propylenecarbonate production in presence of phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Afanasiev, Vladimir Vasilievich; Zefirov, Nikolai Serafimovich; Zalepugin, Dmitry Yurievich; Polyakov, Victor Stanislavovich; Tilkunova,Nataliya Alexandrovna; Tomilova, Larisa Godvigovna

    2009-09-08

    A continuous method of producing propylenecarbonate includes carboxylation of propylene oxide with carbon dioxide in presence of phthalocyanine catalyst on an inert carrier, using as the phthalocyanine catalyst at least one catalyst selected from the group consisting of not-substituted, methyl, ethyl, butyl, and tret butyl-substituted phthalocyanines of metals, including those containing counterions, and using as the carrier a hydrophobic carrier.

  19. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  1. Application of Liposomes in Some Dairy Products.

    PubMed

    Khanniri, E; Bagheripoor-Fallah, N; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M; Khosravi-Darani, K; Mohammad, R

    2016-02-17

    The application of liposomes as potential carriers to deliver food components is considerably an innovative technology. While the application of liposome technology has been very limited to date, researches indicating the potential of liposomes for improving the flavor of ripened cheese using accelerated methods, the targeted delivery of functional food ingredients, the synergistic delivery of ascorbic acid and tocopherols for promoting antioxidant activity in foods, and the stabilization of minerals (such as iron) in milk have been performed. In the food industry, liposomes and nanoliposomes have been employed to encapsulate flavoring and nutritive agents, and also, they have been suitable candidates to deliver antimicrobials. In this paper, application of lipase, proteinase, nisin, and flavor-containing liposomes in products during the processing (such as cheese maturity) as well as the application of liposomes-encapsulated micronutrients (such as iron) in milk are reviewed. PMID:25574577

  2. Tumor targeting using liposomal antineoplastic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Huwyler, Jörg; Drewe, Jürgen; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    During the last years, liposomes (microparticulate phospholipid vesicles) have been used with growing success as pharmaceutical carriers for antineoplastic drugs. Fields of application include lipid-based formulations to enhance the solubility of poorly soluble antitumor drugs, the use of pegylated liposomes for passive targeting of solid tumors as well as vector-conjugated liposomal carriers for active targeting of tumor tissue. Such formulation and drug targeting strategies enhance the effectiveness of anticancer chemotherapy and reduce at the same time the risk of toxic side-effects. The present article reviews the principles of different liposomal technologies and discusses current trends in this field of research. PMID:18488413

  3. Capacious and programmable multi-liposomal carriers.

    PubMed

    Yaroslavov, Alexander A; Sybachin, Andrey V; Zaborova, Olga V; Migulin, Vasiliy A; Samoshin, Vyacheslav V; Ballauff, Matthias; Kesselman, Ellina; Schmidt, Judith; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Menger, Fredric M

    2015-02-01

    Spherical polycationic brushes (SPBs) were synthesized by grafting polycationic chains onto 100 nm polystyrene particles. These particles were exposed to unilamellar egg-lecithin (EL) liposomes with a mean diameter of 40 nm that had been rendered anionic via the presence of 10 molar% of phosphatidylserine (PS(1-)). The liposomes also contained 30 mole% of a morpholinocyclohexanol-based lipid (MOCH) that undergoes a conformational flip when the pH is decreased from 7.0 to 5.0. Mixtures of SPBs and liposomes at pH 7 gave an electrostatically-driven complex possessing, on average, about 40 liposomes for each SPB particle. It was found that the bound liposomes rapidly release much of their contents when the pH is reduced from 7.0 to 5.0 owing mostly to a MOCH conformational change that creates defects in the bilayer membrane. The drop in pH does not, however, induce a separation of the liposomes from the SPBs. Around 50-60% of the liposome contents escape before, it is reasoned, lateral and transmembrane motion of the membrane components heals the defects and prevents further release. Remarkably, the liposomes complexed with SPB release their cargo much faster than the identical but non-complexed liposomes. PMID:25554444

  4. Liposome adhesion generates traction stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrell, Michael P.; Voituriez, Raphaël; Joanny, Jean-François; Nassoy, Pierre; Sykes, Cécile; Gardel, Margaret L.

    2014-02-01

    Mechanical forces generated by cells modulate global shape changes required for essential life processes, such as polarization, division and spreading. Although the contribution of the cytoskeleton to cellular force generation is widely recognized, the role of the membrane is considered to be restricted to passively transmitting forces. Therefore, the mechanisms by which the membrane can directly contribute to cell tension are overlooked and poorly understood. To address this, we directly measure the stresses generated during liposome adhesion. We find that liposome spreading generates large traction stresses on compliant substrates. These stresses can be understood as the equilibration of internal, hydrostatic pressures generated by the enhanced membrane tension built up during adhesion. These results underscore the role of membranes in the generation of mechanical stresses on cellular length scales and that the modulation of hydrostatic pressure due to membrane tension and adhesion can be channelled to perform mechanical work on the environment.

  5. A comparative photophysicochemical study of phthalocyanines encapsulated in core-shell silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fashina, Adedayo; Amuhaya, Edith; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-02-01

    This work presents the synthesis and characterization of a new zinc phthalocyanine complex tetrasubstituted with 3-carboxyphenoxy in the peripheral position. The photophysical properties of the new complex are compared with those of phthalocyanines tetra substituted with 3-carboxyphenoxy or 4-carboxyphenoxy at non-peripheral positions. Three phthalocyanine complexes were encapsulated within silica matrix to form a core shell and the hybrid nanoparticles particles obtained were spherical and mono dispersed. When encapsulated within the silica shell nanoparticles, phthalocyanines showed improved triplet quantum yields and singlet oxygen quantum yields than surface grafted derivatives. The improvements observed could be attributed to the protection provided for the phthalocyanine complexes by the silica matrix.

  6. A comparative photophysicochemical study of phthalocyanines encapsulated in core-shell silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fashina, Adedayo; Amuhaya, Edith; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-02-25

    This work presents the synthesis and characterization of a new zinc phthalocyanine complex tetrasubstituted with 3-carboxyphenoxy in the peripheral position. The photophysical properties of the new complex are compared with those of phthalocyanines tetra substituted with 3-carboxyphenoxy or 4-carboxyphenoxy at non-peripheral positions. Three phthalocyanine complexes were encapsulated within silica matrix to form a core shell and the hybrid nanoparticles particles obtained were spherical and mono dispersed. When encapsulated within the silica shell nanoparticles, phthalocyanines showed improved triplet quantum yields and singlet oxygen quantum yields than surface grafted derivatives. The improvements observed could be attributed to the protection provided for the phthalocyanine complexes by the silica matrix. PMID:25228037

  7. Nanoparticle Stabilized Liposomes for Acne Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Victoria

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease that affects over 40 million people in the United States alone. The main cause of acne vulgaris is Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), resides deep in the pores and follicles of the skin in order to feed on oil produced by the sebaceous glands. The liposome is a lipid based nanoparticle with numerous advantages over free drug molecules as an acne treatment alternative. Bare liposomes loaded with lauric acid (LipoLA) were found to show strong antimicrobial activity against P. acnes while generating minimal toxicity. However, the platform is limited by the spontaneous tendency of liposomes to fuse with each other. Attaching nanoparticles to the surface of liposomes can overcome this challenge by providing steric repulsion and reduce surface tension. Thus, carboxyl-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuC) were attached to the surface of liposomes (AuC-liposomes) loaded with doxycycline, a general tetracycline antibiotic. These particles were found to have a diameter of 120 nm and a zeta potential of 20.0 mV. Both fluorescent and antimicrobial studies demonstrated that based on electrostatic interaction, negatively charged AuC attached to the liposome's positively charged surface and stabilized liposomes in a neutral pH environment (pH = 7.4). Upon entering the skin's acidic environment (pH = 4), AuC detached from the liposome's surface and liposomes could fuse with P. acnes residing in the pores. Furthermore, toxicity studies showed that AuC-liposomes did not induce any significant toxicity, while two of the leading over-the-counter therapies, benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid, generated substantial skin irritation.

  8. Optical limiting of ?-octa-octyloxy-phthalocyanines for pecosecond pulses in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Duoyuan; Li, Yunjing; Nie, Yuxin

    2003-02-01

    The optical limiting performances for ?-octa-octyloxy phthalocyanines with initial linear transmission To = 88% to approximately 92% at 532 nm in a 5 mm spectroscopic cell in toluene have been measured with 35 ps pulses, in which ?-octa-octyloxy phthalocyanine free-base exhibits the strongest optical limiting ability through a reverse saturable absorption from S1 --> Sn excited singlet states with ?s1 = 4.0 x 10-17 cm2. The optical limiting thresholds are 50, 130 and 140 mJ/cm2 at T/To = 0.5 for phthalocyanine free base, nickel phthalocyanine, and lead phthalocyanine respectively. The throughput of the phthalocyanine free base is clamped down to 70 mJ/cm2 with the limiting nonlinear transmittance Tlim = 18% as the incident fluence reaching to 400 mJ/cm2. The solubility, aggregation behavior and photo-stability for ?-octa-octyloxy phthalocyanines have been studied. The solubility of the ?-octa-octyloxy phthalocyanines has an obvious improving, which dissolve in non-polar solvent more easily than in polar solvent. The aggregation equilibrium constant k = 5.6 x 103 in toluene for phthalocyanine free base is lager that in mixed solvent (k' = 1.4 x 103), which means that the ?-octa-octyloxy phthalocyanines aggregate more easily in non-polar solvent than in polar solvent through the ?-? interaction. The ?-octa-octyloxy lead phthalocyanine appeared a lower photo-stability among them.

  9. Development of the Liposomes Entrapped Ultrasound Imaging Gas (``Bubble Liposomes'') as Novel Gene Delivery Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ryo; Tanaka, Kumiko; Sawamura, Kaori; Takizawa, Tomoko; Utoguchi, Naoki; Negishi, Yoichi; Hagisawa, Kohsuke; Nishioka, Toshihiko; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2006-05-01

    Recently, microbubbles and ultrasound have been investigated with a view to improving the transfection efficiency of nonviral delivery systems for gene by cavitation. However, microbubbles had some problems in terms of stability and targeting ability. To solve these problems, we paid attention to liposomes that had many advantages such as stable and safe in vivo and easy to modify targeting ligand. Previously, we have represented that liposomes are good drug and gene delivery carriers. In addition, we developed that the liposomes ("Bubble liposomes") were entrapped with perfluoropropane known as ultrasound imaging gas. In this study, we assessed about feasibility of "Bubble liposomes" as gene delivery tool utilized cavitation by ultrasound irradiation. "Bubble liposomes" could effectively deliver plasmid DNA to cells by combination of ultrasound irradiation without cyototoxicity. This result suggested that "Bubble liposomes" might be a new class of tool for gene delivery.

  10. Magnetic anisotropy of metal functionalized phthalocyanine 2D networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guojun; Zhang, Yun; Xiao, Huaping; Cao, Juexian

    2016-06-01

    The magnetic anisotropy of metal including Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, W, Re, Os, Ir atoms functionalized phthalocyanine networks have been investigated with first-principles calculations. The magnetic moments can be expressed as 8-n μB with n the electronic number of outmost d shell in the transition metals. The huge magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) is obtained by torque method. Especially, the MAE of Re functionalized phthalocyanine network is about 20 meV with an easy axis perpendicular to the plane of phthalocyanine network. The MAE is further manipulated by applying the external biaxial strain. It is found that the MAE is linear increasing with the external strain in the range of -2% to 2%. Our results indicate an effective approach to modulate the MAE for practical application.

  11. Tunable charge transfer properties in metal-phthalocyanine heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siles, P. F.; Hahn, T.; Salvan, G.; Knupfer, M.; Zhu, F.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2016-04-01

    Organic materials such as phthalocyanine-based systems present a great potential for organic device applications due to the possibility of integrating films of different organic materials to create organic heterostructures which combine the electrical capabilities of each material. This opens the possibility to precisely engineer and tune new electrical properties. In particular, similar transition metal phthalocyanines demonstrate hybridization and charge transfer properties which could lead to interesting physical phenomena. Although, when considering device dimensions, a better understanding and control of the tuning of the transport properties still remain in the focus of research. Here, by employing conductive atomic force microscopy techniques, we provide an insight about the nanoscale electrical properties and transport mechanisms of MnPc and fluorinated phthalocyanines such as F16CuPc and F16CoPc. We report a transition from typical diode-like transport mechanisms for pure MnPc thin films to space-charge-limited current transport regime (SCLC) for Pc-based heterostructures. The controlled addition of fluorinated phthalocyanine also provides highly uniform and symmetric-polarized transport characteristics with conductance enhancements up to two orders of magnitude depending on the polarization. We present a method to spatially map the mobility of the MnPc/F16CuPc structures with a nanoscale resolution and provide theoretical calculations to support our experimental findings. This well-controlled nanoscale tuning of the electrical properties for metal transition phthalocyanine junctions stands as key step for future phthalocyanine-based electronic devices, where the low dimension charge transfer, mediated by transition metal atoms could be intrinsically linked to a transfer of magnetic moment or spin.Organic materials such as phthalocyanine-based systems present a great potential for organic device applications due to the possibility of integrating films of different organic materials to create organic heterostructures which combine the electrical capabilities of each material. This opens the possibility to precisely engineer and tune new electrical properties. In particular, similar transition metal phthalocyanines demonstrate hybridization and charge transfer properties which could lead to interesting physical phenomena. Although, when considering device dimensions, a better understanding and control of the tuning of the transport properties still remain in the focus of research. Here, by employing conductive atomic force microscopy techniques, we provide an insight about the nanoscale electrical properties and transport mechanisms of MnPc and fluorinated phthalocyanines such as F16CuPc and F16CoPc. We report a transition from typical diode-like transport mechanisms for pure MnPc thin films to space-charge-limited current transport regime (SCLC) for Pc-based heterostructures. The controlled addition of fluorinated phthalocyanine also provides highly uniform and symmetric-polarized transport characteristics with conductance enhancements up to two orders of magnitude depending on the polarization. We present a method to spatially map the mobility of the MnPc/F16CuPc structures with a nanoscale resolution and provide theoretical calculations to support our experimental findings. This well-controlled nanoscale tuning of the electrical properties for metal transition phthalocyanine junctions stands as key step for future phthalocyanine-based electronic devices, where the low dimension charge transfer, mediated by transition metal atoms could be intrinsically linked to a transfer of magnetic moment or spin. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08671j

  12. Thin films of tetrafluorosubstituted cobalt phthalocyanine: Structure and sensor properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyamer, Darya D.; Sukhikh, Aleksandr S.; Krasnov, Pavel O.; Gromilov, Sergey A.; Morozova, Natalya B.; Basova, Tamara V.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, thin films of tetrafluorosubstituted cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPcF4) were prepared by organic molecular beam deposition and their structure was studied using UV-vis, polarization dependent Raman spectroscopy, XRD and atomic force microscopy. Quantum chemical calculations (DFT) have been employed in order to determine the detailed assignment of the bands in the CoPcF4 IR and Raman spectra. The electrical sensor response of CoPcF4 films to ammonia vapours was investigated and compared with that of unsubstituted cobalt phthalocyanine films. In order to explain the difference in sensitivity of the unsubstituted and fluorinated phthalocyanines to ammonia, the nature and properties of chemical binding between CoPc derivatives and NH3 were described by quantum-chemical calculations utilizing DFT method. The effect of post-deposition annealing on surface morphology and gas sensing properties of CoPcF4 films was also studied.

  13. Localized drug delivery using crosslinked gelatin gels containing liposomes: factors influencing liposome stability and drug release.

    PubMed

    DiTizio, V; Karlgard, C; Lilge, L; Khoury, A E; Mittelman, M W; DiCosmo, F

    2000-07-01

    We describe a drug-delivery vehicle that combines the sustained release properties of liposomes with the structural advantages of crosslinked gelatin gels that can be implanted directly or coated onto medical devices. Liposome inclusion in gelatin gels does not compromise thermal stability nor does it interfere with the resiliency of gels to tensile force. However, electron spin resonance analysis of sequestered DPPC liposomes revealed a slight depression (ca. 1.0 degrees C) of the gel-to-fluid phase transition relative to liposomes in suspension. The level of liposome release from gels was determined by liposome concentration, liposome size, and the presence of poly(ethylene oxide) chains in the gel matrix or in the liposome membrane. Both neutral and charged liposomes displayed relatively high affinities for poly(ethylene glycol)gelatin gels, with only 10-15% release of initially sequestered liposomes while liposomes in which poly(ethylene glycol) was included within the membrane were not as well retained (approximately 65% release). The in vitro efflux of ciprofloxacin from liposomal gels immersed in serum was nearly complete after 24 h compared to 38% release of liposomal chlorhexidine after 6 days. The serum-induced destabilization of liposomal ciprofloxacin depended on the accessibility of serum components to gels as partly immersed gels retained approximately 50% of their load of drug after 24 h. In vivo experiments using a catheterized rabbit model of urinary tract infection revealed the absence of viable Escherichia coli on coated catheter surfaces in seven out of nine cases while all untreated catheter surfaces examined (n = 7) were contaminated. PMID:10813750

  14. Phthalocyanine-assisted photodynamic inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantareva, Vanya; Angelov, Ivan; Borissova, Ekaterina; Avramov, Latchezar; Kussovski, Vesselin

    2007-03-01

    The phthalocyanine zinc(II) and aluminum (III) complexes were studied to photoinactivate the bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus, methacillin-sensitive and methacillin-resistant, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one yeast Candida albicans. The binding of phthalocyanines to bacteria and fungi cells was evaluated by the means of laserinduced fluorescence technique. The fluorescent spectra of dyes (650 - 800 nm) after direct excitation (635 nm) were measured as follows: 1. for the aqua supernatants obtained after 10 min cell incubation with the respected phthalocyanines (1.6 μmol.l -1), 2. for the washed from the unbound dye cells, and 3. for the organic extracts from the three times washed cells. Fluorescent intensities at the emission maximum (~690 nm) were compared to the spectra of the phthalocyanines in organic solutions. The phthalocyanines uptake data for bacteria and fungi were determined at different cell densities. Nevertheless the better fluorescence properties of AlPc (fluorescent quantum yield of 0.4 towards 0.3 for ZnPcs) the lower drug accumulation in microorganisms was obtained. PDI results indicated an intensive lowering of the bacterial survival of both strains of S. aureus treated with cationic ZnPcMe followed by the anionic ZnPcS, at irradiance of 100 mW cm -2 and fluence rate of 60 J cm -2. More resistant to phototreatment P. aeruginosa and morphologically complicated yeast C. albicans were successfully inactivated only with cationic ZnPcMe. These data indicate the promising future application of cationic phthalocyanine in photodynamic inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms.

  15. Tunable charge transfer properties in metal-phthalocyanine heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Siles, P F; Hahn, T; Salvan, G; Knupfer, M; Zhu, F; Zahn, D R T; Schmidt, O G

    2016-04-21

    Organic materials such as phthalocyanine-based systems present a great potential for organic device applications due to the possibility of integrating films of different organic materials to create organic heterostructures which combine the electrical capabilities of each material. This opens the possibility to precisely engineer and tune new electrical properties. In particular, similar transition metal phthalocyanines demonstrate hybridization and charge transfer properties which could lead to interesting physical phenomena. Although, when considering device dimensions, a better understanding and control of the tuning of the transport properties still remain in the focus of research. Here, by employing conductive atomic force microscopy techniques, we provide an insight about the nanoscale electrical properties and transport mechanisms of MnPc and fluorinated phthalocyanines such as F16CuPc and F16CoPc. We report a transition from typical diode-like transport mechanisms for pure MnPc thin films to space-charge-limited current transport regime (SCLC) for Pc-based heterostructures. The controlled addition of fluorinated phthalocyanine also provides highly uniform and symmetric-polarized transport characteristics with conductance enhancements up to two orders of magnitude depending on the polarization. We present a method to spatially map the mobility of the MnPc/F16CuPc structures with a nanoscale resolution and provide theoretical calculations to support our experimental findings. This well-controlled nanoscale tuning of the electrical properties for metal transition phthalocyanine junctions stands as key step for future phthalocyanine-based electronic devices, where the low dimension charge transfer, mediated by transition metal atoms could be intrinsically linked to a transfer of magnetic moment or spin. PMID:27049842

  16. Controllable fabrication of copper phthalocyanine nanostructure crystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangmei; Sun, Jia; Xiao, Si; Huang, Wenglong; Tao, Shaohua; Zhang, Yi; Gao, Yongli; Yang, Junliang

    2015-06-01

    Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) nanostructure crystals, including nanoflower, nanoribbon, and nanowire, were controllably fabricated by temperature gradient physical vapor deposition (TG-PVD) through controlling the growth parameters. In a controllable growth system with carrier gas N2, nanoflower, nanoribbon, and nanowire crystals were formed in a high-temperature zone, medium-temperature zone, and low-temperature zone, respectively. They were proved to be β-phase, coexist of α-phase and β-phase, and α-phase respectively based on x-ray diffraction results. Furthermore, ultralong CuPc nanowires up to several millimeters could be fabricated by TG-PVD without carrier gas, and they were well-aligned to form large-area CuPc nanowire crystal arrays by the Langmuir-Blodgett method. The nanostructure crystals showed unusual optical absorption spectra from the ultraviolet-visible to near-infrared range, which was explained by the diffraction and scattering caused by the wavelength-sized nanostructures. These CuPc nanostructure crystals show potential applications in organic electronic and optoelectronic devices. PMID:25961155

  17. Photosensitizing Efficiencies Of Poryphyrins, Chlorins, And Phthalocyanines.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Kimel, Sol; Roberts, Walter G.; Berns, Michael W.

    1989-06-01

    A Clark-type microelectrode is used to measure oxygen consumption rates in laser-irradiated solutions of photosensitizer and photosensitizer-containing cells. The presence of a singlet oxygen-specific acceptor molecule, furfuryl alcohol, permits indirect determination of relative singlet oxygen generation efficiencies from oxygen consumption data. Solution and cell measurements are performed which compare photosensitizing efficiency of Photofrin-II (PII), tetraphenylporphine tetrasulfonate (TPPS4), mono-L-aspartyl chlorin e6 (MACE), and chloroaluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine (CASPc). Relative singlet oxygen generating efficiency, per-unit-weight and per-absorbed-photon, were determined to be: MACE > CASPc > TPPS4 > PII and TPPS4 > MACE > PII > CASPc, respectively. When these results are compared to oxygen consumption in photosensitizer-containing cells, differences in the order and magnitude of photosensitizing efficiencies are observed. The relative oxygen consumption rate in cells was: PII CASPc > MACE TPPS4. Additional information concerning cell killing efficiency is derived from clongenicity assays. These data indicate that consideration of singlet oxygen generating ability in solution must be considered in conjuntion with cellular assays in order to provide an in vitro estimate of photosensitizer efficacy.

  18. Methods for using redox liposome biosensors

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Quan; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and compositions for detecting the presence of biologically-important analytes by using redox liposome biosensors. In particular, the present invention provides liposome/sol-gel electrodes suitable for the detection of a wide variety of organic molecules, including but not limited to bacterial toxins.

  19. Structure of DNA-liposome complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Lasic, D.D.; Strey, H.; Podgornik, R.; Stuart, M.C.A.; Frederik, P.M.

    1997-01-29

    Despite numerous studies and commericially available liposome kits, however, the structure of DNA-cationic liposome complexes is still not yet well understood. We have investigated the structure of these complexes using high-resolution cryo electron microscopy (EM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). 14 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Preparation of liposome-encapsulating adenosine triphosphate.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, A; Ishiguro, S; Ohki, K; Tamai, M

    1998-01-01

    Liposomes encapsulating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were prepared by sonication, and the liposomes were evaluated for use in a drug delivery system. The liposomes, which were composed of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, were about 1.1 microm in size, as observed under a microscope. From their size, the vesicles were thought to be multilamellar. The maximum concentration of ATP in the liposomes was 1.0 mM, when the initial concentrations of lipid and ATP were 20 mM and 300 mM, respectively. The maximum entrapment ratio of ATP in the liposomes was 88%, when the initial concentrations of lipid and ATP were 20 mM and 500 mM, respectively. About 4% of ATP was encapsulated in these experiments. When liposomes contained 4-7% of cholesterol, about 35% of encapsulated ATP was released from the liposomes for 90 hours at 37 degrees C in vitro. These findings indicated that liposomes encapsulating ATP could be used for the treatment of ischemic retina. PMID:9607397

  1. Efficient passivated phthalocyanine-quantum dot solar cells.

    PubMed

    Blas-Ferrando, Vicente M; Ortiz, Javier; González-Pedro, Victoria; Sánchez, Rafael S; Mora-Seró, Iván; Fernández-Lázaro, Fernando; Sastre-Santos, Ángela

    2015-01-31

    The power conversion efficiency of CdSe and CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells is enhanced by passivation with asymmetrically substituted phthalocyanines. The introduction of the phthalocyanine dye increases the efficiency up to 45% for CdSe and 104% for CdS. The main mechanism causing this improvement is the quantum dot passivation. This study highlights the possibilities of a new generation of dyes designed to be directly linked to QDs instead of the TiO2 electrodes. PMID:25519050

  2. Phthalocyanine based 1D nanowires for device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Rajan; Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R. K.

    2012-06-01

    1D nanowires (NWs) of Cu (II) 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-Phthalocyanine (CuPc(OBu)8) molecule have been grown on different substrates by cost effective solution processing technique. The density of NWs is found to be strongly dependent on the concentration of solution. The possible formation mechanism of these structures is π-π interaction between phthalocyanine molecules. The improved conductivity of these NWs as compared to spin coated film indicates their potential for molecular device applications.

  3. Electrostatically driven complexation of liposomes with a star-shaped polyelectrolyte to low-toxicity multi-liposomal assemblies.

    PubMed

    Yaroslavov, Alexander A; Sybachin, Andrey V; Zaborova, Olga V; Pergushov, Dmitry V; Zezin, Alexander B; Melik-Nubarov, Nikolay S; Plamper, Felix A; Mller, Axel H E; Menger, Frederic M

    2014-04-01

    Anionic liposomes are electrostatically complexed to a star-shaped cationic polyelectrolyte. Upon complexation, the liposomes retain their integrity and the resulting liposome-star complexes do not dissociate in a physiological solution with 0.15?M NaCl. This provides a multi-liposomal container for possible use as a high-capacity carrier. PMID:24243764

  4. Excited-State Deactivation of Branched Phthalocyanine Compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huaning; Li, Yang; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Meng; Niu, Yingli; Zhang, Xinxing; Guo, Qianjin; Wang, Shuangqing; Yang, Guoqiang; Xia, Andong

    2015-12-01

    The excited-state relaxation dynamics and chromophore interactions in two phthalocyanine compounds (bis- and trisphthalocyanines) are studied by using steady-state and femtosecond transient absorption spectral measurements, where the excited-state energy-transfer mechanism is explored. By exciting phthalocyanine compounds to their second electronically excited states and probing the subsequent relaxation dynamics, a multitude of deactivation pathways are identified. The transient absorption spectra show the relaxation pathway from the exciton state to excimer state and then back to the ground state in bisphthalocyanine (bis-Pc). In trisphthalocyanine (tris-Pc), the monomeric and dimeric subunits are excited and the excitation energy transfers from the monomeric vibrationally hot S1 state to the exciton state of a pre-associated dimer, with subsequent relaxation to the ground state through the excimer state. The theoretical calculations and steady-state spectra also show a face-to-face conformation in bis-Pc, whereas in tris-Pc, two of the three phthalocyanine branches form a pre-associated face-to-face dimeric conformation with the third one acting as a monomeric unit; this is consistent with the results of the transient absorption experiments from the perspective of molecular structure. The detailed structure-property relationships in phthalocyanine compounds is useful for exploring the function of molecular aggregates in energy migration of natural photosynthesis systems. PMID:26436829

  5. LASERS IN MEDICINE: Two-photon excitation of aluminium phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshalkin, Yu P.; Alfimov, E. E.; Vasil'ev, N. E.; Denisov, A. N.; Makukha, V. K.; Ogirenko, A. P.

    1999-12-01

    A demonstration is given of the feasibility of two-photon excitation of aluminium phthalocyanine and of the pharmaceutical preparation 'Fotosens', used in photodynamic therapy. The excitation source was an Nd:YAG laser emitting at the 1064 nm wavelength. The spectra of the two-photon-excited luminescence were obtained and the two-photon absorption cross sections were determined.

  6. Electronic properties of the interface between hexadecafluoro copper phthalocyanine and unsubstituted copper phthalocyanine films

    SciTech Connect

    Komolov, A. S. Lazneva, E. F.; Pshenichnyuk, S. A.; Gavrikov, A. A.; Chepilko, N. S.; Tomilov, A. A.; Gerasimova, N. B.; Lezov, A. A.; Repin, P. S.

    2013-07-15

    The formation of an interface during the deposition of unsubstituted copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) films on the surface of hexadecafluoro copper phthalocyanine (F{sub 16}-CuPc) films is studied. An incident low-energy electron beam with energies from 0 to 25 eV is used to test the surface under study according to the very-low-energy electron-diffraction technique (VLEED) in the mode of total current spectroscopy. For F{sub 16}-CuPc films, the structure of the maxima in the total current spectra and its main differences from the structure of the maxima for the CuPc film are determined in the energy range from 5 to 15 eV above the Fermi level. The differences in the structure of vacant electron orbitals for CuPc and F{sub 16}-CuPc are also revealed using density functional theory calculations. As a result of an analysis of variations in the intensities of the total current spectra of the CuPc and F{sub 16}-CuPc films, it is assumed that an intermediate layer up to 1 nm thick appears during the formation of an interface between these films, which is characterized by a spread of the features in the total current spectrum. The height, width, and change in the work function are determined for the studied F{sub 16}-CuPc/NuPc interface barrier. A decrease in the level of vacuum by 0.7 eV occurs in the boundary region, which corresponds to electron density transfer from the CuPc film toward the F{sub 16}-CuPc substrate.

  7. Topical and mucosal liposomes for vaccine delivery.

    PubMed

    Romero, Eder Lilia; Morilla, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    Mucosal (and in minor extent transcutanous) stimulation can induce local or distant mucosa secretory IgA. Liposomes and other vesicles as mucosal and transcutaneous adjuvants are attractive alternatives to parenteral vaccination. Liposomes can be massively produced under good manufacturing practices and stored for long periods, at high antigen/vesicle mass ratios. However, their uptake by antigen-presenting cells (APC) at the inductive sites remains as a major challenge. As neurotoxicity is a major concern in intranasal delivery, complexes between archaeosomes and calcium as well as cationic liposomes complexed with plasmids encoding for antigenic proteins could safely elicit secretory and systemic antigen-specific immune responses. Oral bilosomes generate intense immune responses that remain to be tested against challenge, but the admixing with toxins or derivatives is mandatory to reduce the amount of antigen. Most of the current experimental designs, however, underestimate the mucus blanket 100- to 1000-fold thicker than a 100-nm diameter liposome, which has first to be penetrated to access the underlying M cells. Overall, designing mucoadhesive chemoenzymatic resistant liposomes, or selectively targeted to M cells, has produced less relevant results than tailoring the liposomes to make them mucus penetrating. Opposing, the nearly 10 µm thickness stratum corneum interposed between liposomes and underlying APC can be surpassed by ultradeformable liposomes (UDL), with lipid matrices that penetrate up to the limit with the viable epidermis. UDL made of phospholipids and detergents, proved to be better transfection agents than conventional liposomes and niosomes, without the toxicity of ethosomes, in the absence of classical immunomodulators. PMID:21360692

  8. Liposome-encapsulated actinomycin for cancer chemotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Rahman, Yueh-Erh; Cerny, Elizabeth A.

    1976-01-01

    An improved method is provided for chemotherapy of malignant tumors by injection of antitumor drugs. The antitumor drug is encapsulated within liposomes and the liposomes containing the encapsulated drug are injected into the body. The encapsulated drug penetrates into the tumor cells where the drug is slowly released and induces degeneration and death of the tumor cells, while any toxicity to the host body is reduced. Liposome encapsulation of actinomycin D has been found to be particularly effective in treating cancerous abdominal tumors, while drastically reducing the toxicity of actinomycin D to the host.

  9. Are PEGylated liposomes better than conventional liposomes? A special case for vincristine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuling; Song, Yanzhi; Su, Yuqing; Tian, Qingjing; Li, Boqun; Quan, Jingjing; Deng, Yihui

    2016-05-01

    Cancer poses a significant threat to human health worldwide, and many therapies have been used for its palliative and curative treatments. Vincristine has been extensively used in chemotherapy. However, there are two major challenges concerning its applications in various tumors: (1) Vincristine's antitumor mechanism is cell-cycle-specific, and the duration of its exposure to tumor cells can significantly affect its antitumor activity and (2) Vincristine is widely bio-distributed and can be rapidly eliminated. One solution to these challenges is the encapsulation of vincristine into liposomes. Vincristine can be loaded into conventional liposomes, but it quickly leak out owing to its high membrane permeability. Numerous approaches have been attempted to overcome this problem. Vincristine has been loaded into PEGylated liposomes to prolong circulation time and improve tumor accumulation. These liposomes indeed prolong circulation time, but the payout characteristic of vincristine is severer, resulting in a compromised outcome rather than a better efficacy compared to conventional sphingomyelin (SM)/cholesterol (Chol) liposomes. In 2012, the USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved SM/Chol liposomal vincristine (Marqibo®) for commercial use. In this review, we mainly focus on the drug's rapid leakage problem and the potentially relevant solutions that can be applied during the development of liposomal vincristine and the reason for conventional liposomal vincristine rather than PEGylated liposomes has access to the market. PMID:26024386

  10. The buckling of spherical liposomes.

    PubMed

    Pamplona, D C; Greenwood, J A; Calladine, C R

    2005-12-01

    In the classical "first approximation" theory of thin-shell structures, the constitutive relations for a generic shell element--i.e. the elastic relations between the bending moments and membrane stresses and the corresponding changes in curvature and strain, respectively-are written as if an element of the shell is flat, although in reality it is curved. In this theory it is believed that discrepancies on account of the use of "flat" constitutive relations will be negligible provided the ratio shell-radius/thickness is of sufficiently large order. In the study of drawing of narrow, cylindrical "tethers" from liposomes it has been known for many years that it is necessary to use instead a constitutive law which explicitly describes a curved element in order to make sense of the mechanics; and indeed such tethers are generally of "thick-walled" proportions. In this paper we show that the proper constitutive relations for a curved element must also be used in the study, by means of shell equations, of the buckling of initially spherical thin-walled giant liposomes under exterior pressure: these involve the inclusion of what we call the "Mkappa" terms, which are not present in the standard "first-approximation" theory. We obtain analytical expressions for both the bifurcation buckling pressure and the slope of the post-buckling path, in terms of the dimensions and elastic constants of the lipid bi-layer, and also the initial state of bending moment in the vesicle. We explain physically how the initial bending moment can affect the bifurcation pressure, whereas it cannot in "first-approximation" theory. We use these results to map the conditions under which the vesicle buckles into an oblate, as distinct from a prolate ("rugby-ball") shape. Some of our results were obtained long ago by the use of energy methods; but our aim here has been to identify precisely what is lacking in "first-approximation" theory in relation to liposomes, and so to put the "shell equations" approach onto a firm footing in mechanics. PMID:16502648

  11. Colon Targeted Liposomal Systems (CTLS): Theranostic Potential.

    PubMed

    Jain, A; Jain, S K

    2015-01-01

    Colon targeted liposomal systems (CTLS) for the delivery of bioactives have been well addressed in therapeutic manifestations of colonic ailments. Number of approaches using various drug delivery systems for colon targeting has been worked out but CTLS are first time being lime lighted in this review. Although liposomes are not supposed to be suitable for colon targeting via oral route this review explicitly provides advances of CTLS using exploitable ligands such as peptides or proteins (e.g. RGD, NGR, fibronectin mimetic peptide, and transferrin), Sialyl Lewis X (SLX), low molecular weight ligand like folate, monoclonal antibodies, endostatin gene and sulfatide etc. Moreover, it is bringing forth the diagnostic (or imaging) potential of CTLS using (188)Re, (99)mTc, and (111)In, etc. This review presents nanotechnology based advances for liposome researchers engaged in design and development of colon targeted liposomes for theranostic exploration. PMID:26321756

  12. Liposomes as delivery systems for antineoplastic drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Luis Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Liposome drug formulations are defined as pharmaceutical products containing active drug substances encapsulated within the lipid bilayer or in the interior aqueous space of the liposomes. The main importance of this drug delivery system is based on its drastic reduction in systemic dose and concomitant systemic toxicity that in comparison with the free drug, results in an improvement of patient compliance and in a more effective treatment. There are several therapeutic drugs that are potential candidates to be encapsulated into liposomes; particular interest has been focused in therapeutic and antineoplastic drugs, which are characterized for its low therapeutic index and high systemic toxicity. The use of liposomes as drug carriers has been extensively justified and the importance of the development of different formulations or techniques to encapsulate therapeutic drugs has an enormous value in benefit of patients affected by neoplastic diseases.

  13. Investigation of the Qx -Qy Equilibrium in a Metal-Free Phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Baeten, Yannick; Fron, Eduard; Ruzi, Christian; Geerts, Yves Henri; Van Der Auweraer, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Phthalocyanines (Pcs) have attracted a lot of interest as small molecules for organic electronics. However, some excited-state properties of metal-free phthalocyanines, as for example, the dynamics of the transition between the nondegenerate Qx and Qy states in a metal-free phthalocyanine, have not been fully established. This effect results in a blue-shifted shoulder with low intensity in the Pc fluorescence spectrum. This shoulder was suggested to be related to emission from the more energetic Qy state. By using ultrafast femtosecond transient absorption, we have found a clear equilibrium between the Qx and Qy state of metal-free phthalocyanines in solution. PMID:26346288

  14. Camptothecin-catalyzed phospholipid hydrolysis in liposomes.

    PubMed

    Saetern, Ann Mari; Skar, Merete; Braaten, Asmund; Brandl, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Hydrolysis of phospholipid (PL) within camptothecin (CPT)-containing liposomes was studied systematically, after elevated lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC)-concentrations in pH 5, CPT-containing liposomes (22.1+/-0.9 mol%) relative to control-liposomes (7.3+/-0.5 mol%) occasionally had been observed after four months storage in fridge. Liposomes were prepared by dispersing freeze-dried PL/CPT mixtures in 25 mM phosphate buffered saline (PBS) of varying pH (5.0-7.8) and CPT concentrations (0, 3 and 6 mM). PL-hydrolysis was monitored by HPTLC, quantifying LPC. In an accelerated stability study (60 degrees C), a catalytic effect of CPT on PL-hydrolysis was observed after 40 h, but not up to 30 h of incubation. The pH profile of the hydrolysis indicated a stability optimum at pH 6.0 for the liposomes independent of CPT. The equilibrium point between the more active lactone- and the carboxylate-form of CPT was found to be pH 6.8. As a compromise, pH 6.0 was chosen, assuring >85% CPT to be present in the lactone form. At this pH, both control- and CPT-liposomes showed only minor hydrolysis after autoclaving (121 degrees C, 15 min). Storage at room temperature and in fridge (2 months), as well as accelerated ageing (70 degrees C, 25 h), gave a significant elevation of LPC content in CPT-liposomes relative to control-liposomes. This study demonstrates a catalytic effect of CPT on PL-hydrolysis, the onset of which seems to require a certain threshold level of hydrolytic degradation. PMID:15607259

  15. Surface fractals in liposome aggregation.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo; Barnadas-Rodríguez, Ramon; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Estelrich, Joan; Callejas-Fernández, José

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the aggregation of charged liposomes induced by magnesium is investigated. Static and dynamic light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and cryotransmission electron microscopy are used as experimental techniques. In particular, multiple intracluster scattering is reduced to a negligible amount using a cross-correlation light scattering scheme. The analysis of the cluster structure, probed by means of static light scattering, reveals an evolution from surface fractals to mass fractals with increasing magnesium concentration. Cryotransmission electron microscopy micrographs of the aggregates are consistent with this interpretation. In addition, a comparative analysis of these results with those previously reported in the presence of calcium suggests that the different hydration energy between lipid vesicles when these divalent cations are present plays a fundamental role in the cluster morphology. This suggestion is also supported by infrared spectroscopy data. The kinetics of the aggregation processes is also analyzed through the time evolution of the mean diffusion coefficient of the aggregates. PMID:19257067

  16. Surface fractals in liposome aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo; Barnadas-Rodríguez, Ramon; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Estelrich, Joan; Callejas-Fernández, José

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the aggregation of charged liposomes induced by magnesium is investigated. Static and dynamic light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and cryotransmission electron microscopy are used as experimental techniques. In particular, multiple intracluster scattering is reduced to a negligible amount using a cross-correlation light scattering scheme. The analysis of the cluster structure, probed by means of static light scattering, reveals an evolution from surface fractals to mass fractals with increasing magnesium concentration. Cryotransmission electron microscopy micrographs of the aggregates are consistent with this interpretation. In addition, a comparative analysis of these results with those previously reported in the presence of calcium suggests that the different hydration energy between lipid vesicles when these divalent cations are present plays a fundamental role in the cluster morphology. This suggestion is also supported by infrared spectroscopy data. The kinetics of the aggregation processes is also analyzed through the time evolution of the mean diffusion coefficient of the aggregates.

  17. Octanol-assisted liposome assembly on chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Siddharth; Caspi, Yaron; Meijering, Anna E. C.; Dekker, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes are versatile supramolecular assemblies widely used in basic and applied sciences. Here we present a novel microfluidics-based method, octanol-assisted liposome assembly (OLA), to form monodisperse, cell-sized (5-20 μm), unilamellar liposomes with excellent encapsulation efficiency. Akin to bubble blowing, an inner aqueous phase and a surrounding lipid-carrying 1-octanol phase is pinched off by outer fluid streams. Such hydrodynamic flow focusing results in double-emulsion droplets that spontaneously develop a side-connected 1-octanol pocket. Owing to interfacial energy minimization, the pocket splits off to yield fully assembled solvent-free liposomes within minutes. This solves the long-standing fundamental problem of prolonged presence of residual oil in the liposome bilayer. We demonstrate the unilamellarity of liposomes with functional α-haemolysin protein pores in the membrane and validate the biocompatibility by inner leaflet localization of bacterial divisome proteins (FtsZ and ZipA). OLA offers a versatile platform for future analytical tools, delivery systems, nanoreactors and synthetic cells.

  18. Octanol-assisted liposome assembly on chip

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Siddharth; Caspi, Yaron; Meijering, Anna E. C.; Dekker, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes are versatile supramolecular assemblies widely used in basic and applied sciences. Here we present a novel microfluidics-based method, octanol-assisted liposome assembly (OLA), to form monodisperse, cell-sized (5–20 μm), unilamellar liposomes with excellent encapsulation efficiency. Akin to bubble blowing, an inner aqueous phase and a surrounding lipid-carrying 1-octanol phase is pinched off by outer fluid streams. Such hydrodynamic flow focusing results in double-emulsion droplets that spontaneously develop a side-connected 1-octanol pocket. Owing to interfacial energy minimization, the pocket splits off to yield fully assembled solvent-free liposomes within minutes. This solves the long-standing fundamental problem of prolonged presence of residual oil in the liposome bilayer. We demonstrate the unilamellarity of liposomes with functional α-haemolysin protein pores in the membrane and validate the biocompatibility by inner leaflet localization of bacterial divisome proteins (FtsZ and ZipA). OLA offers a versatile platform for future analytical tools, delivery systems, nanoreactors and synthetic cells. PMID:26794442

  19. Plasmon resonant liposomes for controlled drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knights-Mitchell, Shellie S.; Romanowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Nanotechnology use in drug delivery promotes a reduction in systemic toxicity, improved pharmacokinetics, and better drug bioavailability. Liposomes continue to be extensively researched as drug delivery systems (DDS) with formulations such as Doxil® and Ambisome® approved by FDA and successfully marketed in the United States. However, the limited ability to precisely control release of active ingredients from these vesicles continues to challenge the broad implementation of this technology. Moreover, the full potential of the carrier to sequester drugs until it can reach its intended target has yet to be realized. Here, we describe a liposomal DDS that releases therapeutic doses of an anticancer drug in response to external stimulus. Earlier, we introduced degradable plasmon resonant liposomes. These constructs, obtained by reducing gold on the liposome surface, facilitate spatial and temporal release of drugs upon laser light illumination that ultimately induces an increase in temperature. In this work, plasmon resonant liposomes have been developed to stably encapsulate and retain doxorubicin at physiological conditions represented by isotonic saline at 37o C and pH 7.4. Subsequently, they are stimulated to release contents either by a 5o C increase in temperature or by laser illumination (760 nm and 88 mW/cm2 power density). Successful development of degradable plasmon resonant liposomes responsive to near-infrared light or moderate hyperthermia can provide a new delivery method for multiple lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs with pharmacokinetic profiles that limit clinical utility.

  20. Octanol-assisted liposome assembly on chip.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Siddharth; Caspi, Yaron; Meijering, Anna E C; Dekker, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes are versatile supramolecular assemblies widely used in basic and applied sciences. Here we present a novel microfluidics-based method, octanol-assisted liposome assembly (OLA), to form monodisperse, cell-sized (5-20 μm), unilamellar liposomes with excellent encapsulation efficiency. Akin to bubble blowing, an inner aqueous phase and a surrounding lipid-carrying 1-octanol phase is pinched off by outer fluid streams. Such hydrodynamic flow focusing results in double-emulsion droplets that spontaneously develop a side-connected 1-octanol pocket. Owing to interfacial energy minimization, the pocket splits off to yield fully assembled solvent-free liposomes within minutes. This solves the long-standing fundamental problem of prolonged presence of residual oil in the liposome bilayer. We demonstrate the unilamellarity of liposomes with functional α-haemolysin protein pores in the membrane and validate the biocompatibility by inner leaflet localization of bacterial divisome proteins (FtsZ and ZipA). OLA offers a versatile platform for future analytical tools, delivery systems, nanoreactors and synthetic cells. PMID:26794442

  1. Magnetic Relaxation in Iron Chains of Phthalocyanine Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gredig, Thomas; Javier, Daniel; Werber, Mathew; Byrne, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    Self-assembled iron chains are formed in metallo-organic thin films based on the small iron phthalocyanine molecule. The chains are grown parallel to the substrate and the mean chain length is controlled via deposition parameters from 30 - 300 nm. The strong intra-chain coupling with weak inter-chain coupling leads to ferromagnetic behavior below the critical temperature. After application of a magnetic saturation field, the remanent magnetic moment is not stable when measured over time scales of 104 s. The magnetic relaxation can be fit to a stretched exponential function, which yields the mean relaxation time and a stretch exponent. The temperature-dependent peak of the relaxation time occurs at lower temperatures for shorter iron chains that also have smaller coercivities. This means that by templating iron phthalocyanine thin films both magneto-crystalline anisotropy and inter-grain interactions can be selected. Supported by National Science Foundation grant NSF-DMR 0847552.

  2. Gas sensing mechanisms in chemiresistive metal phthalocyanine nanofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrer, Forest I.

    Chemiresistive films of metallophthalocyanines (MPcs; M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and H2) are shown to be sensitive to gas phase electron donors and acceptors. The mechanism of sensing occurs through coordination of the analyte molecule to metal center of the phthalocyanine; electron donors cause film current losses by trapping of charge carriers, while electron acceptors causes current gains by generation of charge carriers within the film. Vapor phase peroxides may cause gains or losses of film current by electrocatalytic processes dependent on the metal center. MPcs featuring varied metal centers and peripheral substituents are prepared via literature procedures. A novel route is devised for synthesis of a copper phthalocyanine incorporating the 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (HFIP) group. MPc films are deposited by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE) and spin-coating; film morphologies are examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is demonstrated that substrate temperature during OMBE deposition can significantly alter grain morphology. Spin-coating offers a cost-effective alternative to OMBE, with soluble, functionalized phthalocyanines. The roles of solvent and functional group are explored and procedures for preparing uniform amorphous films are described. The differing mechanisms of sensing in metal-free phthalocyanine (H 2Pc) and metalated phthalocyanines (MPc) are examined with respect to electron-donating (basic) analytes. MPc sensitivities to vapor phase electron donors are correlated exponentially with analyte basicity as described by binding enthalpy, consistent with the van't Hoff equation and the standard free energy of reaction. Coordination of analytes to the phthalocyanine metal center (MPc) or inner protons (H2Pc) is the dominant mechanism of chemical sensing for basic analytes. Sensor recovery times t90 are demonstrated to depend exponentially on binding enthalpy. Linear discriminant analysis is used to identify analytes. Single sensor normalization of analyte concentration leads to excellent discrimination and identification of analytes. MPc sensing arrays are shown to be redox-selective vapor sensors of hydrogen peroxide and di-t-butyl peroxide. These peroxides cause unique current losses in CoPc sensors and current gains in FePc, NiPc, CuPc, ZnPc, and H2Pc sensors. Detection limits of 50 ppb and 250 ppb are achieved for hydrogen peroxide and di-t-butyl peroxide, respectively. Oxidation and reduction of peroxides via catalysis at the phthalocyanine surface is consistent with the pattern of sensor responses. Differential analysis by redox contrast of a small array of sensors thus uniquely identifies peroxide vapors. Chemically sensitive field-effect transistors (ChemFETs) of ZnPc are evaluated for use as vapor sensors. The average carrier mobility is 1.3x10 -4 cm2 V-1 s-1, comparable to previously reported phthalocyanine mobility values. ZnPc ChemFETs display persistent photoconductivity, lasting up to 1.5 months, which induces significant baseline drift. Persistent photoconductivity and sensor instability require improvements to the ZnPc ChemFET architecture before its implementation as vapor sensors.

  3. Electrical Field Effects in Phthalocyanine Film Growth by Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Curtis E.; Zhu, Shen; Frazier, Donald O.; Penn, Benjamin; Abdeldayem, Hossin; Hicks, Roslin; Sarkisov, Sergey

    1999-01-01

    Phthalocyanine, an organic material, is a very good candidate for non-linear optical application, such as high-speed switching and optical storage devices. Phthalocyanine films have been synthesized by vapor deposition on quartz substrates. Some substrates were coated with a very thin gold film for introducing electrical field. These films have been characterized by surface morphology, material structure, chemical and thermal stability, non-linear optical parameters, and electrical behaviors. The films have excellent chemical and optical stability. However, the surface of these films grown without electrical field shows flower-like morphology. When films are deposited under an electrical field ( an aligned structure is revealed on the surface. A comparison of the optical and electrical properties and the growth mechanism for these films grown with and without an electrical field will be discussed.

  4. Solution-Processable Silicon Phthalocyanines in Electroluminescent and Photovoltaic Devices.

    PubMed

    Zysman-Colman, Eli; Ghosh, Sanjay S; Xie, Guohua; Varghese, Shinto; Chowdhury, Mithun; Sharma, Nidhi; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Samuel, Ifor D W

    2016-04-13

    Phthalocyanines and their main group and metal complexes are important classes of organic semiconductor materials but are usually highly insoluble and so frequently need to be processed by vacuum deposition in devices. We report two highly soluble silicon phthalocyanine (SiPc) diester compounds and demonstrate their potential as organic semiconductor materials. Near-infrared (λEL = 698-709 nm) solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated and exhibited external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of up to 1.4%. Binary bulk heterojunction solar cells employing P3HT or PTB7 as the donor and the SiPc as the acceptor provided power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of up to 2.7% under simulated solar illumination. Our results show that soluble SiPcs are promising materials for organic electronics. PMID:26990151

  5. Solution-Processable Silicon Phthalocyanines in Electroluminescent and Photovoltaic Devices

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Phthalocyanines and their main group and metal complexes are important classes of organic semiconductor materials but are usually highly insoluble and so frequently need to be processed by vacuum deposition in devices. We report two highly soluble silicon phthalocyanine (SiPc) diester compounds and demonstrate their potential as organic semiconductor materials. Near-infrared (λEL = 698–709 nm) solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated and exhibited external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of up to 1.4%. Binary bulk heterojunction solar cells employing P3HT or PTB7 as the donor and the SiPc as the acceptor provided power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of up to 2.7% under simulated solar illumination. Our results show that soluble SiPcs are promising materials for organic electronics. PMID:26990151

  6. Copper phthalocyanine bonding with gel and their optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Haiping; Nogami, Masayuki

    2000-11-01

    (Tetracarboxyphalocyaninato)copper(II), (CuPc(COOH) 4) is incorporated in gel by a sol-gel process with using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (NH 2(CH 2) 3Si(OC 2H 5) 3, APTS) and 3-glycidoxypropl-trimethoxysilane (CH 2OCHCH 2O(CH 2) 3Si(OCH 3) 3, GPTMS) as precursors. The starting compound and the gel are in the dimer forms of copper phthalocyanine, which are identified from their UV/visible spectra. The aggregation of copper phthalocyanine dyes from sol to gel is effectively prevented by tethering them to sol-gel matrix through the reaction of CuPc(COOH) 4 on APTS. The linkage of CuPc(COOH) 4 and APTS is estimated and confirmed with FT-IR spectra. The primary optical limiting effects (OLE) of the gel induced by dimers are investigated with a frequency double Q-switched Nd 3+:YAG laser of 8 ns pulse.

  7. Metal phthalocyanine intermediates for the preparation of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, B. N.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Metal 4, 4', 4"",-tetracarboxylic phthalocyanines (MPTC) are prepared by reaction of trimellitic anhydride, a salt or hydroxide of the desired metal (or the metal in powdered form), urea and a catalyst. A purer form of MPTC is prepared than heretofore. These tetracarboxylic acids are then polymerized by heat to sheet polymers which have superior heat and oxidation resistance. The metal is preferably a divalent metal having an atomic radius close to 1.35A.

  8. Origin of electronic transport of lithium phthalocyanine iodine crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Noritake; Oda, Masato; Shinozuka, Yuzo

    2013-12-04

    The electronic structures of Lithium Phthalocyanine Iodine are investigated using density functional theory. Comparing the band structures of several model crystals, the metallic conductivity of highly doped LiPcI{sub x} can be explained by the band of doped iodine. These results reveal that there is a new mechanism for electronic transport of doped organic semiconductors that the dopant band plays the main role.

  9. Anaphylaxis to Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, LR; Subedi, A; Shah, BK

    2014-01-01

    Liposomal doxorubicin is used for the treatment of various cancers like epithelial ovarian cancers, multiple myeloma and sarcomas. We report the first case of anaphylaxis to pegylated liposomal doxorubicin. PMID:25429486

  10. Urinary microalbumin measurement using a homogeneous liposomal immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Frost, S J; Chakraborty, J; Firth, G B

    1996-08-14

    A homogeneous colorimetric immunoassay which has been developed for urinary microalbumin utilizes complement-mediated immunolysis of liposomes containing the dye, sulphorhodamine B. Unlike a previously described model complement-mediated liposomal assay for serum albumin (Frost et al., 1994) which was competitive, this assay uses a sandwich-type format and Fab' (antialbumin)-coated liposomes to increase the assay sensitivity. The liposomal assay, performed using a Cobas Bio analyser (Roche, Welwyn Garden City, UK), gave an acceptable correlation with a radioimmunoassay (NETRIA, London, UK): r = 0.94; y (liposomal assay) = 1.09 x (radioimmunoassay) - 1.54 mg/1. The imprecisions of the assays were similar and matrix effects due to the use of urine samples were determined to be acceptably small. The assay demonstrates the advantage of using Fab'-coated liposomes in sandwich-type liposomal immunoassays over liposomes coated with intact antibody, which failed to elicit complement-mediated immunolysis. PMID:8765163

  11. Synthesis of transferrin (Tf) conjugated liposomes via Staudinger ligation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Songlin; Liu, Ying; Tai, Heng-Chiat; Zhu, Jing; Ding, Hong; Lee, Robert J

    2011-02-14

    Staudinger ligation was evaluated as a strategy for synthesizing receptor targeted liposomes. First, an activated lipid derivative was synthesized by reacting dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and 2-(diphenylphosphino) terephthalic acid 1-methyl 4-penta-fluorophenyldiester. Second, transferrin (Tf) was activated with p-azidophenyl isothiocyanate. Third, liposomes containing the activated lipid were prepared and then coupled to the activated Tf via the Staudinger reaction. These liposomes were evaluated in KB cells for cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, and in mice for pharmacokinetic properties. Tf-derivatized liposomes encapsulating calcein prepared by this conjugation method effectively targeted Tf receptor expressing KB cells. In addition, the Tf-targeted liposomes entrapping doxorubicin showed greatly enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity relative to non-targeted control liposomes. Pharmacokinetic parameters indicated that these liposomes retained long circulating properties relative to the free drug. In summary, Staudinger ligation is an effective method for the synthesis of receptor targeted liposomes. PMID:21056642

  12. Synthesis of transferrin (Tf) conjugated liposomes via Staudinger ligation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Songlin; Liu, Ying; Tai, Heng-Chiat; Zhu, Jing; Ding, Hong; Lee, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Staudinger ligation was evaluated as a strategy for synthesizing receptor targeted liposomes. First, an activated lipid derivative was synthesized by reacting dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and 2-(diphenylphosphino) terephthalic acid 1-methyl 4-penta-fluorophenyldiester. Second, transferrin (Tf) was activated with p-azidophenyl isothiocyanate. Third, liposomes containing the activated lipid were prepared and then coupled to the activated Tf via the Staudinger reaction. These liposomes were evaluated in KB cells for cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, and in mice for pharmacokinetic properties. Tf-derivatized liposomes encapsulating calcein prepared by this conjugation method effectively targeted Tf receptor expressing KB cells. In addition, the Tf-targeted liposomes entrapping doxorubicin showed greatly enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity relative to non-targeted control liposomes. Pharmacokinetic parameters indicated that these liposomes retained long circulating properties relative to the free drug. In summary, Staudinger ligation is an effective method for the synthesis of receptor targeted liposomes. PMID:21056642

  13. A Review on Composite Liposomal Technologies for Specialized Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mufamadi, Maluta S.; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E.; Du Toit, Lisa C.; Modi, Girish; Naidoo, Dinesh; Ndesendo, Valence M. K.

    2011-01-01

    The combination of liposomes with polymeric scaffolds could revolutionize the current state of drug delivery technology. Although liposomes have been extensively studied as a promising drug delivery model for bioactive compounds, there still remain major drawbacks for widespread pharmaceutical application. Two approaches for overcoming the factors related to the suboptimal efficacy of liposomes in drug delivery have been suggested. The first entails modifying the liposome surface with functional moieties, while the second involves integration of pre-encapsulated drug-loaded liposomes within depot polymeric scaffolds. This attempts to provide ingenious solutions to the limitations of conventional liposomes such as short plasma half-lives, toxicity, stability, and poor control of drug release over prolonged periods. This review delineates the key advances in composite technologies that merge the concepts of depot polymeric scaffolds with liposome technology to overcome the limitations of conventional liposomes for pharmaceutical applications. PMID:21490759

  14. Sunlight triggered photodynamic ultradeformable liposomes against Leishmania braziliensis are also leishmanicidal in the dark.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Jorge; Maidana, Cristina; Esteva, Mónica Inés; Salomon, Cristina; Morilla, Maria Jose; Romero, Eder L

    2010-11-01

    Being independent of artificial power sources, self administered sunlight triggered photodynamic therapy could be a suitable alternative treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, that avoids the need for injectables and the toxic side effects of pentavalent antimonials. In this work we have determined the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of sunlight triggered photodynamic ultradeformable liposomes (UDL). ZnPc is a hydrophobic Zn phthalocyanine that showed 20% anti-promastigote activity (APA) and 20% anti-amastigote activity (AA) against Leishmania braziliensis (strain 2903) after 15min sunlight irradiation (15J/cm(2)). However, when loaded in UDL as UDL-ZnPc (1.25μM ZnPc-1mM phospholipids) it elicited 100% APA and 80% AA at the same light dose. In the absence of host cell toxicity, UDL and UDL-ZnPc also showed non-photodynamic leishmanicidal activity. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of cryosectioned human skin mounted in non-occlusive Saarbrücken Penetration Model, showed that upon transcutaneous administration ZnPc penetrated nearly 10 folds deeper as UDL-ZnPc than if loaded in conventional liposomes (L-ZnPc). Quantitative determination of ZnPc confirmed that UDL-ZnPc penetrated homogeneously in the stratum corneum, carrying 7 folds higher amount of ZnPc 8 folds deeper than L-ZnPc. It is envisioned that the multiple leishmanicidal effects of UDL-ZnPc could play a synergistic role in prophylaxis or therapeutic at early stages of the infection. PMID:20727925

  15. Liposome-entrapped plasmid DNA: characterisation studies.

    PubMed

    Perrie, Y; Gregoriadis, G

    2000-07-01

    Plasmid DNA pRc/CMV HBS (5.6 kb) (100 microg) encoding the S (small) region of hepatitis B surface antigen was incorporated by the dehydration-rehydration method into liposomes composed of 16 micromol egg phosphatidylcholine (PC), 8 micromol dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPE) and 1, 2-diodeoyl-3-(trimethylammonium)propane (DOTAP) (cationic liposomes) or phosphatidylglycerol (anionic liposomes) in a variety of molar ratios. The method, entailing mixing of small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) with the DNA, followed by dehydration and rehydration, yielded incorporation values of 95-97 and 48-54% of the DNA used, respectively. Mixing of preformed cationic liposomes with 100 microg plasmid DNA also led to high complexation values of 73-97%. As expected, the association of DNA with preformed anionic liposomes was low (9%). Further work with cationic PC/DOPE/DOTAP liposomes attempted to establish differences in the nature of DNA association with the vesicles after complexation and the constructs generated by the process of dehydration/rehydration. Several lines of evidence obtained from studies on vesicle size and zeta-potential, fluorescent microscopy and gel electrophoresis in the presence of the anion sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) indicate that, under the conditions employed, interaction of DNA with preformed cationic SUV as above, or with cationic SUV made of DOPE and DOTAP (1:1 molar ratio; ESCORT Transfection Reagent), leads to the formation of large complexes with externally bound DNA. For instance, such DNA is accessible to and can be dissociated by competing anionic SDS molecules. However, dehydration of the DNA-SUV complexes and subsequent rehydration, generates submicron size liposomes incorporating most of the DNA in a fashion that prevents DNA displacement through anion competition. It is suggested that, in this case, DNA is entrapped within the aqueous compartments, in between bilayers, presumably bound to the cationic charges. PMID:10832026

  16. Inverted methoxypyridinium phthalocyanines for PDI of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Leandro M O; Sousa, Andreina; Gomes, Maria C; Faustino, Maria A F; Almeida, Adelaide; Silva, Artur M S; Neves, Maria G P M S; Cavaleiro, José A S; Cunha, Ângela; Tomé, João P C

    2015-10-01

    Phthalocyanines (Pc) are photoactive molecules that can absorb and emit light in a large range of the UV-Vis spectrum with recognized potential for medical applications. Considering the biomedical applications an important limitation of these compounds is their low solubility in water. The use of suitable pyridinium groups on Pc is a good strategy to solve this drawback and to make them more effective to photoinactivate Gram-negative bacteria via a photodynamic inactivation (PDI) approach. Herein, an easy synthetic access to obtain inverted tetra- and octa-methoxypyridinium phthalocyanines (compounds 5 and 6) and also their efficiency to photoinactivate a recombinant bioluminescent strain of Escherichia coli is described. The obtained results were compared with the ones obtained when more conventional thiopyridinium phthalocyanines (compounds 7 and 8) were used. This innovative study comparing thiopyridinium and inverted methoxypyridinium moieties on cationic Pc is reported for the first time taking into account the efficiency of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) generation, water solubility and uptake properties. PMID:26214144

  17. Phthalocyanines And Their Sulfonated Derivatives As Photosensitizers In Photodynamic Therapy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesz, Peter; Krishna, C. Murali

    1988-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of human tumors with hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) has achieved encouraging results. However, HpD is a complex mixture whose composition varies in different preparations and with time of storage. The future promise of PDT for cancer treatment depends on the development of new chemically defined sensitizers which absorb more strongly than HpD in the 600-800 nm region. A shift to higher wavelengths is desirable since it allows increased light penetration in human tissues. In vivo, these sensitizers should be non-toxic, localize selectively in tumors and generate cytotoxic species upon illumination with a high quantum yield. These damaging species may be singlet oxygen (1O2) produced by the transfer of energy from the triplet state of the sensitizer to oxygen (Type II) or superoxide anion radicals formed by electron transfer to oxygen or substrate radicals generated by electron or hydrogen transfer directly from the sensitizer (Type I). The recent work of several groups indicating that phthalocyanines and their water soluble derivatives are promising candidates for PDT is reviewed. The photophysics, photochemistry, photosensitized killing of cultured mammalian cells and the use for in vivo photodynamic therapy of phthalocyanines is outlined. Our studies of the post-illumination photohemolysis of human red blood cells as a model system for membrane photomodification sensitized by phthalocyanine sulfonates are consistent with the predominant role of 1O2 as the damaging species.

  18. Copper phthalocyanine-based CMPs with various internal structures and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuesong; Han, Bao-Hang

    2015-08-18

    Several kinds of copper phthalocyanine-based conjugated microporous polymers have been synthesized, which present enhanced long-wavelength photon absorption capability and high efficiency for singlet oxygen generation under low energy light irradiation. This strategy opens a facile avenue towards expanding the scope of phthalocyanine-based porous materials with various internal structures and functionalities. PMID:26166552

  19. Liposome technology. Volume III: Targeted drug delivery and biological interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gregoriadis, G.

    1984-01-01

    These three volumes cover liposome technology in pharmacology and medicine. Contributors emphasize methodology used in their own laboratories, and include a brief introduction, coverage of relevant literature, applications and critical evaluations for the methods they describe. In Volume III, the growing variety of techniques yielding targeted liposomes and approaches of studying liposomal behavior both in vitro and in vivo are discussed.

  20. Surface Engineering of Liposomes for Stealth Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Okhil K.; Awasthi, Vibhudutta

    2013-01-01

    Liposomes are used as a delivery vehicle for drug molecules and imaging agents. The major impetus in their biomedical applications comes from the ability to prolong their circulation half-life after administration. Conventional liposomes are easily recognized by the mononuclear phagocyte system and are rapidly cleared from the blood stream. Modification of the liposomal surface with hydrophilic polymers delays the elimination process by endowing them with stealth properties. In recent times, the development of various materials for surface engineering of liposomes and other nanomaterials has made remarkable progress. Poly(ethylene glycol)-linked phospholipids (PEG-PLs) are the best representatives of such materials. Although PEG-PLs have served the formulation scientists amazingly well, closer scrutiny has uncovered a few shortcomings, especially pertaining to immunogenicity and pharmaceutical characteristics (drug loading, targeting, etc.) of PEG. On the other hand, researchers have also begun questioning the biological behavior of the phospholipid portion in PEG-PLs. Consequently, stealth lipopolymers consisting of non-phospholipids and PEG-alternatives are being developed. These novel lipopolymers offer the potential advantages of structural versatility, reduced complement activation, greater stability, flexible handling and storage procedures and low cost. In this article, we review the materials available as alternatives to PEG and PEG-lipopolymers for effective surface modification of liposomes. PMID:24300562

  1. Capsosomes: subcompartmentalizing polyelectrolyte capsules using liposomes.

    PubMed

    Städler, Brigitte; Chandrawati, Rona; Goldie, Kenneth; Caruso, Frank

    2009-06-16

    Next-generation therapeutic approaches are expected to rely on the engineering of multifunctional particle carriers that can mimic specific cellular functions. The key features of such particles are the semipermeable nature of the shell for communication with the external environment and multiple nanosized individual subcompartments confined within a micron-sized structurally stable scaffold for conducting specific reactions. Herein, we report the formation of capsosomes, a new class of polyelectrolyte capsules containing structurally intact liposomes as cargo. The multilayer film assembly of polyelectrolytes (poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH)) and liposomes (50 nm 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC)) was characterized on planar substrates using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, and these findings were then correlated to the film growth of the polyelectrolytes and structurally intact liposomes on silica particles. Upon removal of the silica template core, stable capsosomes, containing one or two layers of intact liposomes as cargo, were obtained. This novel platform, capsosomes, which combines the advantages of two systems, liposomes and polyelectrolyte capsules, is expected to find diverse applications in biomedicine, in particular for the creation of artificial cells or organelles where the performance of reactions within a confined environment is a prerequisite. PMID:19505154

  2. Liposome-Loaded Cell Backpacks.

    PubMed

    Polak, Roberta; Lim, Rosanna M; Beppu, Marisa M; Pitombo, Ronaldo N M; Cohen, Robert E; Rubner, Michael F

    2015-12-01

    Cell backpacks, or micron-scale patches of a few hundred nanometers in thickness fabricated by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, are potentially useful vehicles for targeted drug delivery on the cellular level. In this work, echogenic liposomes (ELIPs) containing the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) are embedded into backpacks through electrostatic interactions and LbL assembly. Poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAH/PAA)n , and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/poly(styrene sulfonate) (PDAC/SPS)n film systems show the greatest ELIP incorporation of the films studied while maintaining the structural integrity of the vesicles. The use of ELIPs for drug encapsulation into backpacks facilitates up to three times greater DOX loading compared to backpacks without ELIPs. Cytotoxicity studies reveal that monocyte backpack conjugates remain viable even after 72 h, demonstrating promise as drug delivery vehicles. Because artificial vesicles can load many different types of drugs, ELIP containing backpacks offer a unique versatility for broadening the range of possible applications for cell backpacks. PMID:26616471

  3. The preparation of organic infrared semiconductor phthalocyanine gadolinium (III) and its optical and structural characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Li-bin; Ji, Rong-bin; Song, Li-yuan; Chen, Xue-mei; Ma, Yu; Wang, Yi-feng; Qian, Ming; Song, Lei; Su, Hai-ying; Zhuang, Ji-sheng; Yang, Rui-yu

    2009-07-01

    In order to increase the species of organic infrared semiconductor, we synthesized organic infrared semiconductor phthalocyanine gadolinium by using o-phthalodinitrile and GdCl3 as reactants, ammonium molybdate as catalyzer. Under light and dark field modes of microscope, the translucency emerald-like powder of phthalocyanine gadolinium has been observed, the size of the small grain for the sample is around 5μm in diameter, the size of larger grain may reach to several tens of microns. The main vibrational peaks in FT-IR spectrum and Raman spectrum have been assigned. Elementary analysis shows that the experimental data of phthalocyanine gadolinium in the main agree with those of calculated data. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the sample indicates the sandwich-like structure of phthalocyanine gadolinium. The organic infrared semiconductor phthalocyanine gadolinium thin film on quartz substrate has been prepared with our synthesized powdered sample by using solution method. The characterizations of XRD and UV-Vis-NIR absorption have been carried out for the phthalocyanine gadolinium thin film on quartz substrate, XRD shows that phthalocyanine gadolinium diffractions occur at 2θ=6.851,8.290 and 8.820 degrees, the corresponding plane spacings (d) for the diffraction peaks are 12.8921, 10.6570, and 10.0176Å.The diffraction peaks locate at low diffraction angle, suggesting that the molecular size of the phthalocyanine gadolinium is big that causes the large spacing of crystal planes. The UV-Vis-NIR absorption of phthalocyanine gadolinium thin film on quartz substrate implies that within near infrared band there is a absorption in the 1.3~2.0μm wavelength range peaked at ca. 1.75μm, indicating the important potential application value of phthalocyanine gadolinium in the field of organic infrared optoelectronics.

  4. Dehydration resistance of liposomes containing trehalose glycolipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyberg, Kendra; Goulding, Morgan; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2010-03-01

    The pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has an unusual outer membrane containing trehalose glycolipids that may contribute to its ability to survive freezing and dehydration. Based on our recent discovery that trehalose glycolipids confer dehydration resistance to supported lipid monolayers (Biophys. J. 94: 4718-4724 (2008); Langmuir 25: 5193-5198, (2009)), we hypothesized that liposomes containing synthetic trehalose glycolipids may be dehydration-resistant as well. To test this, we measured the leakage of encapsulated fluorophores and larger macromolecular cargo from such liposomes subject to freeze drying. Both leakage assays and size measurements show that the liposomes are dehydration-resistant. In addition to demonstrating a possibly technologically useful encapsulation platform, our results corroborate the view that encapsulation in a trehalose-glycolipid-rich membrane is a biophysically viable route to protection of mycobacteria from environmental stresses.

  5. Bioavailability of Polyphenol Liposomes: A Challenge Ahead

    PubMed Central

    Mignet, Nathalie; Seguin, Johanne; Chabot, Guy G.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols, including flavonoids, have long been recognized as a source of important molecules involved in the prevention of several diseases, including cancer. However, because of their poor bioavailability, polyphenols remain difficult to be employed clinically. Over the past few years, a renewed interest has been devoted to the use of liposomes as carriers aimed at increasing the bioavailability and, hence, the therapeutic benefits of polyphenols. In this paper, we review the causes of the poor bioavailability of polyphenols and concentrate on their liposomal formulations, which offer a means of improving their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The problems linked to their development and their potential therapeutic advantages are reviewed. Future directions for liposomal polyphenol development are suggested. PMID:24300518

  6. Liposomal boron delivery for neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Tumor cell destruction in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between (10)B and thermal neutrons. The thermal neutrons have an energy of 0.025 eV, clearly below the threshold energy required to ionize tissue components. However, neutron capture by (10)B produces lithium ion and helium (alpha-particles), which are high linear energy transfer (LET) particles, and dissipate their kinetic energy before traveling one cell diameter (5-9 microm) in biological tissues, ensuring their potential for precise cell killing. BNCT has been applied clinically for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, malignant melanoma, head and neck cancer, and hepatoma using two boron compounds: sodium borocaptate (Na(2)(10)B(12)H(11)SH; Na(2)(10)BSH) and l-p-boronophenylalanine (l-(10)BPA). These low molecular weight compounds are cleared easily from the cancer cells and blood. Therefore, high accumulation and selective delivery of boron compounds into tumor tissues are most important to achieve effective BNCT and to avoid damage of adjacent healthy cells. Much attention has been focused on the liposomal drug delivery system (DDS) as an attractive, intelligent technology of targeting and controlled release of (10)B compounds. Two approaches have been investigated for incorporation of (10)B into liposomes: (1) encapsulation of (10)B compounds into liposomes and (2) incorporation of (10)B-conjugated lipids into the liposomal bilayer. Our laboratory has developed boron ion cluster lipids for application of the latter approach. In this chapter, our boron lipid liposome approaches as well as recent developments of the liposomal boron delivery system are summarized. PMID:19913168

  7. Recent trends of polymer mediated liposomal gene delivery system.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Shyamal Kumar; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Lee, Sang-Soo; Sharma, Garima; Doss, C George Priya; Yagihara, Shin; Kim, Do-Young; Nam, Ju-Suk; Chakraborty, Chiranjib

    2014-01-01

    Advancement in the gene delivery system have resulted in clinical successes in gene therapy for patients with several genetic diseases, such as immunodeficiency diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) blindness, thalassemia, and many more. Among various delivery systems, liposomal mediated gene delivery route is offering great promises for gene therapy. This review is an attempt to depict a portrait about the polymer based liposomal gene delivery systems and their future applications. Herein, we have discussed in detail the characteristics of liposome, importance of polymer for liposome formulation, gene delivery, and future direction of liposome based gene delivery as a whole. PMID:25250340

  8. Microfluidic-Enabled Liposomes Elucidate Size-Dependent Transdermal Transport

    PubMed Central

    Junqueira, Mariana; Vreeland, Wyatt N.; Quezado, Zenaide; Finkel, Julia C.; DeVoe, Don L.

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic synthesis of small and nearly-monodisperse liposomes is used to investigate the size-dependent passive transdermal transport of nanoscale lipid vesicles. While large liposomes with diameters above 105 nm are found to be excluded from deeper skin layers past the stratum corneum, the primary barrier to nanoparticle transport, liposomes with mean diameters between 31–41 nm exhibit significantly enhanced penetration. Furthermore, multicolor fluorescence imaging reveals that the smaller liposomes pass rapidly through the stratum corneum without vesicle rupture. These findings reveal that nanoscale liposomes with well-controlled size and minimal size variance are excellent vehicles for transdermal delivery of functional nanoparticle drugs. PMID:24658111

  9. [Determination of content and entrapment efficiency of clindamycin phosphate liposome].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weihua; Zhang, Yangde; He, Jiantai

    2009-06-01

    This study was conducted to prepare and determine the content and entrapment efficiency of Clindamycin Phosphate liposome. Evaporating and Ultrasound method was used for preparing Clindamycin Phosphate liposome. HPLC was used for determining the concentration and the entrapment efficiency of Clindamycin Phosphate liposome. The results indicated that Clindamycin Phosphate had a good linear relation in a range of 5.0-50.0 microg/ml. The entrapment efficiency of Clindamycin Phosphate liposome in three groups reached 52.26%, 50.13%, 53.75% respectively. Accordingly, the technique of preparing Clindamycin Phosphate liposome was noted to be feasible, and the method of quality control was shown simple and accurate. PMID:19634674

  10. Accumulation, internalization and therapeutic efficacy of neuropilin-1-targeted liposomes.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Eric E; Ingham, Elizabeth S; Zhang, Hua; Mahakian, Lisa M; Fite, Brett Z; Gagnon, M Karen; Tam, Sarah; Kheirolomoom, Azadeh; Cardiff, Robert D; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2014-03-28

    Advancements in liposomal drug delivery have produced long circulating and very stable drug formulations. These formulations minimize systemic exposure; however, unfortunately, therapeutic efficacy has remained limited due to the slow diffusion of liposomal particles within the tumor and limited release or uptake of the encapsulated drug. Here, the carboxyl-terminated CRPPR peptide, with affinity for the receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP), which is expressed on both endothelial and cancer cells, was conjugated to liposomes to enhance the tumor accumulation. Using a pH sensitive probe, liposomes were optimized for specific NRP binding and subsequent cellular internalization using in vitro cellular assays. Liposomes conjugated with the carboxyl-terminated CRPPR peptide (termed C-LPP liposomes) bound to the NRP-positive primary prostatic carcinoma cell line (PPC-1) but did not bind to the NRP-negative PC-3 cell line, and binding was observed with liposomal peptide concentrations as low as 0.16mol%. Binding of the C-LPP liposomes was receptor-limited, with saturation observed at high liposome concentrations. The identical peptide sequence bearing an amide terminus did not bind specifically, accumulating only with a high (2.5mol%) peptide concentration and adhering equally to NRP positive and negative cell lines. The binding of C-LPP liposomes conjugated with 0.63mol% of the peptide was 83-fold greater than liposomes conjugated with the amide version of the peptide. Cellular internalization was also enhanced with C-LPP liposomes, with 80% internalized following 3h incubation. Additionally, fluorescence in the blood pool (~40% of the injected dose) was similar for liposomes conjugated with 0.63mol% of carboxyl-terminated peptide and non-targeted liposomes at 24h after injection, indicating stable circulation. Prior to doxorubicin treatment, in vivo tumor accumulation and vascular targeting were increased for peptide-conjugated liposomes compared to non-targeted liposomes based on confocal imaging of a fluorescent cargo, and the availability of the vascular receptor was confirmed with ultrasound molecular imaging. Finally, over a 4-week course of therapy, tumor knockdown resulting from doxorubicin-loaded, C-LPP liposomes was similar to non-targeted liposomes in syngeneic tumor-bearing FVB mice and C-LPP liposomes reduced doxorubicin accumulation in the skin and heart and eliminated skin toxicity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that a carboxyl-terminated RXXR peptide sequence, conjugated to liposomes at a concentration of 0.63mol%, retains long circulation but enhances binding and internalization, and reduces toxicity. PMID:24434424

  11. Recent Trends of Polymer Mediated Liposomal Gene Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Soo; George Priya Doss, C.; Yagihara, Shin; Kim, Do-Young

    2014-01-01

    Advancement in the gene delivery system have resulted in clinical successes in gene therapy for patients with several genetic diseases, such as immunodeficiency diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) blindness, thalassemia, and many more. Among various delivery systems, liposomal mediated gene delivery route is offering great promises for gene therapy. This review is an attempt to depict a portrait about the polymer based liposomal gene delivery systems and their future applications. Herein, we have discussed in detail the characteristics of liposome, importance of polymer for liposome formulation, gene delivery, and future direction of liposome based gene delivery as a whole. PMID:25250340

  12. Application of fluorescence labeled liposome nanoparticles in the cell imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jianbing; Li, Huimin; He, Xiaoxiao; Gong, Ping; Wang, Kemin; Zhang, Shouchun

    2007-05-01

    Fluorescence labeled liposome nanoparticles were prepared by dispersion of film method. The size of nanoparticles was around 50 nm. DPPE-FITC synthesized in our lab was used to label the liposome nanoparticles. Anti-cytokeratins 19 antibody was connected to the surface of the fluorescence liposome nanoparticles. After incubation with MGC cells and COS-7 cells for 30 min, MGC cells were selectively recognized by anti-cytokeratins 19 antibody modified liposome nanoparticles and well imaged under laser confocal microscope. This fluorescence labeled liposome nanoparticles is expected to have good applications in cell recognition and tumor diagnosis.

  13. Accumulation, internalization and therapeutic efficacy of neuropilin-1-targeted liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Paoli, Eric E.; Ingham, Elizabeth S.; Zhang, Hua; Mahakian, Lisa M.; Fite, Brett Z.; Gagnon, M. Karen; Tam, Sarah; Kheirolomoom, Azadeh; Cardiff, Robert D.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in liposomal drug delivery have produced long circulating and very stable drug formulations. These formulations minimize systemic exposure; however, unfortunately, therapeutic efficacy has remained limited due to the slow diffusion of liposomal particles within the tumor and limited release or uptake of the encapsulated drug. Here, the carboxyl-terminated CRPPR peptide, with affinity for the receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP), which is expressed on both endothelial and cancer cells, was conjugated to liposomes to enhance the tumor accumulation. Using a pH sensitive probe, liposomes were optimized for specific NRP binding and subsequent cellular internalization using in vitro cellular assays. Liposomes conjugated with the carboxyl-terminated CRPPR peptide (termed C-LPP liposomes) bound to the NRP-positive primary prostatic carcinoma cell line (PPC-1) but did not bind to the NRP-negative PC-3 cell line, and binding was observed with liposomal peptide concentrations as low as 0.16 mol%. Binding of the C-LPP liposomes was receptor-limited, with saturation observed at high liposome concentrations. The identical peptide sequence bearing an amide terminus did not bind specifically, accumulating only with a high (2.5 mol%) peptide concentration and adhering equally to NRP positive and negative cell lines. The binding of C-LPP liposomes conjugated with 0.63 mol% of the peptide was 83-fold greater than liposomes conjugated with the amide version of the peptide. Cellular internalization was also enhanced with C-LPP liposomes, with 80% internalized following 3hr incubation. Additionally, fluorescence in the blood pool (~40% of the injected dose) was similar for liposomes conjugated with 0.63 mol% of carboxyl-terminated peptide and non-targeted liposomes at 24 hr after injection, indicating stable circulation. Prior to doxorubicin treatment, in vivo tumor accumulation and vascular targeting were increased for peptide-conjugated liposomes compared to non-targeted liposomes based on confocal imaging of a fluorescent cargo, and the availability of the vascular receptor was confirmed with ultrasound molecular imaging. Finally, over a 4-week course of therapy, tumor knockdown resulting from doxorubicin-loaded, C-LPP liposomes was similar to non-targeted liposomes in syngeneic tumor-bearing FVB mice and C-LPP liposomes reduced doxorubicin accumulation in the skin and heart and eliminated skin toxicity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that a carboxyl-terminated RXXR peptide sequence, conjugated to liposomes at a concentration of 0.63 mol%, retains long circulation but enhances binding and internalization, and reduces toxicity. PMID:24434424

  14. Overcoming cellular and tissue barriers to improve liposomal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohli, Aditya G.

    Forty years of liposome research have demonstrated that the anti-tumor efficacy of liposomal therapies is, in part, driven by three parameters: 1) liposome formulation and lipid biophysics, 2) accumulation and distribution in the tumor, and 3) release of the payload at the site of interest. This thesis outlines three studies that improve on each of these delivery steps. In the first study, we engineer a novel class of zwitterlipids with an inverted headgroup architecture that have remarkable biophysical properties and may be useful for drug delivery applications. After intravenous administration, liposomes accumulate in the tumor by the enhanced permeability and retention effect. However, the tumor stroma often limits liposome efficacy by preventing distribution into the tumor. In the second study, we demonstrate that depletion of hyaluronan in the tumor stroma improves the distribution and efficacy of DoxilRTM in murine 4T1 tumors. Once a liposome has distributed to the therapeutic site, it must release its payload over the correct timescale. Few facile methods exist to quantify the release of liposome therapeutics in vivo. In the third study, we outline and validate a simple, robust, and quantitative method for tracking the rate and extent of release of liposome contents in vivo. This tool should facilitate a better understanding of the pharmacodynamics of liposome-encapsulated drugs in animals. This work highlights aspects of liposome behavior that have prevented successful clinical translation and proposes alternative approaches to improve liposome drug delivery.

  15. Quick self-healing and thermo-reversible liposome gel.

    PubMed

    Rao, Zhi; Inoue, Motoki; Matsuda, Miyuki; Taguchi, Tetsushi

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembled liposome gel from liposome and cholesterol-end capped polyethylene glycol, was systematically investigated by rheological method, especially in the aspect of its recovery ability upon either mechanical deformation or temperature change. The liposome gel was found to have rheological behavior similar to that of Maxwell model. The dynamic shear modulus of the liposome gel was dependent on both the liposome concentration and the polymer concentration. At low liposome concentration range (5-20 mM), dynamic shear modulus decreased considerably with the liposome concentration, implying the decrease of effective cross-linking density inside gel network due to the addition of liposome. The liposome gel network had a fast, self-healing ability even after high deformation, and the injectability of the gel was confirmed by injection experiment in vitro. The liposome gel also exhibited temperature stimuli responsive behavior and thermo-reversibility. Dynamic light scattering studies proved that the particle size of liposome remained almost unchanged before and after the addition of the polymer. PMID:20855187

  16. Liposome size and charge optimization for intraarterial delivery to gliomas.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Shailendra; Cooke, Johann R N; Chan, Darren K W; Ellis, Jason A; Hossain, Shaolie S; Singh-Moon, Rajinder P; Wang, Mei; Bigio, Irving J; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Straubinger, Robert M

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticles such as liposomes may be used as drug delivery vehicles for brain tumor therapy. Particle geometry and electrostatic properties have been hypothesized to be important determinants of effective tumor targeting after intraarterial injection. In this study, we investigate the combined roles of liposome size and surface charge on the effectiveness of delivery to gliomas after intraarterial injection. Intracarotid injection of liposomes was performed in separate cohorts of both healthy and C6 glioma-bearing Sprague Dawley rats after induction of transient cerebral hypoperfusion. Large (200 nm) and small (60-80 nm) fluorescent dye-loaded liposomes that were either cationic or neutral in surface charge were utilized. Delivery effectiveness was quantitatively measured both with real-time, in vivo and postmortem diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Semi-quantitative multispectral fluorescence imaging was also utilized to assess the pattern and extent of liposome targeting within tumors. Large cationic liposomes demonstrated the most effective hemispheric and glioma targeting of all the liposomes tested. Selective large cationic liposome retention at the site of glioma growth was observed. The liposome deposition pattern within tumors after intraarterial injection was variable with both core penetration and peripheral deposition observed in specific tumors. This study provides evidence that liposome size and charge are important determinants of effective brain and glioma targeting after intraarterial injection. Our results support the future development of 200-nm cationic liposomal formulations of candidate intraarterial anti-glioma agents for further pre-clinical testing. PMID:27091339

  17. Potential Effect of Liposomes and Liposome-Encapsulated Botulinum Toxin and Tacrolimus in the Treatment of Bladder Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Janicki, Joseph J; Chancellor, Michael B; Kaufman, Jonathan; Gruber, Michele A; Chancellor, David D

    2016-01-01

    Bladder drug delivery via catheter instillation is a widely used treatment for recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. Intravesical instillation of liposomal botulinum toxin has recently shown promise in the treatment of overactive bladder and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, and studies of liposomal tacrolimus instillations show promise in the treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis. Liposomes are lipid vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surrounding an aqueous core that can encapsulate hydrophilic and hydrophobic drug molecules to be delivered to cells via endocytosis. This review will present new developments on instillations of liposomes and liposome-encapsulated drugs into the urinary bladder for treating lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:26999210

  18. Potential Effect of Liposomes and Liposome-Encapsulated Botulinum Toxin and Tacrolimus in the Treatment of Bladder Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Janicki, Joseph J.; Chancellor, Michael B.; Kaufman, Jonathan; Gruber, Michele A.; Chancellor, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Bladder drug delivery via catheter instillation is a widely used treatment for recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. Intravesical instillation of liposomal botulinum toxin has recently shown promise in the treatment of overactive bladder and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, and studies of liposomal tacrolimus instillations show promise in the treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis. Liposomes are lipid vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surrounding an aqueous core that can encapsulate hydrophilic and hydrophobic drug molecules to be delivered to cells via endocytosis. This review will present new developments on instillations of liposomes and liposome-encapsulated drugs into the urinary bladder for treating lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:26999210

  19. Paramagnetic liposomes: inner versus outer membrane relaxivity of DPPC liposomes incorporating lipophilic gadolinium complexes.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Sophie; Elst, Luce Vander; Thirifays, Coralie; Muller, Robert N

    2008-04-15

    Proton relaxometric properties of unilamellar DPPC liposomes embedding an amphiphilic paramagnetic chelate (Gd-DTPA-BC(14)A) in both layers of the phospholipid membrane or only in the external one are compared. The results show that the membrane's water permeability is able to quench the effect of the paramagnetic complexes located in the internal layer of DPPC liposomes, leading thus to an apparent lower global relaxivity. PMID:18338913

  20. Water-soluble platinum phthalocyanines as potential antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Bologna, Giuseppina; Lanuti, Paola; D'Ambrosio, Primiano; Tonucci, Lucia; Pierdomenico, Laura; D'Emilio, Carlo; Celli, Nicola; Marchisio, Marco; d'Alessandro, Nicola; Santavenere, Eugenio; Bressan, Mario; Miscia, Sebastiano

    2014-06-01

    Breast cancer represents the second cause of death in the European female population. The lack of specific therapies together with its high invasive potential are the major problems associated to such a tumor. In the last three decades platinum-based drugs have been considered essential constituents of many therapeutic strategies, even though with side effects and frequent generation of drug resistance. These drugs have been the guide for the research, in last years, of novel platinum and ruthenium based compounds, able to overcome these limitations. In this work, ruthenium and platinum based phthalocyanines were synthesized through conventional techniques and their antiproliferative and/or cytotoxic actions were tested. Normal mammary gland (MCF10A) and several models of mammarian carcinoma at different degrees of invasiveness (BT474, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) were used. Cells were treated with different concentrations (5-100 μM) of the above reported compounds, to evaluate toxic concentration and to underline possible dose-response effects. The study included growth curves made by trypan blue exclusion test and scratch assay to study cellular motility and its possible negative modulation by phthalocyanine. Moreover, we investigated cell cycle and apoptosis through flow cytometry and AMNIS Image Stream cytometer. Among all the tested drugs, tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine of platinum resulted to be the molecule with the best cytostatic action on neoplastic cell lines at the concentration of 30 μM. Interestingly, platinum tetrasulfophtalocyanine, at low doses, had no antiproliferative effects on normal cells. Therefore, such platinum complex, appears to be a promising drug for mammarian carcinoma treatment. PMID:24699848

  1. Stability due to peripheral halogenation in phthalocyanine complexes.

    PubMed

    Koshino, Masanori; Kurata, Hiroki; Isoda, Seiij

    2007-04-01

    The effect of peripheral halogenation is examined based on analytical transmission electron microscopy and thermal analyses of two chemical family structures, specifically the vanadyl-phthalocyanine family (VOPcX: X = H16, F14.5) and the copper-phthalocyanine family (CuPcX: X = H16, F16, Cl16, Cl8Br8), focusing on the process of molecular changes and crystalline disintegrations. To clarify the molecular transformations, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is applied to two fluorinated phthalocyanines (VOPcF14.5 and CuPcF16), by monitoring mass changes as well as energy loss near edge structures (ELNES). The elemental mass of both VOPcF14.5 and CuPcF16 remain constant up to 0.5 C x cm(-2), except in the case of mass reduction attributed to oxygen loss occurring in VOPcF14.5. It is expected that the released oxygen will induce higher radiation damage in VOPcF14.5. Although mass variation is not observed in CuPcF16, it is found from ELNES that the pi resonant system of nitrogen is more radiation sensitive than that of carbon. These results imply that the electron sensitivity in VOPcX is triggered by eliminated oxygen or, thus, an induced larger empty space, whereas the sensitivity of CuPcX is dominated only by a large intermolecular empty space resulting in the following bond alterations. It is also found that the decomposition temperature (Td) measured by thermal analyses and the characteristic dose (D1/e) are exponentially correlated to the "effective molecular occupancy" (Oe) evaluated as a volume function of molecules in unit cells. By measuring Td and/or Oe, we discuss the durability of peripheral halogenation with respect to the radiation damage. PMID:17367549

  2. Dispersion studies and electronic transitions in nickel phthalocyanine thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nahass, M. M.; Farag, A. M.; Abd El-Rahman, K. F.; Darwish, A. A. A.

    2005-10-01

    Thin films of the organic semiconductor nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc) are structurally investigated using X-ray diffraction and infrared light absorption. The optical absorption and dispersion studies of nickel phthalocyanine were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence in the wavelength range 190-2100 nm. The absorption spectra recorded in the UV-VIS region show two well-defined absorption bands of the phthacyanine molecules, namely, the Soret and the Q-band. The Davydove splitting of the main absorption peak in the metal phthalocyanines correlates with the relative tendencies of the metal to out-of-plane bonding. The refractive index n as well as the absorption index k were calculated and showed an independent of the film thickness in the film thicknesses range 400-770 nm. The refractive index n showed an anomalous dispersion in the absorption region as well as normal dispersion in the transparent region. Some of the important optical absorption such as the molar extinction coefficient, the oscillator strength, the electric dipole strength have been evaluated. The analysis of the spectral behavior of the absorption coefficient α in the absorption region revealed two indirect allowed transitions with corresponding energies 2.77±0.03 and 1.66±0.02 eV. An energy band diagram has been proposed to account for the optical transitions of NiPc thin film. All previous parameters were as well obtained for films annealed at 523 K for 2 h. Discussion of the obtained results and their comparison with the previously published data are also given.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and spectral properties of novel zinc phthalocyanines derived from C2 symmetric diol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gk, Ya?ar; Gk, Halil Zeki

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we described the syntheses of new zinc(II) phthalocyanine compounds derived from (1R,2R)-1,2-diphenyl-1,2-ethanediol units. The phthalonitrile precursors 3 and 4 were synthesized by the reaction of 4,5-dichlorophthalonitrile with (1R,2R)-1,2-diphenyl-1,2-ethanediol. The synthesis of zinc(II) phthalocyanine 5 and zinc(II) phthalocyanine polymer 6 by cyclotetramerization of corresponding phthalonitrile derivative were accomplished in the presence of Zn(CH3CO2)2 in a Schlenk tube containing quinoline under nitrogen atmosphere. The zinc(II) phthalocyanine 5 showed enhanced solubility in various organic solvents. The aggregation behavior of phthalocyanines was investigated at different concentrations in different solvents. Both phthalocyanines were found to exist in non-aggregated form at concentrations between 10 10-6 and 1 10-6 mol dm-3. As the concentration increased to 5 10-5 mol dm-3, a deviation from ideality was observed for both phthalocyanines. The novel compounds were characterized by a combination of elemental analysis and 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, UV-Vis and MS spectral data.

  4. Photoluminescence of nitro-substituted europium (III) phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Ziminov, A. V. Polevaya, Yu. A.; Jourre, T. A.; Ramsh, S. M.; Mezdrogina, M. M.; Poletaev, N. K.

    2010-08-15

    Europium monophthalocyanine Eu(acac)Pc, europium monotetranitrophthalocyanine Eu(acac)Pc(NO{sub 2}){sub 4}, and heteroleptic europium tetranitrobisphthalocyanine Eu(Pc)(Pc(NO{sub 2}){sub 4}) are synthesized. The spectral characteristics of the phthalocyanine complexes in the visible and near-infrared regions are studied. The photoluminescence spectra are recorded. The luminescence bands are detected in the regions 450-500 nm (S{sub 2} {yields} S{sub 0}) and 670-730 nm (S{sub 1} {yields} S{sub 0}). The peaks are attributed to electronic transitions in the organic ligands.

  5. Conduction processes in tin- and silicon-phthalocyanine thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Flores Gracia, F. . E-mail: fjflor@siu.buap.mx; Sosa Sanchez, A.; Sosa Sanchez, J. Luis

    2007-08-15

    Electronic conduction studies have been carried out on evaporated tin- and silicon-phthalocyanine thin films. The samples showed carrier excitation via a field-lowering mechanism with a logJ{alpha}V {sup 1/2} plot and the current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics were studied. Both polarities showed two characteristic regions in the J-V plots at low and high voltages respectively leading to the conclusion that electrical conduction proceeds via Schottky and Poole-Frenkel emission.

  6. Photoconductivity study of acid on Zinc phthalocyanine pyridine thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sukhwinder; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    The Metal Phthalocyanine (MPc) have attracted much interest because of chemical and high thermal stability. Molecules forming a crystal of MPc are held together by weak attractive Vander Waals forces. Organic semiconductors have π conjugate bonds which allow electrons to move via π-electron cloud overlaps. Conduction mechanisms for organic semiconductor are mainly through tunneling; hopping between localized states, mobility gaps, and phonon assisted hopping. The photo conductivity of thin films of these complexes changes when exposed to oxidizing and reducing gases. Arrhenius plot is used to find the thermal activation energy in the intrinsic region and impurity scattering region. Arrhenius plotsare used to find the thermal activation energy.

  7. Magnetic interaction in oxygenated alpha Fe-phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmann, Ernő Homonnay, Zoltán; Horváth, Attila; Pechousek, Jiri; Cuda, Jan; Machala, Libor; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Zboril, Radek; Klencsár, Zoltán; Kubuki, Shiro; Nath, Amar

    2014-10-27

    Alpha iron phthalocyanines (α-FePc) oxygenated at low temperatures were investigated with the help of {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements (SQUID) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed that upon oxygenation of α-FePc, new species were formed which could be associated with Fe{sup III}Pc oxygen adducts. Unexpectedly, magnetically split spectrum of oxygenated α-FePc was observed below 20 K. In-field Mössbauer spectra in a 5 T external magnetic field at 5K and magnetization measurements indicate antiferromagnetic coupling in oxygenated α-FePc.

  8. Bone marrow-targeted liposomal carriers

    PubMed Central

    Sou, Keitaro; Goins, Beth; Oyajobi, Babatunde O.; Travi, Bruno L.; Phillips, William T.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Bone marrow targeted drug delivery systems appear to offer a promising strategy for advancing diagnostic, protective, and/or therapeutic medicine for the hematopoietic system. Liposome technology can provide a drug delivery system with high bone marrow targeting that is mediated by specific phagocytosis in bone marrow. Area covered This review focuses on a bone marrow specific liposome formulation labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc). Interspecies differences in bone marrow distribution of the bone marrow targeted formulation are emphasized. This review provides a liposome technology to target bone marrow. In addition, the selection of proper species for the investigation of bone marrow targeting is suggested. Expert opinion It can be speculated that the bone marrow macrophages have a role in the delivery of lipids to the bone marrow as a source of energy and for membrane biosynthesis or in the delivery of fat soluble vitamins for hematopoiesis. This homeostatic system offers a potent pathway to deliver drugs selectively into bone marrow tissues from blood. High selectivity of the present BMT-liposome formulation for bone marrow suggests the presence of an active and specific mechanism, but specific factors affecting the uptake of the bone marrow MPS are still unknown. Further investigation of this mechanism will increase our understanding of factors required for effective transport of agents to the bone marrow, and may provide an efficient system for bone marrow delivery for therapeutic purposes. PMID:21275831

  9. Properties of liposomal membranes containing lysolecithin.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, T; Inoue, K; Nojima, S

    1976-06-01

    Liposomes have been prepared with lysolecithin (1-acyl-sn-3-glycerylphosphorylcholine), egg lecithin (3-sn-phosphatidylcholine), dicetyl phosphate, and cholesterol. The ability to function as a barrier to the diffusion of glucose marker and the sensitivities of the liposomes to hypotonic treatment and other reagents which modified the permeability were examined. Generally, lysolecithin incorporation decreased the effectiveness of the membranes as a barrier to glucose and made the membranes more "osmotically fragile." Cholesterol incorporation counteracted the effect of incorporated lysolecithin. The more cholesterol incorporated into liposomes, the more lysolecthin could be incorporated into the membrane without loss of function as a barrier. With more than 50 mole% of colesterol, lysolecithin alone could form membranes which were practically impermeable to glucose. The hemolytic activity of lysolecithin was affected by mixing with various lecithins or cholesterol. Liposomes containing lysolecithin, which have the ability to trap glucose marker, showed poor hemolytic activity, while lipid micelles with lysolecithin (which could trap little glucose) showed almost the same hemolytic activity as lysolecithin itself. There seems to be a close correlation between hemolytic activity and barrier function of lipid micelles. PMID:986392

  10. Nanocomposite liposomes containing quantum dots and anticancer drugs for bioimaging and therapeutic delivery: a comparison of cationic, PEGylated and deformable liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Chih-Jen; Sung, Calvin T.; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A.; Huang, Yu-Jie; Fang, Jia-You

    2013-08-01

    Multifunctional liposomes loaded with quantum dots (QDs) and anticancer drugs were prepared for simultaneous bioimaging and drug delivery. Different formulations, including cationic, PEGylated and deformable liposomes, were compared for their theranostic efficiency. We had evaluated the physicochemical characteristics of these liposomes. The developed liposomes were examined using experimental platforms of cytotoxicity, cell migration, cellular uptake, in vivo melanoma imaging and drug accumulation in tumors. The average size of various nanocomposite liposomes was found to be 92-134 nm. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of QDs within liposomal bilayers. The incorporation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Span 20 into the liposomes greatly increased the fluidity of the bilayers. The liposomes provided sustained release of camptothecin and irinotecan. The cytotoxicity and cell migration assay demonstrated superior activity of cationic liposomes compared with other carriers. Cationic liposomes also showed a significant fluorescence signal in melanoma cells after internalization. The liposomes were intratumorally administered to a melanoma-bearing mouse. Cationic liposomes showed the brightest fluorescence in tumors, followed by classical liposomes. This signal could last for up to 24 h for cationic nanosystems. Intratumoral accumulation of camptothecin from free control was 35 nmol g-1 it could be increased to 50 nmol g-1 after loading with cationic liposomes. However, encapsulation of irinotecan into liposomes did not further increase intratumoral drug accumulation. Cationic liposomes were preferable to other liposomes as nanocarriers in both bioimaging and therapeutic approaches.

  11. Spectroscopic insights on energy transfer phenomenon from phthalocyanine to gold nanoparticle and role of phthalocyanine-gold nanoparticle conjugate over supramolecular interaction between fullerene and phthalocyanine in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Anamika; Bhattacharya, Sumanta

    2016-05-01

    This letter envisages the photophysical insights on phthalocyanine (Pc)-gold nanoparticle (AuNp) conjugate in solution. Both steady state and time-resolved fluorescence studies evoke remarkable enhancement in energy transfer efficiency from ZnPc to AuNp in comparison to free-base Pc (H2Pc) in toluene. It is observed that in presence of AuNp, selectivity in binding for the non-covalent complex of H2Pc with PC70BM (a fullerene derivative) is found to be ∼3.0 times higher compared to ZnPc-PC70BM system. Dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscope, atomic force microscope and fluorescence microscope measurements provide very good support in favour of the rationale behind Pc-AuNp interaction in solution.

  12. The toxicity of phthalocyanines to the aquatic plant Lemna minor (duckweed) - testing of 31 compounds.

    PubMed

    Jančula, Daniel; Maršálek, Blahoslav

    2012-08-01

    Phthalocyanines are prospective chemicals that have applications in industry, medicine and biology due especially to their architectural flexibility and production of reactive oxygen species. Although they are used in so many areas of human activities nowadays, there is still little knowledge of their ecotoxicity. Here we present the first observation of their toxic effects on representatives of the aquatic plants Lemna minor. The tested phthalocyanines possess a wide spectrum of phytotoxicity ranging from seldom (>50 mg L(-1)) to highly toxic 0.11 mg L(-1). Moreover, the potential of phthalocyanines to be used as selective cyanocides or herbicides is discussed as well. PMID:22497786

  13. Titanium and Ruthenium Phthalocyanines for NO(2) Sensors: A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Anna Maria; Pennesi, Giovanna; Rossi, Gentilina; Generosi, Amanda; Paci, Barbara; Albertini, Valerio Rossi

    2009-01-01

    This review presents studies devoted to the description and comprehension of phenomena connected with the sensing behaviour towards NO(2) of films of two phthalocyanines, titanium bis-phthalocyanine and ruthenium phthalocyanine. Spectroscopic, conductometric, and morphological features recorded during exposure to the gas are explained and the mechanisms of gas-molecule interaction are also elucidated. The review also shows how X-ray reflectivity can be a useful tool for monitoring morphological parameters such as thickness and roughness that are demonstrated to be sensitive variables for monitoring the exposure of thin films of sensor materials to NO(2) gas. PMID:22346697

  14. Titanium and Ruthenium Phthalocyanines for NO2 Sensors: A Mini-Review

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, Anna Maria; Pennesi, Giovanna; Rossi, Gentilina; Generosi, Amanda; Paci, Barbara; Albertini, Valerio Rossi

    2009-01-01

    This review presents studies devoted to the description and comprehension of phenomena connected with the sensing behaviour towards NO2 of films of two phthalocyanines, titanium bis-phthalocyanine and ruthenium phthalocyanine. Spectroscopic, conductometric, and morphological features recorded during exposure to the gas are explained and the mechanisms of gas-molecule interaction are also elucidated. The review also shows how X-ray reflectivity can be a useful tool for monitoring morphological parameters such as thickness and roughness that are demonstrated to be sensitive variables for monitoring the exposure of thin films of sensor materials to NO2 gas. PMID:22346697

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on axially ligated phosphorus-phthalocyanine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Azwar; Shivashimpi, Gururaj M.; Nishimura, Terumi; Fujikawa, Naotaka; Ogomi, Yuhei; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Pandey, Shyam S.; Ma, Tingli; Hayase, Shuzi

    2015-04-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells with axially anchored phosphorous-phthalocyanine dyes were fabricated for the first time. Although the phosphorus-phthalocyanine dyes do not have a conventional anchoring group (-COOH), these dyes could be absorbed on a TiO2 semiconductor surface. After the optimization of energy levels, a 24% incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) was observed at 710 nm with an IPCE curve edge of 800 nm. The efficiency was 2.67%, which was higher than those of previously reported dye-sensitized solar cells with axially anchored phthalocyanine dyes (less than 1%).

  16. Application of phthalocyanines in flow- and sequential-injection analysis and microfluidics systems: A review.

    PubMed

    van Staden, Jacobus Koos Frederick

    2015-07-01

    Phthalocyanines and metallophthalocyanines play a very important role in the metabolism of living organisms through biological pigments or biochromes and are therefore also employed in numerous applications in analytical chemistry. In flow-, and sequential-injection analysis and microfluidic systems the role of phthalocyanines and metallophthalocyanines is centered as either that of analyte or that of a reagent or modifier in the determination of other species. This paper covers the attributes of phthalocyanines and metallophthalocyanines complexes as enhancements in chemical analysis in flow- and sequential injection analysis and microfluidic systems and points out the advantages and disadvantages in the implementation thereof. PMID:25882411

  17. Liposomal encapsulated rhodomyrtone: a novel antiacne drug.

    PubMed

    Chorachoo, Julalak; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2013-01-01

    Rhodomyrtone isolated from the leaves of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa possesses antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities. Since rhodomyrtone is insoluble in water, it is rather difficult to get to the target sites in human body. Liposome exhibited ability to entrap both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds and easily penetrate to the target site. The present study aimed to develop a novel liposomal encapsulated rhodomyrtone formulations. In addition, characterization of liposome, stability profiles, and their antiacne activity were performed. Three different formulations of total lipid concentrations 60, 80, and 100  μ mol/mL were used. Formulation with 60  μ mol/mL total lipid (phosphatidylcholine from soybean and cholesterol from lanolin in 4 : 1, w/w) exhibited the highest rhodomyrtone encapsulation efficacy (65.47 ± 1.7%), average particle size (209.56 ± 4.8 nm), and ζ -potential (-41.19 ± 1.3 mV). All formulations demonstrated good stability when stored for 2 months in dark at 4°C as well as room temperature. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration values of liposomal formulation against 11 clinical bacterial isolates and reference strains ranged from 1 to 4 and from 4 to 64  μ g/mL, respectively, while those of rhodomyrtone were 0.25-1 and 0.5-2  μ g/mL, respectively. The MIC and MBC values of liposome formulation were more effective than topical drugs against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PMID:23762104

  18. Liposomal Encapsulated Rhodomyrtone: A Novel Antiacne Drug

    PubMed Central

    Chorachoo, Julalak; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P.

    2013-01-01

    Rhodomyrtone isolated from the leaves of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa possesses antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities. Since rhodomyrtone is insoluble in water, it is rather difficult to get to the target sites in human body. Liposome exhibited ability to entrap both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds and easily penetrate to the target site. The present study aimed to develop a novel liposomal encapsulated rhodomyrtone formulations. In addition, characterization of liposome, stability profiles, and their antiacne activity were performed. Three different formulations of total lipid concentrations 60, 80, and 100 μmol/mL were used. Formulation with 60 μmol/mL total lipid (phosphatidylcholine from soybean and cholesterol from lanolin in 4 : 1, w/w) exhibited the highest rhodomyrtone encapsulation efficacy (65.47 ± 1.7%), average particle size (209.56 ± 4.8 nm), and ζ-potential (–41.19 ± 1.3 mV). All formulations demonstrated good stability when stored for 2 months in dark at 4°C as well as room temperature. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration values of liposomal formulation against 11 clinical bacterial isolates and reference strains ranged from 1 to 4 and from 4 to 64 μg/mL, respectively, while those of rhodomyrtone were 0.25–1 and 0.5–2 μg/mL, respectively. The MIC and MBC values of liposome formulation were more effective than topical drugs against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PMID:23762104

  19. Liposomes with polyribonucleotides as model of precellular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza, Isabel; Ibañez, Miguel; Lazcano, Antonio; Santiago, Carlos; Arguello, Carlos; Wong, Carlos; Oró, J.

    1987-09-01

    A study of the encapsulation of poly(U) and poly(C) within liposomes made from dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline (DPPC), from egg yold phosphatidyl choline (PC), and from PC with cholesterol (CHOL) was made. The liposomes were prepared under anoxic conditions following the reverse-phase evaporation method. Determinations showed that 36 to 70% of the available lipids form liposomes and 2 to 5% of the polyribonucleotides can be entrapped by liposomes. The encapsulation of polyribonucleotides has also been measured in the presence of urea, cyanamide and Zn++, condensing agents in prebiotic polymerization reactions. DPPC and PC:CHOL liposomes were formed in the presence of 1.0 M urea, although no PC liposomes were formed. The three types of liposomes were readily formed at 0.01 M urea, but in no case an enhancement of encapsulation efficiency of poly(U) was observed due to the presence of urea. Similar results were obtained with cyanamide. An enhanced encapsulation of poly(U) by the three types of liposomes was observed when Zn++ was in the range of 0.001 to 0.01 M. Poly(U) encapsulation was 15 to 25 times higher when liposomes were prepared from DPPC at 0.01 M Zn++. Similar results were obtained with poly(C). The advantages of DPPC-polyribonucleotide liposomes as precellular systems are discussed.

  20. Liposomal Conjugates for Drug Delivery to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Frieder; Fricker, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Treatments of central nervous system (CNS) diseases often fail due to the blood–brain barrier. Circumvention of this obstacle is crucial for any systemic treatment of such diseases to be effective. One approach to transfer drugs into the brain is the use of colloidal carrier systems—amongst others, liposomes. A prerequisite for successful drug delivery by colloidal carriers to the brain is the modification of their surface, making them invisible to the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and to target them to specific surface epitopes at the blood–brain barrier. This study characterizes liposomes conjugated with cationized bovine serum albumin (cBSA) as transport vectors in vitro in porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCEC) and in vivo in rats using fluorescently labelled liposomes. Experiments with PBCEC showed that sterically stabilized (PEGylated) liposomes without protein as well as liposomes conjugated to native bovine serum albumin (BSA) were not taken up. In contrast, cBSA-liposomes were taken up and appeared to be concentrated in intracellular vesicles. Uptake occurred in a concentration and time dependent manner. Free BSA and free cBSA inhibited uptake. After intravenous application of cBSA-liposomes, confocal fluorescence microscopy of brain cryosections from male Wistar rats showed fluorescence associated with liposomes in brain capillary surrounding tissue after 3, 6 and 24 h, for liposomes with a diameter between 120 and 150 nm, suggesting successful brain delivery of cationized-albumin coupled liposomes. PMID:25835091

  1. Liposome disposition in vivo. VI: Delivery to the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Abra, R.M.; Hunt, C.A.; Lau, D.T.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of negatively charged liposome components and vesicle size on the time course and dose dependency of liposome disposition in mice was studied with a view to optimizing liposome delivery to the lung. The disposition of large multilamellar liposomes was followed using 125I-labeled p-hydroxybenzamidine phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Of the three negatively charged liposome compositions studied (phosphatidyl choline-X-cholesterol-alpha-tocopherol, molar ratio: 4:1:5:0.1; X . phosphatidyl serine, dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid, or phosphatidyl glycerol), phosphatidyl serine liposomes resulted in the greatest accumulation in lungs. Lung levels decreased up to 95 h postdose, at which time 6% of the liposome dose present at 2 h still remained. The disposition of phosphatidyl serine-containing liposomes was independent of dose for the range 0.04-21 mumol/animal. When liposomes containing phosphatidyl choline were prepared using a variety of extrusion and dialysis conditions, a strong link between liposome size and lung accumulation was revealed. A maximum lung accumulation of 30.9% of the administered dose was achieved with no detectable gross pathological lung lesions up to 24 h postdose.

  2. Evaluation of percutaneous absorption of naproxen from different liposomal formulations.

    PubMed

    Puglia, Carmelo; Bonina, Francesco; Rizza, Luisa; Cortesi, Rita; Merlotti, Elena; Drechsler, Markus; Mariani, Paolo; Contado, Catia; Ravani, Laura; Esposito, Elisabetta

    2010-06-01

    The present study concerns the percutaneous absorption of naproxen (NPX), as model anti-inflammatory drug, included in liposome formulations constituted of different lipids: stratum corneum lipids (SCL) and phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (PC/CHOL). Liposome dispersions were produced using two different methods: reverse-phase evaporation (REV) and thin layer evaporation (TLE). Morphology and dimensions of the disperse phase were characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and photon correlation spectroscopy, respectively. X-ray diffraction was employed to determine the structural organization of the vesicles. In vitro diffusion was studied by Franz cell on liposome dispersions viscosized by carbomer. Tape stripping was performed to investigate in vivo the performance of differently composed liposomes as NPX delivery system. Cryo-TEM showed spherical vesicles and bigger irregular elongated nanoparticles for TLE SCL liposomes. REV resulted in spherical and elongated multilamellar vesicles. Also X-ray diffraction evidenced L alpha or L beta multilamellar vesicles for PC/CHOL and SCL liposome respectively. The in vitro study showed a lower NPX flux for SCL with respect to PC/CHOL liposome. Tape stripping corroborate the in vitro findings regarding SCL, suggesting that liposomes create a drug reservoir mixing with SC lipids, whilst PC/CHOL liposome promoted NPX permeation through the skin. Liposome lipid composition seems to affect NPX permeation through the skin. PMID:20039387

  3. Internalization of paramagnetic phosphatidylserine-containing liposomes by macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammation plays an important role in many pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological conditions and oncology, and is considered an important predictor for disease progression and outcome. In vivo imaging of inflammatory cells will improve diagnosis and provide a read-out for therapy efficacy. Paramagnetic phosphatidylserine (PS)-containing liposomes were developed for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confocal microscopy imaging of macrophages. These nanoparticles also provide a platform to combine imaging with targeted drug delivery. Results Incorporation of PS into liposomes did not affect liposomal size and morphology up to 12 mol% of PS. Liposomes containing 6 mol% of PS showed the highest uptake by murine macrophages, while only minor uptake was observed in endothelial cells. Uptake of liposomes containing 6 mol% of PS was dependent on the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Furthermore, these 6 mol% PS-containing liposomes were mainly internalized into macrophages, whereas liposomes without PS only bound to the macrophage cell membrane. Conclusions Paramagnetic liposomes containing 6 mol% of PS for MR imaging of macrophages have been developed. In vitro these liposomes showed specific internalization by macrophages. Therefore, these liposomes might be suitable for in vivo visualization of macrophage content and for (visualization of) targeted drug delivery to inflammatory cells. PMID:22929153

  4. Bladder Uptake of Liposomes after Intravesical Administration Occurs by Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Rajaganapathy, Bharathi Raja; Chancellor, Michael B.; Nirmal, Jayabalan; Dang, Loan; Tyagi, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes have been used therapeutically and as a local drug delivery system in the bladder. However, the exact mechanism for the uptake of liposomes by bladder cells is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of endocytosis in the uptake of liposomes by cultured human UROtsa cells of urothelium and rat bladder. UROtsa cells were incubated in serum-free media with liposomes containing colloidal gold particles for 2 h either at 37°C or at 4°C. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images of cells incubated at 37°C found endocytic vesicles containing gold inside the cells. In contrast, only extracellular binding was noticed in cells incubated with liposomes at 4°C. Absence of liposome internalization at 4°C indicates the need of energy dependent endocytosis as the primary mechanism of entry of liposomes into the urothelium. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the uptake of liposomes at 37°C occurs via clathrin mediated endocytosis. Based on these observations, we propose that clathrin mediated endocytosis is the main route of entry for liposomes into the urothelial layer of the bladder and the findings here support the usefulness of liposomes in intravesical drug delivery. PMID:25811468

  5. Spin Exchange Interaction in Substituted Copper Phthalocyanine Crystalline Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Naveen; Pan, Zhenwen; Lamarche, Cody J.; Wetherby, Anthony; Waterman, Rory; Tokumoto, Takahisa; Cherian, Judy G.; Headrick, Randall L.; McGill, Stephen A.; Furis, Madalina I.

    2015-11-01

    The origins of spin exchange in crystalline thin films of Copper Octabutoxy Phthalocyanine (Cu-OBPc) are investigated using Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy. These studies are made possible by a solution deposition technique which produces highly ordered films with macroscopic grain sizes suitable for optical studies. For temperatures lower than 2 K, the contribution of a specific state in the valence band manifold originating from the hybridized lone pair in nitrogen orbitals of the Phthalocyanine ring, bears the Brillouin-like signature of an exchange interaction with the localized d-shell Cu spins. A comprehensive MCD spectral analysis coupled with a molecular field model of a σπ - d exchange analogous to sp-d interactions in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS) renders an enhanced Zeeman splitting and a modified g-factor of -4 for the electrons that mediate the interaction. These studies define an experimental tool for identifying electronic states involved in spin-dependent exchange interactions in organic materials.

  6. Intracellular phthalocyanine localization: confocal laser scanning microscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyaeva, Elena B.; Greve, Jan; de Grooth, Bart G.; Van Leeuwen, A. G.

    1994-02-01

    Phthalocyanines (Pc) are promising second-generation photosensitizers for the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. We report on the tetrasulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcS4) localization in cultured Chinese hamster lung cells studied by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In these cells AlPcS4 was found in granules surrounding Golgi apparatus and in the peripheral cytoplasmic region. Peripheral Pc-containing granules partially coincided with the acidic cellular compartments. The effect of irradiation with light on Pc intracellular distribution was also studied. In the Pc-free medium disruption of some Pc- containing granules was observed followed by appearance of Pc fluorescence in the cell plasma membrane, the nuclear envelope, and the near-nuclear region. When cells were irradiated in the presence of Pc in external medium a drastic increase of membrane permeability to Pc was observed, followed by Pc binding the cell plasma membrane, nuclear envelope, and some structures in the cytoplasm. Diffusive Pc fluorescence in the nucleus was also observed. The implication of observed Pc redistribution caused by irradiation with light for the PDT protocol is discussed.

  7. Rational Design of a Zinc Phthalocyanine Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Mutter, Andrew C.; Norman, Jessica A.; Tiedemann, Michael T.; Singh, Sunaina; Sha, Sha; Morsi, Sara; Ahmed, Ismail; Stillman, Martin J.; Koder, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Phthalocyanines have long been used as primary donor molecules in synthetic light-powered devices due to their superior properties when compared to natural light activated molecules such as chlorophylls. Their use in biological contexts, however, has been severely restricted due to their high degree of self-association, and its attendant photoquenching, in aqueous environments. To this end we report the rational redesign of a de novo four helix bundle di-heme binding protein into a heme and Zinc(II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc) dyad in which the ZnPc is electronically and photonically isolated. The redesign required transformation of the homodimeric protein into a single chain four helix bundle and the addition of a negatively charge sulfonate ion to the ZnPc macrocycle. To explore the role of topology on ZnPc binding two constructs were made and the resulting differences in affinity can be explained by steric interference of the newly added connecting loop. Singular binding of ZnPc was verified by absorption, fluorescence, and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy. The engineering guidelines determined here, which enable the simple insertion of a monomeric ZnPc binding site into an artificial helical bundle, are a robust starting point for the creation of functional photoactive nanodevices. PMID:23827257

  8. Asymmetric Zinc Phthalocyanines as Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunc, Gulenay; Yavuz, Yunus; Gurek, Aysegul; Canimkurbey, Betul; Kosemen, Arif; San, Sait Eren; Ahsen, Vefa

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have received increasing attention due to their high incident to photon efficiency, easy fabrication and low production cost . Tremendous research efforts have been devoted to the development of new and efficient sensitizers suitable for practical use. In TiO2-based DSSCs, efficiencies of up to 11.4% under simulated sunlight have been obtained with rutheniumepolypyridyl complexes. However, the main drawback of ruthenium complexes is the lack of absorption in the red region of the visible light and the high cost. For this reason, dyes with large and stable p-conjugated systems such as porphyrins and phthalocyanines are important classes of potential sensitizers for highly efficient DSSCs. Phthalocyanines (Pcs) have been widely used as sensitizers because of their improved light-harvesting properties in the far red- and near-IR spectral regions and their extraordinary robustness [1]. In this work, a series of asymmetric Zn(II) Pcs bearing a carboxylic acid group and six hexylthia groups either at the peripheral or non-peripheral positions have been designed and synthesized to investigate the influence of the COOH group and the positions of hexylthia groups on the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performance.

  9. Magnetism of phthalocyanine-based organometallic single porous sheet.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Sun, Qiang

    2011-09-28

    A two-dimensional (2D) periodic Fe phthalocyanine (FePc) single-layer sheet has very recently been synthesized experimentally (Abel, M.; et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc.2011, 133, 1203), providing a novel pathway for achieving 2D atomic sheets with regularly and separately distributed transition-metal atoms for unprecedented applications. Here we present first-principles calculations based on density functional theory to investigate systematically the electronic and magnetic properties of such novel organometallics (labeled as TMPc, TM = Cr-Zn) as free-standing sheets. Among them, we found that only the 2D MnPc framework is ferromagnetic, while 2D CrPc, FePc, CoPc, and CuPc are antiferromagnetic and 2D NiPc and ZnPc are nonmagnetic. The difference in magnetic couplings for the studied systems is related to the different orbital interactions. Only MnPc displays metallic d(xz) and d(yz) orbitals that can hybridize with p electrons of Pc, which mediates the long-range ferromagnetic coupling. Monte Carlo simulations based on the Ising model suggest that the Curie temperature (T(C)) of the 2D MnPc framework is ∼150 K, which is comparable to the highest T(C) achieved experimentally, that of Mn-doped GaAs. The present study provides theoretical insight leading to a better understanding of novel phthalocyanine-based 2D structures beyond graphene and BN sheets. PMID:21838296

  10. Spin Exchange Interaction in Substituted Copper Phthalocyanine Crystalline Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Naveen; Pan, Zhenwen; Lamarche, Cody J.; Wetherby, Anthony; Waterman, Rory; Tokumoto, Takahisa; Cherian, Judy G.; Headrick, Randall L.; McGill, Stephen A.; Furis, Madalina I.

    2015-01-01

    The origins of spin exchange in crystalline thin films of Copper Octabutoxy Phthalocyanine (Cu-OBPc) are investigated using Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy. These studies are made possible by a solution deposition technique which produces highly ordered films with macroscopic grain sizes suitable for optical studies. For temperatures lower than 2 K, the contribution of a specific state in the valence band manifold originating from the hybridized lone pair in nitrogen orbitals of the Phthalocyanine ring, bears the Brillouin-like signature of an exchange interaction with the localized d-shell Cu spins. A comprehensive MCD spectral analysis coupled with a molecular field model of a σπ − d exchange analogous to sp-d interactions in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS) renders an enhanced Zeeman splitting and a modified g-factor of −4 for the electrons that mediate the interaction. These studies define an experimental tool for identifying electronic states involved in spin-dependent exchange interactions in organic materials. PMID:26559337

  11. Single-molecule detection of near-infrared phthalocyanine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, You; Canfield, Brian; Davis, Lloyd

    2009-03-01

    The major advantage associated with near-IR monitoring is the fact that few compounds show intrinsic fluorescence in this region of the spectrum. Phthalocyanine dyes provide excellent photostability and hence are an attractive candidate for fluorescence bioassay applications. However, because of their small Stokes shifts, non-standard methods are needed for separation of fluorescence from scattered laser light. We have developed a custom confocal microscope that uses a low-cost laser diode operating at 665.8 nm for sample excitation and an angle-tuned Raman notch filter to block scattered laser radiation and provide high-throughput of fluorescence. Also, a diffraction grating is used to isolate the laser excitation wavelength from the block broadband luminescence of the laser. We have used the system to observe photon bursts from single molecules of zinc phthalocyanine fluorophores in an ethanol solution. The autocorrelation function of the photon trace provides a measure of the signal-to-noise ratio. We also discuss ongoing experiments to characterize the limits of detection of near-infrared fluorophores in aqueous solution using the microscope.

  12. Advances and Challenges of Liposome Assisted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sercombe, Lisa; Veerati, Tejaswi; Moheimani, Fatemeh; Wu, Sherry Y.; Sood, Anil K.; Hua, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The application of liposomes to assist drug delivery has already had a major impact on many biomedical areas. They have been shown to be beneficial for stabilizing therapeutic compounds, overcoming obstacles to cellular and tissue uptake, and improving biodistribution of compounds to target sites in vivo. This enables effective delivery of encapsulated compounds to target sites while minimizing systemic toxicity. Liposomes present as an attractive delivery system due to their flexible physicochemical and biophysical properties, which allow easy manipulation to address different delivery considerations. Despite considerable research in the last 50 years and the plethora of positive results in preclinical studies, the clinical translation of liposome assisted drug delivery platforms has progressed incrementally. In this review, we will discuss the advances in liposome assisted drug delivery, biological challenges that still remain, and current clinical and experimental use of liposomes for biomedical applications. The translational obstacles of liposomal technology will also be presented. PMID:26648870

  13. Recent advances in liposome surface modification for oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Xuan; Huang, Lin; Gauthier, Mario; Yang, Guang; Wang, Qun

    2016-05-01

    Oral delivery via the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the dominant route for drug administration. Orally delivered liposomal carriers can enhance drug solubility and protect the encapsulated theraputic agents from the extreme conditions found in the GI tract. Liposomes, with their fluid lipid bilayer membrane and their nanoscale size, can significantly improve oral absorption. Unfortunately, the clinical applications of conventional liposomes have been hindered due to their poor stability and availability under the harsh conditions typically presented in the GI tract. To overcome this problem, the surface modification of liposomes has been investigated. Although liposome surface modification has been extensively studied for oral drug delivery, no review exists so far that adequately covers this topic. The purpose of this paper is to summarize and critically analyze emerging trends in liposome surface modification for oral drug delivery. PMID:27074098

  14. Investigating the Stability of eLiposomes at Elevated Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Husseini, Ghaleb A; Pitt, William G; Javadi, Marjan

    2015-08-01

    eLiposomes encapsulate a perfluorocarbon nanoemulsion droplet inside a liposome. Ultrasound is then used as a trigger mechanism to vaporize the perfluorocarbon, break the liposome, and release the desired drug to the tumor tissue. The purpose of this research is to show that eLiposomes synthesized using perfluoropentane are stable above the normal boiling point of the perfluoropentane and at body temperature and thus has potential for use in vivo. Experiments involving the release of fluorescent calcein molecules were performed on eLiposomes to measure the release of calcein at various temperatures in the absence of ultrasound. Results showed that eLiposomes are stable at body temperatures and that as the temperature increases above 40C, calcein release from these novel nanocarriers increases. PMID:25261070

  15. Sensing response of copper phthalocyanine salt dispersed glass with organic vapours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridhi, R.; Sachdeva, Sheenam; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Copper Phthalocyanine and other Metal Phthalocyanines are very flexible and tuned easily to modify their structural, spectroscopic, optical and electrical properties by either functionalizing them with various substituent groups or by replacing or adding a ligand to the central metal atom in the phthalocyanine ring and accordingly can be made sensitive and selective to various organic species or gaseous vapours. In the present work, we have dispersed Copper Phthalocyanine Salt (CuPcS) in sol-gel glass form using chemical route sol-gel method and studied its sensing mechanism with organic vapours like methanol and benzene and found that current increases onto their exposure with vapours. A variation in the activation energies was also observed with exposure of vapours.

  16. Photo-induced electron transfer between a dendritic zinc(II) phthalocyanine and methyl viologen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuhua; Chen, Jiangxu; Huang, Lishan; Xie, Shusen; Yang, Hongqin; Peng, Yiru

    2013-01-01

    The intermolecular electron transfer between the carboxylic dendritic zinc(II) phthalocyanines [G1-ZnPc( and G2-ZnPc(] and methyl viologen (MV) is studied by steady-state fluorescence and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopic method. The effect of dendron generation of this series of dendritic phthalocyanines on intermolecular electron transfer is investigated. The results show that the fluorescence emission of these dendritic phthalocyanines could be greatly quenched by MV upon excitation at 610 nm. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV) of electron transfer is decreased with increasing dendron generations. Our study suggests that these dendritic phthalocyanines are an effective new electron donor and transmission complex and could be used as a potential artificial photosynthesis system.

  17. Highly positive-charged zinc(II) phthalocyanine as non-aggregated and efficient antifungal photosensitizer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing-Shu; Guo, Jun; Zhuang, Jing-Jing; Zheng, Bi-Yuan; Ke, Mei-Rong; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2015-06-01

    A new tetra-α-substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine containing dodeca-amino groups (compound 4) and its quaternized analogue (compound 5) have been prepared and evaluated for their photoactivities against Candida albicans. Compared with the dodeca-amino phthalocyanine 4, the dodeca-cationic phthalocyanine 5 exhibits a higher photodynamic inactivation against C. albicans with an IC90 value down to 1.46 μM, which can be attributed to its non-aggregated nature in aqueous environments and more efficient cellular uptake. More interestingly, 5 shows a higher photodynamic inactivation on C. albicans due to its stronger affinity to C. albicans cells than mammalian cells. These results suggest that the highly positive-charged phthalocyanine 5 is a potential non-aggregated antifungal photosensitizer, which shows some selectivity toward the fungus. PMID:25911302

  18. Heteroleptic naphthalo-phthalocyaninates of lutetium: synthesis and spectral and conductivity properties.

    PubMed

    Dubinina, Tatiana V; Kosov, Anton D; Petrusevich, Elizaveta F; Maklakov, Sergey S; Borisova, Nataliya E; Tomilova, Larisa G; Zefirov, Nikolay S

    2015-05-01

    Novel heteroleptic naphthalo-phthalocyaninates of lutetium possessing a symmetrical substituted naphthalocyanine deck were synthesized on the basis of two preformed synthetic blocks: naphthalocyanine ligand and lutetium phthalocyaninates. The compounds obtained were characterized by (1)H NMR and high-resolution MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. The correlation between the nature of the substituents and the spectral properties of the target complexes was determined by the introduction of electron-donating (aryl-, aryloxy-) or electron-withdrawing (chloro-) substituents into the phthalocyanine deck. In addition, the nature of peripheral substituents was shown not to affect drastically the phthalocyanine conductivity and activation energy. Conductivity properties depend on thin film morphology which, in turn, relies on intermolecular π-π interactions. PMID:25826576

  19. Modeling the interactions of phthalocyanines in water: From the Cu(II)-tetrasulphonate to the metal-free phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martn, Elisa I.; Martnez, Jose M.; Marcos, Enrique Snchez

    2011-01-01

    A quantum and statistical study on the effects of the ions Cu^{2+} and SO3- in the solvent structure around the metal-free phthalocyanine (H2Pc) is presented. We developed an ab initio interaction potential for the system CuPc-H2O based on quantum chemical calculations and studied its transferability to the H2Pc-H2O and [CuPc(SO3)4]^{4-}-H2O interactions. The use of the molecular dynamics technique allows the determination of energetic and structural properties of CuPc, H2Pc, and [CuPc(SO3)4]^{4-} in water and the understanding of the keys for the different behaviors of the three phthalocyanine (Pc) derivatives in water. The inclusion of the Cu^{2+} cation in the Pc structure reinforces the appearance of two axial water molecules and second-shell water molecules in the solvent structure, whereas the presence of SO3{}^- anions implies a well defined hydration shell of about eight water molecules around them making the macrocycle soluble in water. Debye-Waller factors for axial water molecules have been obtained in order to examine the potential sensitivity of the extended x-ray absorption fine structure technique to detect the axial water molecules.

  20. Liposomal formulations of poorly soluble camptothecin: drug retention and biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Flaten, Gøril Eide; Chang, Ting-Tung; Phillips, William T; Brandl, Martin; Bao, Ande; Goins, Beth

    2013-03-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) represents a potent anticancer drug. However, its therapeutic use is impaired by both drug solubility, hydrolysis, and protein interactions in vivo. Use of liposomes as a drug-formulation approach could overcome some of these challenges. The aim of this study was to perform a mechanistic study of the incorporation and retention of the lipophilic parent CPT compound in different liposome formulations using radiolabeled CPT and thus to be able to identify promising CPT delivery systems. In this context, we also wanted to establish an appropriate mouse tumor model, in vivo scintigraphic imaging, and biodistribution methodology for testing the most promising formulation. CPT retention in various liposome formulations after incubation in buffer and serum was determined. The HT-29 mouse tumor model, (111)In-labeled liposomes, as well as (3)H-labeled CPT were used to investigate the biodistribution of liposomes and drug. The ability of different liposome formulations to retain CPT in buffer was influenced by lipid concentration and drug/lipid ratio, rather than lipid composition. The tested formulations were cleared from the blood in the following order: CPT solution > CPT liposomes > (111)In-labeled liposomes, and liposomes mainly accumulated in the liver. Lipid composition did not influence CPT retention to the same extent as earlier observed from incorporation studies. The set-up for the biodistribution study works well and is suited for future in vivo studies on CPT liposomes. The biodistribution study showed that liposomes circulated longer than free drug, but premature release of drug from liposomes occurred. Further studies to develop formulations with higher retention potential and prolonged circulation are desired. PMID:23210622

  1. [Novel possibilities of development and therapeutical application of liposomes].

    PubMed

    Bozó, Tamás; Pál, Szilárd; Dévay, Attila

    2008-01-01

    Properties and possibilities of application of liposomal drug delivery systems are summarized in this review. Technological and biopharmeceutical criteria that have to be taken into consideration in the course of development of biocompatible liposomes are discussed. The manner and possibilities of active and passive targeting are shown according to the literary data and special liposome-based drug delivery systems responsible for pathologic or arteficial stimuli are introduced. PMID:18986087

  2. Communication: Influence of graphene interlayers on the interaction between cobalt phthalocyanine and Ni(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Uihlein, Johannes; Peisert, Heiko; Glaser, Mathias; Polek, Malgorzata; Adler, Hilmar; Petraki, Fotini; Chasse, Thomas; Ovsyannikov, Ruslan; Bauer, Maximilian

    2013-02-28

    The influence of graphene interlayers on electronic interface properties of cobalt phthalocyanine on Ni(111) is studied using both photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A charge transfer associated with a redistribution of the d-electrons at the Co-atom of the phthalocyanine occurs at the interface to Ni(111). Even a graphene buffer layer cannot prevent the charge transfer at the interface to Ni(111); however, the detailed electronic situation is different.

  3. Liposomes and MTT cell viability assay: an incompatible affair.

    PubMed

    Angius, Fabrizio; Floris, Alice

    2015-03-01

    The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay is commonly used to evaluate the cytotoxicity potential of drugs vehicled by liposomes. However, liposome delivering drugs could produce inconsistent values of MTT absorbance. On the basis of previous experiments demonstrating the MTT affinity for lipid droplets, this paper aims to show that empty-liposomes interfere, per se, on MTT assay due to its lipidic nature. This brings into question the use of MTT testing cytotoxicity when liposomes are involved in delivering drugs. PMID:25481524

  4. Application of long-circulating liposomes to cancer photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Oku, N; Saito, N; Namba, Y; Tsukada, H; Dolphin, D; Okada, S

    1997-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a cancer treatment is notable for its quite low side effects in comparison with those of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, the accumulation of porphyrin derivatives used in PDT into tumor tissues is rather low. Since long-circulating liposomes are known to accumulate passively into tumor tissues, we liposomalized a porphyrin derivative, benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA), and used these liposomes to investigate the usefulness of PDT for tumor-bearing mice. BPD-MA was liposomalized into glucuronate-modified liposomes, which are known to be long-circulating. These liposomes were injected i.v. into Balb/c mice bearing Meth A sarcoma, and tumor regression and survival time were monitored after irradiation with laser light. Tumor regression and complete curing of tumor (80% cure rate by the treatment with 6 mg/kg BPD-MA) were observed when long circulating liposomalized BPD-MA was injected and laser-irradiated. In contrast, only a 20% cure rate was obtained when the animals were treated with BPD-MA solution or BPD-MA entrapped in conventional liposomes. These results suggest that a long-circulating liposomal formulation of photo-sensitive agents is useful for PDT. PMID:9212988

  5. Copper-topotecan complexation mediates drug accumulation into liposomes.

    PubMed

    Taggar, Amandeep S; Alnajim, Jehan; Anantha, Malathi; Thomas, Anitha; Webb, Murray; Ramsay, Euan; Bally, Marcel B

    2006-08-10

    These studies describe the role of transition metal ions in the liposomal encapsulation of topotecan. Liposomes (1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and cholesterol (CH) (55:45, mole ratio)) were prepared with manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) or cobalt (Co) ion gradients (metal inside). Subsequently, topotecan was added to the liposome exterior (final drug-to-lipid ratio (mol/mol) of 0.2) and drug encapsulation was measured as a function of time and temperature. No drug loading was achieved with liposomes containing Co or Zn. Topotecan could be encapsulated into Mn-containing liposomes only in the presence of the ionophore, A23187 suggesting that a transmembrane pH gradient was necessary. However, Cu-containing liposomes, in the presence or absence of an imposed pH gradient, efficiently encapsulated topotecan. It has been reported that Cu(II) can form transition metal complexes with camptothecin; therefore, the Cu-topotecan interaction was characterized in solution as a function of pH. These investigations demonstrated that topotecan inhibited formation of an insoluble Cu hydroxide precipitate. Cryo-TEM analysis of the topotecan-loaded Cu liposomes showed electron-dense intravesicular precipitates. Further studies demonstrated that only the active lactone form of the drug was encapsulated and this form predominated in Cu-containing liposomes. Copper complexation reactions define a viable methodology to prepare liposomal camptothecin formulations. PMID:16842880

  6. Biosensor-based evaluation of liposomal binding behavior.

    PubMed

    Bendas, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    Biosensors can be regarded as analytical devices that transform biologically given facts, such as the appearance of physiological substrates, or biological recognition processes of ligands and receptors into detectable signals without the need of further labeling. This chapter introduces acoustic wave sensors as mass-sensitive tools to investigate the liposomal binding behavior onto simulated biological surfaces. These sensors do not only allow for quantification of the liposomal binding intensity, but further analytical readings give insight into the liposomal appearance at the binding site, e.g., deformation or fusion. Since the liposomal behavior at the target binding site might have strong impact on therapeutic effects, a prediction of liposomal appearance and a controlled modulation thereof appear possible with the help of biosensors.Here, the function of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and the bio-functionalization of quartz sensors are reported for a series of liposomal binding experiments. Liposomes containing biotin as model ligands were selected to evaluate their binding to avidin-modified sensors. The data, representing binding intensity and liposome deformation, are explained with respect to the role of binding strength and lipid composition for liposomal behavior. PMID:20013419

  7. Current trends in the use of liposomes for tumor targeting

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Pranali P; Biswas, Swati; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2013-01-01

    The use of liposomes for drug delivery began early in the history of pharmaceutical nanocarriers. These nanosized, lipid bilayered vesicles have become popular as drug delivery systems owing to their efficiency, biocompatibility, nonimmunogenicity, enhanced solubility of chemotherapeutic agents and their ability to encapsulate a wide array of drugs. Passive and ligand-mediated active targeting promote tumor specificity with diminished adverse off-target effects. The current field of liposomes focuses on both clinical and diagnostic applications. Recent efforts have concentrated on the development of multifunctional liposomes that target cells and cellular organelles with a single delivery system. This review discusses the recent advances in liposome research in tumor targeting. PMID:23914966

  8. pH-triggered echogenicity and contents release from liposomes.

    PubMed

    Nahire, Rahul; Hossain, Rayat; Patel, Rupa; Paul, Shirshendu; Meghnani, Varsha; Ambre, Avinash H; Gange, Kara N; Katti, Kalpana S; Leclerc, Estelle; Srivastava, D K; Sarkar, Kausik; Mallik, Sanku

    2014-11-01

    Liposomes are representative lipid nanoparticles widely used for delivering anticancer drugs, DNA fragments, or siRNA to cancer cells. Upon targeting, various internal and external triggers have been used to increase the rate for contents release from the liposomes. Among the internal triggers, decreased pH within the cellular lysosomes has been successfully used to enhance the rate for releasing contents. However, imparting pH sensitivity to liposomes requires the synthesis of specialized lipids with structures that are substantially modified at a reduced pH. Herein, we report an alternative strategy to render liposomes pH sensitive by encapsulating a precursor which generates gas bubbles in situ in response to acidic pH. The disturbance created by the escaping gas bubbles leads to the rapid release of the encapsulated contents from the liposomes. Atomic force microscopic studies indicate that the liposomal structure is destroyed at a reduced pH. The gas bubbles also render the liposomes echogenic, allowing ultrasound imaging. To demonstrate the applicability of this strategy, we have successfully targeted doxorubicin-encapsulated liposomes to the pancreatic ductal carcinoma cells that overexpress the folate receptor on the surface. In response to the decreased pH in the lysosomes, the encapsulated anticancer drug is efficiently released. Contents released from these liposomes are further enhanced by the application of continuous wave ultrasound (1 MHz), resulting in substantially reduced viability for the pancreatic cancer cells (14%). PMID:25271780

  9. pH-Triggered Echogenicity and Contents Release from Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes are representative lipid nanoparticles widely used for delivering anticancer drugs, DNA fragments, or siRNA to cancer cells. Upon targeting, various internal and external triggers have been used to increase the rate for contents release from the liposomes. Among the internal triggers, decreased pH within the cellular lysosomes has been successfully used to enhance the rate for releasing contents. However, imparting pH sensitivity to liposomes requires the synthesis of specialized lipids with structures that are substantially modified at a reduced pH. Herein, we report an alternative strategy to render liposomes pH sensitive by encapsulating a precursor which generates gas bubbles in situ in response to acidic pH. The disturbance created by the escaping gas bubbles leads to the rapid release of the encapsulated contents from the liposomes. Atomic force microscopic studies indicate that the liposomal structure is destroyed at a reduced pH. The gas bubbles also render the liposomes echogenic, allowing ultrasound imaging. To demonstrate the applicability of this strategy, we have successfully targeted doxorubicin-encapsulated liposomes to the pancreatic ductal carcinoma cells that overexpress the folate receptor on the surface. In response to the decreased pH in the lysosomes, the encapsulated anticancer drug is efficiently released. Contents released from these liposomes are further enhanced by the application of continuous wave ultrasound (1 MHz), resulting in substantially reduced viability for the pancreatic cancer cells (14%). PMID:25271780

  10. Photodynamic therapy of melanoma using new, synthetic porphyrins and phthalocyanines as photosensitisers – a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    BALDEA, IOANA; ION, RODICA-MARIANA; OLTEANU, DIANA ELENA; NENU, IULIANA; TUDOR, DIANA; FILIP, ADRIANA GABRIELA

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma, a cancer that arises from melanocytes, is one of the most unresponsive cancers to known therapies and has a tendency to produce early metastases. Several studies showed encouraging results of the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in melanoma, in different experimental settings in vitro and in vivo, as well as several clinical reports. Aims Our study focuses on testing the antimelanoma efficacy of several new, synthetic photosensitisers (PS), from two different chemical classes, respectively four porphyrins and six phthalocyanines. Methods These PS were tested in terms of cell toxicity and phototoxicity against a radial growth phase melanoma cell line (WM35), in vitro. Cells were exposed to different concentrations of the PS for 24h, washed, then irradiatied with red light (630 nm) 75 mJ/cm2 for the porphyrins and 1 J/cm2 for the phthalocyanines. Viability was measured using the MTS method. Results Two of the synthetic porphyrins, TTP and THNP, were active photosensitizers against WM35 melanoma in vitro. Phthalocyanines were effective in producing a dose dependent PDT-induced decrease in viability in a dose-dependent manner. The most efficient was Indium (III) Phthalocyanine chloride, a metal substituted phthalocyanine. Conclusions The most efficient photosensitizers for PDT in melanoma cells were the phthalocyanines in terms of tumor cell photokilling and decreased dark toxicity. PMID:26528068

  11. The quest for biocompatible phthalocyanines for molecular imaging: Photophysics, relaxometry and cytotoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Sara M A; Tomé, Vanessa A; Calvete, Mário J F; Pereira, Mariette M; Burrows, Hugh D; Cardoso, Ana M S; Pallier, Agnès; C A Castro, M Margarida; Tóth, Éva; Geraldes, Carlos F G C

    2016-01-01

    Water soluble phthalocyanines bearing either four PEG500 or four choline substituents in the macrocyclic structure, as well as their Zn(II) and Mn(III) complexes were synthesized. The metal-free and Zn(II) complexes present relatively high fluorescence quantum yields (up to 0.30), while the Mn(III) complexes show no fluorescence as a consequence of rapid non-radiative deactivation of the Mn(III) phthalocyanine excited states through low-lying metal based or charge-transfer states. The effect of DMSO on the aggregation of the phthalocyanines was studied. It was not possible to obtain the Mn(II) complexes by reduction of the corresponding Mn(III) complexes due to the presence of electron donating substituents at the periphery of the phthalocyanines. The (1)H NMRD plots of the PEG500 and choline substituted Mn(III)-phthalocyanine complexes are typical of self-aggregated Mn(III) systems with r1 relaxivities of 4.0 and 5.7mM(-1)s(-1) at 20MHz and 25°C. The Mn(III)-phthalocyanine-PEG4 complex shows no significant cytotoxicity to HeLa cell cultures after 2h of incubation up to 2mM concentration. After 24h of cell exposure to the compound, significant toxicity was observed for all the concentrations tested with IC50 of 1.105mM. PMID:26583704

  12. Photophysical property of a polymeric nanoparticle loaded with an aryl benzyl ester silicon (IV) phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Sujuan; Ma, Dongdong; Chen, Xiuqin; Wang, Yuhua; Yang, Hongqin; Peng, Yiru

    2014-09-01

    Because of their excellent near-infrared (NIR) optical properties, phthalocyanines (Pcs) have been regarded as promising therapy agents for fluorescence image-guided drug delivery and noninvasive treatment of tumors by photodynamic therapy (PDT). Nevertheless, phthalocyanines are substantially limited in clinical applications owing to their poor solubility, aggregation and insufficient selectivity for cancer cells. To address these issues, we have developed a novel dendrimer-based theranostic nanoparticle for tumor-targeted delivery of phthalocyanine. The preparation procedure involved the modification of the silicon (IV) phthalocyanine molecule with a dendritic axially substitution, which significantly enhances their photophysical property. In order to improve biocompatibility and tumor-targeted delivery, the hydrophobic dendritic phthalocyanine was encapsulated by diblock amphiphilic copolymer poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (Epsilon-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) to form a polymeric nanoparticle. The polymeric nanoparticle is spherical with a diameter at about 90 nm. The photophysical property of the polymeric nanoparticle was studied by UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. Compared with the free dendritic phthalocyanine, the Q band of the polymeric nanoparticle was red-shifted, and the fluorescence intensity decreased. Furthermore, the polymeric nanoparticle has a relatively high loading amount and encapsulation rate. Therefore, the polymeric nanoparticle would be a promising third-generation photosensitizer (PS) for PDT.

  13. Phthalocyanine photosensitizers as contrast agents for in vivo photoacoustic tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Attia, Amalina Bte Ebrahim; Balasundaram, Ghayathri; Driessen, Wouter; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Olivo, Malini

    2015-02-01

    There is a need for contrast agents for non-invasive diagnostic imaging of tumors. Herein, Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) was employed to evaluate phthalocyanines commonly used in photodynamic therapy as photoacoustic contrast agents. We studied the photoacoustic activity of three water-soluble phthalocyanine photosensitizers: phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (PcS4), Zn(II) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (ZnPcS4) and Al(III) phthalocyanine chloride tetrasulfonic acid (AlPcS4) in phantom and in tumor-bearing mice to investigate the biodistribution and fate of the phthalocyanines in the biological tissues. PcS4 was observed to grant good contrast between the different reticuloendothelial organs and accumulate in the tumor within an hour of post-administration. ZnPcS4 and AlPcS4 offered little contrast in photoacoustic signals between the organs. PcS4 is a promising photoacoustic contrast agent and can be exploited as a photodiagnostic agent. PMID:25780748

  14. Phthalocyanine photosensitizers as contrast agents for in vivo photoacoustic tumor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Amalina Bte Ebrahim; Balasundaram, Ghayathri; Driessen, Wouter; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Olivo, Malini

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for contrast agents for non-invasive diagnostic imaging of tumors. Herein, Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) was employed to evaluate phthalocyanines commonly used in photodynamic therapy as photoacoustic contrast agents. We studied the photoacoustic activity of three water-soluble phthalocyanine photosensitizers: phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (PcS4), Zn(II) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (ZnPcS4) and Al(III) phthalocyanine chloride tetrasulfonic acid (AlPcS4) in phantom and in tumor-bearing mice to investigate the biodistribution and fate of the phthalocyanines in the biological tissues. PcS4 was observed to grant good contrast between the different reticuloendothelial organs and accumulate in the tumor within an hour of post-administration. ZnPcS4 and AlPcS4 offered little contrast in photoacoustic signals between the organs. PcS4 is a promising photoacoustic contrast agent and can be exploited as a photodiagnostic agent. PMID:25780748

  15. Liposomes in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Nelson; Martins, Albino; Reis, Rui L.; Neves, Nuno M.

    2014-01-01

    Liposomes are vesicular structures made of lipids that are formed in aqueous solutions. Structurally, they resemble the lipid membrane of living cells. Therefore, they have been widely investigated, since the 1960s, as models to study the cell membrane, and as carriers for protection and/or delivery of bioactive agents. They have been used in different areas of research including vaccines, imaging, applications in cosmetics and tissue engineering. Tissue engineering is defined as a strategy for promoting the regeneration of tissues for the human body. This strategy may involve the coordinated application of defined cell types with structured biomaterial scaffolds to produce living structures. To create a new tissue, based on this strategy, a controlled stimulation of cultured cells is needed, through a systematic combination of bioactive agents and mechanical signals. In this review, we highlight the potential role of liposomes as a platform for the sustained and local delivery of bioactive agents for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches. PMID:25401172

  16. Effect of liposomal fluidity on skin permeation of sodium fluorescein entrapped in liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Subongkot, Thirapit; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultradeformable liposome components, Tween 20 and terpenes, on vesicle fluidity. The fluidity was evaluated by electron spin resonance spectroscopy using 5-doxyl stearic acid and 16-doxyl stearic acid as spin labels for phospholipid bilayer fluidity at the C5 atom of the acyl chain near the polar head group (hydrophilic region) and the C16 atom of the acyl chain (lipophilic region), respectively. The electron spin resonance study revealed that Tween 20 increased the fluidity at the C5 atom of the acyl chain, whereas terpenes increased the fluidity at the C16 atom of the acyl chain of the phospholipid bilayer. The increase in liposomal fluidity resulted in the increased skin penetration of sodium fluorescein. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that ultradeformable liposomes with terpenes increase the skin penetration of sodium fluorescein by enhancing hair follicle penetration. PMID:26229462

  17. Influence of Quil A on liposomal membranes.

    PubMed

    Paepenmüller, T; Müller-Goymann, C C

    2014-11-20

    Quil A is the purified saponin fraction extracted from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina. Besides its utilisation as a surfactant, it is commonly used in a pseudo-ternary system with cholesterol and phospholipid to form colloidal structures known as ISCOMs (immunostimulating complexes). Their appropriateness as immune stimulating drug carriers has been widely demonstrated, albeit the evaluation of physico-chemical properties of the ISCOM matrix still draws a heterogeneous picture. The aim of our study was to elucidate the effects of Quil A on liposomal phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol dispersions as this interaction is regarded as the major step for the formation of the ISCOM matrix. Transmission electron microscopy was applied to observe structural changes of liposomal dispersions upon addition of Quil A. A formation of ISCOM matrices readily out of the liposomal membrane was proven. The entrapment efficiency (EE) of Arsenazo III as well as differential thermal analysis (DSC) also demonstrated an interaction between the components above a critical concentration of Quil A. To further clarify the effects of interaction, Langmuir trough experiments of insoluble monolayers of both cholesterol and PC and their interaction with Quil A were performed. Measurable effects even below the critical concentration of Quil A (derived from DSC and EE) were shown. Cholesterol had a major impact on the formation and stabilisation of the ISCOM matrix. PMID:25107288

  18. Phototriggerable Liposomes: Current Research and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Anu

    2013-01-01

    The field of cancer nanomedicine is considered a promising area for improved delivery of bioactive molecules including drugs, pharmaceutical agents and nucleic acids. Among these, drug delivery technology has made discernible progress in recent years and the areas that warrant further focus and consideration towards technological developments have also been recognized. Development of viable methods for on-demand spatial and temporal release of entrapped drugs from the nanocarriers is an arena that is likely to enhance the clinical suitability of drug-loaded nanocarriers. One such approach, which utilizes light as the external stimulus to disrupt and/or destabilize drug-loaded nanoparticles, will be the discussion platform of this article. Although several phototriggerable nanocarriers are currently under development, I will limit this review to the phototriggerable liposomes that have demonstrated promise in the cell culture systems at least (but not the last). The topics covered in this review include (i) a brief summary of various phototriggerable nanocarriers; (ii) an overview of the application of liposomes to deliver payload of photosensitizers and associated technologies; (iii) the design considerations of photoactivable lipid molecules and the chemical considerations and mechanisms of phototriggering of liposomal lipids; (iv) limitations and future directions for in vivo, clinically viable triggered drug delivery approaches and potential novel photoactivation strategies will be discussed. PMID:24662363

  19. Cationic liposomes evoke proinflammatory mediator release and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) toward human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Hsu, Ching-Yun; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Chen, Chun-Han; Chang, Yuan-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-04-01

    Cationic liposomes are widely used as nanocarriers for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. The cationic components of liposomes can induce inflammatory responses. This study examined the effect of cationic liposomes on human neutrophil activation. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate (SME) was incorporated into liposomes as the cationic additive. The liposomes' cytotoxicity and their induction of proinflammatory mediators, intracellular calcium, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were investigated. The interaction of the liposomes with the plasma membrane triggered the stimulation of neutrophils. CTAB liposomes induced complete leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) at all concentrations tested, whereas SME liposomes released LDH in a concentration-dependent manner. CTAB liposomes proved to more effectively activate neutrophils compared with SME liposomes, as indicated by increased superoxide anion and elastase levels. Calcium influx increased 9-fold after treatment with CTAB liposomes. This influx was not changed by SME liposomes compared with the untreated control. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunofluorescence images indicated the presence of NETs after treatment with cationic liposomes. NETs could be quickly formed, within minutes, after CTAB liposomal treatment. In contrast to this result, NET formation was slowly and gradually increased by SME liposomes, within 4h. Based on the data presented here, it is important to consider the toxicity of cationic liposomes during administration in the body. This is the first report providing evidence of NET production induced by cationic liposomes. PMID:25731102

  20. Liposomal nanoparticles as a drug delivery vehicle against osteosarcoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhule, Santosh Subhashrao

    The delivery of curcumin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, has been explored in the form of liposomal nanoparticles to treat osteosarcoma (OS). Curcumin is water insoluble and an effective delivery route is through encapsulation in cyclodextrins followed by a second encapsulation in liposomes. Liposomal curcumin's potential was evaluated against cancer models of mesenchymal (OS) and epithelial origin (breast cancer). The resulting 2-Hydroxypropyl-gamma-cyclodextrin/curcumin - liposome complex shows promising anticancer potential both in vitro and in vivo against KHOS OS cell line and MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. An interesting aspect is that liposomal curcumin initiates the caspase cascade that leads to apoptotic cell death in vitro in comparison with DMSO-curcumin induced autophagic cell death. In addition, the efficiency of the liposomal curcumin formulation was confirmed in vivo using a xenograft OS model. Curcumin-loaded gamma-cyclodextrin liposomes indicate significant potential as delivery vehicles for the treatment of cancers of different tissue origin. The second part of this study examines the anti-tumor potential of curcumin and C6 ceramide (C6) against osteosarcoma cell lines when both are encapsulated in the bilayer of liposomal nanoparticles. Curcumin in combination with C6 showed 1.5 times enhanced cytotoxic effect in the case of MG-63 and KHOS OS cell lines, in comparison with systems with curcumin alone. Interestingly, C6-curcumin liposomes were found to be less toxic on untransformed human cells in comparison to OS cell lines. In addition, cell cycle assays on a KHOS cell line after treatment revealed that curcumin only liposomes induced G 2/M arrest by upregulation of cyclin B1, while C6 only liposomes induced G1 arrest by downregulation of cyclin D1. C6-curcumin liposomes induced G2/M arrest and showed a combined effect in the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1. Using pegylated liposomes to increase the plasma half-life and tagging with folate for targeted delivery in vivo, a significant reduction in tumor size was observed with C6-curcumin-folate liposomes. The encapsulation of two water insoluble drugs, curcumin and C6, in the lipid bilayer of liposomes enhances the cytotoxic effect and validates the potential of combined drug therapy.

  1. Optical limiting processes in derivatized fullerenes and porphyrins/phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Kohlman, R.; Klimov, V.; Shi, X.

    1998-07-01

    The authors review their results from spectral studies of the ultrafast excited-state absorption in fullerenes and derivatized fullerenes. These results allow determination of both the spectral response of reverse saturable absorption (RSA) nonlinearities such as optical limiting (OL) in fullerenes, and the dynamical response for different morphologies. The authors have investigated the effects of thin film and various sol-gel glass environments on the nanosecond OL and femtosecond dynamics of derivatized fullerenes. These data provide evidence of decay pathways which compete with the intersystem crossing to a triplet from the initial singlet states. With appropriate processing, however, the OL response of derivatized-fullerene sol-gel glasses can be enhanced to approach that of the same molecule in solution, while significantly enhancing the optical damage threshold. The optical limiting of these derivatized fullerenes is compared with that of various porphyrin and phthalocyanine molecules.

  2. Hybrid structures of polycationic aluminum phthalocyanines and quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Maksimov, E G; Gvozdev, D A; Strakhovskaya, M G; Paschenko, V Z

    2015-03-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (CdSe/ZnS quantum dots, QDs) were used as inorganic focusing antenna, allowing for the enhancement of fluorescence and photosensitizing activity of polycationic aluminum phthalocyanines (PCs). It was found that QDs form stable complexes with PCs in aqueous solutions due to electrostatic interactions. In such hybrid complexes, we observed highly efficient nonradiative energy transfer from QD to PC, leading to a sharp increase in the effective absorption cross section of PC in the absorption bands of the CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. When hybrid complexes are excited within these bands, the intensity of PC fluorescence and the rate of photosensitized singlet oxygen generation increases significantly (up to 500 and 350%, correspondingly) compared to free PC at the same concentration. The observed effect is of interest for modeling primary stages of photosynthesis and increasing photosensitizing activity of dyes used in photodynamic therapy. PMID:25761686

  3. Reaction of Phthalocyanines with Graphene on Ir(111).

    PubMed

    Altenburg, Simon J; Lattelais, Marie; Wang, Bin; Bocquet, Marie-Laure; Berndt, Richard

    2015-07-29

    Iron phthalocyanine (FePc) is adsorbed to graphene on Ir(111) at cryogenic temperature. In addition to mobile FePc with four lobes, imaging and spectroscopy with a scanning tunneling microscope reveal immobile molecules that exhibit fewer lobes. A reversible transformation between four- and three-lobed molecules has been induced by current injection. The data are consistent with chemical bonding of lobes to graphene on Ir, pinning down the graphene area toward Ir. Similar observations are made from NiPc, CoPc, CuPc, and H2Pc. The experimental findings can be explained by ab initio calculations, which suggest that a Diels-Alder-type reaction may be involved with an allyl unit of graphene in the top-fcc moiré registry. PMID:26147789

  4. Dissociation of cerium(III) and neodymium(III) phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomova, T. N.

    2015-07-01

    The kinetics of dissociation of phthalocyanine complexes with cerium(III) and neodymium(III) (X)LnPc (X = Cl-, Br-, AcO-) under the action of acetic acid in ethanol with isolation of the macrocyclic ligand depending on the temperature was studied. The kinetic equations with the numerical values of rate constants, activation parameters, and the stoichiometric mechanisms with the limiting simple reaction between the nonionized AcOH molecule and (phthalocyaninato)lanthanide(III) in the axially coordinated ((X)LnPc, cerium complexes) or axially ionized ([(AcOH)LnPc]+X-, neodymium complexes) state were derived by solving the direct and inverse problems. As shown by a comparative analysis of quantitative kinetic data, the state is determined by the electronic structure of the metal cation and the mutual effect of the axial and equatorial ligands in the first coordination sphere.

  5. Anomalous photoelectric emission from Ag on zinc-phthalocyanine film

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Senku; Otani, Tomohiro; Fukuzawa, Ken; Hiromitsu, Ichiro; Ogawa, Koji; Azuma, Junpei; Yamamoto, Isamu; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Kamada, Masao

    2014-05-12

    Photoelectric emission from organic and metal thin films is generally observed with irradiation of photon energy larger than 4 eV. In this paper, however, we report photoelectric emission from Ag on a zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) layer at a photon energy of 3.4 eV. The threshold energy for this photoelectric emission is much smaller than the work function of Ag estimated by conventional photoelectron spectroscopy. The photoelectric emission by low-energy photons is significant for Ag thicknesses of less than 1 nm. Photoelectron spectroscopy and morphological study of the Ag/ZnPc suggest that the anomalous photoelectric emission from the Ag surface is caused by a vacuum level shift at the Ag/ZnPc interface and by surface plasmons of the Ag nanoparticles.

  6. Laser deposition of sulfonated phthalocyanines for gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitl, Premysl; Vrnata, Martin; Kopecky, Dusan; Vlcek, Jan; Skodova, Jitka; Bulir, Jiri; Novotny, Michal; Pokorny, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Thin layers of nickel and copper tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines (NiPcTS and CuPcTS) were prepared by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation method. The depositions were carried out with KrF excimer laser (energy density of laser radiation EL = 0.1-0.5 J cm-2) from dimethylsulfoxide matrix. For both materials the ablation threshold EL-th was determined. The following properties of deposited layers were characterized: (a) chemical composition (FTIR spectra); (b) morphology (SEM and AFM portraits); and (c) impedance of gas sensors based on NiPcTS and CuPcTS layers in the presence of two analytes - hydrogen and ozone. The prepared sensors exhibit response to 1000 ppm of hydrogen and 100 ppb of ozone even at laboratory temperature.

  7. Quantitative estimation of electronic quality of zinc phthalocyanine thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Debdutta; Furno, Mauro; Siebert-Henze, Ellen; Leo, Karl; Riede, Moritz

    2011-08-01

    We determine the mobility-lifetime product (μτ) of free charge carriers in pristine zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) films using photocurrent measurements. The photocurrent is proportional to the free charge carrier generation efficiency (η) and the μτ product, and the carrier collection length is directly proportional to the latter. The μτ product is thus an important parameter for the electronic quality of a material. We further determine the dominant photocarrier generation mechanisms in ZnPc. The free carrier generation efficiency is estimated from total carrier collection and electric field-induced photoluminescence quenching measurements. Using η and the electric field dependence of the photocurrent, we estimate the μτ product of holes in ZnPc to be about 3×10-11 cm2/V.

  8. Nonlinear Optothermal Properties of Metal-Free Phthalocyanine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A.; Frazier, Donald O.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Smith, David D.; Banks, Curtis E.

    1998-01-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of metal-free phthalocyanine (MFPC) thin films were examined using the second harmonic at 532 nm from a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, and the cw He-Ne , and Ar+ lasers. The He-Ne laser transmission at fixed input intensity was found to increase temporally within a time scale of twelve hours. The origin of this temporal change of transmission is discussed. The third order nonlinear susceptibilities (chi (exp(3))) by four-wave mixing were measured for films of different thickness. The saturation intensity of MFPC, and its absorption cross section, at 633 nm from a He-Ne laser, are reported. An optical bistability was recorded using a He-Ne laser. An AND logic gate was also demonstrated in the system. These phenomena in the system are attributed to refractive index modulation by thermal excitations.

  9. Binding of Diphtheria Toxin to Phospholipids in Liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alving, Carl R.; Iglewski, Barbara H.; Urban, Katharine A.; Moss, Joel; Richards, Roberta L.; Sadoff, Jerald C.

    1980-04-01

    Diphtheria toxin bound to the phosphate portion of some, but not all, phospholipids in liposomes. Liposomes consisting of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol did not bind toxin. Addition of 20 mol% (compared to dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine) of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid, dicetyl phosphate, phosphatidylinositol phosphate, cardiolipin, or phosphatidylserine in the liposomes resulted in substantial binding of toxin. Inclusion of phosphatidylinositol in dimyristol phosphatidylcholine / cholesterol liposomes did not result in toxin binding. The calcium salt of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid was more effective than the sodium salt, and the highest level of binding occurred with liposomes consisting only of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (calcium salt) and cholesterol. Binding of toxin to liposomes was dependent on pH, and the pattern of pH dependence varied with liposomes having different compositions. Incubation of diphtheria toxin with liposomes containing dicetyl phosphate resulted in maximal binding at pH 3.6, whereas binding to liposomes containing phosphatidylinositol phosphate was maximal above pH 7. Toxin did not bind to liposomes containing 20 mol% of a free fatty acid (palmitic acid) or a sulfated lipid (3-sulfogalactosylceramide). Toxin binding to dicetyl phosphate or phosphatidylinositol phosphate was inhibited by UTP, ATP, phosphocholine, or p-nitrophenyl phosphate, but not by uracil. We conclude that (a) diphtheria toxin binds specifically to the phosphate portion of certain phospholipids, (b) binding to phospholipids in liposomes is dependent on pH, but is not due only to electrostatic interaction, and (c) binding may be strongly influenced by the composition of adjacent phospholipids that do not bind toxin. We propose that a minor membrane phospholipid (such as phosphatidylinositol phosphate or phosphatidic acid), or that some other phosphorylated membrane molecule (such as a phosphoprotein) may be important in the initial binding of diphtheria toxin to cells.

  10. Galactodendritic Phthalocyanine Targets Carbohydrate-Binding Proteins Enhancing Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia M. R.; Silva, Sandrina; Cavaleiro, José A. S.; Ribeiro, Carlos A. F.; Tomé, João P. C.; Fernandes, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Photosensitizers (PSs) are of crucial importance in the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer. Due to their high reactive oxygen species production and strong absorption in the wavelength range between 650 and 850 nm, where tissue light penetration is rather high, phthalocyanines (Pcs) have been studied as PSs of excellence. In this work, we report the evaluation of a phthalocyanine surrounded by a carbohydrate shell of sixteen galactose units distributed in a dendritic manner (PcGal16) as a new and efficient third generation PSs for PDT against two bladder cancer cell lines, HT-1376 and UM-UC-3. Here, we define the role of galacto-dendritic units in promoting the uptake of a Pc through interaction with GLUT1 and galectin-1. The photoactivation of PcGal16 induces cell death by generating oxidative stress. Although PDT with PcGal16 induces an increase on the activity of antioxidant enzymes immediately after PDT, bladder cancer cells are unable to recover from the PDT-induced damage effects for at least 72 h after treatment. PcGal16 co-localization with galectin-1 and GLUT1 and/or generation of oxidative stress after PcGal16 photoactivation induces changes in the levels of these proteins. Knockdown of galectin-1 and GLUT1, via small interfering RNA (siRNA), in bladder cancer cells decreases intracellular uptake and phototoxicity of PcGal16. The results reported herein show PcGal16 as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of bladder cancer, which is the fifth most common type of cancer with the highest rate of recurrence of any cancer. PMID:24763311

  11. Percutaneous permeation measurement of topical phthalocyanine by photoacoustic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Emanoel P. O.; Barja, Paulo R.; Cardoso, Luiz E.; Beltrame, Milton

    2012-11-01

    This investigation have studied photoacoustic (PA) technique to percutaneous permeation of topical hydroxy-(29H,31H-phthalocyaninate) aluminum (PcAlOH) on pig ear skin. The PcAlOH was incorporated in an emulsion (O/W) (1 mg/dl) with assessed stability parameters of: pH, short and long term stability tests (in the several conditions). The skin was prepared through a heat separation technique, and with a scalpel, the outer skin of the cartilage was removed. The skins were then cut into 4 cm2 pieces and treated with sodium bromide 2 mol/L for 6 h at 37 °C. The epidermis layer was washed with purified water, dried, and stored under reduced pressure until use. The skin permeation kinetics was determined by photoacoustic technique in an open photoacoustic cell. Short (after preparation) and long-term stability tests showed no phase separation. The emulsion developed pH 7.6 and after incorporating the pH was unchanged. The typical times for percutaneous permeation of the emulsion base and emulsion + PcAlOH were 182 (±6) and 438 (±3) s, respectively. This study indicated that the formulations containing PcAlOH have stabile characteristics and show promising results in absorption into the skin. The presence of the photosensitive agent in the formulation contributed significantly to the greater absorption time than observed in the base formulation. The used photoacoustic technical to examine the penetration kinetics of PcAlOH in pig ear skin was adequate and may be employed in the determination of the percutaneous permeation of phthalocyanines.

  12. Tetra-triethyleneoxysulfonyl substituted zinc phthalocyanine for photodynamic cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kuzyniak, Weronika; Ermilov, Eugeny A; Atilla, Devrim; Gürek, Ayşe Gül; Nitzsche, Bianca; Derkow, Katja; Hoffmann, Björn; Steinemann, Gustav; Ahsen, Vefa; Höpfner, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as an effective and minimally invasive treatment option for several diseases, including some forms of cancer. However, several drawbacks of the approved photosensitizers (PS), such as insufficient light absorption at therapeutically relevant wavelengths hampered the clinical effectiveness of PDT. Phthalocyanines (Pc) are interesting PS-candidates with a strong light absorption in the favourable red spectral region and a high quantum yield of cancer cell destroying singlet oxygen generation. Here, we evaluated the suitability of tetra-triethyleneoxysulfonyl substituted zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) as novel PS for PDT. ZnPc-induced phototoxicity, induction of apoptosis as well as cell cycle arresting effects was studied in the human gastrointestinal cancer cell lines of different origin. Photoactivation of ZnPc-pretreated (1-10μM) cancer cells was achieved by illumination with a broad band white light source (400-700nm) at a power density of 10J/cm(2). Photoactivation of ZnPc-loaded cells revealed strong phototoxic effects, leading to a dose-dependent decrease of cancer cell proliferation of up to almost 100%, the induction of apoptosis and a G1-phase arrest of the cell cycle, which was associated with decrease in cyclin D1 expression. By contrast, ZnPc-treatment without illumination did not induce any cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest or decreased cell growth. Antiangiogenic effects of ZnPc-PDT were investigated in vivo by performing CAM assays, which revealed a marked degradation of blood vessels and the capillary plexus of the chorioallantoic membrane of fertilized chicken eggs. Based on our data we think that ZnPc may be a promising novel photosensitizer for innovative PDT. PMID:26162500

  13. Galactodendritic phthalocyanine targets carbohydrate-binding proteins enhancing photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrícia M R; Silva, Sandrina; Cavaleiro, José A S; Ribeiro, Carlos A F; Tomé, João P C; Fernandes, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Photosensitizers (PSs) are of crucial importance in the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer. Due to their high reactive oxygen species production and strong absorption in the wavelength range between 650 and 850 nm, where tissue light penetration is rather high, phthalocyanines (Pcs) have been studied as PSs of excellence. In this work, we report the evaluation of a phthalocyanine surrounded by a carbohydrate shell of sixteen galactose units distributed in a dendritic manner (PcGal16) as a new and efficient third generation PSs for PDT against two bladder cancer cell lines, HT-1376 and UM-UC-3. Here, we define the role of galacto-dendritic units in promoting the uptake of a Pc through interaction with GLUT1 and galectin-1. The photoactivation of PcGal16 induces cell death by generating oxidative stress. Although PDT with PcGal16 induces an increase on the activity of antioxidant enzymes immediately after PDT, bladder cancer cells are unable to recover from the PDT-induced damage effects for at least 72 h after treatment. PcGal16 co-localization with galectin-1 and GLUT1 and/or generation of oxidative stress after PcGal16 photoactivation induces changes in the levels of these proteins. Knockdown of galectin-1 and GLUT1, via small interfering RNA (siRNA), in bladder cancer cells decreases intracellular uptake and phototoxicity of PcGal16. The results reported herein show PcGal16 as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of bladder cancer, which is the fifth most common type of cancer with the highest rate of recurrence of any cancer. PMID:24763311

  14. Electronic structure at transition metal phthalocyanine-transition metal oxide interfaces: Cobalt phthalocyanine on epitaxial MnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Mathias; Peisert, Heiko; Adler, Hilmar; Aygül, Umut; Ivanovic, Milutin; Nagel, Peter; Merz, Michael; Schuppler, Stefan; Chassé, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    The electronic structure of the interface between cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) and epitaxially grown manganese oxide (MnO) thin films is studied by means of photoemission (PES) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Our results reveal a flat-lying adsorption geometry of the molecules on the oxide surface which allows a maximal interaction between the π-system and the substrate. A charge transfer from MnO, in particular, to the central metal atom of CoPc is observed by both PES and XAS. The change of the shape of N-K XAS spectra at the interface points, however, to the involvement of the Pc macrocycle in the charge transfer process. As a consequence of the charge transfer, energetic shifts of MnO related core levels were observed, which are discussed in terms of a Fermi level shift in the semiconducting MnO films due to interface charge redistribution.

  15. Electronic structure at transition metal phthalocyanine-transition metal oxide interfaces: Cobalt phthalocyanine on epitaxial MnO films

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, Mathias; Peisert, Heiko Adler, Hilmar; Aygül, Umut; Ivanovic, Milutin; Chassé, Thomas; Nagel, Peter; Merz, Michael; Schuppler, Stefan

    2015-03-14

    The electronic structure of the interface between cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) and epitaxially grown manganese oxide (MnO) thin films is studied by means of photoemission (PES) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Our results reveal a flat-lying adsorption geometry of the molecules on the oxide surface which allows a maximal interaction between the π-system and the substrate. A charge transfer from MnO, in particular, to the central metal atom of CoPc is observed by both PES and XAS. The change of the shape of N-K XAS spectra at the interface points, however, to the involvement of the Pc macrocycle in the charge transfer process. As a consequence of the charge transfer, energetic shifts of MnO related core levels were observed, which are discussed in terms of a Fermi level shift in the semiconducting MnO films due to interface charge redistribution.

  16. Nerve growth factor-mediated targeting of liposomes to cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hawrot, E.; Rosenberg, M.B.; Preston, P.E.; Breakefield, X.O.

    1986-05-01

    Derivatives of beta-nerve growth factor (NGF), modified by biotinylation of carboxyl groups, were used to target the specific binding of liposomes to cultured rat and human cells bearing NGF receptors. Streptavidin was conjugated via peptide bonds to amino groups on liposomes. Biotinylated NGF, but not unmodified NGF, mediated the binding of radiolabeled streptavidin-liposomes to rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells in suspension at 4/sup 0/C. In contrast, biotinylated NGF did not increase the binding of hemoglobin-conjugated liposomes tested as a control for specificity. Biotinylated NGF also mediated the specific binding of streptavidin-liposomes containing fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran to PC12 cells and human melanoma HS294 cells. When HS294 cells were incubated at 37/sup 0/C following liposome binding at 4/sup 0/C, the cell-associated fluorescence appeared to become internalized, in that some cells displayed a perinuclear pattern of fluorescence similar to that observed when lysosomes were stained with acridine orange. Trypsin treatment abolished cell-associated fluorescence when cells were held at 4/sup 0/C but did not affect the fluorescence in cells following incubation at 37/sup 0/C. When liposomes containing carboxyfluorescein, a dye that can diffuse out of acidic compartments, were targeted to HS294 cells, incubation at 37/sup 0/C resulted in diffuse cytoplasmic fluorescence, suggesting that internalized liposomes encounter lysosomal or prelysosomal organelles.

  17. Disterolphospholipids: nonexchangeable lipids and their application to liposomal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhaohua; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Szoka, Francis C

    2009-01-01

    Extreme makeover of cholesterol: Cholesterol exchange is a major reason for the instability of liposomes in blood. The formation of a covalent hybrid between cholesterol and glycerophosphocholine preserves the bilayer-stabilizing effect of free cholesterol but prevents its transfer from the bilayer. Thus, disterolphospholipids (e.g. 1) are valuable new components for liposome formulation. PMID:19425026

  18. Preparation, characterization, cytotoxicity and pharmacokinetics of liposomes containing docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Immordino, Maria Laura; Brusa, Paola; Arpicco, Silvia; Stella, Barbara; Dosio, Franco; Cattel, Luigi

    2003-09-01

    The taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel, are anticancer agents used in clinical trials against ovarian carcinoma, breast, lung and head/neck cancer. Paclitaxel, very insoluble in water, is generally formulated using Cremophor EL. Docetaxel, more soluble in water, is formulated using Tween 80 and ethanol. Tween 80, albeit less toxic than Cremophor EL, may be responsible of some toxic effects. To eliminate these vehicles and improve the drug's antitumor efficacy, taxanes have been incorporated in liposomes. We compared formulation, stability, biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of docetaxel in conventional and PEGylated liposomes. Of the several formulations examined, docetaxel-liposomes composed of ePC/PG/CHOL 9:1:2 and ePC/PG/DSPE-PEG2000/CHOL 9:1:2:0.7 were the most effective. Both conventional and PEGylated docetaxel-liposomes were stable at 4 degrees C after 15 days, whereas in the presence of serum at 37 degrees C they were less stable. The IC50 values of docetaxel-liposomes, evaluated on HT-29 and Igrov1 cell lines, remained very high. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution were evaluated in Balb/c mice after i.v. injection of [14C]docetaxel, formulated in Tween 80 or in 3H-labeled conventional or PEGylated liposomes. The t(1/2)beta, which was low for docetaxel (52.3 min), rose to 260 min for conventional docetaxel-liposomes and to 665 min for PEGylated docetaxel liposomes. Biodistribution studies confirmed the pharmacokinetics. PMID:12932719

  19. Sustainable proliferation of liposomes compatible with inner RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Gakushi; Fujii, Satoshi; Sunami, Takeshi; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2016-01-19

    Although challenging, the construction of a life-like compartment via a bottom-up approach can increase our understanding of life and protocells. The sustainable replication of genome information and the proliferation of phospholipid vesicles are requisites for reconstituting cell growth. However, although the replication of DNA or RNA has been developed in phospholipid vesicles, the sustainable proliferation of phospholipid vesicles has remained difficult to achieve. Here, we demonstrate the sustainable proliferation of liposomes that replicate RNA within them. Nutrients for RNA replication and membranes for liposome proliferation were combined by using a modified freeze-thaw technique. These liposomes showed fusion and fission compatible with RNA replication and distribution to daughter liposomes. The RNAs in daughter liposomes were repeatedly used as templates in the next RNA replication and were distributed to granddaughter liposomes. Liposome proliferation was achieved by 10 cycles of iterative culture operation. Therefore, we propose the use of culturable liposomes as an advanced protocell model with the implication that the concurrent supplement of both the membrane material and the nutrients of inner reactions might have enabled protocells to grow sustainably. PMID:26711996

  20. Liposome/Graphene Oxide Interaction Studied by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; Wang, Feng; Liu, Juewen

    2016-03-15

    The interaction between graphene oxide (GO) and lipid bilayers is important for fundamental surface science and many applications. In this work, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), cryo-TEM, and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to study the adsorption of three types of liposomes. Heat release was observed when GO was mixed with zwitterionic DOPC liposomes, while heat absorption occurred with cationic DOTAP liposomes. For comparison, anionic DOPG liposomes released heat when mixed with DOTAP. DOPC was adsorbed as intact liposomes, but DOTAP ruptured and induced stacking and folding of GO sheets. This study suggests the release of more water molecules from the GO surface when mixed with DOTAP liposomes. This can be rationalized by the full rupture of the DOTAP liposomes interacting with the whole GO surface, including hydrophobic regions, while DOPC liposomes only interact with a small area on GO near the edge, which is likely to be more hydrophilic. This interesting biointerfacial observation has enhanced our fundamental understanding of lipid/GO interactions. PMID:26908113

  1. Caspofungin and Liposomal Amphotericin B Therapy of Experimental Murine Scedosporiosis

    PubMed Central

    Bocanegra, Rosie; Najvar, Laura K.; Hernandez, Steve; McCarthy, Dora I.; Graybill, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Immunosuppressed mice were infected intravenously with conidia of Scedosporium prolificans. Treatment was begun 1 day later with liposomal amphotericin B, caspofungin, or both drugs initiated concurrently. Amphotericin B and caspofungin were each effective, but combined therapy did not appear to offer advantages over liposomal amphotericin B alone. PMID:16304187

  2. Electromagnetic field triggered drug and chemical delivery via liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Liburdy, Robert P.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system and to a method of delivering a drug to a preselected target body site of a patient, comprising the steps of encapsulating the chemical agent within liposomes, essentially temperature insensitive, i.e. not having a specific predetermined phase transition temperature within the specific temperature range of drug administration; administering the liposomes to the target body site; and subjecting the target body site to nonionizing electromagnetic fields in an area of the preselected target body in order to release said chemical agent from the liposomes at a temperature of between about +10 and 65.degree. C. The invention further relates to the use of said liposomes to bind to the surface of or to enter target tissue or an organ in a living system, and, when subjected to a nonionizing field, to release a drug from the liposomes into the target site.

  3. Cerebrovascular involvement in liposome-induced cardiopulmonary distress in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bodo, Michael; Szebeni, Janos; Baranyi, Lajos; Savay, Sandor; Pearce, Frederick J; Alving, Carl R; Bnger, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    Intravenous administration of liposomes, including Doxil, can cause severe life-threatening hemodynamic changes in pigs. The reaction is due to complement activation, and it is characterized by massive pulmonary hypertension, systemic hypotension, and severe cardiac abnormalities including falling cardiac output, tachy-or bradycardia with arrhythmia. There were no data suggesting the involvement of cerebrovascular changes in this reaction; however, clinical observations allowed this hypothesis. Here we measured the accompanying changes during liposome infusion by monitoring pulsatile electrical impedance (rheoencephalogram- REG) on the skull (n=24 pigs, 57 trials, 19 types of liposomes). A transient but significant decrease of REG pulse amplitudes followed the injection of liposomes (78.43% in the total sample, and 91.66% in the Doxil subgroup; P=0.003, n=12), indicating the involvement of cerebrovascular reaction during liposome infusion. PMID:16194924

  4. Visualizing in vivo liposomal drug delivery in real-time.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Beom; Leucht, Philipp; Morrell, Nathan T; Schwettman, H Alan; Helms, Jill A

    2007-11-01

    Liposomes have tremendous potential for efficient small molecule delivery. Previous studies, however, have been hampered by an inability to monitor their distribution and release of contents. Here, the authors demonstrate the real time monitoring of small molecule delivery using luciferin as a model. To monitor the release of luciferin in vivo, luciferin was packaged in thermosensitive liposomes and delivered into transgenic mice that constitutively express luciferase. Their experiments show the thermally induced release of the liposomal content in real time. In addition, the model provides evidence that the thermosensitive liposomes are stable over a long period of time ( approximately 3 weeks), and still release their content upon heating. These data present a strategy to monitor liposomal drug delivery in vivo with luciferin. PMID:17968717

  5. Mechanical properties of a giant liposome studied using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitamichi, Yoko; Ichikawa, Masatoshi; Kimura, Yasuyuki

    2009-09-01

    The mechanical properties of a micrometer-sized giant liposome are studied by deforming it from the inside using dual-beam optical tweezers. As the liposome is extended, its shape changes from a sphere to a lemon shape, and finally, a tubular part is generated. The surface tension σ and the bending rigidity κ of the lipid membrane are obtained from the measured force-extension curve. In a one-phase liposome, it was found that σ increases as the charged component increases but κ remains approximately constant. In a two-phase liposome, the characteristic deformation and the force-extension curve differ from those observed for the one-phase liposome.

  6. Microfabrication of three-dimensional filters for liposome extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldacchini, Tommaso; Nuñez, Vicente; LaFratta, Christopher N.; Grech, Joseph S.; Vullev, Valentine I.; Zadoyan, Ruben

    2015-03-01

    Liposomes play a relevant role in the biomedical field of drug delivery. The ability of these lipid vesicles to encapsulate and transport a variety of bioactive molecules has fostered their use in several therapeutic applications, from cancer treatments to the administration of drugs with antiviral activities. Size and uniformity are key parameters to take into consideration when preparing liposomes; these factors greatly influence their effectiveness in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. A popular technique employed to achieve the optimal liposome dimension (around 100 nm in diameter) and uniform size distribution is repetitive extrusion through a polycarbonate filter. We investigated two femtosecond laser direct writing techniques for the fabrication of three-dimensional filters within a microfluidics chip for liposomes extrusion. The miniaturization of the extrusion process in a microfluidic system is the first step toward a complete solution for lab-on-a-chip preparation of liposomes from vesicles self-assembly to optical characterization.

  7. Designing liposomal adjuvants for the next generation of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Perrie, Yvonne; Crofts, Fraser; Devitt, Andrew; Griffiths, Helen R; Kastner, Elisabeth; Nadella, Vinod

    2016-04-01

    Liposomes not only offer the ability to enhance drug delivery, but can effectively act as vaccine delivery systems and adjuvants. Their flexibility in size, charge, bilayer rigidity and composition allow for targeted antigen delivery via a range of administration routes. In the development of liposomal adjuvants, the type of immune response promoted has been linked to their physico-chemical characteristics, with the size and charge of the liposomal particles impacting on liposome biodistribution, exposure in the lymph nodes and recruitment of the innate immune system. The addition of immunostimulatory agents can further potentiate their immunogenic properties. Here, we outline the attributes that should be considered in the design and manufacture of liposomal adjuvants for the delivery of sub-unit and nucleic acid based vaccines. PMID:26576719

  8. Ligand-targeted liposome design: challenges and fundamental considerations.

    PubMed

    Noble, Gavin T; Stefanick, Jared F; Ashley, Jonathan D; Kiziltepe, Tanyel; Bilgicer, Basar

    2014-01-01

    Nanomedicine, particularly liposomal drug delivery, has expanded considerably over the past few decades, and several liposomal drugs are already providing improved clinical outcomes. Liposomes have now progressed beyond simple, inert drug carriers and can be designed to be highly responsive in vivo, with active targeting, increased stealth, and controlled drug-release properties. Ligand-targeted liposomes (LTLs) have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of cancer. However, these highly engineered liposomes generate new problems, such as accelerated clearance from circulation, compromised targeting owing to non-specific serum protein binding, and hindered tumor penetration. This article highlights recent challenges facing LTL strategies and describes the advanced design elements used to circumvent them. PMID:24210498

  9. Multimodal targeted high relaxivity thermosensitive liposome for in vivo imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijten, Maayke M. P.; Hannah Degeling, M.; Chen, John W.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Waterman, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Azzi, Jamil; Nicolay, Klaas; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes are spherical, self-closed structures formed by lipid bilayers that can encapsulate drugs and/or imaging agents in their hydrophilic core or within their membrane moiety, making them suitable delivery vehicles. We have synthesized a new liposome containing gadolinium-DOTA lipid bilayer, as a targeting multimodal molecular imaging agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. We showed that this liposome has a much higher molar relaxivities r1 and r2 compared to a more conventional liposome containing gadolinium-DTPA-BSA lipid. By incorporating both gadolinium and rhodamine in the lipid bilayer as well as biotin on its surface, we used this agent for multimodal imaging and targeting of tumors through the strong biotin-streptavidin interaction. Since this new liposome is thermosensitive, it can be used for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery at specific sites, such as tumors, and can be guided by magnetic resonance imaging.

  10. Preparation and characterization of clove essential oil-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sebaaly, Carine; Jraij, Alia; Fessi, Hatem; Charcosset, Catherine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2015-07-01

    In this study, suitable formulations of natural soybean phospholipid vesicles were developed to improve the stability of clove essential oil and its main component, eugenol. Using an ethanol injection method, saturated (Phospholipon 80H, Phospholipon 90H) and unsaturated soybean (Lipoid S100) phospholipids, in combination with cholesterol, were used to prepare liposomes at various eugenol and clove essential oil concentrations. Liposomal batches were characterized and compared for their size, polydispersity index, Zeta potential, loading rate, encapsulation efficiency and morphology. The liposomes were tested for their stability after storing them for 2 months at 4°C by monitoring changes in their mean size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency (EE) values. It was found that liposomes exhibited nanometric oligolamellar and spherical shaped vesicles and protected eugenol from degradation induced by UV exposure; they also maintained the DPPH-scavenging activity of free eugenol. Liposomes constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of volatile unstable essential oil constituents. PMID:25704683

  11. Assembly and Targeting of Liposomal Nanoparticles Encapsulating Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Mukthavaram, Rajesh; Wrasidlo, Wolf; Hall, David; Kesari, Santosh; Makale, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are attracting intense interest as fluorescence labeling agents for biomedical imaging because biocompatible coatings and relatively non-toxic rare earth metal QDs have emerged as possible options. QD photoemissions are bright, of narrow wavelength range, and very stable. We sought to encapsulate QDs within targeted PEGylated liposomes to reduce their propensity for liver uptake and to amplify the already strong QD emission signal. A novel lipid-QD conjugate initialized a process by which lipids in solution coalesced around the QDs. The liposomal structure was confirmed with size measurements, SEM, and IR spectroscopy. PEGylated QD liposomes injected into a xenograft tumor model largely cleared from the body within 24 hours. Residual liver labeling was low. Targeted QD liposomes exhibited robust tumor labeling compared with controls. This study highlights the potential of these near IR emitting QD liposomes for preclinical/clinical applications. PMID:21786821

  12. Multimodal targeted high relaxivity thermosensitive liposome for in vivo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kuijten, Maayke M. P.; Hannah Degeling, M.; Chen, John W.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Waterman, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Azzi, Jamil; Nicolay, Klaas; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes are spherical, self-closed structures formed by lipid bilayers that can encapsulate drugs and/or imaging agents in their hydrophilic core or within their membrane moiety, making them suitable delivery vehicles. We have synthesized a new liposome containing gadolinium-DOTA lipid bilayer, as a targeting multimodal molecular imaging agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. We showed that this liposome has a much higher molar relaxivities r1 and r2 compared to a more conventional liposome containing gadolinium-DTPA-BSA lipid. By incorporating both gadolinium and rhodamine in the lipid bilayer as well as biotin on its surface, we used this agent for multimodal imaging and targeting of tumors through the strong biotin-streptavidin interaction. Since this new liposome is thermosensitive, it can be used for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery at specific sites, such as tumors, and can be guided by magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26610702

  13. Ultrasound triggered drug delivery with liposomal nested microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Wallace, N; Wrenn, S P

    2015-12-01

    When ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles are nested within a liposome, damage to the liposome membrane caused by both stable and inertial cavitation of the microbubble allows for release of the aqueous core of the liposome. Triggered release was not accomplished unless microbubbles were present within the liposome. Leakage was tested using fluorescence assays developed specifically for this drug delivery vehicle and qualitative measurements using an optical microscope. These studies were done using a 1 MHz focused ultrasound transducer while varying parameters including peak negative ultrasound pressure, average liposome diameter, and microbubble concentration. Two regimes exist for membrane disruption caused by cavitating microbubbles. A faster release rate, as well as permanent membrane damage are seen for samples exposed to high pressure (2.1-3.7 MPa). A slower release rate and dilation/temporary poration are characteristic of stable cavitation for low pressure studies (0.54-1.7 MPa). PMID:26152887

  14. Electromagnetic field triggered drug and chemical delivery via liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Liburdy, R.P.

    1993-03-02

    The present invention relates to a system and to a method of delivering a drug to a preselected target body site of a patient, comprising the steps of encapsulating the chemical agent within liposomes, essentially temperature insensitive, i.e. not having a specific predetermined phase transition temperature within the specific temperature range of drug administration; administering the liposomes to the target body site; and subjecting the target body site to nonionizing electromagnetic fields in an area of the preselected target body in order to release the chemical agent from the liposomes at a temperature of between about +10 and 65 C. The invention further relates to the use of the liposomes to bind to the surface of or to enter target tissue or an organ in a living system, and, when subjected to a nonionizing field, to release a drug from the liposomes into the target site.

  15. Recent Applications of Liposomes in Ophthalmic Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gyan P.; Bagui, Mahuya; Tamboli, Viral; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2011-01-01

    Liposomal formulations were significantly explored over the last decade for the ophthalmic drug delivery applications. These formulations are mainly composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and other constituents such as cholesterol and lipid-conjugated hydrophilic polymers. Liposomes are biodegradable and biocompatible in nature. Current approaches for topical delivery of liposomes are focused on improving the corneal adhesion and permeation by incorporating various bioadhesive and penetration enhancing polymers. In the case of posterior segment disorders improvement in intravitreal half life and targeted drug delivery to the retina is achieved by liposomes. In this paper we have attempted to summarize the applications of liposomes in the field of ophthalmic drug delivery by citing numerous investigators over the last decade. PMID:21490757

  16. Recent Developments in Liposome-Based Veterinary Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in nanomedicine have been studied in the veterinary field and have found a wide variety of applications. The past decade has witnessed a massive surge of research interest in liposomes for delivery of therapeutic substances in animals. Liposomes are nanosized phospholipid vesicles that can serve as delivery platforms for a wide range of substances. Liposomes are easily formulated, highly modifiable, and easily administered delivery platforms. They are biodegradable and nontoxic and have long in vivo circulation time. This review focuses on recent and ongoing research that may have relevance for veterinary medicine. By examining the recent developments in liposome-based therapeutics in animal cancers, vaccines, and analgesia, this review depicts the current significance and future directions of liposome-based delivery in veterinary medicine. PMID:24222862

  17. Chiral Selective Adsorption of Ibuprofen on a Liposome Membrane.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yukihiro; Kishi, Yusuke; Ishigami, Takaaki; Suga, Keishi; Umakoshi, Hiroshi

    2016-03-17

    We investigated the key factors that affect enantioselective adsorption of ibuprofen (IBU) on a liposome membrane by changing its lipid composition: the liposome membrane shows different membrane fluidity, surface charge, content of chiral components, and heterogeneity (nanodomain). Nonspecific interactions (hydrophobic and electrostatic) were revealed to be an important factor in enhancing the adsorbed amount of IBU, based on adsorption experiments carried out using single lipids (DPPC, DMPC, DOPC, and DLPC) and positively charged liposomes (DOTAP and liposome containing DC-Ch). Furthermore, control of the boundary edge (i.e., the nanodomain size) derived from the membrane heterogeneity was important for enantioselective adsorption; as well as multiple weak interactions between lipid molecules and IBU enantiomers. The above findings provided a good index for constructing liposomal chiral adsorbents. PMID:26923279

  18. Liposomal resiquimod for the treatment of Leishmania donovani infection

    PubMed Central

    Peine, Kevin J.; Gupta, Gaurav; Brackman, Deanna J.; Papenfuss, Tracey L.; Ainslie, Kristy M.; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Bachelder, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The imidazoquinoline family of drugs are Toll-like receptor 7/8 agonists that have previously been used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Because of the hydrophobic nature of imidazoquinolines, they are traditionally not administered systemically for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. We formulated liposomal resiquimod, an imidazoquinoline, for the systemic treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. Methods By using lipid film hydration with extrusion, we encapsulated resiquimod in liposomes. These liposomes were then injected intravenously to treat BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania donovani. Results Treatment with liposomal resiquimod significantly decreased the parasite load in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. In addition, resiquimod treatment increased interferon-γ and interleukin-10 production in an antigen recall assay. Resiquimod was shown to be non-toxic in histology and in vitro culture experiments. Conclusions FDA-approved resiquimod, in a liposomal formulation, displays promising results in treating visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:23956375

  19. Image-Guided Predictions of Liposome Transport in Solid Tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapleton, Shawn

    Due to the ability to preferentially accumulate and deliver drug payloads to solid tumours, liposomes have emerged as an exciting therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy. Unfortunately, the initial excitement was dampened by limited clinical results, where only negligible increases in patient survival following liposome therapy have been observed. What are the reasons for the limited clinical efficacy? Is the nanoparticle formulation optimal? Is the enhanced permeability and retention effect overstated? What are the barriers limiting the delivery of drugs to cancer cells? What is the optimal dosing and treatment schedule? Addressing these questions requires developing quantitative tools to understand the behaviour of liposomes in vivo, such as pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, intra-tumoural accumulation, and drug release. Central to each of these questions is the concept of transport - the collection of biophysical processes responsible for the delivery of molecules to tissues. Understanding transport means understanding the crucial links between the spatio-temporal accumulation of liposomes, the physicochemical properties of liposomes, and properties of the tumour microenvironment. In this thesis, a biophysical mathematical transport model is developed that when used in combination with non-invasive imaging methods can predict liposome transport in solid tumours. The mathematical transport framework is validated in its ability to predict the bulk and intra-tumoural accumulation of liposomes based on biophysical transport properties of solid tumours. Furthermore, novel imaging methods are developed and used to elucidate the crucial links between transport barriers and spatial heterogeneity in liposome accumulation. Finally, methods are presented to integrate quantitative imaging and mathematical modelling such that an accurate prediction of liposome transport in solid tumours is possible. In summary, this thesis presents and validates an image-guided mathematical framework that can be used to guide the rational application of liposomes for the treatment of solid tumours.

  20. Clearance and localization of intravitreal liposomes in the aphakic vitrectomized eye

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, W.H.; Heath, T.D.; Lewis, G.P.; Guerin, C.J.; Erickson, P.A.; Lopez, N.G.; Hong, K.L.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have examined the fate of intravitreally injected liposomes in the aphakic, vitrectomized eye of the rabbit. Liposomes labelled with /sup 125/(I)-p-hydroxybenzimidylphosphatidylethanolamine were eliminated rapidly from the intraocular fluid. Nonetheless, a significant fraction of these liposomes were found to bind to various ocular tissues including the retina, iris, sclera, and cornea. Ultrastructural studies with gold colloid-loaded liposomes revealed that retinal bound liposomes were attached to the inner limiting lamina but did not penetrate to the internal cells of the retina. Epiretinal cells bound and internalized gold colloid-loaded liposomes suggesting that these cells may be very sensitive to liposome mediated drug delivery.

  1. Synthesis of the iron phthalocyaninate radical cation μ-nitrido dimer and its interaction with hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishina, E. S.; Makarova, A. S.; Kudrik, E. V.; Makarov, S. V.; Koifman, O. I.

    2016-03-01

    The iron phthalocyaninate μ-nitrido dimer radical cation, as well as the μ-nitrido dimer complexes of iron phthalocyaninate, was found to have high catalytic activity in the oxidation of organic compounds. It was concluded that this compound is of interest as a model of active intermediates—catalase and oxidase enzymes.

  2. Development of Liposomal Bubbles with Perfluoropropane Gas as Gene Delivery Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Kazuo; Suzuki, Ryo; Sawamura, Kaori; Takizawa, Tomoko; Utoguchi, Naoki; Negishi, Yoichi

    2007-05-01

    Liposomes have some advantages as drug, antigen and gene delivery carriers. Their size can be easily controlled and they can be modified to add a targeting function. Based on liposome technology, we developed novel liposomal bubbles (Bubble liposomes) containing the ultrasound imaging gas, perfluoropropane. We assessed the feasibility of Bubble liposomes as carriers for gene delivery after cavitation induced by ultrasound. At first, we investigated their ability to deliver genes with Bubble liposomes and ultrasound to various types of cells such as mouse sarcoma cells, mouse melanoma cells, human T cell line and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The results showed that the Bubble liposomes could deliver plasmid DNA to many cell types without cytotoxicity. In addition, we found that Bubble liposomes could effectively deliver plasmid DNA into mouse femoral artery in vivo. The gene transduction with Bubble liposomes was more effectively than conventional lipofection. We conclude that Bubble liposomes are unique and efficient gene delivery carriers in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Mechanism of oligonucleotide release from cationic liposomes.

    PubMed Central

    Zelphati, O; Szoka, F C

    1996-01-01

    We propose a mechanism for oligonucleotide (ODN) release from cationic lipid complexes in cells that accounts for various observations on cationic lipid-nucleic acid-cell interactions. Fluorescent confocal microscopy of cells treated with rhodamine-labeled cationic liposome/ fluorescein-labeled ODN (F-ODN) complexes show the F-ODN separates from the lipid after internalization and enters the nucleus leaving the fluorescent lipid in cytoplasmic structures. ODN displacement from the complex was studied by fluorescent resonance energy transfer. Anionic liposome compositions (e.g., phosphatidylserine) that mimic the cytoplasmic facing monolayer of the cell membrane released ODN from the complex at about a 1:1 (-/+) charge ratio. Release was independent of ionic strength and pH. Physical separation of the F-ODN from monovalent and multivalent cationic lipids was confirmed by gel electrophoresis. Fluid but not solid phase anionic liposomes are required, whereas the physical state of the cationic lipids does not effect the release. Water soluble molecules with a high negative linear charge density, dextran sulfate, or heparin also release ODN. However, ATP, spermidine, spermine, tRNA, DNA, polyglutamic acid, polylysine, bovine serum albumin, or histone did not release ODN, even at 100-fold charge excess (-/+). Based upon these results, we propose that the complex, after internalization by endocytosis, induces flip-flop of anionic lipids from the cytoplasmic facing monolayer. Anionic lipids laterally diffuse into the complex and form a charged neutralized ion-pair with the cationic lipids. This leads to displacement of the ODN from the cationic lipid and its release into the cytoplasm. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8876163

  4. Analysis of individual lipoproteins and liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, D.L.; Keller, R.A.; Nolan, J.P.

    1997-08-01

    We describe the application of single molecule detection (SMD) technologies for the analysis of natural (serum lipoproteins) and synthetic (liposomes) transport systems. The need for advanced analytical procedures of these complex and important systems is presented with the specific enhancements afforded by SMD with flowing sample streams. In contrast to bulk measurements which yield only average values, measurement of individual species allows creation of population histograms from heterogeneous samples. The data are acquired in minutes and the analysis requires relatively small sample quantities. Preliminary data are presented from the analysis of low density lipoprotein, and multilamellar and unilamellar vesicles.

  5. Electronic Structure of C60/Phthalocyanine/ITO Interfaces Studied using Soft X-ray Spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, S.; Piper, L; DeMasi, A; Preston, A; Smith, K; Chauhan, K; Sullivan, P; Hatton, R; Jones, T

    2010-01-01

    The interface electronic structure of a bilayer heterojunction of C{sub 60} and three different phthalocyanines grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) has been studied using synchrotron radiation-excited photoelectron spectroscopy. The energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital level of the phthalocyanine (donor) layer and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level of the C{sub 60} (acceptor) layer (E{sub HOMO}{sup D} - E{sub LUMO}{sup A}) was determined. The E{sub HOMO}{sup D} - E{sub LUMO}{sup A} of a heterojunction with boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc) was found to be much larger than those of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and chloro-aluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc). This observation is discussed in terms of the difference of the ionization energy of each donor material. Additionally, we have studied the molecular orientation of the phthalocyanine films on ITO using angle-dependent X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We found that the SubPc films showed significant disorder compared to the CuPc and ClAlPc films and also found that E{sub HOMO}{sup D} - E{sub LUMO}{sup A} varied with the orientation of the ClAlPc molecules relative to the ITO substrate. This orientation could be controlled by varying the ClAlPc deposition rate.

  6. Antibacterial effect of cationic porphyrazines and anionic phthalocyanine and their interaction with plasmid DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, Leila; Hakimian, Fatemeh; Safaei, Elham; Fazeli, Zahra

    2013-11-01

    Resistance to antibiotics is a public health issue and identification of new antibacterial agents is one of the most important goals of pharmacological research. Among the novel developed antibacterial agents, porphyrin complexes and their derivatives are ideal candidates for use in medical applications. Phthalocyanines differ from porphyrins by having nitrogen atoms link the individual pyrrol units. The aza analogues of the phthalocyanines (azaPcs) such as tetramethylmetalloporphyrazines are heterocyclic Pc analogues. In this investigation, interaction of an anionic phthalocyanine (Cu(PcTs)) and two cationic tetrapyridinoporphyrazines including [Cu(2,3-tmtppa)]4+ and [Cu(3,4-tmtppa)]4+ complexes with plasmid DNA was studied using spectroscopic and gel electrophoresis methods. In addition, antibacterial effect of the complexes against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria was investigated using dilution test method. The results indicated that both porphyrazines have significant antibacterial properties, but Cu(PcTs) has weak antibacterial effect. Compairing the binding of the phthalocyanine and the porphyrazines to DNA demonstrated that the interaction of cationic porphyrazines is stronger than the anionic phthalocyanine remarkably. The extent of hypochromicity and red shift of absorption spectra indicated preferential intercalation of the two porphyrazine into the base pairs of DNA helix. Gel electrophoresis result implied Cu(2,3-tmtppa) and Cu(3,4-tmtppa) are able to perform cleavage of the plasmid DNA. Consequently, DNA binding and cleavage might be one of the antibacterial mechanisms of the complexes.

  7. Elaboration of ammonia gas sensors based on electrodeposited polypyrrole--cobalt phthalocyanine hybrid films.

    PubMed

    Patois, Tilia; Sanchez, Jean-Baptiste; Berger, Franck; Fievet, Patrick; Segut, Olivier; Moutarlier, Virginie; Bouvet, Marcel; Lakard, Boris

    2013-12-15

    The electrochemical incorporation of a sulfonated cobalt phthalocyanine (sCoPc) in conducting polypyrrole (PPy) was done, in the presence or absence of LiClO4, in order to use the resulting hybrid material for the sensing of ammonia. After electrochemical deposition, the morphological features and structural properties of polypyrrole/phthalocyanine hybrid films were investigated and compared to those of polypyrrole films. A gas sensor consisting in platinum microelectrodes arrays was fabricated using silicon microtechnologies, and the polypyrrole and polypyrrole/phthalocyanine films were electrochemically deposited on the platinum microelectrodes arrays of this gas sensor. When exposed to ammonia, polymer-based gas sensors exhibited a decrease in conductance due to the electron exchange between ammonia and sensitive polymer-based layer. The characteristics of the gas sensors (response time, response amplitude, reversibility) were studied for ammonia concentrations varying from 1 ppm to 100 ppm. Polypyrrole/phthalocyanine films exhibited a high sensitivity and low detection limit to ammonia as well as a fast and reproducible response at room temperature. The response to ammonia exposition of polypyrrole films was found to be strongly enhanced thanks to the incorporation of the phthalocyanine in the polypyrrole matrix. PMID:24209308

  8. Synthesis, spectral, and electrochemical characterization of the first arsenic(V)-phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Isago, Hiroaki; Kagaya, Yutaka

    2012-08-01

    The first arsenic(V)-phthalocyanines, [As(tbpc)X(2)](+), where tbpc denotes tetra(tert-butyl)phthalocyaninate, C(48)H(48)N(8)(2-) and X = F, Cl, and Br) have been prepared through an appropriate oxidative addition process to a highly soluble arsenic(III) derivative, [As(tbpc)](+). Among them, [As(tbpc)F(2)](+) has been isolated as PF(6)(-) salt. Unlike conventional metal derivatives of phthalocyanines, they show a significantly red-shifted (by >1000 cm(-1)) Q-band and facile reduction of the macrocyclic ligand (redox potentials for [As(tbpc)F(2)](+) have been determined by cyclic voltammetry; 1.13 V vs ferricinium(+)/ferrocene (tbpc(-/2-)), -0.45 V (tbpc(2-/3-)), and -0.90 V (tbpc(3-/4-)), of which the values are anodically shifted by about 1 V) as compared to those of conventional phthalocyanines. Although the anomaly in their spectral and electrochemical properties is similar to that of the known antimony analogues, the arsenic-phthalocyanines have been found less stable. PMID:22812716

  9. Gas sensing mechanism in chemiresistive cobalt and metal-free phthalocyanine thin films.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Forest I; Sharoni, Amos; Colesniuc, Corneliu; Park, Jeongwon; Schuller, Ivan K; Kummel, Andrew C; Trogler, William C

    2007-05-01

    The gas sensing behaviors of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) and metal-free phthalocyanine (H2Pc) thin films were investigated with respect to analyte basicity. Chemiresistive sensors were fabricated by deposition of 50 nm thick films on interdigitated gold electrodes via organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE). Time-dependent current responses of the films were measured at constant voltage during exposure to analyte vapor doses. The analytes spanned a range of electron donor and hydrogen-bonding strengths. It was found that, when the analyte exceeded a critical base strength, the device responses for CoPc correlated with Lewis basicity, and device responses for H2Pc correlated with hydrogen-bond basicity. This suggests that the analyte-phthalocyanine interaction is dominated by binding to the central cavity of the phthalocyanine with analyte coordination strength governing CoPc sensor responses and analyte hydrogen-bonding ability governing H2Pc sensor responses. The interactions between the phthalocyanine films and analytes were found to follow first-order kinetics. The influence of O2 on the film response was found to significantly affect sensor response and recovery. The increase of resistance generally observed for analyte binding can be attributed to hole destruction in the semiconductor film by oxygen displacement, as well as hole trapping by electron donor ligands. PMID:17411043

  10. Kinetics of proton transfer from tetra(4-nitro-5- tert-butyl)phthalocyanine to nitrogen-containing bases in benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, O. A.; Kuzmina, E. L.; Maizlish, V. E.; Rodionov, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    The acid-basic interaction between tetra(4-nitro-5- tert-butyl)phthalocyanine and pyridine, 2-methylpyridine, morpholine, piperidine, n-butylamine, diethylamine, and triethylamine in benzene is studied. It is found that the intermolecular transfer of protons of NH groups from tetra(4-nitro-5- tert-butyl)phthalocyanine to morpholine and diethylamine is characterized by unusually low values of the reaction constant rates. The effect of the structure of tetra(4-nitro-5- tert-butyl)phthalocyanine and tetra(3-nitro-5- tert-butyl)phthalocyanine, and of the nature of the base on the kinetic parameters of acid-base interaction is demonstrated. A structure is proposed for complexes with the transfer of displaced phthalocyanines' protons. It is found that they undergo decomposition over time.

  11. Photoinduced drug release from thermosensitive AuNPs-liposome using a AuNPs-switch.

    PubMed

    An, Xueqin; Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Yinyan; Shen, Weiguo

    2010-10-14

    A thermosensitive liposome with embedded AuNPs in a bilayer was prepared using supercritical CO(2). The AuNPs-liposome can absorb a certain wavelength light, convert optical energy into heat, induce phase transition, and release drug. The results show that drug release from the liposome is due to the photothermic effects inducing phase transition of the liposome rather than destruction of the liposome structure. PMID:20820547

  12. Synthesis of phthalocyanine doped sol-gel materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    The synthesis of sol-gel silica materials doped with three different types of metallophthalocyanines has been studied. Homogeneous materials of good optical quality were prepared and the first optical limiting measurements of dyes in sol-gel hosts were carried out. The properties of these solid state limiters are similar to limiters based on phthalocyanine (Pc) in solution. Sol-gel silica materials containing copper, tin and germanium phthalocyanines were investigated. The initial step in all cases was to prepare silica sols by the sonogel method using tetramethoxy silane (TMOS), HCl and distilled water. Thereafter, the synthesis depended upon the specific Pc and its solubility characteristics. Copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetra sodium salt (CuPc4S) is soluble in water and various doping levels (1 x 10 (exp -4) M to 1 x 10 (exp -5) M) were added to the sol. The group IV Pc's, SnPc(OSi(n-hexyl)3)2 and GePc(OSi(n-hexyl)3)2, are insoluble in water and the process was changed accordingly. In these cases, the compounds were dissolved in THF and then added to the sol. The Pc concentration in the sol was 2 x 10(exp -5)M. The samples were then aged and dried in the standard method of making xerogel monoliths. Comparative nanosecond optical limiting experiments were performed on silica xerogels that were doped with the different metallophthalocyanines. The ratio of the net excited state absorption cross section (sigma(sub e)) to the ground state cross section (sigma(sub g)) is an important figure of merit that is used to characterize these materials. By this standard the SnPc sample exhibits the best limiting for the Pc doped sol-gel materials. Its cross section ratio of 19 compares favorably with the value of 22 that was measured in toluene. The GePc materials appear to not be as useful as those containing SnPc. The GePc doped solids exhibit a higher onset energy (2.5 mj and lower cross section ratio, 7. The CuPc4S sol-gel material has a still lower cross section ratio, 4, however, the tetrasulfonate groups make the dye soluble in water which greatly facilitates its incorporation into the sol-gel matrix. The nonlinear transmission of CuPc4S in a pH 2 buffer solution and in a silica xerogel were compared. It is evident that the CuPc4S preserves its optical limiting behavior in the sol-gel matrix, indicating that the fundamental excited state absorption process is essentially the same for a molecule in solution or in the solid state. Although the spectroscopic details of energy level lifetimes are unknown, the significance is that passive optical limiting has been achieved in the solid state via incorporation of a dye into an inorganic host. The only compromise occurs at the extremely high energy regime where photobleaching is observed. This is a result of the limited mobility of the dye molecules in the solid silica host relative to a liquid host. The effects of photodegradation in the xerogel are additive, whereas the solution provides a supply of fresh molecules that are free to enter the active volume between pulses.

  13. Spectroscopic studies of alpha tocopherol interaction with a model liposome and its influence on oxidation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krilov, Dubravka; Kosović, Marin; Serec, Kristina

    2014-08-01

    The influence of α-tocopherol on the surface conformation of liposome, as a model component of lipoproteins, and its role in oxidation process were studied. FT-IR spectra from suspensions of neat liposome, mixtures of liposome and α-tocopherol and liposome with incorporated α-tocopherol were analyzed. When α-tocopherol was incorporated into liposome, intensities of some bands were decreased or increased in comparison with the spectra of liposome and α-tocopherol mixture. These changes reflect the different localization of α-tocopherol in two types of liposome suspensions. The oxidation of liposome suspensions was initiated by addition of cupric ions. After prolonged oxidation, the differences in FT-IR spectra of oxidized samples were recorded. Differences were observed in comparison with spectra of native and oxidized liposomes were analyzed. The rate of oxidation was measured by EPR oximetry. Oxidation was generally very slow, but faster in liposome without α-tocopherol, indicating the protective role of α-tocopherol against liposome oxidation. On the other hand, liposome suspensions with EDTA in the buffer were not oxidized at all, while those with α-tocopherol and liposome mixture were only slightly oxidized. In this case the consumption of oxygen was the result of liposome oxidation supported by α-tocopherol. These results reflect the ambivalent role of α-tocopherol in liposome oxidation, similarly to findings in studies of lipoprotein oxidation.

  14. Lyophilization of cholesterol-free PEGylated liposomes and its impact on drug loading by passive equilibration.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Anumita; Das, Surajit; Lee, Ronald F S; Tan, Kuan-Boone; Ng, Wai-Kiong; Tan, Reginald B H; Chiu, Gigi N C

    2012-07-01

    The obstacles in translating liposome formulations into marketable products could be attributed to their physical instabilities upon long-term storage as aqueous dispersions. Lyophilization is the most commonly used technique to improve physical stability of liposomes. The development of stable, lyophilized liposomes is focused primarily on the cholesterol-containing liposomes or pure phosphatidylcholine-based liposomes, with minimal studies on cholesterol-free, pegylated (CF-PEG) liposomes which have emerged as an important class of liposome drug carriers. Hence, it is our interest to investigate the effect of lyophilization on CF-PEG liposomes, and specifically, on drug loading via the passive equilibration method. Three different sugar cryoprotectants were used at two different sugar-to-lipid molar ratios (S/L). Our results demonstrated that CF-PEG liposomes lyophilized with sucrose at S/L=5:1 yielded the best cryoprotective effect, as characterized by size, polydispersity indices, and microscopic examination upon liposome reconstitution. The lyophilized liposomes had low water content of 2.59 ± 0.18%. Of note, lyophilized CF-PEG liposomes exhibited two-fold increase in drug content when carboplatin was loaded via the passive equilibration method, and the in vitro drug release profile of these liposomes were not different from that of the non-lyophilized counterparts. Taken together, we envisioned that a stable, lyophilized empty CF-PEG liposome system could be coupled to hydrophilic drug loading via the passive equilibration method to produce a liposomal drug kit product. PMID:22537806

  15. Modulation of the carotenoid bioaccessibility through liposomal encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chen; Zhang, Yating; Abbas, Shabbar; Feng, Biao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xia, Shuqin

    2014-11-01

    The low bioaccessibility of carotenoids is currently a challenge to their incorporation in pharmaceutics, nutraceuticals and functional foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulating effects of liposome encapsulation on the bioaccessibility, and its relationship with carotenoid structure and incorporated concentration. The physical stability of liposomes, lipid digestibility, carotenoids release and bioaccessibility were investigated during incubation in a simulated gastrointestinal tract. Analysis on the liposome size and morphology showed that after digestion, the majority of particles maintained spherical shape with only an increase of size in liposomes loading β-carotene or lutein. However, a large proportion of heterogeneous particles were visible in the micelle phase of liposomes loading lycopene or canthaxanthin. It was also found that the release of lutein and β-carotene from liposomes was inhibited in a simulated gastric fluid, while was slow and sustained in a simulated intestinal fluid. By contrast, lycopene and canthaxanthin exhibited fast and considerable release in the gastrointestinal media. Both carotenoid bioaccessibility and micellization content decreased with the increase of incorporated concentration. Anyway, the bioaccessibility of carotenoids after encapsulated in liposomes was in the following order: lutein>β-carotene>lycopene>canthaxanthin. Bivariate correlation analysis revealed that carotenoid bioaccessibility depended strongly on the incorporating ability of carotenoids into a lipid bilayer, loading content, and nature of the system. PMID:25456993

  16. Effect of iron liposomes on anemia of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Geng, Lina; Ge, Lan; Yu, Peng; Duan, Xianglin; Chen, Jun; Chang, Yanzhong

    2013-09-15

    Supplementation with iron-fortified foods is an effective method for treating iron deficiency diseases. However, traditional iron agents used to treat anemia of inflammation (AI) have little effect. In this study, two types of iron liposomes, heme liposomes (HEME-LIP) and ferric citrate liposomes (FAC-LIP), were prepared by the rotary-evaporated film-ultrasonication method, and the encapsulation efficiencies, microstructures, size distributions and zeta potentials were assessed. Both types of iron liposomes showed stable physical characteristics. When used to treat rat models of AI, FAC-LIP and HEME-LIP could increase serum iron levels by 119% and 54% higher than did ferric citrate (FAC) and heme, respectively. Furthermore, the hepcidin, a key regulator of iron homeostasis was up-regulated by these iron liposomes, especially by HEME-LIP. These results indicate that the absorption of iron liposomes was improved over that of unencapsulated iron agents. Thus, iron liposomes may be used to fortify food in treating iron deficiency diseases, especially AI. PMID:23850818

  17. Optical delivery of liposome encapsulated chemical stimuli to neuronal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinato, Giulietta; Raffaelli, Tiziano; D'Este, Elisa; Tavano, Federica; Cojoc, Dan

    2011-09-01

    Spatially confined and precise time delivery of neuroactive molecules is an important issue in neurophysiology. In this work we developed a technique for delivering chemical stimuli to cultured neurons consisting in encapsulating the molecules of interest in liposomes. These vectors were then loaded in reservoirs consisting of glass capillaries. The reservoirs were placed in the recording chamber and single liposomes were trapped and transported out by optical tweezers to the site of stimulation on cultured neurons. Finally, the release of liposome content was induced by application of UV-pulses, breaking the liposome membrane. The efficiency of encapsulation and release were first evaluated by loading the liposomes with fluorescein. In order to test the effect of the UV-induced release, liposomes with diameter ranging from 1 to 10 μm (fL to pL volumes), were filled with KCl and tested on neuronal cells. Neuronal cultures, loaded with Ca2+ dye, were monitored by imaging intracellular Ca2+. An efficient release from the liposomes was demonstrated by detectable calcium signals, indicating stimulated depolarization of the neuronal cells by KCl. The present technique represents an alternative method for focal chemical stimulation of cultured cells that circumvents some of the limitations of microejection and photorelease of caged compounds.

  18. Liposome micropatterning based on laser-induced forward transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla-Papavlu, Alexandra; Paraico, Iurie; Shaw-Stewart, James; Dinca, Valentina; Savopol, Tudor; Kovacs, Eugenia; Lippert, Thomas; Wokaun, Alexander; Dinescu, Maria

    2011-03-01

    The numerous properties of liposomes, i.e., nontoxicity, biodegradability, and their ability to encapsulate different biological active substances in aqueous and lipid phase, make them perfect models of biomembranes. Liposomes made up of phospholipids may be used to study new applications such as cell targeting or, under specific experimental conditions, may be applied in micro and nano-sized biosensors. This study demonstrates the capability of direct laser printing of liposomes in micron-scale patterns for the realization of biosensors or drug delivery systems. The transfer experiments were carried out onto ordinary glass substrates, and optical microscopy images reveal that well-defined patterns without splashes can be obtained for a narrow range of laser transfer fluences using 193 nm irradiation and an intermediate triazene polymer. The triazene polymer with different thicknesses was used as sacrificial layer with the purpose of protecting the liposome solution from direct laser irradiation. It was found that the thickness of the sacrificial layer should exceed 150 nm to obtain clean, debris-free patterns. Moreover, the integrity of the liposomes after laser transfer was maintained as demonstrated through fluorescence microscopy. Raman spectroscopy data suggest that the chemical composition of the liposomes does not change for transfer fluences in the range of 40 to 60 mJ/cm2. Following these results, one can envision that liposome patterns obtained by LIFT can be ultimately applied for in vitro and in vivo studies.

  19. Droplet-Based Production of Liposomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackley, Donald E.; Forster, Anita

    2009-01-01

    A process for making monodisperse liposomes having lipid bilayer membranes involves fewer, simpler process steps than do related prior methods. First, a microfluidic, cross junction droplet generator is used to produce vesicles comprising aqueous solution droplets contained in single layer lipid membranes. The vesicles are collected in a lipid-solvent mix that is at most partially soluble in water and is less dense than is water. A layer of water is dispensed on top of the solvent. By virtue of the difference in densities, the water sinks to the bottom and the solvent floats to the top. The vesicles, which have almost the same density as that of water, become exchanged into the water instead of floating to the top. As there are excess lipids in the solvent solution, in order for the vesicles to remain in the water, the addition of a second lipid layer to each vesicle is energetically favored. The resulting lipid bilayers present the hydrophilic ends of the lipid molecules to both the inner and outer membrane surfaces. If lipids of a second kind are dissolved in the solvent in sufficient excess before use, then asymmetric liposomes may be formed.

  20. Thioaptamer Conjugated Liposomes for Tumor Vasculature Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Aman P.; Bhavane, Rohan C.; Somasunderam, Anoma; Montalvo-Ortiz, Brenda Liz; Ghaghada, Ketan B.; Volk, David; Nieves-Alicea, René; Suh, K. Stephen; Ferrari, Mauro; Annapragada, Ananth; Gorenstein, David G.; Tanaka, Takemi

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in multi-functional nanoparticles offer a great potential for targeted delivery of therapeutic compounds and imaging contrast agents to specific cell types, in turn, enhancing therapeutic effect and minimizing side effects. Despite the promise, site specific delivery carriers have not been translated into clinical reality. In this study, we have developed long circulating liposomes with the outer surface decorated with thioated oligonucleotide aptamer (thioaptamer) against E-selectin (ESTA) and evaluated the targeting efficacy and PK parameters. In vitro targeting studies using Human Umbilical Cord Vein Endothelial Cell (HUVEC) demonstrated efficient and rapid uptake of the ESTA conjugated liposomes (ESTA-lip). In vivo, the intravenous administration of ESTA-lip resulted in their accumulation at the tumor vasculature of breast tumor xenografts without shortening the circulation half-life. The study presented here represents an exemplary use of thioaptamer for targeting and opens the door to testing various combinations of thioaptamer and nanocarriers that can be constructed to target multiple cancer types and tumor components for delivery of both therapeutics and imaging agents. PMID:21666286

  1. Biological Hydrogels Formed by Swollen Multilamellar Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Yang; Wang, Ting-Yu; Tung, Shih-Huang

    2015-12-15

    The self-assembly of lecithin-bile salt mixtures in solutions has long been an important research topic, not only because they are both biosurfactants closely relevant to physiological functions but also for the potential biomedical applications. In this paper, we report an unusual biological hydrogel formed by mixing bile salts and lecithin at low bile salt/lecithin molar ratios (B0) in water. The gel can be prepared at a total lipid concentration as low as ?15 wt %, and the solidlike property of the solutions was confirmed by dynamic rheological measurements. We used cryo-TEM and SAXS/SANS techniques to probe the self-assembled structure and clearly evidence that the gel is made up of jammed swollen multilamellar vesicles (liposomes), instead of typical fibrous networks found in conventional gels. A mechanism-based on the strong repulsion between bilayers due to the incorporation of negatively charged bile salts is proposed to explain the swelling of the liposomes. In addition to gel, a series of phases, including viscoelastic, gel-like, and low-viscosity fluids, can be created by increasing B0. Such a variety of phase behaviors are caused by the transformation of bilayers into cylindrical and spheroidal micelles upon the change of the effective molecular geometry with B0. PMID:26574777

  2. Enzymatic action of phospholipase A₂ on liposomal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anders H; Mouritsen, Ole G; Arouri, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    The overexpression of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) in tumors has opened new avenues for enzyme-triggered active unloading of liposomal antitumor drug carriers selectively at the target tumor. However, the effects of the liposome composition, drug encapsulation, and tumor microenvironment on the activity of sPLA2 are still not well understood. We carried out a physico-chemical study to characterize the sPLA2-assisted breakdown of liposomes using dye-release assays in the context of drug delivery and under physiologically relevant conditions. The influence of temperature, lipid concentration, enzyme concentration, and drug loading on the hydrolysis of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC, Tm=42°C) liposomes with snake venom sPLA2 was investigated. The sensitivity of human sPLA2 to the liposome composition was checked using binary lipid mixtures of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) phospholipids with C14 and C16 acyl chains. Increasing temperature (36-41°C) was found to mainly shorten the enzyme lag-time, whereas the effect on lipid hydrolysis rate was modest. The enzyme lag-time was also found to be inversely dependent on the lipid-to-enzyme ratio. Drug encapsulation can alter the hydrolysis profile of the carrier liposomes. The activity of human sPLA2 was highly sensitive to the phospholipid acyl-chain length and negative surface charge density of the liposomes. We believe our work will prove useful for the optimization of sPLA2-susceptible liposomal formulations as well as will provide a solid ground for predicting the hydrolysis profile of the liposomes in vivo at the target site. PMID:26056930

  3. Enhanced transdermal delivery of acyclovir sodium via elastic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanjay K; Gupta, Yashwant; Jain, Anekant; Rai, Kavita

    2008-01-01

    The elastic liposomes bearing acyclovir sodium were prepared for its enhanced transdermal delivery by conventional rotary evaporation method and characterized for various parameters such as vesicle shape and surface morphology, size and size distribution, entrapment efficiency, elasticity, polydispersity index, turbidity and in vitro release pattern. Permeability studies of acyclovir sodium incorporated in elastic liposomes were performed across artificial membranes and rat skin. Skin permeation potential of the developed formulation was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy, that revealed an enhanced permeation of the formulation to the deeper layers of the skin (up to 160 microm) following channel like pathways. Skin permeation profile of elastic liposomal formulation bearing acyclovir sodium was observed and the investigations revealed an enhanced transdermal flux (6.21 +/- 1.8 microg/cm(2)/hr) and decreased lag time (0.6 hr) for acyclovir sodium. The obtained flux was nearly 2.0 and 6.3 times higher than conventional liposomal formulation bearing acyclovir sodium and plain drug solution, respectively (p < 0.01). The elastic liposomal formulation for transdermal delivery of acyclovir sodium provides better transdermal flux, higher entrapment efficiency, ability as a self-penetration enhancer and effectiveness for transdermal delivery as compared with conventional liposomes. In vivo studies showed that on transdermal application of elastic liposomes, the concentration of acyclovir sodium in plasma was found to be 105 +/- 9.4 ng/ml after 24 hr which is about 4.2 times compared with conventional liposomes. Thus it is concluded that the elastic liposomes may be promising vehicles for the transdermal delivery of acyclovir sodium. PMID:18379926

  4. Giant Liposome Preparation for Imaging and Patch-Clamp Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Marcus D.; Gordon, Sharona E.

    2013-01-01

    The reconstitution of ion channels into chemically defined lipid membranes for electrophysiological recording has been a powerful technique to identify and explore the function of these important proteins. However, classical preparations, such as planar bilayers, limit the manipulations and experiments that can be performed on the reconstituted channel and its membrane environment. The more cell-like structure of giant liposomes permits traditional patch-clamp experiments without sacrificing control of the lipid environment. Electroformation is an efficient mean to produce giant liposomes >10 μm in diameter which relies on the application of alternating voltage to a thin, ordered lipid film deposited on an electrode surface. However, since the classical protocol calls for the lipids to be deposited from organic solvents, it is not compatible with less robust membrane proteins like ion channels and must be modified. Recently, protocols have been developed to electroform giant liposomes from partially dehydrated small liposomes, which we have adapted to protein-containing liposomes in our laboratory. We present here the background, equipment, techniques, and pitfalls of electroformation of giant liposomes from small liposome dispersions. We begin with the classic protocol, which should be mastered first before attempting the more challenging protocols that follow. We demonstrate the process of controlled partial dehydration of small liposomes using vapor equilibrium with saturated salt solutions. Finally, we demonstrate the process of electroformation itself. We will describe simple, inexpensive equipment that can be made in-house to produce high-quality liposomes, and describe visual inspection of the preparation at each stage to ensure the best results. PMID:23851612

  5. Ultrafast dynamics of excited state of phenoxy-phthalocyanines in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Cheng-Bao; Yan, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Da-Wei; Sui, Yan-Li; Li, Jin; Sun, Wen-Jun; Li, Qiang-Hua; Yang, Shou-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast dynamics of the excited state of 2,9,16,23-phenoxy-phthalocyanine (Pc1) and 2,9,16,23-phenoxy-phthalocyanine-zinc (Pc2) has been investigated using femtosecond transient absorption (TA) and time-resolved fluorescence (TRFL) techniques. The observed dynamics of femtosecond TA and TRFL experiments are similar, which demonstrated the intrinsic properties of the excitation and the relaxation processes in both kinds of phthalocyanines with two decay components. A multi level model has been proposed to explain the photophysical processes after Soret-band excitation. The results show that the fast decay component dynamics comes from the intramolecular vibrational relaxation, the slower ones from the internal conversion. The samples are expected to be a potential candidate for optical applications and photodynamic therapy.

  6. The substitution effect on the reorganization energy of metal free phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choongkeun; Sohlberg, Karl

    2009-03-01

    Many discotic (disk like) materials such as phthalocyanine are of interest for use in organic electronic devices because of their high charge mobility. The mobility of various discotic materials has been studied using the Marcus formalism. In the Marcus formalism, charge mobility is depends on two parameters, reorganization energy and coupling matrix constant. Of these two parameters the reorganization energy has more influence on the charge hopping rate. A small change in reorganization energy leads to a large change of charge mobility. We have employed electronic structure methods to describe substitution effects on the reorganization energy of phthalocyanine. The substitutions on the external phenyl rings have almost no influence on reorganization energy, but the substitutions on the internal nitrogen in phthalocyanine have strong influence on reorganization energy. The detailed relation between reorganization energy and substitution will be presented.

  7. Studies on precellular evolution - The encapsulation of polyribonucleotides by liposomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baeza, I.; Ibanez, M.; Santiago, J. C.; Wong, C.; Lazcano, A.

    1986-01-01

    Liposomes have been suggested as possible models of precellular systems formed in the early Archean earth from lipids of nonenzymatic origin. Since it is generally accepted that RNA molecules preceded double-stranded DNA molecules as genetic material, the encapsulation of polyribonucleotides within liposomes (made from dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and from egg yolk phosphatidylcholine) was studied. Quantitative determinations show that approximately 50 percent of the available lipids form liposomes, and that up to 5 percent of the polyribonucleotides can be entrapped by them. Also studied was the encapsulation of polyribonucleotides in the presence of urea and cyanamide and of Zn(2+) and Pb(2+).

  8. Liposomal Drug Products: A Quality by Design Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoming

    Quality by Design (QbD) principles has been applied to the development of two liposomal formulations, containing a hydrophilic small molecule therapeutic (Tenofovir) and a protein therapeutic (superoxide dismutase). The goal of the research is to provide critical information on 1) how to reduce the preparation variability in liposome formulations, and 2) how to increase drug encapsulation inside liposomes to reduce manufacturing cost. Most notably, an improved liposome preparation method was developed which increased the encapsulation efficiency of hydrophilic molecules. In particular, this method allows for very high encapsulation efficiency. For example, encapsulation efficiencies of up to 50% have been achieved, whereas previously only 20% or less have been reported. Another significant outcome from this research is a first principle mathematical model to predict the encapsulation efficiency of hydrophilic drugs in unilamellar liposomes. This mathematical model will be useful in: formulation development to rapidly achieve optimized formulations; comparison of drug encapsulation efficiencies of liposomes prepared using different methods; and assisting in the development of suitable process analytical technologies to achieve real-time monitoring and control of drug encapsulation during manufacturing. A novel two-stage reverse dialysis in vitro release testing method has also been developed for passively targeted liposomes, which uses the first stage to mimic the circulation of liposomes in the body and the second stage to imitate the drug release process at the target. The developed in vitro release testing method can be used to distinguish formulations with varied compositions for quality control testing purposes. This developed method may pave the way to the development of more biorelevant quality control testing methods for liposomal drug products in the future. The QbD case studies performed in this research are examples of how this approach can be used to obtain design space for liposome products to achieve the desired in vivo product performance criteria. From an industrial perspective, this study provides an in-depth understanding of the parameters (risks) involved in liposome formulation and processing. From a regulatory perspective, the development of QbD principles for liposomal drug products will facilitate their regulation assuring safety and efficacy of these complex delivery systems.

  9. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of octyl methoxycinnamate liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Varjão Mota, Aline de Carvalho; Faria de Freitas, Zaida Maria; Júnior, Eduardo Ricci; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela Maria; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph; Ozzetti, Rafael Antonio; Vergnanini, André Luiz; Ribeiro, Vanessa Lira; Silva, Ronald Santos; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Solar radiation causes damage to human skin, and photoprotection is the main way to prevent these harmful effects. The development of sunscreen formulations containing nanosystems is of great interest in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries because of the many potential benefits. This study aimed to develop and evaluate an octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) liposomal nanosystem (liposome/OMC) to obtain a sunscreen formulation with improved safety and efficacy by retaining OMC for longer on the stratum corneum. Methods The liposome/OMC nanostructure obtained was tested for enzymatic hydrolysis with lipase from Rhizomucor miehei and biodistribution with liposomes labeled with technetium-99m. The liposome/OMC formulation was then incorporated in a gel formulation and tested for ocular irritation using the hen’s egg test-chorio-allantoic membrane (HET-CAM) assay, in vitro and in vivo sun protection factor, in vitro release profile, skin biometrics, and in vivo tape stripping. Results The liposome/OMC nanosystem was not hydrolyzed from R. miehei by lipase. In the biodistribution assay, the liposome/OMC formulation labeled with technetium-99m had mainly deposited in the skin, while for OMC the main organ was the liver, showing that the liposome had higher affinity for the skin than OMC. The liposome/OMC formulation was classified as nonirritating in the HET-CAM test, indicating good histocompatibility. The formulation containing liposome/OMC had a higher in vivo solar photoprotection factor, but did not show increased water resistance. Inclusion in liposomes was able to slow down the release of OMC from the formulation, with a lower steady-state flux (3.9 ± 0.33 μg/cm2/hour) compared with the conventional formulation (6.3 ± 1.21 μg/cm2/hour). The stripping method showed increased uptake of OMC in the stratum corneum, giving an amount of 22.64 ± 7.55 μg/cm2 of OMC, which was higher than the amount found for the conventional formulation (14.57 ± 2.30 μg/cm2). Conclusion These results indicate that liposomes are superior carriers for OMC, and confer greater safety and efficacy to sunscreen formulations. PMID:24376350

  10. Application of liposomes in medicine and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Daraee, Hadis; Etemadi, Ali; Kouhi, Mohammad; Alimirzalu, Samira; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes provide an established basis for the sustainable development of different commercial products for treatment of medical diseases by the smart delivery of drugs. The industrial applications include the use of liposomes as drug delivery vehicles in medicine, adjuvants in vaccination, signal enhancers/carriers in medical diagnostics and analytical biochemistry, solubilizers for various ingredients as well as support matrices for various ingredients and penetration enhancers in cosmetics. In this review, we summarize the main applications and liposome-based commercial products that are currently used in the medical field. PMID:25222036

  11. Enhanced liposome-mediated activity of piperacillin against staphylococci.

    PubMed Central

    Nacucchio, M C; Bellora, M J; Sordelli, D O; D'Aquino, M

    1985-01-01

    This study showed that encapsulation of the beta-lactam antibiotic piperacillin (PIP) by liposomes prepared with phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol (1:1) protected the drug from hydrolysis by staphylococcal beta-lactamase. This was demonstrated by growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus in the presence of the liposomal preparation containing PIP at a 50% MIC. Growth inhibition was also seen when exogenous beta-lactamase was added. Furthermore, adsorption of PIP onto the surface of liposomes containing buffer conferred a significant degree of protection against enzymatic hydrolysis of the drug, thus enhancing its antistaphylococcal activity. PMID:3872624

  12. Amphiphilic zinc phthalocyanine photosensitizers: synthesis, photophysicochemical properties and in vitro studies for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Çakır, Dilek; Göksel, Meltem; Çakır, Volkan; Durmuş, Mahmut; Biyiklioglu, Zekeriya; Kantekin, Halit

    2015-05-28

    Peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-substituted zinc(ii) phthalocyanines bearing 2-(2-{2-[3-(dimethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy}ethoxy)ethoxy and 2-(2-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy}ethoxy)ethoxy groups (, , and ) were synthesized by cyclotetramerization of the corresponding phthalonitriles (, , and ). Their quaternized ionic derivatives (, , and ) were also synthesized by the reaction of them with methyl iodide. The novel compounds were characterized by using standard spectroscopic techniques such as FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, UV-vis, mass and elemental analyses. The obtained quaternized phthalocyanines (, , and ) showed amphiphilic behaviour with excellent solubility in both organic and aqueous solutions, which makes them potential photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. The photophysical (fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes) and photochemical (singlet oxygen and photodegradation quantum yields) properties of these novel phthalocyanines were studied in DMSO for both non-ionic and ionic quaternized derivatives. However, these properties were examined in both DMSO and phosphate buffer solution (PBS) for quaternized ionic phthalocyanines. The effects of the positions of substituents (peripheral or non-peripheral) and the quaternization of the nitrogen atoms on the substituents about their photophysical and photochemical properties were also compared in this study. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding behaviours of the studied quaternized ionic zinc(ii) phthalocyanines were also described in PBS solutions. The quaternized phthalocyanines (, , and ) successfully displayed light-dependent photodamage in HeLa and HuH-7 cancer cells in photodynamic therapy treatment. The photosensitivity and the intensity of damage were found directly related to the concentration of the photosensitizers. PMID:25923925

  13. External beam radiotherapy synergizes 188Re-liposome against human esophageal cancer xenograft and modulates 188Re-liposome pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Hsien; Liu, Shin-Yi; Chi, Chih-Wen; Yu, Hsiang-Lin; Chang, Tsui-Jung; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Lee, Te-Wei; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) treats gross tumors and local microscopic diseases. Radionuclide therapy by radioisotopes can eradicate tumors systemically. Rhenium 188 (188Re)-liposome, a nanoparticle undergoing clinical trials, emits gamma rays for imaging validation and beta rays for therapy, with biodistribution profiles preferential to tumors. We designed a combinatory treatment and examined its effects on human esophageal cancer xenografts, a malignancy with potential treatment resistance and poor prognosis. Human esophageal cancer cell lines BE-3 (adenocarcinoma) and CE81T/VGH (squamous cell carcinoma) were implanted and compared. The radiochemical purity of 188Re-liposome exceeded 95%. Molecular imaging by NanoSPECT/CT showed that BE-3, but not CE81T/VGH, xenografts could uptake the 188Re-liposome. The combination of EBRT and 188Re-liposome inhibited tumor regrowth greater than each treatment alone, as the tumor growth inhibition rate was 30% with EBRT, 25% with 188Re-liposome, and 53% with the combination treatment at 21 days postinjection. Combinatory treatment had no additive adverse effects and significant biological toxicities on white blood cell counts, body weight, or liver and renal functions. EBRT significantly enhanced the excretion of 188Re-liposome into feces and urine. In conclusion, the combination of EBRT with 188Re-liposome might be a potential treatment modality for esophageal cancer. PMID:26056445

  14. Electrochromic lutetium phthalocyanine films for in situ detection of NADH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basova, Tamara; Gürek, Ayşe Gül; Ahsen, Vefa; Ray, Asim

    2013-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method for the detection of NADH on a glass substrate modified with spin coated electrochromic [(C6H13S)8Pc]2Lu is presented. The modification of a [(C6H13S)8Pc]2Lu sensing layer was achieved chemically. The functionalized layer shows an efficient activity towards the NADH at conc. as low as 1 × 10-5 M. The in situ UV-Vis and Raman measurements were carried out to study the interaction of oxidized films with NADH. The electrochromic behaviour of [(C6H13S)8Pc]2Lu thin films was examined in detail under various conditions. The spin coated films deposited on glass substrate were chemically oxidized and were found to change the colour. The oxidized films were believed to be reduced to its natural form on interaction with NADH. The colour of the film changed from green to brownish-purple after interaction with NADH. Reversible electrochromism was observed, leading reusable sensor film. The transformation of the oxidised phthalocyanine films into neutral form was monitored by both in situ UV-Vis and Raman techniques.

  15. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical properties of thiadiazole substituted metallo-phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirbaş, Ümit; Akyüz, Duygu; Barut, Burak; Bayrak, Rıza; Koca, Atıf; Kantekin, Halit

    2016-01-01

    4-Thiadiazole substituted phthalonitrile and peripherally tetra-substituted phthalocyanine Cu(II), Fe(II) and Ti(IV)O complexes have been synthesized for the first time. Electrochemical properties of these complexes were determined with voltammetric and in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements. CuPc has redox inactive Cu2 + center, therefore it gave three Pc based reduction and two Pc based oxidation processes. TiOPc and FePc complexes gave metal based redox processes in addition to Pc based redox reactions due to the redox activity of Ti4 +O and Fe2 + metal centers. Although FePc also gave three reduction and two oxidation reactions, peak potentials of these processes are different than those of CuPc due to the different assignments of the redox reactions. TiOPc went to five reduction and one oxidation reactions. Assignments of the redox processes were carried out with in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements. Spectra and color of the electrogenerated redox species of the complexes were also determined with in situ spectroelectrochemical and in situ electrocolorimetric measurements. Distinct color differences between the electrogenerated redox species were observed, which indicated their possible electrochromic usages.

  16. New approaches to photodynamic therapy of tumors with Al phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoulovskaya, Elena G.; Chental, V. V.; Kuvshinov, Yury P.; Poddubny, Boris K.

    1999-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumors of different localization and histology with new photosensitizer aluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine (Photosense, Russia). PDT have been provided in 106 patients with different tumors. The initial dose (2.0 - 2.5 mg/kg) of PHS was significantly reduced till 0.5 - 0.8 mg/kg during clinical trials because of phototoxicity. The results of PDT, side effects and ways of their correction and prevention, as well as possibility to work out less toxic regimes of PDT with photosense, choice of laser and type of irradiation are discussed. Efficacy of PDT depended on tumor size and it's histological type. Using low doses of PHS we've reduced the phototoxicity of sensitizer with the same direct effectiveness of treatment. Undesirable changes in plasma content of antioxidants by means of high pressure liquid chromatography have been found in patients after PHS injection. Influence of short-term and long-term supplementation with beta- carotene and vitamin E on this parameters are discussed.

  17. Tissue Distribution Of Chloroaluminium Sulfonated Phthalocyanine In Dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. M.; H. C.; Newman

    1989-06-01

    Chloroaluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine (A1PCS) was administered intravenously to clinically normal dogs, and A1PCS levels were determined in tissues using a sensitive assay. A1PCS accumulated to high levels in liver, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, and lung. These tissue levels confirm previous determinations in mice and rats. Only a small amount of dye was retained in skin and very small amounts in muscle and brain. A1PCS was cleared from the blood within 24 h, and excreted primarily by urine. Serum clearance was faster in males than in females. There were also significant tissue distribution differences between the genders, particularly during the first 12 h. The low levels of A1PCS in skin suggest that cutaneous photosensitivity and toxic skin reactions using this photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy of cancer may be eliminated. The difference in tissue distribution between genders is not only intriguing, but indicates that the optimal time window for treatment of various tissue sites may vary by gender.

  18. Regiospecific synthesis of tetrasubstituted phthalocyanines and their liquid crystalline order.

    PubMed

    Apostol, Petru; Bentaleb, Ahmed; Rajaoarivelo, Mbolotiana; Clérac, Rodolphe; Bock, Harald

    2015-03-28

    Metal-free and metal(II) all-endo-tetraalkoxy-phthalocyanines of C4h symmetry are synthesised regiospecifically from 3-(2-butyloctyloxy)phthalonitrile with lithium octanolate and subsequent metal ion exchange. The voluminous, yet not overly large, and racemically disordered alkoxy substituent not only renders the cyclotetramerisation regiospecific, but also leads to liquid crystalline self-assembly with attainable clearing temperatures and persisting columnar organisation at room temperature. A rare hexagonal mesophase with twelve columns per hexagonal unit cell is found in the metal-free homologue, whereas the metal complexes show rectangular mesophases. The clearing temperature increases with increasing axial component of the metal ion coordination sphere. At low temperature, significant antiferromagnetic exchange between magnetic centres is observed for the Co(II) homologue, whereas the magnetic centres are magnetically independent in the Cu(II) derivative, in line with the observed higher clearing temperature in the Co(II) case that testifies of stronger interdisk interactions. PMID:25697075

  19. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical properties of thiadiazole substituted metallo-phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Demirbaş, Ümit; Akyüz, Duygu; Barut, Burak; Bayrak, Rıza; Koca, Atıf; Kantekin, Halit

    2016-01-15

    4-Thiadiazole substituted phthalonitrile and peripherally tetra-substituted phthalocyanine Cu(II), Fe(II) and Ti(IV)O complexes have been synthesized for the first time. Electrochemical properties of these complexes were determined with voltammetric and in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements. CuPc has redox inactive Cu(2+) center, therefore it gave three Pc based reduction and two Pc based oxidation processes. TiOPc and FePc complexes gave metal based redox processes in addition to Pc based redox reactions due to the redox activity of Ti(4+)O and Fe(2+) metal centers. Although FePc also gave three reduction and two oxidation reactions, peak potentials of these processes are different than those of CuPc due to the different assignments of the redox reactions. TiOPc went to five reduction and one oxidation reactions. Assignments of the redox processes were carried out with in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements. Spectra and color of the electrogenerated redox species of the complexes were also determined with in situ spectroelectrochemical and in situ electrocolorimetric measurements. Distinct color differences between the electrogenerated redox species were observed, which indicated their possible electrochromic usages. PMID:26291672

  20. Phthalocyanine and encapsulated polyaniline nanoparticles as fillers for dielectric elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opris, Dorina M.; Crespy, Daniel; Löwe, Christiane; Molberg, Martin; Nüesch, Frank

    2009-03-01

    The dielectric constant (ɛ) of a polymer can significantly be increased by blending it with conducting fillers. Given our interest in developing highly efficient and long-lasting actuators for muscle replacement, we set out to explore all key issues which could help to reduce the required voltage and at the same time ensure long term stability. The presentation describes experiments which prove that the water content in carboxylic acid-decorated phthalocyanines (Pcs), commonly falsely referred to oligo-Pcs, is a critical factor determining the absolute value of ɛ. Several publications on ɛ values of these oligo-Pcs led to contradicting conclusions because the effect of water was not sufficiently considered. The water content is relevant because o-Pcs are often used as fillers to increase ɛ of polymer matrices. This presentation also describes an experimental evaluation on whether or not as-prepared polyaniline (PANI) and poly(divinyl benzene)- encapsulated (PDVB) PANI can be reasonably used as high ɛ fillers in matrix materials. For this purpose several blends with polystyrene-polybutadiene block copolymer gels (PS-b-PB) and polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) were prepared and their dielectric properties investigated. The former part of this presentation has in part already been published (D. M. Opris et al. Chem. Mater. 20(21), 6889-6896, 2008), the latter is completely new.

  1. Chloroaluminum phthalocyanine thin films: chemical reaction and molecular orientation.

    PubMed

    Latteyer, Florian; Peisert, Heiko; Uihlein, Johannes; Basova, Tamara; Nagel, Peter; Merz, Michael; Schuppler, Stefan; Chassé, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    The chemical transformation of the polar chloroaluminum phthalocyanine, AlClPc, to μ-(oxo)bis(phthalocyaninato)aluminum(III), (PcAl)2O, in thin films on indium tin oxide is studied and its influence on the molecular orientation is discussed. The studies were conducted using complementary spectroscopic techniques: Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. In addition, density functional theory calculations were performed in order to identify specific vibrations and to monitor the product formation. The thin films of AlClPc were annealed in controlled environmental conditions to obtain (PcAl)2O. It is shown that the chemical transformation in the thin films can proceed only in the presence of water. The influence of the reaction and the annealing on the molecular orientation was studied with Raman spectroscopy and NEXAFS spectroscopy in total electron yield and partial electron yield modes. The comparison of the results obtained from these techniques allows the determination of the molecular orientation of the film as a function of the probing depth. PMID:23494276

  2. Preclinical evaluation of zinc phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate-based PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgatti-Jeffreys, Antonella; Hooser, Stephen B.; Miller, Margaret A.; Thomas, Rose M.; deGortari, Amalia; Lucroy, Michael D.

    2005-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the light activation of a drug within a tumor causing selective tumor cell death. Unfortunately, some photosensitizing drugs have been associated with adverse reactions in veterinary patients. Zinc phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (ZnPcS4) is a promising second-generation photosensitizer for use in veterinary medicine, however, it cannot be applied clinically until safety and efficacy data are available. ZnPcS4 was given to Swiss Webster mice to assess acute toxicity. Doses >100 mg/kg were associated with acute toxicity and mortality, and doses >100 mg/kg resulted in renal tubular nephrosis, suggesting that the minimum toxic dose is approximately 100 mg/kg. Based on these data, a Phase I clinical trial of ZnPcS4-based PDT in tumor-bearing dogs is underway, with ZnPcS4 doses up to 2 mg/kg producing no apparent toxicity. Tumor response has been observed after ZnPcS4-based PDT using doses as low as 0.25 mg/kg, suggesting that conventional phase I clinical trials may not be appropriate for PDT protocols.

  3. Adsorption Behavior of Nonplanar Phthalocyanines: Competition of Different Adsorption Conformations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Using density functional theory augmented with state-of-the-art van der Waals corrections, we studied the geometric and electronic properties of nonplanar chlorogallium-phthalocyanine GaClPc molecules adsorbed on Cu(111). Comparing these results with published experimental data for adsorption heights, we found indications for breaking of the metal–halogen bond when the molecule is heated during or after the deposition process. Interestingly, the work-function change induced by this dissociated geometry is the same as that computed for an intact adsorbate layer in the “Cl-down” configuration, with both agreeing well with the experimental photoemission data. This is unexpected, as the chemical natures of the adsorbates and the adsorption distances are markedly different in the two cases. The observation is explained as a consequence of Fermi-level pinning due to fractional charge transfer at the interface. Our results show that rationalizing the adsorption configurations on the basis of electronic interface properties alone can be ambiguous and that additional insight from dispersion-corrected DFT simulations is desirable. PMID:27066160

  4. Growth mechanisms of phthalocyanine nanowires induced by Au nanoparticle templates.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Tobias N; Barrena, Esther; Lohmüller, Theobald; Spatz, Joachim P; Dosch, Helmut

    2011-04-01

    We combine X-ray reflectivity and scanning electron microscopy measurements to investigate the mechanisms involved in the growth of vertical arrays of phthalocyanine nanowires directed by templates of Au nanoparticles. The study has been carried out for H(16)CuPc at different substrate temperatures. It is shown that three organic morphologies evolve during the growth: 1D nanostructures on top of the Au nanoparticles, a multilayer film on the substrate and a layer wetting the gold nanoparticles. For substrate temperatures below 100 °C there is a coexisting and competing growth of the three structures, whereas beyond this temperature the 1D growth on the nanoparticles is predominantly favored. The observance of two regimes with the temperature is characterized by two different activation energies. Both the length of the 1D structures and the thickness of the multilayer film can be precisely controlled by the substrate temperature which is of importance for application of vertical organic nanowires as donor/acceptor architecture in organic solar cells. PMID:21336359

  5. High rectification in organic diodes based on liquid crystalline phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Apostol, Petru; Eccher, Juliana; Dotto, Marta Elisa Rosso; Costa, Cassiano Batesttin; Cazati, Thiago; Hillard, Elizabeth A; Bock, Harald; Bechtold, Ivan H

    2015-12-28

    The optical and electrical properties of mesogenic metal-free and metalated phthalocyanines (PCs) with a moderately sized and regioregular alkyl periphery were investigated. In solution, the individualized molecules show fluorescence lifetimes of 4-6 ns in THF. When deposited as solid thin films the materials exhibit significantly shorter fluorescence lifetimes with bi-exponential decay (1.4-1.8 ns; 0.2-0.4 ns) that testify to the formation of aggregates viaπ-π intermolecular interactions. In diode structures, their pronounced columnar order outbalances the unfavorable planar alignment and leads to excellent rectification behavior. Field-dependent charge carrier mobilities are obtained from the J-V curves in the trap-limited space-charge-limited current regime and demonstrate that the metalated PCs display an improved electrical response with respect to the metal-free homologue. The excited-state lifetime characterization suggest that the π-π intermolecular interactions are stronger for the metal-free PC, confirming that the metallic centre plays an important role in the charge transport inside these materials. PMID:26585027

  6. Commensurism at electronically weakly interacting phthalocyanine/PTCDA heterointerfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruenewald, Marco; Sauer, Christoph; Peuker, Julia; Meissner, Matthias; Sojka, Falko; Schöll, Achim; Reinert, Friedrich; Forker, Roman; Fritz, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    Interfaces in multilayered electronic devices are of paramount importance, especially for layer thicknesses in the nanometer range. Among the interfacial processes are charge injection or extraction and excitonic dissociation, the latter being particularly relevant if molecular components are involved. Highly ordered superstructures are preferable to prevent undesired losses of charge carriers and/or excitons. Epitaxial organic-inorganic systems have already received eminent attention, but only few studies have dealt with organic-organic heterointerfaces so far. Here, we focus on the adsorption of metal-phthalocyanines (MePc, Me = Sn or Cu) on 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) in the form of stacked monolayers (ML) on Ag(111). Using scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction we reveal an initial nonordered growth for dilute SnPc submonolayers and consecutively three condensed phases at coverages ranging up to 1 ML —each possessing a distinct commensurate registry with the underlying PTCDA. By applying in situ optical differential reflectance spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy we find that neither the SnPc nor the CuPc phases exhibit significant electronic or optical coupling with the PTCDA interlayer. Therefore, our results demonstrate that commensurism does not necessarily imply chemisorption, as stated previously in the literature, but that physisorption may be accompanied by commensurate superstructures.

  7. Metal-phthalocyanine functionalized carbon nanotubes as catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, Walter

    2012-07-01

    The covalent functionalization of metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with transition metal phthalocyanines (MPc, with M = Mn, Fe and Co) are addressed by density functional calculations. The CNT-MPc catalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is investigated through the O2 stretching frequency adsorbed on the phthalocyanine metal center. We find better reduction abilities when the CNT functionalization occurs through sp2-like bonds. Multiple stable-spin states for the M-O2 adduct are also found for M = Mn and Fe, suggesting higher ORR rates. The CNT-MPc complexes show metallic characteristics, suggesting favorable conditions to work as ORR cathode catalysts in fuel cells.

  8. Anisotropic exciton relaxation in nanostructured metal (Zn and F(16)Zn)-phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyeyoung; Liou, Wei-Hyun; Chen, Huang-Ming Philip; Hsu, Chia-Hung

    2015-02-01

    We report ultrafast excited state dynamics of zinc phthalocyanine and zinc hexadecafluoro phthalocyanine thin films which have nanorod-like structures. Excitons in the singlet states undergo multi-exponential relaxation processes to the ground state and the singlet lifetime within a few tens of picoseconds is attributed to the diffusion-limited exciton annihilation process. Diffusive migration of the singlet excitons shows the anisotropic lifetimes depending on the polarization of probe beam. Similar anisotropy is observed in the X-ray diffraction data which exhibits long-range alignment of molecular columns along the long axis of nanorod, whereas disordered arrangement in lateral direction to the axis of nanorod. PMID:25836181

  9. Morphology and gas sensitivity of erbium di-phthalocyanine thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parr, A. T. J.; Vinton, S. J.; Krier, A.; Collins, R. A.

    1993-09-01

    Studies have been made of the application of certain phthalocyanine films in the detection of toxic gases such as chlorine. Consideration has been given to preparation parameters such as deposition conditions (evaporation rate, ambient pressure, post deposition annealing) together with varying central metal atoms within the phthalocyanine molecule. Particular studies have been made concerning the relationship between elevated substrate temperature deposition, the molecular structure and the corresponding sensitivity of the films to gases. The present results are considered within the context of the development of an economically viable selective thin film gas sensor.

  10. Bioreactor droplets from liposome-stabilized all-aqueous emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, Daniel C.; Strulson, Christopher A.; Cacace, David N.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Keating, Christine D.

    2014-08-01

    Artificial bioreactors are desirable for in vitro biochemical studies and as protocells. A key challenge is maintaining a favourable internal environment while allowing substrate entry and product departure. We show that semipermeable, size-controlled bioreactors with aqueous, macromolecularly crowded interiors can be assembled by liposome stabilization of an all-aqueous emulsion. Dextran-rich aqueous droplets are dispersed in a continuous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-rich aqueous phase, with coalescence inhibited by adsorbed ~130-nm diameter liposomes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and dynamic light scattering data indicate that the liposomes, which are PEGylated and negatively charged, remain intact at the interface for extended time. Inter-droplet repulsion provides electrostatic stabilization of the emulsion, with droplet coalescence prevented even for submonolayer interfacial coatings. RNA and DNA can enter and exit aqueous droplets by diffusion, with final concentrations dictated by partitioning. The capacity to serve as microscale bioreactors is established by demonstrating a ribozyme cleavage reaction within the liposome-coated droplets.

  11. [Liposomal boron delivery system for neutron capture therapy].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2008-02-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary cancer treatment based on the nuclear reaction of two essentially nontoxic species, (10)B and thermal neutrons. High accumulation and selective delivery of boron into tumor tissue are the most important requirements to achieve efficient neutron capture therapy of cancers. This review focuses on the liposomal boron delivery system (BDS) as a recent promising approach that meets these requirements for BNCT. BDS involves two strategies: (1) encapsulation of boron in the aqueous core of liposomes and (2) accumulation of boron in the liposomal bilayer. Various boronated liposomes have been developed and significant boron accumulation into tumor tissue with high tumor/blood boron ratios has been achieved by BDS. PMID:18239367

  12. Antigen-specific suppression of inflammatory arthritis using liposomes.

    PubMed

    Capini, Christelle; Jaturanpinyo, Montree; Chang, Hsin-I; Mutalik, Srinivas; McNally, Alice; Street, Shayna; Steptoe, Raymond; O'Sullivan, Brendan; Davies, Nigel; Thomas, Ranjeny

    2009-03-15

    Existing therapies for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases are not Ag specific, which increases the likelihood of systemic toxicity. We show that egg phosphatidylcholine liposomes loaded with Ag (OVA or methylated BSA) and a lipophilic NF-kappaB inhibitor (curcumin, quercetin, or Bay11-7082) suppress preexisting immune responses in an Ag-specific manner. We injected loaded liposomes into mice primed with Ag or into mice suffering from Ag-induced inflammatory arthritis. The liposomes targeted APCs in situ, suppressing the cells' responsiveness to NF-kappaB and inducing Ag-specific FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. This regulatory mechanism suppressed effector T cell responses and the clinical signs of full-blown Ag-induced arthritis. Thus, liposomes encapsulate Ags and NF-kappaB inhibitors stably and efficiently and could be readily adapted to deliver Ags and inhibitors for Ag-specific suppression of other autoimmune and allergic diseases. PMID:19265134

  13. Effect of surface properties on liposomal siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yuqiong; Tian, Jie; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-02-01

    Liposomes are one of the most widely investigated carriers for siRNA delivery. The surface properties of liposomal carriers, including the surface charge, PEGylation, and ligand modification can significantly affect the gene silencing efficiency. Three barriers of systemic siRNA delivery (long blood circulation, efficient tumor penetration and efficient cellular uptake/endosomal escape) are analyzed on liposomal carriers with different surface charges, PEGylations and ligand modifications. Cationic formulations dominate siRNA delivery and neutral formulations also have good performance while anionic formulations are generally not proper for siRNA delivery. The PEG dilemma (prolonged blood circulation vs. reduced cellular uptake/endosomal escape) and the side effect of repeated PEGylated formulation (accelerated blood clearance) were discussed. Effects of ligand modification on cationic and neutral formulations were analyzed. Finally, we summarized the achievements in liposomal siRNA delivery, outlined existing problems and provided some future perspectives. PMID:26695117

  14. Avoiding failed reconstitution of ultradeformable liposomes upon dehydration.

    PubMed

    Montanari, J; Roncaglia, D I; Lado, L A; Morilla, M J; Romero, E L

    2009-05-01

    Although freeze-drying is an ordinarily used technique to dehydrate conventional liposomes, we have found that ultradeformable liposomes (UDLs) suffered irreversible aggregation when rehydrated upon freeze-drying (99.4% water elimination), even in high sugar content (4/1 sucrose/lipid mass ratio). When dehydrated by speed vac and vacuum drying, two alternative techniques that rendered less pronounced dehydration (94.27 and 96.2% water elimination, respectively) and avoid ice formation, however, UDL could only be successfully rehydrated when vacuum dried in 4/1 sucrose/lipid mass ratios. Conventional liposomes, on the other hand, were successfully reconstituted upon dehydrated by the three methods in lower sugar content (2/1 sucrose/lipid mass ratio). These results indicated that the 27% mole sodium cholate within the UDL lipid matrix was responsible for a greater and differential mechanical sensitivity of the bilayers to the different dehydration stress, as compared to conventional liposomes. PMID:19429279

  15. Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svarnas, P.; Matrali, S. H.; Gazeli, K.; Aleiferis, Sp.; Clément, F.; Antimisiaris, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterization including gas temperature calculation.

  16. Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Svarnas, P.; Aleiferis, Sp.; Matrali, S. H.; Gazeli, K.; Clement, F.; Antimisiaris, S. G.

    2012-12-24

    The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterization including gas temperature calculation.

  17. Liposomes with polyribonucleotides as model of precellular systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baeza, Isabel; Ibanez, Miguel; Santiago, Carlos; Lazcano, Antonio; Arguello, Carlos

    1987-01-01

    Three types of liposomes were prepared under anoxic conditions: from dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC), from egg yolk phosphatidyl choline (PC), and from PC with cholesterol (PC:Chol). These were used for encapsulation of poly(U) and poly(C). It was found that 36 to 70 percent of the available liposome lipids and 2 to 5 percent of the polyribonucleotides could be entrapped. An enhanced encapsulation of poly(U) and poly(C) by all three types of liposomes was observed in the presence of 0.001 to 0.01 M Zn(2+), with the effect being greatest with DPPC. The presence of 1.0 M urea inhibited the formation of PC liposomes.

  18. Comparison of Conventional Chemotherapy, Stealth Liposomes and Temperature-Sensitive Liposomes in a Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Gasselhuber, Astrid; Dreher, Matthew R.; Rattay, Frank; Wood, Bradford J.; Haemmerich, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Various liposomal drug carriers have been developed to overcome short plasma half-life and toxicity related side effects of chemotherapeutic agents. We developed a mathematical model to compare different liposome formulations of doxorubicin (DOX): conventional chemotherapy (Free-DOX), Stealth liposomes (Stealth-DOX), temperature sensitive liposomes (TSL) with intra-vascular triggered release (TSL-i), and TSL with extra-vascular triggered release (TSL-e). All formulations were administered as bolus at a dose of 9 mg/kg. For TSL, we assumed locally triggered release due to hyperthermia for 30 min. Drug concentrations were determined in systemic plasma, aggregate body tissue, cardiac tissue, tumor plasma, tumor interstitial space, and tumor cells. All compartments were assumed perfectly mixed, and represented by ordinary differential equations. Contribution of liposomal extravasation was negligible in the case of TSL-i, but was the major delivery mechanism for Stealth-DOX and for TSL-e. The dominant delivery mechanism for TSL-i was release within the tumor plasma compartment with subsequent tissue- and cell uptake of released DOX. Maximum intracellular tumor drug concentrations for Free-DOX, Stealth-DOX, TSL-i, and TSL-e were 3.4, 0.4, 100.6, and 15.9 µg/g, respectively. TSL-i and TSL-e allowed for high local tumor drug concentrations with reduced systemic exposure compared to Free-DOX. While Stealth-DOX resulted in high tumor tissue concentrations compared to Free-DOX, only a small fraction was bioavailable, resulting in little cellular uptake. Consistent with clinical data, Stealth-DOX resulted in similar tumor intracellular concentrations as Free-DOX, but with reduced systemic exposure. Optimal release time constants for maximum cellular uptake for Stealth-DOX, TSL-e, and TSL-i were 45 min, 11 min, and <3 s, respectively. Optimal release time constants were shorter for MDR cells, with ∼4 min for Stealth-DOX and for TSL-e. Tissue concentrations correlated well quantitatively with a prior in-vivo study. Mathematical models may thus allow optimization of drug delivery systems to achieve a better therapeutic index. PMID:23082168

  19. Photosensitive liposomes as potential drug delivery vehicles for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Christopher G.; Mitchell, A. C.; Chowdhary, R. K.

    1991-11-01

    Light-sensitive liposomes incorporating a photochromic phospholipid (Bis-Azo PC) have been developed which exhibit light-activated release of entrapped contents and intervesicular fusion. The trapping and light-induced release of inorganic ions, fluorescent market dyes, and the antitumor drug methotrexate have been demonstrated. These results are discussed together with some of the potential therapeutic applications of light-sensitive liposomes.

  20. Immobilized chymotrypsin on reversibly precipitable polymerized liposome.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Jin, X H; Dong, X Y; Yu, K; Zhou, X Z

    1996-03-01

    A polymerized liposome (PLS) was prepared using a synthesized phosphatidylethanolamine with a diacetylene moiety that showed a reversibly precipitable property on addition and removal of salt. To prepare a soluble-insoluble immobilized enzyme, chymotrypsin was covalently immobilized on the outer surface of the PLS. The carbodiimide method was employed for the enzyme immobilization. Coupling was rapid and nearly complete at a weight ratio of enzyme to the PLS of < 0.12. The immobilized enzyme showed favorable activity yields for both low- and high-mol-wt substrates, i.e., 90 +/- 9% for N-benzoyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester and 59 +/- 5% for casein up to an enzyme coupling density of 0.38 g/g-PLS. The immobilized enzyme was reusable and more stable at high temperature and long-term incubation than the native enzyme. PMID:8984905

  1. In-situ transmission electron microscopy of liposomes in an aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Sarah M; Sasaki, Darryl Y; Kinghorn, Aubrianna N; Hattar, Khalid

    2013-08-13

    The characterization of liposomes was undertaken using in-situ microfluidic transmission electron microscopy. Liposomes were imaged without contrast enhancement staining or cryogenic treatment, allowing for the observation of functional liposomes in an aqueous environment. The stability and quality of the liposome structures observed were found to be highly dependent on the surface and liposome chemistries within the liquid cell. The successful imaging of liposomes suggests the potential for the extension of in-situ microfluidic TEM to a wide variety of other biological and soft matter systems and processes. PMID:23886420

  2. Size of thermosensitive liposomes influences content release.

    PubMed

    Hossann, Martin; Wang, Tungte; Wiggenhorn, Michael; Schmidt, Rebecca; Zengerle, Anja; Winter, Gerhard; Eibl, Hansjörg; Peller, Michael; Reiser, Maximilian; Issels, Rolf D; Lindner, Lars H

    2010-11-01

    Thermosensitive liposomes (TSL) in combination with regional hyperthermia represent a powerful tool for tumor specific drug delivery. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of vesicle size on the biophysical properties of TSL. TSL were composed of DPPC/DSPC/1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglyceroglycerol (DPPG(2)) 50:20:30 (mol/mol) (DPPG(2)-TSL) and DPPC/P-Lyso-PC/DSPE-PEG2000 90:10:4 (mol/mol) (PEG/Lyso-TSL) with encapsulated fluorescent dye carboxyfluorescein, anticancer drug doxorubicin or magnetic resonance contrast agent gadodiamide. Extrusion was performed with polycarbonate filters of distinct pore size to obtain TSL with different diameters (50 to 200nm). Phase transition temperature (T(m)) of the bilayer forming phospholipids was not influenced by vesicle size in the tested range. However, vesicle size had a major impact on in vitro content release properties of TSL in the investigated temperature range between 30 and 45°C. Generally, vesicle size was inversely related to content release properties with increased content release rates for decreased vesicle sizes. Size dependency of content release properties varied between all tested formulations and DPPG(2)-TSL were generally less affected by size changes in the range of 100 to 150nm as compared to PEG/Lyso-TSL. Independent from gadodiamide release, vesicle size influenced the signal intensity of DPPG(2)-TSL also at temperatures below T(m) due to improved water exchange for smaller vesicles. Liposomes around 100nm in size are routinely used in vivo, hence a quality control for TSL preparations is required prior to use. Even small changes in size or a wider size distribution might affect stability and release properties and thus yield in decreased efficacy or unwanted side effects of drug loaded TSL during in vivo applications. PMID:20727921

  3. A review on applications of liposomes in textile processing.

    PubMed

    Barani, Hossein; Montazer, Majid

    2008-01-01

    This review discusses the properties of liposomes and their role in the textile process, including textile preparation and dyeing. Liposomes have a surface activity effect due to a hydrophilic head group and hydrophobic hydrocarbon tail. Its preparations do not tend to foam, which advantageously distinguishes them from other textile auxiliaries. According to the carrier role of liposomes, they can be used in several textile processes such as textile finishing and dyeing with several types of dyes and fibers. Each application is discussed in this review paper. Several types of dyes are encapsulated by liposomes in the dyeing process and their presence indicates that they have retardant and leveling effects according to their gradual release of dyes. In addition, the presence of liposomes in the textile process can improve the mechanical properties of textile products, resulting in better wash fastness properties and leveling effect and handle properties. The best character of liposomes is a reduction in temperature of process resulting to save energy and they are environment degradable materials. PMID:18770074

  4. Peptide Anchor for Folate-Targeted Liposomal Delivery.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugénia; Mangialavori, Irene C; Loureiro, Ana; Azoia, Nuno G; Sárria, Marisa P; Nogueira, Patrícia; Freitas, Jaime; Härmark, Johan; Shimanovich, Ulyana; Rollett, Alexandra; Lacroix, Ghislaine; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Guebitz, Georg; Hebert, Hans; Moreira, Alexandra; Carmo, Alexandre M; Rossi, Juan Pablo F C; Gomes, Andreia C; Preto, Ana; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-09-14

    Specific folate receptors are abundantly overexpressed in chronically activated macrophages and in most cancer cells. Directed folate receptor targeting using liposomes is usually achieved using folate linked to a phospholipid or cholesterol anchor. This link is formed using a large spacer like polyethylene glycol. Here, we report an innovative strategy for targeted liposome delivery that uses a hydrophobic fragment of surfactant protein D linked to folate. Our proposed spacer is a small 4 amino acid residue linker. The peptide conjugate inserts deeply into the lipid bilayer without affecting liposomal integrity, with high stability and specificity. To compare the drug delivery potential of both liposomal targeting systems, we encapsulated the nuclear dye Hoechst 34580. The eventual increase in blue fluorescence would only be detectable upon liposome disruption, leading to specific binding of this dye to DNA. Our delivery system was proven to be more efficient (2-fold) in Caco-2 cells than classic systems where the folate moiety is linked to liposomes by polyethylene glycol. PMID:26241560

  5. Pharmacokinetics and in vivo activity of liposome-encapsulated gentamicin.

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, C E; Stewart, K A; Hammett, J L; Fitzsimmons, W E; Ginsberg, R S

    1990-01-01

    Gentamicin sulfate was encapsulated in liposomes composed solely of egg phosphatidylcholine and administered via intravenous injection to rats and mice. The total gentamicin activity (regardless of whether it was free or liposome associated) in serum and selected tissues was determined for 24 h (serum) or up to 15 weeks (tissues) by using a microbiological assay. The mean half-lives in serum of a single 20-mg/kg dose of free (nonencapsulated) gentamicin in mice and rats were estimated to be 1.0 and 0.6 h, respectively, whereas a similar dose of encapsulated drug had apparent mean half-lives of 3.8 h in mice and 4.0 h in rats. In both species, the apparent half-life in serum of the liposomal formulation increased as the dose increased. Liposome encapsulation resulted in higher and more prolonged activity in organs rich in reticuloendothelial cells (especially spleen and liver). In acute septicemia infections in mice, the liposomal formulation showed enhanced prophylactic activity (as determined by calculation of the 50% protective dose). In a model of murine salmonellosis, liposomal gentamicin greatly enhanced survival when given as a single dose (10 mg/kg) at 1 or 2 days after infection as well as up to 7 days before infection. PMID:2183715

  6. 18F-labeled-Bioorthogonal Liposomes for In Vivo Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Emmetiere, Fabien; Irwin, Christopher; Viola-Villegas, Nerissa Therese; Longo, Valerie; Cheal, Sarah M.; Zanzonico, Pat; Pillarsetty, NagaVaraKishore; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Lewis, Jason S.; Reiner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Liposomes are attractive vehicles for the controlled release of drugs and cytotoxins and have a long-standing history in medical research and clinical practice. In addition to established therapeutic indications, liposomes have several favorable properties for molecular imaging, including high stability and the ability to be labeled with radioisotopes as well as paramagnetic and fluorescent contrast agents. However, long circulation times and difficulties in creating targeted liposomes have proven challenges for imaging. In this study, we have addressed these limitations using a recently developed strategy for bioorthogonal conjugation, the reaction between tetrazines and trans-cyclooctenes. By coating radiolabeled liposomes with trans-cyclooctene and pretargeting with a tetrazine coupled to a targeted peptide, we were able to selectively enhance the retention of liposomes and bind them to tumor tissue in live animals. The rapid reaction between tetrazines and trans-cyclooctenes allowed imaging to be performed with the short-lived PET tracer 18F, yielding signal-to-background activity ratios of 7:1. The covalent, bioorthogonally-driven tumor-targeting of liposomes by in vivo click chemistry is promising and should be explored for more selective and rapid delivery of radiodiagnostics and radiotherapeutics, two classes of drugs which particularly benefit from fast clearance, low non-specific binding, and the associated reduced toxicity to kidneys and bone marrow. PMID:24180480

  7. Liposome distribution after intravenous and selective intraarterial infusion in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, K.C.; Kasi, L.P.; Jahns, M.S.; Hashimoto, S.; Wallace, S. )

    1990-09-01

    In an effort to improve hepatic uptake of liposomes for drug delivery, empty vesicles were administered by means of selective arterial infusion. Negatively charged, multilamellar liposomes were labeled with technetium-99m and infused into healthy adult dogs. Each dog received 100 mg/m2 of lipid over 10 minutes at 2 mL/min. Liposomes were administered via the common hepatic artery after proximal occlusion of the gastroduodenal artery, via the cranial mesenteric artery, and via the cephalic vein. Distribution (liver, spleen, and lungs) was determined by computer-assisted external imaging techniques. On the average, after arterial infusion, 69.2% of the total activity was located in the liver, 3.6% in the spleen, 3.2% in the lungs, and 3.5% in the general circulation. Following venous injection, 50.7% of the radioactivity was found in the liver, 9.1% in the spleen, 8.6% in the lungs, and 6.7% in the peripheral blood. Once the liposomes entered the systemic circulation, they were cleared at the same rate (half-life beta = 21.5 hours) independent of their route of administration. Increased hepatic liposome uptake should translate into higher local and lower systemic liposomal drug levels.

  8. Modification of wool surface by liposomes for dyeing with weld.

    PubMed

    Montazer, Majid; Zolfaghari, Alireza; Toliat, Taibeh; Moghadam, Mohammad Bameni

    2009-01-01

    In this research work, wool surface has been modified by liposome to investigate its effects on dyeing with weld, a yellow natural dye. To do this, samples were first treated with aluminium sulphate and afterward with different concentrations of liposomes at various temperatures for 30 minutes and, finally, dyed with weld at 75, 85, and 95 degrees C for 30, 45, and 60 minutes. K/S values of fabric samples were calculated and washing, light and rub fastness properties of the samples were indicated. The results proposed that the sample treated with 1% liposomes and dyed at 75 degrees C for 60 min has the highest K/S value. The central composite design (CCD) used for the experimental plan with three variables on the results of color strength and statistical analysis confirms the optimum conditions obtained by the experimental results. It was also found that washing, light, wet, and dry rub fastness properties of samples dyed with weld, including liposomes, have not significantly changed. The results of water drop absorption indicated that the hydrophobicity is higher for the samples pretreated with liposomes. The SEM picture of wool sample treated with mordant and liposomes and finally dyed with weld shows a coated layer on the fiber surface. PMID:19552578

  9. The incorporation of solubilized choline-transport activity into liposomes.

    PubMed Central

    King, R G; Marchbanks, R M

    1982-01-01

    The choline-transport system has been solubilized from synaptic plasma membrane by using either sodium cholate or Triton X-100, and re-incorporated into unilamellar liposomes by using the technique of cholate dialysis. The criteria of choline-transport activity were saturability by excess choline, inhibition by hemicholinium-3, and trans-activation (i.e. stimulation of the uptake of [3H]choline into liposomes by preloading them with non-radioactive choline). Liposomes prepared from detergent extracts of synaptic plasma membrane and added lipid showed uptake of [3H]choline fulfilling these three criteria. Data on choline-transport activity of liposomes at various choline concentrations could be interpreted as implying that the transport system has two apparent Km values (2-5 microM and 50-100 microM), or alternatively that the system is composed of two or more negatively co-operating subunits (or units). It was shown by t.l.c. that the transported radioactivity was choline and that it was not significantly acetylated. Replacing Na+ by K+ on the outside of these liposomes partially inhibited uptake, and the formation of a potential gradient (inside negative) with valinomycin increased the total but not the saturable components of uptake when liposomes were prepared in a K+ medium, and transferred to an Na+ medium. PMID:7115351

  10. [Efficacy of RNA interference mediated by cationic liposomes].

    PubMed

    Han, Wenqi; Zhen, Yuhong; Zhang, Shubiao; Zhao, Yinan; Sun, Yong; Guo, Xin; Wang, Enxia; Liu, Zi; Sun, Yaoting

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the cytotoxicity of the homemade peptide cationic liposome CDO14 and its efficacy of RNA interference (RNAi). MTT method was used to determine the cytotoxicity of the liposome to a human lung cancer cell line Luc-A549 that can express luciferase stably. Luciferase siRNA (Luc-siRNA) was transfected into Luc-A549 cells by CDO14. Contents of luciferase in the transfected cells were detected by luminous instrument and contents of total protein in these cells were detected by BCA method. Nude mice were inoculated with Luc-A549 cells in axilla to establish xenograft tumor model. Complexes of Luc-siRNA and the cationic liposomes were injected into the modeling mice via tail vein. Contents of luciferase in the transfected mice were detected by the whole body imaging system. The cytotoxicity of the homemade cationic liposome was similar to that of commercial liposome DOTAP, and lower than that of Lipo2000. The siRNA transfection efficacy mediated by CDO14 was higher than that mediated by DOTAP. The homemade peptide cationic liposome CDO14 is expected to serve as delivery vector in gene therapy because of its low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency. PMID:26762045

  11. Tetra methyl substituted Cu(II) phthalocyanine as alternative hole transporting material for organometal halide perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfyri, Georgia; Kumar, Challuri Vijay; Wang, Yu-Long; Xu, Zong-Xiang; Krontiras, C. A.; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Copper phthalocyanine is a promising hole transporting material, which can be employed with solid state perovskite solar cells. Tetra methyl substituted copper phthalocyanine was presently studied as a hole transporting material and demonstrated improved performance with respect to unsubstituted copper phthalocyanine. This material shows a strong absorption in the Visible and Near IR part of the electromagnetic spectrum contributing to the absorption of photons. Its LUMO and HOMO level are favourably positioned for injecting electrons and scavenging holes. Methyl substitution facilitates closer molecular packing leading to a stronger extinction coefficient, stronger π-π interaction and higher charge carrier mobility.

  12. The Photodynamic Antibacterial Effects of Silicon Phthalocyanine (Pc) 4

    PubMed Central

    Dimaano, Matthew L.; Rozario, Chantal; Nerandzic, Michelle M.; Donskey, Curtis J.; Lam, Minh; Baron, Elma D.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains in facultative anaerobic Gram-positive coccal bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a global health issue. Typically, MRSA strains are found associated with institutions like hospitals but recent data suggest that they are becoming more prevalent in community-acquired infections. It is thought that the incidence and prevalence of bacterial infections will continue to increase as (a) more frequent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppressive medications; (b) increased number of invasive medical procedures; and (c) higher incidence of neutropenia and HIV infections. Therefore, more optimal treatments, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), are warranted. PDT requires the interaction of light, a photosensitizing agent, and molecular oxygen to induce cytotoxic effects. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and characterized the mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by photodynamic therapy sensitized by silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 on (a) methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (ATCC 25923); (b) community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) (ATCC 43300); and (c) hospital acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) (PFGE type 300). Our data include confocal image analysis, which confirmed that Pc 4 is taken up by all S. aureus strains, and viable cell recovery assay, which showed that concentrations as low as 1.0 μM Pc 4 incubated for 3 h at 37 °C followed by light at 2.0 J/cm2 can reduce cell survival by 2–5 logs. These results are encouraging, but before PDT can be utilized as an alternative treatment for eradicating resistant strains, we must first characterize the mechanism of cell death that Pc 4-based PDT employs in eliminating these pathogens. PMID:25856680

  13. Tuning coercivity via iron chains in phthalocyanine thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werber, Mathew Stephen

    We investigated the properties of magnetic hysteresis loops of Iron Phthalocyanine (FePc) thin films using a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The FePc thin films were deposited onto heated silicon substrates. During deposition the FePc molecules self-assemble into small crystallites ranging in size from 30 to 300 nm on average. Due to the planar shape of the molecule, chains of iron atoms are formed. The magnetic interaction within a chain is much stronger than between chains, making these thin films quasi-one-dimensional magnetic systems. The average length of the major axis of the grains increases with the temperature of the substrate (deposition temperature). Essentially the thin films are made up of many randomly oriented iron chains of variable length, which are parallel to the substrate surface. We show that the coercivity of hysteresis loops measured at 2 K increases linearly with the average major axis grain length. From interpolation, the minimum average grain length for hysteresis to occur is 8 nm, and every additional nano-meter in length increases the coercivity by 72 Oe. By measuring hysteresis loops of many thin films of varying thickness we found that the saturation magnetization is 31 emu/cm3. This corresponds to 2.0 +/- 0.6 micro B per iron ion, as compared to 2.22 microB for iron in a 3D lattice at 0 K. The choice of substrate also affects the hysteresis properties. Samples deposited on silicon substrates that had first been coated in gold with a rms roughness of approximately 1 nm will show much lower coercivity than corresponding silicon substrate samples. The planar gold surface allows for a different growth pattern in which the chains form vertically, perpendicular to the substrate. This lower coercivity suggests that the chains are shorter when vertically oriented.

  14. Phthalocyanine-labeled LDL for tumor imaging and photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Marotta, Diane; Kim, Soungkyoo; Chance, Britton; Glickson, Jerry D.; Busch, Theresa M.; Zheng, Gang

    2005-01-01

    Current limitation of both near-infrared (NIR) tumor imaging and photodynamic therapy (PDT) is their lack of sufficient tumor-to-tissue contrast due to the relatively non-specific nature of delivering dye to the tumor, which has led to false negatives for NIR imaging and inadequate therapeutic ratio for PDT. Hence, agents targeting "cancer signatures", i.e. molecules that accumulate selectively in cancer cells, are particular attractive. One of these signatures is low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), which is overexpressed in many tumors. We have developed pyropheophorbide cholesterol oleate reconstituted LDL as a LDLR-targeting photosensitizer (PS) and demonstrated its LDLR-mediated uptake in vitro and in vivo. To improve the labeling efficiency for achieving high probe/protein ratio, tetra-t-butyl silicon phthalocyanine bearing two oleate moieties at its axial positions, (tBu)4SiPcBOA, was designed and synthesized. This compound was designed to 1) prevent the PS aggregation; 2) improve the PS solubility in non-polar solvent; and 3) maximize the PS binding to LDL phospholipid monolayer. Using this novel strategy, (tBu)4SiPcBOA was reconstituted into LDL (r-SiPcBOA-LDL) with a very high payload (500:1 molar ratio). In addition, (tBu)4SiPcBOA reconstituted acetylated LDL (r-SiPcBOA)-AcLDL with similar payload was also prepared. Since Ac-LDL cannot bind to LDLR, (r-SiPcBOA)-AcLDL can serve as the negative control to evaluate LDLR targeting specificity. For biological evaluation of these new agents, confocal microscopy and in vitro PDT protocols were performed using LDLR-overexpressing human hepatoblastoma G2 (HepG2) tumor model. These studies suggest that LDL serves as a delivery vehicle to bring large amount of the NIR/PDT agents selectively to tumor cells overexpressing LDLR.

  15. Nonlinear optical response of cofacial phthalocyanine dimers and trimers

    SciTech Connect

    Manas, E.S.; Spano, F.C.; Chen, L.X.

    1997-07-01

    The effects of intermacrocycle interactions on the second hyperpolarizabilities {l_angle}{gamma}({minus}{omega};{omega},{minus}{omega},{omega}){r_angle} of cofacial phthalocyanine dimers and trimers are studied. A theoretical analysis is presented based on the Frenkel exciton model for a chain of three level molecules. Using a simplified analysis in the static and near-resonant regimes we identify two mechanisms which lead to enhancements in the dimer or trimer value of {l_angle}{gamma}({minus}{omega};{omega},{minus}{omega},{omega}){r_angle} over that of the monomer. The first mechanism is a disruption of the balance between type I and type II terms in the sum over states expression for the second hyperpolarizability tensor {gamma}{sub kjih}({minus}{omega};{omega},{minus}{omega},{omega}), caused by weak intermacrocycle interactions. The second is a near-resonance enhancement of the type II terms due to an intermacrocycle interaction induced shift in the monomer derived two-photon allowed states towards twice the laser photon energy. This analysis is in good agreement with recent degenerate four wave mixing experiments [SPIE Proc. {bold 2527}, 61 (1995)] which showed a strong enhancement of {l_angle}{gamma}({minus}{omega};{omega},{minus}{omega},{omega}){r_angle} for SiPcO oligomers as a function of the number of macrocycles. Our calculations suggest that the first mechanism is responsible for the 25-fold monomer to dimer enhancement measured in this system, and that the additional 4-fold enhancement found in going from the dimer to the trimer is primarily the result of the second mechanism. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Exciton dissociation at phthalocyanine-C60 interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robey, S. W.; Dutton, G. J.

    2014-03-01

    Exciton dissociation and charge transfer processes occurring within 10's of nanometers of donor-acceptor interfaces are critical for the performance of organic photovoltaic (OPV) structures. We investigated fundamental issues of exciton dissociation near prototypical donor-acceptor interface using time-resolved two-photon photoemission (TR-2PPE). Phthalocyanine (Pc)-C60 interfaces with known structures were formed using organic molecular beam epitaxy. Pc π --> π * (Q-band) transitions were created by a sub-picosecond pump pulse, producing a population of singlet (S1) Pc excitons. The dynamics of this population were then probed via photoemission by a time-delayed UV pulse. For CuPc ∖C60 interfaces, the dynamics for excitons created far from the interface were modeled with a combination of vibrational or intraband relaxation plus intersystem crossing (ISC) to triplet levels. Relaxation leads predominantly to triplet (T1) exciton levels on timescales of ~ 1-2 ps. The decay dynamics of S1 excitons excited in the CuPc layer adjacent to C60 were increased due to the additional channel leading to exciton dissociation, occurring with a rate of ~ 7 x 10 12 sec-1. However, excitons that relax to T1 levels at the interface dissociate with a rate ~ 500 to 1000 times slower, providing a picture of the energy dependence of exciton dissociation at this interface. The dependence of exciton dissociation versus Pc thickness at analogous H2Pc ∖C60 interfaces will also be presented. The results indicate that, for this interface, exciton dissociation is much faster for the interfacial layer with dissociation from the 2nd, and subsequent layers of H2Pc, reduced by at least a factor of 10.

  17. Comparative photodynamic therapy study using two phthalocyanine derivatives

    PubMed Central

    YSLAS, EDITH INÉS; MILLA, LAURA NATALIA; ROMANINI, SILVIA; DURANTINI, EDGARDO NÉSTOR; BERTUZZI, MABEL; RIVAROLA, VIVIANA ALICIA

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, a comparative photodynamic therapy (PDT) study was performed using the phthalocyanine derivatives, ZnPc(OCH3)4 and ZnPc(CF3)4, in a mouse tumor model, under identical experimental procedures. We studied the ablation of tumors induced by PDT. The end-point was to compare the photodynamic efficacy of ZnPc(OCH3)4 and ZnPc(CF3)4. ZnPc(OCH3)4 and ZnPc(CF3)4 were administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg body weight. The injections of drugs were carried out in Balb/c mice bearing subcutaneously inoculated LM2 mouse mammary adenocarcinoma. Histological examination and serum biochemical parameters were used to evaluate hepatic and renal toxicity and function. Phototherapeutic studies were achieved employing a light intensity of 210 J/cm2. After PDT, tumoral regression analyses were carried out, and the degree of tumor cell death was measured utilizing the vital stain Evan’s blue. In this pilot study, we revealed that the cytotoxic effect of ZnPc(OCH3)4 after PDT led to a higher success rate compared to ZnPc(CF3)4-PDT when both were intraperitoneally injectioned. Both phthalocynanine derivatives were able to induce ablation in the tumors. In summary, these results demonstrate the feasibility of ZnPc(OCH3)4- or ZnPc(CF3)4-PDT and its potential as a treatment for small tumors. PMID:22993594

  18. Interface energetics in zinc phthalocyanine growth on Ag(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mahboob, Abdullah; Sadowski, Jerzy T.

    2016-02-01

    The nucleation and growth of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) thin films on a Ag(100) surface are studied employing in situ, real-time low-energy electron microscopy and complementary density functional theory (DFT) calculation to elucidate the role of incorporation kinetics of planar molecules in phase selection during nucleation and apply this knowledge to the fabrication of highly crystalline ZnPc films. We show that the nucleation of crystalline ZnPc islands requires a large concentration of diffusing molecules. The required amount of nominal deposition to initiate the growth of monolayer (ML) high two-dimensional crystalline islands is dependent on both growth temperature and crystalline phase. At room temperature (RT) and slightly above (RT to ˜430 K), ZnPc crystalline islands have double-domain R 33.69 structures with average domain sizes in the submicrometer range. At higher temperatures, a 5 × 5 commensurate ZnPc structure nucleates. DFT calculations reveal significant differences in interfacial energies of an isolated ZnPc molecule on a substrate, depending on an adsorption site and azimuthal orientation of the molecule relative to the substrate atomic lattice. The observed delay in the onset of the nucleation of an island is caused by the existence of a large energy barrier for molecule incorporation into an island. At certain growth conditions it is possible to induce a structural transition from the 5 × 5 to the R 33.69 phase when the nominal coverage reaches 1 ML. The resulting film has excellent crystallinity with individual domains of hundreds of micrometers in size.

  19. Hybrid phthalocyanine/lead sulphide nanocomposite for bistable memory switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khozaee, Zahra; Sosa-Vargas, Lydia; Cammidge, Andrew N.; Cook, Michael J.; Ray, Asim K.

    2015-09-01

    A simple, one-step method is employed to produce, at room temperature, a single layer of an organic-inorganic nanocomposite containing non-aggregated lead sulphide (PbS) quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a 130 nm thick solution processed film of the organic semiconductor 6PcH2 (metal-free, non-peripherally substituted octahexyl phthalocyanine) on indium tin oxide. The mean size of PbS QDs is found from x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques to be much smaller than the Bohr radius. Further evidence of the quantum confinement effect is provided by a blue shift in the absorption spectrum and the increased band gap of 1.95 eV with respect to bulk PbS. The current-voltage characteristics of the hybrid and pristine 6PcH2 films, both in a sandwich configuration with the aluminium top electrode, exhibit bistable switching type hysteresis. The on-off ratio of the nanocomposite device is at least three orders of magnitude higher than that for 6PcH2 organic films, while both devices operate at a very low bias voltage of 0.5 V. The inclusion of the PbS QDs into the 6PcH2 film enhances the conductivity by nearly two orders of magnitude over that of a comparable pristine 6PcH2 film due to the formation of a charge transfer complex with PbS QDs and 6PcH2 acting as acceptors and donors of electrons, respectively.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of organic solar cells using metal complex of phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Kida, Tomoyasu Suzuki, Atsushi Akiyama, Tsuyoshi Oku, Takeo

    2015-02-27

    Fabrication and characterization of organic solar cells using shuttle-cock-type phthalocyanines were carried out. Photovoltaic properties of the solar cells with inverted structures were investigated by current density-voltage characteristics. Effects of phase transition between H and J aggregates on the photovoltaic and optical properties were investigated. The photovoltaic mechanisms, energy levels and band gap of active layers were discussed.

  1. Incorporation of phthalocyanines by cationic and anionic clays via ion exchange and direct synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Carrado, K.A.; Botto, R.E.; Winans, R.E. ); Forman, J.E. )

    1993-04-01

    Phthalocyanines (Pc) and metallophthalocyanines were incorporated into the galleries of anionic and cationic clays via ion exchange and in situ crystallization of the synthetic clay layers. Intercalation compounds between the layered magnesium silicate clay hectorite and cationic phthalocyanines were directly prepared by refluxing for 2 days aqueous solutions of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide, lithium flouride, and either alcian blue dyes (Cu(II)Pc) or 15-crown-5 tetra-substituted phthalocyanine (15C5Pc). The CuPc dyes are tetrapositively charged through peripheral quaternary ammonium groups, whereas the 15C5Pc is electrically neutral. Anionic clays prepared by hydrolysis of mixed solutions of aluminum nitrate, magnesium nitrate, and copper(II) phthalocyaninetetrasulfonic acid, tetrasodium salt (CuPcTs) in sodium hydroxide resulted in crystallization of an intercalation compound between a layered double hydroxide (LDH) and this anionic Pc. The material prepared by ion exchange of CuPcTs into a wet, freshly prepared LDH was superior in crystallinity. The phthalocyanines are oriented parallel to cationic hectorite clay layers (gallery heights 4.5-6.5[angstrom]) and perpendicular to anionic layered double hydroxide clay layers (gallery height 18,2[angstrom]) in correlation with their hosts' respective layer charge densities. 32 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Metal (2) 4,4',4",4'" phthalocyanine tetraamines as curing agents for epoxy resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, B. N.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Metal, preferably divalent copper, cobalt or nickel, phthalocyanine tetraamines are used as curing agents for epoxides. The resulting copolymers have high thermal and chemical resistance and are homogeneous. They are useful as binders for laminates, e.g., graphite cloth laminate.

  3. Towards Clarifying the Role of O2 during the Phthalocyanine Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kang; Pan, Houhe; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2015-12-01

    The role of O2 within the synthesis of phthalocyanines (Pcs) has remained unclear in the past century. Here, we demonstrate that O2 , in cooperation with the solvent n-pentanol, participates in the cyclic tetramerization of phthalonitriles over the half-sandwich complex template [Lu(Pc)(acac)] (acac=acetylacetonate) and terminates the reaction at the stage of uncyclized isoindole oligomeric derivatives rather than the phthalocyanine chromophores, resulting in the isolation of the heteroleptic (phthalocyaninato)(triisoindole-1-one) lutetium double-decker complexes [(Pc)Lu(TIO-I)] (TIO-I=3,4,7,8,11,12-sexi(2,6-diisopropylphenoxy)-15-[4,5-di(2,6-diisopropylphenoxy)-2-cyanobenzimidamido]triisoindole-1-one) and [(Pc)Lu(TIO-II)] (TIO-II=3,4,7,8,11,12-sexi(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-15-[4,5-di(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-cyanobenzimidamido]triisoindole-1-one) with the help of bulky substituents at the phthalonitrile periphery and an unsubstituted phthalocyanine ligand in the double-decker skeleton. Nevertheless, the cyclic tetramerization of the phthalonitriles was revealed to be sensitive to O2 with the reaction progression also depending on the oxygen concentration/content, leading to the O2 -senstive and -dependent nature for the isolation of phthalocyanine derivatives. PMID:26526528

  4. Theoretical study of NMR, infrared and Raman spectra on triple-decker phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Oku, Takeo

    2016-02-01

    Electronic structures and magnetic properties of multi-decker phthalocyanines were studied by theoretical calculation. Electronic structures, excited processes at multi-states, isotropic chemical shifts of 13C, 14N and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), principle V-tensor in electronic field gradient (EFG) tensor and asymmetry parameters (η), vibration mode in infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of triple-decker phthalocyanines were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT using B3LYP as basis function. Electron density distribution was delocalized on the phthalocyanine rings with electron static potential. Considerable separation of chemical shifts in 13C, 14N and 1H-NMR was originated from nuclear spin interaction between nitrogen and carbon atoms, nuclear quadrupole interaction based on EFG and η of central metal under crystal field. Calculated optical absorption at multi-excited process was derived from overlapping π-orbital on the phthalocyanine rings. The vibration modes in IR and Raman spectra were based on in-plane deformation and stretching vibrations of metal-ligand coordination bond on the deformed structure.

  5. Synthesis of phthalocyanines with an extended system of π-electron conjugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinina, T. V.; Tomilova, L. G.; Zefirov, N. S.

    2013-09-01

    Synthetic approaches to phthalocyanines with an extended system of π-electron conjugation are described. Compounds of planar and sandwich structure are presented that possess intensive absorption in the near-IR region of the spectrum. Particular attention is devoted to electronic absorption spectra of these systems and their correlation with structure. The bibliography includes 97 references.

  6. Nanoparticles improve biological functions of phthalocyanine photosensitizers used for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiao; Jia, Lee

    2012-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new technology using photodynamic effect for disease diagnosis and treatment. It is a two-step technique involving the uptake of a photosensitizer by cancer tissue followed by light irradiation that excites the photosensitizer to produce highly reactive oxygen species, the latter execute apoptosis of cancerous cells. As a second-generation of photosensitizers, phthalocyanine demonstrates higher absorption in the 650-800 nm range and short tissue accumulation compared to their first generation. However, many potent phthalocyanine photosensitizers are hydrophobic and poorly water-soluble, which limit their therapeutic applications. As a result, advanced delivery systems and different strategies are called for to improve the effectiveness of PDT. Facts have proved that using nanoparticles as carries of photosensitizers is a very promising route. Nanoparticles have the potentials to increase photosensitizers' aqueous solubility, bioavailability and stability, and deliver photosensitizers to the target tissues. This article reviewed the commonly-used nanoparticles, including colloid gold, quantum dots, paramagnetic nanoparticles, silica-based materials, polymer-based nanoparticles, as potential delivery systems for phthalocyanine photosensitizers, and summarized the improved biological functions of phthalocyanine photosensitizers in PDT. PMID:22380016

  7. WASTES FROM MANUFACTURE OF DYES AND PIGMENTS. VOLUME 8. PHTHALOCYANINE DYES AND PIGMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A preliminary study of the manufacture of phthalocyanine dyes and pigments was conducted to determine if process waste streams might contain hazardous material. The study first identifies the dyes and pigments that belong to this segment of the industry, the amounts produced, and...

  8. Femtosecond time-resolved energy transfer from CdSe nanoparticles to phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayal, S.; Królicki, R.; Lou, Y.; Qiu, X.; Berlin, J. C.; Kenney, M. E.; Burda, C.

    2006-07-01

    The first real-time observation of the early events during energy transfer from a photoexcited CdSe nanoparticle to an attached phthalocyanine molecule are presented in terms of a femtosecond spectroscopic pump-probe study of the energy transfer in conjugates of CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) and silicon phthalocyanines (Pcs) with 120 fs time resolution. Four different silicon phthalocyanines have been conjugated to CdSe NPs. All of these have proven potential for photodynamic therapy (PDT). In such NP-Pc conjugates efficient energy transfer (ET) from CdSe NPs to Pcs occurs upon selective photoexcitation of the NP moiety. Spectral analysis as well as time-resolved fluorescence up-conversion measurements revealed the structure and dynamics of the investigated conjugates. Femtosecond transient differential absorption (TDA) spectroscopy was used for the investigation of the non-radiative carrier and ET dynamics. The formation of excitons, trapped carriers states, as well as stimulated emission was monitored in the TDA spectra and the corresponding lifetimes of these states were recorded. The time component for energy transfer was found to be between 15 and 35 ps. The ET efficiencies are found to be 20-70% for the four Pc conjugates, according to fluorescence quenching experiments. Moreover, as a result of the conjugation between NP and the Pcs the photoluminescence efficiency of the Pc moieties in the conjugates do not strictly follow the quantum yields of the bare phthalocyanines.

  9. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of a triarylmethane dye (generic). 721.9674 Section 721.9674 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... triarylmethane dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of a triarylmethane dye (generic). 721.9674 Section 721.9674 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... triarylmethane dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of a triarylmethane dye (generic). 721.9674 Section 721.9674 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... triarylmethane dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  12. Photophysical efficiency-boost of aqueous aluminium phthalocyanine by hybrid formation with nano-clays.

    PubMed

    Staniford, Mark C; Lezhnina, Marina M; Gruener, Malte; Stegemann, Linda; Kuczius, Rauni; Bleicher, Vera; Strassert, Cristian A; Kynast, Ulrich H

    2015-09-11

    Novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials comprising nanoscaled layered silicates and native aluminium hydroxide phthalocyanine (Al(OH)Pc) allowed for the first time the exploitation of their unique photophysical properties in aqueous ambience. In particular, we were able to observe the efficient emission of Al(OH)Pc-nanoclay hybrids and generation of singlet oxygen in aqueous solution. PMID:26221639

  13. A simple method for mass-production of liposomes, in particular large liposomes, suitable for delivery of free amino acids to filter feeding zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Barr, Yoav; Helland, Synnøve

    2007-01-01

    In marine fish larviculture the live feed organisms are often enriched in order to enhance their nutritional value. One of the challenges is to enhance the phospholipids (PL) content, and another is to enhance the content of specific water soluble nutrients, like free amino acids (FAA). There are a few studies where this has been achieved by the use of liposomes. The aim of this study was to develop a simple method for mass-production of liposomes within a size range of 1-5 mum a size range suitable to feed live food organisms. Furthermore, the liposomes should have a high FAA concentration and be stable under conditions typical for short-time enrichment of live feed organisms. The method used in the present study is based on a combination of a reverse-phase evaporation method for preparing liposomes and re-hydration of freeze-dried, empty liposomes. The liposomal membrane was made of soy phosphatydilcholine and was loaded with a highly concentrated free amino acids solution. Most of the liposomes produced were 2-8 mum in diameter and the FAA encapsulation efficiency was 42.6%. Two experiments simulating 2 hr of live food enrichment were used to evaluate the liposomes. The results showed the liposome did not disintegrate or aggregate when suspended in seawater and that only 9% of the FAA content of the liposomes was lost after 2 hr suspension. The developed method was easy and reliable, producing tens of grams of liposomes per batch. PMID:17613698

  14. The Combined Effect of Encapsulating Curcumin and C6 Ceramide in Liposomal Nanoparticles against Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Dhule, Santosh S; Penfornis, Patrice; He, Jibao; Harris, Michael R; Terry, Treniece; John, Vijay; Pochampally, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the anti-tumor potential of curcumin and C6 ceramide (C6) against osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines when both are encapsulated in the bilayer of liposomal nanoparticles. Three liposomal formulations were prepared – curcumin liposomes, C6 liposomes and C6-curcumin liposomes. Curcumin in combination with C6 showed 1.5 times enhanced cytotoxic effect in the case of MG-63 and KHOS OS cell lines, in comparison with curcumin liposomes alone. Importantly, C6-curcumin liposomes were found to be less toxic on untransformed human cells (human mesenchymal stem cells) in comparison to OS cell lines. In addition, cell cycle assays on a KHOS cell line after treatment revealed that curcumin only liposomes induced G2/M arrest by upregulation of cyclin B1, while C6 only liposomes induced G1 arrest by downregulation of cyclin D1. C6-curcumin liposomes induced G2/M arrest and showed a combined effect in the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1. The efficiency of the preparations was tested in vivo using a human osteosarcoma xenograft assays. Using pegylated liposomes to increase the plasma half-life and tagging with folate (FA) for targeted delivery in vivo, a significant reduction in tumor size was observed with C6-curcumin-FA liposomes. The encapsulation of two water insoluble drugs, curcumin and C6, in the lipid bilayer of liposomes enhances the cytotoxic effect and validates the potential of combined drug therapy. PMID:24380633

  15. Near Infrared Phosphorescent, Non-oxidizable Palladium and Platinum Perfluoro-phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Łapok, Łukasz; Obłoza, Magdalena; Gorski, Alexandr; Knyukshto, Valeri; Raichyonok, Tamara; Waluk, Jacek; Nowakowska, Maria

    2016-04-18

    New Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes with a highly electron-deficient ligand (H2 PcF64 ) were conveniently prepared in a three-step synthesis. This is the first time that the phosphorescence of phthalocyanines with a H2 PcF64 framework has been measured. Based on these measurements, the triplet-state energies (ET ) were directly determined. Transient absorption experiments revealed broad T1 →Tn absorption spanning from ca. 350 to ca. 1000 nm and allowed determination of the triplet-state lifetimes. Removal of the Pd or Pt from the perfluoro-phthalocyanine resulted in a significant increase of the triplet lifetime for H2 PcF64 . The very efficient intersystem crossing observed for both PdPcF64 and PtPcF64 leads to residual fluorescence and suppresses the fluorescence lifetimes to less than 50 ps. The absence of Pd and Pt in the perfluoro-phthalocyanine ligand, viz. H2 PcF64 , led to a recovery of fluorescence. Cyclic voltamperometry studies pointed to complete resistance of PdPcF64 and PtPcF64 to oxidation and very strong electron affinity, which rendered these materials very good electron acceptors (n-type materials). The presence of d-orbital metals such as Pd(II) and Pt(II) in the phthalocyanine ring stabilizes their reduced forms, as indicated by the spectroelectrochemical experiments. PdPcF64 and PtPcF64 easily sensitize singlet oxygen production with very high quantum yields. Both phthalocyanines presented resistance to photodegradation in the solid state under aerobic conditions and under intense irradiation. PMID:26817625

  16. Liposome-mediated DNA immunisation via the subcutaneous route.

    PubMed

    Perrie, Y; McNeil, S; Vangala, A

    2003-01-01

    Compared to naked DNA immunisation, entrapment of plasmid-based DNA vaccines into liposomes by the dehydration-rehydration method has shown to enhance both humoural and cell-mediated immune responses to encoded antigens administered by a variety of routes. In this paper, we have investigated the application of liposome-entrapped DNA and their cationic lipid composition on such potency after subcutaneous immunisation. Plasmid pI.18Sfi/NP containing the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of A/Sichuan/2/87 (H3N2) influenza virus in the pI.18 expression vector was incorporated by the dehydration-rehydration method into liposomes composed of 16 micromol egg phosphatidylcholine (PC), 8 micromoles dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) or cholesterol (Chol) and either the cationic lipid 1,2-diodeoyl-3-(trimethylammonium) propane (DOTAP) or cholesteryl 3-N-(dimethyl amino ethyl) carbamate (DC-Chol). This method, entailing mixing of small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) with DNA, followed by dehydration and rehydration, yielded incorporation values of 90-94% of the DNA used. Mixing or rehydration of preformed cationic liposomes with 100 microg plasmid DNA also led to similarly high complexation values (92-94%). In an attempt to establish differences in the nature of DNA association with these various liposome preparations their physico-chemical characteristics were investigated. Studies on vesicle size, zeta potential and gel electrophoresis in the presence of the anion sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) indicate that, under the conditions employed, formulation of liposomal DNA by the dehydration-rehydration generated submicron size liposomes incorporating most of the DNA in a manner that prevents DNA displacement through anion competition. The bilayer composition of these dehydration-rehydration vesicles (DRV(DNA)) can also further influence these physico-chemical characteristics with the presence of DOPE within the liposome bilayer resulting in a reduced vesicle zeta potential. Subcutaneous liposome-mediated DNA immunisation employing two DRV(DNA) formulations as well as naked DNA revealed that humoural responses (immunoglobulin total IgG, and subclasses IgG1 and 1gG2a) engendered by the plasmid encoded NP were substantially higher after dosing twice, 28 days apart with 10 microg liposome-entrapped DNA compared to naked DNA. At all time points measured, mice immunised with naked DNA showed no greater immune response compared to the control, non-immunised group. In contrast, as early as day 49, responses were significantly higher in mice injected with DNA entrapped in DRV liposomes containing DOTAP compared to the control group and mice immunised with naked DNA. By day 56, all total IgG responses from mice immunised with both DRV formulations were significantly higher. Comparison between the DRV formulations revealed no significant difference in immune responses elicited except at day 114, where the humoural responses of the group injected with liposomal formulation containing DC-Chol dropped to significantly lower levels that those measured in mice which received the DOTAP formulation. Similar results were found when the IgG1 and IgG2a subclass responses were determined. These results suggest that, not only can DNA be effectively entrapped within liposomes using the DRV method but that such DRV liposomes containing DNA may be a useful system for subcutaneous delivery of DNA vaccines. PMID:15203925

  17. Regioisomer-Free C4h β-Tetrakis(tert-butyl)metallo-phthalocyanines: Regioselective Synthesis and Spectral Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Norihito; Tanaka, Kenta; Tokunaga, Etsuko; Takahashi, Hiromi; Shibata, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Metal β-tetrakis(tert-butyl)phthalocyanines are the most commonly used phthalocyanines due to their high solubility, stability, and accessibility. They are commonly used as a mixture of four regioisomers, which arise due to the tert-butyl substituent on the β-position, and to the best of our knowledge, their regioselective synthesis has yet to be reported. Herein, the C4h-selective synthesis of β-tetrakis(tert-butyl)metallophthalocyanines is disclosed. Using tetramerization of α-trialkylsilyl phthalonitriles with metal salts following acid-mediated desilylation, the desired metallophthalocyanines were obtained in good yields. Upon investigation of regioisomer-free zinc β-tetrakis(tert-butyl)phthalocyanine using spectroscopy, the C4h single isomer described here was found to be distinct in the solid state to zinc β-tetrakis(tert-butyl)phthalocyanine obtained by a conventional method. PMID:25969805

  18. Excited-State Absorption from Real-Time Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: Optical Limiting in Zinc Phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sean A; Cramer, Christopher J; Govind, Niranjan

    2016-04-01

    Optical-limiting materials are capable of attenuating light to protect delicate equipment from high-intensity light sources. Phthalocyanines have attracted a lot of attention for optical-limiting applications due to their versatility and large nonlinear absorption. With excited-state absorption (ESA) being the primary mechanism for optical limiting behavior in phthalocyanines, the ability to tune the optical absorption of ground and excited states in phthalocyanines would allow for the development of advanced optical limiters. We recently developed a method for the calculation of ESA based on real-time time-dependent density functional theory propagation of an excited-state density. In this work, we apply the approach to zinc phthalocyanine, demonstrating the ability of our method to efficiently identify the optical limiting potential of a molecular complex. PMID:27007445

  19. Fluorescence Behaviour of an Aluminium Octacarboxy Phthalocyanine--NaYGdF4:Yb/Er Nanoparticle Conjugate.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jessica; Litwinski, Christian; Nyokong, Tebello; Antunes, Edith

    2015-05-01

    Using a methanol assisted thermal decomposition approach, sphere shaped NaYGdF4:Yb/Er upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) were successfully synthesized. The chemical, spectroscopic and fluorescence properties of the UCNPs were fully characterized. Characteristic upconversion fluorescence emissions were produced by the NPs in the green, red and NIR regions and the NPs were also shown to possess paramagnetic properties. The influence of the UCNPs on the spectroscopic and fluorescence properties of an aluminium octacarboxy phthalocyanine AlOCPc was investigated. Covalent conjugation to an AlOCPc resulted in a large blue shift of the phthalocyanine's Q band, which was accompanied by a decrease in the Pc's fluorescence lifetime in DMSO. By combining the phthalocyanine and upconversion nanoparticle, we present a system capable of multimodal imaging, using both the upconversion nanoparticle's and phthalocyanine's emission, and magnetic resonance imaging (as a result of doping the upconversion nanoparticles with Gd(3+) ions). PMID:25744527

  20. Enhanced combination therapy effect on paclitaxel-resistant carcinoma by chloroquine co-delivery via liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Menghua; Xu, Yuzhen; Qiu, Liyan

    2015-01-01

    A novel composite liposomal system co-encapsulating paclitaxel (PTX) with chloroquine phosphate (CQ) was designed for treating PTX-resistant carcinoma. It was confirmed that liposomal CQ can sensitize PTX by means of autophagy inhibition and competitively binding with multidrug-resistance transporters. Furthermore, according to the in vitro cytotoxicity and apoptosis assay, real-time observation of cellular uptake, and in vivo tissue distribution study, co-encapsulation of PTX and CQ in liposomes was validated as superior to the mixture of PTX liposome plus CQ liposome due to the simultaneous delivery and synergetic effect of the two drugs. Consequently, this composite liposome achieved significantly stronger anticancer efficacy in vivo than the PTX liposome plus CQ liposome mixture. This study helps to guide and enlighten ongoing and future clinical trials about the optimal administration modes for drug combination therapy. PMID:26543365

  1. Clinical development of liposome-based drugs: formulation, characterization, and therapeutic efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsin-I; Yeh, Ming-Kung

    2012-01-01

    Research on liposome formulations has progressed from that on conventional vesicles to new generation liposomes, such as cationic liposomes, temperature sensitive liposomes, and virosomes, by modulating the formulation techniques and lipid composition. Many research papers focus on the correlation of blood circulation time and drug accumulation in target tissues with physicochemical properties of liposomal formulations, including particle size, membrane lamellarity, surface charge, permeability, encapsulation volume, shelf time, and release rate. This review is mainly to compare the therapeutic effect of current clinically approved liposome-based drugs with free drugs, and to also determine the clinical effect via liposomal variations in lipid composition. Furthermore, the major preclinical and clinical data related to the principal liposomal formulations are also summarized. PMID:22275822

  2. Etoposide Incorporated into Camel Milk Phospholipids Liposomes Shows Increased Activity against Fibrosarcoma in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M.; Aljarbou, Ahmad N.; Alorainy, Mohammed S.; Alsharidah, Mansour S.; Khan, Masood A.

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP) was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP) and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes) and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes). The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs. PMID:25821817

  3. Etoposide incorporated into camel milk phospholipids liposomes shows increased activity against fibrosarcoma in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Aljarbou, Ahmad N; Alorainy, Mohammed S; Alsharidah, Mansour S; Khan, Masood A

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP) was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP) and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes) and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes). The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs. PMID:25821817

  4. Microfluidic directed formation of liposomes of controlled size.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Andreas; Vreeland, Wyatt N; DeVoe, Don L; Locascio, Laurie E; Gaitan, Michael

    2007-05-22

    A new method to tailor liposome size and size distribution in a microfluidic format is presented. Liposomes are spherical structures formed from lipid bilayers that are from tens of nanometers to several micrometers in diameter. Liposome size and size distribution are tailored for a particular application and are inherently important for in vivo applications such as drug delivery and transfection across nuclear membranes in gene therapy. Traditional laboratory methods for liposome preparation require postprocessing steps, such as sonication or membrane extrusion, to yield formulations of appropriate size. Here we describe a method to engineer liposomes of a particular size and size distribution by changing the flow conditions in a microfluidic channel, obviating the need for postprocessing. A stream of lipids dissolved in alcohol is hydrodynamically focused between two sheathed aqueous streams in a microfluidic channel. The laminar flow in the microchannel enables controlled diffusive mixing at the two liquid interfaces where the lipids self-assemble into vesicles. The liposomes formed by this self-assembly process are characterized using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation combined with quasi-elastic light scattering and multiangle laser-light scattering. We observe that the vesicle size and size distribution are tunable over a mean diameter from 50 to 150 nm by adjusting the ratio of the alcohol-to-aqueous volumetric flow rate. We also observe that liposome formation depends more strongly on the focused alcohol stream width and its diffusive mixing with the aqueous stream than on the sheer forces at the solvent-buffer interface. PMID:17451256

  5. Photophysical and photochemical studies of a novel amphiphilic zinc phthalocyanine and its interaction with calf thymus DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Linxin; Gui, Li; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Quanquan; Zhou, Lin; Wei, Shaohua

    2016-04-01

    β-tetra (aminophenoxy) sulfonic substituted zinc phthalocyanines (SNZnPc), a novel amphiphilic zinc phthalocyanine (Pc), was synthesized. The photophysical, photochemical, and photobiology properties were studied. Results indicated that the synthesized SNZnPc has good amphiphilic property and high reactive oxygen species (ROSs) generation ability. Furthermore, SNZnPc has strong affinity to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) through intercalation ways and can effectively cleavage CT-DNA after irradiation by light with appropriate wavelength.

  6. Features of the spectral dependences of transmittance of organic semiconductors based on tert-butyl substituted lutetium phthalocyanine molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Belogorokhov, I. A.; Tikhonov, E. V.; Dronov, M. A.; Belogorokhova, L. I.; Ryabchikov, Yu. V.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R.

    2011-11-15

    Vibronic properties of organic semiconductors based on tert-butyl substituted phthalocyanine lutetium diphthalocyanine molecules are studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that substitution of several carbon atoms in initial phthalocyanine (Pc) ligands with {sup 13}C isotope atoms causes a spectral shift in the main absorption lines attributed to benzene, isoindol, and peripheral C-H groups. A comparison of spectral characteristics showed that the shift can vary from 3 to 1 cm{sup -1}.

  7. Photophysical and photochemical studies of a novel amphiphilic zinc phthalocyanine and its interaction with calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Linxin; Gui, Li; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Quanquan; Zhou, Lin; Wei, Shaohua

    2016-04-01

    β-tetra (aminophenoxy) sulfonic substituted zinc phthalocyanines (SNZnPc), a novel amphiphilic zinc phthalocyanine (Pc), was synthesized. The photophysical, photochemical, and photobiology properties were studied. Results indicated that the synthesized SNZnPc has good amphiphilic property and high reactive oxygen species (ROSs) generation ability. Furthermore, SNZnPc has strong affinity to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) through intercalation ways and can effectively cleavage CT-DNA after irradiation by light with appropriate wavelength. PMID:26775097

  8. Improved syntheses of high hole mobility phthalocyanines: A case of steric assistance in the cyclo-oligomerisation of phthalonitriles

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Daniel J; Anmian, Rmi; Nanan, Suwat; Warriner, Stuart L; Whitaker, and Benjamin J

    2012-01-01

    Summary It has been shown that the base-initiated cyclo-oligomerisation of phthalonitriles is favoured by bulky ?-substituents making it possible to obtain the metal-free phthalocyanine directly and in high yield. The phthalocyanine with eight ?-isoheptyl substituents gives a high time-of-flight hole mobility of 0.14 cm2V?1s?1 within the temperature range of the columnar hexagonal phase, that is 169189 C. PMID:22423280

  9. Kinetic of the Intracellular Incorporation of New Phthalocyanines Synthesized in mexico and Its Potential as Photosensibilizers in the Photodynamic Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon-Aguilar, Hector; Ramon-Gallegos, Eva; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco Jesus; Cruz-Orea, Alfredo; Sosa-Sanchez, Jose Luis; Garcia Miranda, Maribel

    2008-08-11

    The search of more specific and efficient photosensitizer in low oxygen tensions is a need in the Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). Phthalocyanines have demonstrated to have the above mentioned activity. The aim of this work was to determine the efficiency of PDT using two phthalocyanines synthesized in Mexico to eliminate melanoma cells. B16F0 melanoma mouse cells were exposed to concentrations from 8.95x10{sup -5} to 0.733 m/mL of F16VoPc and F16NbPcC13 during 24h, afterwards cellular mortality was measured. One kinetic was realized to determine the intracellular incorporation of phthalocyanines by confocal microscopy at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 h of exposition. The PDT was applied exposing the cells to innocuous concentration (that does not provoke cellular death with out irradiation) and irradiating with an argon laser at 100 J/cm{sup 2}. For each phthalocyanine a control group was used; one group was not treated neither with light nor with phthalocyanine, the other group it was only irradiated. 24 h after treatment the citotoxicity was measured by Alamar blue assay. The innocuous concentration found for the phthalocyanines F16VoPc and F16NbPcC13 were 4.58x10-2 and 2.29xl0{sup -2} mg/mL, respectively. The time of maximum intracellular accumulation for both phthalocyanines was 24 h. Only the F16VoPc had anticancerous activity and induced 31.7% of cellular death. The PDT might offer a potential alternative to the treatment of this cancer when is used the phthalocyanine F16VoPc.

  10. The preparation and modification of phthalocyanine containing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korth, Bryan D.

    Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are highly conjugated, 18 pi-electron cyclic molecules composed of four isoindoline units that exhibit unique optical, electrical and chemical properties. While originally used as dyes and pigments, the use of Pcs in modern technology has increased dramatically due to improved understanding and processing capabilities. Work in this dissertation outlines a number of methods to prepare Pc-containing materials for use in various applications. Chapter 1 provides a brief review of methods used to prepare Pc-containing polymeric materials from both symmetric and asymmetric macrocycles. Discussion will focus on methods that incorporate symmetric Pcs as the focal point, with particular attention being paid to the influence of the peripheral substitution of the Pc on macromolecular structure and properties. Further discussion will focus on the utilization of asymmetric Pcs as auxiliary functionalities, such as at the terminus or as pendant groups, of larger macromolecular materials. Chapter 2 describes the preparation of linear Pc-containing polymers through ring-opening metathesis polymerization of a Pc monomer. Through proper selection of catalyst, well-defined polymers with Pcs as pendant groups were prepared. Due to the controlled nature of ROMP, polymers of varying architectures, composition, and size were synthesized. The effect of Pc metallation, polymer composition and architecture on the site-isolation of the chromophore was investigated in both solution and condensed-phase thin films. Chapter 3 reports on efforts to prepare linear polymers with companion functionalities for post-polymerization coupling of asymmetric Pcs. Polymers with pendant furan groups were prepared for coupling with asymmetric Pcs through Diels-Alder cycloaddition. Investigation indicated that while coupling was achievable, the presence of the Pc in the resultant polymer promoted undesired crosslinking when stored at ambient conditions in light. Attempts to mitigate this problem through alternation of functionality locations were attempted by placing the furan functionality on the Pc, but degradation of the furan occurred to quickly to perform coupling sufficiently. Chapter 4 discusses the preparation of Pc-containing networks through Diels-Alder cycloaddition of furan and maleimide containing tetrasubstituted Pcs. Following preparation of the various Pcs, network formation in various states was conducted including solution, molded thick films, and patterned assemblies. Chapter 5 summarizes the results presented in Chapters 2-4 and provides an outlook for some future directions based upon the work herein. In addition, some preliminary results of some of these directions will also be presented.

  11. Electrostatic self-assembly: An innovative approach to fabricate novel-structured magnetic liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wen; Zhang, Hong; Lu, TingLi; Liu, WenLong; Ma, YuFan; Chen, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic self-assembly was applied to fabricate novel-structured magnetic liposomes. According to the charge characteristics of the magnetic nanoparticles and the drug-loaded liposomes, magnetic liposomes were fabricated by alternately assembling the suitable polyelectrolytes and magnetic nanoparticles onto the drug-loaded liposomes. TEM photograph provided direct evidence for successful fabrication of the novel-structured magnetic liposomes. It was also found that electrostatic self-assembly is a universal approach to prepare novel-structured magnetic liposomes with tunable size. The reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was established to determine the content of the drug in the magnetic liposomes. The content of the magnetic nanoparticles in the magnetic liposomes was determined by UV spectrophotometry, which proved that the content of magnetic nanoparticles in novel-structured magnetic liposomes was higher than in traditional-structured magnetic liposomes. In vitro drug release from the magnetic liposomes was carried out, and fitting of the release curve using Curve Expert software indicated that the in vitro drug release of the magnetic liposomes was in accordance with the First-order equation.

  12. Investigations of a new, highly negative liposome with improved biodistribution for imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hnatowich, D.J.; Clancy, B.

    1980-07-01

    An attractive feature of liposomes is the wide range of lipid composition that can lead to liposome formation, coupled with the observation that liposome biodistribution may be altered by varying lipid composition. For instance, adding charged lipids to neutral lecithin will alter the biodistribution of the resulting charged liposomes. We have prepared highly negative liposomes by replacing lecithin with negatively charged cardiolipin. The liposomes have been labeled in the lipid phase with Ga-67 and Tc-99m oxine and their properties evaluated. The expected high negative charge of the resulting liposomes was confirmed by an ion-exchange chromatographic technique. Using paper chromatography, the stability of the label was determined during incubation in saline and serum. Finally, biodistributions were determined at 2 h in mice, and the results compared with those for negative lecithin liposomes. Accumulated activities in liver and spleen were reduced by factors of five and 20, respectively, over lecithin liposomes. Since preferential accumulation of activity in these organs constitutes the biggest limitation to the use of lecithin liposomes, cardiolipin liposomes may prove to be more useful carriers of radioactivity in imaging applications. More importantly, however, these results illustrate the value of studying novel liposome types as potential radiopharmaceuticals.

  13. Enhanced localization of anticancer drug in tumor tissue using polyethylenimine-conjugated cationic liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hee Dong; Byeon, Yeongseon; Jeon, Hat Nim; Shin, Byung Cheol

    2014-05-01

    Liposome-based drug delivery systems hold great potential for cancer therapy. However, to enhance the localization of payloads, an efficient method of systemic delivery of liposomes to tumor tissues is required. In this study, we developed cationic liposomes composed of polyethylenimine (PEI)-conjugated distearoylglycerophosphoethanolamine (DSPE) as an enhanced local drug delivery system. The particle size of DSPE-PEI liposomes was 130 ± 10 nm and the zeta potential of liposomes was increased from -25 to 30 mV by the incorporation of cationic PEI onto the liposomal membrane. Intracellular uptake of DSPE-PEI liposomes by tumor cells was 14-fold higher than that of DSPE liposomes. After intratumoral injection of liposomes into tumor-bearing mice, DSPE-PEI liposomes showed higher and sustained localization in tumor tissue compared to DSPE liposomes. Taken together, our findings suggest that DSPE-PEI liposomes have the potential to be used as effective drug carriers for enhanced intracellular uptake and localization of anticancer drugs in tumor tissue through intratumoral injection.

  14. Curcumin liposomes prepared with milk fat globule membrane phospholipids and soybean lecithin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Hao; Lu, Qun; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-01

    Using thin film ultrasonic dispersion method, the curcumin liposomes were prepared with milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) phospholipids and soybean lecithins, respectively, to compare the characteristics and stability of the 2 curcumin liposomes. The processing parameters of curcumin liposomes were investigated to evaluate their effects on the encapsulation efficiency. Curcumin liposomes were characterized in terms of size distribution, ?-potential, and in vitro release behavior, and then their storage stability under various conditions was evaluated. The curcumin liposomes prepared with MFGM phospholipids had an encapsulation efficiency of about 74%, an average particle size of 212.3nm, and a ?-potential of -48.60mV. The MFGM liposomes showed higher encapsulation efficiency, smaller particle size, higher absolute value of ?-potential, and slower in vitro release than soybean liposomes. The retention rate of liposomal curcumin was significantly higher than that of free curcumin. The stability of the 2 liposomes under different pH was almost the same, but MFGM liposomes displayed a slightly higher stability than soybean liposomes under the conditions of Fe(3+), light, temperature, oxygen, and relative humidity. In conclusion, MFGM phospholipids have potential advantages in the manufacture of curcumin liposomes used in food systems. PMID:26774724

  15. Nebulization of ultradeformable liposomes: the influence of aerosolization mechanism and formulation excipients.

    PubMed

    Elhissi, Abdelbary M A; Giebultowicz, Joanna; Stec, Anna A; Wroczynski, Piotr; Ahmed, Waqar; Alhnan, Mohamed Albed; Phoenix, David; Taylor, Kevin M G

    2012-10-15

    Ultradeformable liposomes are stress-responsive phospholipid vesicles that have been investigated extensively in transdermal delivery. In this study, the suitability of ultradeformable liposomes for pulmonary delivery was investigated. Aerosols of ultradeformable liposomes were generated using air-jet, ultrasonic or vibrating-mesh nebulizers and their stability during aerosol generation was evaluated using salbutamol sulphate as a model hydrophilic drug. Although delivery of ultradeformable liposome aerosols in high fine particle fraction was achievable, the vesicles were very unstable to nebulization so that up to 98% drug losses were demonstrated. Conventional liposomes were relatively less unstable to nebulization. Moreover, ultradeformable liposomes tended to aggregate during nebulization whilst conventional vesicles demonstrated a "size fractionation" behaviour, with smaller liposomes delivered to the lower stage of the impinger and larger vesicles to the upper stage. A release study conducted for 2 h showed that ultradeformable liposomes retained only 30% of the originally entrapped drug, which was increased to 53% by inclusion of cholesterol within the formulations. By contrast, conventional liposomes retained 60-70% of the originally entrapped drug. The differences between ultradeformable liposomes and liposomes were attributed to the presence of ethanol or Tween 80 within the elastic vesicle formulations. Overall, this study demonstrated, contrary to our expectation, that materials included with the aim of making the liposomes more elastic and ultradeformable to enhance delivery from nebulizers were in fact responsible for vesicle instability during nebulization and high leakage rates of the drug. PMID:22796173

  16. Design considerations for liposomal vaccines: Influence of formulation parameters on antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to liposome associated antigens

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Douglas S.; Endsley, Aaron N.; Huang, Leaf

    2012-01-01

    Liposomes (phospholipid bilayer vesicles) are versatile and robust delivery systems for induction of antibody and T lymphocyte responses to associated subunit antigens. In the last 15 years, liposome vaccine technology has matured and now several vaccines containing liposome-based adjuvants have been approved for human use or have reached late stages of clinical evaluation. Given the intensifying interest in liposome-based vaccines, it is important to understand precisely how liposomes interact with the immune system and stimulate immunity. It has become clear that the physicochemical properties of liposomal vaccines – method of antigen attachment, lipid composition, bilayer fluidity, particle charge, and other properties – exert dramatic effects on the resulting immune response. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the physicochemical properties of liposomal vaccines and how they influence immune responses. A discussion of novel and emerging immunomodulators that are suitable for inclusion in liposomal vaccines is also presented. Through a comprehensive analysis of the body of liposomal vaccine literature, we enumerate a series of principles that can guide the rational design of liposomal vaccines to elicit immune responses of a desired magnitude and quality. We also identify major unanswered questions in the field, pointing the direction for future study. PMID:22306376

  17. Crosslinked Multilamellar Liposomes for Controlled Delivery of Anticancer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Kye-Il; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Shuanglong; Liu, Yarong; Lee, Chi-Lin; Conti, Peter S.; Wong, Michael K.; Li, Zibo; Wang, Pin

    2014-01-01

    Liposomes constitute one of the most popular nanocarriers for the delivery of cancer therapeutics. However, since their potency is limited by incomplete drug release and inherent instability in the presence of serum components, their poor delivery occurs in certain circumstances. In this study, we address these shortcomings and demonstrate an alternative liposomal formulation, termed crosslinked multilamellar liposome (CML). With its properties of improved sustainable drug release kinetics and enhanced vesicle stability, CML can achieve controlled delivery of cancer therapeutics. CML stably encapsulated the anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) in the vesicle and exhibited a remarkably controlled rate of release compared to that of the unilamellar liposome (UL) with the same lipid composition or Doxil-like liposome (DLL). Our imaging study demonstrated that the CMLs were mainly internalized through a caveolin-dependent pathway and were further trafficked through the endosome-lysosome compartments. Furthermore, in vivo experiments showed that the CML-Dox formulation reduced systemic toxicity and significantly improved therapeutic activity in inhibiting tumor growth compared to that of UL-Dox or DLL-Dox. This drug packaging technology may therefore provide a new treatment option to better manage cancer and other diseases. PMID:23375392

  18. Liposomes physically coated with peptides: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Su, Cuicui; Xia, Yuqiong; Sun, Jianbo; Wang, Nan; Zhu, Lin; Chen, Tao; Huang, Yanyi; Liang, Dehai

    2014-06-01

    Physically coating liposomes with peptides of desirable functions is an economic, versatile, and less time-consuming approach to prepare drug delivery vehicles. In this work, we designed three peptides-Ac-WWKKKGGNNN-NH2 (W2K3), Ac-WWRRRGGNNN-NH2(W2R3), Ac-WWGGGGGNNN-NH2(W2G3)-and studied their coating ability on negatively charged liposomes. It was found that the coating was mainly driven by the electrostatic interaction between the peptides' cationic side groups and the acidic lipids, which also mediated the "anchoring " of Trp residuals in the interfacial region of lipid bilayers. At the same conditions, the amount of the coated W2R3 was more than that of W2K3, but the stability of the liposome coated with W2R3 was deteriorated. This was caused by the delocalized charge of the guanidinium group of arginine. The coating of the peptide rendered the liposome pH-responsive behavior but did not prominently change the phase transition temperature. The liposome coated with peptides displayed appropriate pH/temperature dual responsive characteristics and was able to release the content in a controlled manner. PMID:24826785

  19. Studies on precellular evolution: The encapsulation of polyribonucleotides by liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza, I.; Ibañez, M.; Santiago, J. C.; Wong, C.; Lazcano, A.; Oró, J.

    Liposomes are 5 to 50 micron vesicles with an internal aqueous environment, whose amphiphilic lipidic components self-assemble into systems with at least one double-layered membrane. Liposomes have been suggested as possible models of precellular systems formed in the early Archean Earth from lipids of non-enzymatic origin. Since it is generally accepted that RNA molecules preceded double-stranded DNA molecules as genetic material, we have studied the encapsulation of polyribonucleotides within liposomes made from dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, and from egg yolk phosphatidylcholine to which cholesterol was added in some cases. The liposomes were prepared under anoxic conditions following the reverse phase evaporation method described by Szoka and Papahadjopoulos /1/. Quantitative determinations show that approximately 50% of the available lipids form liposomes, and that up to 5% of the polyribonucleotides can be entrapped by them. We have also studied the encapsulation of polyribonucleotides in the presence of 1) urea and cyanamide, two non-electrolytes that have been used as prebiotic condensing agents, and 2) of Zn++ and Pb++, two cations employed in the non-enzymatic template-directed synthesis of polyribonucleotides from activated nucleotides.

  20. Thermosensitive liposomal drug delivery systems: state of the art review

    PubMed Central

    Kneidl, Barbara; Peller, Michael; Winter, Gerhard; Lindner, Lars H; Hossann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Thermosensitive liposomes are a promising tool for external targeting of drugs to solid tumors when used in combination with local hyperthermia or high intensity focused ultrasound. In vivo results have demonstrated strong evidence that external targeting is superior over passive targeting achieved by highly stable long-circulating drug formulations like PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin. Up to March 2014, the Web of Science listed 371 original papers in this field, with 45 in 2013 alone. Several formulations have been developed since 1978, with lysolipid-containing, low temperature-sensitive liposomes currently under clinical investigation. This review summarizes the historical development and effects of particular phospholipids and surfactants on the biophysical properties and in vivo efficacy of thermosensitive liposome formulations. Further, treatment strategies for solid tumors are discussed. Here we focus on temperature-triggered intravascular and interstitial drug release. Drug delivery guided by magnetic resonance imaging further adds the possibility of performing online monitoring of a heating focus to calculate locally released drug concentrations and to externally control drug release by steering the heating volume and power. The combination of external targeting with thermosensitive liposomes and magnetic resonance-guided drug delivery will be the unique characteristic of this nanotechnology approach in medicine. PMID:25258529

  1. An efficient liposome based method for antioxidants encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Paini, Marco; Daly, Sean Ryan; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Fathi, Ali; Tehrany, Elmira Arab; Perego, Patrizia; Dehghani, Fariba; Valtchev, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Apigenin is an antioxidant that has shown a preventive activity against different cancer and cardiovascular disorders. In this study, we encapsulate apigenin with liposome to tackle the issue of its poor bioavailability and low stability. Apigenin loaded liposomes are fabricated with food-grade rapeseed lecithin in an aqueous medium in absence of any organic solvent. The liposome particle characteristics, such as particle size and polydispersity are optimised by tuning ultrasonic processing parameters. In addition, to measure the liposome encapsulation efficiency accurately, we establish a unique high-performance liquid chromatography technique in which an alkaline buffer mobile phase is used to prevent apigenin precipitation in the column;. salt is added to separate lipid particles from the aqeuous phase. Our results demonstrate that apigenin encapsulation efficiency is nearly 98% that is remarkably higher than any other reported value for encapsulation of this compound. In addition, the average particle size of these liposomes is 158.9 ± 6.1 nm that is suitable for the formulation of many food products, such as fortified fruit juice. The encapsulation method developed in this study, therefore have a high potential for the production of innovative, functional foods or nutraceutical products. PMID:26590900

  2. Liposomes self-assembled from electrosprayed composite microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Deng-Guang; Yang, Jun-He; Wang, Xia; Tian, Feng

    2012-03-01

    Composite microparticles, consisting of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), naproxen (NAP) and lecithin (PC), have been successfully prepared using an electrospraying process and exploited as templates to manipulate molecular self-assembly for the synthesis of liposomes in situ. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations demonstrate that the microparticles have an average diameter of 960 ± 140 nm and a homogeneous structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) results verify that the building blocks NAP and PC are scattered in the polymer matrix in a molecular way owing to the very fast drying of the electrospraying process and the favorable secondary interactions among the components. FESEM, scanning probe microscope (SPM) and TEM observations demonstrate that the liposomes can be achieved through molecular self-assembly in situ when the microparticles contact water thanks to ‘like prefers like’ and by means of the confinement effect of the microparticles. The liposomes have an encapsulation rate of 91.3%, and 80.7% of the drug in the liposomes can be freed into the dissolution medium in a sustained way and by a diffusion mechanism over a period of 24 h. The developed strategy not only provides a new, facile, and effective method to assemble and organize molecules of multiple components into liposomes with electrosprayed microparticles as templates, but also opens a new avenue for nanofabrication in a step-by-step and controllable way.

  3. Transferrin As A targeting ligand for liposomes and anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Singh, M

    1999-06-01

    In cancer treatment, one of the approaches is targeting of the drug to tumor cells via receptor specific ligands. Transferrin (molecular weight 80,000) has been used as a ligand for delivering anticancer drugs or drug containing liposomes mostly due to the increased number of transferrin (trf) receptors found on tumor cells as compared to normal cells. Transferrin was linked to methotrexate (MTX) containing small unilamellar liposomes and its activity was compared to antitransferrin receptor antibody (7D-3) linked to MTX liposomes. In each of these conjugates, the method of coupling was the same and a disulphide linkage was formed between the ligand and MTX liposomes. No significant differences in the potency of 7D-3 conjugate or trf conjugate with MTX liposomes were observed in studies performed in vitro against various human tumor cell lines (Hela, KB and Colon). Trf was also linked to adriamycin via a schiff base which was formed by using glutaraldehyde. This conjugate was found to be effective in vitro against various human tumors (Lovo, HL-60, SW 403 and Hep2) and also in vivo against H-mesothelioma tumors. Transferrin receptor has also been used for gene delivery. Gene delivery to K562 haematopoietic leukaemic cells was achieved by using a transferrin-polycation (poly-L-lysine or protamine) conjugate. This review will cover the various important applications of transferrin based drug delivery formulations in the chemotherapy of cancer and the related work performed in our and other laboratories. PMID:10390608

  4. Development and Characterization of Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride with Palm Oil

    PubMed Central

    Sabeti, Bahareh; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Mohd, Shaharuddin; Hashim, Rosnani; Akbari Javar, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The usage of natural products in pharmaceuticals has steadily seen improvements over the last decade, and this study focuses on the utilization of palm oil in formulating liposomal doxorubicin (Dox). The liposomal form of Dox generally minimizes toxicity and enhances target delivery actions. Taking into account the antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of palm oil, the aim of this study is to design and characterize a new liposomal Dox by replacing phosphatidylcholine with 5% and 10% palm oil content. Liposomes were formed using the freeze_thaw method, and Dox was loaded through pH gradient technique and characterized through in vitro and ex vivo terms. Based on TEM images, large lamellar vesicles (LUV) were formed, with sizes of 438 and 453 nm, having polydispersity index of 0.21 ± 0.8 and 0.22 ± 1.3 and zeta potentials of about −31 and −32 mV, respectively. In both formulations, the entrapment efficiency was about 99%, and whole Dox was released through 96 hours in PBS (pH = 7.4) at 37°C. Comparing cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of LUV with CaelyxR on MCF7 and MDA-MBA 231 breast cancer cell lines indicated suitable uptake and lower IC50 of the prepared liposomes. PMID:24795894

  5. Interactions of cyclodextrins with DPPC liposomes. Differential scanning calorimetry studies.

    PubMed

    Nishijo, J; Mizuno, H

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of cyclodextrins (CDs) with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The phase transition temperature and the enthalpy change due to the gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition of the liposomes were measured in the presence of alpha-CD, beta-CD, gamma-CD, heptakis (2,6-di-O-methyl)-beta-CD (DOM-beta-CD), heptakis (2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-beta-CD (TOM-beta-CD) and 2-hydroxylpropyl beta-CD, respectively. The effects on the change of enthalpy of the transition temperature were remarkable in the order of DOM-beta-CD > alpha-CD > TOM-beta-CD. The residual CDs caused scarcely detectable changes in the enthalpy changes and the transition temperatures. In order to clarify the DSC curves in the presence of the CDs mentioned above, the type of interactions which occurred between CDs and DPPC liposomes were studied. Consequently, it was found that DOM-beta-CD forms a soluble complex and alpha-CD forms an insoluble complex with DPPC liposomes, whereas only a slight amount of TOM-beta-CD was suggested to penetrate the matrix of the liposomes. PMID:9468643

  6. In vitro spectroscopic study of piperine-encapsulated nanosize liposomes.

    PubMed

    Pentak, Danuta

    2016-03-01

    Black pepper is a source of effective antioxidants. It contains several powerful antioxidants and is thus one of the most important spices for preventing and curtailing oxidative stress. There is considerable interest in the development of a drug-delivery systems that would result in the selective delivery of antioxidants to tissues in sufficient concentrations to ameliorate oxidant-induced tissue injuries. Liposomes are biocompatible, biodegradable and nontoxic artificial phospholipid vesicles that offer the possibility of carrying hydrophilic, hydrophobic and amphiphilic molecules. This article focuses on the use of liposomes for the delivery of antioxidants in the prevention or treatment of pathological conditions related to oxidative stress. Liposome formulations of piperine were analyzed with various spectroscopic methods. The formulation with the highest entrapment efficiency (90.5 %) was formulated with an L-α-phosphatidylcholine dipalmitoyl (DPPC):piperine, 30:1 molar ratio, and total lipid count of 19.47 mg/ml in the final liposomal preparation. The liposome formulation was found to be stable after storage at 4 °C, protected from light, for a minimum of 3 weeks. The incremental process of piperine penetration through the phospholipid membrane was analyzed using the FT-IR, UV-Vis and NMR methods. Temperature stability studies carried out at 37 °C showed the highest percentage of piperine release in the first 3 h of incubation. PMID:26493066

  7. Assembly of liposomes controlled by triple helix formation.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Ulla; Vogel, Stefan

    2013-09-18

    Attachment of DNA to the surface of different solid nanoparticles (e.g., gold and silica nanoparticles) is well established, and a number of DNA-modified solid nanoparticle systems have been applied to thermal denaturation analysis of oligonucleotides. We report herein the noncovalent immobilization of oligonucleotides on the surface of soft nanoparticles (i.e., liposomes) and the subsequent controlled assembly by DNA triple helix formation. The noncovalent approach avoids tedious surface chemistry and necessary purification procedures and can simplify and extend the available methodology for the otherwise difficult thermal denaturation analysis of complex triple helical DNA assemblies. The approach is based on lipid modified triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) which control the assembly of liposomes in solution in the presence of single- or double-stranded DNA targets. The thermal denaturation analysis is monitored by ultraviolet spectroscopy at submicromolar concentrations and compared to regular thermal denaturation assays in the absence of liposomes. We report on triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) based on DNA and locked nucleic acid (LNA)/DNA hybrid building blocks and different target sequences (G or C-rich) to explore the applicability of the method for different triple helical assembly modes. We demonstrate advantages and limitations of the approach and show the reversible and reproducible formation of liposome aggregates during thermal denaturation cycles. Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) show independently from ultraviolet spectroscopy experiments the formation of liposome aggregates. PMID:23885785

  8. Detection of liposome membrane viscosity perturbations with ratiometric molecular rotors.

    PubMed

    Nipper, Matthew E; Dakanali, Marianna; Theodorakis, Emmanuel; Haidekker, Mark A

    2011-06-01

    Molecular rotors are a form of fluorescent intramolecular charge-transfer complexes that can undergo intramolecular twisting motion upon photoexcitation. Twisted-state formation leads to non-radiative relaxation that competes with fluorescence emission. In bulk solutions, these molecules exhibit a viscosity-dependent quantum yield. On the molecular scale, the fluorescence emission is a function of the local free volume, which in turn is related to the local micro-viscosity. Membrane viscosity, and the inverse; fluidity, are characteristic terms used to describe the ease of movement withing the membrane. Often, changes in membrane viscosity govern intracellular processes and are indicative of a disease state. Molecular rotors have been used to investigate viscosity changes in liposomes and cells, but accuracy is affected by local concentration gradients and sample optical properties. We have developed self-calibrating ratiometric molecular rotors to overcome this challenge and integrated the new molecules into a DLPC liposome model exposed to the membrane-fluidizing agent propanol. We show that the ratiometric emission intensity linearly decreases with the propanol exposure and that the ratiometric intensity is widely independent of the total liposome concentration. Conversely, dye concentration inside liposomes influences the sensitivity of the system. We suggest that the new self-calibrating dyes can be used for real-time viscosity sensing in liposome systems with the advantages of lifetime measurements, but with low-cost steady-state instrumentation. PMID:21354253

  9. Application of Liposomes in Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Quo Vadis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sachin Kumar; Gulati, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The most common treatments for rheumatoid arthritis include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and some biological agents. However, none of the treatments available is able to achieve the ultimate goal of treatment, that is, drug-free remission. This limitation has shifted the focus of treatment to delivery strategies with an ability to deliver the drugs into the synovial cavity in the proper dosage while mitigating side effects to other tissues. A number of approaches like microemulsions, microspheres, liposomes, microballoons, cocrystals, nanoemulsions, dendrimers, microsponges, and so forth, have been used for intrasynovial delivery of these drugs. Amongst these, liposomes have proven to be very effective for retaining the drug in the synovial cavity by virtue of their size and chemical composition. The fast clearance of intra-synovially administered drugs can be overcome by use of liposomes leading to increased uptake of drugs by the target synovial cells, which in turn reduces the exposure of nontarget sites and eliminates most of the undesirable effects associated with therapy. This review focuses on the use of liposomes in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and summarizes data relating to the liposome formulations of various drugs. It also discusses emerging trends of this promising technology. PMID:24688450

  10. Mimicking Liver Iron Overload Using Liposomal Ferritin Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Wood, John C.; Fassler, Joe D.; Meade, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Close monitoring of liver iron content is necessary to prevent iron overload in transfusion-dependent anemias. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard; however, MRI potentially offers a noninvasive alternative. Iron metabolism and storage is complicated and tissue/disease-specific. This report demonstrates that iron distribution may be more important than iron speciation with respect to MRI signal changes. Simple synthetic analogs of hepatic lysosomes were constructed from noncovalent attachment of horse-spleen ferritin to 0.4 ?m diameter phospholipid liposomes suspended in agarose. Graded iron loading was achieved by varying ferritin burden per liposome as well as liposomal volume fraction. T1 and T2 relaxation times were measured on a 60 MHz NMR spectrometer and compared to simple ferritin-gel combinations. Liposomal-ferritin had 6-fold stronger T2 relaxivity than unaggregated ferritin but identical T1 relaxivity. Liposomal-ferritin T2 relaxivity also more closely matched published results from hemosiderotic marmoset liver, suggesting a potential role as an iron-calibration phantom. PMID:15004804

  11. Long Term Storage of Lyophilized Liposomal Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Payton, N.M.; Wempe, M.F.; Xu, Y.; Anchordoquy, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Because aqueous liposomal formulations containing multiply unsaturated lipids are susceptible to chemical degradation, these formulations are often lyophilized. Despite their limited chemical stability, interest in the use of multiply unsaturated lipids to promote intracellular delivery has increased considerably in recent years. The goal of the current study was to examine the long term storage stability of lyophilized formulations containing lipids with increasing levels of unsaturation, and various strategies which can be employed to improve stability. Aqueous lipid-trehalose formulations containing 1,2-dilinolenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLinPC) or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) were lyophilized and stored at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 60°C. We observed that the lipid degradation rate increased as the storage temperature and unsaturation level were increased. Even the cleanest sugars which are available commercially contain iron contaminants, and it was observed that the chelation of these iron contaminants significantly improved the stability of DLPC during storage. However, the glass transition temperature of the sugar which was included in the formulation, the reduction of the oxygen in the aqueous sample prior to lyophilization, the inclusion of helper lipids (i.e., cholesterol), and the rate of freezing did not significantly improve stability. PMID:25308534

  12. Multivesicular liposomal bupivacaine at the sciatic nerve

    PubMed Central

    McAlvin, J. Brian; Padera, Robert F.; Shankarappa, Sahadev A.; Reznor, Gally; Kwon, Albert H.; Chiang, Homer; Yang, Jason; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical translation of sustained release formulations for local anesthetics has been limited by adverse tissue reaction. Exparel™ (DepoFoam bupivacaine) is a new liposomal local anesthetic formulation whose biocompatibility near nerve tissue is not well characterized. Exparel™ injection caused sciatic nerve blockade in rats lasting 240 minutes compared to 120 minutes for 0.5% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl and 210 minutes for 1.31% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl (same bupivacaine content as Exparel™). On histologic sections four days after injection, median inflammation scores in the Exparel™ group (2.5 of 4) were slightly higher than in groups treated with bupivacaine solutions (score 2). Myotoxicity scores in the Exparel™ group (2.5 of 6) were similar to in the 0.5% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl group (3), but significantly less than in the 1.31% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl group (5). After two weeks, inflammation from Exparel™ (score 2 of 6) was greater than from 0.5% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl (1) and similar to that from 1.31% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl (1). Myotoxicity in all three groups was not statistically significantly different. No neurotoxicity was detected in any group. Tissue reaction to Exparel™ was similar to that of 0.5% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl. Surveillance for local tissue injury will be important during future clinical evaluation. PMID:24612918

  13. The organ distribution of liposome-encapsulated and free cobalt in rats. Liposomes decrease the cardiac uptake of the metal

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, R.; Eskelson, C.D.; Chvapil, M. ); Szebeni, J. National Institute of Food Hygiene and Nutrition, Budapest )

    1989-01-01

    Rats were administered intravenously liposome-encapsulated or free cobalt, and the organ distribution of the metal was explored using Co{sup 57} tracer. Two hours after administration, the cobalt level in the heart was about 40 % of the control when given in sphingomyelin (SM)/cholesterol (CH) (1:1 mole ratio) liposomes. These vesicles also tended to decrease the uptake of cobalt in the kidney and the carcass, and to increase it in the spleen and the bones. Liposomes prepared from soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC)/CH (1:1) had no effect on the uptake of cobalt in the heart, whereas increased its level in the spleen, liver and lung. The time-course of cobalt deposition in the organs displayed substantial variation with the different preparations. Most importantly, no buildup of cobalt level was observed in the heart when the metal was administered in SM/CH vesicles. While confirming known effects of liposomes on the organ-distribution of entrapped drugs, our findings suggest that administration of cobalt in SM/CH liposome-encapsulated form may result in decreased cardiotoxicity and thus increased safety of cobalt-treatment in some anemias.

  14. Evaluation of polyethylene glycol coated liposomes labeled with Tc-99m as a blood pool agent

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.T.; Klipper, R.; Goins, B.

    1994-05-01

    This investigation evaluated Tc-99m liposomes coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a blood pool agent in comparison with Tc-99m liposomes carrying no surface charge (Neutral) and with Tc-99m autologous red cells. Liposomes (135 nm diameter) encapsulating glutathione were labeled with Tc-99m using the lipophilic chelator, HMPAO as previously described. Autologous red cells were labeled using an Ultratag kit. Labeling efficiencies averaged 66%, 52%, and 97% for the PEG liposomes. Neutral liposomes, and red cells, respectively. Rabbits (3-3.5 Kg) were injected IV via ear vein with 2.0 mls of PEG liposomes (2 mCi, 17 mg phospholipid/Kg body weight, n=5). Neutral liposomes (1.3 mCi, 17 mg phospholipid/Kg body weight, n=4), or red cells (2.6 mCi, n=2). Gamma camera images were acquired at 5,22, and 45 minutes, and 2,20,and 44 hours post-injection. Blood samples were obtained at each time point to determine clearance kinetics. Circulation half lives of both Tc-99m liposome formulations were longer than Tc-99m red cells (8 hrs), with the half life of PEG liposomes (35 hrs) 1.6 times longer than Neutral liposomes (22 hrs). In vivo stability of the Tc-99m label was excellent for the liposomes with only 3.5-4% bladder activity at 45 minutes compared to 12% bladder activity for the red cells. Excellent blood pool images were obtained for the PEG liposomes in the rabbit. Heart/liver ratios calculated from region of interest analysis of 45 minutes images were 1.9, 1.5, and 1.7 for PEG liposomes, Neutral liposomes and red cells. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using Tc-99m PEG liposomes to perform gated cardiac blood pool and rapid gastrointestinal bleeding studies.

  15. Novel methods for the encapsulation of meglumine antimoniate into liposomes.

    PubMed

    Frézard, F; Michalick, M S; Soares, C F; Demicheli, C

    2000-07-01

    The antimonial drug, meglumine antimoniate, was successfully encapsulated in dehydration-rehydration vesicles and in freeze-dried empty liposomes (FDELs). High encapsulation efficiencies (from 28 to 58%) and low weight ratios of lipids to encapsulated antimony (from 1:0.15 to 1:0.3) were achieved. These formulations, contrary to those obtained by conventional methods, can be stored as intermediate lyophilized forms and reconstituted just before use. The efficacy of FDEL-encapsulated meglumine antimoniate was evaluated in hamsters experimentally infected with Leishmania chagasi. A significant reduction of liver parasite burdens was observed in animals treated with this preparation, when compared to control animals treated with empty liposomes. In contrast, free meglumine antimoniate was found to be inefficient when administered at a comparable dose of antimony. This novel liposome-based meglumine antimoniate formulation appears to be promising as a pharmaceutical product for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:10881061

  16. Recent Trends in Multifunctional Liposomal Nanocarriers for Enhanced Tumor Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Perche, Federico; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2013-01-01

    Liposomes are delivery systems that have been used to formulate a vast variety of therapeutic and imaging agents for the past several decades. They have significant advantages over their free forms in terms of pharmacokinetics, sensitivity for cancer diagnosis and therapeutic efficacy. The multifactorial nature of cancer and the complex physiology of the tumor microenvironment require the development of multifunctional nanocarriers. Multifunctional liposomal nanocarriers should combine long blood circulation to improve pharmacokinetics of the loaded agent and selective distribution to the tumor lesion relative to healthy tissues, remote-controlled or tumor stimuli-sensitive extravasation from blood at the tumor's vicinity, internalization motifs to move from tumor bounds and/or tumor intercellular space to the cytoplasm of cancer cells for effective tumor cell killing. This review will focus on current strategies used for cancer detection and therapy using liposomes with special attention to combination therapies. PMID:23533772

  17. Liposomes as a potential ocular delivery system of distamycin A.

    PubMed

    Chetoni, Patrizia; Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Matteoli, Barbara; Ceccherini-Nelli, Luca; Subissi, Alessando; Burgalassi, Susi

    2015-08-15

    Liposomes containing Distamycin A (DA) may be clinically useful in the treatment of ocular HSV infections, especially in acyclovir-resistant HSV keratitis. This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo performance of a topical controlled release liposomal formulation containing DA (DA-Lipo) aimed at reducing the toxicity of the encapsulated active agent and improving drug uptake by ocular tissues. The bioavailability of DA in the tear fluid and the DA uptake into the cornea were increased after instillation of DA-Lipo in rabbits, reaching the DA corneal concentration corresponding to IC50 values against HSV without any sign of transcorneal permeation of drug. DA-Lipo was definitely less cytotoxic then plain DA in rabbit corneal epithelial cells. These results provide new insights into the correlation between the in vitro data and the drug kinetics following ocular applications of liposomal vesicles. PMID:26183332

  18. Design of liposomal colloidal systems for ocular delivery of ciprofloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Ehab I.; El-Anazi, Magda H.; El-Bagory, Ibrahim M.; Bayomi, Mohsen A.

    2013-01-01

    Ophthalmic drug bioavailability is limited due to protective mechanisms of the eye which require the design of a system to enhance ocular delivery. In this study several liposomal formulations containing ciprofloxacin (CPX) have been formulated using reverse phase evaporation technique with final dispersion of pH 7.4. Different types of phospholipids including Phosphatidylcholine, Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and Dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were utilized. The effect of formulation factors such as type of phospholipid, cholesterol content, incorporation of positively charging inducing agents and ultrasonication on the properties of the liposomal vesicles was studied. Bioavailability of selected liposomal formulations in rabbit eye aqueous humor has been investigated and compared with that of commercially available CPX eye drops (Ciprocin®). Pharmacokinetic parameters including Cmax, Tmax, elimination rate constant, t1/2, MRT and AUC0–∞, were determined. The investigated formulations showed more than three folds of improvement in CPX ocular bioavailability compared with the commercial product. PMID:25061409

  19. Double emulsion templated monodisperse phospholipid liposomes incorporating Doxorubicin hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Mingtan; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    We present a novel approach for fabricating monodisperse phospholipid liposomes incorporating water soluble anticancer drug Doxorubicin hydrochloride using controlled w/o/w double emulsions as templates. Glass-capillary microfluidics is used to generate monodisperse w/o/w double emulsion templates and double emulsion droplet size is from 20 to 100 um according to different flow rates. We show that the high uniformity in size and shape of the templates are maintained in the final phospholipid liposomes after a solvent removal step by Nikon eclipse microscopy. The lipid bilayers encapsulating anticancer drug inside is retained after the emulsion drops are converted to vesicles. The liposomes vesicles are promising water soluble anticancer drug delivery vehicles.

  20. Ultraviolet- and sunlight-induced lipid peroxidation in liposomal membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, T.K.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1980-08-01

    Ultraviolet radiation and sunlight caused lipid peroxidation in the liposomal membrane (as detected by measurement of the oxidation index, A/sub 233//A/sub 215/, and the amount of malondialdehyde formed) and made the membrane leaky (as revealed by the release of the trapped chromate anions). The oxidation index and the formation of malondialdehyde increased linearly with increasing dose of radiation and depended significantly on the dose rate. The effects were smaller in liposomes derived from Vibrio cholerae phospholipid than in those derived from egg lecithin. The effects of the radiation dose and dose rate on hemolysis and peroxidation (MDA formation) of the erythrocyte membrane followed a similar pattern. A direct correlation between the percentage leakage of chromate (Y) and the oxidation index (X) of the liposomal system was obtained as Y = 236.5 x X.

  1. Liposome functionalization with copper-free "click chemistry".

    PubMed

    Oude Blenke, Erik; Klaasse, Gruson; Merten, Hannes; Plckthun, Andreas; Mastrobattista, Enrico; Martin, Nathaniel I

    2015-03-28

    The modification of liposomal surfaces is of interest for many different applications and a variety of chemistries are available that makes this possible. A major disadvantage of commonly used coupling chemistries (e.g. maleimide-thiol coupling) is the limited control over the site of conjugation in cases where multiple reactive functionalities are present, leading to heterogeneous products and in some cases dysfunctional conjugates. Bioorthogonal coupling approaches such as the well-established copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) "click" reaction are attractive alternatives as the reaction kinetics are favorable and azide-containing reagents are widely available. In the work described here, we prepared lipids containing a reactive cyclooctyne group and, after incorporation into liposomes, demonstrated successful conjugation of both a small molecule dye (5'-TAMRA-azide) as well as a larger azide-containing model protein based upon a designed ankyrin repeat protein (azido-DARPin). By applying the strain-promoted azido-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) the use of Cu(I) as a catalyst is avoided, an important advantage considering the known deleterious effects associated with copper in cell and protein studies. We demonstrate complete control over the number of ligands coupled per liposome when using a small molecule azide with conjugation occurring at a reasonable reaction rate. By comparison, the conjugation of a larger azide-modified protein occurs more slowly, however the number of protein ligands coupled was found to be sufficient for liposome targeting to cells. Importantly, these results provide a strong proof of concept for the site-specific conjugation of protein ligands to liposomal surfaces via SPAAC. Unlike conventional approaches, this strategy provides for the homogeneous coupling of proteins bearing a single site-specific azide modification and eliminates the chance of forming dysfunctional ligands on the liposome. Furthermore, the absence of copper in the reaction process should also make this approach much more compatible with cell-based and in vivo applications. PMID:25626085

  2. 99mTc-labeled Therapeutic Inhaled Amikacin Loaded Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Ho; Cheng, Kenneth T.; Malinin, Vladimir; Li, Zhili; Yao, Zhengsheng; Lee, Sung-Jin; Gould, Christine M.; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Chen, Clara; Perkins, Walter R.; Paik, Chang H.

    2014-01-01

    The radiolabeling of the liposome surface can be a useful tool for in vivo tracking of therapeutic drug loaded liposomes. We investigated radiolabeling therapeutic drug (i.e., an antibiotic, amikacin) loaded liposomes with 99mTc, nebulization properties of 99mTc-labeled liposomal amikacin for inhalation (99mTc-LAI), and its stability by size exclusion low pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC). LAI was reacted with 99mTc using SnCl2 dissolved in ascorbic acid as a reducing agent for 10 min at room temperature. The labeled products were then purified by anion exchange resin. The purified 99mTc-LAI in 1.5% NaCl solution was incubated at 4oC to assess its stability by LPLC. The purified 99mTc-LAI was subjected to studies with a clinically used nebulizer (PARI eFlow®) and the Anderson Cascade Impactor (ACI). The use of ascorbic acid at 0.91 mM resulted in a quantitative labeling efficiency. The LPLC profile showed that the liposomal peak of LAI detected by a UV monitor at both 200 nm and 254 nm overlapped with the radioactivity peak of 99mTc-LAI, indicating that 99mTc-LAI is suitable for tracing LAI. The ACI study demonstrated that the aerosol droplet size distribution determined gravimetrically was similar to that determined by radioactivity. The liposome surface labeling method using SnCl2 in 0.91mM ascorbic acid produced 99mTc-LAI with a high labeling efficiency and stability that are adequate to evaluate the deposition and clearance of inhaled LAI in the lung by gamma scintigraphy. PMID:23879241

  3. Octadecyl ferulate behavior in 1,2-Dioleoylphosphocholine liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Kervin O.; Compton, David L.; Whitman, Nathan A.; Laszlo, Joseph A.; Appell, Michael; Vermillion, Karl E.; Kim, Sanghoon

    2016-01-01

    Octadecyl ferulate was prepared using solid acid catalyst, monitored using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and purified to a 42% yield. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements determined octadecyl ferulate to have melting/solidification phase transitions at 67 and 39 °C, respectively. AFM imaging shows that 5-mol% present in a lipid bilayer induced domains to form. Phase behavior measurements confirmed that octadecyl ferulate increased transition temperature of phospholipids. Fluorescence measurements demonstrated that octadecyl ferulate stabilized liposomes against leakage, maintained antioxidant capacity within liposomes, and oriented such that the feruloyl moiety remained in the hydrophilic region of the bilayer. Molecular modeling calculation indicated that antioxidant activity was mostly influenced by interactions within the bilayer.

  4. Interview with Vladimir P Torchilin: liposomal carriers for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2013-05-01

    Vladimir P Torchilin is a University Distinguished Professor and Director at the Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Nanomedicine at the School of Pharmacy, Northeastern University (MA, USA). He has published over 350 original research papers and among many other awards was the recent recipient of the 2012 Bangham Award, for his contributions to the study of liposomes. Professor Torchilin spoke to Therapeutic Delivery about the progress and challenges of the field of liposomal carriers for drug delivery as well as his own career in science to date. Interview conducted by James Potticary, Assistant Commissioning Editor. PMID:23647271

  5. Potential antitumor activity of novel DODAC/PHO-S liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Arthur Cássio de Lima; Saraiva, Greice Kelle Viegas; Filho, Otaviano Mendonça Ribeiro; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Neto, Salvador Claro; Cuccovia, Iolanda Midea; Maria, Durvanei Augusto

    2016-01-01

    In recent studies, we showed that synthetic phosphoethanolamine (PHO-S) has a great potential for inducing cell death in several tumor cell lines without damage to normal cells. However, its cytotoxic effect and selectivity against tumor cells could increase with encapsulation in cationic liposomes, such as dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride (DODAC), due to electrostatic interactions between these liposomes and tumor cell membranes. Our aim was to use cationic liposomes to deliver PHO-S and to furthermore maximize the therapeutic effect of this compound. DODAC liposomes containing PHO-S (DODAC/PHO-S), at concentrations of 0.3–2.0 mM, prepared by ultrasonication, were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering. The cytotoxic effect of DODAC/PHO-S on B16F10 cells, Hepa1c1c7 cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was assessed by MTT assay. Cell cycle phases of B16F10 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and the morphological changes by SEM, after treatment. The liposomes were spherical and polydisperse in solution. The liposomes were stable, presenting an average of ∼50% of PHO-S encapsulation, with a small reduction after 40 days. DODAC demonstrated efficient PHO-S delivery, with the lowest values of IC50% (concentration that inhibits 50% of the growth of cells) for tumor cells, compared with PHO-S alone, with an IC50% value of 0.8 mM for B16F10 cells and 0.2 mM for Hepa1c1c7 cells, and without significant effects on endothelial cells. The Hepa1c1c7 cells showed greater sensitivity to the DODAC/PHO-S formulation when compared to B16F10 cells and HUVECs. The use of DODAC/PHO-S on B16F10 cells induced G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest, with the proportion significantly greater than that treated with PHO-S alone. The morphological analysis of B16F10 cells by SEM showed changes such as “bleb” formation, cell detachment, cytoplasmic retraction, and apoptotic bodies after DODAC/PHO-S treatment. Cationic liposomal formulation for PHO-S delivery promoted cytotoxicity more selectively and effectively against B16F10 and Hepa1c1c7 cells. Thus, the DODAC/PHO-S liposomal formulation presents great potential for preclinical studies. PMID:27143880

  6. Enhanced Reverse Saturable Absorption and Optical Limiting in Heavy-Atom Substituted Phthalocyanines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. W.; Mansour, K.; Marder, S. R.; Alvarez, D., Jr.; Perry, K. J.; Choong, I.

    1994-01-01

    The reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting response of metal phthalocyaninies can be enhanced by using the heavy-atom effect. Phthalocyanines containing heavy metal atoms, such as In, Sn, and Pb show nearly a factor of two enhancement in the ratio of effective excited-state to ground-state absorption cross sections compared to those containing lighter atoms, such as Al and Si. In an f/8 optical geometry, homogeneous solutions of heavy metal phthalocyanines, at 30% linear transmission, limit 8-ns, 532-nm laser pulses to less than or equal to 3 (micro)J (the energy for 50% probability of eye damage) for incident pulses up to 800 (micro)J.

  7. Solvent-assisted growth of metal phthalocyanine thin films on Au(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Tskipuri, Levan; Shao Qian; Reutt-Robey, Janice

    2012-05-15

    Thin films of metal phthalocyanine (MPc) are grown on an Au(111) support with a newly developed aerosol molecular beam deposition source and characterized in situ via ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy. MPcs are delivered to Au(111) in a series of N{sub 2}-entrained microsized solvent droplets of variable surface residence time. Phthalocyanine film registration to the herringbone reconstruction of the Au(111) surface, indicative of thermodynamically favored structure, is observed at submonolayer coverages for aromatic solvents with long residence times. Aerosol-deposited monolayer film structures are noncrystalline with tilted MPc orientations and vacancy nanocavities. Upon annealing, MPc molecules adopt flat-lying orientations with respect to the substrate and vacancies are eliminated. Film morphologies indicate solvation-mediated film nucleation and growth, with less long-range ordering that in vapor-generated films.

  8. Depopulation of Single-Phthalocyanine Molecular Orbitals upon Pyrrolic-Hydrogen Abstraction on Graphene.

    PubMed

    Néel, Nicolas; Lattelais, Marie; Bocquet, Marie-Laure; Kröger, Jörg

    2016-02-23

    Single-molecule chemistry with a scanning tunneling microscope has preponderantly been performed on metal surfaces. The molecule-metal hybridization, however, is often detrimental to genuine molecular properties and obscures their changes upon chemical reactions. We used graphene on Ir(111) to reduce the coupling between Ir(111) and adsorbed phthalocyanine molecules. By local electron injection from the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope the two pyrrolic H atoms were removed from single phthalocyanines. The detachment of the H atom pair induced a strong modification of the molecular electronic structure, albeit with no change in the adsorption geometry. Spectra and maps of the differential conductance combined with density functional calculations unveiled the entire depopulation of the highest occupied molecular orbital upon H abstraction. Occupied π states of intact molecules are proposed to be emptied via intramolecular electron transfer to dangling σ states of H-free N atoms. PMID:26812093

  9. Apoptosis induction by aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate-based sonodynamic therapy in HL-60 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Yumiko; Yumita, Nagahiko; Nishi, Koji; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Fukai, Toshio; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Chen, Fu-shih; Momose, Yasunori; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2015-07-01

    The present study aims to investigate sonodynamically-induced apoptosis using the phthalocyanine, chloroaluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcTS). HL-60 cells were exposed to ultrasound for up to 3 min in the absence and presence of AlPcTS. Apoptosis was analyzed by cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3 activity. Electron spin resonance was used to measure reactive oxygen species. The number of apoptotic cells showing membrane blebbing and cell shrinkage after combined treatment (ultrasound and AlPcTS) was significantly higher than following other treatments, including ultrasound alone and AlPcTS alone. Furthermore, DNA ladder formation, caspase-3 activation and enhanced nitroxide generation were observed in cells treated with ultrasound and AlPcTS. Sonodynamically induced apoptosis, caspase-3 activation, and nitroxide generation were significantly suppressed by histidine. The significant reduction by histidine indicated that ultrasonically generated reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen, is an important mediator of sonodynamically-induced apoptosis.

  10. Phthalocyanine/chitosan-TiO2 photocatalysts: Characterization and photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, A.; Boufi, S.; Bouattour, S.

    2015-06-01

    Chitosan (CS) was used as a template to prepare a hybrid chitosan-phthalocyanine-TiO2 (PC/CS-TiO2) photocatalyst at room temperature without any calcination treatment. The as-prepared hybrid photocatalyst (PC/CS-TiO2) was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The results of the photodegradation of aniline, used as a model pollutant, revealed that the hybrid photocatalyst (PC/CS-TiO2) exhibited a photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. The enhanced activity of the hybrid catalyst is attributed to the cooperative role of the three components of the photocatalyst; chitosan as a template for the immobilization crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles, phthalocyanine that promote the light absorption in the visible range and TiO2 acting as an acceptor of electrons generated by the photons absorption to produce superoxide radicals.

  11. Copper Phthalocyanine Thin-film Transistor with a Polycarbonate Gate Dielectric Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Ochiai, Shizuyasu; Sawa, Goro; Ohashi, Asao; Kojima, Kenzo; Uchida, Yoshiyuki; Mizutani, Teruyoshi

    We have investigated copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) thin-film transistors (TFTs) at different substrate temperatures. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and UV/Vis spectrometer were used to study the orientations and optical transmission spectrum of the copper phthalocyanine film which was adopted as the semiconductor layer of organic thin-film transistor. A circuit diagram was constructed to study the output characteristics of CuPc TFT with a polycarbonate (PC) gate dielectric layer. The mobility of CuPc TFT at a substrate temperature of 90°C was 1.25×10-4 cm2/Vs. The On/Off ratio was also improved when the substrate temperature increases. Threshold voltages were -17 V at a substrate temperature of 70°C and -30 V at 90°C.

  12. Metallophthalocyanin-ocenes: scandium phthalocyanines with an η(5)-bound Cp ring.

    PubMed

    Platel, Rachel H; Teixeira Tasso, Thiago; Zhou, Wen; Furuyama, Taniyuki; Kobayashi, Nagao; Leznoff, Daniel B

    2015-04-01

    A series of new scandium complexes supported by the phthalocyanine (Pc) ligand have been prepared and structurally characterized. Reaction of ScCl3 with phthalonitrile affords a mixture of PcScCl (1) and unreacted ScCl3, which upon addition of LiCH(SiMe3)2 yields THF-soluble PcSc(μ-Cl2)Li(THF)2 (2). Metathesis with NaCp or LiCp* generates PcSc(η(5)-C5H5) and PcSc(η(5)-C5Me5), respectively, which represent the first examples of η(5)-Cp metal phthalocyanines where the Cp fragment sandwiches the metal centre. PMID:25735598

  13. In-situ spectro-microscopy on organic films: Mn-Phthalocyanine on Ag(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mahboob A.; Vescovo, E.; Sadowski, J.T.

    2013-08-18

    Metal phthalocyanines are attracting significant attention, owing to their potential for applications in chemical sensors, solar cells and organic magnets. As the electronic properties of molecular films are determined by their crystallinity and molecular packing, the optimization of film quality is important for improving the performance of organic devices. Here, we present the results of in situ low-energy electron microscopy / photoemission electron microscopy (LEEM/PEEM) studies of incorporation-limited growth [1] of manganese-phthalocyanine (MnPc) on Ag(100) surfaces. MnPc thin films were grown on both, bulk Ag(100) surface and thin Ag(100)/Fe(100) films, where substrate spin-polarized electronic states can be modified through tuning the thickness of the Ag film [2]. We also discuss the electronic structure and magnetic ordering in MnPc thin films, investigated by angle- and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

  14. Development and Evaluation of Nanoemulsions Containing Phthalocyanines for Use in Photodynamic Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Senna, Juliana P; Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; Mansur, Claudia R E

    2015-06-01

    This work reports the development of oil in water (o/w) nanoemulsions containing poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymer surfactant for the formulation of a delivery system for endovenous zinc and chloroaluminum phthalocyanines. A solubility study suggested clove oil and its combination with ethanol as the best candidates for the oil phase composition. The nanoemulsions were obtained using a high-pressure homogenizer and analyzed for droplet size to determine their short- and long-term stability. Formulations containing 7 and 10% oil phase and 12% surfactant presented higher stability and allowed the incorporation of a bigger amount of phthalocyanines in the formulation. Rheological analyses showed the prevailing Newtonian behavior of the nanoemulsions. Studies of toxicity and phototoxicity determined that the nanoemulsions produced were capable of inhibiting the growth of adenocarcinoma tumor cells. The nanoemulsions proved to be a good alternative for use in photodynamic therapy. PMID:26369031

  15. ZnO and cobalt phthalocyanine hybridized graphene: efficient photocatalysts for degradation of rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Neelgund, Gururaj M; Oki, Aderemi; Luo, Zhiping

    2014-09-15

    A novel method has been developed to synthesize graphene-ZnO composite as a highly efficient catalyst by reduction of graphite oxide and in situ deposition of ZnO nanoparticles by chemical reduction reaction. The graphene-ZnO catalyst is capable of complete degradation of rhodamine B under exposure to natural sunlight. Further, the catalytic efficiency of graphene-ZnO catalyst was enhanced by sensitizing with cobalt phthalocyanine. The formation of graphene-ZnO photocatalyst and its further sensitization with cobalt phthalocyanine was characterized using UV-vis, ATR-IR and Raman spectroscopy, powder XRD and thermogravimetric analysis. The morphology of both graphene-ZnO and graphene-ZnO-CoPC catalysts was analyzed using scanning and transmission electron microscopes. PMID:24972296

  16. Phthalocyanine identification in paintings by reflectance spectroscopy. A laboratory and in situ study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poldi, G.; Caglio, S.

    2013-06-01

    The importance of identifying pigments using non invasive (n.i.) analyses has gained increasing importance in the field of spectroscopy applied to art conservation and art studies. Among the large set of pigments synthesized and marketed during 20th century, surely phthalocyanine blue and green pigments occupy an important role in the field of painting (including restoration) and printing, thanks to their characteristics like brightness and fastness. This research focused on the most used phthalocyanine blue (PB15:1 and PB15:3) and green pigments (PG7), and on the possibility to identify these organic compounds using a methodology like reflectance spectroscopy in the UV, visible and near IR range (UV-vis-NIR RS), performed easily through portable instruments. Laboratory tests and three examples carried out on real paintings are discussed.

  17. Electronic structures and magnetic/optical properties of metal phthalocyanine complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Shintaro; Suzuki, Atsushi; Oku, Takeo

    2016-02-01

    Electronic structures and magnetic / optical properties of metal phthalocyanine complexes were studied by quantum calculations using density functional theory. Effects of central metal and expansion of π orbital on aromatic ring as conjugation system on the electronic structures, magnetic, optical properties and vibration modes of infrared and Raman spectra of metal phthalocyanines were investigated. Electron and charge density distribution and energy levels near frontier orbital and excited states were influenced by the deformed structures varied with central metal and charge. The magnetic parameters of chemical shifts in 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR), principle g-tensor, A-tensor, V-tensor of electric field gradient and asymmetry parameters derived from the deformed structures with magnetic interaction of nuclear quadruple interaction based on electron and charge density distribution with a bias of charge near ligand under crystal field.

  18. Surface Modification of Boron-Doped Diamond with Microcrystalline Copper Phthalocyanine: Oxygen Reduction Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Patrick; Foord, John S; Compton, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Surface modification of boron-doped diamond (BDD) with copper phthalocyanine was achieved using a simple and convenient dropcast deposition, giving rise to a microcrystalline structure. Both unmodified and modified BDD electrodes of different surface terminations (namely hydrogen and oxygen) were compared via the electrochemical reduction of oxygen in aqueous solution. A significant lowering of the cathodic overpotential by about 500 mV was observed after modification of hydrogen-terminated (hydrophobic) diamond, while no voltammetric peak was seen on modified oxidised (hydrophilic) diamond, signifying greater interaction between copper phthalocyanine and the hydrogen-terminated BDD. Oxygen reduction was found to undergo a two-electron process on the modified hydrogen-terminated diamond, which was shown to be also active for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The lack of a further conversion of the peroxide was attributed to its rapid diffusion away from the triple phase boundary at which the reaction is expected to exclusively occur. PMID:26491640

  19. Cationic surface charge enhances early regional deposition of liposomes after intracarotid injection

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shailendra; Singh-Moon, Rajinder; Wang, Mei; Chaudhuri, Durba B.; Ellis, Jason A.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Bigio, Irving J.; Straubinger, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid first pass uptake of drugs is necessary to increase tissue deposition after intraarterial (IA) injection. Here we tested whether brain tissue deposition of a nanoparticulate liposomal carrier could be enhanced by coordinated manipulation of liposome surface charge and physiological parameters, such as IA injection during transient cerebral hypoperfusion (TCH). Different degrees of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption were induced by focused ultrasound in three sets of Sprague Dawley rats. Brain tissue retention was then compared for anionic, cationic, and charge-neutral liposomes after IA injection combined with TCH. The liposomes contained a non-exchangeable carbocyanine membrane optical label that could be quantified using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) or visualized by multispectral imaging. Real-time concentration-time curves in brain were obtained after each liposomal injection. Having observed greater tissue retention of cationic liposomes compared to other liposomes in all three groups, we tested uptake of cationic liposomes in C6 tumor bearing rats. DRS and multispectral imaging of postmortem sections revealed increased liposomal uptake by the C6 brain tumor as compared to non-tumor contralateral hemisphere. We conclude that regional deposition of liposomes can be enhanced without BBB disruption using IA injection of cationic liposomal formulations in healthy and C6 tumor bearing rats. PMID:25195130

  20. Stealth liposomes: review of the basic science, rationale, and clinical applications, existing and potential

    PubMed Central

    Immordino, Maria Laura; Dosio, Franco; Cattel, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    Among several promising new drug-delivery systems, liposomes represent an advanced technology to deliver active molecules to the site of action, and at present several formulations are in clinical use. Research on liposome technology has progressed from conventional vesicles (“first-generation liposomes”) to “second-generation liposomes”, in which long-circulating liposomes are obtained by modulating the lipid composition, size, and charge of the vesicle. Liposomes with modified surfaces have also been developed using several molecules, such as glycolipids or sialic acid. A significant step in the development of long-circulating liposomes came with inclusion of the synthetic polymer poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in liposome composition. The presence of PEG on the surface of the liposomal carrier has been shown to extend blood-circulation time while reducing mononuclear phagocyte system uptake (stealth liposomes). This technology has resulted in a large number of liposome formulations encapsulating active molecules, with high target efficiency and activity. Further, by synthetic modification of the terminal PEG molecule, stealth liposomes can be actively targeted with monoclonal antibodies or ligands. This review focuses on stealth technology and summarizes pre-clinical and clinical data relating to the principal liposome formulations; it also discusses emerging trends of this promising technology. PMID:17717971

  1. The cellular internalization of liposome encapsulated protoporphyrin IX by HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Przybylo, Magdalena; Glogocka, Daria; Dobrucki, Jerzy W; Fraczkowska, Kaja; Podbielska, Halina; Kopaczynska, Marta; Borowik, Tomasz; Langner, Marek

    2016-03-31

    The proper lipid composition of liposomes designed to carry drugs determines their surface properties ensuring their accumulation within selected tissue. The electrostatic potential and surface topology of liposomes affect the internalization by single cells. The high-resolution imaging of cancer cells and the distribution of protoporphyrin-loaded liposomes within the cytoplasm and its dependence on the liposome surface properties are presented. In the paper, HeLa cells were used to investigate the uptake of porphyrin-loaded liposomes and liposomes alone by means of confocal and differential interference contrast microscopies. The effect of liposomes surface electrostatic potential and surface topology on their intracellular distribution was evaluated. The time evolution of the intracellular distribution of liposomes labelled with Rhodamine-PE was examined on HeLa cells. These studies allow for the identification of the liposome lipid composition so the efficient delivery of the active substance to cancer cells will be achieved. The obtained results showed that neutral PC-liposomes are the most efficiently internalized by HeLa cells. Moreover, results showed that properties of liposomes affect not only the internalization efficiency of the photosensitizer but also its distribution within the cells, as revealed by colocalization measurements. PMID:26827924

  2. Liposome Surface Functionalization Based on Different Anchoring Lipids via Staudinger Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Vabbilisetty, Pratima; Sun, Xue-Long

    2014-01-01

    Liposome surface functionalization facilitates enormous potential applications of liposomes, such as enhanced stability, bioactive liposome conjugates, and targeted drug, gene and image agent delivery. Anchoring lipids are needed for grafting ligands of interest and play important roles in ligands grafting density, liposome stability, and liposome chemical and physical characteristics as well. In this report, glyco-functionalized liposome systems based on two kinds of anchoring lipid, phosphatidylethonalamine (PE) and cholesterol (Chol) were prepared by post chemically selective functionalization via Staudinger ligation. The size and stability of the liposomes were confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Particularly, the impact of anchor lipids on the stability of glyco-functionalized liposomes was investigated by comparing two different anchor lipids, namely Chol-PEG2000-TP and DSPE-PEG2000-TP. In addition, the encapsulation and releasing capacity of the glycosylated liposome based on the two anchoring lipids were investigated by entrapping 5, 6-carboxyfluorescein (CF) dye and monitoring the fluorescence leakage, respectively. Furthermore, the density and accessibility of grafted carbohydrate residues on the liposome surface were evaluated for the two anchoring lipids-derived liposomes with lectin binding, respectively. PMID:24413731

  3. Factorial design studies of antiretroviral drug-loaded stealth liposomal injectable: PEGylation, lyophilization and pharmacokinetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar, Beeravelli; Krishna, Mylangam Chaitanya; Murthy, Kolapalli Venkata Ramana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate the ritonavir-loaded stealth liposomes by using 32 factorial design and intended to delivered by parenteral delivery. Liposomes were prepared by ethanol injection method using 32 factorial designs and characterized for various physicochemical parameters such as drug content, size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. The optimization process was carried out using desirability and overlay plots. The selected formulation was subjected to PEGylation using 10 % PEG-10000 solution. Stealth liposomes were characterized for the above-mentioned parameters along with surface morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, differential scanning calorimeter, stability and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats. Stealth liposomes showed better result compared to conventional liposomes due to effect of PEG-10000. The in vivo studies revealed that stealth liposomes showed better residence time compared to conventional liposomes and pure drug solution. The conventional liposomes and pure drug showed dose-dependent pharmacokinetics, whereas stealth liposomes showed long circulation half-life compared to conventional liposomes and pure ritonavir solution. The results of statistical analysis showed significance difference as the p value is (<0.05) by one-way ANOVA. The result of the present study revealed that stealth liposomes are promising tool in antiretroviral therapy.

  4. Quantitative analysis of the lamellarity of giant liposomes prepared by the inverted emulsion method.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Masataka; Miyazaki, Makito; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi

    2014-07-15

    The inverted emulsion method is used to prepare giant liposomes by pushing water-in-oil droplets through the oil/water interface into an aqueous medium. Due to the high encapsulation efficiency of proteins under physiological conditions and the simplicity of the protocol, it has been widely used to prepare various cell models. However, the lamellarity of liposomes prepared by this method has not been evaluated quantitatively. Here, we prepared liposomes that were partially stained with a fluorescent dye, and analyzed their fluorescence intensity under an epifluorescence microscope. The fluorescence intensities of the membranes of individual liposomes were plotted against their diameter. The plots showed discrete distributions, which were classified into several groups. The group with the lowest fluorescence intensity was determined to be unilamellar by monitoring the exchangeability of the inner and the outer solutions of the liposomes in the presence of the pore-forming toxin α-hemolysin. Increasing the lipid concentration dissolved in oil increased the number of liposomes ∼100 times. However, almost all the liposomes were unilamellar even at saturating lipid concentrations. We also investigated the effects of lipid composition and liposome content, such as highly concentrated actin filaments and Xenopus egg extracts, on the lamellarity of the liposomes. Remarkably, over 90% of the liposomes were unilamellar under all conditions examined. We conclude that the inverted emulsion method can be used to efficiently prepare giant unilamellar liposomes and is useful for designing cell models. PMID:25028876

  5. Mixture of cholesterol end-capped polyethylene glycol with DSPC liposomal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Soheil

    2015-07-01

    The dynamic of network of self-assembled liposome by end-capped polymer was investigated using dynamic light scattering. The liposome network, physically cross-linked by mixed liposome solutions with three different length scale of cholesterol end-capped polyethylene glycol. The network of liposome is dependent on both the polymer concentration and length scale. In the pure liposome, one motion at low time scale is observed by DLS. In the higher concentration of polymer in liposome, several motion is observed that the fast motion is alpha relaxation and other two slow motion are beta and gamma relaxations. The distance between diffusion coefficient of fast and slow relaxation is increased with increase of length scale of endcapped polymers. The SAXS data is fitted with a Percus-Yevick hard sphere model and it shows that the size of liposome increasing with increase of polymer length scale in the mixture system.

  6. Characterization of biosurfactant-containing liposomes and their efficiency for gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yoshinobu; Hirashima, Naohide; Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2007-01-01

    Recently we showed significance of biosurfactants in the field of non-viral vectors for gene transfection. There, a biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid A (MEL-A), especially increased the efficiency of gene transfection mediated with cationic liposomes. However, the molecular mechanism has not been well-understood yet. Here, through the examination of the ability of cationic liposomes containing an MEL (MEL-A, MEL-B or MEL-C) for important transfectional processes of the DNA capsulation and the membrane fusion with anionic liposomes, we found that MEL-A-containing liposomes increased both processes, but that MEL-B and MEL-C-containing liposomes just increased either of them. The results indicated that these kinds of the physicochemical properties in MEL-A-containing liposomes are able to increase the efficiency of liposome-mediated gene transfection. PMID:17202680

  7. Exploring Cellular Interactions of Liposomes Using Protein Corona Fingerprints and Physicochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Bigdeli, Arafeh; Palchetti, Sara; Pozzi, Daniela; Hormozi-Nezhad, Mohammad Reza; Baldelli Bombelli, Francesca; Caracciolo, Giulio; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2016-03-22

    To control liposomes fate and transport upon contact with biofluids, it is essential to consider several parameters affecting the synthetic and biological identity of liposomes, as well as liposome-protein corona (PC) aspects. As a powerful tool in this data mining adventure, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approach is used to correlate physicochemical properties of liposomes and their PC fingerprints to multiple quantified biological responses. In the present study, the relationship between cellular interactions of a set of structurally diverse liposomal formulations and their physicochemical and PC properties has been investigated via linear and nonlinear QSAR models. Significant parameters affecting cellular uptake and cell viability of liposomes in two important cancer cell lines (PC3 and HeLa) have been identified. The developed QSARs have the capacity to be implemented in advanced targeted delivery of liposomal drugs. PMID:26882007

  8. Peripheral Substitution of a Near-IR-Absorbing Soluble Phthalocyanine Using "Click" Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mayukh, Mayank; Lu, Chin-Wei; Hernandez, Edgardo; McGrath, Dominic V.

    2011-06-10

    A series of near-IR-absorbing soluble phthalocyanines (Pcs) with eight alkyne moieties as side chains of the chromophore have been synthesized. One of these Pcs has been used as a scaffold for functional group modification using alkyne–azide click chemistry with various azides. This led to a small library of Pcs with photo and thermal crosslinkable, dendritic, and hydrophilic moieties starting from a single Pc molecule. A patterned thin film was fabricated by photocrosslinking one of these Pc derivatives.

  9. New route to unsymmetrical phthalocyanine analogues by the use of structurally distorted subphthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Nagao; Kondo, Ryoko; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Osa, Tetsuo )

    1990-12-19

    In addition to traditional uses as dyes and in photocopying devices, phthalocyanines (Pcs) are now rapidly growing in importance in many fields such as chemical sensors, electrochromism, batteries, photodynamic cancer therapy, molecular metals, photochemical hole burning, and liquid crystals. In this communication, the authors present a completely new method for the preparation of monosubstituted type unsymmetrical Pcs and Pc analogues, which utilizes the so-called subphthalocyanines (SubPcs).

  10. Phthalocyanine adsorption to graphene on Ir(111): Evidence for decoupling from vibrational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Endlich, M. Gozdzik, S.; Néel, N.; Kröger, J.; Rosa, A. L. da; Frauenheim, T.; Wehling, T. O.

    2014-11-14

    Phthalocyanine molecules have been adsorbed to Ir(111) and to graphene on Ir(111). From a comparison of scanning tunneling microscopy images of individual molecules adsorbed to the different surfaces alone it is difficult to discern potential differences in the molecular adsorption geometry. In contrast, vibrational spectroscopy using inelastic electron scattering unequivocally hints at strong molecule deformations on Ir(111) and at a planar adsorption geometry on graphene. The spectroscopic evidence for the different adsorption configurations is supported by density functional calculations.

  11. Remarkable thermal stability of gold nanoparticles functionalised with ruthenium phthalocyanine complexes.

    PubMed

    King, Shirin R; Shimmon, Susan; Gentle, Angus R; Westerhausen, Mika T; Dowd, Annette; McDonagh, Andrew M

    2016-05-27

    A gold nanoparticle (AuNP) ruthenium phthalocyanine (RuPc) nanocomposite has been synthesised that exhibits high thermal stability. Electrical resistance measurements revealed that the nanocomposite is stable up to ∼320 °C. Examination of the nanocomposite and the RuPc stabiliser complex using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry show that the remarkable thermal stability is due to the RuPc molecules, which provide an effective barrier to sintering of the AuNPs. PMID:27087638

  12. Remarkable thermal stability of gold nanoparticles functionalised with ruthenium phthalocyanine complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Shirin R.; Shimmon, Susan; Gentle, Angus R.; Westerhausen, Mika T.; Dowd, Annette; McDonagh, Andrew M.

    2016-05-01

    A gold nanoparticle (AuNP) ruthenium phthalocyanine (RuPc) nanocomposite has been synthesised that exhibits high thermal stability. Electrical resistance measurements revealed that the nanocomposite is stable up to ∼320 °C. Examination of the nanocomposite and the RuPc stabiliser complex using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry show that the remarkable thermal stability is due to the RuPc molecules, which provide an effective barrier to sintering of the AuNPs.

  13. Length of hydrocarbon chain influences location of curcumin in liposomes: Curcumin as a molecular probe to study ethanol induced interdigitation of liposomes.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Elsy; Patra, Digambara

    2016-05-01

    Using fluorescence quenching of curcumin in 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) liposomes by brominated derivatives of fatty acids, the location of curcumin has been studied, which indicates length of hydrocarbon chain has an effect on the location of curcumin in liposomes. Change of fluorescence intensity of curcumin with temperature in the presence of liposomes helps to estimate the phase transition temperature of these liposomes, thus, influence of cholesterol on liposome properties has been studied using curcumin as a molecule probe. The cooperativity due to the interactions between the hydrocarbon chains during melting accelerates the phase transition of DPPC liposomes in the presence of high percentage of cholesterol whereas high percentage of cholesterol generates a rather rigid DMPC liposome over a wide range of temperatures. We used ethanol to induce interdigitation between the hydrophobic chains of the lipids and studied this effect using curcumin as fluorescence probe. As a result of interdigitation, curcumin fluorescence is quenched in liposomes. The compact arrangement of the acyl chains prevents curcumin from penetrating deep near the midplane. In the liquid crystalline phase ethanol introduces a kind of order to the more fluid liposome, and does not leave space for curcumin to be inserted away from water. PMID:26945646

  14. Numerical analyses on optical limiting performances of chloroindium phthalocyanines with different substituent positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu-Jin, Zhang; Xing-Zhe, Li; Ji-Cai, Liu; Chuan-Kui, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Optical limiting properties of two soluble chloroindium phthalocyanines with α- and β-alkoxyl substituents in nanosecond laser field have been studied by solving numerically the coupled singlet-triplet rate equation together with the paraxial wave field equation under the Crank-Nicholson scheme. Both transverse and longitudinal effects of the laser field on photophysical properties of the compounds are considered. Effective transfer time between the ground state and the lowest triplet state is defined in reformulated rate equations to characterize dynamics of singlet-triplet state population transfer. It is found that both phthalocyanines exhibit good nonlinear optical absorption abilities, while the compound with α-substituent shows enhanced optical limiting performance. Our ab-initio calculations reveal that the phthalocyanine with α-substituent has more obvious electron delocalization and lower frontier orbital transfer energies, which are responsible for its preferable photophysical properties. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB808100), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204078 and 11574082), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 2015MS54).

  15. Inhomogeneous charge transfer within monolayer zinc phthalocyanine absorbed on TiO{sub 2}(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Shun; Ahmadi, Sareh; Adibi, Pooya Tabib Zadeh; Chow, Winnie; Goethelid, Mats; Sun, Chenghua; Pietzsch, Annette

    2012-04-21

    The d-orbital contribution from the transition metal centers of phthalocyanine brings difficulties to understand the role of the organic ligands and their molecular frontier orbitals when it adsorbs on oxide surfaces. Here we use zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc)/TiO{sub 2}(110) as a model system where the zinc d-orbitals are located deep below the organic orbitals leaving room for a detailed study of the interaction between the organic ligand and the substrate. A charge depletion from the highest occupied molecular orbital is observed, and a consequent shift of N1s and C1s to higher binding energy in photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). A detailed comparison of peak shifts in PES and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy illustrates a slightly uneven charge distribution within the molecular plane and an inhomogeneous charge transfer screening between the center and periphery of the organic ligand: faster in the periphery and slower at the center, which is different from other metal phthalocyanine, e.g., FePc/TiO{sub 2}. Our results indicate that the metal center can substantially influence the electronic properties of the organic ligand at the interface by introducing an additional charge transfer channel to the inner molecular part.

  16. An Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Multisensor System Based on Phthalocyanine Nanostructured Films: Discrimination of Musts.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Hernandez, Celia; Medina-Plaza, Cristina; Garcia-Cabezon, Cristina; Martin-Pedrosa, Fernando; del Valle, Isabel; Antonio de Saja, Jose; Rodríguez-Méndez, Maria Luz

    2015-01-01

    An array of electrochemical quartz crystal electrodes (EQCM) modified with nanostructured films based on phthalocyanines was developed and used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes. Nanostructured films of iron, nickel and copper phthalocyanines were deposited on Pt/quartz crystals through the Layer by Layer technique by alternating layers of the corresponding phthalocyanine and poly-allylamine hydrochloride. Simultaneous electrochemical and mass measurements were used to study the mass changes accompanying the oxidation of electroactive species present in must samples obtained from six Spanish varieties of grapes (Juan García, Prieto Picudo, Mencía Regadío, Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha and Tempranillo). The mass and voltammetric outputs were processed using three-way models. Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) was successfully used to discriminate the must samples according to their variety. Multi-way partial least squares (N-PLS) evidenced the correlations existing between the voltammetric data and the polyphenolic content measured by chemical methods. Similarly, N-PLS showed a correlation between mass outputs and parameters related to the sugar content. These results demonstrated that electronic tongues based on arrays of EQCM sensors can offer advantages over arrays of mass or voltammetric sensors used separately. PMID:26610494

  17. Metal-phthalocyanine ordered layers on Au(110): Metal-dependent adsorption energy

    SciTech Connect

    Massimi, Lorenzo Angelucci, Marco; Gargiani, Pierluigi; Betti, Maria Grazia; Montoro, Silvia; Mariani, Carlo

    2014-06-28

    Iron-phthalocyanine and cobalt-phthalocyanine chains, assembled along the Au(110)-(1×2) reconstructed channels, present a strong interaction with the Au metallic states, via the central metal ion. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy from the metal-2p core-levels and valence band high-resolution ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy bring to light signatures of the interaction of the metal-phthalocyanine single-layer with gold. The charge transfer from Au to the molecule causes the emerging of a metal-2p core level component at lower binding energy with respect to that measured in the molecular thin films, while the core-levels associated to the organic macrocycle (C and N 1s) are less influenced by the adsorption, and the macrocycles stabilize the interaction, inducing a strong interface dipole. Temperature Programmed Desorption experiments and photoemission as a function of temperature allow to estimate the adsorption energy for the thin-films, mainly due to the molecule-molecule van der Waals interaction, while the FePc and CoPc single-layers remain adsorbed on the Au surface up to at least 820 K.

  18. Structure and Morphology of Phthalocyanine Films Grown in Electrical Fields by Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Banks, Curtis E.; Frazier, Donald O.; Penn, Benjamin; Abdeldayem, Hossin; Hicks, Roslin

    1999-01-01

    Phthalocyanine is a very stable organic material in the atmosphere and has been used in numerous applications, such as optical switching and optical storage devices. Although this material has already been discovered for several decades and has had extensive studies conducted on it, many properties still need to be better understood, for example, the mechanisms of forming different solid phases and of changing film morphology by external forces. Phthalocyanine has two preferred solid phases (alpha and beta phases) for which the crystal structures, surface morphology and optical properties are different. In order to investigate these phenomena and the relationship among them, phthalocyanine films have been synthesized by vapor deposition on quartz substrates with and without an external electrical field. Some substrates were coated with a very thin gold film for the electrical field. These films have been characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy, and Z-scan technique. The films have excellent chemical and thermal stability. However, the surface of these films grown without the electrical field shows flower-like morphology. When films are deposited under an electrical field (approximately 3000 V/cm), an aligned structure is revealed on the surface. A comparison of the structure, morphology, optical properties, and the growth mechanism for these films with and without an electrical field will be discussed.

  19. Enhanced Charge Separation Efficiency in Pyridine-Anchored Phthalocyanine-Sensitized Solar Cells by Linker Elongation.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, Takuro; Agrawal, Saurabh; Ezoe, Masayuki; Mori, Shogo; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2015-11-01

    A series of zinc phthalocyanine sensitizers (PcS22-24) having a pyridine anchoring group are designed and synthesized to investigate the structural dependence on performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. The pyridine-anchor zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer PcS23 shows 79?% incident-photon to current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) and 6.1?% energy conversion efficiency, which are comparable with similar phthalocyanine dyes having a carboxylic acid anchoring group. Based on DFT calculations, the high IPCE is attributed with the mixture of an excited-state molecular orbital of the sensitizer and the orbitals of TiO2 . Between pyridine and carboxylic acid anchor dyes, opposite trends are observed in the linker-length dependence of the IPCE. The red-absorbing PcS23 is applied for co-sensitization with a carboxyl-anchor organic dye D131 that has a complementary spectral response. The site-selective adsorption of PcS23 and D131 on the TiO2 surface results in a panchromatic photocurrent response for the whole visible-light region of sun light. PMID:26222758

  20. Controlling Morphology and Molecular Packing of Alkane Substituted Phthalocyanine Blend Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells†

    PubMed Central

    Jurow, Matthew J.; Hageman, Brian A.; Nam, Chang-Yong; Pabon, Cesar; Black, Charles T.

    2013-01-01

    Systematic changes in the exocyclic substiution of core phthalocyanine platform tune the absorption properties to yield commercially viable dyes that function as the primary light absorbers in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. Blends of these complementary phthalocyanines absorb a broader portion of the solar spectrum compared to a single dye, thereby increasing solar cell performance. We correlate grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering structural data with solar cell performance to elucidate the role of nanomorphology of active layers composed of blends of phthalocyanines and a fullerene derivative. A highly reproducible device architecture is used to assure accuracy and is relevant to films for solar windows in urban settings. We demonstrate that the number and structure of the exocyclic motifs dictate phase formation, hierarchical organization, and nanostructure, thus can be employed to tailor active layer morphology to enhance exciton dissociation and charge collection efficiencies in the photovoltaic devices. These studies reveal that disordered films make better solar cells, short alkanes increase the optical density of the active layer, and branched alkanes inhibit unproductive homogeneous molecular alignment. PMID:23589766

  1. Femtosecond to nanosecond excited state dynamics of vapor deposited copper phthalocyanine thin films.

    PubMed

    Caplins, Benjamin W; Mullenbach, Tyler K; Holmes, Russell J; Blank, David A

    2016-04-20

    Vapor deposited thin films of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) were investigated using transient absorption spectroscopy. Exciton-exciton annihilation dominated the kinetics at high exciton densities. When annihilation was minimized, the observed lifetime was measured to be 8.6 ± 0.6 ns, which is over an order of magnitude longer than previous reports. In comparison with metal free phthalocyanine (H2Pc), the data show evidence that the presence of copper induces an ultrafast relaxation process taking place on the ca. 500 fs timescale. By comparison to recent time-resolved photoemission studies, this is assigned as ultrafast intersystem crossing. As the intersystem crossing occurs ca. 10(4) times faster than lifetime decay, it is likely that triplets are the dominant excitons in vapor deposited CuPc films. The exciton lifetime of CuPc thin films is ca. 35 times longer than H2Pc thin films, while the diffusion lengths reported in the literature are typically quite similar for the two materials. These findings suggest that despite appearing to be similar materials at first glance, CuPc and H2Pc may transport energy in dramatically different ways. This has important implications on the design and mechanistic understanding of devices where phthalocyanines are used as an excitonic material. PMID:27058732

  2. Spectroscopic insights on selfassembly and excited state interactions between rhodamine and phthalocyanine molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Hao; Zhang, Xian-Fu

    2015-03-01

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra as well as fluorescence lifetimes of tetrasulfonated zinc phthalocyanine ZnPc(SO3Na)4 were measured in the absence and presence of four rhodamine dyes, Rhodamine B (RB), Ethyl rhodamine B (ERB), Rhodamine 6G (R6G), Rhodamine 110 (R110), and Pyronine B (PYB). The ground state complexes of phthalocyanine-(Rhodamine)2 were observed which exhibit new absorption bands. The binding constants are all very large (0.86 × 105-0.22 × 108 M-1), suggesting rhodamine-phthalocyanine pairs are very good combinations for efficient selfassembly. Both the fluorescence intensity and the lifetime values of ZnPc(SO3Na)4 were decreased by the presence of rhodamines. The structural effect of rhodamines on selfassembly is significant. The ground state binding and dynamic quenching capability is PYB > R6G > ERB > RB > R110. The dynamic fluorescence quenching is due to the photoinduced electron transfer (PET). The PET rate constant is very large and in the order of 1013 M-1 s-1, much greater than kf and kic (in the order of 108 M-1 s-1), which means that the PET efficiency is almost 100%. Therefore the non-covalent Pc-rhodamine is a very good pair of donor/acceptor for potential efficient solar energy conversion.

  3. An Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Multisensor System Based on Phthalocyanine Nanostructured Films: Discrimination of Musts

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Hernandez, Celia; Medina-Plaza, Cristina; Garcia-Cabezon, Cristina; Martin-Pedrosa, Fernando; del Valle, Isabel; de Saja, Jose Antonio; Rodríguez-Méndez, Maria Luz

    2015-01-01

    An array of electrochemical quartz crystal electrodes (EQCM) modified with nanostructured films based on phthalocyanines was developed and used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes. Nanostructured films of iron, nickel and copper phthalocyanines were deposited on Pt/quartz crystals through the Layer by Layer technique by alternating layers of the corresponding phthalocyanine and poly-allylamine hydrochloride. Simultaneous electrochemical and mass measurements were used to study the mass changes accompanying the oxidation of electroactive species present in must samples obtained from six Spanish varieties of grapes (Juan García, Prieto Picudo, Mencía Regadío, Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha and Tempranillo). The mass and voltammetric outputs were processed using three-way models. Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) was successfully used to discriminate the must samples according to their variety. Multi-way partial least squares (N-PLS) evidenced the correlations existing between the voltammetric data and the polyphenolic content measured by chemical methods. Similarly, N-PLS showed a correlation between mass outputs and parameters related to the sugar content. These results demonstrated that electronic tongues based on arrays of EQCM sensors can offer advantages over arrays of mass or voltammetric sensors used separately. PMID:26610494

  4. AC-electronic and dielectric properties of semiconducting phthalocyanine compounds: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hraibat, Safa'a. M.; M-L. Kitaneh, Rushdi; Abu-Samreh, Mohammad M.; Saleh, Abdelkarim M.

    2013-11-01

    The AC-electronic and dielectric properties of different phthalocyanine films (ZnPc, CuPc, FePc, and H2Pc) were investigated over a wide range of temperature. Both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant (ɛ = ɛ1 - iɛ2) were found to be influenced by temperature and frequency. Qualitatively the behavior was the same for those compounds; however, the central atom, film thickness, and the electrode type play an important role in the variation of their values. The relaxation time, τ, was strongly frequency-dependent at all temperatures and low frequencies, while a weak dependency is observed at higher frequencies. The relaxation activation energy was derived from the slopes of the fitted lines of ln τ and the reciprocal of the temperature (1/T). The values of the activation energy were accounted for the hopping process at low temperatures, while a thermally activated conduction process was dominant at higher temperatures. The maximum barrier height, Wm, was found to be temperature and frequency dependent for all phthalocyanine compounds. The value Wm depends greatly on the nature of the central atom and electrode material type. The correlated barrier hopping model was found to be the appropriate mechanism to describe the charge carrier's transport in phthalocyanine films.

  5. Liposomes as vaccine delivery systems: a review of the recent advances.

    PubMed

    Schwendener, Reto A

    2014-11-01

    Liposomes and liposome-derived nanovesicles such as archaeosomes and virosomes have become important carrier systems in vaccine development and the interest for liposome-based vaccines has markedly increased. A key advantage of liposomes, archaeosomes and virosomes in general, and liposome-based vaccine delivery systems in particular, is their versatility and plasticity. Liposome composition and preparation can be chosen to achieve desired features such as selection of lipid, charge, size, size distribution, entrapment and location of antigens or adjuvants. Depending on the chemical properties, water-soluble antigens (proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, haptens) are entrapped within the aqueous inner space of liposomes, whereas lipophilic compounds (lipopeptides, antigens, adjuvants, linker molecules) are intercalated into the lipid bilayer and antigens or adjuvants can be attached to the liposome surface either by adsorption or stable chemical linking. Coformulations containing different types of antigens or adjuvants can be combined with the parameters mentioned to tailor liposomal vaccines for individual applications. Special emphasis is given in this review to cationic adjuvant liposome vaccine formulations. Examples of vaccines made with CAF01, an adjuvant composed of the synthetic immune-stimulating mycobacterial cordfactor glycolipid trehalose dibehenate as immunomodulator and the cationic membrane forming molecule dimethyl dioctadecylammonium are presented. Other vaccines such as cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDCs) and other adjuvants like muramyl dipeptide, monophosphoryl lipid A and listeriolysin O are mentioned as well. The field of liposomes and liposome-based vaccines is vast. Therefore, this review concentrates on recent and relevant studies emphasizing current reports dealing with the most studied antigens and adjuvants, and pertinent examples of vaccines. Studies on liposome-based veterinary vaccines and experimental therapeutic cancer vaccines are also summarized. PMID:25364509

  6. PLGA/liposome hybrid nanoparticles for short-chain ceramide delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Peng; Stern, Stephan T.; Sun, Duxin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Rapid premature release of lipophilic drugs from liposomal lipid bilayer to plasma proteins and biological membranes is a challenge for targeted drug delivery. The purpose of this study is to reduce premature release of lipophilic short-chain ceramides by encapsulating ceramides into liposomal aqueous interior with the aid of poly( lactic-coglycolicacid) (PLGA). Methods BODIPY FL labeled ceramide (FL-ceramide) and BODIPY-TR labeled ceramide (TR-ceramide) were encapsulated into carboxy-terminated PLGA nanoparticles. The negatively charged PLGA nanoparticles were then encapsulated into cationic liposomes to obtain PLGA/liposome hybrids. As a control, FL-ceramide and/or TR ceramide co-loaded liposomes without PLGA were prepared. The release of ceramides from PLGA/liposome hybrids and liposomes in rat plasma, cultured MDA-MB-231 cells, and rat blood circulation was compared using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between FL-ceramide (donor) and TR-ceramide (acceptor). Results FRET analysis showed that FL-ceramide and TR-ceramide in liposomal lipid bilayer were rapidly released during incubation with rat plasma. In contrast, the FL-ceramide and TR-ceramide in PLGA/liposome hybrids showed extended release. FRET images of cells revealed that ceramides in liposomal bilayer were rapidly transferred to cell membranes. In contrast, ceramides in PLGA/liposome hybrids were internalized into cells with nanoparticles simultaneously. Upon intravenous administration to rats, ceramides encapsulated in liposomal bilayer were completely released in 2 minutes. In contrast, ceramides encapsulated in the PLGA core were retained in PLGA/liposome hybrids for 4 hours. Conclusions The PLGA/liposome hybrid nanoparticles reduced in vitro and in vivo premature release of ceramides and offer a viable platform for targeted delivery of lipophilic drugs. PMID:24065591

  7. N-trimethyl chitosan chloride-coated liposomes for the oral delivery of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huanlei; Wu, Jun; Sun, Min; Guo, Chenyu; Yu, Aihua; Cao, Fengliang; Zhao, Liyan; Tan, Qi; Zhai, Guangxi

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were to design the formulation of curcumin (CUR) liposomes coated with N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC) and to evaluate in vitro release characteristics and in vivo pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of TMC-coated CUR liposomes in rats. The structure of synthesized TMC was examined by infrared spectroscopy, with the presence of trimethyl groups, and by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, indicating the high degree of substitution quaternization (65.6%). Liposomes, composed of soybean phosphotidylcholine, cholestrol, and D-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate, were prepared by a thin-film dispersion method. Characteristics of the CUR liposomes, including entrapment efficiency (86.67%), drug-loading efficiency (2.33%), morphology, particle size (221.4?nm for uncoated liposomes and 657.7?nm for TMC-coated liposomes), and zeta potential (-9.63 mV for uncoated liposomes and +15.64 mV for TMC-coated liposomes) were investigated. Uncoated CUR liposomes and TMC-coated CUR liposomes showed a similar in vitro release profile. Nearly 50% of CUR was released from liposomes, whereas 80% of CUR was released from CUR propylene glycol solution. CUR incorporated into TMC-coated liposomes exhibited different pharmacokinetic parameters and enhanced bioavailability (C(max)?=?46.13 ?g/L, t(1/2)?=?12.05 hours, AUC?=?416.58 ?g/Lh), compared with CUR encapsulated by uncoated liposomes (C(max)?=?32.12 ?g/L, t(1/2)?=?9.79 hours, AUC?=?263.77 ?g/Lh) and CUR suspension (C(max)?=?35.46 ?g/L, t(1/2)?=?3.85 hours, AUC?=?244.77 ?g/Lh). In conclusion, oral delivery of coated CUR liposomes is a promising strategy for poorly water-soluble CUR. PMID:22007962

  8. N-trimethyl chitosan chloride-coated liposomes for the oral delivery of curcumin.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Chen H; Wu J; Sun M; Guo C; Yu A; Cao F; Zhao L; Tan Q; Zhai G

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were to design the formulation of curcumin (CUR) liposomes coated with N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC) and to evaluate in vitro release characteristics and in vivo pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of TMC-coated CUR liposomes in rats. The structure of synthesized TMC was examined by infrared spectroscopy, with the presence of trimethyl groups, and by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, indicating the high degree of substitution quaternization (65.6%). Liposomes, composed of soybean phosphotidylcholine, cholestrol, and D-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate, were prepared by a thin-film dispersion method. Characteristics of the CUR liposomes, including entrapment efficiency (86.67%), drug-loading efficiency (2.33%), morphology, particle size (221.4?nm for uncoated liposomes and 657.7?nm for TMC-coated liposomes), and zeta potential (-9.63 mV for uncoated liposomes and +15.64 mV for TMC-coated liposomes) were investigated. Uncoated CUR liposomes and TMC-coated CUR liposomes showed a similar in vitro release profile. Nearly 50% of CUR was released from liposomes, whereas 80% of CUR was released from CUR propylene glycol solution. CUR incorporated into TMC-coated liposomes exhibited different pharmacokinetic parameters and enhanced bioavailability (C(max)?=?46.13 ?g/L, t(1/2)?=?12.05 hours, AUC?=?416.58 ?g/Lh), compared with CUR encapsulated by uncoated liposomes (C(max)?=?32.12 ?g/L, t(1/2)?=?9.79 hours, AUC?=?263.77 ?g/Lh) and CUR suspension (C(max)?=?35.46 ?g/L, t(1/2)?=?3.85 hours, AUC?=?244.77 ?g/Lh). In conclusion, oral delivery of coated CUR liposomes is a promising strategy for poorly water-soluble CUR.

  9. Composition and properties of complexes between spherical polycationic brushes and anionic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sybachin, Andrey V; Zaborova, Olga V; Ballauff, Matthias; Kesselman, Ellina; Schmidt, Judith; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Menger, Fredric M; Yaroslavov, Alexander A

    2012-11-20

    A spherical polycationic brush (SPB) is made by graft-polymerizing a cationic monomer onto the surface of a 100 nm polystyrene bead. It is possible to adsorb anionic liposomes (40-60 nm diameter) onto the SPBs while maintaining the liposome integrity. The liposomes were constructed with phosphatidyl choline (PC) admixed with 0.05-0.4 mol fraction of an dianionic lipid, cardiolipin (CL(2-)). As shown by electrophoretic mobility measurements, SPB-to-liposome complexation leads to a conversion from the initial positive charge of the copolymer to a negative charge. The higher the CL(2-) content of the liposomes, the lower the concentration needed for charge neutralization. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) revealed that multicomplex aggregates are formed with a maximum size at the SPB/liposome charge-equivalence point. Experiments with fluorescent-labeled liposomes show that at low CL(2-) content about 80 liposomes are adsorbed per SPB. As the mole fraction of CL(2-) increases from 0.05 to 0.4, fewer liposomes adsorb owing to electrostatic repulsion among neighboring liposomes. The effect of added NaCl also depends upon the CL(2-) content. With 0.05 mol fraction CL(2-), the SPB/liposome complex dissociates into its components at 0.15 M NaCl. With a mole fraction of >0.1, complexes fail to dissociate even at 1.2 M NaCl. Additional information about the SPB/liposome morphology was obtained from cryo-TEM. For example, cryo-TEM data confirm liposome integrity upon complexation, a behavior that contrasts with the liposome destruction as found with adsorption to many other types of surfaces. PMID:23121151

  10. Formulation, antileukemia mechanism, pharmacokinetics, and biodistribution of a novel liposomal emodin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiechuang; Yin, Xiaodong; Lu, Yaping; Shan, Weiguang; Xiong, Subin

    2012-01-01

    Emodin is a multifunctional Chinese traditional medicine with poor water solubility. D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) is a pegylated vitamin E derivate. In this study, a novel liposomal-emodin-conjugating TPGS was formulated and compared with methoxypolyethyleneglycol 2000-derivatized distearoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (mPEG2000–DSPE) liposomal emodin. TPGS improved the encapsulation efficiency and stability of emodin egg phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol liposomes. A high encapsulation efficiency of 95.2% ± 3.0%, particle size of 121.1 ± 44.9 nm, spherical ultrastructure, and sustained in vitro release of TPGS liposomal emodin were observed; these were similar to mPEG2000–DSPE liposomes. Only the zeta potential of −13.1 ± 2.7 mV was significantly different to that for mPEG2000–DSPE liposomes. Compared to mPEG2000–DSPE liposomes, TPGS liposomes improved the cytotoxicity of emodin on leukemia cells by regulating the protein levels of myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein, which was further enhanced by transferrin. TPGS liposomes prolonged the circulation time of emodin in the blood, with the area under the concentration–time curve (AUC) 1.7 times larger than for free emodin and 0.91 times larger than for mPEG2000–DSPE liposomes. In addition, TPGS liposomes showed higher AUC for emodin in the lung and kidney than for mPEG2000–DSPE liposomes, and both liposomes elevated the amount of emodin in the heart. Overall, TPGS is a pegylated agent that could potentially be used to compose a stable liposomal emodin with enhanced therapeutics. PMID:22661889

  11. Hydrogen peroxide permeation across liposomal membranes: a novel method to assess structural flaws in liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sitaramam, V; Mathai, J C; Rao, N M; Block, L H

    Hydrogen peroxide permeation across large multilamellar vesicles of defined and complex lipid composition was shown to obey precise kinetic relationships for the activity of the occluded catalase. Careful assay conditions precluded simultaneous peroxidative damage to the lipids. The kinetic data was consistent with a barrier role for the bilayer for hydrogen peroxide permeation. More interestingly, hydrogen peroxide permeation across liposomes of complex lipid mixtures exhibited osmotic inhibition of permeation of hydrogen peroxide. On the other hand, purified egg lecithin vesicles did not exhibit any effect of external osmolality on hydrogen peroxide permeation in an experimentally defined non-lytic zone of external osmolarity. These results argue in favour of a heterogeneous, heteroporous structure of bilayers with complex lipid composition. PMID:2622459

  12. Development and characterization of an innovative heparin coating to stabilize and protect liposomes against adverse immune reactions.

    PubMed

    Duehrkop, Claudia; Leneweit, Gero; Heyder, Christoph; Fromell, Karin; Edwards, Katarina; Ekdahl, Kristina N; Nilsson, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Liposomes have been recognized as excellent drug delivery systems, but when they come in direct contact with different blood components they may trigger an immediate activation of the innate immune system. The aim of the present study was to produce long-circulating, blood-compatible liposomes by developing a construct of liposomes covered by a novel unique heparin complex (CHC; 70 heparin molecules per complex) to avoid recognition by the innate immune system. Unilamellar, cationic liposomes were produced by hand extrusion through a 100-nm polycarbonate membrane. Coating of liposomes with the macromolecular CHC was accomplished by electrostatic interactions. Dynamic light scattering as well as QCM-D measurements were used to verify the electrostatic deposition of the negatively charged CHC to cationic liposomes. The CHC-coated liposomes did not aggregate when in contact with lepirudin anti-coagulated plasma. Unlike previous attempts to coat liposomes with heparin, this technique produced freely moveable heparin strands sticking out from the liposome surface, which exposed AT binding sites reflecting the anticoagulant potentials of the liposomes. In experiments using lepirudin-anticoagulated plasma, CHC-coated liposomes, in contrast to non-coated control liposomes, did not activate the complement system, as evidenced by low C3a and sC5b-9 generation and reduced leakage from the liposomes. In conclusion, we show that liposomes can be successfully coated with the biopolymer CHC, resulting in biocompatible and stable liposomes that have significant application potential. PMID:26897551

  13. Electropolymerizable peripherally tetra-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy} substituted as well as axially (4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propanoxy-disubstituted silicon phthalocyanines and their electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Biyiklioglu, Zekeriya; Alp, Hakan

    2015-11-21

    A novel type of peripherally tetra-substituted as well as axially disubstituted silicon(iv) phthalocyanine containing electropolymerizable ligands was designed and synthesized for the first time. Axial bis-hydroxy silicon phthalocyanine 2 was prepared from 2(3),9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy}phthalocyanine 1 in dichloromethane by using 1.8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) and trichlorosilane. Peripherally tetra and axially di-substituted silicon phthalocyanine 4 was synthesized from 2(3),9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy}silicon(iv)phthalocyanine dihydroxide 2 with 1-(3-chloropropyl)-4-phenylpiperazine 3 in toluene in the presence of NaH at 120 C. These complexes were fully characterized by various spectroscopy techniques such as (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, IR, UV-Vis, and MALDI-TOF spectroscopy and elemental analysis as well. Electropolymerization properties of silicon(IV) phthalocyanine complexes were investigated by cyclic and square wave voltammetry. Electrochemical studies reveal that silicon(IV) phthalocyanine complexes were electropolymerized on the working electrode during the anodic potential scan. This study is the first example of electropolymerization of both peripherally tetra and axially di-substituted silicon phthalocyanines on the same molecule. PMID:26478450

  14. Distribution of liposome-encapsulated iodixanol in rat liver cells.

    PubMed

    Kjeken, R; Kindberg, G M; Berg, T

    2000-08-15

    Distribution of liposome-encapsulated [(125)I]iodixanol in different types of liver cells following intravenous injection was studied in rats. The data showed that liposome-encapsulated [(125)I]iodixanol was rapidly taken up by the liver; after 15 min, radioactivity corresponding to nearly 25% of the injected radioactivity could be recovered therein. After 4 hr, approximately 60% of the injected radioactivity was in the liver. One week after injection, nearly 30% of the encapsulated radioactivity could still be recovered in the liver. Liposome-encapsulated [(125)I]iodixanol was taken up both by hepatocytes and the Kupffer cells. On a per cell basis, the uptake of liposome-encapsulated [(125)I]iodixanol in Kupffer cells was more than 10-fold greater than that in hepatocytes, while the contribution of liver endothelial cells to uptake was negligible. Osmotic protection studies showed that iodixanol does not readily diffuse across lysosomal membranes, indicating that loss of iodixanol from the liver probably occurred by recycling rather than by diffusion across phagolysosomal and plasma membranes. PMID:10874130

  15. Stability of a liposomal formulation containing lipoyl or dihydrolipoyl acylglycerides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acylglycerides of lipoic and dihydrolipoic acids may serve as slow-release sources for cutaneous delivery of these antioxidants when formulated in a liposomal vehicle. Testing was conducted to determine the storage stability of the lipoic derivatives and of the soybean phospholipids in which the...

  16. Carcinogenesis response modulation induced by gelonin encapsulated in liposome.

    PubMed

    Alam, Anis; Nakhuru, K S; Singha, L I

    2008-08-01

    The effectiveness of gelonin to arrest protein synthesis, thereby limiting the growth of cancer cells was studied by encapsulating it into liposomes. The protein was extracted from the seeds of Indian plant Gelonium multiflorum by ammonium sulfate precipitation and purified using cation-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. Biological activity of purified gelonin was determined using a rabbit reticulocyte lysate assay in the cell-free translational experiments. Gelonin was encapsulated in conventional liposomes prepared by the dry film method in order to retain biological activity of the entrapped protein. Carcinogenesis was induced in Swiss albino mice by intravenous administration of DBN (10 mg kg(-1) body weight) at weekly intervals. Marker enzyme assays (GGT, AChE, and GST), GSH levels, cell proliferation assay, hepatocyte DNA analysis, histological examination of micro sections of liver tissues were parameters used to monitor carcinogenesis induction, and regression in mice. From the in vitro experiments conducted, it was observed that gelonin upon its encapsulation into liposome, resulted in significant destruction of the transformed liver cells by its cytotoxic effects that arrest protein synthesis. Various parameters studied to monitor regression also suggested mass cell destruction to liver upon administration of liposomal gelonin in mice exposed to DBN. PMID:18500656

  17. Enhancing Methotrexate Tolerance with Folate Tagged Liposomes in Arthritic Mice.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugénia; Lager, Franck; Le Roux, Delphine; Nogueira, Patrícia; Freitas, Jaime; Charvet, Celine; Renault, Gilles; Loureiro, Ana; Almeida, Catarina R; Ohradanova-Repic, Anna; Machacek, Christian; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Moreira, Alexandra; Stockinger, Hannes; Burnet, Michael; Carmo, Alexandre M; Gomes, Andreia C; Preto, Ana; Bismuth, Georges; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-12-01

    Methotrexate is the first line of treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Since many patients become unresponsive to methotrexate treatment, only very expensive biological therapies are effective and increased methotrexate tolerance strategies need to be identified. Here we propose the encapsulation of methotrexate in a new liposomal formulation using a hydrophobic fragment of surfactant protein conjugated to a linker and folate to enhance their tolerance and efficacy. In this study we aim to evaluate the efficiency of this system to treat rheumatoid arthritis, by targeting folate receptor β present at the surface of activated macrophages, key effector cells in this pathology. The specificity of our liposomal formulation to target folate receptor β was investigated both in vitro as in vivo using a mouse model of arthritis (collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1J mice strain). In both systems, the liposomal constructs were shown to be highly specific and efficient in targeting folate receptor β. These liposomal formulations also significantly increase the clinical benefit of the encapsulated methotrexate in vivo in arthritic mice, together with reduced expression of CD39 and CD73 ectonucleotidases by joint-infiltrating macrophages. Thus, our formulation might be a promising cost effective way to treat rheumatoid arthritis and delay or reduce methotrexate intolerance. PMID:26510317

  18. LeciPlex, invasomes, and liposomes: A skin penetration study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sanket M; Ashtikar, Mukul; Jain, Ankitkumar S; Makhija, Dinesh T; Nikam, Yuvraj; Gude, Rajiv P; Steiniger, Frank; Jagtap, Aarti A; Nagarsenker, Mangal S; Fahr, Alfred

    2015-07-25

    The present study compares three vesicular systems, cationic LeciPlex, invasomes, and conventional liposomes for their ability to deliver drugs deep into the skin. Skin penetration ability of the three vesicular systems was studied for two drugs namely idebenone (antioxidant/anticancer) and azelaic acid (antiacne). All systems showed sizes in nanometer range with small polydispersity indices. Vesicular systems were characterized by CryoTEM studies to understand the differences in morphology of the vesicular systems. Ex vivo human skin penetration studies suggested a pattern in penetration of drugs in different layers of the skin: LeciPlex showed higher penetration for idebenone whereas invasomes showed higher penetration of azelaic acid. Ex vivo study using a fluorescent dye (DiI) was performed to understand the differences in the penetration behavior of the three vesicular systems on excised human skin. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on B16F10 melanoma cell lines revealed, when loaded with idebenone, LeciPlex formulations had the superior activity followed by invasomes and liposomes. In vitro antimicrobial study of azelaic acid loaded systems on Propionibacterium acne revealed high antimicrobial activity for DDAB leciplex followed by almost equal activity for invasomes and CTAB LeciPlex followed by liposomes. Whereas antiacne efficacy study in rats for azelaic acid loaded systems, invasomes exhibited the best antiacne efficacy followed by liposomes and LeciPlex. PMID:26002568

  19. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hélène; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure. PMID:26735920

  20. Porphyrin–phospholipid liposomes permeabilized by near-infrared light

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Kevin A.; Shao, Shuai; Hoopes, Matthew I.; Luo, Dandan; Ahsan, Bilal; Grigoryants, Vladimir M.; Song, Wentao; Huang, Haoyuan; Zhang, Guojian; Pandey, Ravindra K.; Geng, Jumin; Pfeifer, Blaine A.; Scholes, Charles P.; Ortega, Joaquin; Karttunen, Mikko; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2014-01-01

    The delivery of therapeutic compounds to target tissues is a central challenge in treating disease. Externally controlled drug release systems hold potential to selectively enhance localized delivery. Here we describe liposomes doped with porphyrin–phospholipid that are permeabilized directly by near-infrared light. Molecular dynamics simulations identified a novel light-absorbing monomer esterified from clinically approved components predicted and experimentally demonstrated to give rise to a more stable porphyrin bilayer. Light-induced membrane permeabilization is enabled with liposomal inclusion of 10 molar % porphyrin–phospholipid and occurs in the absence of bulk or nanoscale heating. Liposomes reseal following laser exposure and permeability is modulated by varying porphyrin–phospholipid doping, irradiation intensity or irradiation duration. Porphyrin–phospholipid liposomes demonstrate spatial control of release of entrapped gentamicin and temporal control of release of entrapped fluorophores following intratumoral injection. Following systemic administration, laser irradiation enhances deposition of actively loaded doxorubicin in mouse xenografts, enabling an effective single-treatment antitumour therapy. PMID:24699423

  1. Biocompatible anionic polyelectrolyte for improved liposome based gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Zeng, Zhiying; Qu, Xiaohuan; Tang, Yaqin; Long, Qipeng; Feng, Xuli

    2015-07-25

    Cationic liposomes have been widely used as efficient gene carriers. However, the serious cytotoxicity caused by exposed positive charges restricts the further application of those kinds of gene vectors. Thus, it is challenging to develop biocompatiable non-positive charge carriers to achieve high gene transfection efficiencies. Herein, we report a novel design by pasting biocompatible anionic polyelectrolyte, namely alginic acid, hyaluronic acid, pectin and polyglutamic acid, to the positive charge surface of liposome/pDNA complex. Through shielding the positive charges, the new gene carriers show decreased cytotoxicity while still maintaining high transfection efficiency. To be noted, the complex formed by coating polyglutamic acid to the surface of liposome/pDNA greatly enhanced the transfection efficiency in HepG2 cells, and the use of pectin shows increased transfection in MCF-7 cells. Hemolysis assay proved a possible mechanism that when the new gene complex was internalized into cells, as acidity increases, more side chains become hydrophobic, and thus destabilizing the endosomal membrane to accelerate DNA escape. The present results suggest that such anionic polyelectrolyte covered liposome based carrier possess promising application for clinical gene delivery. PMID:26004001

  2. Capillary electrophoresis of liposomes functionalized for protein binding.

    PubMed

    Bilek, Gerhard; Kremser, Leopold; Blaas, Dieter; Kenndler, Ernst

    2006-10-01

    CE enabled assessing the attachment of hexa-histidine-tagged proteins to functionalized phospholipid liposomes. The liposomes were made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine, cholesterol and distearoyl-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-methoxy(polyethylene glycol) in a molar ratio of 29:26:40:5. The unilamellar vesicles, which had an average diameter of 170 nm, were labelled by inclusion of FITC-dextran for fluorescence detection. CE was carried out in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-coated capillaries at 25 degrees C with a BGE consisting of Tris-HCl (50 mM, pH 8.0). For conjugation of the liposomes with the proteins (soluble synthetic receptor fragments with molecular mass of 60 and 70 kDa, respectively), Ni(2+) was implanted into the vesicle surface by an anchor lipid containing a nitrilotriacetate acid (NTA) group as complexation agent for the metal ions. The difference in surface charge enabled the separation of the different species of interest by CE: plain vesicles, vesicles functionalised with Ni-NTA, vesicle-protein complexes and the species formed upon removal of the Ni-ions by complexation with EDTA. Loss of the Ni-ions resulted in the release of the proteins and the reappearance of the plain Ni-free NTA-liposome species in the electropherograms. PMID:16983637

  3. In ovo transfection of chicken embryos using cationic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, C I; Chen, H Y

    1995-05-01

    It is reported that cationic liposomes are capable of transfecting embryos in unincubated fertile chicken eggs and that the cationic liposome, TransfectAce, has superior properties to Lipofectin. In order to determine the duration of expression of genes introduced in this way, embryos were transfected with an expression vector encoding the firefly luciferase cDNA under the control of the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat (LTR). Luciferase activity could be observed consistently in day 3 embryos and activity was detectable up to day 8 of incubation. The relative expression of luciferase under the control of different viral promoters was compared in transfected chicken embryo fibroblasts and day 3 embryos. The cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter and the SV40 early promoter directed the highest amount of expression in fibroblasts while the Rous sarcoma virus LTR caused the highest amount of expression in embryos. Chicken embryo fibroblasts were transfected with the luciferase vector in order to examine duration of reporter gene expression in vitro. Luciferase expression was decreased exponentially over a 24-day period after which point luciferase activity could no longer be detected. These data suggest that stable integration of transfected DNA using liposomes is a rare event. Nevertheless, liposome-mediated transfection of embryos is suitable for the examination of promoter activity in vivo and may be a useful method to transfect genes to study embryonic development. PMID:7795662

  4. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hélène; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure. PMID:26735920

  5. Biomolecular Interactions of Tannin Isolated from Oenothera gigas with Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sekowski, Szymon; Ionov, Maksim; Dubis, Alina; Mavlyanov, Saidmukhtar; Bryszewska, Maria; Zamaraeva, Maria

    2016-04-01

    We have examined the interaction between hydrolysable tannin 1-O-galloyl-4,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-D-glucose (OGβDG) with neutral liposomes as a model of cell membranes composed of three lipids: lecithin, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) at different mass ratios. OGβDG in the concentration range 0.5-15 µg/ml (0.4-12 µM) strongly interacts with liposomal membranes by changing their structure, surface charge and fluidity. Used OGβDG molecules decrease and increase the rigidity of hydrophilic surface and hydrophobic parts of liposomes, respectively. At higher concentrations of tannin (>15 µM), liposomes are aggregated. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) analysis showed that mainly -OH groups from OGβDG and also PO(2-) groups from phospholipids are responsible for the interaction. Obtained data indicate the importance of membrane lipid composition in interactions between tannins and cells. PMID:26621636

  6. Porphyrin-phospholipid liposomes permeabilized by near-infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Kevin A.; Shao, Shuai; Hoopes, Matthew I.; Luo, Dandan; Ahsan, Bilal; Grigoryants, Vladimir M.; Song, Wentao; Huang, Haoyuan; Zhang, Guojian; Pandey, Ravindra K.; Geng, Jumin; Pfeifer, Blaine A.; Scholes, Charles P.; Ortega, Joaquin; Karttunen, Mikko; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2014-04-01

    The delivery of therapeutic compounds to target tissues is a central challenge in treating disease. Externally controlled drug release systems hold potential to selectively enhance localized delivery. Here we describe liposomes doped with porphyrin-phospholipid that are permeabilized directly by near-infrared light. Molecular dynamics simulations identified a novel light-absorbing monomer esterified from clinically approved components predicted and experimentally demonstrated to give rise to a more stable porphyrin bilayer. Light-induced membrane permeabilization is enabled with liposomal inclusion of 10 molar % porphyrin-phospholipid and occurs in the absence of bulk or nanoscale heating. Liposomes reseal following laser exposure and permeability is modulated by varying porphyrin-phospholipid doping, irradiation intensity or irradiation duration. Porphyrin-phospholipid liposomes demonstrate spatial control of release of entrapped gentamicin and temporal control of release of entrapped fluorophores following intratumoral injection. Following systemic administration, laser irradiation enhances deposition of actively loaded doxorubicin in mouse xenografts, enabling an effective single-treatment antitumour therapy.

  7. Single cell targeting using plasmon resonant gold-coated liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Sarah J.; Romanowski, Marek

    2012-03-01

    We have developed an experimental system with the potential for the delivery and localized release of an encapsulated agent with high spatial and temporal resolution. We previously introduced liposome-supported plasmon resonant gold nanoshells; in this composite structure, the liposome allows for the encapsulation of substances, such as therapeutic agents, neurotransmitters, or growth factors, and the plasmon resonant structure facilitates the rapid release of encapsulated contents upon laser light illumination. More recently, we demonstrated that these gold-coated liposomes are capable of releasing their contents in a spectrally-controlled manner, where plasmon resonant nanoparticles only release content upon illumination with a wavelength of light matching their plasmon resonance band. We now show that this release mechanism can be used in a biological setting to deliver a peptide derivative of cholecystokinin to HEK293 cells overexpressing the CCK2 receptor. Using directed laser light, we may enable localized release from gold-coated liposomes to enable accurate perturbation of cellular functions in response to released compounds; this system may have possible applications in signaling pathways and drug discovery.

  8. Amino acids as cryoprotectants for liposomal delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Afzal R; Coombes, Allan G A; Perrie, Yvonne

    2007-04-01

    Liposomes provide an efficient delivery system for solubilisation and delivery of both small and macro molecules. However, they suffer from the disadvantage of instability when stored as aqueous dispersions. Cryoprotection of the liposomal systems provides an effective approach to overcome poor stability whilst maintaining formulation characteristics, although, the formulation of a freeze-dried product requires the consideration of not only the selection of an appropriate cryoprotectant, but also needs careful consideration of the processing parameters including pre-freezing conditions, primary and secondary drying protocols along with optimisation of cryoprotectant concentration. This current work investigates the application of amino acids as potential cryoprotectants for the stabilisation of liposomes, and results indicate that amino acids show biphasic nature of stabilisation with 4 mol of cryoprotectant per mole of the lipid exhibiting optimum cryoprotection. The investigations of process parameters showed that the pre-freezing temperatures below the glass transition of the amino acids followed by drying for over 6h resulted in stable formulations. Studies investigating the efficiency of drug retention showed that the cryoprotection offered by lysine was similar to that shown by trehalose, suggesting that amino acids act as effective stabilizers. ESEM analysis was carried out to monitor morphology of the rehydrated liposomes. PMID:17317117

  9. Liposome (Lipodine)-mediated DNA vaccination by the oral route.

    PubMed

    Perrie, Yvonne; Obrenovic, Mia; McCarthy, David; Gregoriadis, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    Plasmid DNA pRc/CMV HBS encoding the S (small) region of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was incorporated by the dehydration-rehydration method into Lipodine liposomes composed of 16 micro moles phosphatidylcholine (PC) or distearoyl phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), 8 micro moles of (dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) or cholesterol and 4 micro moles of the cationic lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-3-(trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP) (molar ratios 1 : 0.5 : 0.25). Incorporation efficiency was high (89-93% of the amount of DNA used) in all four formulations tested and incorporated DNA was shown to be resistant to displacement in the presence of the competing anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate molecules. This is consistent with the notion that most of the DNA is incorporated within the multilamellar vesicles structure rather than being vesicle surface-complexed. Stability studies performed in simulated intestinal media also demonstrated that dehydration-rehydration vesicles (DRV) incorporating DNA (DRV(DNA)) were able to retain significantly more of their DNA content compared to DNA complexed with preformed small unilamellar vesicles (SUV-DNA) of the same composition. Moreover, after 4h incubation in the media, DNA loss for DSPC DRV(DNA) was only minimal, suggesting this to be the most stable formulation. Oral (intragastric) liposome-mediated DNA immunisation studies employing a variety of DRV(DNA) formulations as well as naked DNA revealed that secreted IgA responses against the encoded HBsAg were (as early as three weeks after the first dose) substantially higher after dosing with 100 micro g liposome-entrapped DNA compared to naked DNA. Throughout the fourteen week investigation, IgA responses in mice were consistently higher with the DSPC DRV(DNA) liposomes compared to naked DNA and correlated well with their improved DNA retention when exposed to model intestinal fluids. To investigate gene expression after oral (intragastric) administration, mice were given 100 micro g of naked or DSPC DRV liposome-entrapped plasmid DNA expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (pCMV.EGFP). Expression of the gene, in terms of fluorescence intensity in the draining mesenteric lymph nodes, was much greater in mice dosed with liposomal DNA than in animals dosed with the naked DNA. These results suggest that DSPC DRV liposomes containing DNA (Lipodine) may be a useful system for the oral delivery of DNA vaccines. PMID:12604053

  10. Sequential energy and charge transfer processes in mixed host-guest complexes of subphthalocyanine, porphyrin and phthalocyanine chromophores.

    PubMed

    Menting, Roel; Ng, Dennis K P; Röder, Beate; Ermilov, Eugeny A

    2012-11-14

    Porphyrins, phthalocyanines and subphthalocyanines are three attractive classes of chromophores with intriguing properties making them suitable for the design of artificial photosynthetic systems. The assembly of these components by a supramolecular approach is of particular interest as it provides a facile means to build multi-chromophoric arrays with various architectures and tuneable photophysical properties. In this paper, we show the formation of mixed host-guest supramolecular complexes that consist of a β-cyclodextrin-conjugated subphthalocyanine, a tetrasulfonated porphyrin and a series of silicon(IV) phthalocyanines substituted axially with two β-cyclodextrins via different spacers. We found that the three components form supramolecular complexes held by host-guest interactions in aqueous solution. Upon excitation of the subphthalocyanine part of the complex, the excitation energy is delivered to the phthalocyanine unit via excitation energy transfer and the porphyrin chromophore acts as an energy transfer bridge enabling this process. It was shown that photo-induced charge transfer also takes place. A sequential electron transfer process from the porphyrin unit to the phthalocyanine moiety and subsequently from the subphthalocyanine moiety to the porphyrin unit takes place, and the probability of this process is controlled by the linker between β-cyclodextrin and phthalocyanine. The lifetime of the charge-separated state was found to be 1.7 ns by transient absorption spectroscopy. PMID:23015070

  11. Liposome-mediated DNA vaccination: the effect of vesicle composition.

    PubMed

    Perrie, Y; Frederik, P M; Gregoriadis, G

    2001-04-30

    Liposome-entrapped DNA has been shown to enhance the potency of DNA vaccines, possibly by facilitating uptake of the plasmid by antigen-presenting cells (APC). In this paper, we have investigated the influence of the liposomal composition and surface charge on such potency. Plasmid DNA pRc/CMV HBS encoding the S (small) region of hepatitis B surface antigen was entrapped within cationic liposomes of various compositions and surface charges with high efficiency (88-97% of the amount used) by the dehydration-rehydration method that generates dehydration-rehydration vesicles (DRV). Cryo-electron microscopy revealed that DNA-containing DRV (DRV(DNA)) were multilamellar. In immunisation studies, female Balb/c mice were given two to four intramuscular injections of 10 microg naked or liposome-entrapped pRc/CMV HBS and bled at time intervals. Results indicate that the lipid composition of the DRV(DNA) influences the strength of the humoural response (immunoglobulin (Ig)G subclasses) with inclusion of dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) or phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in the liposomal structure contributing to greater responses. DRV(DNA) in which the DOPE or PE were omitted or substituted with cholesterol led to significant reduction of humoural responses against the encoded antigen. Replacing phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the DRV(DNA) with the high-melting distearoyl phosphatidylcholine also contributed to lower responses. In other experiments, IgG responses were monitored in mice immunised with pRc/CMV HBS entrapped in DRV composed of PC and DOPE as before but incorporating increasing amounts of DOTAP (1-16 micromol). Maximal IgG responses were observed at 10 weeks after the first of four injections and suggested a trend of higher responses when 4 or 8 micromol DOTAP was present in the DRV(DNA) formulation. Cell-mediated immunity (measured in terms of endogenous antigen-specific splenic interferon-gamma) in mice immunised with pRc/CMV HBS entrapped in liposomes composed of PC, DOPE and DOTAP (16:8:4 molar ratio) was much greater than in animals treated with naked plasmid. These results indicate that liposome-mediated DNA immunisation is more effective than the use of naked DNA, and also suggest that the presence of fusogenic phosphatidylethanolamine in DRV in conjunction with a low-melting phosphatidylcholine and an appropriate content of cationic lipid might contribute to more effective liposomal DNA vaccines. The notion that liposomes improve immune responses to the plasmid-encoded vaccine by facilitating the latter's uptake by APC was supported by the observation that in Balb/c mice injected intramuscularly with liposome-entrapped pCMV. Enhanced green fluorescent protein, expression of the gene in terms of fluorescence intensity in the draining lymph nodes, was much greater than in animals treated with the naked plasmid. PMID:11312029

  12. Hybrid assemblies of fluorescent nanocrystals and membrane proteins in liposomes.

    PubMed

    De Leo, Vincenzo; Catucci, Lucia; Falqui, Andrea; Marotta, Roberto; Striccoli, Marinella; Agostiano, Angela; Comparelli, Roberto; Milano, Francesco

    2014-02-18

    Because of the growing potential of nanoparticles in biological and medical applications, tuning and directing their properties toward a high compatibility with the aqueous biological milieu is of remarkable relevance. Moreover, the capability to combine nanocrystals (NCs) with biomolecules, such as proteins, offers great opportunities to design hybrid systems for both nanobiotechnology and biomedical technology. Here we report on the application of the micelle-to-vesicle transition (MVT) method for incorporation of hydrophobic, red-emitting CdSe@ZnS NCs into the bilayer of liposomes. This method enabled the construction of a novel hybrid proteo-NC-liposome containing, as model membrane protein, the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Electron microscopy confirmed the insertion of NCs within the lipid bilayer without significantly altering the structure of the unilamellar vesicles. The resulting aqueous NC-liposome suspensions showed low turbidity and kept unaltered the wavelengths of absorbance and emission peaks of the native NCs. A relative NC fluorescence quantum yield up to 8% was preserved after their incorporation in liposomes. Interestingly, in proteo-NC-liposomes, RC is not denatured by Cd-based NCs, retaining its structural and functional integrity as shown by absorption spectra and flash-induced charge recombination kinetics. The outlined strategy can be extended in principle to any suitably sized hydrophobic NC with similar surface chemistry and to any integral protein complex. Furthermore, the proposed approach could be used in nanomedicine for the realization of theranostic systems and provides new, interesting perspectives for understanding the interactions between integral membrane proteins and nanoparticles, i.e., in nanotoxicology studies. PMID:24460372

  13. Liposome-encapsulated peptides protect against experimental allergic encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Belogurov, Alexey A.; Stepanov, Alexey V.; Smirnov, Ivan V.; Melamed, Dobroslav; Bacon, Andrew; Mamedov, Azad E.; Boitsov, Vitali M.; Sashchenko, Lidia P.; Ponomarenko, Natalia A.; Sharanova, Svetlana N.; Boyko, Alexey N.; Dubina, Michael V.; Friboulet, Alain; Genkin, Dmitry D.; Gabibov, Alexander G.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a severe inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease with an autoimmune background. Despite the variety of therapeutics available against MS, the development of novel approaches to its treatment is of high importance in modern pharmaceutics. In this study, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Dark Agouti rats has been treated with immunodominant peptides of the myelin basic protein (MBP) encapsulated in mannosylated small unilamellar vesicles. The results show that liposome-encapsulated MBP4662 is the most effective in reducing maximal disease score during the first attack, while MBP124139 and MBP147170 can completely prevent the development of the exacerbation stage. Both mannosylation of liposomes and encapsulation of peptides are critical for the therapeutic effect, since neither naked peptides nor nonmannosylated liposomes, loaded or empty, have proved effective. The liposome-mediated synergistic effect of the mixture of 3 MBP peptides significantly suppresses the progression of protracted EAE, with the median cumulative disease score being reduced from 22 to 14 points, compared to the placebo group; prevents the production of circulating autoantibodies; down-regulates the synthesis of Th1 cytokines; and induces the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. Thus, the proposed formulation ameliorates EAE, providing for a less severe first attack and rapid recovery from exacerbation, and offers a promising therapeutic modality in MS treatment.Belogurov, A. A., Jr., Stepanov, A. V., Smirnov, I. V., Melamed, D., Bacon, A., Mamedov, A. E., Boitsov, V. M., Sashchenko, L. P., Ponomarenko, N. A., Sharanova, S. N., Boyko, A. N., Dubina, M. V., Friboulet, A., Genkin, D. D., Gabibov, A. G. Liposome-encapsulated peptides protect against experimental allergic encephalitis. PMID:23047895

  14. Liposomes self-assembled from electrosprayed composite microparticles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Deng-Guang; Yang, Jun-He; Wang, Xia; Tian, Feng

    2012-03-16

    Composite microparticles, consisting of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), naproxen (NAP) and lecithin (PC), have been successfully prepared using an electrospraying process and exploited as templates to manipulate molecular self-assembly for the synthesis of liposomes in situ. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations demonstrate that the microparticles have an average diameter of 960 ± 140 nm and a homogeneous structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) results verify that the building blocks NAP and PC are scattered in the polymer matrix in a molecular way owing to the very fast drying of the electrospraying process and the favorable secondary interactions among the components. FESEM, scanning probe microscope (SPM) and TEM observations demonstrate that the liposomes can be achieved through molecular self-assembly in situ when the microparticles contact water thanks to 'like prefers like' and by means of the confinement effect of the microparticles. The liposomes have an encapsulation rate of 91.3%, and 80.7% of the drug in the liposomes can be freed into the dissolution medium in a sustained way and by a diffusion mechanism over a period of 24 h. The developed strategy not only provides a new, facile, and effective method to assemble and organize molecules of multiple components into liposomes with electrosprayed microparticles as templates, but also opens a new avenue for nanofabrication in a step-by-step and controllable way. PMID:22362251

  15. Pirfenidone-loaded liposomes for lung targeting: preparation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Hui; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to develop novel pirfenidone (PFD)-loaded liposomes for targeting to the lung. Methods The liposomes were prepared by the film hydration method, and their in vitro/vivo characteristics were evaluated. Results The PFD liposomes appeared visually as green to yellowish suspensions and were spherical in shape. The particle size was 582.3±21.6 nm and the entrapment efficiency was relatively high (87.2%±5.7%). The liposomes showed typical sustained and prolonged drug-release behavior in vitro and fitted well with the Weibull distribution equation. The relatively slower time taken to reach a minimal plasma PFD concentration in vivo suggests that PFD liposomes have a sustained-release profile, which is consistent with the results of the in vitro release study. The PFD liposomes showed the largest area under the curve for the lung. The high distribution of PFD achieved in the lungs using this liposomal formulation may be explained by physical entrapment of the liposomes in the vascular network of the lung. Histopathological results indicated that liposomal PFD could alleviate pathological injury in lung tissue. Conclusion This liposomal formulation can enable sustained release of PFD and increase targeting to the lung. PMID:26185416

  16. Lymph node localization of non-specific antibody-coated liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Mangat, S.; Patel, H.M.

    1985-05-20

    Subcutaneously injected small unilamellar liposomes are drained into the lymphatics and localized in the regional lymph nodes, and thus they can be used for the detection of metastatic spread in breast cancer patients and for delivery of drugs to diseased lymph nodes. An aqueous phase marker, (/sup 125/I)-polyvinylpyrrolidone, and a lipid phase marker, (/sup 3/H)-cholesterol, were used to study the lymph node localization of IgG-coated liposomes injected subcutaneously into mouse and rat footpads. The results show that human immunoglobulin G (IgG) coated liposomes are rapidly removed from the site of injection and are localized in the regional lymph nodes to a greater extent than control liposomes (i.e. liposomes without IgG). Free IgG was found to inhibit the uptake of IgG-coated liposomes by the lymph nodes. The localization of IgG-coated liposomes in the regional lymph nodes is influenced by charge of the liposomes. The results presented here suggest that antibody-coated liposomes may provide a more efficient way of delivering therapeutic agents to the lymph nodes in the treatment of diseases such as breast cancer with lymph node involvement. Similarly, monoclonal antibody-coated liposomes containing lymphoscintigraphic material may improve the detection of lymph node metastases. 26 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Physicochemical aspects of the liposome-wool interaction in wool dyeing.

    PubMed

    Martí, Meritxell; Barsukov, Leonid I; Fonollosa, Jordi; Parra, José Luis; Sukhanov, Stanislav V; Coderch, Luisa

    2004-04-13

    Despite the promising application of liposomes in wool dyeing, little is known about the mechanism of liposome interactions with the wool fiber and dyestuffs. The kinetics of wool dyeing by two dyes, Acid Green 27 (hydrophobic) and Acid Green 25 (hydrophilic), were compared in three experimental protocols: (1) without liposomes, (2) in the presence of phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes, and (3) with wool previously treated with PC liposomes. Physicochemical interactions of liposomes with wool fibers were studied under experimental dyeing conditions with particular interest in the liposome affinity to the fiber surface and changes in the lipid composition of the wool fibers. The results obtained indicate that the presence of liposomes favors the retention of these two dyes in the dyeing bath, this effect being more pronounced in case of the hydrophobic dye. Furthermore, the liposome treatment is accompanied by substantial absorption of PC by wool fibers with simultaneous partial solubilization of their polar lipids (more evident at higher temperatures). This may result in structural modification of the cell membrane complex of wool fibers, which could account for a high level of the dye exhaustion observed at the end of the liposome dyeing process. PMID:15875831

  18. Doxorubicin liposomes as an investigative model to study the skin permeation of nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Boakye, Cedar H A; Patel, Ketan; Singh, Mandip

    2015-07-15

    The objectives of this study were to develop an innovative investigative model using doxorubicin as a fluorophore to evaluate the skin permeation of nanocarriers and the impact of size and surface characteristics on their permeability. Different doxorubicin-loaded liposomes with mean particle size <130 nm and different surface chemistry were prepared by ammonium acetate gradient method using DPPC, DOPE, Cholesterol, DSPE-PEG 2000 and 1,1-Di-((Z)-octadec-9-en-1-yl) pyrrolidin-1-ium chloride (CY5)/DOTAP/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DOPA) as the charge modifier. There was minimal release of doxorubicin from the liposomes up to 8h; indicating that fluorescence observed within the skin layers was due to the intact liposomes. Liposomes with particle sizes >600 nm were restricted within the stratum corneum. DOTAP (p<0.01) and CY5 (p<0.05) liposomes demonstrated significant permeation into the skin than DOPA and PEG liposomes. Tape stripping significantly (p<0.01) enhanced the skin permeation of doxorubicin liposomes but TAT-decorated doxorubicin liposomes permeated better (p<0.005). Blockage of the hair follicles resulted in significant reduction in the extent and intensity of fluorescence observed within the skin layers. Overall, doxorubicin liposomes proved to be an ideal fluorophore-based model. The hair follicles were the major route utilized by the liposomes to permeate skin. Surface charge and particle size played vital roles in the extent of permeation. PMID:25910414

  19. Antibiotic delivery by liposomes from prokaryotic microorganisms: Similia cum similis works better.

    PubMed

    Colzi, Ilaria; Troyan, Anna N; Perito, Brunella; Casalone, Enrico; Romoli, Riccardo; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša; Adessi, Alessandra; Rossi, Federico; Gonnelli, Cristina; Ristori, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    To date the effectiveness of antibiotics is undermined by microbial resistance, threatening public health worldwide. Enhancing the efficacy of the current antibiotic arsenal is an alternative strategy. The administration of antimicrobials encapsulated in nanocarriers, such as liposomes, is considered a viable option, though with some drawbacks related to limited affinity between conventional liposomes and bacterial membranes. Here we propose a novel "top-down" procedure to prepare unconventional liposomes from the membranes of prokaryotes (PD-liposomes). These vectors, being obtained from bacteria with limited growth requirements, also represent low-cost systems for scalable biotechnology production. In depth physico-chemical characterization, carried out with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), indicated that PD-liposomes can be suitable for the employment as antibiotic vectors. Specifically, DLS showed that the mean diameter of loaded liposomes was ∼200-300nm, while SAXS showed that the structure was similar to conventional liposomes, thus allowing a direct comparison with more standard liposomal formulations. Compared to free penicillin G, PD-liposomes loaded with penicillin G showed minimal inhibitory concentrations against E. coli that were up to 16-times lower. Noteworthy, the extent of the bacterial growth inhibition was found to depend on the microorganisms from which liposomes were derived. PMID:26117185

  20. Lead Ions Encapsulated in Liposomes and Their Effect on Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Kensova, Renata; Blazkova, Iva; Konecna, Marie; Kopel, Pavel; Chudobova, Dagmar; Zitka, Ondrej; Vaculovicova, Marketa; Hynek, David; Adam, Vojtech; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was the preparation of a liposome complex with encapsulated lead ions, which were electrochemically detected. In particular, experiments were focused on the potential of using an electrochemical method for the determination of free and liposome-encapsulated lead and determination of the encapsulation efficiency preventing the lead toxicity. Primarily, encapsulation of lead ions in liposomes and confirmation of successful encapsulation by electrochemical methods was done. Further, the reduction effect of the liposome matrix on the detected electrochemical signal was monitored. Besides encapsulation itself, comparison of toxicity of free lead ions and lead ions encapsulated in liposome was tested. The calculated IC50 values for evaluating the lead cytotoxicity showed significant differences between the lead enclosed in liposomes (28 µM) and free lead ions (237 µM). From the cytotoxicity studies on the bacterial strain of S. aureus it was observed that the free lead ions are less toxic in comparison with lead encapsulated in liposomes. Liposomes appear to be a suitable carrier of various substances through the inner cavity. Due to the liposome structure the lead enclosed in the liposome is more easily accepted into the cell structure and the toxicity of the enclosed lead is higher in comparison to free lead ions. PMID:24317385

  1. Superresolution and Fluorescence Dynamics Evidence Reveal That Intact Liposomes Do Not Cross the Human Skin Barrier.

    PubMed

    Dreier, Jes; Sørensen, Jens A; Brewer, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    In this study we use the combination of super resolution optical microscopy and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) to study the mechanism of action of liposomes as transdermal drug delivery systems in human skin. Two different compositions of liposomes were applied to newly excised human skin, a POPC liposome and a more flexible liposome containing the surfactant sodium cholate. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED) images of intact skin and cryo-sections of skin treated with labeled liposomes were recorded displaying an optical resolution low enough to resolve the 100 nm liposomes in the skin. The images revealed that virtually none of the liposomes remained intact beneath the skin surface. RICS two color cross correlation diffusion measurements of double labeled liposomes confirmed these observations. Our results suggest that the liposomes do not act as carriers that transport their cargo directly through the skin barrier, but mainly burst and fuse with the outer lipid layers of the stratum corneum. It was also found that the flexible liposomes showed a greater delivery of the fluorophore into the stratum corneum, indicating that they functioned as chemical permeability enhancers. PMID:26751684

  2. Sorafenib and gadolinium co-loaded liposomes for drug delivery and MRI-guided HCC treatment.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yanan; Liu, Yongjun; Yang, Shaomei; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Tianqi; Jiang, Dandan; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Dexin; Zhang, Na

    2016-05-01

    To improve the poor water solubility of sorafenib and to monitor its distribution and the early feedback effects on its in vivo treatment efficacy in a precise manner, sorafenib (SF) and gadolinium (Gd) co-loaded liposomes (SF/Gd-liposomes) were prepared. The simultaneous imaging and therapy efficacies of the SF/Gd-liposomes were tested. The solubility of SF in SF/Gd-liposomes was significantly increased from 0.21μg/mL to 250μg/mL. The imaging capability of SF/Gd-liposomes were tested by in-vitro and the in-vivo imaging ability tests and the results confirmed that SF/Gd-liposomes could be served as an effective contrast agent. The design of SF/Gd-liposomes allowed the MRI-guided in vivo visualization of the delivery and biodistribution of liposome. In the in vivo antitumor studies, SF/Gd-liposomes had better antitumor effects in H22 tumor-bearing mice than SF solution (oral or i.v. administration) (P<0.05). These findings indicated that the SF/Gd-liposomes could be used as the promising nano-carriers for the MRI-guided in vivo visualization of the delivery and HCC treatment. PMID:26844644

  3. Superresolution and Fluorescence Dynamics Evidence Reveal That Intact Liposomes Do Not Cross the Human Skin Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Dreier, Jes; Sørensen, Jens A.; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we use the combination of super resolution optical microscopy and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) to study the mechanism of action of liposomes as transdermal drug delivery systems in human skin. Two different compositions of liposomes were applied to newly excised human skin, a POPC liposome and a more flexible liposome containing the surfactant sodium cholate. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED) images of intact skin and cryo-sections of skin treated with labeled liposomes were recorded displaying an optical resolution low enough to resolve the 100 nm liposomes in the skin. The images revealed that virtually none of the liposomes remained intact beneath the skin surface. RICS two color cross correlation diffusion measurements of double labeled liposomes confirmed these observations. Our results suggest that the liposomes do not act as carriers that transport their cargo directly through the skin barrier, but mainly burst and fuse with the outer lipid layers of the stratum corneum. It was also found that the flexible liposomes showed a greater delivery of the fluorophore into the stratum corneum, indicating that they functioned as chemical permeability enhancers. PMID:26751684

  4. Smart photothermal-triggered bilayer phase transition in AuNPs-liposomes to release drug.

    PubMed

    An, Xueqin; Zhan, Fan; Zhu, Yinyan

    2013-01-29

    Novel thermosensitive liposomes with embedded Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the liposome bilayer were prepared by a combination method of film build and supercritical CO(2) incubation. These AuNPs-liposomes possess AuNPs that are embedded in the bilayer and a drug that is encapsulated in the central aqueous compartment. The AuNPs in the liposomes can strongly absorb light energy and efficiently convert the absorbed energy to heat. The localized heat induces a phase transition in the liposome bilayer and releases the drug. The drug release from the AuNPs-liposomes can be controlled by the irradiation time and AuNPs concentration in the AuNPs-liposomes at room temperature, where the AuNPs function as a nanoswitch for triggering drug release both spatially and temporally. The results suggest that drug release from the AuNPs-liposomes is due to a photothermic effect that induces phase transition of the liposomes rather than destruction of the liposome bilayer. PMID:23286691

  5. A targeting drug-delivery model via interactions among cells and liposomes under ultrasonic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Xiaoyu; Yang, Fang; Chen, Di; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Dong; Gu, Ning; Wu, Junru

    2008-06-01

    In our previous work, it was found that acoustic cavitation might play a role in improving the cell permeability to microparticles when liposomes were used in an in vitro experiment. The purpose of this project is to expand our study and to learn other possible mechanisms by which cells may interact with liposomes under ultrasound (US) excitation and become transiently permeable to microparticles. It is further hypothesized that two possible scenarios may be involved in in vitro experiments: (1) drug-carrying liposomes transiently overcome the cell membrane barrier and enter into a cell while the cell is still viable; (2) the liposomes incorporate with a cell at its membrane through a fusing process. To prove this hypothesis, liposomes of two different structures were synthesized: one has fluorescent molecules encapsulated into liposomes and the other has fluorescent markers incorporated into the shells of liposomes. Liposomes of each kind were mixed with human breast cancer cells (MCF7-cell line) in a suspension at 5 (liposomes) : 1 (cell) ratio and were then exposed to a focused 1 MHz ultrasound beam at its focal region for 40 s. The US signal contained 20 cycles per tone-burst at a pulse-repetition-frequency of 10 kHz; the spatial peak acoustic pressure amplitude was 0.25 MPa. It was found that the possible mechanisms might include the acoustic cavitation, the endocytosis and cell-fusion. Acoustic radiation force might make liposomes collide with cells effectively and facilitate the delivery process.

  6. A targeting drug-delivery model via interactions among cells and liposomes under ultrasonic excitation.

    PubMed

    Xi, Xiaoyu; Yang, Fang; Chen, Di; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Dong; Gu, Ning; Wu, Junru

    2008-06-21

    In our previous work, it was found that acoustic cavitation might play a role in improving the cell permeability to microparticles when liposomes were used in an in vitro experiment. The purpose of this project is to expand our study and to learn other possible mechanisms by which cells may interact with liposomes under ultrasound (US) excitation and become transiently permeable to microparticles. It is further hypothesized that two possible scenarios may be involved in in vitro experiments: (1) drug-carrying liposomes transiently overcome the cell membrane barrier and enter into a cell while the cell is still viable; (2) the liposomes incorporate with a cell at its membrane through a fusing process. To prove this hypothesis, liposomes of two different structures were synthesized: one has fluorescent molecules encapsulated into liposomes and the other has fluorescent markers incorporated into the shells of liposomes. Liposomes of each kind were mixed with human breast cancer cells (MCF7-cell line) in a suspension at 5 (liposomes) : 1 (cell) ratio and were then exposed to a focused 1 MHz ultrasound beam at its focal region for 40 s. The US signal contained 20 cycles per tone-burst at a pulse-repetition-frequency of 10 kHz; the spatial peak acoustic pressure amplitude was 0.25 MPa. It was found that the possible mechanisms might include the acoustic cavitation, the endocytosis and cell-fusion. Acoustic radiation force might make liposomes collide with cells effectively and facilitate the delivery process. PMID:18506075

  7. Topical drug delivery to retinal pigment epithelium with microfluidizer produced small liposomes.

    PubMed

    Lajunen, T; Hisazumi, K; Kanazawa, T; Okada, H; Seta, Y; Yliperttula, M; Urtti, A; Takashima, Y

    2014-10-01

    Drug delivery from topically instilled eye drops to the posterior segment of the eye has long been one of the greatest challenges of ocular drug development. We developed methods of liposome preparation utilizing a microfluidizer to achieve adjustable nanoparticle size (even less than 80 nm) and high loading capacity of plasmid DNA. The microfluidizing process parameters were shown to affect the size of the liposomes. Higher operating pressures and passage for at least 10 times through the microfluidizer produced small liposomes with narrow size distribution. The liposomes were physically stable for several months at +4°C. In vivo distribution of the optimized liposome formulations in the rat eyes was investigated with confocal microscopy of the histological specimens. Transferrin was used as a targeting ligand directed to retinal pigment epithelium. Size dependent distribution of liposomes to different posterior segment tissues was seen. Liposomes with the diameter less than 80 nm permeated to the retinal pigment epithelium whereas liposomes with the diameter of 100 nm or more were distributed to the choroidal endothelium. Active targeting was shown to be necessary for liposome retention to the target tissue. In conclusion, these microfluidizer produced small liposomes in eye drops are an attractive option for drug delivery to the posterior segment tissues of the eye. PMID:24810393

  8. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy of recombinant tuberculosis vaccine antigen with anionic liposomes reveals formation of flattened liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Christopher B; Mulligan, Sean K; Sung, Joyce; Dowling, Quinton M; Fung, H W Millie; Vedvick, Thomas S; Coler, Rhea N

    2014-01-01

    Development of lipid-based adjuvant formulations to enhance the immunogenicity of recombinant vaccine antigens is a focus of modern vaccine research. Characterizing interactions between vaccine antigens and formulation excipients is important for establishing compatibility between the different components and optimizing vaccine stability and potency. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a highly informative analytical technique that may elucidate various aspects of protein- and lipid-based structures, including morphology, size, shape, and phase structure, while avoiding artifacts associated with staining-based TEM. In this work, cryogenic TEM is employed to characterize a recombinant tuberculosis vaccine antigen, an anionic liposome formulation, and antigen–liposome interactions. By performing three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction analysis, the formation of a population of protein-containing flattened liposomes, not present in the control samples, was detected. It is shown that cryogenic TEM provides unique information regarding antigen–liposome interactions not detectable by light-scattering-based methods. Employing a suite of complementary analytical techniques is important to fully characterize interactions between vaccine components. PMID:24648734

  9. Cerebral Hypoperfusion-assisted Intraarterial Deposition of Liposomes in Normal and Glioma-bearing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shailendra; Singh-Moon, Rajinder P.; Ellis, Jason A.; Chaudhuri, Durba B.; Wang, Mei; Reif, Roberto; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Bigio, Irving J.; Straubinger, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Optimizing liposomal vehicles for targeted delivery to the brain has important implications for the treatment of brain tumors. The promise of efficient, brain-specific delivery of chemotherapeutic compounds via liposomal vehicles has yet to be achieved in clinical practice. Intra-arterial injection of specially designed liposomes may facilitate efficient delivery to the brain and to gliomas. Objective To test the hypothesis that cationic liposomes may be effectively delivered to both normal and glioma-bearing brain tissue utilizing a strategy of intra-arterial injection during transient cerebral hypoperfusion. Methods Cationic, anionic, and neutral liposomes were separately injected via the internal carotid artery of healthy rats during transient cerebral hypoperfusion. Rats bearing C6 gliomas were similarly injected with cationic liposomes. Liposomes were loaded with DilC18(5) dye whose concentrations can be measured by light absorbance and fluorescence methods. Results After intra-arterial injection, a robust uptake of cationic as compared to anionic and neutral liposomes into brain parenchyma was observed by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Post mortem multispectral fluorescence imaging revealed that liposomal cationic charge was associated with more efficient delivery to the brain. Cationic liposomes were also readily observed within glioma tissue after intra-arterial injection. However, over time, cationic liposomes were retained longer and at higher concentrations in the surrounding, peri-tumoral brain than in the tumor core. Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility of cationic liposome delivery to brain and glioma tissue after intra-arterial injection. Highly cationic liposomes directly delivered to the brain via an intracarotid route may represent an effective method for delivering anti-glioma agents. PMID:25525695

  10. Local Targeted Therapy of Liver Metastasis from Colon Cancer by Galactosylated Liposome Encapsulated with Doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wei; Sui, Chenguang; Zhang, Xinghua; Xia, Guimin; Sun, Hongfang; Ma, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Since regional drug administration enables to maintain a high drug concentration within tumors, we compared the plasma concentration and biodistribution of doxorubicin (Dox) from drug-loaded conventional liposomes by local or systemic administration. The results demonstrated that drug concentration was substantially improved in liver as well as a decrease in blood and other organs by spleen injection mimicking portal vein perfusion (regional administration). To further investigate the targeted therapeutic effect of galactosylated liposome encapsulated doxorubicin (Dox) by regional administration, liver targeting liposomes were prepared by incorporating galactosylated-DPPE to conventional liposomes. Liposome uptake and targeting were verified in vitro and in vivo by fluorescence microscopy and xenogen IVIS imaging system, respectively. The results showed that galactose targeted liposomes presented a stronger specific cell uptake by human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells compared to the non-targeted liposomes. In vivo fluorescence imaging showed that the intra-hepatic deposition of conventional and galactosylated liposomes via spleen injection was more than that via tail vein administration, and galactosylated liposomes had higher fluorescent intensity over conventional liposomes in the liver post spleen administration. The anti-tumor effect of various drug administration routes for both liposomal formulations was evaluated using a murine liver metastasis model of colon cancer. The results indicated that tumor progression in the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes was significantly suppressed by Dox-loaded galactosylated liposomes via spleen injection, while no significance was observed in non-targeted formulations. Our data indicated that local perfusion of galactosylated liposomal doxorubicin had a great promise for the treatment of liver metastasis from colon cancer. PMID:24040096

  11. Transient cerebral hypoperfusion assisted intraarterial cationic liposome delivery to brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shailendra; Singh-Moon, Rajinder P.; Wang, Mei; Chaudhuri, Durba B.; Holcomb, Mark; Straubinger, Ninfa L.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Bigio, Irving J.; Straubinger, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Object Transient cerebral hypoperfusion (TCH) has empirically been used to assist intraarterial (IA) drug delivery to brain tumors. Transient (< 3 min) reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF) occurs during many neuro- and cardiovascular interventions and has recently been used to better target IA drugs to brain tumors. In the present experiments, we assessed whether the effectiveness of IA delivery of cationic liposomes could be improved by TCH. Methods Cationic liposomes composed of 1:1 DOTAP:PC (dioleoyl-trimethylammonium-propane:phosphatidylcholine) were administered to three groups of Sprague Dawley rats. In the first group, we tested the effect of blood flow reduction on IA delivery of cationic liposomes. In the second group, we compared TCH-assisted IA liposomal delivery vs. intravenous (IV) administration of the same dose. In the third group, we assessed retention of cationic liposomes in brain four hours after TCH assisted delivery. The liposomes contained a near infrared dye, DilC18(7), whose concentration could be measured in vivo by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Results IA injections of cationic liposomes during TCH increased their delivery approximately four-fold compared to injections during normal blood flow. Optical pharmacokinetic measurements revealed that relative to IV injections, IA injection of cationic liposomes during TCH produced tissue concentrations that were 100-fold greater. The cationic liposomes were retained in the brain tissue four hours after a single IA injection. There was no gross impairment of neurological functions in surviving animals. Conclusions Transient reduction in CBF significantly increased IA delivery of cationic liposomes in the brain. High concentrations of liposomes could be delivered to brain tissue after IA injections with concurrent TCH while none could be detected after IV injection. IA-TCH injections were well tolerated and cationic liposomes were retained for at least 4 hours after IA administration. These results should encourage development of cationic liposomal formulations of chemotherapeutic drugs and their IA delivery during TCH. PMID:24664370

  12. Liposomes as vaccine delivery systems: a review of the recent advances

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Liposomes and liposome-derived nanovesicles such as archaeosomes and virosomes have become important carrier systems in vaccine development and the interest for liposome-based vaccines has markedly increased. A key advantage of liposomes, archaeosomes and virosomes in general, and liposome-based vaccine delivery systems in particular, is their versatility and plasticity. Liposome composition and preparation can be chosen to achieve desired features such as selection of lipid, charge, size, size distribution, entrapment and location of antigens or adjuvants. Depending on the chemical properties, water-soluble antigens (proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, haptens) are entrapped within the aqueous inner space of liposomes, whereas lipophilic compounds (lipopeptides, antigens, adjuvants, linker molecules) are intercalated into the lipid bilayer and antigens or adjuvants can be attached to the liposome surface either by adsorption or stable chemical linking. Coformulations containing different types of antigens or adjuvants can be combined with the parameters mentioned to tailor liposomal vaccines for individual applications. Special emphasis is given in this review to cationic adjuvant liposome vaccine formulations. Examples of vaccines made with CAF01, an adjuvant composed of the synthetic immune-stimulating mycobacterial cordfactor glycolipid trehalose dibehenate as immunomodulator and the cationic membrane forming molecule dimethyl dioctadecylammonium are presented. Other vaccines such as cationic liposome–DNA complexes (CLDCs) and other adjuvants like muramyl dipeptide, monophosphoryl lipid A and listeriolysin O are mentioned as well. The field of liposomes and liposome-based vaccines is vast. Therefore, this review concentrates on recent and relevant studies emphasizing current reports dealing with the most studied antigens and adjuvants, and pertinent examples of vaccines. Studies on liposome-based veterinary vaccines and experimental therapeutic cancer vaccines are also summarized. PMID:25364509

  13. Effect of Some Substituents Increasing the Solubility of Zn(II) and Al(III) Phthalocyanines on Their Photophysical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Chernonosov, A. A.; Ermilov, E. A.; Röder, B.; Solovyova, L. I.; Fedorova, O. S.

    2014-01-01

    Water solubility of phthalocyanines (Pcs) usually increases by the introduction of charged or carboxy substituents in the peripheral positions of the macrocycle. As a result, such structural changes influence their photophysical and photochemical properties as photosensitizers. Phthalocyanines substituted with four or eight terminal carboxyl groups and having in some cases additional eight positive charges (water soluble phthalocyanines) were studied in order to evaluate the spectroscopic and photophysical effects of these side residues on the chromophore properties. The quantum yield of singlet oxygen (1O2) generation, the triplet-triplet absorption, and the transient absorption spectra were measured and linked to the structure of the substituents. It was shown that charged substituents did not change the quantum yields of 1O2 generation but decrease its lifetimes. The introduction of the charged substituents not only increases the water solubility but also significantly changes absorption, fluorescence, and transient absorption spectra of water soluble Pcs. PMID:25302061

  14. Spectroscopic investigation of different concentrations of the vapour deposited copper phthalocyanine as a "guest" in polyimide matrix.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Anton; Yordanov, Dancho; Dimov, Dean; Assa, Jacob; Spassova, Erinche; Danev, Gencho

    2015-04-01

    Nanocomposite layers 250 nm copper phthalocyanine/polyimide prepared by simultaneous vapour deposition of three different sources were studied. Different concentrations of copper phthalocyanine as a "guest" in polyimide matrix as a function of conditions of the preparation have been determined by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) and UV-VIS (Ultraviolet-Visible) spectroscopies. The aim was to estimate the possibility of the spectroscopic methods for quantitative determination of the "guest" and compare with the quality of the polyimide thin films in relation to the "guest" concentration. The band at 1334 cm(-1) has been used for quantitative estimation of "guest" in polyimide matrix. The concentrations of the copper phthalocyanine less than 20% require curve fitting techniques with Fourier self deconvolution. The relationship between "guest" concentrations and degree of imidization, as well as the electronic UV-VIS spectra are discussed in relation to the composition, imidization degree and the two crystallographic modification of the embedded chromophore. PMID:25638427

  15. Silicon(IV) Phthalocyanine-Decorated Cyclodextrin Vesicles as a Self-Assembled Phototherapeutic Agent against MRSA.

    PubMed

    Galstyan, Anzhela; Kauscher, Ulrike; Block, Desiree; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Strassert, Cristian A

    2016-05-25

    The host-guest complexation of a tailored Si(IV) phthalocyanine with supramolecular β-cyclodextrin vesicles (CDV) was studied, revealing a reduced aggregation of the photoactive center upon binding to the CDV, even in aqueous environments. For this purpose, a photosensitizing unit axially decorated with one adamantyl group and one pyridinium moiety on the other side was obtained by two successive click reactions on a bis-azido-functionalized derivative of Si(IV) phthalocyanine. To evaluate its potential as a photosensitizer against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, comparative studies of the photophysical properties including absorption and emission spectroscopy, lifetimes as well as fluorescence and singlet oxygen quantum yields were determined for the Si(IV) phthalocyanine alone and upon self-assembly on the CDV surface. In vitro phototoxicity against the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) USA300 was evaluated, showing an almost complete inactivation. PMID:27098069

  16. Microwave-assisted synthesis, characterization and spectral properties of non-peripherally tetra-substituted phthalocyanines containing eugenol moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, Cihan; ?ahin, Zarife Sibel; Bykgngr, Orhan; ?a?maz, Selami

    2015-06-01

    The microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of novel non-peripherally eugenol substituted metallophthalocyanines (M: Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II)) have been reported for the first time in this study. All the new compounds were characterized by a combination of FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and UV/vis spectroscopy techniques. The crystal structure of compound (1) was also determined by the single crystal diffraction technique. Newly synthesized eugenol substituted phthalocyanines have more redshift Q bands (about 17-18 nm) than previously reported eugenol substituted phthalocyanines. Zinc(II)phthalocyanine (1d) has an extra absorption band at 746 nm that calling "X band" at UV/vis spectrum.

  17. Cardanol as a replacement for cholesterol into the lipid bilayer of POPC liposomes.

    PubMed

    De Maria, Paolo; Filippone, Paolino; Fontana, Antonella; Gasbarri, Carla; Siani, Gabriella; Velluto, Diana

    2005-01-15

    Large unilamellar liposomes were prepared by hydration of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleylphosphatydilcholine (POPC) films and subsequent extrusion of the obtained liposomal suspension. Inclusion of cholesterol and cardanol brings about a stabilization of the membranes of the liposomes, as determined by their rates of release of entrapped 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein. The liposome breakdown was promoted by a non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-100) and the kinetic measurements were carried out by fluorimetry in water at 25 degrees C. Morphological analyses of giant POPC liposomes in the presence and in the absence of both guests were also performed. The results obtained suggest the use of cardanol (an easy available natural product) as a replacement for cholesterol as a new possibility for stabilizing liposomes in drug targetting. PMID:15620834

  18. Fluorescence spectroscopy measures yeast PAH1-encoded phosphatidate phosphatase interaction with liposome membranes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi; Su, Wen-Min; Carman, George M

    2012-03-01

    Phosphatidate (PA) phosphatase, the enzyme that catalyzes the penultimate step in triacylglycerol synthesis, is a cytosolic enzyme that must associate with the membrane where its substrate PA resides. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to measure the interaction of yeast PAH1-encoded PA phosphatase with model liposome membranes. PA phosphatase contains five tryptophan residues and exhibited inherit fluorescence that increased upon interaction with phosphatidylcholine liposomes. The interaction was enhanced by inclusion of other phospholipids and especially the substrate PA. Interaction was dependent on both the concentration of phosphatidylcholine-PA liposomes as well as the surface concentration of PA in liposomes. Mg(2+) ions, which were required for catalysis, did not affect PA phosphatase interaction with phosphatidylcholine-PA liposomes. PA phosphatase was a substrate for protein kinase A, protein kinase C, and casein kinase II, and these phosphorylations decreased PA phosphatase interaction with phosphatidylcholine-PA liposome membranes. PMID:22180632

  19. Lectin-mediated attachment of liposomes to cornea: influence on transcorneal drug flux

    SciTech Connect

    Schaeffer, H.E.; Breitfeller, J.M.; Krohn, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    A method to enhance retention of drug-bearing liposomes at the corneal surface under conditions of tear flow was investigated. Mixed brain gangliosides were incorporated into the membranes of phosphatidyl choline liposomes to provide receptor sites for wheat germ agglutinin, a plant lectin that binds strongly to both human and rabbit corneal epithelium. Ganglioside-containing liposomes showed a 2.5-fold increase in their binding to rabbit cornea in vitro when corneas were pretreated with wheat germ agglutinin (500 micrograms/ml), suggesting that the lectin mediates specific binding of these liposomes to the corneal surface. In addition, under conditions of continuous tear flow (1 ml/hr), ganglioside-containing liposomes with entrapped carbachol significantly enhanced carbachol flux across isolated rabbit corneas pretreated with wheat germ agglutinin 90 min after drug delivery. The data support the potential use of liposomes as a vehicle for topical drug flux enhancement.

  20. Cancer gene therapy utilized ultrasound (US)-sensitive liposome as non-viral vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ryo; Oda, Yusuke; Namai, Eisuke; Nishiie, Norihito; Hirata, Keiichi; Taira, Yuichiro; Utoguchi, Naoki; Negichi, Yoichi; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2010-03-01

    Sonoporation is an attractive technique to develop non-invasive and non-viral gene delivery system. However, simple sonoporation using only ultrasound (US) is not enough to establish effective cancer gene therapy because of low efficiency of gene delivery. Therefore, we improved this problem by the combination of US and novel US-sensitive liposome (Bubble liposome) which was a liposome containing US imaging gas (perfluoropropane). This was an effective gene delivery system with collapse (cavitation) that was induced by US exposure to Bubble liposome. In this study, we assessed the ability of this system in cancer gene therapy using IL-12 cording plasmid DNA. The combination of Bubble liposomes and ultrasound was dramatically suppressed tumor growth. Therefore, we concluded that the combination of Bubble liposomes and ultrasound would be a good non-viral vector system in IL-12 cancer gene therapy.