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Sample records for liquefaction final technical

  1. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-08-01

    In an effort to develop new disposable catalysts for direct coal liquefaction, several types of clay-supported pyrrhotite catalysts were prepared and tested. These included iron-pillared montmorillonite, mixed iron/alumina-pillared montmorillonite, iron-impregnated montmorillonite, and iron oxometallate-impregnated montmorillonite.

  2. Impact of hydrodynamics on coal liquefaction. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, D.; Ying, D.H.S.; Givens, E.N.

    1983-09-01

    We have attempted to determine the hydrodynamic effects of various reactor configurations on coal liquefaction, to help select the optimal reactor configuration and to provide additional understanding of coal liquefaction reaction kinetics, which cannot be definitively determined by a CSTR alone. Only a qualitative understanding of the fluid dynamic effects on product yields has been perceived by operating various sizes of open-column tubular reactors, because the fluid-dynamic characteristics of these reactors were not clearly understood and could not be varied significantly. Indirect studies, by cold-flow simulation, have been of little help in defining the fluid dynamic impact on coal liquefaction. Comparison of actual coal liquefaction data from both the plug-flow reactor and the CSTR showed that the plug-flow configuration had various advantages. Reactor yields improved significantly, especially the primary product conversions. At 840/sup 0/F and residence times of 29 and 40 min, coal and preasphaltene conversions were enhanced approximately 6 and 10%, respectively. At these conditions, the plug-flow reactor also yielded about 10% more oils than the CSTR with significant increase in hydrogen utilization. Also, this study provided an opportunity to examine the soundness of APCI/ICRC's sequential kinetic model, by interfacing the plug-flow and CSTR yield data. Transforming CSTR yields to plug-flow data showed that product yields deviated considerably from the measured plug-flow data, suggesting the need to improve the existing reaction model. Having both CSTR and plug-flow reactor data bases is important for developing a sound coal reaction model and for determining hydrodynamic effects on coal liquefaction in a direct way. The results will lead to an optimized reactor configuration as well as optimized operation. 5 references, 23 figures, 20 tables.

  3. Ambient temperature liquefaction using liquid clathrates: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, J.L.

    1988-06-22

    New air-stable liquid clathrates based on simple salts were used to effect liquefaction. The quantity of the liquefied products from the liquid clathrates based on (organic base/center dot/H)/sup + -/(Cl-H-Cl)/sup minus/ is among the highest yet observed. Indeed, liquid clathrates based on classic room temperature molten salts such as (pyridinium)(AlCl/sub 4/) have afforded yields of liquid material which may go as high as 70%. The work-up scheme for the (NBu/sub 4/)(Cl-H-Br) liquefaction products has afforded excellent mass balance. The first model hydrogenation runs in a liquid clathrate have been successfully carried out. In the liquid clathrate based on (NBu/sub 4/)(BF/sub 4/) and benzene, Wilkinson's catalyst has given almost complete conversion of cyclohexene to cyclohexane. Studies on the retention of cyclohexene and cyclohexane in the liquid clathrate phase are in progress. Initial indications are that cyclohexene is more compatible with the lower liquid layer than is cyclohexane.

  4. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity. Final technical report, September 1990--February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Shams, K.G.

    1994-07-01

    Recent research efforts in direct coal liquefaction are focused on lowering the level of reaction severity, identification and determination of the causes of retrogressive reactions, and improving the economics of the process. Ambient pretreatment of coals using methanol and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid was extensively studied in connection with low severity coal liquefaction. Ambient pretreatment of eight Argonne coals using methanol/HCl improved THF-soluble conversions 24.5 wt % (maf basis) for Wyodak subbituminous coal and 28.4 wt % for Beulah-Zap lignite with an average increase of 14.9 wt % for the eight Argonne coals at 623 K (350{degrees}C) reaction temperature and 30 minutes reaction time. Optimal pretreatment conditions were determined using Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coals. Acid concentration was the most important pretreatment variable studied; liquefaction reactivity increased with increasing acid concentration up to 2 vol %. The FTIR spectra of treated and untreated Wyodak coal samples demonstrated formation of carboxylic functional groups during pretreatment, a result of divalent (Ca, Mg) cationic bridge destruction. The extent of liquefaction reactivity directly correlated with the amount of calcium removed during pretreatment, and results from calcium ``addback`` experiments supported the observation that calcium adversely affected coal reactivity at low severity reaction conditions. Model compound studies using benzyl phenyl ether demonstrated that calcium cations catalyzed retrogressive reactions, inhibited hydrogenation reactions at low severity reaction conditions, and were more active at higher reaction temperatures. Based on kinetic data, mechanisms for hydrogenation-based inhibition and base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are proposed. The base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are shown to occur via a hydrogen abstraction mechanism where hydrogenation inhibition reactions are shown to take place via a surface quenching mechanism.

  5. Catalytic coal liquefaction. Final technical report, June 1, 1981-May 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, S.W.

    1984-07-01

    Molybdenum catalysts (both supported and unsupported) have been examined in various stages of preparation and use with respect to BET surface area and low temperature oxygen chemisorption. The results are detailed. X-ray diffraction has been used to characterize ammonium molybdate - after calcination, heated in tetralin under nitrogen and after use in an autoclave. Metal salts have been tested for catalytic effects by heating a tetralin-coal mixture (without hydrogen) at a loading of 1% of the coal. Only ammonium heptamolybdate and stannous chloride had a large incremental effect (based on blank runs with tetralin and catalyst without coal). Differences in liquefaction behavior in tubing bombs and in autoclaves are explained by thermodynamic considerations based on the gas to liquid volume in the two cases. (LTN)

  6. EDS coal liquefaction process development: Phase V. Final technical progress report, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1984-02-01

    All objectives in the EDS Cooperative Agreement for Phases III-B through V have been achieved for the RCLU pilot plants. EDS operations have been successfully demonstrated in both the once-through and bottoms recycle modes for coals of rank ranging from bituminous to lignitic. An extensive data base detailing the effects of process variable changes on yields, conversions and product qualities for each coal has been established. Continuous bottoms recycle operations demonstrated increased overall conversion and improved product slate flexibility over once-through operations. The hydrodynamics of the liquefaction reactor in RCLU were characterized through tests using radioactive tracers in the gas and slurry phases. RCLU was shown to have longer liquid residence times than ECLP. Support work during ECLP operations contributed to resolving differences between ECLP conversions and product yields and those of the small pilot plants. Solvent hydrogenation studies during Phases IIIB-V of the EDS program focused on long term activity maintenance of the Ni-MO-10 catalyst. Process variable studies for solvents from various coals (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignitic), catalyst screening evaluations, and support of ECLP solvent hydrogenation operations. Product quality studies indicate that highly cyclic EDS naphthas represent unique and outstanding catalytic reforming feedstocks. High volumes of high octane motor gasoline blendstock are produced while liberating a considerable quantity of high purity hydrogen.

  7. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 1, Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Gutterman, C.; Chander, S.

    1994-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrated coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. Heterofunctional solvents were the most effective in swelling coals. Also solvent blends such as isopropanol/water were more effective than pure solvents alone. Impregnating slurry catalysts simultaneously during coal swelling showed that better uptake was achieved with nonswelling solvent and higher impregnation temperature. Some enhancement in initial coal conversion was seen liquefying SO{sub 2}-treated Black Thunder coal with slurry catalysts, and also when hydrogen donor liquefaction solvents were used. Noncatalytic reactions showed no benefit from SO{sub 2} treatment. Coupling coal swelling and SO{sub 2} treatment with slurry catalysts was also not beneficial, although high conversion was seen with continuous operation and long residence time, however, similar high conversion was observed with untreated coal. SO{sub 2} treatment is not economically attractive unless it provides about 17% increase in coal reactivity. In most cases, the best results were obtained when the coal was untreated and the slurry catalyst was added directly into the reactor. Foster Wheeler`s ASCOT process had better average liquid yields than either Wilsonville`s vacuum tower/ROSE combination or delayed coking process. This liquid product also had good quality.

  8. Novel nanodispersed coal liquefaction catalysts: Molecular design via microemulsion-based synthesis. Final technical report, October 1990--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Boakye, E.; Vittal, M.

    1995-04-01

    This report described the synthesis of Molybdenum Sulfides in microemulsions by acidification of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate. Molybdenum Sulfides have been shown to be potential coal liquefaction catalysts. The importance of particle size, temperature effects, and coal surface chemistry to impregnation are discussed.

  9. Heavy recycle solvent studies in two-stage coal liquefaction. Final technical report, September 1, 1982-December 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Longanbach, J. R.

    1984-01-10

    The objective of this program has been to study the chemistry of the components with high boiling points in a direct coal liquefaction recycle solvent and to identify those components which lead to higher overall yields and improved product stability in the initial coal dissolution step of direct coal liquefaction processes. The major conclusions are: -454 C recycle solvent is primarily aromatic hydrocarbons (73%) and contains almost no asphaltenes; +454 C recycle solvent is primarily asphaltenes and aromatic hydrocarbons; recycle solvent also contains aliphatic hydrocarbons, N-containing aromatics and O-containing aromatics; heteroatoms in coal derived materials seem to be grouped by type, i.e. acidic O and basic N and sulfur occur together; under helium a small net amount of hydrogen and more CO and CO/sub 2/ are produced than under hydrogen; under hydrogen the amounts of H/sub 2/S and hydrocarbon gases are increased and a small amount of hydrogen gas is usually consumed; overall coal conversions to THF solubles are improved by adding more -454 C solvent but decreased by adding +454 C solvent; for added fractions of -454 C solvent the pecent conversion to THF solubles increases in the order aromatic hydrocarbons (+7.2) > aliphatic hydrocarbons (+0.8) > no added solvent (0.0) > N-containing aromatics (-0.9) > O-containing aromatics (-22.1); percent conversion to THF solubles using -454 C solvent with +454 C solvent fractions added decrease in the order aliphatics (+3.7) > aromatic hydrocarbons (+3.0) > no added solvent (0.0) > O-containing aromatics (-9.3) > N-containing aromatics (-13.3); of the +454 C solvent components, aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons are beneficial but total only approx. 25% of the +454 C recycle solvent; and steric effects may be important in determining the effectiveness of the heavier solvent components as liquefaction solvents. 28 references, 25 figures, 31 tables.

  10. Catalysts and process developments for two-stage liquefaction. Final technical report, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cronauer, D.C.; Swanson, A.J.; Sajkowski, D.J.

    1992-12-31

    Research in this project centered upon developing and evaluating catalysts and process improvements for coal liquefaction in the two-stage, close-coupled catalytic process. The major results are summarized here and they are described in more detail under each Task. In tasks for coal pretreatment and beneficiation, it was shown for coal handling that drying of both lignite or subbituminous coals using warm air, vacuum oven or exposing to air for long time was detrimental to subsequent liquefaction. Both laboratory and bench-scale beneficiations indicated that in order to achieve increased liquefaction yield for Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, size separation with in sink-float technique should be used. For subbituminous coal, the best beneficiation was aqueous SO{sub 2} treatment, which reduced mineral matter. In the case of lignite, the fines should be rejected prior to aqueous SO{sub 2} treatment and sink-float gravity separation. In liquefying coals with supported catalysts in both first and second stages, coal conversion was highest (93%) with Illinois No. 6 coal, which also had the highest total liquid yield of 80%, however, the product contained unacceptably high level of resid (30%). Both low rank coals gave lower conversion (85--87%) and liquid yields (57--59%), but lighter products (no resid). The analysis of spent first stage catalysts indicated significant sodium and calcium deposits causing severe deactivation. The second stage catalysts were in better condition showing high surface areas and low coke and metal deposits. The use of dispersed catalyst in the first stage would combat the severe deactivation.

  11. Highly dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction. Phase 1 final report, August 23--November 22, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschon, A.S.; Wilson, R.B.; Ghaly, O.

    1995-03-22

    The ultimate goal of this project is to develop novel processes for making the conversion of coal into distillable liquids competitive to that of petroleum products in the range of $25/bbl. The objectives of Phase 1 were to determine the utility of new precursors to highly dispersed catalysts for use of syngas atmospheres in coal liquefaction, and to estimate the effect of such implementation on the cost of the final product. The project is divided into three technical tasks. Tasks 1 and 2 are the analyses and liquefaction experiments, respectively, and Task 3 deals with the economic effects of using these methods during coal liquefaction. Results are presented on the following: Analytical Support--screening tests and second-stage conversions; Laboratory-Scale Operations--catalysts, coal conversion in synthetic solvents, Black Thunder screening studies, and two-stage liquefaction experiments; and Technical and economic Assessment--commercial liquefaction plant description, liquefaction plant cost; and economic analysis.

  12. "An Economic Process for Coal Liquefaction to Liquid Fuels" SBIR Phase II -- Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguli, Partha Sarathi

    2009-02-19

    The current commercial processes for direct coal liquefaction utilize expensive backmix-flow reactor system and conventional catalysts resulting in incomplete and retrogressive reactions that produce low distillate liquid yield and high gas yield, with high hydrogen consumption. The new process we have developed, which uses a less expensive reactor system and highly active special catalysts, resulted in high distillate liquid yield, low gas yield and low hydrogen consumption. The new reactor system using the special catalyst can be operated smoothly for direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Due to high hydrogenation and hydrocracking activities of the special catalysts, moderate temperatures and high residence time in each stage of the reactor system resulted in high distillate yield in the C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F range with no 650{degrees}F{sup +} product formed except for the remaining unconverted coal residue. The C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F distillate is more valuable than the light petroleum crude. Since there is no 650{degrees}F{sup +} liquid product, simple reforming and hydrotreating of the C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F product will produce the commercial grade light liquid fuels. There is no need for further refinement using catalytic cracking process that is currently used in petroleum refining. The special catalysts prepared and used in the experimental runs had surface area between 40-155 m{sup 2}/gm. The liquid distillate yield in the new process is >20 w% higher than that in the current commercial process. Coal conversion in the experimental runs was moderate, in the range of 88 - 94 w% maf-coal. Though coal conversion can be increased by adjustment in operating conditions, the purpose of limiting coal conversion to moderate amounts in the process was to use the remaining unconverted coal for hydrogen production by steam reforming. Hydrogen consumption was in the range of 4.0 - 6.0 w% maf-coal. A preliminary economic analysis of the new coal liquefaction process was

  13. Catalytic coal liquefaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, S W

    1981-01-01

    Monolith catalysts of MoO/sub 3/-CoO-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were prepared and tested for coal liquefaction in a stirred autoclave. In general, the monolith catalysts were not as good as particulate catalysts prepared on Corning alumina supports. Measurement of O/sub 2/ chemisorption and BET surface area has been made on a series of Co/Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts obtained from PETC. The catalysts were derived from Cyanamid 1442A and had been tested for coal liquefaction in batch autoclaves and continuous flow units. MoO/sub 3/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts over the loading range 3.9 to 14.9 wt % MoO/sub 3/ have been studied with respect to BET surface (before and after reduction), O/sub 2/ chemisorption at -78/sup 0/C, redox behavior at 500/sup 0/C, and activity for cyclohexane dehydrogenation at 500/sup 0/C. In connection with the fate of tin catalysts during coal liquefaction, calculations have been made of the relative thermodynamic stability of SnCl/sub 2/, Sn, SnO/sub 2/, and SnS in the presence of H/sub 2/, HCl, H/sub 2/S and H/sub 2/O. Ferrous sulfate dispersed in methylnaphthalene has been shown to be reduced to ferrous sulfide under typical coal hydroliquefaction conditions (1 hour, 450/sup 0/C, 1000 psi initial p/sub H/sub 2//). This suggests that ferrous sulfide may be the common catalytic ingredient when either (a) ferrous sulfate impregnated on powdered coal, or (b) finely divided iron pyrite is used as the catalyst. Old research on impregnated ferrous sulfate, impregnated ferrous halides, and pyrite is consistent with this assumption. Eight Co/Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts from commercial suppliers, along with SnCl/sub 2/, have been studied for the hydrotreating of 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) in a stirred autoclave at 450 and 500/sup 0/C.

  14. Coal-derived promoters for the liquefaction of Illinois coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Carty, R.H.; Knight, R.A.

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this program was to investigate the use of liquids derived from coal either by mild gasification or supercritical extraction (SCE) to promote direct liquefaction of Illinois coal. In this two-year program recently developed molecular probe techniques were used to assess the activity of three coal-derived liquids with respect to accelerating (A) hydrogen transfer, (B) carbon-carbon bond cleavage, (C) free radical flux, and (D) hydrocracking activity. Three sample liquids were prepared from IBC-106 coal by: mild gasification in an isothermal free-fall reactor (IFFR), steam treatment/mild gasification in a fixed-bed reactor (ST/FBR), and SCE using toluene. For comparison, tests were also performed on a Wilsonville recycle solvent (RS) and on benzyl phenyl sulfide (BPS), a ``benchmark`` promoter. Sample/blank pairs were tested at 400--425{degrees}C in laboratory microreactors, and effectiveness was based on the increase in extent of a key reaction for each sample containing coal liquid, compared to its blank. In general, the IFFR liquid was the most effective liquid for promoting hydrogen transfer (+21%) and free radical flux (+107%), while the SCE liquid was the most effective promoter of C-C bond cleavage selectivity (+119%) and hydrocracking (+359%). The ST/FBR liquid was slightly less effective than the IFFR liquid in all categories. BPS was used primarily to validate the adequacy of the methods.

  15. Bimetallic promotion of cooperative hydrogen transfer and heteroatom removal in coal liquefaction. Final technical report, September 1, 1988--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Eisch, J.J.

    1992-04-07

    The ultimate objective of this research has been to uncover novel reagents and experimental conditions for heteroatom removal and hydrogen transfer processes, which would be applicable to the liquefaction of coal under low-severity conditions. To this end, one phase of this research has investigated the cleavage of carbon-heteroatom bonds involving sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and halogen by subvalent transition-metal complexes. A second phase of the study has assessed the capability of the same transition-metal complexes or of organoaluminum Lewis acids to catalyze the cleavage of carbon-hydrogen bonds in aromatics and hence to promote hydrogen shuttling. Finally, a third phase of our work has uncovered a remarkable synergistic effect of combinations of transition metals with organoaluminum Lewis acids on hydrogen shuttling between aromatics and hydroaromatics. (VC)

  16. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ particle generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The research conducted by Textron Defense Systems (TDS) represents a potential new and innovative concept for dispersed coal liquefaction. The technical approach is generation of ultra-fine catalyst particles from supercritical solutions by rapid expansion of either catalyst only, or mixtures of catalyst and coal material in supersaturated solvents. The process of rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions was developed at Battelle`s Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the intended purpose of providing a new analytical technique for characterizing supercritical fluids. The concept forming the basis of this research is that ultra-fine particles can be generated from supercritical solutions by rapid expansion of either catalyst or catalyst/coal-material mixtures in supersaturated solvents, such as carbon dioxide or water. The focal point of this technique is the rapid transfer of low vapor pressure solute (i.e., catalyst), dissolved in the supercritical fluid solvent, to the gas phase as the solution is expanded through an orifice. The expansion process is characterized by highly nonequilibrium conditions which cause the solute to undergo extremely rapid supersaturation with respect to the solvent, leading to nucleation and particle growth resulting in nanometer size catalyst particles. A supercritical expansion system was designed and built by TDS at their Haverhill facility.

  17. Direct liquefaction of peat and lignite to BTX-type liquid fuel. Final technical report, June 1, 1981-August 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, R.J.; Heneghan, E.P.; Houmere, D.M.; Trantolo, D.J.

    1984-10-26

    This report relates the work on the experimental research and development program for the direct liquefaction of peat and lignite to a BTX-type liquid fuel. Both the BTX-type and alcohol fuel processes have as their major feature an alkaline hydrolysis pretreatment of the peat and lignite. It was proposed to investigate the susceptibility of these organics to further chemical and biological treatment for production of BTX-type and alcohol fuels, respectively. The work directed toward the production of BTX-type fuel is detailed in this report. The experimental program involved laboratory scale work in two process steps: (1) alkaline hydrolysis for pretreatment; and (2) catalytic decarboxylation for conversion of pretreatment products to BTX-type fuel. Both of these areas were approached independently to establish the technical feasibility and to determine process operating conditions and yields. The pretreatment experiments called for reaction of lignite, water, and sodium carbonate under batch conditions. The optimal conditions for breakdown of the lignite are listed. Decarboxylation experiments were carried out using benzoic acid and pretreated lignite. Two procedures for chemical decarboxylation were investigated: (1) the copper/quinoline method; and (2) the persulfate/silver ion method. The former method showed some conversion of benzoic acid to benzene, but quantitation was difficult with the complexity of the product mixture. The latter method showed an identifiable 41% yield of benzene. The decarboxylation work is detailed in Section 4. Preliminary engineering designs for pilot and full-scale facilities are presented. 17 references, 15 figures, 11 tables.

  18. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Chander, S.; Gutterman, C.

    1995-04-01

    Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

  19. Novel mechanisms in aqueous liquefaction: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mikita, M.A.

    1987-02-01

    Three pairs of model compounds were proposed for use in a mechanistic study to evaluate the importance of possible ionic mechanisms when supercritical water is used as a medium for coal liquefaction. The syntheses of the Group I ethers: 2-benzyloxynaphthalene, 2-phenoxymethylnaphthalene, and 2-naphthylmethyl benzyl ether were completed using a modification of the Williamson ether synthesis which utilized sodium hydride as a base, and dimethylformamide solvent. Model compounds benzyl phenyl ether (BPE) and hydroquinone monobenzylether (HQMBE) were reacted in supercrital water and deuterium oxide. The observed reactions with BPE were dominated by autooxidation reactions involving molecular oxygen unpurged from the reactor. Exchange was noted only with the product, phenol. The HQMBE reactions exhibited both homolysis and autooxidation pathways. No exchange was observed in any of the HQMBE products. These results do not support the concept of supercritical water being an important reactant under liquefaction conditions.

  20. Dependence of liquefaction behavior on coal characteristics. Part VI. Relationship of liquefaction behavior of a set of high sulfur coals to chemical structural characteristics. Final technical report, March 1981 to February 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Neill, P. H.; Given, P. H.

    1984-09-01

    The initial aim of this research was to use empirical mathematical relationships to formulate a better understanding of the processes involved in the liquefaction of a set of medium rank high sulfur coals. In all, just over 50 structural parameters and yields of product classes were determined. In order to gain a more complete understanding of the empirical relationships between the various properties, a number of relatively complex statistical procedures and tests were applied to the data, mostly selected from the field of multivariate analysis. These can be broken down into two groups. The first group included grouping techniques such as non-linear mapping, hierarchical and tree clustering, and linear discriminant analyses. These techniques were utilized in determining if more than one statistical population was present in the data set; it was concluded that there was not. The second group of techniques included factor analysis and stepwise multivariate linear regressions. Linear discriminant analyses were able to show that five distinct groups of coals were represented in the data set. However only seven of the properties seemed to follow this trend. The chemical property that appeared to follow the trend most closely was the aromaticity, where a series of five parallel straight lines was observed for a plot of f/sub a/ versus carbon content. The factor patterns for each of the product classes indicated that although each of the individual product classes tended to load on factors defined by specific chemical properties, the yields of the broader product classes, such as total conversion to liquids + gases and conversion to asphaltenes, tended to load largely on factors defined by rank. The variance explained and the communalities tended to be relatively low. Evidently important sources of variance have still to be found.

  1. Liquefaction of remote sources of natural gas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, D.W.

    1981-12-01

    The objective was to determine the technical and financial feasibility of liquefying remote reserves of natural gas and transporting the liquefied product to users. The proposed methodology included efforts to (1) identify any prohibitive or limiting laws and/or regulations; (2) identify sufficient unutilized reserves in remote areas to justify further investigation; (3) identify existing portable liquefaction equipment (or an interested manufacturer that could supply the needed equipment) to obtain cost and performance data; (4) determine site preparation, supply and production costs for use in assessing economic feasibility; and (5) identify potential users. The conclusion is that the liquefaction of natural gas in remote areas of Appalachia is not economically feasible as long as an adequate and reliable supply of pipeline gas is perceived to be available for the forseable future and the price per Btu of pipeline gas remains so far below other fuels. 3 tables.

  2. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 2 - hydrogenative and hydrothermal pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization using pyrolysis-GC-MS, CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR

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    Chunshan Song; Hatcher, P.G.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    It has been indicated by DOE COLIRN panel that low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals. As the second volume of the final report, here we summarize our work on spectroscopic characterization of four raw coals including two subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals, tetrahydrofuran (THF)-extracted but unreacted coals, the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been thermally pretreated. in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent, and the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been catalytically pretreated in the presence of a dispersed Mo sulfide catalyst in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent.

  3. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1992

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    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: Summaries of the final reports produced by Lehigh University, West Virginia University, and Vander Sande Associates under the Participants Program are presented. Analytical data produced by CONSOL are provided in Appendix I for all samples employed in the Participants Program and issued with the samples to research groups in the Participants Program. A paper was presented at the 1992 US Department of Energy Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Liquefaction Contractors` Review Conference, held in Pittsburgh September 23--24, 1992, entitled ``The Chemical Nature of Coal Liquid Resids and the Implications for Process Development``. It appears as Appendix 2 in this report.

  4. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

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    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  5. Final Technical Report

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    Maxwell, Mike, J., P.E.

    2012-08-30

    The STI product is the Final Technical Report from ReliOn, Inc. for contract award DE-EE0000487: Recovery Act PEM Fuel Cell Systems Providing Emergency Reserve and Backup Power. The program covered the turnkey deployment of 431 ReliOn fuel cell systems at 189 individual sites for AT&T and PG&E with ReliOn functioning as the primary equipment supplier and the project manager. The Final Technical Report provides an executive level summary, a comparison of the actual accomplishments vs. the goals and objectives of the project, as well as a summary of the project activity from the contract award date of August 1, 2009 through the contract expiration date of December 31, 2011. Two photos are included in the body of the report which show hydrogen storage and bulk hydrogen refueling technologies developed as a result of this program.

  6. Final Technical Report

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    Klein, Stephen A.

    2005-10-27

    In this final technical report, a summary of work is provided. Work toward an improved representation of frontal clouds in global climate models occurred. This involved analysis of cloud variability in ARM observations and the careful contrast of single column model solutions with ARM data. In addition, high resolution simulations of frontal clouds were employed to diagnosis processes that are important for the development of frontal clouds.

  7. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    The DOE Coal Liquefaction Research Needs (COLIRN) Panel reviewed, developed, and assessed R and D needs for the development of coal liquefaction for the production of transportation fuels. Technical, economics, and environmental considerations were important components of the panel's deliberations. The panel examined in some depth each of the following technologies: direct liquefaction of coal, indirect liquefaction via conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas, pyrolysis, coprocessing of combined coal/oil feedstocks, and bioconversion of coal and coal-derived materials. In this assessment particular attention was given to highlighting the fundamental and applied research which has revealed new and improved liquefaction mechanisms, the potentially promising innovative processes currently emerging, and the technological and engineering improvements necessary for significant cost reductions. As the result of this assessment, the COLIRN panel developed a list of prioritized research recommendations needed to bring coal liquefaction to technical and economic readiness in the next 5--20 years. The findings and the research recommendations generated by the COLIRN panel are summarized in this publication. 107 figs., 63 tabs.

  8. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sobecky, Patricia A; Taillefert, Martial

    2013-03-29

    This final technical report describes results and findings from a research project to examine the role of microbial phosphohydrolase enzymes in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of the radionuclide uranium through the production of insoluble uranium phosphate minerals. The research project investigated the microbial mechanisms and the physical and chemical processes promoting uranium biomineralization and sequestration in oxygenated subsurface soils. Uranium biomineralization under aerobic conditions can provide a secondary biobarrier strategy to immobilize radionuclides should the metal precipitates formed by microbial dissimilatory mechanisms remobilize due to a change in redox state.

  9. Macromolecular structure analysis and effective liquefaction pretreatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Suuberg, E.M.; Yun, Y.; Lilly, W.D.; Leung, K.; Gates, T.; Otake, Y.; Deevi, S.C.

    1994-07-01

    This project was concerned with characterizing the changes in coal macromolecular structure, that are of significance for liquefaction pretreatments of coal. The macromolecular structure of the insoluble portion of coal is difficult to characterize. Techniques that do so indirectly (based upon, for example, NMR and FTIR characterizations of atomic linkages) are not particularly sensitive for this purpose. Techniques that characterize the elastic structure (such as solvent swelling) are much more sensitive to subtle changes in the network structure. It is for this reason that we focused upon these techniques. The overall objective involved identifying pretreatments that reduce the crosslinking (physical or chemical) of the network structure, and thus lead to materials that can be handled to a greater extent by traditional liquid-phase processing techniques. These techniques tend to be inherently more efficient at producing desirable products. This report is divided into seven chapters. Chapter II summarizes the main experimental approaches used throughout the project, and summarizes the main findings on the Argonne Premium coal samples. Chapter III considers synergistic effects of solvent pairs. It is divided into two subsections. The first is concerned with mixtures of CS{sub 2} with electron donor solvents. The second subsection is concerned with aromatic hydrocarbon - alcohol or hydrocarbon - alcohol mixtures, as might be of interest for preliquefaction delivery of catalysts into bituminous coals. Chapter IV deals with questions of how oxidation might influence the results that are obtained. Chapter V briefly details what conclusions may be drawn concerning the elastic behavior of coals, and the effects of thermal treatments on this behavior. Chapter VI is concerned with theories to describe the action of solvents that are capable of dissociating non-covalent crosslinks. Finally, Chapter VII discusses the practical implications of the study.

  10. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Section 1 contains a report of the progress by the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research on the following tasks: laboratory support (liquefaction in dewaxed and hydrotreated dewaxed solvent); CO pretreatment (effect of process variables on CO pretreatment, CO-pretreated product characterization, and liquefaction results); and iron based dispersed catalysts (production, characterization and testing of sulfated hematites and reaction model development). Section 2 contains a progress report by CONSOL, Inc. on the following tasks: laboratory support; pretreatment work on dewaxing; pretreatment work on agglomeration; and economic evaluation. Progress by Sandia National Laboratories is reported in Section 3 on the following: laboratory support (TGA methods) and solvent pretreatment (coker tar hydrogenation and coal liquefaction results). Section 4 gives a preliminary technical assessment by LDP Associates on the following: baseline economic assessment; assessment of improved coal conversion; and fluid coking.

  11. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Volume 2, Participants program final summary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1994-05-01

    This 4.5-year project consisted of routine analytical support to DOE`s direct liquefaction process development effort (the Base Program), and an extensive effort to develop, demonstate, and apply new analytical methods for the characterization of liquefaction process streams (the Participants Program). The objective of the Base Program was to support the on-going DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program. Feed, process, and product samples were used to assess process operations, product quality, and the effects of process variables, and to direct future testing. The primary objective of the Participants Program was to identify and demonstrate analytical methods for use in support of liquefaction process develpment, and in so doing, provide a bridge between process design, development, and operation and analytical chemistry. To achieve this direct coal liquefaction-derived materials. CONSOL made an evaluation of each analytical technique. During the performance of this project, we obtained analyses on samples from numerous process development and research programs and we evaluated a variety of analytical techniques for their usefulness in supporting liquefaction process development. Because of the diverse nature of this program, we provide here an annotated bibliography of the technical reports, publications, and formal presentations that resulted from this program to serve as a comprehensive summary of contract activities.

  12. Hydroprocessing SRC. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bronfenbrenner, J.C.; Garg, D.; Harris, C.F.; Znaimer, S.

    1983-09-01

    Catalyst activity and aging rate were studied in ICRC's process development unit (PDU) and at the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Facility under SRC-I Demonstration Plant hydroprocessing conditions. Similar studies using both high- and low-conversion modes were conducted by The Lummus Company. The studies determined variations in SRC conversion, hydrocarbon gas production, hydrogen consumption, and heteroatom removal. Samples of spent catalyst were analyzed to ascertain the reasons for catalyst deactivation. Finally, the ICRC PDU hydroprocessing results were compared with those generated at Lummus and Wilsonville pilot plants.

  13. FINAL/ SCIENTIFIC TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Henry; Singh, Suminderpal

    2006-08-28

    The overall objective of the Chattanooga fuel cell demonstrations project was to develop and demonstrate a prototype 5-kW grid-parallel, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system that co-produces hydrogen, based on Ion America’s technology. The commercial viability of the 5kW SOFC system was tested by transporting, installing and commissioning the SOFC system at the Alternative Energy Laboratory at the University of Tennessee – Chattanooga. The system also demonstrated the efficiency and the reliability of the system running on natural gas. This project successfully contributed to the achievement of DOE technology validation milestones from the Technology Validation section of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan. Results of the project can be found in the final technical report.

  14. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Tanis

    2005-11-25

    This document comprises the final technical report for atomic collisions research supported by DOE grant No. DE-FG02-87ER13778 from September 1, 2001 through August 31, 2004. The research involved the experimental investigation of excitation and charge-changing processes occurring in ion-atom and ion-molecule collisions. Major emphases of the study were: (1) interference effects resulting from coherent electron emission in H2, (2) production of doubly vacant K-shell (hollow ion) states due to electron correlation, and (3) formation of long-lived metastable states in electron transfer processes. During the period of the grant, this research resulted in 23 publications, 12 invited presentations, and 39 contributed presentations at national and international meetings and other institutions. Brief summaries of the completed research are presented below.

  15. Cooperative Research Program in coal liquefaction. Technical report, May 1, 1994--October 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts.

  16. Advanced concepts in coal liquefaction: Optimization of reactor configuration in coal liquefaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, V.R.; Comolli, A.G.; Lee, L.K.

    1994-11-01

    The overall objective of this Project was to find the ways to effectively reduce the cost of coal liquids to about dollar 25 per barrel of crude oil equivalent. The work described herein is primarily concerned with the testing at the laboratory scale of three reactor configuration concepts, namely (1) a fixed-bed plug-flow reactor as a ``finishing reactor`` in coal liquefaction, (2) three-stage well-mixed reactors in series, and (3) interstage stream concentration/product separation. The three reactor configurations listed above were tested during this project using a 20 cc tubing microreactor, a fixed-bed plug flow reactor, and a two-stage modified Robinson-Mahoney reactor system. The reactor schemes were first evaluated based on theoretical modelling studies, then experimentally evaluated at the microautoclave level and laboratory scale continuous operations. The fixed-bed ``finishing reactor`` concept was evaluated in both the upflow and the downflow modes of operation using a partially converted coal-solvent slurry as feed. For most of the testing of concepts at the microautoclave level, simulated coal, recycle oil, and slurry feedstocks were either specially prepared (to represent a specific state of coal/resid conversion) and/or obtained from HRI`s other ongoing bench-scale and PDU scale coal liquefaction experiments. The three-stage continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and interstage product stream separation/concentration concepts were tested using a simulated three-stage CSTR system by employing a laboratory-scale ebullated-bed system and a modified version of the HRI`s existing Robinson-Mahoney fixed catalyst basket reactor system. This testing was conducted as a fourteen day long continuous run, divided into four Conditions to allow for a comparison of the new three-stage CSTR and interstage product concentration concepts with a two-stage CSTR baseline configuration.

  17. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriy Y. Anistratov; Marvin L. Adams; Todd S. Palmer; Kord S. Smith; Kevin Clarno; Hikaru Hiruta; Razvan Nes

    2003-08-04

    OAK B202 Final Technical Report. The present generation of reactor analysis methods uses few-group nodal diffusion approximations to calculate full-core eigenvalues and power distributions. The cross sections, diffusion coefficients, and discontinuity factors (collectively called ''group constants'') in the nodal diffusion equations are parameterized as functions of many variables, ranging from the obvious (temperature, boron concentration, etc.) to the more obscure (spectral index, moderator temperature history, etc.). These group constants, and their variations as functions of the many variables, are calculated by assembly-level transport codes. The current methodology has two main weaknesses that this project addressed. The first weakness is the diffusion approximation in the full-core calculation; this can be significantly inaccurate at interfaces between different assemblies. This project used the nodal diffusion framework to implement nodal quasidiffusion equations, which can capture transport effects to an arbitrary degree of accuracy. The second weakness is in the parameterization of the group constants; current models do not always perform well, especially at interfaces between unlike assemblies. The project developed a theoretical foundation for parameterization and homogenization models and used that theory to devise improved models. The new models were extended to tabulate information that the nodal quasidiffusion equations can use to capture transport effects in full-core calculations.

  18. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Aristos Aristidou Natureworks); Robert Kean; Tom Schechinger; Stuart Birrell; Jill Euken

    2007-10-01

    The two main objectives of this project were: 1) to develop and test technologies to harvest, transport, store, and separate corn stover to supply a clean raw material to the bioproducts industry, and 2) engineer fermentation systems to meet performance targets for lactic acid and ethanol manufacturers. Significant progress was made in testing methods to harvest corn stover in a “single pass” harvest mode (collect corn grain and stover at the same time). This is technically feasible on small scale, but additional equipment refinements will be needed to facilitate cost effective harvest on a larger scale. Transportation models were developed, which indicate that at a corn stover yield of 2.8 tons/acre and purchase price of $35/ton stover, it would be unprofitable to transport stover more than about 25 miles; thus suggesting the development of many regional collection centers. Therefore, collection centers should be located within about 30 miles of the farm, to keep transportation costs to an acceptable level. These collection centers could then potentially do some preprocessing (to fractionate or increase bulk density) and/or ship the biomass by rail or barge to the final customers. Wet storage of stover via ensilage was tested, but no clear economic advantages were evident. Wet storage eliminates fire risk, but increases the complexity of component separation and may result in a small loss of carbohydrate content (fermentation potential). A study of possible supplier-producer relationships, concluded that a “quasi-vertical” integration model would be best suited for new bioproducts industries based on stover. In this model, the relationship would involve a multiyear supply contract (processor with purchase guarantees, producer group with supply guarantees). Price will likely be fixed or calculated based on some formula (possibly a cost plus). Initial quality requirements will be specified (but subject to refinement).Producers would invest in harvest

  19. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 1 - effects of solvents, catalysts and temperature conditions on conversion and structural changes of low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Lili Huang; Schobert, H.H.; Chunshan Song

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this project were to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank, and influence of solvent were examined. Specific objectives were to identify the basic changes in coal structure induced by catalytic and thermal pretreatments, and to determine the reactivity of the catalytically and thermally treated coals for liquefaction. In the original project management plan it was indicated that six coals would be used for the study. These were to include two each of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite rank. For convenience in executing the experimental work, two parallel efforts were conducted. The first involved the two lignites and one subbituminous coal; and the second, the two bituminous coals and the remaining subbituminous coal. This Volume presents the results of the first portion of the work, studies on two lignites and one subbituminous coal. The remaining work accomplished under this project will be described and discussed in Volume 2 of this report. The objective of this portion of the project was to determine and compare the effects of solvents, catalysts and reaction conditions on coal liquefaction. Specifically, the improvements of reaction conversion, product distribution, as well as the structural changes in the coals and coal-derived products were examined. This study targeted at promoting hydrogenation of the coal-derived radicals, generated during thermal cleavage of chemical bonds, by using a good hydrogen donor-solvent and an effective catalyst. Attempts were also made in efforts to match the formation and hydrogenation of the free radicals and thus to prevent retrogressive reaction.

  20. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bohdan W. Oppenheim; Rudolf Marloth

    2007-10-26

    Executive Summary The document contains Final Technical Report on the Industrial Assessment Center Program at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, covering the contract period of 9/1/2002 to 11/30/2006, under the contract DE-FC36-02GO 12073. The Report describes six required program tasks, as follows: TASK 1 is a summary of the assessments performed over the life of the award: 77 assessments were performed, 595 AR were recommended, covering a very broad range of manufacturing plants. TASK 2 is a description of the efforts to promote and increase the adoption of assessment recommendations and employ innovative methods to assist in accomplishing these goals. The LMU IAC has been very successful in accomplishing the program goals, including implemented savings of $5,141,895 in energy, $10,045,411 in productivity and $30,719 in waste, for a total of $15,218,025. This represents 44% of the recommended savings of $34,896,392. TASK 3 is a description of the efforts promoting the IAC Program and enhancing recruitment efforts for new clients and expanded geographic coverage. LMU IAC has been very successful recruiting new clients covering Southern California. Every year, the intended number of clients was recruited. TASK 4 describes the educational opportunities, training, and other related activities for IAC students. A total of 38 students graduated from the program, including 2-3 graduate students every semester, and the remainder undergraduate students, mostly from the Mechanical Engineering Department. The students received formal weekly training in energy (75%) and productivity (25). All students underwent extensive safety training. All students praised the IAC experience very highly. TASK 5 describes the coordination and integration of the Center activities with other Center and IAC Program activities, and DOE programs. LMU IAC worked closely with MIT, and SDSU IAC and SFSU IAC, and enthusiastically supported the SEN activities. TASK 6 describes other tasks

  1. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brizard, Alain J

    2009-12-31

    Final Technical Report for U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-09ER55005 Nonlinear FLR Effects in Reduced Fluid Models Alain J. Brizard, Saint Michael's College The above-mentioned DoE grant was used to support research activities by the PI during a sabbatical leave from Saint Michael's College in 2009. The major focus of the work was the role played by guiding-center and gyrocenter (linear and nonlinear) polarization and magnetization effects in understanding transport processes in turbulent magnetized plasmas. The theoretical tools used for this work include Lie-transform perturbation methods and Lagrangian (variational) methods developed by the PI in previous work. The present final technical report lists (I) the peer-reviewed publications that were written based on work funded by the Grant; (II) invited and contributed conference presentations during the period funded by the Grant; and (III) seminars presented during the period funded by the Grant. I. Peer-reviewed Publications A.J. Brizard and N. Tronko, 2011, Exact momentum conservation for the gyrokinetic Vlasov- Poisson equations, Physics of Plasmas 18 , 082307:1-14 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3625554 ]. J. Decker, Y. Peysson, A.J. Brizard, and F.-X. Duthoit, 2010, Orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator for numerical applications, Physics of Plasmas 17, 112513:1-12 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3519514]. A.J. Brizard, 2010, Noether derivation of exact conservation laws for dissipationless reduced fluid models, Physics of Plasmas 17, 112503:1-8 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3515303]. F.-X. Duthoit, A.J. Brizard, Y. Peysson, and J. Decker, 2010, Perturbation analysis of trapped particle dynamics in axisymmetric dipole geometry, Physics of Plasmas 17, 102903:1-9 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3486554]. A.J. Brizard, 2010, Exact energy conservation laws for full and truncated nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, Physics of Plasmas 17, 042303:1-11 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3374428]. A

  2. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1994--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The technical approach of the contract has been expanded to provide additional economic evaluation of related process options. Additional data will be developed in the following areas to facilitate these evaluations. The effect of several modified pretreatments on liquefaction will be investigated. These include catalytic and thermal dewaxing of distillate solvents, the effect that adding light resid to distillate solvent has on hydrotreating and dewaxing, the liquefaction behavior of dense-media separated low-rank coals, and methods of selectively removing oxygen from low-rank coals. Additional chemical, physical, and performance information on improved first-stage catalysts will be developed. Upgrading of ash concentrate to recover catalysts and improve low-rank coals will be assessed. The conversion of residual fractions to distillate by hydropyrolysis will be evaluated. The economic impact of these processes will be determined.

  3. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gandy, Rex

    2000-05-15

    The technical goal of this collaborative effort is to measure electron temperature fluctuations using electron cyclotron emission on the Alcator-C tokamak. The physics goal is to understand the role that these fluctuations play in plasma transport; in particular, the influence of electron temperature fluctuations on anomalous transport. Measurement techniques and apparatus are discussed.

  4. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Chris

    2014-11-13

    The project, Capital Investment to Fund Equipment Purchases and Facility Modifications to Create a Sustainable Future for EnergyXchange served to replace landfill gas energy with alternative energy resources, primarily solar and wood waste. This is the final project closeout report.

  5. Phase equilibrium in coal liquefaction processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, K.C.

    1984-08-01

    Gas-liquid equilibrium data have been determined in simulation of coal liquefaction process conditions in mixtures of light gases + heavy hydrocarbons to add to the accumulated data previously reported in EPRI AP-1593. The mixture systems newly investigated are: methane + 9,10 dihydrophenanthrene; hydrogen + methane + 1-methylnaphthalene; hydrogen + carbon dioxide + tetralin; hydrogen + carbon dioxide + 1-methynaphthalene; hydrogen + carbon dioxide + quinoline; nitrogen + tetralin, + n-hexadecane, + 1-methylnaphthalene, + quinoline, and + m-cresol. Correlations for the solubilities of methane and carbon dioxide have been developed from the data based on the use of solubility parameter. The solubility of hydrogen was correlated in EPRI AP-1593. Two equations of state are developed for the description of both the gas solubility and the vaporization of the heavy oil. The Chain-of-Rotators (COR) equation of state explicitly accounts for the rotational molecular motion contribution to the pressure of a fluid. The Cubic-Chain-of-Rotators (CCOR) equation is obtained upon simplifying the COR equation. Interaction constants in the CCOR equation have been determined for the light gases with the heavy hydrocarbons based on data from this project, and the constants are correlated. Equilibrium flash vaporization has been experimentally determined for three coal liquids and for their mixtures with hydrogen. The data are correlated with the CCOR equation of state. 74 figures, 46 tables.

  6. Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts. Final report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    Integration of innovative steps into new advanced processes have the potential to reduce costs for producing liquid fuels. In this program, objective is to develop a new approach to liquefaction that generates an all distillate product slate at a reduced cost of about US$25/barrel of crude oil equivalent. A Counterflow Reactor was developed in cooperation with GfK mbH, Germany. Advantages are low hydrogen recycle rates and low feed preheating requirements. Coal/heavy oil slurry is injected into the top of the reactor while the recycle gas and make up hydrogen is introduced into the bottom; hydrogenation products are withdrawn from the top. PU study resulted in distillable oil yields up to 74 wt % on feed (dry ash free) from coprocessing feed slurries containing 40 wt % Vesta subbituminous coal and 60 wt % Cold Lake heavy vacuum tower bottoms. Technologies developed separately by CED and ARC were combined. A 1-kg/hr integrated continuous flow bench scale unit was constructed at the ARC site in Devon, Alberta, based on modifications to a unit at Nisku, Alberta (the modified unit was used in the preliminary economic evaluation).

  7. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerlin, H, M, PhD PE; Leach, J, W, PhD PE; Terry, S, D, PhD PE

    2007-02-28

    The Industrial Assessment Center program at North Carolina State University has conducted one hundred industrial assessments of small and medium sized manufacturers in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. Reports were submitted to each facility that included a brief description of the plant, historical energy use, and a technical analysis of potential energy efficiency savings, waste reduction, and productivity savings. Seven hundred thirty eight conservation measures were recommended with total annual cost savings in excess of $18 million. The NCSU IAC has worked with other government and private entities to deliver energy efficiency and conservation services. We have worked closely with the NCSU Industrial Extension Service, the Manufacturer’s Extension Partnership (MEP), and the North Carolina State Energy Office to provide follow-up technical help and financial assistance in implementing conservation recommendations. In addition to these organizations, the NCSU IAC has also worked with the NC Department of Pollution Prevention and Environmental Assistance, the NC Solar Center, Advanced Energy Corporation, Duke Power, Progress Energy, Dominion Power, and the City of Danville, Virginia. Eighteen undergraduate and twenty graduate students were exposed to a variety of manufacturing processes, trained on plant safety, and taught the use of various types of data collection equipment. The students performed technical analyses of each recommendation, computed the potential savings from engineering relations and collected data, estimated the cost from vendor information, and communicated the findings in a compact, well written report to the client. The students have also been exposed to a variety of business personnel, including corporate presidents, engineering managers, plant managers, plant engineers, facility maintenance staff, and production workers – each with a unique perspective on the challenges faced in a modern manufacturing facility. The program

  8. Technical Report - FINAL

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara Luke, Director, UNLV Engineering Geophysics Laboratory

    2007-04-25

    Improve understanding of the earthquake hazard in the Las Vegas Valley and to assess the state of preparedness of the area's population and structures for the next big earthquake. 1. Enhance the seismic monitoring network in the Las Vegas Valley 2. Improve understanding of deep basin structure through active-source seismic refraction and reflection testing 3. Improve understanding of dynamic response of shallow sediments through seismic testing and correlations with lithology 4. Develop credible earthquake scenarios by laboratory and field studies, literature review and analyses 5. Refine ground motion expectations around the Las Vegas Valley through simulations 6. Assess current building standards in light of improved understanding of hazards 7. Perform risk assessment for structures and infrastructures, with emphasis on lifelines and critical structures 8. Encourage and facilitate broad and open technical interchange regarding earthquake safety in southern Nevada and efforts to inform citizens of earthquake hazards and mitigation opportunities

  9. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick J. Carranti, P.E.

    2008-02-27

    During the contract period noted above, the Syracuse University Industrial Assessment Center conducted 97.5 assessment days for 98 different industrial clients. These assessments developed 818 assessment recommendations with an overall implementation rate of 51 % (AR’s). Total recommended dollar savings for the period was $17,386,758.00, with $8,893,212.00 actually implemented, for a dollar implementation rate of 57%. The Center employed a total of sixteen undergraduate interns throughout the contract period. Nine of these students stayed on at Syracuse University for graduate study with Center support; five students pursued graduate study at other universities. Ten of these students have, or will, accept professional positions in the energy consulting field. The Center has successfully engaged with a wide variety of professional and development organizations, including the Manufacturers Association of Central New York, The Central New York Technical Development Organization, (the local MEP), the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, The New York Power Authority, the Onondaga County Citizens Energy Committee, and the New York State Center of Excellence on Indoor Environmental Systems.

  10. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    STEFAN VASILE; ZHENG LI

    2010-06-17

    High-resolution tracking detectors based on Active Pixel Sensor (APS) have been valuable tools in Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics research, and have contributed to major discoveries. Their integration time, radiation length and readout rate is a limiting factor for the planed luminosity upgrades in nuclear and high-energy physics collider-based experiments. The goal of this program was to demonstrate and develop high-gain, high-resolution tracking detector arrays with faster readout, and shorter radiation length than APS arrays. These arrays may operate as direct charged particle detectors or as readouts of high resolution scintillating fiber arrays. During this program, we developed in CMOS large, high-resolution pixel sensor arrays with integrated readout, and reset at pixel level. Their intrinsic gain, high immunity to surface and moisture damage, will allow operating these detectors with minimal packaging/passivation requirements and will result in radiation length superior to APS. In Phase I, we designed and fabricated arrays with calorimetric output capable of sub-pixel resolution and sub-microsecond readout rate. The technical effort was dedicated to detector and readout structure development, performance verification, as well as to radiation damage and damage annealing.

  11. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stoessel, Chris

    2013-11-13

    This project developed a new high-performance R-10/high SHGC window design, reviewed market positioning and evaluated manufacturing solutions required for broad market adoption. The project objectives were accomplished by: identifying viable technical solutions based on modeling of modern and potential coating stacks and IGU designs; development of new coating material sets for HM thin film stacks, as well as improved HM IGU designs to accept multiple layers of HM films; matching promising new coating designs with new HM IGU designs to demonstrate performance gains; and, in cooperation with a window manufacturer, assess the potential for high-volume manufacturing and cost efficiency of a HM-based R-10 window with improved solar heat gain characteristics. A broad view of available materials and design options was applied to achieve the desired improvements. Gated engineering methodologies were employed to guide the development process from concept generation to a window demonstration. The project determined that a slightly de-rated window performance allows formulation of a path to achieve the desired cost reductions to support end consumer adoption.

  12. Kinetics assisted design of catalysts for coal liquefaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.; Foley, H.C.; Calkins, W.H.; Scouten, C.

    1998-02-01

    The thermal and catalytic reactions of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (NBBM), a resid and coal model compound, were examined. Catalytic reaction of NBBM was carried out at 400 C under hydrogen with a series of transition metal-based catalytic materials including Fe(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3}, Fe(CO){sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}CS{sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 5}, Mo(CO){sub 6}, Mn{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MoS{sub 2}. Experimental findings and derived mechanistic insights were organized into molecular-level reaction models for NBBM pyrolysis and catalysis. Hydropyrolysis and catalysis reaction families occurring during NBBM hydropyrolysis at 420 C were summarized in the form of reaction matrices which, upon exhaustive application to the components of the reacting system, yielded the mechanistic reaction model. Each reaction family also had an associated linear free energy relationship (LFER) which provided an estimate of the rate constant k{sub i} given a structural property of species i or its reaction. Including the catalytic reaction matrices with those for the pyrolysis model provided a comprehensive NBBM catalytic reaction model and allowed regression of fundamental LFER parameters for the catalytic reaction families. The model also allowed specification of the property of an optimal catalyst. Iron, molybdenum and palladium were predicted to be most effective for model compound consumption. Due to the low costs associated with iron and its disposal, it is a good choice for coal liquefaction catalysis and the challenge remains to synthesize small particles able to access the full surface area of the coal macromolecule.

  13. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Juan Camilo Serrano

    2011-12-16

    New and novel material and process technologies applied in wind blade designs and production are critical to increasing the competitiveness of wind power generation against traditional sources of energy. In this project, through collaboration between PPG Industries and MAG Industrial Automation Systems, the potential of using automated manufacturing for the production of fiber glass composite wind blades was evaluated from both technical and economic points of view. Further, it was demonstrated that by modifying the standard blade raw material forms through the use of cost effective pre-impregnated rovings coupled with using an automated fiber placement machine to lay up the parts, it is possible to produce state of the art composite laminates with significantly improved mechanical performance and with higher processing rates than standard blade production technology allows for today, thereby lowering the cost of energy over turbine blades made using traditional processes and materials. In conformity with the scope of work of the submitted proposal, the project team completed each task and documented and reported its findings on the appropriate quarterly report submitted to the DOE project team. The activities and this report are divided into 5 subtasks: (1) Material Investigation - Reviews traditional materials and key specifications and testing methods; (2) Manufacturing and Automation - Identifies new candidate material forms and automated layup processes; (3) Process Development - Performs trials of candidate materials and processes; (4) Predictive Analysis - Assesses impact of new material forms and automated processes on a model blade design; and (5) Feasibility Assessment - Compares traditional manufacturing processes and materials to new candidate material forms and automated processes.

  14. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Junker; Greg Wheeler

    2007-02-26

    Since 1986 the Oregon State University Industrial Assessment Center (OSU IAC) has worked to increase the energy efficiency, productivity, sustainability, and competitiveness of US manufacturers; provide engineering students an education not available in the classroom; keep engineering faculty in contact with technology and challenges in Northwest industry; and reduce dependence on nonrenewable energy resources, both imported and domestic. Project Objective: Over the duration of this project (2002-2006), the OSU IAC worked to directly support and influence industrial decisions primarily regarding energy but also regarding sustainability and profitability through: Assessments & Follow-up: The OSU IAC performed 111 Industrial Assessments in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Nevada to help industry identify and implement opportunities to increase energy efficiency, productivity, sustainability, and competitiveness Workshops Seminars Forums Etc: OSU IAC staff worked with regional peers to offer appropriate workshops and trainings as opportunities availed themselves. Graduating Excellent Energy Aware Professional Alumni: As technically capable, skilled written and verbal communicators, our alumni contributed to OSU IAC influence from their positions within industry, consulting organizations, utilities, and governmental and non governmental agencies. Tool Development: Analysis tools and guides originated at the OSU IAC extended our reach. The center continually worked to develop computer based analysis tools, evaluation checklists, analysis guide sheets for internal use and general sharing with industry, energy, and other professionals to assist them in efforts to improve US Industry. Impact: Over 20 years of activity the OSU IAC has typically performed 25 Industrial Assessments a year. On average, each year of 25 assessments has resulted in implemented projects that saved industry a total of: 25.3 TBTU in annual energy and $4.5 Million annually, with an average investment

  15. Final technical report.

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel J. Candes

    2007-11-06

    In the last two dcades or so, many multiscale algorthms have been proposed to enable large scale computations which were thought as nearly intractable. For example, the fast multipole algorithm and other similar ideas have allowed to considerably speed up fundamental computations in electromagnetism, and many other fields. The thesis underlying this proposal is that traditional multiscale methods have been well-developed and it is clear that we now need new ideas in areas where traditional spatial multiscaling is ill-suited. In this context, the proposal argues that clever phase-space computations is bound to plan a crucial role in advancing algorithms and high-performance scientific computing. Our research past accomplishments have shown the existence of ideas beyond the traditional scale-space viewpoint such as new multiscale geometric representations of phase-space. We have shown that these clever representations lead to enhanced sparsity. We have shown that enhanced sparsity has significant important implications both for analysis, and for numerical applications, where sparsity allows for faster algorithms. We have implemented these ideas and built computational tools to be used as new building blocks of a new generation of wave propagation solvers. Finally, we have deployed these ideas into novel algorithms. In this last year, we assembled all these techniques and made significant progress in solving a variety of computational problems, which we then applied in selected areas of considerable scientific interest.

  16. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Velasco, Mayda

    2013-11-01

    This work is focused on the design and construction of novel beam diagnostic and instrumentation for charged particle accelerators required for the next generation of linear colliders. Our main interest is in non-invasive techniques. The Northwestern group of Velasco has been a member of the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) collaboration since 2003, and the beam instrumentation work is developed mostly at this facility1. This 4 kW electron beam facility has a 25-170 MeV electron LINAC. CTF3 performed a set of dedicated measurements to finalize the development of our RF-Pickup bunch length detectors. The RF-pickup based on mixers was fully commissioned in 2009 and the RF-pickup based on diodes was finished in time for the 2010-11 data taking. The analysis of all the data taken in by the summer of 2010 was finish in time and presented at the main conference of the year, LINAC 2010 in Japan.

  17. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander Fridman

    2005-06-01

    This DOE project DE-FC36-04GO14052 ''Plasma Pilot Plant Test for Treating VOC Emissions from Wood Products Plants'' was conducted by Drexel University in cooperation with Georgia-Pacific (G-P) and Kurchatov Institute (KI). The objective of this project was to test the Plasma Pilot Plant capabilities in wood industry. The final goal of the project was to replace the current state-of-the-art, regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology by Low-Temperature Plasma Technology (LTPT) in paper and wood industry for Volatile Organic Components (VOC) destruction in High Volume Low Concentration (HVLC) vent emissions. MetPro Corporation joined the team as an industrial partner from the environmental control business and a potential leader for commercialization. Concurrent Technology Corporation (CTC) has a separate contract with DOE for this technology evaluation. They prepared questionnaires for comparison of this technology and RTO, and made this comparison. These data are presented in this report along with the description of the technology itself. Experiments with the pilot plant were performed with average plasma power up to 3.6 kW. Different design of the laboratory and pilot plant pulsed coronas, as well as different analytical methods revealed many new peculiarities of the VOC abatement process. The work reported herein describes the experimental results for the VOCs removal efficiency with respect to energy consumption, residence time, water effect and initial concentration.

  18. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander Pigarov

    2012-06-05

    This is the final report for the Research Grant DE-FG02-08ER54989 'Edge Plasma Simulations in NSTX and CTF: Synergy of Lithium Coating, Non-Diffusive Anomalous Transport and Drifts'. The UCSD group including: A.Yu. Pigarov (PI), S.I. Krasheninnikov and R.D. Smirnov, was working on modeling of the impact of lithium coatings on edge plasma parameters in NSTX with the multi-species multi-fluid code UEDGE. The work was conducted in the following main areas: (i) improvements of UEDGE model for plasma-lithium interactions, (ii) understanding the physics of low-recycling divertor regime in NSTX caused by lithium pumping, (iii) study of synergistic effects with lithium coatings and non-diffusive ballooning-like cross-field transport, (iv) simulation of experimental multi-diagnostic data on edge plasma with lithium pumping in NSTX via self-consistent modeling of D-Li-C plasma with UEDGE, and (v) working-gas balance analysis. The accomplishments in these areas are given in the corresponding subsections in Section 2. Publications and presentations made under the Grant are listed in Section 3.

  19. Exploratory research on solvent-refined-coal liquefaction. Annual technical progress report, January 1-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1981-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Exploratory Research on Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction project by the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co.'s Merriam Laboratory during 1980. Six coals and a coal blend, representing the Interior, Rocky Mountain, Eastern and Northern Great Plains Provinces, were processed in the SRC I and SRC II modes to study the relationship between coal properties and liquefaction behavior. Disposable catalysts and specific compounds were added to Loveridge, Kaiparowits and Blacksville No. 2 coals during SRC II mode liquefaction. Kentucky 9/14, Indiana V and Loveridge coals were processed at short residence times (4 to 9 minutes) in the SRC I mode to evaluate the effects of temperature, pressure, residence time and disposable catalyst addition. Finally, coal from the Powhatan No. 1 Mine was evaluated as a feedstock for major coal liquefaction facilities.

  20. CEEM Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, John

    2014-11-26

    concentrating photovoltaic applications thathave substantially higher efficiency than single substrate cells made of elemental semiconductors such as silicon. This task required the development of new cell bonding methods with excellent coupling of both photons and electrons between the sub-cells. To accomplish this, we developed (1) GaInN solar cells with enhanced performance by using quantum-well absorbers and front-surface optical texturing, (2) a hybrid "pillar-array" bond which uses an array of metal pillars for electrical coupling, and (3) a "hybrid moth-eye" optical coating which combines the benefits of nano-imprinted moth-eye coatings and traditional multilayer coatings. The technical effectiveness was assessed by measurement of the photovoltaic efficiency of solar cells made using these techniques; the ultrahigh efficiencies targeted by this work are of compelling economic value for concentrating photovoltaics.

  1. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, Reiner; Urrutia, J. Manuel

    2009-09-08

    emissions are only observed in whistler spheromaks and FRCs but not in mirrors or asymmetric configurations lacking magnetic null lines. The collisionless electron energization in a toroidal null line usually produces non-Maxwellian distributions. Off the null axis electrons gain more perpendicular than parallel energy. Distributions with T{sub {perpendicular}} > T{sub {parallel}} lead to whistler instabilities which have been observed. A whistler spheromak is a source of high-frequency whistler emissions. These are usually small amplitude whistlers propagating in a complicated background magnetic field. The waves are emitted from a moving source. High frequency whistlers propagate faster than the spheromak, thus partly move ahead of it and partly in the reverse direction. In test wave experiments wave growth opposite to the direction of the hot electron flow has been observed, confirming that Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance instabilities account for the emission process. Propagating whistler mirrors produce no significant instabilities except when they interact with other fields which exhibit null lines. For example, a whistler mirror has been launched against a stationary FRC, resulting in strong FRC heating and whistler instabilities. In the whistler mirror configuration the antenna near-zone field produces a toroidal null line outside the coil which can also become a source for whistler emissions. Finally, nonlinear EMHD research has been extended to initially unmagnetized plasmas where a new nonlinear skin depth has been discovered. When a small-amplitude oscillating magnetic field is applied to a plasma the field penetration is governed by the skin depth, collisional or collisionless depending on frequency, collision frequency and plasma frequency. However, when the magnetic field increases the electrons become magnetized and the field penetration occurs in the whistler mode if the cyclotron frequency exceeds the oscillating frequency. This phenomenon has been

  2. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-08-01

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Process oils from Wilsonville Run 262 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 262 was operated from July 10 through September 30, 1991, in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) configuration with ash recycle. The feed coal was Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal. The high/low temperature sequence was used. Each reactor was operated at 50% of the available reactor volume. The interstage separator was in use throughout the run. The second-stage reactor was charged with aged Criterion 324 catalyst (Ni/Mo on 1/16 inch alumina extrudate support). Slurry catalysts and sulfiding agent were fed to the first-stage reactor. Molyvan L is an organometallic compound which contains 8.1% Mo, and is commercially available as an oil-soluble lubricant additive. It was used in Run 262 as a dispersed hydrogenation catalyst precursor, primarily to alleviate deposition problems which plagued past runs with Black Thunder coal. One test was made with little supported catalyst in the second stage. The role of phenolic groups in donor solvent properties was examined. In this study, four samples from direct liquefaction process oils were subjected to O-methylation of the phenolic groups, followed by chemical analysis and solvent quality testing.

  3. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1994-10-01

    Accomplishments for the past year are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts some of the highlights are: very promising results have been obtained from the liquefaction of plastics, rubber tires, paper and other wastes, and the coliquefaction of wastes with coal; a number of water soluble coal liquefaction catalysts, iron, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum, have been comparatively tested; mossbauer spectroscopy, XAFS spectroscopy, TEM and XPS have been used to characterize a variety of catalysts and other samples from numerous consortium and DOE liquefaction projects and in situ ESR measurements of the free radical density have been conducted at temperatures from 100 to 600{degrees}C and H{sub 2} pressures up to 600 psi.

  4. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.; Robbins, G.A.

    1993-10-01

    The Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. is conducted a program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects sponsored by the Department of Energy. In this program, CONSOL obtains samples from current process development activities in coal liquefaction and coal-oil coprocessing, and characterizes them using established analytical techniques. In addition, selected samples are characterized by other analytical techniques to evaluate their potential for aiding process development. These analyses and interpretation of the results in relation to process operations are provided by the subcontractor. Major topics reported in this thirteenth quarterly report are the following: (1) Analyses were performed on three coals and eleven process oils from HRI, Inc. process development unit Run 260--03, which was the first process development unit test of Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal, significant operating problems were encountered, and sample properties are discussed in context to the operational problems; (2) a summary of the status of the Participants Program is given; (3) summaries of the final reports produced by the University of Chicago, the University of Utah, Iowa State University, and the University of Kentucky under the Participants Program, are presented.

  5. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chunshan; Schobert, H.H.

    1993-02-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on the development of novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed liquefaction. The ultimate goal of the present research is to develop novel catalytic hydroliquefaction process using highly active dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research is to develop novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular that can be used in low precursors concentrations (< 1 %) but exhibit high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. The major technical approaches are, first, to prepare the desired heteronuclear organometallic molecules as catalyst precursors that contain covalently bound, two different metal atoms and sulfur in a single molecule. Such precursors will generate finely dispersed bimetallic catalysts such as Fe-Mo, Co-Mo and Ni-Mo binary sulfides upon thermal decomposition. The second major technical approach is to perform the liquefaction of coals unpregnated with the organometallic precursors under temperature-programmed conditions, where the programmed heat-up serves as a step for both catalyst activation and coal pretreatment or preconversion. Two to three different complexes for each of the Fe-Mo, Co-Mo, and Ni-Mo combinations will be prepared. Initial catalyst screening tests will be conducted using a subbituminous coal and a bituminous coal. Effects of coal rank and solvents will be examined with the selected bimetallic catalysts which showed much higher activity than the dispersed catalysts from conventional precursors.

  6. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1990-- April 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1992-02-15

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science (CFFLS) is currently engaged in a three year contract with the US Department of Energy investigating a range of research topics dealing with direct coal liquefaction. This report summarizes the results of this program in its second year, from May 1, 1990 to April 30, 1991. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: Iron-based catalysts for coal liquefaction, exploratory research on coal conversion, novel coal liquefaction concepts, and novel catalysts for coal liquefaction.

  7. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Chander, S.; Gutterman, C.

    1994-09-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and carrying out a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. All three coals used in this study (Black Thunder, Burning Star bituminous, and Martin Lake lignite) are effectively swelled by a number of solvents. The most effective solvents are those having hetero-functionality. In addition, a synergistic effect has been demonstrated, in which solvent blends are more effective for coal swelling than the pure solvents alone. Therefore, it will be necessary to use only low levels of swelling agents and yet promote the impregnation of catalyst precursors. The rate of the impregnation of catalyst precursors into swollen coal increases greatly as the effectiveness of the solvent to swell the coal increases. This effect is also demonstrated by improved catalyst precursor impregnation with increased contact temperature. Laboratory- and bench-scale liquefaction experimentation is underway using swelled and catalyst impregnated coal samples. Higher coal conversions were observed for the SO{sub 2}-treated coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Conversions of swelled coal were highest when Molyvan-L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively, were added to the liquefaction solvent.

  8. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Gutterman, C.; Chander, S.

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  9. EDS coal liquefaction process development: Phase V. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1-March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    1984-07-01

    This report is the twenty-first Quarterly Technical Progress Report for US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC05-77ET10069 for EDS Coal Liquefaction Process Development Phase V. A detailed comparison of RCLU, CLPP, and ECLP yields has been initiated. This study builds off previous yield modeling results, which found that RCLU, CLPP, and ECLP yields were generally consistent given the scatter of the data, although some differences were noted. These pilot unit yield differences have now been quantified, and operating/configurational differences which account for some of them have been identified. Preliminary yield comparison results after correcting for these known process differences between the pilot plants indicate that: RCLU and CLPP yields are generally consistent; ECLP's conversion is about 5 lb/100 lb DAF coal lower than RCLU/CLPP at comparable operating conditions; and work has been initiated to define the EDS slurry preheater feed system design (based on slurry distributor manifold guidelines and coking correlation predictions, which influence furnace pass control issues such as slurry flow measurement). EDS hydrotreated naphtha showed a low level of systemic toxicity to rats exposed to the vapor six hours per day, five days per week for thirteen weeks.

  10. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Lancet, M.S.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: (1) The results of a study designed to determine the effects of the conditions employed at the Wilsonville slurry preheater vessel on coal conversion is described. (2) Stable carbon isotope ratios were determined and used to source the carbon of three product samples from Period 49 of UOP bench-scale coprocessing Run 37. The results from this coprocessing run agree with the general trends observed in other coprocessing runs that we have studied. (3) Microautoclave tests and chemical analyses were performed to ``calibrate`` the reactivity of the standard coal used for determining donor solvent quality of process oils in this contract. (4) Several aspects of Wilsonville Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) resid conversion kinetics were investigated; results are presented. Error limits associated with calculations of deactivation rate constants previously reported for Runs 258 and 261 are revised and discussed. A new procedure is described that relates the conversions of 850{degrees}F{sup +} , 1050{degrees}F{sup +}, and 850 {times} 1050{degrees}F material. Resid conversions and kinetic constants previously reported for Run 260 were incorrect; corrected data and discussion are found in Appendix I of this report.

  11. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    In the Advance Coal Liquefaction Concept Proposal (ACLCP) carbon monoxide (CO) and water have been proposed as the primary reagents in the pretreatment process. The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology for pretreating coal under mild conditions based on a combination of existing processes which have shown great promise in liquefaction, extraction and pyrolysis studies. The aim of this pretreatment process is to partially depolymerise the coal, eliminate oxygen and diminish the propensity for retograde reactions during subsequent liquefaction. The desirable outcome of the CO pretreatment step should be: (1) enhanced liquefaction activity and/or selectivity toward products of higher quality due to chemical modification of the coal structure; (2) cleaner downstream products; (3) overall improvement in operability and process economics.

  12. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1991-11-01

    Consol R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  13. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progresss report, January 1--March 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.; Robbins, G.A.

    1991-09-01

    Consol R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  14. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  15. Technical planning activity: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In April 1985, the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Fusion Energy commissioned the Technical Planning Activity (TPA). The purpose of this activity was to develop a technical planning methodology and prepare technical plans in support of the strategic and policy framework of the Magnetic Fusion Program Plan issued by DOE in February 1985. Although this report represents the views of only the US magnetic fusion community, it is international in scope in the sense that the technical plans contained herein describe the full scope of the tasks that are prerequisites for the commercialization of fusion energy. The TPA has developed a well-structured methodology that includes detailed definitions of technical issues, definitions of program areas and elements, statements of research and development objectives, identification of key decision points and milestones, and descriptions of facility requirements.

  16. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1992--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The reactivity of the THF insoluble fraction of the ashy resid component of Wilsonville recycle oil (WRO) during liquefaction of Black Thunder coal in tetralin was determined at 415{degrees}C and 60 minutes. The liquefaction runs were made by combining this material with Black Thunder coal at the same ratio used in the WRO coal runs. THF conversion and product distribution from liquefaction in tetralin in the presence of the THF insoluble fraction of the ashy resid were similar to results from liquefaction in WRO. THF conversion was greater than loot with an oil yield that was somewhat higher than in WRO. Differences in HC gas yield and H{sub 2} consumption were slight, while conversion and product distribution from liquefaction of Black Thunder coal in tetralin or in the WRO distillate were quite different. In both these solvents the 85--86% THF conversions were less than for runs in which the THF insoluble fraction of the ashy resid was present. This establishes that the THF insoluble fraction of the ashy resid is the reactive fraction of the WRO.

  17. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P.

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  18. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    Volume II of this report on an assessment of research needs for coal liquefaction contains reviews of the five liquefaction technologies---direct, indirect, pyrolysis, coprocessing, and bioconversion. These reviews are not meant to be encyclopedic; several outstanding reviews of liquefaction have appeared in recent years and the reader is referred to these whenever applicable. Instead, these chapters contain reviews of selected topics that serve to support the panel's recommendations or to illustrate recent accomplishments, work in progress, or areas of major research interest. At the beginning of each of these chapters is a brief introduction and a summary of the most important research recommendations brought out during the panel discussions and supported by the material presented in the review. A review of liquefaction developments outside the US is included. 594 refs., 100 figs., 60 tabs.

  19. Subsurface investigation of a liquefaction-induced lateral spread, Thousand Springs Valley, Idaho. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, R.D.; Youd, T.L.

    1987-05-01

    A subsurface investigation was made across a lateral spread that was induced by liquefaction during the 1983 Borah Peak Earthquake (MS=7.3). The lateral spread is at a site near Whiskey Springs in the Thousand Springs Valley, Idaho. The purpose of the investigation was to (a) determine whether previous liquefaction and lateral spreading had occurred; (b) measure and evaluate geologic and geotechnical properties susbsurface sediments many of which are gravels; and (c) analyze liquefaction and ground failure susceptibility. Because there are very few past case histories of liquefaction in gravel, this study provides an opportunity to further evaluate the behavior of this important matarial. The field investigations included trenching, SPT tests, CPT soundings, BDT (Becker Drill) tests, and SASW tests (Spectral-Analysis-of Surface-Waves). Radiocarbon dataing and grain-size analysis were conducted on samples collected in the field.

  20. DOE FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT RP

    SciTech Connect

    RUSS PETERMAN

    2012-01-01

    The City of Georgetown Utility Systems (GUS) patnered with the private sector, the American Public Power Association (APPA) and Southwestern University to design, construct, test and monitor a solar co-generation system directly connected to the GUS electric distribution system. This report consists of the Primary Technical Report and 3 attachments.

  1. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical report, May 9, 1991--August 8, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1991-12-31

    The efficient production of environmentally acceptable distillate fuels requires catalysts for hydrogenation and cleavage of the coal macromolecules and removal of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur heteroatoms. The goal of the proposed research is to develop new catalysts for the direct liquefaction of coal. This type of catalyst consists of fine clay particles that have been treated with reagents which form pillaring structures between the aluminosilicate layers of the clay. The pillars not only hold the layers apart but also constitute the active catalytic sites for hydrogenation of the coal and the solvent used in the liquefaction. The pillaring catalytic sites are composed of pyrrhotite, which has been previously demonstrated to be active for coal liquefaction. The pyrrhotite sites are generated in situ by sulfiding the corresponding oxyiron species. The size of the catalyst will be less than 40 nm in order to promote intimate contact with the coal material. Since the clays and reagents for pillaring and activating the clays are inexpensive, the catalysts can be discarded after use, rather than regenerated by a costly process. The proposed work will evaluate methods for preparing the fine particle iron-pillared clay dispersions and for activating the particles to generate the catalysts. Characterization studies of the pillared clays and activated catalysts will be performed. The effectiveness of the pillared clay dispersion for hydrogenation and coal liquefaction will be determined in several types of testing.

  2. Soladigm DOE Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-31

    Soladigm's research has produced a fundamental improvement in the technology for dynamic windows by successfully transitioning a low-cost, high-performance dynamic glass fabrication process from a simple 2" research prototype into a full-scale manufacturing environment capable of producing commercial dynamic insulated glass units (IGUs), and developing and optimizing the production process to meet all specifications for mass commercial production. The technology developed under this project is a revolutionary process for fabricating electrochromic glass that today exceeds DOE's 2020 performance and reliability targets at a compelling consumer price point. Before this project, we had demonstrated 2" prototypes using our deposition process that met these performance targets. The goal of this project was to prove that we could transition this lab-scale process to a scalable, "inline" manufacturing process, leveraging existing manufacturing tools capable of achieving a commercially attractive pricepoint in the near-term. Under this project we demonstrated the technical effectiveness of our manufacturing process by achieving or exceeding all of our technical and performance targets for inline fabrication of electrochromic IGUs. These performance specifications exceed DOE's 2020 performance and reliability targets. We also demonstrated the economic feasibility of our manufacturing process by reaching an initial production process that will achieve our target costs, which are compatible with mass adoption.

  3. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, August 1992--July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Hou, L.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-08-01

    Low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process- This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals in the subsequent liquefaction. This report describes the recent progress of our work. Substantial progress has been made in the spectroscopic characterization of structure and pretreatment-liquefaction reactions of a Montana subbituminous Coal (DECS-9), and thermochemical analysis of three mw and reacted bituminous coals. Temperature programmed liquefaction has been performed on three low-rank coals both in the presence and absence of dispersed molybdenum sulfide catalyst. We also performed a detailed study of the effects of mild thermal pretreatment -- drying in air and in vacuum -- on thermal and catalytic liquefaction of a Wyodak subbituminous coal. Important information on structure and structure transformation during thermal pretreatment and liquefaction reactions of low-rank coals has been derived by applying solid-state CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and flash pyrolysis-GC-MS (Py-GC-MS) for characterization of the macromolecular network of a Montana subbituminous coal and its residues from temperature-programmed and nonprogrammed liquefaction (TPL and N-PL) at final temperatures ranging from 300 to 425{degree}C in H-donor and non-donor solvents. The results revealed that this coal contains significant quantities of oxygen-bearing structures, corresponding to about 18 O-bound C per 100 C atoms and one O-bound C per every 5 to 6 aromatic C.

  4. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, August 1992--November 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Saini, A.K.; Burgess, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-12-01

    During this quarterly period progress has been made in the following three subjects related to the effects of low-temperature thermal and catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. First, the liquefaction behavior of three bituminous coals with a carbon content ranging from 77% to 85% was evaluated spectroscopically by {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to delineate the structural changes that occur in the coal during liquefaction. Complementary data includes ultimate and proximate analysis, along with optical microscopy for maceral determinations. Even though these are all bituminous coals they exhibit quite different physical and chemical characteristics. The coals vary in rank, ranging from HvC b to HvA b, in petrographic composition, different maceral percentages, and in chemical nature, percent of carbon and of volatiles. It is these variations that govern the products, their distribution, and conversion percentages. Some of the products formed can be traced to a specific maceral group. Second, pyrolysis-GC-MS and FTIR techniques were used to characterize Wyodak coal before and after drying in vacuum and in air and the residues from its thermal and catalytic liquefactions. The analysis of the air-dried coal shows a decrease in the phenolic type structures in the coal network and increase in the carbonyl structures as the oxidative drying proceeds. An enhanced decrease in the carbonyl structure is observed in the liquefaction residues from the raw coal as compared to that of the vacuum dried coal. The analyses of the liquefaction residues of the air-dried coal show an increase in the ether linkages which may have a negative impact on liquefaction. The extent of the solvent adduction also increases during liquefaction with the extent of oxidation of the coal. Finally, the effects of reaction conditions were investigated on conversion of low-rank coals using a Texas subbituminous coal.

  5. Seismic analysis of the Par Pond Dam: Study of slope failure and liquefaction. Technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Reich, M.

    1994-07-01

    Stability concerns of the Par Pond Dam, an embankment structure in the Savannah River Site complex, resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the state of its integrity. Specifically, excessive seepage through the embankment, slope failure due to an earthquake event as well as liquefaction potential of the embankment and the foundation are addressed and the potential of failure is evaluated. Lastly, remedial benefits of the addition of a berm structure are also assessed.

  6. EDS coal liquefaction process development. Phase V. Monthly technical progress report, June 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, W.R.

    1980-07-01

    High pressure bottoms recycle operations were conducted on the 50 pounds/day Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) with Texas lignite from the Big Brown mine. Results indicate that significant conversion, yield and unit operability advantages can be obtained with Big Brown lignite by operating in the bottoms recycle mode, as compared to coal only operation. Yield data obtained from the one ton-per-day Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant (CLPP) showed that the C/sub 4/-1000/sup 0/F distillate yield was approximately 44% based on dry, ash-free coal compared to 47% for Wyoming subbituminous coal. No unusual coal-specific problems were noted. Preliminary results from liquefaction of neat bottoms on the Once Through Coal Liquefaction Unit (OTCLU) showed significantly higher (C/sub 4/-1000/sup 0/F) liquid make and 1000/sup 0/F/sup +/ conversion for single pass CLPP bottoms when compared with equilibrium CLPP recycle bottoms. Work began on an engineering screening study to determine the impact of high pressure bottoms recycle on the relative economics of various bottoms processing options. A screening study was undertaken to evaluate various methods of calculating the Required Initial Selling Price (RISP) of coal liquids. Heat and material balances were completed to simulate high pressure vacuum bottoms recycle operations at ECLP within the fuel gas treating and DEA regeneration areas of the plant. A research guidance study was initiated to select preferred bottoms recycle operating conditions for subsequent CLPP operations with Wyoming (Wyodak mine) coal. Fluid bed combustion of vacuum bottoms to supply high-level process heat provides incentives comparable to hybrid boilers, another direct combustion option. Research and development on coal slurry fired heaters, conducted by outside organizations, is currently being reviewed.

  7. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Gutterman, C.; Chander, S.

    1993-09-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and carrying out a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The primary coal of this program, Black Thunder subbituminous coal, can be effectively beneficiated to about 4 wt% ash using aqueous sulfurous acid pretreatment. This treated coal can be further beneficiated to about 2 wt% ash using commercially available procedures. All three coals used in this study (Black Thunder, Burning Star bituminous, and Martin Lake lignite) are effectively swelled by a number of solvents. The most effective solvents are those having hetero-functionality. In addition, a synergistic effect has been demonstrated, in which solvent blends are more effective for coal swelling than the pure solvents alone. Therefore, it will be necessary to use only low levels of swelling agents and yet promote the impregnation of catalyst precursors. The rate of the impregnation of catalyst precursors into swollen coal increases greatly as the effectiveness of the solvent to swell the coal increases.

  8. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yale

    2014-07-01

    JHU/APL conducted solid propellant fire characterization tests in warm, humid, ambient conditions near sea level. Yttria and ceria surrogate materials were placed in the fires. The substrates simulating ground surfaces were concrete from a Kennedy Space Center launch pad, and steel covered with a protective ablative material representing a launch platform. In-situ instrumentation consisted of witness materials, thermocouples, air handlers, filters, and cascade impactors; remote instrumentation consisted of optical cameras and spectrometers. Test and analysis team members included the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Alliant Techsystems, and the Johns Hopkins University. Test data were analyzed, reported, and delivered, including plume rise and transport captured on video. Derivation of the alumina particle size distributions formed the basis for condensing vapor and agglomeration estimates. Assessment of alumina mass in the plume, along with the surrogate fraction from filter forensics, provided an estimate of airborne surrogate mass. Technical interchange meetings were held with SNL and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Specifications for the fire environment were developed and delivered. A thermochemistry model that simultaneously provides the maximum temperature and heat flux was developed and delivered. An SPIE paper on 3D pyrometry of the fire was written and presented.

  9. Coal liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  10. IRIS Final Technical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    M. D. Carelli

    2003-11-03

    OAK-B135 This NERI project, originally started as the Secure Transportable Autonomous Light Water Reactor (STAR-LW) and currently known as the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) project, had the objective of investigating a novel type of water-cooled reactor to satisfy the Generation IV goals: fuel cycle sustainability, enhanced reliability and safety, and improved economics. The research objectives over the three-year (1999-2002) program were as follows: First year: Assess various design alternatives and establish main characteristics of a point design; Second year: Perform feasibility and engineering assessment of the selected design solutions; Third year: Complete reactor design and performance evaluation, including cost assessment These objectives were fully attained and actually they served to launch IRIS as a full fledged project for eventual commercial deployment. The program did not terminate in 2002 at the end of the NERI program, and has just entered in its fifth year. This has been made possible by the IRIS project participants which have grown from the original four member, two-countries team to the current twenty members, nine countries consortium. All the consortium members work under their own funding and it is estimated that the value of their in-kind contributions over the life of the project has been of the order of $30M. Currently, approximately 100 people worldwide are involved in the project. A very important constituency of the IRIS project is the academia: 7 universities from four countries are members of the consortium and five more US universities are associated via parallel NERI programs. To date, 97 students have worked or are working on IRIS; 59 IRIS-related graduate theses have been prepared or are in preparation, and 41 of these students have already graduated with M.S. (33) or Ph.D. (8) degrees. This ''final'' report (final only as far as the NERI program is concerned) summarizes the work performed in the first four

  11. FINAL SCIENTIFIC/TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Satish Mohapatra

    2011-12-21

    Dynalene Inc has developed and patented a fuel cell coolant with the help of DOE SBIR Phase I and Phase II funding (Project DE-FG02-04ER83884). However, this coolant could only be produced in lab scale (500 ml to 2 L) due to problems in the optimization and scale-up of a nanoparticle ingredient. This project optimized the nanoparticle production process in 10 L and 100 L reactors (which translates to about 5000 gallons of coolant), optimized the filtration process for the nanoparticles, and develop a high throughput production as well as quality control method for the final coolant formulation. Scale-up of nanoparticle synthesis (using emulsion polymerization) is an extremely challenging task. Dynalene researchers, in collaboration with a university partner, identified all the parameters affecting the size, charge density and coagulation characteristics of the nanoparticles and then optimized these parameters to achieve the goals and the objectives of this project. Nanoparticle synthesis was demonstrated to be reproducible in the 10 L and 100 L scales.

  12. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units, Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The aims of this research program are to advance to bench-scale testing, concepts that have the potential for making net reductions in direct coal liquefaction process costs. The research involves a teaming arrangement between the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), Consolidation Coal Company (CONSOL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and LDP Associates. Progress reports are presented for: Task 2.1.1 development of a catalyst screening test (UK/CAER); Task 2.1.2 activation of impregnated catalysts (UK/CAER); Task 2.2 laboratory support (CONSOL); Task 3 continuous operations/parametric studies (Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc.) and; Task 4.4 conceptual design, preliminary technical assessment (LDP Associates).

  13. Low-rank coal research: Volume 1, Control technology, liquefaction, and gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G.F.; Collings, M.E.; Schelkoph, G.L.; Steadman, E.N.; Moretti, C.J.; Henke, K.R.; Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.; Knudson, C.L.; Willson, W.G.

    1987-04-01

    Volume I contains articles on SO/sub x//NO/sub x/ control, waste management, low-rank direct liquefaction, hydrogen production from low-rank coals, and advanced wastewater treatment. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  14. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R. C.; McCarley, T. M.

    2006-05-04

    . Platform teams organize faculty and students for cross-disciplinary, systems-oriented research and collaborative learning. To date, nine platforms have been developed, although these will most likely be reorganized into a smaller number of broader topics. In the spring of 2004, BRT faculty initiated a regional partnership and collaborative learning program with colleagues at the University of Minnesota, Kansas State University, and South Dakota State University to develop distance education courses in biorenewable resources and technology. As a fledgling graduate program, the BRT graduate program didn’t have the breadth of resources to offer a large number of courses in biorenewables. Other schools faced a similar problem. The academic consortium as first conceived would allow students from the member schools to enroll in biorenewables courses from any of the participating schools, which would assure the necessary enrollment numbers to offer specialized course work. Since its inception, the collaborative curriculum partnership has expanded to include Louisiana State University and the University of Wisconsin. A second international curriculum development campaign was also initiated in the spring of 2004. In particular, several BRT faculty teamed with colleagues at the University of Arkansas, University of Washington, University of Gent (Belgium), National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse (France), and Technical University of Graz (Austria) to develop an EU-US exchange program in higher education and vocational education/training (entitled “Renewable Resources and Clean Technology”).

  15. Santa Barbara Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, Angela; Hansen, Sherman; Watkins, Ashley

    2013-11-30

    This report serves as the Final Report for Santa Barbara County’s Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) BetterBuildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) award from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report explains how DOE BBNP funding was invested to develop robust program infrastructure designed to help property owners complete energy improvements, thereby generating substantial outcomes for the local environment and economy. It provides an overview of program development and design within the grant period, program accomplishments and challenges to date, and a plan for the future sustainability of emPower, the County’s innovative clean energy and building efficiency program. During the grant period, Santa Barbara County’s emPower program primarily targeted 32,000 owner occupied, single family, detached residential homes over 25 years old within the County. In order to help these homeowners and their contractors overcome market barriers to completing residential energy improvements, the program developed and promoted six voluntary, market-based service areas: 1) low cost residential financing (loan loss reserve with two local credit unions), 2) residential rebates, 3) local customer service, 4) expert energy advising, 5) workforce development and training, and 6) marketing, education and outreach. The main goals of the program were to lower building energy use, create jobs and develop a lasting regional building performance market. These services have generated important early outcomes and lessons after the program’s first two years in service. The DOE BBNP funding was extended through October 2014 to enable Santa Barbara County to generate continued outcomes. In fact, funding related to residential financing remains wholly available for the foreseeable future to continue offering Home Upgrade Loans to approximately 1,300 homeowners. The County’s investment of DOE BBNP funding was used to build a lasting, effective, and innovative

  16. Steam pretreatment for coal liquefaction. Final report, September 26, 1990--March 18, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Graff, R.A.; Balogh-Nair, V.; Ivanenko, O.; Brathwaite, C.

    1995-10-16

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the use of subcritical steam to pretreat coal for slurry liquefaction, allowing liquefaction to be carried out at lower severity and improving product yield and quality. Samples of Illinois No. 6 coal were pretreated in 750 psia steam at 340{degree}C for 15 minutes. These samples, as well as raw coal, were liquefied at high (400{degree}C, 30 min.) and low (385{degree}C, 15 min.) severity conditions under 1500 psia hydrogen with tetralin as the donor solvent. Improved yields were obtained at both conditions. (Improved yields were not obtained at a liquefaction temperature of 350{degree}C as that put the sample into the region of retrogressive reactions). The deleterious effects of slow heating and exposure of the sample to air were demonstrated. Under low severity conditions, steam pretreatment more that doubled the oil yield, increasing it from 12.5 to 29 wt %. Tests were also conducted with aromatic ethers as model compounds. These were exposed to inert gas and steam at pretreatment conditions and in some cases to liquid water at 315{degree}C. {alpha}-Benzylnaphthyl ether and {alpha}- naphthylmethyl phenyl ether show little difference in conversion and product distribution when the thermolysis atmosphere is changed from inert gas to steam. However when these compounds were reacted in the presence of 5 {angstrom} zeolite, the yields of the thermolysis products improved. Zeolite proved effective in suppressing isomerization of the starting materials. These results suggested that zeolites might be beneficial in steam pretreatment of coal and in coal liquefaction. Pretreatment and liquefaction of mixtures of coal and zeolites increases yields of asphaltenes and preasphaltenes.

  17. Technical issues in the large-scale hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgal biomass to biocrude.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew; Lewis, David; Kalaitzidis, Theo; Ashman, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Much of the current knowledge on the hydrothermic liquefaction of biomass to biocrude is on the basis of laboratory benchtop findings, and the step up to industrial scale reactors will require a range of information that is currently either unavailable or insufficient. This work highlights a number of these issues such as the heat of reaction, process heat recovery, optimal reaction time and waste product treatment. Effects of these knowledge gaps on the reactor design, process economics, and impacts on the environment are discussed. Although technologies do exist to deal with some of these issues, their applications are often limited by economic considerations and further studies are required. PMID:26874260

  18. Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

    1993-02-01

    This research program involves the investigation of the use of highly dispersed catalyst precursors for the pretreatment of coals by mild hydrogenation. During the course of this effort solvent preswelling of the coal was evaluated as a means of deeply impregnating catalysts into coal, active phases of catalysts under reaction conditions were studied and the impact of these techniques were evaluated during pretreatment and temperature-staged liquefaction. Two coals, a Texas subbituminous and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling pretreatment and catalyst impregnation on conversion behavior at 275{degrees}C, representative of the first, low-temperature stage in a temperature-staged liquefaction reaction. Ferrous sulfate, iron pentacarbonyl, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum hexacarbonyl were used as catalyst precursors. Without swelling pretreatment, impregnation of both coals increased conversion, mainly through increased yields of preasphaltenes.

  19. Close-coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies. Final report, [October 1, 1988--July 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Popper, G.A.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-06-01

    This is the final report of a four year and ten month contract starting on October 1, 1988 to July 31, 1993 with the US Department of Energy to study and improve Close-Coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Direct Liquefaction of coal by producing high yields of distillate with improved quality at lower capital and production costs in comparison to existing technologies. Laboratory, Bench and PDU scale studies on sub-bituminous and bituminous coals are summarized and referenced in this volume. Details are presented in the three topical reports of this contract; CTSL Process Bench Studies and PDU Scale-Up with Sub-Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-1, CTSL Process Bench Studies with Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-2, and CTSL Process Laboratory Scale Studies, Modelling and Technical Assessment-DE-88818-TOP-3. Results are summarized on experiments and studies covering several process configurations, cleaned coals, solid separation methods, additives and catalysts both dispersed and supported. Laboratory microautoclave scale experiments, economic analysis and modelling studies are also included along with the PDU-Scale-Up of the CTSL processing of sub-bituminous Black Thunder Mine Wyoming coal. During this DOE/HRI effort, high distillate yields were maintained at higher throughput rates while quality was markedly improved using on-line hydrotreating and cleaned coals. Solid separations options of filtration and delayed coking were evaluated on a Bench-Scale with filtration successfully scaled to a PDU demonstration. Directions for future direct coal liquefaction related work are outlined herein based on the results from this and previous programs.

  20. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The Advanced Concepts for Direct Coal Liquefaction program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1991 to develop technologies that could significantly reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by the direct liquefaction of coal. The advanced 2-stage liquefaction technology that was developed at Wilsonville over the past 10 years has contributed significantly toward decreasing the cost of producing liquids from coal to about $33/bbl. It remains, however, the objective of DOE to further reduce this cost to a level more competitive with petroleum based products. This project, among others, was initiated to investigate various alternative approaches to develop technologies that might ultimately lead to a 25 % reduction in cost of product. In this project a number of novel concepts were investigated, either individually or in a coupled configuration that had the potential to contribute toward meeting the DOE goal. The concepts included mature technologies or ones closely related to them, such as coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, fluid coking and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Other approaches that were either embryonic or less developed were chemical pretreatment of coal to remove oxygen, and dispersed catalyst development for application in the 2-stage liquefaction process. This report presents the results of this project. It is arranged in four sections which were prepared by participating organizations responsible for that phase of the project. A summary of the overall project and the principal results are given in this section. First, however, an overview of the process economics and the process concepts that were developed during the course of this program is presented.

  1. Low severity coal liquefaction promoted by cyclic olefins. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.

    1997-12-31

    The goal of this research is to develop a methodology for analyzing the reactivity of cyclic olefins in situ in a high temperature and high pressure infrared cell. Cyclic olefins, such as 1,4,5,8-tetrahydronaphthalene (isotetralin) and 1,4,5,8,9,10-hexahydroanthracene (HHA), are highly reactive donor compounds that readily donate their hydrogen to coal and model acceptors when heated to temperatures of 200{degrees}C and above. These donors are active donors in the low severity liquefaction of coal at 350{degrees}C as shown in the research performed in this project. The infrared studies are being performed in a high temperature infrared cell that was obtained from AABSPEC. Modifications to that cell have been made and have been reported in previous progress reports.

  2. [Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications: Quarterly technical status report, April--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, A.

    1991-07-11

    The objective of this project is to design a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; production of methanol and production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. The work will be accomplished by the formulation of reactor models for both the processes and use computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data will be used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. The cost of current vapor phase reactor systems will be compared with cost estimated for the slurry reactor systems. For the vapor phase systems, upstream and downstream processing equipments may have to be included during cost analysis for a meaningful cost comparison.

  3. [Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications: Quarterly technical status report, July--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, A.

    1991-10-12

    The objective of this project is to design a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; production of methanol and production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. The work will be accomplished by the formulation of reactor models for both the processes and use computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data will be used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. The cost of current vapor phase reactor systems will be compared with cost estimated for the slurry reactor systems. For the vapor phase systems, upstream and downstream processing equipments may have to be included during cost analysis for a meaningful cost comparison.

  4. [Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications: Quarterly technical status report, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, A.

    1990-07-10

    The objective of this project is to design a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; production of methanol and production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. The work will be accomplished by the formulation of reactor models for both the processes and use computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data will be used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. The cost of current vapor phase reactor systems will be compared with cost estimated for the slurry reactor systems. For the vapor phase systems, upstream and downstream processing equipments may have to be included during cost analysis for a meaningful cost comparison.

  5. Advanced direct coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, December 1983-February 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Paranjape, A.S.

    1984-04-30

    Five Bench-Scale coal liquefaction runs were completed with Wyoming subbituminous coal in a two-stage process scheme. In this process scheme, LDAR, the lighter fraction of ash-free resid, was fed to the catalytic stage prior to its recycle to the thermal stage, whereas DAR, the heavy fraction of the deashed resid, was directly recycled to the thermal stage without any intermediate processing step. The results indicate that increasing coal space rate in the dissolver resulted in lower coal conversion and reduced distillate yield in this process configuration. The coal conversions decreased from 92 wt% to 89 wt% (MAF coal) and the distillate yield was reduced from 50 wt% to less than 40 wt% (MAF coal), as the coal space velocity increased. Attempts to duplicate the yields of Run 32, at comparable process conditions in Runs 37 and 38, were unsuccessful. Several process parameters were investigated but failed to show why the yields of Run 32 could not be duplicated. Valuable process related information was gained as a result of process parameter studies completed during these runs. At comparable process conditions, coal conversions were lower by about 3 to 4 relative percent and were only in the 87 wt% (MAF coal) range. Similarly, the distillate yield was about 40 wt% (MAF coal) which is about 10 wt% lower than observed in Run 32. Although no exact cause for these results could be determined, it appeared that the H/C atomic ratio of the solvent and possibly the flow pattern (plug-flow versus back-mixed) could have affected the coal conversion and quantity of distillate product produced. A significant decrease in coal conversion of 4 to 5 wt% was observed when the disposable catalyst (iron oxide) was removed from the reaction mixture and therefore substantiates the need for a disposable catalyst in the liquefaction of Wyoming subbituminous coal.

  6. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1993-12-01

    Process oil samples from HRI Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Bench Unit Run CC-16 (227-76) were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run CC-16 was operated in December 1992 with Burning Star 2 Mine (Illinois 6 seam) coal to test and validate Akzo EXP-AO-60 Ni/Mo catalyst (1/16 in. extrudate). Results were compared with those of four previous HRI CTSL bench unit runs made with Ni/Mo catalysts. Major conclusions from this work are summarized. (1) Akzo EXP-AO-60 gave process oil characteristics in Run CC-16 similar to those of other Ni/Mo catalysts tested in Runs I-13, I-16, I-17, and I-18 (by our analytical and empirical test methods). No distinct performance advantage for any of the catalysts emerges from the process oil characteristics and plant performance. Thus, for commercial coal liquefaction, a number of equivalent catalysts are available from competitive commercial sources. The similarity of run performance and process oil characteristics indicates consistent performance of HRI`s bench unit operations over a period of several years; (2) Dominant effects on process oil properties in Run CC-16 were catalyst age and higher temperature operation in Periods 10--13 (Condition 2). Properties affected were the aromaticities and phenolic -OH concentrations of most streams and the asphaltene and preasphaltene concentrations of the pressure-filter liquid (PFL) 850{degrees}F{sup +} resid. The trends reflect decreasing hydrogenation and defunctionalization of the process streams with increasing catalyst age. Operation at higher temperature conditions seems to have partially offset the effects of catalyst age.

  7. POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNICAL MANUAL FOR KOPPERS-TOTZEK BASED INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is one of six technical handbooks prepared by EPA to help government officials granting permits to build synfuels facilities, synfuels process developers, and other interested parties. They provide technical data on waste streams from synfuels facilities and technolo...

  8. Coal-derived promoters for the liquefaction of Illinois coal. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Carty, R.H.; Knight, R.A.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this program is to investigate the use of liquids derived from coal either by mild gasification or supercritical extraction (SCE) to promote direct liquefaction of Illinois coal. Some organic sulfur-, nitrogen-, and oxygen-containing compounds have been found to enhance liquefaction reactions. The use of Illinois coal to produce liquid fractions rich in these types of compounds could increase the rates of liquefaction reactions, thus improving the process economics. An integrated process combining direct liquefaction with mild gasification or SCE of coal is being developed by IGT.

  9. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction infratechnology and generic technology development: Final report, October 1, 1985 to December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1987-06-29

    During the first year of its research program, the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science has made significant progress in many areas of coal liquefaction and coal structure research. Research topics for which substantial progress has been made include integrated coal structure and liquefaction studies, investigation of differential liquefaction processes, development and application of sophisticated techniques for structural analysis, computer analysis of multivariate data, biodesulfurization of coal, catalysis studies, co-processing of coal and crude oil, coal dissolution and extraction processes, coal depolymerization, determination of the liquefaction characteristics of many US coals for use in a liquefaction database, and completion of a retrospective technology assessment for direct coal liquefaction. These and related topics are discussed in considerably more detail in the remainder of this report. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base.

  10. Transition metal catalysis of hydrogen shuttling in coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, September 1, 1985-November 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Eisch, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this research is to uncover new catalytic processes for the liquefaction of coal and for upgrading coal-derived fuels by removing undesirable organosulfur, organonitrogen and organooxygen constituents. Basic to both the liquefaction of coal and the purification of coal liquids is the transfer of hydrogen from such sources as dihydrogen, metal hydrides or partially reduced aromatic hydrocarbons to the extensive aromatic rings in coal itself or to aromatic sulfides, amines and ethers. Accordingly, this study is exploring how such crucial hydrogen-transfer processes might be catalyzed by soluble, low-valent transition metal complexes under moderate conditions of temperature and pressure. During the fifth quarter of this three-year grant the following phases of this study received particular attention: (a) the principal investigator completed his three-month period as visiting scientist at Cornell University, October 1 to December 31, 1985, with Professor Roald Hoffmann on the topic of Extended Hueckel Molecular Orbital calculations of organometallic structure; (b) final gas evolution studies between LiAlH/sub 4/ and bipyridyl(1,5-cyclooctadiene) nickel have been made and the related manuscript written for publication; (c) gas evolution studies between diisobutylaluminum hydride and phosphine complexes of Pt(0) and Ni(0) have been undertaken, as part of our trying to understand how powerful reducing agents can be generated from such combinations; (d) hydrogen shuttling studies continue between dihydroaromatic hydrocarbons and Ni(0) complexes; (e) studies on the cleavage of benzylic C-C bonds by Ni(0) and Cr(0) complexes are being intensified; and (f) attempts are being made to isolate crystalline samples of several organonickel intermediates in the foregoing cleavage reactions, so that x-ray structure determinations can be carried out.

  11. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1991--March 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The program objective is to generate ultra-fine catalyst particles (20 to 400 {Angstrom} in size) and quantify their potential for improving coal dissolution in the solubilization stage of two-stage catalytic-catalytic liquefaction systems. In the first quarterly report for this program the concept behind our approach was detailed, the structure of the program was presented, key technical issues were identified, preliminary designs were outlined, and technical progress was discussed. All progress made during the second quarter of this program related to experiment design of the proposed supercritical expansion technique for generating ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles. This second quarterly report, therefore, presents descriptions of the final designs for most system components; diagnostic approaches and designs for determining particles size and size distributions, and the composition of the pre-expansion supercritical solution; and the overall technique progress made during this reporting period. 6 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Comparison of slurry versus fixed-bed reactor costs for indirect liquefaction applications. A supplement to final report: Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-12-01

    This work is a comparative evaluation of slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors, with special emphasis on cost. Relative differences between slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors have been pointed out in previous reviews; the differences pertinent to indirect liquefaction are summarized here. Design of both types is outlined.

  13. Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept program: Bench Run 05 (227-97). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, T.L.K.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Popper, G.

    1997-04-01

    This report presents the results Bench Run PB-05, conducted under the DOE Proof of Concept - Bench Option Program in direct coal liquefaction at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. Bench Run PB-05 was the fifth of the nine runs planned in the POC Bench Option Contract between the U.S. DOE and included the evaluation of the effect of using dispersed slurry catalyst in direct liquefaction of a high volatile bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal and in combined coprocessing of coal with organic wastes, such as heavy petroleum resid, MSW plastics, and auto-shredder residue. PB-05 employed a two-stage, back-mixed, slurry reactor system with an interstage V/L separator and an in-line fixed-bed hydrotreater. Coprocessing of waste plastics with Illinois No. 6 coal did not result in the improvement observed earlier with a subbituminous coal. In particular, decreases in light gas yield and hydrogen consumption were not observed with Illinois No. 6 coal as they were with Black Thunder Mine coal. The higher thermal severity during PB-05 is a possible reason for this discrepancy, plastics being more sensitive to temperatures (cracking) than either coal or heavy resid. The ASR material was poorer than MSW plastics in terms of increasing conversions and yields. HTI`s new dispersed catalyst formulation, containing phosphorus-promoted iron gel, was highly effective for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal under the reaction conditions employed; over 95% coal conversion was obtained, along with over 85% residuum conversion and over 73% distillate yields.

  14. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1991--April 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    Extensive research continued on catalysts based on novel anion-treated (mainly sulfated) oxides and oxyhydroxides of iron [Fe{sub x}O{sub y}/SO{sub 4}]. In addition, sulfated oxides of tin as well as molybdenum promoted iron oxides were used. Incorporation of small amounts of sulfate, molybdate, or tungstate anions by wet precipitation/impregnation methods was found to increase the surface acidic character of iron oxides; more importantly, it reduced the grain sizes significantly with corresponding increases in specific surface areas. These anion-treated iron and tin oxides were more active for direct coal liquefaction and coal-heavy oil coprocessing than their untreated counterparts. With these catalyst systems, higher conversion levels are obtained as compared to the soluble precursors of iron and molybdenum at the same catalyst metalloading (3500 ppm iron and 50 ppm molybdenum with respect to coal). Sulfated iron oxides and oxyhydroxides were equally active as coal liquefaction catalysts. The sulfate, molybdate, and tungstate anions were found to have similar promotional effects on the properties and activities of iron oxides. One step in the synthesis of anion-treated iron and tin oxides is precipitation as hydroxides using either urea or ammonium hydroxide. The catalysts prepared using urea as a precipitation agent were more reproducible than those using ammonium, hydroxide in terms of activities and properties. These catalysts/catalyst precursors were characterized by several techniques to determine their physical (size and structure related) and chemical (acidity) properties. Sulfated and molybdated iron oxides were found to have grain sizes as small as 10-20 nm. An attempt was made to correlate the physicochemical properties of these catalysts with their activity for coal liquefaction.

  15. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-03-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of chemical analyses to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods are obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, new analytical instruments and techniques to examine coal-derived samples are being evaluated. The data obtained form this study are used to guide process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank, established and maintained for use in this project, is available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) is being examined. From the literature and experimental data, a kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. Such a model will provide insights to improve process performance and the economics of direct coal liquefaction.

  16. Exploratory research on solvent refined coal liquefaction. Annual technical progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Exploratory Research on Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction project by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co.'s Merriam Laboratory during 1979. In a series of experiments with varying feed gas composition, low levels (5 to 10 mole %) of carbon monoxide had little effect on the SRC II processing of Pittsburgh Seam coal (Powhatan No. 5 Mine) while higher levels (20 to 40 mole %) resulted in a general degradation of operability and reduced oil yields. Addition of finely divided (approx. 1 ..mu..m) pyrite to the reactive Powhatan coal had little effect on oil yields although the molecular weight of the distillation residue was apparently decreased. When finely divided pyrite and magnetite were added to the less reactive coals from the Loveridge and Blacksville No. 1 Mines (also Pittsburgh Seam), however, substantial increases in oil yields and product quality were obtained. In a comparison of upflow and downflow dissolver configurations with Powhatan coal in the SRC II mode, there was no difference in yields or product quality. A study characterizing specific reactors revealed a significantly higher conversion in the SRC I mode with a reactor approximating plug flow conditions compared to a completely backmixed reactor. In the SRC II mode there was only a slightly higher oil yield with the plug flow reactor.

  17. Microbial recovery of metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1995-07-01

    This project was initiated on October 1, 1989, for the purpose of recovering metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Two catalyst types were the subject of the contract. The first was a Ni-No catalyst support on alumina (Shell 324), the catalyst used in a pilot scale coal liquefaction facility at Wilsonville, Alabama. The second material was an unsupported ammonium molybdate catalyst used in a pilot process by the Department of Energy at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This material was obtained in late February 1990 but has not been pursued since the Mo content of this particular sample was too low for the current studies and the studies at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center have been discontinued. The object of the contract was to treat these spent catalysts with microorganisms, especially Thiobacillus ferrooxidans , but also other Thiobacillus spp. and possibly Sulfolobus and other potential microorganisms, to leach and remove the metals (Ni and Mo) from the spent catalysts into a form which could be readily recovered by conventional techniques.

  18. POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNICAL MANUAL FOR EXXON DONOR SOLVENT DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Research and Development, has undertaken an extensive study to determine synthetic fuel plant waste stream characteristics and pollution control systems. The purpose of this and all other Pollution Control Technical Manuals (PC...

  19. Fundamental studies of retrograde reactions in direct liquefaction. Final report, September 20, 1988--November 20, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Serio, M.A.; Solomon, P.R.; Kroo, E.; Charpenay, S.; Bassilakis, R.

    1991-12-17

    The overall objective of the program was to improve the understanding of retrograde reactions and their dependencies on coal rank and structure, and/or coal modifications and reaction conditions. Because retrograde reactions are competitive with bond breaking reactions, an understanding of both is required to shift the competition in favor of the latter. Related objectives were to clarify the conflicting observations reported in literature on such major topics as the role of oxygen groups in retrograde reactions and to provide a bridge from very fundamental studies on pure compounds to phenomenological studies on actual coal. This information was integrated into the FG-DVC model, which was improved and extended to the liquefaction context.

  20. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    Research on sulfate and metal (Mo, Sn) promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in the current year focused on optimization of conditions. Parameters varied included temperature, solvent, solvent-to-coal ratio, and the effect of presulfiding versus in situ sulfiding. Oil yields were found to increase approximately proportionately with both temperature and solvent-to-coal ratio. The donor solvent, tetralin, proved to give better total conversion and oil yields than either 1-methylnaphthalene or Wilsonville recycle oil. A significant enhancement of both total liquefaction yields and oil yields from lignites and subbituminous coals has been achieved by incorporating iron into the coal matrix by cation exchange. A study has been conducted on the synthesis of iron, molybdenum, and tungsten catalysts using a laser pyrolysis technique.

  1. Probabilistic analysis of deposit liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, C.H.; Cheng, C.R.; Wen, Y.K.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a procedure to perform the risk analysis for ground failure by liquefaction. The liquefaction is defined as the result of cumulative damage caused by seismic loading. The fatigue life of soil can be determined on the basis of the N-S relationship and Miner`s cumulative damage law. The rain-flow method is used to count the number of cycles of stress response of the soil deposit. Finally, the probability of liquefaction is obtained by integrating over all the possible ground motion and the fragility curves of liquefaction potential.

  2. Clean Energy Works Oregon Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Andria; Cyr, Shirley

    2013-12-31

    In April 2010, the City of Portland received a $20 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy, as part of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant program. This award was appropriated under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), passed by President Obama in 2009. DOE’s program became known as the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The BBNP grant objectives directed the City of Portland Bureau of Planning and Sustainability (BPS) as the primary grantee to expand the BPS-led pilot program, Clean Energy Works Portland, into Clean Energy Works Oregon (CEWO), with the mission to deliver thousands of home energy retrofits, create jobs, save energy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions.The Final Technical Report explores the successes and lessons learned from the first 3 years of program implementation.

  3. Technical approach to groundwater restoration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures.

  4. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1992--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    Preparation of the baseline economic assessment, based on Wilsonville Run {number_sign}263J, continued. This baseline study will serve as the reference against which the results of this program will be compared. During the quarter calculation of the material and energy balances for the conceptual commercial plant were completed and estimation of the investment for the main process units was begun (Wyoming plant site basis). A presentation on the technical results of the baseline study was prepared and delivered at the Quarterly Project Review Meeting in Pittsburgh.

  5. Energy Impact Illinois - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Daniel; Plagman, Emily; Silberhorn, Joey-Lin

    2014-02-18

    Energy Impact Illinois (EI2) is an alliance of government organizations, nonprofits, and regional utility companies led by the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning (CMAP) that is dedicated to helping communities in the Chicago metropolitan area become more energy efficient. Originally organized as the Chicago Region Retrofit Ramp-Up (CR3), EI2 became part of the nationwide Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) in May 2010 after receiving a $25 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) authorized through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). The program’s primary goal was to fund initiatives that mitigate barriers to energy efficiency retrofitting activities across residential, multifamily, and commercial building sectors in the seven-county CMAP region and to help to build a sustainable energy efficiency marketplace. The EI2 Final Technical Report provides a detailed review of the strategies, implementation methods, challenges, lessons learned, and final results of the EI2 program during the initial grant period from 2010-2013. During the program period, EI2 successfully increased direct retrofit activity in the region and was able to make a broader impact on the energy efficiency market in the Chicago region. As the period of performance for the initial grant comes to an end, EI2’s legacy raises the bar for the region in terms of helping homeowners and building owners to take action on the continually complex issue of energy efficiency.

  6. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1996-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. This project builds on work performed in DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-89PC89883. Independent analyses by well-established methods are obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently under utilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples are being evaluated. The data obtained from this study is used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank, established and maintained for use in this project, is available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) is being examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction.

  7. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-09-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. The paper describes activities carried out this quarter. 11 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, through March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. Accomplishments for this quarter are described.

  9. Synthesis of model compounds for coal liquefaction research. Final report, April 15, 1990--April 14, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    Coal liquefaction investigations required the availability of model compounds for mechanistic investigations. Towards this end, IITRI was funded to develop an approach for the synthesis of one of the target compound. This study was carried out in several phases as outlined here. Initial synthetic investigations on obtaining 2-tetrolol was carried out using high pressure and temperature reduction with Raney nickel catalyst. The next step consisted in incorporation of a hydroxymethyelene group at the C-3 position. This was successfully carried out utilizing 2-tetrolol, formaldehyde, and calcium oxide. An alternate improved method was developed using 3-carboxyl-2-naphthol. This required less time, gave a cheer product in higher yield. Efforts at the introduction of a chloromethylene group only yielded polymeric material or starting material in spite of protection the phenolic group by various groups. They synthesis of 3, 5-dimethyl-6- bromobenzyl chloride was successfully carried out by performing the Blank reaction of 2, 4-dimethyl bromobenzene. The product was characterized by GC/MS. Purification was not possible, as it was a complex mixture. Efforts at converting it to the acetate followed by separation to was not feasible. Unlike in the case of 2- hydroxyteralol, hydroxymetylation by established procedure yielded only the starting materials. Commercially available 4-methoxy-1- maphthaldehyde was protected as the ethylene acetal. The Wittig reagent 3-chlorobenzyl phosphonium bromide was prepared and condensed with 4-methoxy-1-napthaldehyde successfully and proved that the overall synthetic approach was proceeding in the desired direction. All the necessary intermediates have been synthesized,and we have demonstrated using model compounds, that the synthetic objective can be attained.

  10. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, November 9, 1991--February 8, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-10-01

    The investigation of methods for the production and testing of iron-pillared clay catalysts was continued in this quarter. The surface area of the mixed alumina/iron pillared clay catalyst decreased to 51 m{sup 2}/g on sulfidation. Thus the stability of the alumina pillars during the sulfidation and thermal treatments prevented the total collapse that occurred in the case of the iron-pillared clays. Previously the mixed alumina/iron pillared clays were tested for hydrocracking activities with bibenzyl. This testing was extended to a determination of activity with a second model compound substrate (pyrene), representative of the polynuclear aromatic systems present in coal. Testing of the mixed alumina/iron-pillared catalysts with 1-methylnaphthalene gave interesting results that demonstrate shape selectivity. The clay-supported iron hydroxyoxide catalysts prepared by impregnation of iron species on acidic clays were further investigated. Sulfidation of these catalysts using the carbon disulfide in situ method gave hydrocracking activities with bibenzyl that were somewhat less than those obtained by presulfidation with H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S mixtures. Liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous coal was very successful with the iron impregnated clay catalyst, giving a highly soluble product. High conversions were also obtained with the mixed alumina/iron-pillared clay catalyst, but the yield of oil-solubles was considerably lower. Several new catalysts were synthesized with the idea of decreasing the pillar density and thereby increasing the micropore volume. These catalysts were prepared by first pillaring with an organic ammonium pillaring agent, then introducing a lower number of silica or alumina pillars. Finally the iron component was added either before or after thermal removal of organic pillars.

  11. Basic/Technical Literacy Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White River Vocational Technical School, Newport, AR.

    The Basic/Technical Literacy project at White River Vocational Technical School in Arkansas implemented a comprehensive curriculum to raise students' basic reading and technical literacy levels in their chosen skill area. During the project, master vocabulary lists for each skill area were developed, and self-test worksheets and study guides were…

  12. Technical Education Demonstration Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milwaukee Area Technical Coll., WI.

    The Technical Education Demonstration Program helped students aged 16-25 traditionally excluded from technical careers because of lack of training to attain academic and technical skills. Eighty-one teachers attended four-credit summer courses; 500 teachers, counselors, and administrators attended seminars. A demonstration model interfacing…

  13. B.01 Final Scientific and Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kenison, LaVesta; Flanigan, Thomas; Hagerty, Gregg; Gorrie, James; Leclerc, Mathieu; Lockwood, Frederick; Falla, Lyle; Fedak, Mathew; Yakle, Jeff; Williford, Mark; Wood, Paul

    2015-09-01

    future large demonstration projects. This Final Scientific and Technical Report describes the technology and engineering basis of the project, inclusive of process systems, performance, effluents and emissions, and controls. Further, the project cost estimate, schedule, and permitting requirements are presented, along with a project risk and opportunity assessment. Lessons-learned related to these elements are summarized in this report. Companion reports Oxy-combustion further document the accomplishments and learnings of the project, including: A.01 Project Management Report which describes what was done to coordinate the various participants, and to track their performance with regard to schedule and budget B.02 Lessons Learned - Technology Integration, Value Improvements, and Program Management, which describes the innovations and conclusions that we arrived upon during the development of the project, and makes recommendations for improvement of future projects of a similar nature . B.03 Project Economics, which details the capital and operation costs and their basis, and also illustrates the cost of power produced by the plant with certain sensitivities. B.04 Power Plant, Pipeline, and Injection Site Interfaces, which details the interfaces between the two FutureGen projects B.05 Contractual Mechanisms for Design, Construction, and Operation, which describes the major EPC, and Operations Contracts required to execute the project.

  14. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1996-05-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. During this reporting period, CONSOL completed analyses of 81 feed and process stream samples from HTI bench Run CMSL-9. HTI liquefaction bench unit Run CMSL-9 (227-87) was operated with all-dispersed catalyst and Black Thunder Mine (Wyodak and Anderson seam) coal, with and without mixed plastics or high density polyethylene (HDPE) as coprocessing feedstocks. The dispersed catalysts used were Molyvan A and HTI`s iron catalyst, a sulfated iron hydroxide. Results are discussed in this report.

  15. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-12-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. Some of the contract activities for this quarter are: We completed many of the analyses on the 81 samples received from HTI bench-scale run CMSL-9, in which coal, coal/mixed plastics, and coal/high density polyethylene were fed; Liquid chromatographic separations of the 15 samples in the University of Delaware sample set were completed; and WRI completed CP/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR analyses on the Delaware sample set.

  16. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-05-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. During this quarter, analyses were completed on 65 process samples from representative periods of HRI Run POC-2 in which coal, coal/plastics, and coal/rubber were the feedstocks. A sample of the oil phase of the oil/water separator from HRI Run POC-1 was analyzed to determine the types and concentrations of phenolic compounds. Chemical analyses and microautoclave tests were performed to monitor the oxidation and measure the reactivity of the standard coal (Old Ben Mine No. 1) which has been used for the last six years to determine solvent quality of process oils analyzed in this and previous DOE contracts.

  17. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, November 9, 1992--February 8, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-10-01

    The mixed iron/alumina pillared clay catalysts and clay-supported iron catalysts have been shown in previous reports of this project to significantly improve yields of heptane-soluble products obtained in the liquefaction of both as received and acid-exchanged Wyodak subbituminous coal and Blind Canyon bituminous coal. In this quarter, the soluble product (LSW) obtained from the noncatalytic low-severity liquefaction of Wyodak coal was used as a feed to determine the activity of iron based catalysts for the hydrogenation and depolymerization steps. Comparison data for liquefaction of the soluble LSW with other catalysts were desired, and these data were obtained for a dispersed form of iron sulfide, prepared via iron hydroxyoxide (PETC method). The iron oxyhydroxide catalyst was directly precipitated on LSW product using either water or ethanol as the solvent. An insight into the functioning of the mixed iron/alumina pillared clay in coal liquefaction was investigated by preparing and studying an iron oxoaluminate structure. An investigation of new methods for the production of tetralin soluble iron oxometallate catalysts and the determination of their catalytic activities was continued in this quarter. The hydrogenation activity of iron oxoaluminate was investigated using pyrene and 1-methylnaphthalene as the test compounds, and results were compared with thermal reactions. In order to determine the loss of activity, recovered catalyst was recycled a second time for the hydrotreating of pyrene. Reaction of 1-methylnaphthalene with iron oxoaluminate also gave very high conversion to 1- and 5-methyltetralins and small amount of 2- and 6-methyltetralins. Liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous and Blind Canyon bituminous coal was investigated using an in situ sulfided soluble iron oxoaluminate catalyst.

  18. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, February 9, 1993--May 8, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-10-01

    An investigation of new methods for the production and utilization of tetralin-soluble iron oxometallate precursors for coal liquefaction catalysts was continued in this quarter. Further descriptions of the catalytic activities of the sulfided forms were obtained. The hydrogenation activities of catalysts derived from iron oxotitanate and cobalt oxoaluminate were investigated using pyrene as a the test compound, and results were compared with thermal reactions. The hydrogenation activity of iron oxotitanate was superior to other catalysts including iron oxoaluminate. The hydrogenation activity of cobalt oxoaluminate was similar to that of iron oxoaluminate reported in previous quarterly report. The liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous coal was investigated using in situ sulfided iron oxotitanate catalyst. In order to improve the usefulness of iron oxoaluminate as a liquefaction catalyst, iron oxoaluminate was supported on acid-treated montmorillonite (K-10). Supporting the iron oxoaluminate on an acidic support significantly improved the hydrogenation activity of iron oxoaluminate. The hydrocracking activity was increased by a large factor. Thus the aluminate and titanate structures surrounding the pyrrhotite that forms during sulfidation have a beneficial effect in preventing deactivation of the iron sites, and the presence of the acidic sites in the clay results in effective catalytic synergism between catalyst and support. These clay-supported iron oxometallates are highly promising catalysts for coal liquefaction. Iron oxyhydroxide and triiron supported on acid-treated montmorillonite (K-10) were tested for the liquefaction of ion-exchanged Wyodak (IEW) to minimize effects of the coal mineral matter. Both sulfided catalysts gave very high conversions of coal to THF-soluble and heptane-soluble (oils) products.

  19. Coal liquefaction model compounds. Final report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gajewski, J.J.; Gilbert, K.E.

    1994-12-31

    This final report is divided into sections dealing with tetralin pyrolysis, chroman pyrolysis, molecular mechanics of organometallic systems, and pi conjugated biradicals. Experiments performed and results are discussed for each area of study.

  20. Community College Technical Mathematics Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Samuel L.

    The purpose of the research project was to develop an applied or technical mathematics curriculum which would meet the needs of vocational-technical students at the community college level. The research project was divided into three distinct phases: Identifying the mathematical concepts requisite for job-entry competencies in each of the…

  1. Synthesis of model compounds for coal liquefaction research: Final report, June 21, 1990--July 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschon, A.S.; Asaro, M.; Bottaro, J.

    1993-07-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop feasible synthetic routes to produce (1) 4(4{prime}-hydroxy-5{prime}6{prime},7{prime}8{prime}-tetrahydro-1{prime}-naphthylmethyl)-6-methyldibenzothiophene, and (2) a 1-hydroxynaphthalene-dibenzothiophene polymer. These compounds are thought to be representative of sulfur containing molecules in coal. The program was divided into two technical tasks. Unfortunately, the attempted syntheses of these compounds was unsuccessful due to their unusual reactivities. Attempted synthetic routes and possible future routes are described, and Appendix A lists the compounds that were synthesized during this program.

  2. Exploratory research on solvent refined coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Exploratory Research on Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction project by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co.'s Merriam Laboratory for the period January 1, 1980 through March 31, 1980. A series of experiments was conducted with three western coals to study the relationship between coal properties and liquefaction behavior. All three coals were low in iron (0.2 to 0.4%, dry coal basis) and processing in both the SRC I and SRC II modes does not appear to be feasible at normal conditions without added catalyst. Adding 1 to 2% pyrite to the feed slurry increased oil yields considerably while reducing SRC and IOM yields and improved operability. Product quality was also generally improved by the catalyst. Operability and oil yields were generally found to be better at 450/sup 0/C than at 465/sup 0/C.

  3. Transition metal catalysis of hydrogen shuttling in coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, June 1, 1985-August 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Eisch, J.J.

    1985-10-01

    The ultimate objective of this research is to uncover new catalytic processes for the liquefaction of coal and for upgrading coal-derived fuels by removing undesirable organosulfur, organonitrogen and organooxygen constituents. Basic to both the liquefaction of coal and the purification of coal liquids is the transfer of hydrogen from such sources as dihydrogen, metal hydrides or partially reduced aromatic hydrocarbons to the extensive aromatic rings in coal itself or to aromatic sulfides, amines and ethers. Accordingly, this study is exploring how such crucial hydrogen-transfer processes might be catalyzed by soluble, low-valent transition metal complexes under moderate conditions of temperature and pressure. By learning the mechanism whereby H2, metal hydrides or partially hydrogenated aromatics can transfer hydrogen to model aromatic compounds, under homogeneous transition-metal catalysis, we hope to identify new methods for producing superior fuels from coal.

  4. Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Technical progress report, Run 243 with Illinois 6 coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the operating results for Run 243 at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R and D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. This run was made in an Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) mode using Illinois 6 coal from the Burning Star mine. The primary objective was to demonstrate the effect of a dissolver on the ITSL product slate, especially on the net C/sub 1/-C/sub 5/ gas production and hydrogen consumption. Run 243 began on 3 February 1983 and continued through 28 June 1983. During this period, 349.8 tons of coal was fed in 2947 hours of operation. Thirteen special product workup material balances were defined, and the results are presented herein. 29 figures, 19 tables.

  5. Liquefaction potential for New Uork state: a preliminary report on sites in Manhattan and Buffalo. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Budhu, M.; Vijayakumar, V.; Giese, R.F.; Baumgras, L.

    1987-08-31

    The chances of a major earthquake occurring in New York in the near future is low. However, New York has experienced and no doubt will continue to experience moderate earthquakes. Catastrophic damage due to structural causes is not likely to occur for non-masonry buildings, but ground failure due to soil liquefaction is possible. It appears from the study that areas that lie adjacent to bodies of water (the Harlem River in Manhattan and Lake Erie in Buffalo) are liable to liquefy.

  6. Coal-derived promoters for the liquefaction of Illinois coal. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Carty, R.H.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program is to investigate the use of liquids derived from coal either by mild gasification or supercritical extraction (SCE) to promote direct liquefaction of Illinois coal. Some organic sulfur-, nitrogen-, and oxygen-containing compounds have been found to enhance liquefaction reactions. The use of Illinois coal to produce liquid fractions rich in these types of compounds could increase the rates of liquefaction reactions, thus improving the process economics. An integrated process combining direct liquefaction with mild gasification or SCE of coal is being developed by IGT. The approach taken in this two-year program is to use recently developed molecular probe techniques to assess the reactivity of three coal-derived liquids with respect to (A) hydrogen transfer rate, (B) carbon-carbon bond cleavage rate, (C) free radical flux, and (D) hydrocracking activity. Sample liquids from Illinois Basin Coal IBC-106 are prepared by three methods: mild gasification in an isothermal free-fall reactor (IFFR), steam treatment followed by mild gasification in a fixed-bed reactor (ST/FBR), and SCE using toluene in a batch autoclave. During the first year of the program, the IFFR and ST/FBR coal liquids were produced and characterized, and the IFFR liquid was assessed by the four molecular-probe methods. During the first quarter of the second year, reactivity testing and data analysis on the ST/FBR coal liquid was completed. For the ST/FBR liquid, hydrogen transfer rate showed a mean increase of 7%, C-C bond cleavage selectivity increased by 27%, free radical flux increased 101%, and data indicated a 227% increase in hydrocracking activity. 12 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 1995--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Cooke, W.S.; Schmidt, E.; Schobert, H.H.

    1996-02-01

    Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene, dimethylene and ether bridges connecting polycyclic aromatic units and the reactions of various oxygen functional groups. Here in this quarterly, we report on the catalytic effects of several molybdenum-, cobalt-, and iron-containing compounds in the reactions of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with hydrogen under conditions related to coal liquefaction. The catalytic effects of several molybdenum-, cobalt-, and iron-containing compounds have been examined in the hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization reactions of dibenzothiophene (DBT) under conditions related to coal liquefaction. The metal compounds are candidate catalyst precursors for direct coal liquefaction. The reactions were carried out in batch microautoclave reactors at 400{degrees}C for 30 minutes with 6.9 MPa (cold) hydrogen pressure, and tridecane solvent. A metal loading of 0.5 mol% resulted in low conversion and only hydrogenation. Addition of sulfur in 4:1 molar ratio led only to a minor increase in conversion and hydrodesulfurization. The use of a higher boiling solvent (octadecane vs. tridecane) was beneficial in providing increased conversion, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrogenation. An increase in metal compound loading to 36.2 mol% led to a dramatic increase in conversion, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrocracking. Molybdenum hexacarbonyl at 36 mol% loading, with added sulfur at 6:1 ratio and octadecane solvent, gave 100% conversion of dibenzothiophene to other products with 100% hydrodesulfurization. Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate and molybdenum(III) chloride are less active under similar conditions. A cobalt-molybdenum thiocubane complex gave unexpectedly low conversions. Iron and cobalt carbonyls also provided very low conversions, even with added sulfur.

  8. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  9. Liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Gorbaty, Martin L.; Stone, John B.; Poddar, Syamal K.

    1982-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by pretreatment with a combination of pretreating agents comprising SO.sub.2 and an oxidizing agent. The pretreatment is believed to convert at least a portion of the scale-forming components and particularly calcium, to the corresponding sulfate prior to liquefaction. The pretreatment may be accomplished with the combination of pretreating agents either simultaneously by using a mixture comprising SO.sub.2 and an oxidizing agent or sequentially by first treating with SO.sub.2 and then with an oxidizing agent.

  10. Technical assistance contractor Management Plan. Final [report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project comprises Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. (JEG) and its major teaming partners [Roy F. Weston, Inc. (RFW), Sergent, Hauskins & Beckwith Agra, Inc. (SHB Agra), and Geraghty & Miller, Inc. (G&M)]. The first three companies have worked together effectively on the UMTRA Project for more than 10 years. With the initiation of the UMTRA Groundwater Project in April 1991, a need arose to increase the TAC`s groundwater technical breadth and depth, so G&M was brought in to augment the team`s capabilities. The TAC contract`s scope is to provide technical, analytical, environmental, engineering, design, inspection, and management support services to the US Department of Energy (DOE) for both surface and groundwater projects. The TAC team continues to support the DOE in completing surface remedial actions and initiating groundwater remediation work for start-up, characterization, design, construction oversight, and remedial operations. A key feature of the TAC`s management approach is the extensive set of communication systems implemented for the UMTRA Project. These systems assist all functional disciplines in performing UMTRA Project tasks associated with management, technical support, administrative support, and financial/project controls.

  11. Southwest Region Experiment Station - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A

    2011-08-19

    Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), an independent, university-based research institute, has been the operator of the Southwest Region Photovoltaic Experiment Station (SWRES) for almost 30 years. The overarching mission of SWTDI is to position PV systems and solar technologies to become cost-effective, major sources of energy for the United States. Embedded in SWTDI's general mission has been the more-focused mission of the SWRES: to provide value added technical support to the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) to effectively and efficiently meet the R&D needs and targets specified in the SETP Multi-Year Technical Plan. : The DOE/SETP goals of growing U.S. PV manufacturing into giga-watt capacities and seeing tera-watt-hours of solar energy production in the U.S. require an infrastructure that is under development. The staff of the SWRES has supported DOE/SETP through a coherent, integrated program to address infrastructural needs inhibiting wide-scale PV deployment in three major technical categories: specialized engineering services, workforce development, and deployment facilitation. The SWRES contract underwent three major revisions during its five year period-of- performance, but all tasks and deliverables fell within the following task areas: Task 1: PV Systems Assistance Center 1. Develop a Comprehensive multi-year plan 2. Provide technical workforce development materials and workshops for PV stakeholder groups including university, professional installers, inspectors, state energy offices, Federal agencies 3. Serve on the NABCEP exam committee 4. Provide on-demand technical PV system design reviews for U.S. PV stakeholders 5. Provide PV system field testing and instrumentation, technical outreach (including extensive support for the DOE Market Transformation program) Task 2: Design-for-Manufacture PV Systems 1. Develop and install 18 kW parking carport (cost share) and PV-thermal carport (Albuquerque) deriving and publishing

  12. Oklahoma Deaf-Blind Technical Assistance Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Jan, Comp.

    This final report describes the activities and accomplishments of the Oklahoma Deaf-Blind Technical Assistance Project, an effort to systematically provide training, resource provision and technical assistance (TA) to approximately 120-155 children and youth with deaf-blindness, their families, educators and service providers. The overall impact…

  13. Minnesota Deaf-Blind Technical Assistance Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloos, Eric

    This final report describes activities and accomplishments of the 3-year federally supported Minnesota Deaf-Blind Technical Assistance Project. The project provided training and technical assistance, information sharing, and support services to families of children with deaf-blindness. Activities and accomplishments included: collaboration with…

  14. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E.; Kirby, S.; Song, Chunshan; Schobert, H.H.

    1994-04-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more, efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts can be superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires infinite contact between the catalyst and coal. The primary objective of this research is to explore the potential of bimetallic dispersed catalysts from heterometallic molecular precursors in their use in model compound liquefaction reactions. This quarterly report describes the use of three precursors in model compound reactions. The first catalyst is a heterometallic complex consisting of two transition metals, Mo and Ni, and sulfur in a single molecule. The second is a thiocubane type complex consisting of cobalt, molybdenum and sulfur. The third is a thiocubane type cluster consisting of iron and sulfur and the fourth, the pure inorganic salt ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATM). It was found that the structure and the ligands in the model complexes affect the activity of the resulting catalyst significantly. The optimum reaction at a pressure of 6.9 MPa hydrogen gas varied for different catalysts. The bimetallic catalysts generated in situ from the organometallic precursor are more active than monometallic catalysts like ATTM and the thiocubane type cluster Fe{sub 4}. Main products are hydrogenated phenanthrene derivatives, like DBP, THP, sym-OHP, cis- and trans-unsym-OHP with minor isomerization products such as sym-OHA. Our results indicate that other transition metal and ligand combinations in the organometallic precursors and the use of another model compound could result in substantially higher conversion activity.

  15. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E.; Kirby, S.; Song, Chunshan

    1995-02-01

    Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene and dimethylene and ether-type bridges connecting polycyclic aromatic units. The selected compounds for model coal liquefaction reactions are 4-(l-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (NMBB) and several oxygen-containing compounds. This report mainly describes the synthesis and screening of selected iron and molybdenum compounds as precursors of dispersed catalysts for hydrocracking of NMBB and oxygen-containing compounds. Experiments using NMBB were carried out at 400{degrees}C for 30 min. under 6.9 MPa H{sub 2} pressure. All catalyst precursors converted NMBB predominately into naphthalene and 4-methylbibenzyl. Generally, ferrocene demonstrated very low activity as catalyst. Even sulfur addition did not increase activity. Hydrated iron sulfate FeSO{sub 4} x 7 H{sub 2}O gave similar conversion like ferrocene. In order to clarify the effect of sulfur alone on model compound conversion, NMBB was treated with sulfur in concentrations of 1.2 to 3.4 wt %, corresponding to conditions present in catalytic runs with sulfur. It was found that increasing sulfur concentrations lead to higher NMBB conversion. Furthermore, sulfur had a permanent influence on the reactor walls. It reacted with the transition metals in the steel to form a microscopic black iron sulfide layer on the surface, which could not be removed mechanically. Non catalytic runs after experiments with added sulfur yielded higher conversion than a normal run with a new reactor. The objective of the work on oxygen-compounds is to investigate the utility of highly dispersed catalysts, from organometallic precursors, in the removal of heteroatom functionality from the products of a reaction performed under liquefaction conditions. The bimetallic catalytic precursor CoMo-T2 exhibited a sizable increase in the yield of non-O-containing products, compared to the run using a standard inorganic catalyst precursor (ATTM) or a non-catalytic reaction.

  16. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, July--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E.; Kirby, S.; Song, Chunshan; Schobert, H.H.

    1994-11-01

    Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene and dimethylene bridges connecting polycyclic aromatic units and the reactions of various oxygen functional groups. The selected compound for model coal liquefaction reactions are 4-(l-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (NMBB) and anthrone. This report describes (1) the synthesis and screening of selected iron carbonyl complexes as precursors of dispersed catalysts for hydrocracking of NMBB, and (2) the hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation reactions of anthrone. Experiments were carried out at 400{degree}C (for NMBB) or at both 300{degree}C and 400{degree}C (for anthrone) for 30 min under 6.9 MPa H{sub 2} pressure. All catalyst precursors converted NMBB predominately into naphthalene and 4-methylbibenzyl. Small amounts of secondary products were formed by hydrogenation, isomerization and fragmentation of the primary products. The greatest activity among the tested catalysts was found using iron pentacarbonyl with added sulfur. Increasing cluster size lead to decreased activity. The beneficial effect of sulfur was also demonstrated in a reaction of iron pentacarbonyl and NMBB. A sulfur-free run showed substantially smaller conversion, whereas an experiment with added sulfur gave considerably higher conversion. Again, the same trend between cluster size and catalyst activity was observed. The objective of examining oxygen-containing compounds is to investigate the possibility of reduced oxygen functionality in the products of a reaction performed under liquefaction conditions, with the use of highly dispersed catalysts from monometallic and bimetallic organometallic precursors. Both the Ni-Mo and CoMo-T2 precursors showed an increase in the yield of non-0-containing products, compared to a non-catalytic reaction or one using a standard inorganic catalyst precursor, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATTM).

  17. Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature- staged liquefaction. Technical progress report, January--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

    1992-07-01

    Two coals, a Texas subbituminous C and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling and catalyst impregnation on liquefaction conversion behavior in temperature staged reactions for 30 minutes each at 275{degree} and 425{degree}C in H{sub 2} and 95:5 H{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S atmospheres. Methanol, pyridine, tetrahydrofuran, and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide were used as swelling agents. Molybdenum-based catalyst precursors were ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, molybdenum trisulfide, molybdenum hexacarbonyl, and bis(tricarbonylcyclopentadienyl-molybdenum). Ferrous sulfate and bis(dicarbonylcyclo-pentadienyliron) served as iron-based catalyst precursors. In addition, ion exchange was used for loading iron onto the subbituminous coal. For most experiments, liquefaction in H{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S was superior to that in H{sub 2}, regardless of the catalyst precursor. The benefit of the H{sub 2}S was greater for the subbituminous, presumably because of its higher iron content relative to the hvab coal. Tetrabutylammonium hydroxide was the only swelling agent to enhance conversion of the hvab coal significantly; it also caused a remarkable increase in conversion of the subbituminous coal. The combined application of solvent swelling and catalyst impregnation also improves liquefaction, mainly through increased oil yields from the hvab coal and increased asphaltenes from the subbituminous. A remarkable effect from use of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate as a catalyst precursor is substantial increase in pristane and phytane yields. Our findings suggest that these compounds are, at least in part, bound to the coal matrix.

  18. Novel nanodispersed coal liquefaction catalysts: Molecular design via microemulsion-based synthesis. Technical progress report, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Boakye, E.; Vaidyanathan, N.; Radovic, L.R.

    1992-04-01

    The objective of this project is to pursue the development of highly dispersed and inexpensive catalysts for improved coal solubilization and upgrading of coal liquids. A novel study of the synthesis of liquefaction catalysts of nanometer size will be carried out. It is based on the molecular design of reverse micelles (microemulsions). These surfactant-stabilized, metal-bearing microdrops offer unique opportunities for synthesizing very small particles by providing a cage-like effect that limits particle nucleation, growth and agglomeration. The emphasis will be on iron- and molybdenum-based catalysts, but the techniques to be developed should also be generally applicable. (VC)

  19. Novel nanodispersed coal liquefaction catalysts: Molecular design via microemulsion-based synthesis. Technical progress report, April--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Radovic, L.R.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this project is to pursue the development of highly dispersed and inexpensive catalysts for improved coal solubilization and upgrading of coal liquids. A novel study of the synthesis of liquefaction catalysts of nanometer size will be carried out. It is based on the molecular design of reverse micelles (microemulsions). These surfactant-stabilized, metal-bearing microdrops offer unique opportunities for synthesizing very small particles by providing a cage-like effect that limits particle nucleation, growth and agglomeration. The emphasis will be on iron- and molybdenum-based catalysts, but the techniques to be developed should also be generally applicable. (VC)

  20. Novel nanodispersed coal liquefaction catalysts: Molecular design via microemulsion-based synthesis. Technical progress report, October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Radovic, L.R.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this project is to pursue the development of highly dispersed and inexpensive catalysts for improved coal solubilization and upgrading of coal liquids. A novel study of the synthesis of liquefaction catalysts of nanometer size will be carried out. It is based on the molecular design of reverse micelles (microemulsions). These surfactant-stabilized, metal-bearing microdrops offer unique opportunities for synthesizing very small particles by providing a cage-like effects that limits particle nucleation, growth and agglomeration. The emphasis will be on iron- and molybdenum-based catalysts, but the techniques to be developed should also be generally applicable.

  1. Technical review of externalities issues. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Niemeyer, V.

    1994-12-01

    Externalities has become the catchword for a major experiment in electric utility regulation. Together with increased competition as a means for economic regulation, this experiment represents a potential revolution in how electric utilities are regulated. It is very important for utilities and policy makers to understand the technical issues and arguments driving the externality experiment. This Technical Review presents four papers covering topics in economics that may play important roles in this revolution. The four papers are: Economic Issues in the Application of Externalities to Electricity Resource Selection; Climate Change, the Marginal Cost of Carbon Dioxide Emissions and the Implications for Carbon Dioxide Emissions Adders; Positive Externalities and Benefits from Electricity; and Socioeconomic Effects of Externality Adders for Electric Utility Emissions.

  2. Novel nanodispersed coal liquefaction catalysts: Molecular design via microemulsion-based synthesis. Technical progress report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Boakye, E.; Vittal, M.; Osseo-Asare, K.

    1993-10-01

    The objective of this project is to pursue the development of highly dispersed and inexpensive catalysts for improved coal solubilization and upgrading of coal liquids. A novel study of the synthesis of liquefaction catalysts of manometer size is being carried out. It is based on the molecular design of inverse micelles (microemulsions). These surfactant-stabilized, metal-bearing microdrops offer unique opportunities for synthesizing very small particles by providing a cage-like effect that limits particle nucleation, growth and agglomeration. The emphasis is on molybdenum- and iron-based catalysts, but the techniques being developed should also be generally applicable. The size of these very small and monodispersed particles will be accurately determined both separately and after in situ and ex situ coal impregnation. The as-prepared nanoparticles as well as the catalyst-impregnated coal matrix are characterized using a battery of techniques, including dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Catalytic activity tests are conducted under standardized coal liquefaction conditions. The effects of particle size of these unsupported catalysts on the product yield and distribution during conversion of a bituminous and a subbituminous coal are being determined.

  3. Novel nanodispersed coal liquefaction catalysts: Molecular design via microemulsion-based synthesis. Technical progress report, January 1993--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Boakye, E.; Vittal, M.; Osseo-Asare, K.

    1993-04-01

    The objective of this project is to pursue the development of highly dispersed and inexpensive catalysts for improved coal solubilization and upgrading of coal liquids. A novel study of the synthesis of liquefaction catalysts of manometer size is being carried out. It is based on the molecular design of reverse micelles (microemulsions). These surfactant-stabilized, metal-bearing microdrops offer unique opportunities for synthesizing very small particles by providing a cage-like effect that limits particle nucleation, growth and agglomeration. The emphasis is on molybdenum- and iron-based catalysts, but the techniques being developed should also be generally applicable. The size of these very small and monodispersed particles will be accurately determined both separately and after in situ and ex situ coal impregnation. The as-prepared nanoparticles as well as the catalyst-impregnated coal or char matrix are characterized using a battery of techniques, including dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Catalytic activity tests are conducted under standardized coal liquefaction conditions. The effect of particle size of these unsupported catalysts on the product yield and distribution during conversion of a bituminous and a subbituminous coal are being determined. This quarter, the solubilization of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate and the synthesis of molybdenum sulfide in several microemulsion systems is discussed.

  4. Novel nanodispersed coal liquefaction catalysts: Molecular design via microemulsion-based synthesis. Technical progress report, January 1992--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Boakye, E.; Radovic, L.R.

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this project is to pursue the development of highly dispersed and inexpensive catalysts for improved coal solubilization and upgrading of coal liquids. A novel study of the synthesis of liquefaction catalysts of manometer size will be carried out. It is based on the molecular design of reverse micelles (microemulsions). These surfactant-stabilized, metal-bearing microdrops offer unique opportunities for synthesizing very small particles by providing a cage-like effect that limits particle nucleation, growth and agglomeration. The emphasis will be on iron- and molybdenum-based catalysts, but the techniques to be developed should also be generally applicable. The size of these very small and monodispersed particles will be accurately determined both separately and after in situ and ex situ coal impregnation. The as-prepared nanoparticles as well as the catalyst-impregnated coal or char matrix will be characterized using the following techniques: dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning and/or transmission electron microscopy, and selective chemisorption. Catalytic activity tests will be conducted under standardized conditions in both hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization reactions. The effect of particle size of these unsupported catalysts on the product yield and distribution during liquefaction of a bituminous and a subbituminous coal will thus be quantitatively determined.

  5. Novel nanodispersed coal liquefaction catalysts: Molecular design via microemulsion-based synthesis. Technical progress report, July 1992--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Boakye, E.; Vittal, M.; Osseo-Asare, K.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of this project is to pursue the development of highly dispersed and inexpensive catalysts for improved coal solubilization and upgrading of coal liquids. A novel study of the synthesis of liquefaction catalysts of manometer size will be carried out. It is based on the molecular design of reverse micelles (microemulsions). These surfactant-stabilized, metal-bearing microdrops offer unique opportunities for synthesizing very small particles by providing a cage-like effect that limits particle. nucleation, growth and agglomeration. The emphasis will be on iron- and molybdenum-based catalysts, but the techniques to be developed should also be generally applicable. The size of these very small and monodispersed particles will be accurately determined both separately and after in situ and ex situ coal impregnation. The as-prepared nanoparticles as well as the catalyst-impregnated coal or char matrix will be characterized using the following techniques: dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning and/or transmission electron microscopy, and selective chemisorption. Catalytic activity tests will be conducted under standardized conditions in both hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization reactions. The effect of particle size of these unsupported catalysts on the product yield and distribution during liquefaction of a bituminous and a subbituminous coal will thus be quantitatively determined.

  6. Novel nanodispersed coal liquefaction catalysts: Molecular design via microemulsion-based synthesis. Technical progress report, April 1992--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Boakye, E.; Radovic, L.R.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of this project is to pursue the development of highly dispersed and inexpensive catalysts for improved coal solubilization and upgrading of coal liquids. A novel study of the synthesis of liquefaction catalysts of manometer size will be carried out. It is based on the molecular design of reverse micelles (microemulsions). These surfactant-stabilized, metal-bearing microdrops offer unique opportunities for synthesizing very small particles by providing a cage-like effect that limits particle nucleation, growth and agglomeration. The emphasis will be on iron- and molybdenum-based catalysts, but the techniques to be developed should also be generally applicable. The size of these very small and monodispersed particles will be accurately determined both separately and after in situ and ex situ coal impregnation. The as-prepared nanoparticles as well as the catalyst-impregnated coal or char matrix will be characterized using the following techniques: dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning and/or transmission electron microscopy, and selective chemisorption. Catalytic activity tests will be conducted under standardized conditions in both hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization reactions. The effect of particle size of these unsupported catalysts on the product yield and distribution during liquefaction of a bituminous and a subbituminous coal will thus be quantitatively determined.This quarter, the effect of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate concentration on the synthesis of molybdenum sulfide in the 0.15 M NP-5/cyclohexane/water microemulsion system is discussed.

  7. Novel nanodispersed coal liquefaction catalysts: Molecular design via microemulsion-based synthesis. Technical progress report, October 1992--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Boakye, E.; Vittal, M.; Osseo-Asare, K.

    1993-02-01

    The objective of this project is to pursue the development of highly dispersed and inexpensive catalysts for improved coal solubilization and upgrading of coal liquids. A novel study of the synthesis of liquefaction catalysts of manometer size is being carried out. It is based on the molecular design of reverse micelles (microemulsions). These surfactant-stabilized, metal-bearing microdrops offer unique opportunities for synthesizing very small particles by providing a cage-like effect that limits particle nucleation, growth and agglomeration. The emphasis is on molybdenum- and iron-based catalysts, but the techniques being developed should also be generally applicable. The size of these very small and monodispersed particles will be accurately determined both separately and after in situ and ex situ coal impregnation. The as-prepared nanoparticles as well as the catalyst-impregnated coal or char matrix are characterized using a battery of techniques, including dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Catalytic activity tests are conducted under standardized coal liquefaction conditions. The effect of particle size of these unsupported catalysts on the product yield and distribution during conversion of a bituminous and a subbituminous coal are being determined.In this quarter, the synthesis of molybdenum sulfide in a microemulsion system with an alcohol-to-surfactant mass ratio of 3.5 is reported.

  8. Novel nanodispersed coal liquefaction catalysts: Molecular design via microemulsion-based synthesis. Technical progress report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Boakye, E.; Vittal, M.; Osseo-Asare, K.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this project is to pursue the development of highly dispersed and inexpensive catalysts for improved coal solubilization and upgrading of coal liquids. A novel study of the synthesis of liquefaction catalysts of manometer size is being carried out. It is based on the molecular design of inverse micelles (microemulsions). These surfactant-stabilized, metal-bearing microdrops offer unique opportunities for synthesizing very small particles by providing a cage-like effect that limits particle nucleation, growth and agglomeration. The emphasis is on molybdenum- and iron-based catalysts, but the techniques being developed should also be generally applicable. The size of these very small and monodispersed particles will be accurately determined both separately and after in situ and ex situ coal impregnation. The as-prepared nanoparticles as well as the catalyst-impregnated coal matrix are characterized using a battery of techniques, including g dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Catalytic activity tests are conducted under standardized coal liquefaction conditions. The effects of particle size of these unsupported catalysts on the product yield and distribution during conversion of a bituminous and a subbituminous coal are being determined. This report discusses molybdenum sulfide particle synthesis, characterization, and microemulsion characterization.

  9. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Gutterman, C.; Chander, S.

    1992-12-31

    The experimental study of coal swelling ratios have been determined with a wide variety of solvents. Only marginal levels of coal swelling were observed for the hydrocarbon solvents, but high levels were found with solvents having heteroatom functionality. Blends were superior to pure solvents. The activity of various catalyst precursors for pyrene hydrogenation and coal conversion was measured. Higher coal conversions were observed for the S0{sub 2}-treated coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Coal conversions were highest for Molyvan-L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively. Bottoms processing consists of a combination of the ASCOT process coupling solvent deasphalting with delayed coking. Initial results indicate that a blend of butane and pentane used near the critical temperature of butane is the best solvent blend for producing a yield/temperature relationship of proper sensitivity and yet retaining an asphalt phase of reasonable viscosity. The literature concerning coal swelling, both alone and in combination with coal liquefaction, and the use of dispersed or unsupported catalysts in coal liquefaction has been updated.

  10. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, May 8, 1993--August 8, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-10-01

    High hydrocracking and liquefaction activity can be achieved with 10 wt.% of sulfided clay-supported iron catalysts. Further tests and demonstrations of this activity were required. Iron hydroxyoxide was generated on acid-treated montmorillonite. The new batch of catalyst exhibited high hydrocracking activity, Three hour tests with the solubilized intermediate from low-severity treatment of Wyodak coal (LSW) gave a high conversion (45%) of the heptane-insoluble LSW intermediate to heptane-soluble products. An investigation of new methods for the production of catalysts from tetralin-soluble iron oxometallates and the determination of their catalytic activities was continued in this quarter. Iron oxotitanate and iron oxoaluminate gave very high conversions of LSW to heptane solubles (61% and 54%, respectively). The high yields of heptane soluble products obtained with these catalysts offers a potential for use in liquefaction stages with solubilized coal, or at least serve as a model for producing active catalysts via mixed metal oxides. Methods for successfully testing dispersed iron catalysts with the low-severity intermediate were also devised. Catalyst recovered from the dispersed iron hydroxyoxide-catalyzed reaction of ion-exchanged Wyodak gave a high conversion (47%) of LSW to heptane solubles.

  11. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, April 1994--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E.; Song, C.; Schobert, H.H.

    1994-07-01

    Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene and dimethylene bridges connecting polycyclic aromatic units. The selected compound for model coal liquefaction reactions is 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (NMBB). This report describes the synthesis and screening of several iron containing complexes as precursors of dispersed catalysts for hydrocracking of NMBB. Experiments were carried out at 400{degrees}C for 30 min under 6.9 MPa H{sub 2} pressure. All catalyst precursors converted NMBB predominately into naphthalene and 4-methylbibenzyl. Small amounts of secondary products were formed by hydrogenation, isomerization and fragmentation of the primary products. The greatest activity among the tested catalysts was found using superfine iron oxide with added sulfur. An experiment of the high surface Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} without added sulfur gave only moderate conversion. Organometallics with relatively high volatility show higher activity than the inorganic system iron oxide. The thiocubane type cluster Cp{sub 4}Fe{sub 4}S{sub 4} showed the lowest activity. The beneficial effect of sulfur was also demonstrated in a reaction of iron pentacarbonyl and NMBB. A sulfur-free run showed substantially smaller conversion, whereas an experiment with added sulfur gave 15.6 % higher conversion. The catalytic activity of Cp{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}(CO){sub 4} is the highest among the sulfur-free catalyst precursors.

  12. Coal-derived promoters for the liquefaction of Illinois coal. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Carty, R.H.; Knight, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of this program is to investigate the use of liquids derived from coal either by mild gasification (MG) or supercritical extraction (SCE) to promote direct liquefaction of Illinois coal. Some organic heteroatomic compounds have been found to enhance liquefaction reactions. The approach taken in this two-year program is to use recently developed molecular probe techniques to assess the reactivity of three coal-derived liquids with respect to (A) H transfer rate, (B) C-C bond cleavage rate, (C) free radical flux, and (D) hydrocracking activity. With the IFFR liquid, the H transfer rate showed a mean increase of 21%, C-C bond cleavage selectivity increased by 34%, free radical flux showed a mean increase of 107%, and overall mean hydrocracking activity increased by 269%. For the ST/FBR liquid, H transfer rate increased 7%, C-C bond cleavage selectivity increased 27%, free radical flux increased 101%, and data indicated a 227% increase in hydrocracking activity. During the current quarter, the SCE liquid was characterized and tested. The H transfer rate did not increase, the mean free radical flux increased by 18%, and the hydrocracking activity showed a dramatic increase of 359%, which is higher than either the IFFR or ST/FBR liquids. The assessment of C-C bond cleavage with SCE is not yet completed. The SCE analysis showed much lower levels of phenols, cresols, and naphthalenes than the IFFR and ST/FBR liquids.

  13. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Run 262 with Black Thunder subbituminous coal: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This report presents the results of Run 262 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R&D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The run started on July 10, 1991 and continued until September 30, 1991, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam from Wyoming Powder River Basin). A dispersed molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for its performance. The effect of the dispersed catalyst on eliminating solids buildup was also evaluated. Half volume reactors were used with supported Criterion 324 1/16`` catalyst in the second stage at a catalyst replacement rate of 3 lb/ton of MF coal. The hybrid dispersed plus supported catalyst system was tested for the effect of space velocity, second stage temperature, and molybdenum concentration. The supported catalyst was removed from the second stage for one test period to see the performance of slurry reactors. Iron oxide was used as slurry catalyst at a rate of 2 wt % MF coal throughout the run (dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) was used as the sulfiding agent). The close-coupled reactor unit was on-stream for 1271.2 hours for an on-stream factor of 89.8% and the ROSE-SR unit was on-feed for 1101.6 hours for an on-stream factor of 90.3% for the entire run.

  14. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units: Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts Program sponsored by the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center was initiated in 1991 with the objective of promoting the development of new and emerging technology that has the potential for reducing the cost of producing liquid fuels by direct coal liquefaction. The laboratory research program (Phase I) was completed in 1995 by UK/CAER, CONSOL, Sandia National Laboratories and LDP Associates. A three year extension was subsequently awarded in October 1995 to further develop several promising concepts derived from the laboratory program. During Phase II, four continuous bench scale runs will be conducted at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. using a 2 kg/hr continuous bench scale unit located at their facility in Lawrenceville, NJ. The first run in this program (ALC-1), conducted between April 19 and May 14, 1996, consisted of five test conditions to evaluate the affect of coal cleaning and recycle solvent modification. A detailed discussion of this run is included in Section Two of this report. Results obtained during this reporting period for all participants in this program are summarized.

  15. Microbial recovery of metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Final and quarterly report, July 1994--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sandbeck, K.A.; Cleveland, D.

    1995-08-01

    Research is reported on the recovery of molybdenum and nickel from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Mo release from spent coal liquefaction catalysts has been shown to be dependent upon many parameters, but release is dominated by microbial growth. The microbial Mo release is a rapid process requiring less than one week for 90% of the releaseable Mo to be solubilized from whole washed (THF) catalyst. It could be expected that the rates would be even greater with crushed catalyst. Efforts were centered on optimizing the parameters that stimulate microbial growth and action and further efforts centered on catalyst pre-treatment prior to microbial bio-leaching. Recent experiments suggest that hydrogen peroxide promises to be an effective pre-treatment wash. Hydrogen peroxide was also found to be an effective and economical agent for metals solubilization per se and could promote solubilization without subjecting the catalyst to microbial growth.

  16. Final Technical Report CMS fast optical calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, David R.

    2012-07-12

    This is the final report of CMS FAST OPTICAL CALORIMETRY, a grant to Fairfield University for development, construction, installation and operation of the forward calorimeter on CMS, and for upgrades of the forward and endcap calorimeters for higher luminosity and radiation damage amelioration.

  17. Job Skills Education Program. Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Educational Technology.

    This publication provides materials developed by a project designed to transfer a U.S. Army computer-based basic skills curriculum to applications in the vocational skills development of civilian adults. An executive summary of the final report describes the Job Skills Education Program (JSEP), which teaches academic skills that support vocational…

  18. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process. Volume 2, Parts 4--8: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D.

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE`s Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt% wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3000 psi. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor by the University to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a high pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed and following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. By July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350{degree}C to 430{degree}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt% residual oxygen were produced. 38 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

  19. DOE-TMS-11477-Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, David

    2015-02-05

    The Neutron and X-Ray Studies of Advanced Materials VII Symposium, held at the 2014, 143rd Annual Meeting of The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society (TMS), brought together experts, young investigators, and students from this sub-discipline of materials science in order for them to share their latest discoveries and develop collaborations. This annual symposium, which is organized by The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society, is an important event for this community of scientists. This year, over 100 high-level technical talks were delivered over the course of the four day event. In addition, the large number of students and young investigators in attendance ensured the maximum benefit to the next generation’s work force in this area of study. The science surrounding the utilization of neutrons and x-rays to study advanced materials is becoming increasingly important in increasing the understanding of how the exceptional materials properties of such materials arise. In particular, x-rays and neutrons can be used to visualize material structures at an extremely high resolution and in some cases, three dimensions—allowing unprecedented insights into the mechanisms governing certain materials properties such as strength and toughness. Moreover, some of these techniques allow materials to be visualized without damaging the material, approaches known as non-destructive evaluation or “NDE”. This allows materials to be studied in 3 dimensions while undergoing change in real time which represents an important (and long sought-after) advancement in materials science. The types of interactions afforded by this event are beneficial to society at large primarily because they provide opportunities for the leaders within this field to learn from one another and thus improve the quality and productivity of their investigations. Additionally, the presence of young investigators and students with technical interests in this field provides promise that the United

  20. Liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Poddar, Syamal K.

    1981-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by pretreatment with a combination of pretreating agents comprising SO.sub.2 and an oxidizing agent. It is essential to effective operation that the moisture content of the solid carbonaceous material be within the range from about 10 to about 25 wt %, based on dry solid carbonaceous material, during the pretreatment. The pretreatment is believed to convert at least a portion of the scale-forming components and particularly calcium, to the corresponding sulfate prior to liquefaction. The pretreatment may be accomplished with the combination of pretreating agents either simultaneously by using a mixture comprising SO.sub.2 and a gaseous oxidizing agent or sequentially by first treating with SO.sub.2 and then with an oxidizing agent.

  1. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units phase II. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    A catalyst screening test (CST) was developed to evaluate the activity of various catalyst precursors for their liquefaction activity in a solvent comprising the solids-free components of a recycle solvent generated at Wilsonville, namely a ROSE SR V-130 deashed resid from period A and V-1074 heavy distillate from period B. Since the deashed resid has an elemental composition very nearly the same distillate from period B. Since the deashed resid has an elemental composition very nearly the same as in the solids-free fraction of the recycle solvent, the reactivity of these two resid and dry coal are nearly the same as in Run 263J, the overall composition should approximate the feed stream used in the Wilsonville pilot plant except for the absence of the solids component. Removing the solids from the reaction mixture should simplify the interpretation of the results since normally a considerable amount or recycled catalyst is contained in this fraction.

  2. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, May 9, 1992--August 8, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-10-01

    An investigation of new methods for the production of mixed pillared clay catalysts and clay-supported catalysts and determination of their catalytic activities were continued in this quarter. To demonstrate the reproducibility of the preparative method for high activity iron/alumina-pillared montmorillonite catalysts, a new batch of the catalyst was prepared and tested for hydrocracking activity with bibenzyl. This preparation gave conversion and product distribution similar to that reported previously. The mixed iron/alumina-pillared clay was also prepared using a pillaring solution that was aged for longer period of time. To determine the importance of the type of pillaring support in hydrocracking activity, iron/zirconia-pillared montmorillonite was prepared using the same technique as that for iron/alumina-pillared montmorillonite. The reaction of bibenzyl with the sulfided iron/zirconia-pillared catalyst gave a lower hydrocracking conversion than the iron/alumina-pillared catalyst. Addition of a second catalytic metal to the clay support was attempted to determine if a synergistic effect could improve liquefaction. Ferric nitrate and stannous chloride were added to the clay, but the resulting catalyst was relatively poor for hydrocracking and hydrogenation compared with ferric nitrate supported on the clay. New disposable iron catalysts with high acidity and surface area are desired for coal liquefaction. Synthetic iron aluminosilicates were prepared by methods similar to those used for the nickel-substituted synthetic mica montmorillonite (NiSMM) catalysts, which are very effective for hydrogenation and reforming of hydrocarbons. The iron aluminosilicate catalysts were tested for hydrocracking and hydrogenation of bibenzyl, naphthalene and pyrene. Pyrene hydrogenation was effectively catalyzed by the sulfided synthetic iron catalyst.

  3. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, January--March, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E.; Song, C.; Schobert, H.H.

    1994-06-01

    Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene and dimethylene bridges connecting polycyclic aromatic units. The selected compound for model coal liquefaction reactions is 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (NMBB). This report describes the synthesis and screening of several hetero- and homometallic complexes as precursors of dispersed catalysts for hydrocracking of NMBB. Experiments were carried out at 400 C for 30 min under 6.9 MPa H{sub 2} pressure. (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}MoS{sub 4} and MoCl{sub 3} converted NMBB predominantly into naphthalene and 4-methylbibenzyl. Small amounts of secondary products were formed by hydrogenation and fragmentation of the primary products. Lewis acid-type MoCl{sub 3} catalyst gave lower selectivity to the primary products, with relatively larger amounts of methyltetrahydronaphthalene- and methylnaphthalene-derivatives. In contrast, the bimetallic catalyst precursors Cp{sub 2}Co {sub 2}Mo{sub 2} (CO){sub 2}S{sub 4} and (Ph{sub 4}P){sub 2}(Ni(MoS{sub 4})) inflict less fragmentation and less hydrogenation of primary cleavage products. Cp{sub 2}Co{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}(CO){sub 2}S{sub 4} converted a substantial amount of starting material even at 350 C; whereas, a noncatalytic run under the same conditions showed only small conversion. Inorganic and bimetallic catalyst precursors gave similar conversions. Greater product selectivity can be achieved by means of organometallic precursors and low severity reaction condition. Mo(CO){sub 6} and Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}/Mo(CO){sub 6} gave similar conversion as the bimetallic catalyst precursors. The addition of sulfur to the combination Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}/Mo(CO){sub 6} gave significant higher conversion but reduced generally the yield of hydrogenation products.

  4. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, January--March, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Kirby, S. Schmidt, E.; Schobert, H.H.

    1995-05-01

    Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene, dimethylene and ether bridges connecting polycyclic aromatic units and the reactions of various oxygen functional groups. The selected compound for model coal liquefaction reactions are 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (NMBB) and anthrone. This report describes hydrodeoxygenation of O-containing polycyclic model compounds using novel organometallic catalyst precursors and activity and selectivity of dispersed Fe catalysts from organometallic and inorganic precursors for hydrocracking of 4-(1-Naphthylmethyl) bibenzyl. For hydrodeoxygenation, model compound studies were performed using multi-ring systems, or those of comparable molecular weight, to investigate the capabilities of the dispersed catalysts. The model compounds selected include anthrone (carbonyl); dinaphthyl ether (aryl-aryl ether); xanthene (heterocyclic ether); and 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methylphenol (hydroxyl). The catalyst precursors used were (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}MoS{sub 4}, [Ph{sub 4}P]{sub 2}[Ni(MoS{sub 4}){sub 2}] and Cp{sub 2}Co{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}(CO){sub 2}S{sub 4}. To examine what determines the activity and selectivity of Fe catalysts for hydrogenation and hydrocracking, various molecular precursors with Fe in different chemical environments have been tested in this work to help understand the influence of precursor structure and the effect of sulfur addition on the activity and selectivity of resulting Fe catalysts in model reactions of 4-(naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl. The authors have examined various precursors, including a thiocubane type cluster Cp{sub 4}Fe{sub 4}S{sub 4}, a cyclopentadienyliron dicarbonyl dimer Cp{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}(CO){sub 4}, ferrocene Cp{sub 2}Fe, a series of carbonyl precursors including Fe(CO){sub 5}, Fe{sub 2}(CO){sub 9}, and Fe{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}, and superfine iron oxide with average particle size of 30 {angstrom}.

  5. Hydrogen energy systems studies. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.; Kartha, S.; Iwan, L.

    1996-08-13

    The results of previous studies suggest that the use of hydrogen from natural gas might be an important first step toward a hydrogen economy based on renewables. Because of infrastructure considerations (the difficulty and cost of storing, transmitting and distributing hydrogen), hydrogen produced from natural gas at the end-user`s site could be a key feature in the early development of hydrogen energy systems. In the first chapter of this report, the authors assess the technical and economic prospects for small scale technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas (steam reformers, autothermal reformers and partial oxidation systems), addressing the following questions: (1) What are the performance, cost and emissions of small scale steam reformer technology now on the market? How does this compare to partial oxidation and autothermal systems? (2) How do the performance and cost of reformer technologies depend on scale? What critical technologies limit cost and performance of small scale hydrogen production systems? What are the prospects for potential cost reductions and performance improvements as these technologies advance? (3) How would reductions in the reformer capital cost impact the delivered cost of hydrogen transportation fuel? In the second chapter of this report the authors estimate the potential demand for hydrogen transportation fuel in Southern California.

  6. Liquefaction corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    DeVan, J.H.; Keiser, J.R.; Baylor, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this program is to provide screening data on the susceptibility to corrosion of commercial base metals and welds that are candidate materials of construction for large coal liquefaction plants. Specimens are exposed in operating environments of liquefaction pilot plants and under controlled laboratory conditions to establish acceptable conditions of stress, temperature, time, and environment for candidate alloys. Chemical analyses have been carried out to identify the corrosion-causing constituents of the liquids. The behavior of potential containment materials is being assessed on the basis of results from both in-plant exposure of test specimens as well as results from laboratory tests at ORNL. One portion of the in-plant tests includes exposing stress corrosion cracking specimens in critical areas of liquefaction plants. The critical areas include the dissolver vessel, the pressure letdown vessels, and the factionation columns. Other in-plant tests consist of exposure of corrosion coupons in areas where general corrosion has been severe. These areas include the fractionation columns used for recovery of process and wash solvents. Laboratory tests are being conducted using selected liquid process streams from the pilot plants to simulate SRC environments. Sample materials include the full range of austenitic stainless steels, most of the Inconel, Incoloy and Hastelloy high-nickel alloys, ferritic stainless steels, and Cr-Mo steels, as well as pure materials such as titanium, aluminum and nickel.

  7. Long pulse chemical laser. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bardon, R.L.; Breidenthal, R.E.; Buonadonna, V.R.

    1989-02-01

    This report covers the technical effort through February, 1989. This effort was directed towards the technology associated with the development of a large scale, long pulse DF-CO{sub 2} chemical laser. Optics damage studies performed under Task 1 assessed damage thresholds for diamond-turned salt windows. Task 2 is a multi-faceted task involving the use of PHOCL-50 for laser gain measurements, LTI experiments, and detector testing by LANL personnel. To support these latter tests, PHOCL-50 was upgraded with Boeing funding to incorporate a full aperture outcoupler that increased its energy output by over a factor of 3, to a full kilojoule. The PHOCL-50 carbon block calorimeter was also recalibrated and compared with the LANL Scientech meter. Cloud clearing studies under Task 3 initially concentrated on delivering a Boeing built Cloud Simulation Facility to LANL, and currently involves design of a Cold Cloud Simulation Facility. A Boeing IRAD funded theoretical study on cold cloud clearing revealed that ice clouds may be easier to clear then warm clouds. Task 4 involves the theoretical and experimental study of flow system design as related to laser beam quality. Present efforts on this task are concentrating on temperature gradients induced by the gas filling process. General support for the LPCL field effort is listed under Task 5, with heavy emphasis on assuring reliable operation of the Boeing built Large Slide Valve and other device related tests. The modification of the PHOCL-50 system for testing long pulse DF (4{mu}m only) chemical laser operation is being done under Task 6.

  8. Final Technical Progress Report NANOSTRUCTURED MAGNETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M. Falco

    2012-09-13

    This report describes progress made during the final phase of our DOE-funded program on Nanostructured Magnetic Materials. This period was quite productive, resulting in the submission of three papers and presentation of three talks at international conferences and three seminars at research institutions. Our DOE-funded research efforts were directed toward studies of magnetism at surfaces and interfaces in high-quality, well-characterized materials prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and sputtering. We have an exceptionally well-equipped laboratory for these studies, with: Thin film preparation equipment; Characterization equipment; Equipment to study magnetic properties of surfaces and ultra-thin magnetic films and interfaces in multi-layers and superlattices.

  9. AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Aukrust, E.

    1994-08-01

    This final report deals with the results of a 5-yr project for developing a more energy-efficient, environmentally friendly, less costly process for producing hot metal than current coke ovens and blast furnaces. In the process, iron ore pellets are smelted in a foamy slag created by reaction of coal char with molten slag to produce CO. The CO further reacts with oxygen, which also reacts with coal volatile matter, to produce the heat necessary to sustain the endothermic reduction reaction. The uncombusted CO and H{sub 2} from the coal are used to preheat and prereduce hematite pellets for the most efficient use of the energy in the coal. Laboratory programs confirmed that the process steps worked. Pilot plant studies were successful. Economic analysis for a 1 million tpy plant is promising.

  10. Final Technical Report: Results of Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, David, J.; Hambrick, Joshua; Srinivasan, Devarajan; Ayyannar, Raja; O'Brien, Kathleen

    2011-09-28

    of a working, utility distribution feeder. To address the technical challenges related to the integration of distributed PV when PV penetration levels reach or exceed 30% of the total load, technologies and methods to ensure the stable and safe operation of the feeder will be evaluated. Lessons learned will enable APS to improve the framework for future PV integration on its system and may also aid other utilities across the United States energy sector in accelerating the adoption of distributed photovoltaic generation.

  11. Final Technical Report: Results of Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, David, J.; Hambrick, Joshua; Srinivasan, Devarajan; Ayyannar, Raja; O'Brien, Kathleen; Bebic, Jovan; Schelenz, Owen

    2011-09-28

    working, utility distribution feeder. To address the technical challenges related to the integration of distributed PV when PV penetration levels reach or exceed 30% of the total load, technologies and methods to ensure the stable and safe operation of the feeder will be evaluated. Lessons learned will enable APS to improve the framework for future PV integration on its system and may also aid other utilities across the United States energy sector in accelerating the adoption of distributed photovoltaic generation.

  12. Geothermal research, Oregon Cascades: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, G.R.; Black, G.L.

    1988-10-27

    Previous USDOE-funded geothermal studies have produced an extensive temperature gradient and heat flow data base for the State of Oregon. One of the important features identified as a result of these studies is a rapid transition from heat flow values on the order of 40 mW/m/sup 2/ in the Willamette Valley and Western Cascades to values of greater than or equal to100 mW/m/sup 2/ in the High Cascades and the eastern portion of the Western Cascades. These data indicate that the Cascade Range in Oregon has potential as a major geothermal province and stimulated much of the later work completed by government agencies and private industry. Additional data generated as a result of this grant and published in DOGAMI Open-File Report 0-86-2 further define the location and magnitude of this transition zone. In addition, abundant data collected from the vicinity of Breitenbush and Austin Hot Springs have permitted the formulation of relatively detailed models of these hydrothermal systems. These models are published in DOGAMI Open-File Report 0-88-5. Task 1.2 of the Deliverables section of Amendment M001 is fulfilled by DOGAMI publication GMS-48, Geologic map of the McKenzie Bridge quadrangle, Lane County, Oregon. This map was printed in October, 1988, and is part of the final submission to USDOE. 8 refs.

  13. Liquefaction of bituminous coals using disposable ore catalysts and hydrogen. Final report, February 7, 1982-July 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, V.K.

    1982-09-01

    There are a number of problems associated with the production of liquid fuels from coal. The most complex is the use of commercial catalysts which are expensive, with short life, and cannot be recovered or regenerated. The objective of this study was to conduct experiments on coal hydrogenation using low cost mineral ores as disposable catalysts. Coal samples from Blacksville Mine, Pittsburgh Bed were hydrogenated using a number of ores, ore concentrates and industrial waste products as catalysts. Experiments were also conducted using a commercial catalyst (Harshaw Chemicals, 0402T) and no catalyst at all to compare the results. Since iron pyrite has been reported to be a good disposable catalyst, experiments were also conducted using pyrite individually as well as in admixture with other ores or concentrates. The liquefaction was conducted at 425/sup 0/C under 2000 psig (13,790 kPa) hydrogen pressure for a reaction time of 30 minutes using SRC-II heavy distillate as a vehicle oil. The conclusions of this study are as follows: (a) Results of liquefaction using two cycle technique showed that the catalytic activity of iron pyrite could be enhanced by adding materials like limonite, laterite or red mud. Iron pyrite in admixture with limonite ore or molybdenum oxide concentrate gave the best results among all the binary mixtures studied. (b) Iron pyrite with molybdenum oxide concentrate and cobaltic hydroxide cake (metal loading in each case the same as in Harshaw catalyst) gave results which compared favorably with those obtained using the Harshaw catalyst. It is recommended that work on this project should be continued exploring other ores and their mixtures for their catalytic activity for coal liquefaction.

  14. Catalysis mechanism of coal liquefaction by H/sub 2/S. Final report, September 21, 1982-March 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Stenberg, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    More detailed data has been generated during the course of this contract to substantiate the modes in which hydrogen sulfide promotes liquefaction: (1) by hydrocracking; (2) hydrogen atom donation; (3) form aromatic sulfur bonds by pi-orbital attack; (4) catalyze the shift reaction; and (5) interaction with coal via an elemental sulfur intermediate. H/sub 2/S is now demonstrated to be catalytic with its quantitative recovery at the end of each reaction provided the reactor surface is presulfided. Low concentrations of H/sub 2/S of about 100 psi are optimum for coal conversion in an organic media. The metal reactor wall has been demonstrated to participate when H/sub 2/S is present. Hydrogen sulfide promotes the liquefaction of three ranks of coals: lignites, subbituminous and bituminous coals both in the absence and presence of a good hydrogen donor solvent. Therefore, it does more than merely act as a good hydrogen donor. The iron of the metal reactors was continually interfering with the data. Consequently, it was necessary to develop this chemistry. The H/sub 2/S proved to be converting the surface iron into pyrrhotite. Through collaboration with Montano, it was next possible to postulate and obtain experimental evidence for the chemical mechanism of how H/sub 2/S and iron act synergistically to promote liquefaction. This detailed surface chemistry has now been published. Hydrogen sulfide promotes the hydrocracking of all model compounds. The principal mechanism given for this is via SH aromatic pi-orbital attack followed by decoupling of the substituent. Bibenzyl follows an unusual mechanism. 29 refs., 17 tabs.

  15. Reassessment of liquefaction potential and estimation of earthquake- induced settlements at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sykora, D.W.; Yule, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    This report documents a reassessment of liquefaction potential and estimation of earthquake-induced settlements for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), located southwest of Paducah, KY. The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) was authorized to conduct this study from FY91 to FY94 by the DOE, Oak Ridge Operations (ORO), Oak Ridge, TN, through Inter- Agency Agreement (IAG) No. DE-AI05-91OR21971. The study was conducted under the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report (GDP SAR) Program.

  16. Final Technical Report - DE-EE0003542

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, James D

    2013-03-31

    Wind has provided energy for thousands of years: some of the earliest windmill engineering designs date back to ancient Babylonia and India where wind would be used as a source of irrigation. Today, wind is the quickest growing resource in Americas expanding energy infrastructure. However, to continue to positively diversify Americas energy portfolio and further reduce the countrys reliance of foreign oil, the industry must grow substantially over the next two decades in both turbine installations and skilled industrial manpower to support. The wind sector is still an emergent industry requiring maturation and development of its labor force: dedicated training is needed to provide the hard and soft skills to support the increasingly complex wind turbine generators as the technology evolves. Furthermore, the American workforce is facing a steep decline in available labor resources as the baby boomer generation enters retirement age. It is therefore vital that a process is quickly created for supporting the next generation of wind technicians. However, the manpower growth must incorporate three key components. First, the safety and technical training curriculum must be standardized across the industry - current wind educational programs are disparate and dedicated standardization programs must be further refined and implemented. Second, it is essential that the wind sector avoid disrupting other energy production industries by cannibalizing workers, which would indirectly affect the rest of Americas energy portfolio. The future wind workforce must be created organically utilizing either young people entering the workforce or train personnel emerging from careers outside of energy production. Third, the training must be quick and efficient as large amounts of wind turbines are being erected each year and this growth is expected to continue until at least 2035. One source that matches these three requirements is personnel transitioning from military service to the

  17. Novel Bimettallic Dispersed Catalysts for Temperature-Programmed Coal Liquefaction: Technical progress report January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Schmidt, E.; Schobert, H.H.

    1996-06-01

    Coal liquefaction may involve cleavage of methylene, dimethylene and ether bridges connecting polycyclic aromatic units and the reactions of various oxygen functional groups. Here in this quarterly, we report on the effects of dispersed Mo catalysts and H{sub 2}O addition on hydrogenation and C-C bond hydrocracking of 4-(1- naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, abbreviated as NMBB. Recent research in this laboratory has demonstrated a strong synergistic effect between a dispersed Mo sulfide catalyst and water in low-severity coal liquefaction reaction. This finding prompted us to examine the effects of dispersed Mo catalysts and H{sub 2}O addition on hydrogenation and C-C bond hydrocracking of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, NMBB. Batch studied in microautoclave reactors at 350 and 400{degrees}C for 30 min revealed that active catalysts can be generated in situ from either ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATTM) or Mo(CO){sub 6} under the reaction conditions (350 or 400{degrees}C, 30 min), with the main catalysis of the latter for NMBB hydrogenation, but the former for C-C bond cleavage. Water may have strong promoting effect on NMBB conversion in catalytic runs, depending on the conditions. At 350{degrees}C a 50% increase in NMBB conversion was observed upon H{sub 2}O addition to the run using ATTM (1 wt % Mo) as catalyst. However, at 400{degrees}C no major difference in conversion or product distribution was found. Runs of NMBB at 350{degrees}C using Mo(CO){sub 6} lead to tetrahydro-NMBB-derivatives and few cleavage products. Water added to Mo(CO){sub 6} suppressed hydrogenation. The combination of Mo(CO){sub 6} and S lead to almost complete conversion of NMBB. A run with Mo(CO){sub 6}/S/H{sub 2}O gave similar results. It appears that water can increase NMBB conversion with ATTM at 350{degrees}C but decreased conversion for runs at 400{degrees}C. Also contained in this report is mechanistic discussion for hydrocracking and hydrogenation of NMBB.

  18. Final Technical Report 09 LW 112

    SciTech Connect

    Lenhoff, R J

    2010-11-28

    Since the development of new antibiotics is out-paced by the emergence of bacterial resistance to existing antibiotics, it is crucial to understand the genetic mechanisms underlying resistance existing antibiotics. At the center of this mystery is a poorly understood phenomenon, heteroresistance: the coexistence of multiple subpopulations with varying degrees of antibiotic resistance. A better understanding of the fundamental basis of heteroresistance could result in sorely needed breakthroughs in treatment options. This project proposed to leverage a novel microfluidic (microchemostat) technology to probe the heteroresistance phenomenon in bacteria, with the aim of restoring the efficacy of existing {beta}-lactam antibiotics. The clinically important bacteria Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was used as the test case of bacteria that exhibits antibiotic heteroresistance. MRSA is difficult to treat because it is resistant to all {beta}-lactam antibiotics, as well as other classes of antimicrobials. Whereas {beta}-lactams such as methicillin and oxacillin are the preferred antibiotics to treat S. aureus infections due to their efficacy and low side effects, accurate determination and use of oxacillin/methicillin dosage is hampered by heteroresistance. In fact, invasive MRSA infections now account for about 95,000 deaths per year, a number that exceeds the deaths due to either influenza or HIV (12). In some MRSA strains, two subpopulations of cells may coexist: both populations carry the mecA gene that confers resistance, but mecA is differentially expressed so that only a small number of cells are observed during in vitro testing. Why this occurs is not understood. Prior experiments have sought to explain this phenomenon with conflicting results, with technology being the primary barrier to test the system sufficiently. This is the final report on work accomplished under the Lab-wide LDRD project 09-LW-112. This project was awarded to Frederick Balagadde who

  19. Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 25, 1990--October 24, 1991: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.

    1991-12-30

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the kinetics-assisted design, synthesis and characterization of fme-pardcle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction. The goal is to develop a fundamental understanding of coal catalysis and catalysts that will, in turn, allow for the specification of a novel optimal catalyst for coal liquefaction.

  20. Catalysts and process developments for two-stage liquefaction. Report No. 8. Quarterly technical progress report, second quarter FY 1989, January 1, 1989--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Cronauer, D.C.; Evans, A.J.; Furlong, M.W.; Sajkowski, D.J.

    1994-11-01

    Amoco under contract to the United States Department of Energy is developing and evaluating catalysts and process improvements for coal liquefaction in the two-stage close-coupled catalytic process. Liquefaction experiments on beneficiated coal samples are reported for several catalysts.

  1. Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 26, 1991--January 25, 1992: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.; Foley, H.C.

    1992-03-23

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the kinetics-assisted design, synthesis and characterization of fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction. The goal is to develop a fundamental understanding of coal catalysis and catalysts that will, in turn, allow for the specification of a novel optical catalyst for coal liquefaction.

  2. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Maa, Peter S.

    1978-01-01

    A process for liquefying a particulate coal feed to produce useful petroleum-like liquid products which comprises contacting; in a series of two or more coal liquefaction zones, or stages, graded with respect to temperature, an admixture of a polar compound; or compounds, a hydrogen donor solvent and particulate coal, the total effluent being passed in each instance from a low temperature zone, or stage to the next succeeding higher temperature zone, or stage, of the series. The temperature within the initial zone, or stage, of the series is maintained about 70.degree. F and 750.degree. F and the temperature within the final zone, or stage, is maintained between about 750.degree. F and 950.degree. F. The residence time within the first zone, or stage, ranges, generally, from about 20 to about 150 minutes and residence time within each of the remaining zones, or stages, of the series ranges, generally, from about 10 minutes to about 70 minutes. Further steps of the process include: separating the product from the liquefaction zone into fractions inclusive of a liquid solvent fraction; hydrotreating said liquid solvent fraction in a hydrogenation zone; and recycling the hydrogenated liquid solvent mixture to said coal liquefaction zones.

  3. Novel nanodispersed coal liquefaction catalysts: Molecular design via microemulsion-based synthesis. Technical progress report, July--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Boakye, E.; Vaidyanathan, N.; Radovic, L.R.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this project is to pursue the development of highly dispersed and inexpensive catalysts for improved coal solubilization and upgrading of coal liquids. A novel study of the synthesis of liquefaction catalysts of nanometer size will be carried out. It is based on the molecular design of reverse micelles (microemulsions). These surfactant-stabilized, metalbearing microdrops offer unique opportunities for synthesizing very small particles by providing a cage-like effect that limits particle nucleation, growth and agglomeration. The emphasis will be on iron- and molybdenum-based catalysts, but the techniques to be developed should also be generally applicable. The size of these very small and monodispersed particles will be accurately determined both separately and after in situ and ex situ coal impregnation. The as-prepared nanoparticles as well as the catalyst-impregnated coal or char matrix will be characterized using the following techniques: dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning and/or transmission electron microscopy, and selective chemisorption.

  4. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chunshan; Schmidt, E.; Schobert, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene, dimethylene and ether bridges connecting polycyclic aromatic units and the reactions of various oxygen functional groups. Here in this quarterly, we report on the hydrocracking of 4-(l-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl in the presence of iron (Fe) catalysts and sulfur and residual wall catalytic effect. Catalytic hydrocracking of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (NMBB) predominantly yielded naphthalene and 4-methylbibenzyl. Various iron compounds were examined as catalyst precursors. Sulfur addition to most catalyst precursors led to substantially higher catalyst activity and higher conversion. NMBB was also treated with sulfur in the absence of iron compounds, in concentrations of 1.2-3.4 wt%, corresponding to the conditions present in reactions with added iron compounds. Increasing sulfur concentrations led to higher NMBB conversions. Furthermore, sulfur had a permanent effect on the reactor walls. A black sulfide layer formed on the surface which could not be removed mechanically. The supposed non-catalytic reactions done in the same reactor but after experiments with added sulfur showed higher conversions than comparable experiments done in new reactors. This wall catalytic effect can be reduced by treating the sulfided reactors with hydrochloric acid. The results of this work demonstrate the significant effect of sulfur addition and sulfur-induced residual wall effects on carbon-carbon bond cleavage and hydrogenation of aromatics.

  5. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chunshan; Parfitt, D.P.; Schobert, H.H.

    1993-08-01

    The ultimate goal of the present research is to develop novel catalytic hydroliquefaction process using highly active dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research is to develop novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that can be used in low concentrations (liquefaction of a Montana subbituminous coal (DECS-9) at the loading level of 0.5 wt% Mo on dmmf coal. It was found that the structure of the precursors, in particular the ligands to the metal species, affect the activity of the resulting catalyst significantly. Among the M-M` type precursors tested, Mo-Co thiocubane, Mo{sub 2}Co{sub 2}S{sub 4}(Cp){sub 2}(CO){sub 2} [Cp = cyclopentadiene], designated as MoCo-TC2, produced in-situ the best catalyst The performance of the Mo-Co bimetallic catalyst was further enhanced by using temperature programmed (TPL) conditions consisting of a low temperature soaking at 200{degrees}C, programmed heat-up to 400 or 425{degrees}C followed by a 30 minutes hold. The pro ed heat-up serves as an in-situ activation of catalyst and coal pretreatment, which contributes to more effective hydrogenation of reactive fragments at high temperature.

  6. Chapter 2 Forumula. 1988-89 Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    Presented is the final technical report on the evaluation of the 1988-89 supplementary education programs of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District funded under Chapter 2 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act. The following major findings are reported: (1) extracurricular transportation costs, which had been reduced by…

  7. Final Technical Report "Energy Partitioning in Elementary Chemical Reactions"

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Bersohn; James J. Valentini

    2005-10-03

    This is the final technical report of the subject grant. It describes the scientific results obtained during the reporting period. These results are focused on the reactions of atomic oxygen with terminal alkenes. We have studied the production of vinoxy in these reactions. We have characterized the energy disposal in the reactions and have elaborated the reaction mechanism.

  8. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    CONSOL completed characterization of 64 samples from five run conditions of HTI Run ALC-1 (227-94), in which raw and cleaned (oil-agglomerated at low pH) Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal was fed and processed using only dispersed catalysts in the liquefaction reactors. Extraction of THF-soluble resid from the pressure-filter cakes was more complete when agglomerates were fed, leaving only 5% or less THF solubles in the extracted cakes. When raw coal was fed, the extracted cakes contained 9-34% THF solubles. HTI also observed improved filtration during the periods that agglomerates were fed. Improved operability, if verified by additional work, could be an economically significant benefit of coal cleaning by oil agglomeration at low pH. An apparently higher Mo addition rate (see fourth bullet) may have contributed to the benefits of using oil-agglomerated coal. Other stream sample characteristics changed when oil-agglomerated coal was fed in Conditions 2-4, relative to when uncleaned coal was fed in Conditions 1 and 5. The ash content of the 0-6 bottoms samples was lower when oil-agglomerates were fed. The THF-soluble 524{degrees}C+ resid concentration in the feed slurry doubled when agglomerated coal was fed. Three factors may have influenced these characteristics. Higher coal conversion would have produced more resid. More efficient toluene-extraction of the filter cake would have recycled more resid. Removal of distillate as product to offset oil fed as part of the agglomerated coal would preferentially recycle the heaviest components.

  9. Enhanced coal liquefaction by low-severity catalytic reactions: Technical progress report for the period March to May 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.; Derbyshire, F.J.; Schobert, H.H.

    1987-06-01

    The objective of this investigation is to examine the potential and limitations of temperature-staged catalytic liquefaction. Experiments have been planned to examine the chemical reactions which occur during the low- and high-severity stages, the effects of coal rank and process conditions, the function of catalyst and influence of solvent donor capability. In our dry, catalytic experiments the key to high conversions is the use of hydrogen at 425/sup 0/C. Pretreatment with nitrogen gave essentially no advantage, and with hydrogen resulted in a slight improvement in oil yield. For the non-catalytic reactions, with a solvent, the result demonstrates the importance of a hydrogen donor (tetralin compared to naphthalene). The use of hydrogen in the pretreatment stage has little influence on the total level of conversion, but gives a somewhat better oil-asphaltene ratio. In fact, regardless of whether a hydrogen donor is present, the best oil/asphaltene ratios were always obtained whenever hydrogen was used in the first stage and nitrogen in the second stage. In order to understand what kinds of bonds are broken during a low-temperature stage in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst, five model compounds have been reacted and evaluated in terms of product yield and boiling point distribution. For the reactions conducted at 275/sup 0/C, biphenyl was found to be unreactive, even in the presence of a catalyst; pyrene, diphenyl ketone and phenyl ether are relatively reactive under these conditions. Temperature-staging with MoS/sub 2/ as the catalyst, for most of the model compounds, resulted in more products with boiling points below the starting material, than with any other conditions employed. Observations were made which suggest that minerals can act as catalysts during ''non-catalytic runs''. 12 refs.

  10. The Independent Technical Analysis Process Final Report 2006-2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Duberstein, Corey; Ham, Kenneth; Dauble, Dennis; Johnson, Gary

    2007-03-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide technical analytical support for system-wide fish passage information (BPA Project No. 2006-010-00). The goal of this project was to produce rigorous technical analysis products using independent analysts and anonymous peer reviewers. This project provided an independent technical source for non-routine fish passage analyses while allowing routine support functions to be performed by other well-qualified entities. The Independent Technical Analysis Process (ITAP) was created to provide non-routine analysis for fish and wildlife agencies and tribes in particular and the public in general on matters related to juvenile and adult salmon and steelhead passage through the mainstem hydrosystem. The process was designed to maintain the independence of analysts and reviewers from parties requesting analyses, to avoid potential bias in technical products. The objectives identified for this project were to administer a rigorous, transparent process to deliver unbiased technical assistance necessary to coordinate recommendations for storage reservoir and river operations that avoid potential conflicts between anadromous and resident fish. Seven work elements, designated by numbered categories in the Pisces project tracking system, were created to define and accomplish project goals as follows: (1) 118 Coordination - Coordinate technical analysis and review process: (a) Retain expertise for analyst/reviewer roles. (b) Draft research directives. (c) Send directive to the analyst. (d) Coordinate two independent reviews of the draft report. (e) Ensure reviewer comments are addressed within the final report. (2) 162 Analyze/Interpret Data - Implement the independent aspects of the project. (3) 122 Provide Technical Review - Implement the review process for the analysts. (4) 132 Produce Annual Report - FY06 annual progress report with Pisces Disseminate (5) 161

  11. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, December 1992--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.; Huang, L.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1993-04-01

    This work is a fundamental study of catalytic pretreatments as a potential preconversion step to low-severity liquefaction. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide the basis for the design of an improved liquefaction process and to facilitate our understanding of those processes that occur when coals are initially dissolved. The main objectives of this project are to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on the subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank and influence of solvent will be examined. We have made significant progress in the following four aspects during this quarterly period: (1) influence of drying and oxidation of coal on the conversion and product distribution in catalytic liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous coal using a dispersed catalyst; (2) spectroscopic characterization of dried and oxidized Wyodak coal and the insoluble residues from catalytic and thermal liquefaction; (3) the structural alteration of low-rank coal in low-severity liquefaction with the emphasis on the oxygen-containing functional groups; and (4) effects of solvents and catalyst dispersion methods in temperature-programmed and non-programmed liquefaction of three low-rank coals.

  12. Short contact time direct coal liquefaction using a novel batch reactor. Quarterly technical progress report, September 15, 1995--January 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.; Huang, He

    1996-01-26

    The objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor (SCTBR) f or coal liquefaction at short contact times (0.01 to 10 minutes or longer). Additional objectives are to study the kinetics of direct coal liquefaction particularly at short reaction times, and to investigate the role of the organic oxygen components of coal and their reaction pathways during liquefaction. Many of those objectives have already been achieved and others are still in progress. This quarterly report covers further progress toward those objectives.

  13. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Ji-Lu Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  14. Reactivity of heteroatom-containing organics during liquefaction of subbituminous coal: Quarterly technical progress report, March 15, 1988-June 15, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Aulich, T.R.; Knudson, C.L.; Hawthorne, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    Deuteration of AO4 liquefaction solvent to an isotopic purity of approximately 99% was accomplished using a teflon-lined Parr bomb reactor. Tubing bomb liquefaction tests were performed using two sets of reaction conditions including coal and AO4, and coal and deuterated AO4. The THF insolubles to be used in testing the stability of the deuterated AO4 under liquefaction conditions were extracted using a Soxhlet apparatus and methylene chloride solvent. A system enabling product slurry distillation directly from the tubing bomb following completion of the liquefaction reaction was designed, constructed, and utilized to recover and quantitate volatile fractions of product slurries. The AO4 solvent was also distilled using the same equipment and procedure. Weighed amounts of eight deuterium-labeled species were added to weighed amounts of both labeled and non-labeled AO4 in preparation for the four remaining tubing bomb tests. 3 figs.

  15. High energy physics research. Final technical report, 1957--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, H.H.

    1995-10-01

    This is the final technical report to the Department of Energy on High Energy Physics at the University of Pennsylvania. It discusses research conducted in the following areas: neutrino astrophysics and cosmology; string theory; electroweak and collider physics; supergravity; cp violation and baryogenesis; particle cosmology; collider detector at Fermilab; the sudbury neutrino observatory; B-physics; particle physics in nuclei; and advanced electronics and detector development.

  16. Joint Technical Architecture for Robotic Systems (JTARS)-Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Holloway, Sidney E., III

    2006-01-01

    This document represents the final report for the Joint Technical Architecture for Robotic Systems (JTARS) project, funded by the Office of Exploration as part of the Intramural Call for Proposals of 2005. The project was prematurely terminated, without review, as part of an agency-wide realignment towards the development of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and meeting the near-term goals of lunar exploration.

  17. Shawmut hydroelectric redevelopment project. Final technical and construction cost report

    SciTech Connect

    1982-08-01

    This report describes the major steps undertaken by the Central Maine Power Company to redevelop an old existing lowhead (19 to 23 ft) hydroelectric station and, at the same time, demonstrate the commercial viability of such a venture. The report addresses the process of site selection, preliminary conceptual design for determining economic viability, licensing and the regulatory process, final design, and project construction with the objective of presenting to the reader a technical and economical guide useful for a similar undertaking.

  18. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) process bench studies with bituminous coal. Final report, [October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE contract during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with the application of coal cleaning methods and solids separation methods to the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. Additionally a predispersed catalyst was evaluated in a thermal/catalytic configuration, and an alternative nickel molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for the CTSL process. Three coals were evaluated in this program: Bituminous Illinois No. 6 Burning Star and Sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The tests involving the Illinois coal are reported herein, and the tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico coals are described in Topical Report No. 1. On the laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects are reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests, such as tests on rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids, and cleaned coals, are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL process are described in the CTSL Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  19. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: Summaries of the final reports produced by Lehigh University, West Virginia University, and Vander Sande Associates under the Participants Program are presented. Analytical data produced by CONSOL are provided in Appendix I for all samples employed in the Participants Program and issued with the samples to research groups in the Participants Program. A paper was presented at the 1992 US Department of Energy Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Liquefaction Contractors' Review Conference, held in Pittsburgh September 23--24, 1992, entitled The Chemical Nature of Coal Liquid Resids and the Implications for Process Development''. It appears as Appendix 2 in this report.

  20. Site Operator technical report. Final report (1992--1996)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The Southern California Edison Company (SCE) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into cooperative agreement No. DE-FC07-91ID13077 on August 23, 1991, which expired on August 3, 1996. This cooperative agreement provided SCE with DOE cofunding for participation in the DOE`s Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Site Operator Program. In return, SCE provided the DOE with quarterly progress reports which include operating and maintenance data for the electric (EVs) vehicles in SCE`s fleet. Herein is SCE`s final report for the 1992 to 1996 agreement period. As of September 1, 1996 the SCE fleet had 65 electric vehicles in service. A total of 578,200 miles had been logged. During the agreement period, SCE sent the DOE a total of 19 technical reports (Appendix B). This report summarizes the technical achievements which took place during a long, productive and rewarding, relationship with the DOE.

  1. Genetic effects of plutonium in Drosophila. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This three year project, initiated in 1987, involved the genetic effects of alpha radiations on Drosophila. This document represents the final technical report. Plutonium residue was used as the alpha source of radon gas. Spontaneous mutation frequency in the Drosophila stock was very low. In the experiments using alpha radiation from radon gas, radiation doses as low as 20R induced significant numbers of mutations, with higher numbers of mutations at higher doses. If X-ray induced mutation frequencies reported in the literature are used for comparison, it can be concluded that alpha radiation from radon gas induces at least 2 to 3 time more mutations in Drosophila.

  2. The SAMPIE flight experimental final technical requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. Barry; Ferguson, Dale C.

    1993-01-01

    The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) is a shuttle based flight experiment scheduled for launch in early 1994. SAMPIE will investigate plasma interactions of high voltage space power systems in low earth orbit. Solar cell modules, representing several technologies, will be biased through a series of high voltages to characterize both arcing and plasma current collection. Other solar modules, specially modified in accordance with current theories of arcing and breakdown, will demonstrate the possibility of arc suppression. Finally, several test modules will be included to study the basic nature of these interactions. The science and technology goals for the project are defined in the Technical Requirements Document (TRD) which is presented here in its final form. The experiment is being developed at NASA LeRC in Cleveland, Ohio, and is sponsored by the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST).

  3. Admiralty Inlet Pilot Tidal Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collar, Craig

    2015-09-14

    This document represents the final report for the Admiralty Inlet Pilot Tidal Project, located in Puget Sound, Washington, United States. The Project purpose was to license, permit, and install a grid-connected deep-water tidal turbine array (two turbines) to be used as a platform to gather operational and environmental data on tidal energy generation. The data could then be used to better inform the viability of commercial tidal energy generation from technical, economic, social, and environmental standpoints. This data would serve as a critical step towards the responsible advancement of commercial scale tidal energy in the United States and around the world. In late 2014, Project activities were discontinued due to escalating costs, and the DOE award was terminated in early 2015. Permitting, licensing, and engineering design activities were completed under this award. Final design, deployment, operation, and monitoring were not completed. This report discusses the results and accomplishments achieved under the subject award.

  4. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units, Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report for period October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Progress reports are presented for: Task 1 management plan; Task 2.1 laboratory support (University of Kentucky/Center for Applied Energy Research); Task 3 continuous operations/parametric studies (Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc.); Task 4.1 process modeling; and Task 4.4 preliminary technical assessment (LDP Associates). Some of the high points for this period are: the activity of the base catalyst prepared by pressure filtration of the Wilsonville Run 262E V-1082 ashy resid was determined and compared with the conversion of coal in the absence of any added catalyst; this material was found to contain 740 mg Mo/kg; in the catalyst screening test, the pressure filtered solids that had been added to the reaction mixture to a level equivalent to the solids contained in Wilsonville Run 263J gave coal conversion of 98.2% with a resid conversion of 24%; and the effect of presulfiding conditions on activating a Mo-impregnated coal with different H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} mixtures at different temperatures and reaction times was investigated.

  5. Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 26, 1990--January 26, 1991: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.

    1991-02-22

    The first task in our proposed study of catalysts for coal liquefaction was to prepare ultrafine dispersed metal sulfide particles by reactive precipitation from solutions of appropriate metal precursors. At this point, equipment to allow us to prepare these air-sensitive materials in an anaerobic environment has been acquired and assembled. Initial experiments aimed at synthesizing iron sulfide particles have been initiated. As part of the investigation of short contact time catalytic coal liquefaction, initial efforts focused on the noncatalytic pyrolysis reactions of coal and a model compound, Dibenzyl ether (DBE). Two different reactor configurations were examined; catalytic experiments are planned for the coming month.

  6. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international collaboration with

  7. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, February 9, 1992--May 8, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-10-01

    An investigation of new methods for the production of iron-pillared clay catalysts and clay-supported iron hydroxyoxide catalysts and the determination of their catalytic activities was continued in this quarter. Previous work in this project showed that a catalyst prepared by adding ferric nitrate and ammonia to an acid-washed clay gave an active catalyst following sulfidation. Further testing of this catalyst with a model compound showed that its hydrocracking activity was considerably lower when used in 10% concentration rather than 50%. In contrast, the mixed iron/alumina pillared clay catalysts were still highly effective at 10% concentration and gave good conversions at one and two hour reaction times. An investigation of preparation methods demonstrated that calcination of both the iron hydroxyoxide-impregnated clay and the mixed iron/alumina pillared clays is essential for activity. High activity was obtained for these catalysts only when they were removed from the aqueous media rapidly, dried, and calcined. The use of ferric sulfate to prepare a clay-supported sulfated iron catalyst was attempted, the resulting catalyst was relatively inactive for hydrocracking. Several new catalysts were synthesized with the idea of decreasing the pillar density and thereby increasing the micropore volume. A zirconia-pillared clay with low pillar density was prepared and intercalated with triiron complex. The hydrocracking activity of this catalyst was somewhat lower than that of the mixed alumina/iron-pillared catalyst. Other new catalysts, that were prepared by first pillaring with an organic ammonium pillaring agent, then introducing a lower number of silica or alumina pillars, and finally the iron component, were also tested. The mixed alumina/iron-pillared catalysts was further tested at low concentration for pyrene hydrogenating and hydrocracking activities.

  8. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, 1 March 1980-31 May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, D; Schweighardt, F K; Givens, E N; Clinton, J H; Tarrer, A R; Guin, J A; Curtis, C W; Huang, S M

    1980-06-01

    This report describes work done in a study of the role of coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. The thermal behavior of various minerals and metallic by-product wastes was evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis in the presence of hydrogen, nitrogen, and air. The CPDU was operated for 220 hours to obtain baseline data and provide information on the catalytic activity of Robena pyrite in solvent hydrogenation and coal liquefaction. A number of minerals were screened for catalytic activity toward coal liquefaction in a tubing-bomb reactor. The catalytic activity of the minerals was assessed by comparing the product distributions both in the presence of minerals and their absence. The use of a Bronson Sonifier was initiated in March to accelerate and improve the solvent separation technique. The addition of lime to the reaction mixture practically killed the liquefaction reaction. The addition of dolomite, rutile, illite, quartz, zircon, and calcite to the reaction mixture showed no significant improvement over that of a no additive run. The addition of zinc oxide and ilmenite showed slight improvement. Robena pyrite and Co-Mo-Al showed significant improvement in coal conversion and production of benzene solubles and gases. Iron oxide (Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/) gave the highest conversion of coal and production of benzene solubles among all the minerals tested so far.

  9. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 1991--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Saini, A.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    Low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals in the subsequent liquefaction. This report describes the progress of our work during the first quarterly period. Substantial progress has been made in the spectroscopic characterization of fresh and THF-extracted samples of two subbituminous coals and fresh samples of three bituminous coals using cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid state {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS techniques. CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS provided important information on carbon distribution/functionality and molecular components/structural units, respectively, for these coal samples. Pyrolysis-GC-MS revealed that there are remarkable structural differences in structural units between the subbituminous coals and the bituminous coals. Furthermore, significant progress has been made in the pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization of catalytically and thermally pretreated as well as physically treated Wyodak subbituminous coal, and temperature-staged and temperature-programmed thermal and catalytic liquefaction of a Montana subbituminous coal.

  10. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction: 2014 State of Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Anderson, Daniel; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2014-07-30

    This report describes the base case yields and operating conditions for converting whole microalgae via hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading to liquid fuels. This serves as the basis against which future technical improvements will be measured.

  11. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensively utilizing a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives database, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings are presented relating the status of air liquefaction technology, both as a singular technical area, and also that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sink; liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices; air collection and enrichment systems (ACES); and technically related engine concepts.

  12. Mathematics Intensive Summer Session (MISS). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    This final technical report appears in two parts: the report for the 1995 summer MISS program and the report for the 1996 summer MISS program. Copies of the US Department of Energy Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program 1995 Entry Form and 1996 Entry Form completed by all participants were sent to the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education in the fall of 1995 and 1996 respectively. Those forms are on file should they be needed. Attached also is a copy of the Summary of ideas for panel discussions, problem-solving sessions, or small group discussions presented at the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program Project Directors Meeting held in San Antonio, TX, November 12--14, 1995.

  13. FERMI@Elettra FEL Design Technical Optimization Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, William; Penn, Gregory; Allaria, Enrico; De Ninno,Giovanni; Graves, William

    2006-07-31

    This is the final report of the FEL Design Group for the Technical Optimization Study for the FERMI{at}ELETTRA project. The FERMI{at}ELETTRA project is based on the principle of harmonic upshifting of an initial ''seed'' signal in a single pass, FEL amplifier employing multiple undulators. There are a number of FEL physics principles which underlie this approach to obtaining short wavelength output: (1) the energy modulation of the electron beam via the resonant interaction with an external laser seed (2) the use of a chromatic dispersive section to then develop a strong density modulation with large harmonic overtones (3) the production of coherent radiation by the microbunched beam in a downstream radiator. Within the context of the FERMI project, we discuss each of these elements in turn.

  14. Kinetics of coal conversion to soluble products. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.W.

    1994-04-12

    The objectives of this work are (1) to measure the kinetics of the conversion of coals to soluble products under model liquefaction conditions using GPS techniques to count the number of bonds broken; (2) to analyze these data using kinetic schemes based on the behavior of crosslinked macromolecular networks. The product was Soxhlet extracted with pyridine until the pyridine solution was clear. A gel permeation chromatogram of the pyridine soluble is shown in Figure 2A. The improved mass sensitive detector system requires only about 500 ng to acquire a chromatogram having fairly good S/N ratio. Apparently, no disturbance is caused by the remaining tetralin and naphthalene formed by dehydrogenation of tetralin. These seriously affect the lower molecular weight region when IR or UV detectors are used. It is a notable advantage of the mass sensitive detector that suitable adjustment of the nebulizer and of the evaporator completely suppressed the contribution of solvent to the chromatogram. The molecular weight distribution of liquefaction product appears to be almost unimodal if the small shoulder at the lower elution volume side is neglected.

  15. Bimetallic promotion of cooperative hydrogen transfer and heteroatom removal in coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, March 1, 1991--May 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Eisch, J.J.

    1991-07-01

    The ultimate objective of this research is to uncover new catalytic processes for the liquefaction of coal and for upgrading coal-derived fuels by removing undesirable organosulfur, organonitrogen and organooxygen constituents. Basic to both the liquefaction of coal and the purification of coal liquids is the transfer of hydrogen from such sources as dihydrogen, metal hydrides or partially reduced aromatic hydrocarbons to the extensive aromatic rings in coal itself or to aromatic sulfides, amines or ethers. Accordingly, this study is exploring how such crucial hydrogen-transfer processes might be catalyzed by soluble, low-valent transition metal complexes and/or Lewis acids under moderate conditions of temperature and pressure. By learning the mechanism whereby H{sub 2}, metal hydrides or partially hydrogenated aromatics do transfer hydrogen to model aromatic compounds, with the aid of homogeneous, bimetallic catalysts, we hope to identify new methods for producing superior fuels from coal.

  16. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Huang, L.; Schobert, H.H.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1994-01-01

    In this quarter, progress has been made in the following two aspects: (1) spectroscopic and chemical reaction studies on the effects of drying and mild oxidation of a Wyodak subbituminous coal on its structure and pretreatment/liquefaction at 350{degrees}C; and (2) effects of dispersed catalyst and solvent on conversion and structural changes of a North Dakota lignite. Drying and oxidation of Wyodak subbituminous coal at 100-150{degrees}C have been shown to have significant effects on its structure and on its catalytic and non-catalytic low-severity liquefaction at 350{degrees}C for 30 min under 6.9 MPa H{sub 2}. Spectroscopic analyses using solid-state {sup 13}C NMR, Pyrolysis-GC-MS, and FT-IR revealed that oxidative drying at 100-150{degrees}C causes the transformation of phenolics and catechol into other related structures (presumably via condensation) and high-severity air drying at 150{degrees}C for 20 h leads to disappearance of catechol-like structure. Increasing air drying time or temperature increases oxidation to form more oxygen functional groups at the expense of aliphatic carbons. Such a clearly negative impact of severe oxidation is considered to arise from significantly increased oxygen functionality which enhances the cross-link formation in the early stage of coal liquefaction. Physical, chemical, and surface physicochemical aspects of drying and oxidation and the role of water are also discussed. A North Dakota lignite (DECS-1) coal was studied for its behaviors in non-catalytic and catalytic liquefaction. Reactions were carried out at temperatures between 250 and 450{degrees}C. Regardless the reaction solvents and the catalyst being used, the optimum temperature was found to be 400{degrees}C. The donor solvent has a significant effect over the conversion especially at temperatures higher than 350{degrees}C.

  17. Optimization of reactor configuration in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.M.

    1992-12-01

    This quarterly report covers activities of optimization of Reactor Configuration in Coal Liquefaction during the period July 1--September 30, 1992, at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. in Lawrenceville and Princeton, New Jersey. This DOE contract period is from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1993. The overall objective of the program is to achieve a new approach to liquefaction that generates an all distillates product slate at reduced cost of about $25 per barrel of crude oil equivalent. The quarterly report covers work on Laboratory Support, Laboratory Scale Operations, Technical Assessment, and Project Management.

  18. Catalysts and process developments for two-stage liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, First quarter FY 1989 (October 1--December 31, 1988)

    SciTech Connect

    Cronauer, D.C.; Evans, A.J.; Furlong, M.W.; Sajkowski, D.J.

    1989-12-31

    Amoco under contract to the United States Department of Energy is developing and evaluating catalysts and process improvements for coal liquefaction in the two-stage close-coupled catalytic process. Task 1 calling for the preparation of a detailed project management plan was completed. A microautoclave system has been assembled for measuring solvent quality and should be operational under Task 2 next quarter. Under Task 3.1 feedstock coals and solvents have been acquired or ordered for the liquefaction tests. Beneficiation of a bulk sample of an Illinois No. 6 coal will be done at Hazen Research, Inc. to produce a low ash feed for liquefaction tests. Martin Lake lignite samples were beneficiated in laboratory-scale units by sink/float methods at Pennsylvania State University with mixed results. Further tests are planned on samples that are treated with sulfur dioxide to remove exchangeable metals in the coal. Under Tasks 3.2.1 and 3.2.2. catalysts preparations have begun. High surface area ceria samples will be used for preparing new catalyst supports. Chromium promoted AMOCAT{trademark}-1C samples were prepared and characterized for testing as second-state catalysts. Future work will include running base line tests of each coal feedstock and solvent. Catalyst testing will begin in the five-parallel fixed-bed reactor system next quarter. These tests will be used to screen second-stage catalysts and to identify potential first-stage catalyst candidates.

  19. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, June 1, 1980-August 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, D; Givens, E N; Schweighardt, F K; Clinton, J H; Tarrer, A R; Guin, J A; Curtis, C W; Huang, W J; Shridharani, K

    1980-09-01

    Additional data on the pyrite catalysis of liquefaction of Elkhorn number 3 coal are presented. The liquefaction of Elkhorn number 3 coal was significantly catalyzed by the presence of pyrite. Coal conversion, oil yield and preasphaltene conversion all increased when pyrite was added. An increase in hydrocarbon gas make accompanied by a higher hydrogen consumption were also observed. The higher activity in the presence of pyrite could be utilized by running the liquefaction step at milder conditions which would mean a lower gas make. Although we had heard reports that sulfur elimination from the SRC was improved by use of pyrite, our data showed only very small changes. Nitrogen removal from the solvent, however, was definitely observed. At 850/sup 0/F nitrogen in the oil product went from 1.61 to 1.12 on adding pyrite. This increased nitrogen removal was also seen in the added ammonia yields. Kentucky number 9 coal also responded very well to the presence of pyrite. Conversions and oil yields increased while the hydrocarbon yields decreased at both temperatures that were tested, i.e., 825 and 850/sup 0/F. Hydrogen consumptions also increased. In the screening program the results from testing a number of materials are reported. None of the zeolites gave any significant improvement over coal itself. The iron, molybdenum, nickel, and cobalt rich materials had significant activity, all 85 to 90% conversion with high oil yields.Among materials specifically reported this period the clays failed to show any significant catalytic effect.

  20. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Robbins; R. A. Winschel; S. D. Brandes

    1998-06-09

    CONSOL characterized 38 process strea m samples from HTI Run PB- 04, in which Black Thunder Mine Coal, Hondo vacuum resid, autom obile shredder residue (ASR), and virgin plastics were used as liquefaction feedstocks with dispersed catalyst. A paper on kinetic modeling of resid reactivity was presented at the DOE Coal Lique -faction and Solid Fuels Contractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, i n Pittsburgh, PA. The paper, "The Reactivity of Direct Coal Liquefaction Resids", i s appended (Appendix 1). Three papers on characterization of samples from coal/ resid/ waste p lastics co- liquefaction were presented or submitted for presen tation at conferences. Because of their similarity, only one of the papers is appended to this report. The paper, "Characterization o f Process Samples From Co- Liquefaction of Coal and Waste Polymers", (Appendix 2) was presented at the DOE Coal Liquefaction and Solid Fuels C ontractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, in Pittsburgh, PA. The paper, "Characterization of Process Stream Samples From Bench- Scale Co -Liquefaction Runs That Utilized Waste Polymers as Feedstocks" was presented at the 214th National Meeting of the Ameri can Chemical Society, September 7- 11, 1997, in Las Vegas, NV. The paper, "Characterization of Process Oils from Coal/ Waste Co- Liquefaction" wa s submitted for presentation at the 14th Japan/ U. S. Joint Technical Meeting on Coa l Liquefaction and Materials for Coal Liquefaction on October 28, 1997, in Tokyo, Japan. A joint Burns and Roe Services Corp. and CONSOL pap er on crude oil assays of product oils from HTI Run PB- 03 was presented at the DOE Coal Liquefaction and Solid Fuel s Contractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, in Pittsburgh, PA. The paper , "Characterization of Liquid Products from All- Slurry Mode Liquefaction", is appende d (Appendix 3).

  1. Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Final report, September 20, 1991--September 19, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    One of the main goals for competitive coal liquefaction is to decrease gas yields to reduce hydrogen consumption. Complexing this element as methane and ethane decreases process efficiently and is less cost effective. To decrease the gas yield and increase the liquid yield, an effective preconversion process has been explored on the basis of the physically associated molecular nature of coal. Activities have been focused on two issues: (1) maximizing the dissolution of associated coal and (2) defining the different reactivity associated with a wide molecular weight distribution. Two-step soaking at 350{degrees}C and 400{degrees}C in a recycle oil was found to be very effective for coal solubilization. No additional chemicals, catalysts, and hydrogen are required for this preconversion process. High-volatile bituminous coals tested before liquefaction showed 80--90% conversion with 50--55% oil yields. New preconversion steps suggested are as follows: (1) dissolution of coal with two-step high-temperature soaking, (2) separation into oil and heavy fractions of dissolved coal with vacuum distillation, and (3) selective liquefaction of the separated heavy fractions under relatively mild conditions. Laboratory scale tests of the proposed procedure mode using a small autoclave showed a 30% increase in the oil yield with a 15--20% decrease in the gas yield. This batch operation projects a substantial reduction in the ultimate cost of coal liquefaction.

  2. [Enhancement of coal liquefaction efficiency with ceramic membrane reactors]. Second final quarterly report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    In this quarter, the gas chromatography GC calibrations of compound No. 9, No. 11 and toluene were established. The results were accurate and reproducible using wide bore capillary column. A three-component mixture -- toluene, tetraline and compound No. 9 --also could be analyzed with a modified injection procedure. The experimental procedures of modified membrane separation were finalized based on the literature review. The coal-liquid separation could be described as an ultrafiltration process. For microporous membrane separation, two transport phenomenons, molecular diffusion and convection, were the most important mechanisms. The hindrance factors of those mechanisms were necessary to evaluate the separation performance of the membrane and to design the catalytic membrane reactor. Experimentally, with the relation of rejection and permeate flux, the hindrance factors can be calculated based on the simplified Niemi-Palosaari method. In this quarter, we first tested the 40{Angstrom} pore membrane. The preliminary results indicated that the concentration polarization was observed due to the low Reynolds number, i.e. low feed flow rate. The experimental instrumentation and procedures will be improved in the future. These factors will be used to conduct the modification of the membrane and the catalytic membrane reactor. The model compound for catalytic membrane was compound No. 9, 1-[4-[2(Phenylethyl) benzyl

  3. Herbert Easterly auxiliary truck heater. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-09

    The objective of this work was to continue the development of the Herbert Easterly heater apparatus for vehicles, such as semi-trailer tractors in order to fully establish its technical feasibility and provide the basis for its commercialization. This heater is auxiliary to the vehicle`s primary heating system. With the engine off it heats both the vehicle engine to a temperature at which it starts easily and the vehicle passenger compartment. Specifically, this heater is automatically ignitable, operates directly from the vehicle diesel fuel supply and preheats the vehicle engine fuel prior to combustion. During the course of this work nine different versions of prototype heaters were designed, constructed and tested. All designs were based on the ideas and principles outlined in the Easterly patent. Each successive version incorporated design and fabrication improvements relative to the previous version. The final version, Prototype 9, utilized a multiple water jacket design to capture additional heat from the combustion gases prior to exhausting to the atmosphere. This final prototype exceeded the performance of a commercially available Webasto DBW-2010 using the same commercial burner as the one used in the Webasto unit. The time required to raise the heater fluid temperature by 120{degree}F was 23% less (20 minutes compared to 26 minutes) for Prototype 9 compared to the commercially available unit. In addition a prototype heat exchanger for preheating engine fuel was designed, fabricated and tested. It was also determined that the Prototype 9 auxiliary heater could operate at 85{degree}F for approximately 6 hours on a fully charged 12 volt marine battery rated to deliver 500 cold cranking amps.

  4. AISI waste oxide recycling program. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Aukrust, E.; Downing, K.B.; Sarma, B.

    1995-08-01

    In March 1995 AISI completed a five-year, $60 million collaborative development program on Direct Steelmaking cost-shared by DOE under the Metals Initiative. This program defined an energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly technology to produce hot metal for steelmaking directly from coal and iron ore pellets without incurring the high capital costs and environmental problems associated with traditional coke oven and blast furnace technology. As it becomes necessary to replace present capacity, this new technology will be favored because of reduced capital costs, higher energy efficiency, and lower operating costs. In April 1994, having failed to move forward with a demonstration plant for direct ironmaking, despite substantial efforts by both Stelco and Geneva Steel, an alternative opportunity was sought to commercialize this new technology without waiting until existing ironmaking capacity needed to be replaced. Recycling and resource recovery of steel plant waste oxides was considered an attractive possibility. This led to approval of a ten-month, $8.3 million joint program with DOE on recycling steel plant waste oxides utilizing this new smelting technology. This highly successful trial program was completed in December 1994. The results of the pilot plant work and a feasibility study for a recycling demonstration plant are presented in this final technical report.

  5. Final Technical Report - Kotzebue Wind Power Project - Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Rana Zucchi, Global Energy Concepts, LLC; Brad Reeve, Kotzebue Electric Association; DOE Project Officer - Doug Hooker

    2007-10-31

    The Kotzebue Wind Power Project is a joint undertaking of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); Kotzebue Electric Association (KEA); and the Alaska Energy Authority (AEA). The goal of the project is to develop, construct, and operate a wind power plant interconnected to a small isolated utility grid in an arctic climate in Northwest Alaska. The primary objective of KEA’s wind energy program is to bring more affordable electricity and jobs to remote Alaskan communities. DOE funding has allowed KEA to develop a multi-faceted approach to meet these objectives that includes wind project planning and development, technology transfer, and community outreach. The first wind turbines were installed in the summer of 1997 and the newest turbines were installed in the spring of 2007. The total installed capacity of the KEA wind power project is 1.16 MW with a total of 17 turbines rated between 65 kW and 100 kW. The operation of the wind power plant has resulted in a wind penetration on the utility system in excess of 35% during periods of low loads. This document and referenced attachments are presented as the final technical report for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant agreement DE-FG36-97GO10199. Interim deliverables previously submitted are also referenced within this document and where reasonable to do so, specific sections are incorporated in the report or attached as appendices.

  6. Final Technical Report - Kotzebue Wind Power Porject - Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Rana Zucchi, Global Energy Concepts, LLC; Brad Reeve, Kotzebue Electric Association; DOE Project Officer - Doug Hooker

    2007-10-26

    The Kotzebue Wind Power Project is a joint undertaking of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); Kotzebue Electric Association (KEA); and the Alaska Energy Authority (AEA). The goal of the project is to develop, construct, and operate a wind power plant interconnected to a small isolated utility grid in an arctic climate in Northwest Alaska. The primary objective of KEA’s wind energy program is to bring more affordable electricity and jobs to remote Alaskan communities. DOE funding has allowed KEA to develop a multi-faceted approach to meet these objectives that includes wind project planning and development, technology transfer, and community outreach. The first wind turbines were installed in the summer of 1997 and the newest turbines were installed in the spring of 2007. The total installed capacity of the KEA wind power project is 1.16 MW with a total of 17 turbines rated between 65 kW and 100 kW. The operation of the wind power plant has resulted in a wind penetration on the utility system in excess of 35% during periods of low loads. This document and referenced attachments are presented as the final technical report for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant agreement DE-FG36-97GO10199. Interim deliverables previously submitted are also referenced within this document and where reasonable to do so, specific sections are incorporated in the report or attached as appendices.

  7. Energy-related inventions program invention 637. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The final technical report for the Pegasus plow, a stalk and root embedding apparatus, describes progress from the development stage to the product support stage. The US Department of Agriculture - Agriculture Research Service (ARS) is now in the second year of a three year study comparing the Pegasus to conventional tillage. So far, no downside has been with the Pegasus and the following benefits have been documented: (1) Energy savings of 65.0 kilowatt hours per hectare over conventional tillage. This is when the Pegasus plow is used to bury whole stalks, and represents a 70% savings over conventional tillage (92.5 kilowatt hours per hectare). (2) Four to seven fewer passes of tillage, depending on the particular situation. This represents a substantial time savings to farmers. (3) So far, no differences in cotton yields. Recent cotton boll counts in one study indicate a higher yield potential with the Pegasus. (4) No disease problems. (5) Significantly higher levels of organic matter in the soil. A hypothesis of the study is that whole stalk burial may reduce plant disease problems. This hypothesis has not yet been proven. (6) Significantly higher levels of nitrate nitrogen. Total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen trended higher but were not significantly different. This shows that whole stalk burial does not adversely affect the nitrogen cycle in the soil and may actually improve it. The marketing support stage of the project is also described in the report.

  8. Inventors Center of Michigan Technical Assessment Program. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The Technical Assessment Program at the Inventors Center of Michigan is designed to provide independent inventors with a reliable assessment of the technical merits of their proposed inventions. Using faculty from within Ferris State University`s College of Technology an assessment process examines the inventor`s assumptions, documentation, and prototypes, as well as, reviewing patent search results and technical literature to provide the inventor with a written report on the technical aspects of the proposed invention. The forms for applying for a technical assessment of an invention are included.

  9. 10 CFR 52.79 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report. 52.79 Section 52.79 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.79 Contents of applications; technical information in final...

  10. Coal liquefaction process

    SciTech Connect

    Minami, R.; Hosoi, T.; Kanou, T.; Okamura, S.; Sunami, Y.

    1984-03-20

    A coal liquefaction process and apparatus therefor are disclosed. According to this invention, a finely divided coal slurry and a solvent are contacted with molecular hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst, the slurry is separated into a gaseous component, a liquid component and a solid residue, the solid residue (which is the liquefaction residue) is then supplied to a molten metal bath together with oxygen gas to generate a gas entraining fine powdery solids, and the thus recovered fine powdery solids are returned to the liquefaction process as a catalyst.

  11. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.; Yeh, Chung-Liang; Donath, Ernest E.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  12. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  13. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  14. Final Technical/Scientific Report: Commodity Scale Thermostable Enzymatic Transformations

    SciTech Connect

    James J. Lalonde; Brian Davison

    2003-08-30

    The conversion of corn starch to high fructose corn-syrup sweetener is a commodity process, producing over 3 billion kg/y. In the last step of the process, an enzyme catalyst is used to convert glucose to the much sweeter sugar fructose. Due to incomplete conversion in the last step, the syrup must be purified using a chromatographic separation technique, which results in equal quantities of water being added to the syrup, and finally the water must be evaporated (up to 1 lb of water/lb of syrup). We have estimated the energy requirement in the evaporation step to be on the order of 13 billion BTU's/y. This process inefficiency could be eliminated if a thermostable form of glucose isomerase (GI), the enzyme catalyst used in the final step, was developed. Our chosen strategy was to develop an immobilized form of the enzyme in which the protein is first crystallized and then chemically cross-linked to form an insoluble particle. This so-called cross-linked enzyme crystal (CLE C(reg. sign)) technology had been shown to be a powerful method for enzyme stabilization for several other protein catalysts. In this work we have developed more than 30 CLEC preparations of glucose isomerase and tested them for activity and stability. We found these preparations to be highly active, with a 10-50 fold rate per gram of catalyst increase over existing commercial catalysts. The initial rates were also higher at higher temperatures as expected, however the efficiency of the CLEC GI preparations unexpectedly rapidly decreased to a low constant value with use at the higher temperatures. At this point, the source of this activity loss is unclear, however during this loss, the catalyst is found to form a solid mass indicating either breakage of the chemical cross-links or simple aggregation of the particles. It is likely that the increased mass transfer resistance due to this agglomeration is a major component of the activity loss. This research suggests that one potentially beneficial

  15. NTRCI Legacy Engine Research and Development Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Holbert, Connie; Petrolino, Joseph; Watkins, Bart; Irick, David

    2011-12-31

    The Legacy engine is a completely new design, transitional diesel engine, replacing the reciprocating engine with a rotary engine. The Legacy engine offers significant advances over conventional internal combustion engines in 1) power to weight ratio; 2) multiple fuel acceptance; 3) fuel economy; and 4) environmental compliance. These advances are achieved through a combination of innovative design geometry, rotary motion, aspiration simplicity, and manufacturing/part simplicity. The key technical challenge to the Legacy engine's commercialization, and the focus of this project, was the development of a viable roton tip seal. The PST concept for the roton tip seal was developed into a manufacturable design. The design was evaluated using a custom designed and fabricated seal test fixture and further refined. This design was incorporated into the GEN2.5A prototype and tested for achievable compression pressure. The Decision Point at the end of Phase 1 of the project (described below) was to further optimize the existing tip seal design. Enhancements to the tip seal design were incorporated into the GEN2.5B prototype and tested and evaluated using the iterative research strategy described below. Compression pressures adequate for compression ignition of diesel fuel were achieved, although not consistently in all combustion volumes. The variation in compression pressures was characterized versus design features. As the roton tip seal performance was improved, results pointed toward inadequate performance of the housing side seals. Enhancement of the housing side seal system was accomplished using a custom designed side seal test fixture. The design enhancements developed with the test fixture were also incorporated into the GEN2.5B prototype and tested and evaluated using the iterative research strategy described below. Finally, to simplify the requirements for the roton tip seals and to enhance the introduction and combustion of fuel, a flush-mount fuel injector was

  16. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-12-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE {number_sign}FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0{sub 2} absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0{sub 2} absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m{sub 2}/m{sub 3}. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m{sub 2}, gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m{sub 2}, and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  17. Florida Study of Career and Technical Education. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Louis; Mokher, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A key goal of the "Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006" ("Perkins IV") is to ensure career and technical education (CTE) programs are widely available for preparing high school and college students for "high skill, high wage, or high demand occupations in current or emerging professions"…

  18. Ultrasonically assisted liquefaction of lignocellulosic materials.

    PubMed

    Kunaver, Matjaž; Jasiukaitytė, Edita; Cuk, Nataša

    2012-01-01

    In our research, we have utilized high energy ultrasound for the liquefaction of different lignocellulosic materials, wood wastes in particular. We developed a highly efficient way of transforming this biomass waste into valuable chemicals. It was found, that the reaction yield in all experiments was high and that the reaction times were shortened up to nine times when using the ultrasound process with smaller residual particles and with no influence on the hydroxyl number of the final products. The use of the ultrasound process inhibits the formation of the large molecular structures during the liquefaction from the degradation products, by keeping the reactive segments apart and due to such a short reaction time being used. The short reaction time and subsequent low energy consumption for the liquefaction reaction leads to the creation of the new method for the transformation of the wood waste materials into valuable chemicals. PMID:22029956

  19. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Schindler, Harvey D.; Chen, James M.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  20. Coal Liquefaction Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at the University of Southern California on coal liquefaction processes. Lecture topics and course requirements are discussed. A 64-item bibliography of papers used in place of a textbook is included. (BT)

  1. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    The coal liquefaction process disclosed uses three stages. The first stage is a liquefaction. The second and third stages are hydrogenation stages at different temperatures and in parallel or in series. One stage is within 650.degree.-795.degree. F. and optimizes solvent production. The other stage is within 800.degree.-840.degree. F. and optimizes the C.sub.5 -850.degree. F. product.

  2. Integrated coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Effron, Edward

    1978-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of coal in which coal liquids containing phenols and other oxygenated compounds are produced during the liquefaction step and later hydrogenated, oxygenated compounds are removed from at least part of the coal liquids in the naphtha and gas oil boiling range prior to the hydrogenation step and employed as a feed stream for the manufacture of a synthesis gas or for other purposes.

  3. Advanced Hydrogen Liquefaction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Kromer, Brian; Neu, Ben; Jankowiak, Jerome; Barrett, Philip; Drnevich, Raymond

    2011-09-28

    The project identified and quantified ways to reduce the cost of hydrogen liquefaction, and reduce the cost of hydrogen distribution. The goal was to reduce the power consumption by 20% and then to reduce the capital cost. Optimizing the process, improving process equipment, and improving ortho-para conversion significantly reduced the power consumption of liquefaction, but by less than 20%. Because the efficiency improvement was less than the target, the program was stopped before the capital cost was addressed. These efficiency improvements could provide a benefit to the public to improve the design of future hydrogen liquefiers. The project increased the understanding of hydrogen liquefaction by modeling different processes and thoroughly examining ortho-para separation and conversion. The process modeling provided a benefit to the public because the project incorporated para hydrogen into the process modeling software, so liquefaction processes can be modeled more accurately than using only normal hydrogen. Adding catalyst to the first heat exchanger, a simple method to reduce liquefaction power, was identified, analyzed, and quantified. The demonstrated performance of ortho-para separation is sufficient for at least one identified process concept to show reduced power cost when compared to hydrogen liquefaction processes using conventional ortho-para conversion. The impact of improved ortho-para conversion can be significant because ortho para conversion uses about 20-25% of the total liquefaction power, but performance improvement is necessary to realize a substantial benefit. Most of the energy used in liquefaction is for gas compression. Improvements in hydrogen compression will have a significant impact on overall liquefier efficiency. Improvements to turbines, heat exchangers, and other process equipment will have less impact.

  4. Final Technical Report Advanced Solar Resource Modeling and Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Clifford

    2015-12-01

    The SunShot Initiative coordinates research, development, demonstration, and deployment activities aimed at dramatically reducing the total installed cost of solar power. The SunShot Initiative focuses on removing critical technical and non-technical barriers to installing and integrating solar energy into the electricity grid. Uncertainty in projected power and energy production from solar power systems contributes to these barriers by increasing financial risks to photovoltaic (PV) deployment and by exacerbating the technical challenges to integration of solar power on the electricity grid.

  5. Control of catalytic hydrotreating selectivity with ammonia. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Satterfield, C.N.; Lee, C.; Gultekin, S.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of control of product selectivity in the hydroprocessing of coal liquids and related substances by adding small amounts of ammonia. Quinoline was used in this study and in many others as representative of heterocyclic N compounds found in coal liquids. Coal liquids also contain hydroxy pyridines, but by studies with 8-OH quinoline, a representative compound (Part I), we demonstrated that the OH group was rapidly removed at the beginning of reaction to form quinoline, which reacted in the same manner as quinoline fed as such. In Part II we showed that in a mixture of naphthalene and quinoline, with the addition of ammonia there is an operating region in which complete HDN of quinoline can be achieved, but with greater conversion of naphthalene to tetralin instead of to decalin than was the case in the absence of added ammonia. This is of some significance to coal liquefaction since tetralin is a good hydrogen donor, but decalin is not. In Part III we showed that NH{sub 3} addition to a mixture of quinoline and phenanthrene provides an operating region where complete HDN of quinoline can be achieved with reduced formation of hydrogenated phenanthrenes and cracking to biphenyl. Part IV, a study of the hydrodeoxygenation (DHO) of dibenzofuran in the presence of naphthalene, showed that NH{sub 3} strongly inhibits HDO reactions and its effects on naphthalene here were much the same as in Part II. In Part V it was demonstrated that in the hydrotreating of propylbenzene, the addition of ammonia increased the selectivity towards ring hydrogenation (generally desired for reformulated motor fuels) and away from dealkylation (generally undesired), but the overall reaction rate at a fixed temperature drops substantially.

  6. Identification and classification of technical specification problems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bizzak, D.J.; Stella, M.E.; Stukus, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    This report describes a methodology for a systematic review of nuclear plant technical specifications problems. Operating personnel conducted a line-by-line examination of the LaSalle Station technical specifications creating a computerized database of problems, categorized as to their cause, effect, and recommendations for resolving the problems. Some 102 technical specifications problems were identified. Results indicated that the predominant type of problem was inappropriate limiting conditions for operation. The ECCS and containment systems had the largest number of problem technical specifications. The most significant effect was extension of outage lengths. It was estimated that risk-based evaluations would help to justify desirable changes in some 40% of the problems. Both the methodology and the LaSalle database are detailed in the report. 9 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. [Quarterly] technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Huang, L.; Saini, A.K.; Schobert, H.H.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1993-07-01

    In this quarter, progress has been made in the following two aspects: (1) effects of drying and mild oxidation on conversion and product distribution during non-catalytic and catalytic liquefaction of a Montana subbituminous coal (DECS-9); and (2) effects of solvent and catalyst on conversion and structural changes of a Texas subbituminous coal (DECS-1). Influence of drying and mild oxidation on catalytic and non-catalytic liquefaction (at 350C for 30 min with 6.9 MPa (cold) H{sub 2} was studied using Wyodak subbituminous coal. For non-catalytic runs, fresh raw coal gave higher conversion and higher oil yield than both the vacuum- and air-dried coals, regardless of the solvent. Compared to the vacuum-dried coal, the coal dried in air in 100C for 2 h gave a better conversion in the presence of either a hydrogen donor tetralin or a non-donor 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) solvent. Catalytic runs were performed using in-situ generated molybdenum sulfide catalyst from ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATTM) precursor impregnated on either raw coal or predried coal samples. The solvent-free runs using ATTM loaded on the raw coal gave higher conversion and higher oil yield than loading ATTM on vacuum- or air-dried coal. In the presence of either tetralin or 1-MN, however, the runs using ATTM loaded on air-dried coal afford better conversions and oil yields as compared to the runs using vacuum-dried coal. Upon drying coal in air at 150C for 20 h, the conversion significantly decreased to a lower value than that of the vacuum-dried coal in the non-catalytic runs, and the same trend was observed in the runs of the dried coals loaded with ATTM. Physical, chemical, and surface chemical aspects of effects of drying and oxidation and the role of water are also discussed in the report.

  8. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.A.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1994-02-01

    In this quarter, progress has been made in the following two aspects: The influences of temperature, dispersed Mo catalyst, and solvent on the liquefaction conversion and composition of products from low-rank coals; and the hydrous pyrolysis of a lignite and spectroscopic characterization of its structural transformation during the hydrous pyrolysis. The analytical work described in this quarter also represents molecular-level characterization of products. The purpose of the first part of the work described in this quarter is to study the influences of temperature, solvent and dispersed Mo catalyst on the liquefaction conversion and chemical composition of the products. Many specialty chemicals, including one- to four-ring aromatics, could potentially be produced by liquefying coal. To achieve this goal, not only a high coal conversion but also a desirable product distribution is necessary. Therefore, it is of great importance to understand the structural changes of the coal during reaction and to investigate the conditions under which the aliphatics or aromatics can be removed from the macromolecular structure of coal. This quarterly report also describes the hydrous pyrolysis of Potapsco lignite and spectroscopic characterization of its structural transformation during the hydrous pyrolysis. This work has some implications both on the structural changes of low-rank coals during pretreatment and on the geochemical reactions during coalification stage. Vitrinite, a major component of most coals, is derived from degraded wood in ancient peat swamps. Organic geochemical studies conducted on a series of coalified wood samples derived mostly from gymnosperms have allowed the development of a chemical reaction series to characterize the major coalification reactions which lignin, the major coal-producing component of wood, undergoes.

  9. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, December 1, 1979-February 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, D; Givens, E N; Clinton, J H; Tarrer, A R; Guin, J A; Curtis, C W; Huang, S M

    1980-03-01

    This report describes work done in study of the role of coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Samples of Elkhorn No. 3 coal (Letcher County, Kentucky), Robena pyrite and several minerals and metallic by-product waste were acquired. The thermal behavior of various minerals and metallic by-product wastes was evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) in the presence of hydrogen, nitrogen and air. The coal process development unit was operated for 220 hours to obtain baseline data and provide information on the catalytic activity of Robena pyrite in solvent hydrogenation and coal liquefaction. We established that the base line reaction conditions to evaluate the activity of the various minerals, metallic wastes and by-products will be a tubing-bomb reactor of 46.3 ml volume at a reaction temperature of 450/sup 0/C for reaction times of 60 minutes. The reduced pyrite, Robena pyrite and Siniola Mexico pyrite were found to give similar product distribution and coal conversion. The oil production in the cases of reduced pyrite and pyrite was 4 times higher than that of no-catalyst run. Iron oxide (Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/) was shown to give slightly higher coal conversion and oil production that pyrites and reduced pyrite. Presulfided Co-Mo-Al was found to give the highest coal conversion and oil production. The increase in oil production in the case of Co-Mo-Al was due to the conversion of both asphaltenes and preasphaltenes.

  10. Final Technical Report: Hydrogen Codes and Standards Outreach

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Karen I.

    2007-05-12

    This project contributed significantly to the development of new codes and standards, both domestically and internationally. The NHA collaborated with codes and standards development organizations to identify technical areas of expertise that would be required to produce the codes and standards that industry and DOE felt were required to facilitate commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and infrastructure. NHA staff participated directly in technical committees and working groups where issues could be discussed with the appropriate industry groups. In other cases, the NHA recommended specific industry experts to serve on technical committees and working groups where the need for this specific industry expertise would be on-going, and where this approach was likely to contribute to timely completion of the effort. The project also facilitated dialog between codes and standards development organizations, hydrogen and fuel cell experts, the government and national labs, researchers, code officials, industry associations, as well as the public regarding the timeframes for needed codes and standards, industry consensus on technical issues, procedures for implementing changes, and general principles of hydrogen safety. The project facilitated hands-on learning, as participants in several NHA workshops and technical meetings were able to experience hydrogen vehicles, witness hydrogen refueling demonstrations, see metal hydride storage cartridges in operation, and view other hydrogen energy products.

  11. Direct liquefaction Proof-of-Concept Program, Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, New Jersey. Final topical report, Bench Run 02 (227-91)

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, T.L.K.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Popper, G.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of Bench Run PB-02, conducted under the DOE Proof of Concept - Bench Option Program in direct coal liquefaction at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. Bench Run PB-02 was the second of the nine runs planned in the POC Bench Option Contract between the U.S. DOE and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. The primary goal of this bench run was to evaluate the hybrid catalyst system, consisting of a dispersed slurry catalyst in one of the hydroconversion reactors and conventional supported extrudate catalyst in the other hydroconversion reactor, in a high-low two-stage temperature sequence, similar to the one operated at Wilsonville. This hybrid mode of operation with the high-low temperature sequence was studied during direct liquefaction of coal and in coprocessing of coal with Hondo resid and/or waste plastics under high space velocity operating conditions. Another important objective of Bench Run PB-02 was to investigate the novel {open_quotes}interstage internal recycle{close_quotes} of the second stage reactor slurry back to the first stage reactor. Other features of PB-02 included the use of an interstage separator and an in-line fixed bed hydrotreater. In general, it was found during Bench Run PB-02 that the {open_quote}hybrid type{close_quote} catalyst system was not effective for obtaining high levels of process performance as the {open_quote}all dispersed{close_quote} catalyst system, tested earlier, especially at high coal space velocities. The interstage internal recycle of second stage reactor slurry to the first stage reactor feed line was found to improve cracking of liquefaction products. The addition of small amounts of mixed plastics was found to improve the hydrogen utilization in both coal conversion and heavy oil hydrocracking reactions, i.e., plastics resulted in improving the overall distillate yield while at the same time reducing the light gas make and chemical hydrogen consumption.

  12. Final Technical Report DOE/GO/13142-1

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Mulvihill; Quang Nguyen

    2010-09-15

    This research adds to the understanding of the areas of residual starch and biomass conversion to alcohol, by providing data from pilot plant equipment of larger scale than the minimum required to give commercially scalable data. Instrumentation and control is in place to capture the information produced, for economic and technical evaluation. The impact of rheology, recycle streams, and residence time distributions on the technical and economic performance can be assessed. Various processes can be compared technically and economically because the pilot plants are readily modifiable. Several technologies for residual starch yield improvement have been identified, implemented, and patent applications filed. Various biomass-to-ethanol processes have been compared and one selected for technical optimization and commercialization. The technical and economic feasibility of the current simplified biomass conversion process is being confirmed by intensive pilot plant efforts as of this writing. Optimization of the feedstock handling and pretreatment is occurring to increase the alcohol yield above the minimum commercially viable level already demonstrated. Samples of biomass residue and reactor blowdown condensate are being collected to determine the technical and economic performance of the high-water-recycle waste treatment system being considered for the process. The project is of benefit to the public because it is advancing the efforts to achieve low-cost fermentable substrates for conversion to transportation fuels. This process combines the hydrolysis of agricultural residues with novel enzymes and organisms to convert the sugars released to transportation fuels. The process development is taking place at a scale allowing commercial development to proceed at a rapid pace.

  13. A Technical Index of Interactive Information Systems. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Dennis W.; And Others

    The technical features and operational status of interactive information systems, i.e. those providing a conversational usage mode to a non-programer through a data terminal device, are reviewed. The review is designed to aid information specialists in the state-of-the-art assessments preparatory to a detailed system selection procedure. It…

  14. Technical report, Onondaga Lake, New York. Main report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This technical report on Onondaga Lake, New York has compiled existing data to determine which water quality and environmental enhancements are advisable. The report identifies sediment and water quality problems and needs, potential clean-up methodologies, fisheries and fish habitat improvements, and water quality improvements.

  15. Onondaga Lake, New York. Technical annex. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This technical report on Onondaga Lake, New York has compiled existing data to determine which water quality and environmental enhancements are advisable. The report identifies sediment and water quality problems and needs, potential clean-up methodologies, fisheries and fish habitat improvements, and water quality improvements.

  16. Modular Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Program. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Section 2.0 of this report summarizes the MOD-RTG reference flight design, and Section 3.0 discusses the Ground Demonstration System design. Multicouple technology development is discussed in Section 4.0, and Section 5.0 lists all published technical papers prepared during the course of the contract.

  17. Word Lists to Simplify Vocabulary of Technical Information. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, J. Peter; And Others

    This report describes eight word lists developed for use as part of the computer readability editing system (CRES), which was developed to serve as an author's aid in improving the ease of comprehending Navy technical manuals and training materials. The system has features which flag uncommon and misspelled words and long sentences, suggest simple…

  18. Wisconsin Indianhead Technical College Delphi Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkins, Arthur M.; Otto, Nelson R.

    A project was conducted to define positive, opportunity-focused methods to increase the percentage of high school students who are academically and personally prepared for enrollment in technical college directly after graduation. Objectives included determining how and why high school students choose to attend or not to attend vocational…

  19. A Dissemination Model for New Technical Education Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.

    The Technical Education Research Center-SW has conceived, tested, and refined a model for disseminating newly developed programs and materials throughout the nation. The model performed successfully in the dissemination of more than 50,000 educational units (modules) of Laser/Electro-Optics Technician (LEOT) materials during a four-year period…

  20. Final report on technical work accomplished under contract NASw-2953

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredricks, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A report is given on the technical work accomplished in the area of plasma physics. The subjects covered are: (1) oblique whistler instabilities, (2) current-limited electron beam injection, (3) three-dimensional ion sound turbulence, (4) theoretical aspects of sounder antenna operation and (5) whistler modes in bow shock structures.

  1. Rate enhancement for catalytic upgrading coal naphthas. Final of final technical progress report, July 1991--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.H.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this project is to remove sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen from naphtha derived from coal liquefaction. The project is concerned with the development of hydrotreating catalysts. This period, a ruthenium sulfide catalyst has been studied.

  2. Matching Community and Technical College Professional/Technical Education Capacity to Employer Demand. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Paul; Heg, Deena

    A project was conducted to improve the state of Washington's community and technical college system by developing and using an improved occupational forecasting system to assess and respond to education and training needs. First, long-term occupational forecast data from Washington's Employment Security Department were matched with technical and…

  3. Predoctoral training grant in the area of physical sciences. Final technical report, October 1989--October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Venkateswarlu, P.

    1993-11-01

    This final technical report represents the results of the research in nonlinear optics (optical phase conjugation) obtained by five (5) predoctoral students in the department of physics at Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University (AAMU).

  4. University of Maryland component of the Center for Multiscale Plasma Dynamics: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dorland, William

    2014-11-18

    The Center for Multiscale Plasma Dynamics (CMPD) was a five-year Fusion Science Center. The University of Maryland (UMD) and UCLA were the host universities. This final technical report describes the physics results from the UMD CMPD.

  5. National Evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers. Final Report. Executive Summary. NCEE 2011-4032

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Brenda J.; White, Richard N.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Riley, Derek L.; Pistorino, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This final report presents findings from a multi-year evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers, a federally funded program that provides technical assistance to states in connection with the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, as reauthorized by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. With the redesign of the Center…

  6. 76 FR 50201 - National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center; Final Extension of Project Period and Waiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center; Final Extension of Project Period and Waiver AGENCY... Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center to receive funding from October 1, 2011 through September 30.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On June 7, 2011, the Department published a notice in the Federal Register (76...

  7. National Evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers. Final Report. NCEE 2011-4031

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Brenda J.; White, Richard N.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Riley, Derek L.; Pistorino, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This final report presents findings from a multi-year evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers, a federally funded program that provides technical assistance to states in connection with the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, as reauthorized by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. With the redesign of the Center…

  8. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  9. Liquefaction for cataract extraction

    PubMed Central

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei. PMID:26949656

  10. Liquefaction for cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei. PMID:26949656

  11. Final Scientific and Technical Report State and Regional Biomass Partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Handley, Rick; Stubbs, Anne D.

    2008-12-29

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program successfully employed a three pronged approach to build the regional capacity, networks, and reliable information needed to advance biomass and bioenergy technologies and markets. The approach included support for state-based, multi-agency biomass working groups; direct technical assistance to states and private developers; and extensive networking and partnership-building activities to share objective information and best practices.

  12. Technical oversight for installation of TNX piezometers, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pidcoe, W.W. Jr.

    1997-06-05

    Science Applications International Corporation was tasked under subcontract C002025P to provide technical oversight for the drilling of one pilot borehole, and the drilling and installation of five piezometers in the TNX Area Swamp. The work was performed in accordance with the Statement of Work in Task Order Proposal No. ER39-129 dated August 6, 1996. This report describes the activities associated with the performance of the task.

  13. Insulation from basaltic stamp sand. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, F. D.

    1981-04-01

    A Midwest Appropriate Technology Grant was awarded to determine the technical and economic feasibility of producing mineral-fiber insulation directly from extensive deposits of basaltic sand produced during former mining and milling operations in the Keweenaw Peninsula region of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The amounts of local basaltic sands available and representative chemical compositions were determined. The variation of viscosity with temperature and chemical composition was estimated. Samples were melted and either pulled or blown into fiber. In all cases fiber could be made with a reasonable tensile strength to ensure usefulness. It was concluded that it was technically feasible to produce fibers from basaltic stamp sands of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. A technical feasibility study using published data, a cost and design analysis of a basalt fiber production plant, a market survey of fiber needs, and an economic analysis for investing in a basalt fiber venture was undertaken. These studies concluded that the local production of basaltic insulation was both feasible and economically reasonable. It was suggested that the plant be located in a region of greater population density with lower utility costs. A representative one-third of these studies is included as appendices A, B, C, and D.

  14. Final Technical Report_Clean Energy Program_SLC-SELF

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Glenn; Coward, Doug

    2014-01-22

    This is the Final Technical Report for DOE's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant, Award No. DE-EE0003813, submitted by St. Lucie County, FL (prime recipient) and the Solar and Energy Loan Fund (SELF), the program's third-party administrator. SELF is a 501(c)(3) and a certified Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI). SELF is a community-based lending organization that operates the Clean Energy Loan Program, which focuses on improving the overall quality of life of underserved populations in Florida with an emphasis on home energy improvements and cost-effective renewable energy alternatives. SELF was launched in 2010 through the creation of the non-profit organization and with a $2.9 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block (EECBG) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). SELF has its main office and headquarters in St. Lucie County, in the region known as the Treasure Coast in East-Central Florida. St. Lucie County received funding to create SELF as an independent non-profit institution, outside the control of local government. This was important for SELF to create its identity as an integral part of the business community and to help in its quest to become a Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI). This goal was accomplished in 2013, allowing SELF to focus on its mission to increase energy savings while serving markets that have struggled to find affordable financial assistance. These homeowners are most impacted by high energy costs. Energy costs are a disproportionate percentage of household expenses for low to moderate income (LMI) households. Electricity costs have been steadily rising in Florida by nearly 5% per year. Housing in LMI neighborhoods often includes older inefficient structures that further exacerbate the problem. Despite the many available clean energy solutions, most LMI property owners do not have the disposable income or equity in their homes necessary to afford the high upfront cost of energy

  15. Liquefaction with microencapsulated catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Weller, Sol W.

    1985-01-01

    A method of dispersing a liquefaction catalyst within coal or other carbonaceous solids involves providing a suspension in oil of microcapsules containing the catalyst. An aqueous solution of a catalytic metal salt is emulsified in the water-immiscible oil and the resulting minute droplets microencapsulated in polymeric shells by interfacial polycondensation. The catalyst is subsequently blended and dispersed throughout the powdered carbonaceous material to be liquefied. At liquefaction temperatures the polymeric microcapsules are destroyed and the catalyst converted to minute crystallites in intimate contact with the carbonaceous material.

  16. Fluid seals development for coal liquefaction slurry pumps. Quarterly technical progress report No. 10, 1 January 1985-31 March 1985. [Reciprocating and centrifugal pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Burcham, R.E.

    1985-04-22

    This quarterly progress report covers the work performed during the period January 1, 1985 to March 31, 1985 on the Fluid Seals Development for Coal Liquefaction Slurry Pumps Program. The work was sponsored by the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Technology Center, to develop technology for hydrostatic fluid seals to be used in coal slurry centrifugal and reciprocating pumps. The scope of the program consists of the following tasks: (1) Task 1A, survey of current practices for centrifugal and reciprocating coal slurry pump seals; (2) Task 1B, preliminary evaluation of three alternative centrifugal and reciprocating fluid seal concepts; (3) Task 2, detail evaluation of the best two centrifugal and reciprocating fluid seal concepts; (4) Task 3A, design and fabrication of the selected centrifugal and reciprocating fluid seal concept, design and fabrication of the centrifugal and reciprocating seal testers; (5) Task 3B, laboratory seal testing of the centrifugal and reciprocating fluid seals; (6) Task 4, field testing of the centrifugal and reciprocating fluid seals. Tasks 1, 2, 3A, and 3B have been completed. Task 4 is pending Department of Energy approval. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Fluid seals development for coal liquefaction slurry pumps. Quarterly technical progress report No. 11, 1 April 1985-30 June 1985. [Reciprocating pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Burcham, R.E.

    1985-07-22

    This quarterly progress report covers the work performed during the period 1 April 1985 to 30 June 1985 on the Fluid Seals Development for Coal Liquefaction Slurry Pumps Program. The work was sponsored by the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Technology Center, to develop technology for hydrostatic fluid seals to be used in coal slurry centrifugal and reciprocating pumps. The scope of the program consists of the following tasks: (1) Task 1A: Survey of current practices for centrifugal and reciprocating coal slurry pump seals; (2) Task 1B: Preliminary evaluation of three alternative centrifugal and reciprocating fluid seal concepts; (3) Task 2: Detail evaluation of the best two centrifugal and reciprocating fluid seal concepts; (4) Task 3A: Design and fabrication of the selected centrifugal and reciprocating fluid seal concept, Design and fabrication of the centrifugal and reciprocating seal testers; (5) Task 3B: Laboratory seal testing of the centrifugal and reciprocating fluid seals; and (6) Task 4: Field testing of the centrifugal and reciprocating fluid seals. Tasks 1, 2, 3A, and 3B have been completed. Task 4 is in progress. 2 figs.

  18. Establishment of the International Power Institute. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Julius E. Coles

    2000-08-04

    The International Power Institute, in collaboration with American industries, seeks to address technical, political, economic and cultural issues of developing countries in the interest of facilitating profitable transactions in power related infrastructure projects. IPI works with universities, governments and commercial organizations to render project-specific recommendations for private-sector investment considerations. IPI also established the following goals: Facilitate electric power infrastructure transactions between developing countries and the US power industry; Collaborate with developing countries to identify development strategies to achieve energy stability; and Encourage market driven solutions and work collaboratively with other international trade energy, technology and banking organizations.

  19. Protecting ground water: pesticides and agricultural practices. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The booklet presents the results of a project conducted by EPA's Office of Ground-Water Protection to evaluate the potential impacts of various agronomic, irrigation, and pesticide application practices on ground water. The report provides State and local water quality and agricultural officials with technical information to help in the development of programs to protect ground water from pesticide contamination. The report explains the principles involved in reducing the risk of pesticide contamination and describes what is known about the impact of various agricultural practices on pesticide leaching. It is hoped that the information will be helpful to water-quality officials in developing and implementing ground-water protection programs.

  20. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT: 20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Kaiserski; Dan Lloyd

    2012-02-28

    The funds allocated through the Wind Powering America (WPA) grant were utilized by the State of Montana to support broad outreach activities communicating the benefits and opportunities of increased wind energy and transmission development. The challenges to increased wind development were also clearly communicated with the understanding that a clearer comprehension of the challenges would be beneficial in overcoming the obstacles to further development. The ultimate purpose of these activities was to foster the increased development of Montana's rich wind resources through increased public acceptance and wider dissemination of technical resources.

  1. Systematized contact between inventors and industry. [Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-31

    A total of 139 inventions by private (individual) inventors were submitted to Technology Targeting Incorporated. Each inventor was told of the nature of the DOE-supported Project, through informational and promotional efforts by TTI, and each completed an Invention Submittal Form developed by TTI to describe the essential nature of the claimed invention. Many also submitted detailed descriptions, drawings, technical reports and similar supplemental materials giving a more comprehensive view of their inventions. Each invention was reviewed for technical and commercial merit, as well as for appropriateness of marketing through the Technology Targeting DataBase[trademark] (hereafter DATABASE). Overall, participating inventors were enthusiastic about the Project and felt participation in it was rewording. Even when not selected for marketing, inventors were given an analysis of their inventions which could help them enhance the inventions and improve marketing efforts. Inventors whose inventions were selected for marketing were shown how to professionally market the inventions, including the format for Non Confidential Invention Summaries, the preferred form for Confidential Disclosure Agreements, targeting of business decision-makers responsible for technology evaluation, and the like; some of these inventors are still interacting with industrial contacts provided by TTI through this Project. All inventors received copies of patent abstracts uncovered in the prior art searches for their inventions and a copy of TTI's booklet, Patent Law Basics for Individual Inventors.

  2. Systematized contact between inventors and industry. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-31

    A total of 139 inventions by private (individual) inventors were submitted to Technology Targeting Incorporated. Each inventor was told of the nature of the DOE-supported Project, through informational and promotional efforts by TTI, and each completed an Invention Submittal Form developed by TTI to describe the essential nature of the claimed invention. Many also submitted detailed descriptions, drawings, technical reports and similar supplemental materials giving a more comprehensive view of their inventions. Each invention was reviewed for technical and commercial merit, as well as for appropriateness of marketing through the Technology Targeting DataBase{trademark} (hereafter ``DATABASE). Overall, participating inventors were enthusiastic about the Project and felt participation in it was rewording. Even when not selected for marketing, inventors were given an analysis of their inventions which could help them enhance the inventions and improve marketing efforts. Inventors whose inventions were selected for marketing were shown how to professionally market the inventions, including the format for Non Confidential Invention Summaries, the preferred form for Confidential Disclosure Agreements, targeting of business decision-makers responsible for technology evaluation, and the like; some of these inventors are still interacting with industrial contacts provided by TTI through this Project. All inventors received copies of patent abstracts uncovered in the prior art searches for their inventions and a copy of TTI`s booklet, Patent Law Basics for Individual Inventors.

  3. SIAM Conference on Geometric Design and Computing. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-03-11

    The SIAM Conference on Geometric Design and Computing attracted 164 domestic and international researchers, from academia, industry, and government. It provided a stimulating forum in which to learn about the latest developments, to discuss exciting new research directions, and to forge stronger ties between theory and applications. Final Report

  4. TEAM TRAINING. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT FEBRUARY 1966-FEBRUARY 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRIGGS, GEORGE E.; JOHNSTON, WILLIAM A.

    THIS IS THE FINAL REPORT ON A FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM OF LABORATORY RESEARCH ON TEAM TRAINING IN A COMBAT INFORMATION CENTER (CIC) CONTEXT. THE RESEARCH LITERATURE ON TEAM TRAINING IS REVIEWED, AND A SET OF CONCLUSIONS IS DRAWN WITH REGARD TO TEAM PERFORMANCE AS A FUNCTION OF TASK, TRAINING, AND COMMUNICATIONS VARIABLES. IN ADDITION, THE IMPLICATIONS…

  5. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing: Direct coal liquefaction of rawhide sub-bituminous coal. Final topical report, June 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Coless, L.A.; Poole, M.C.; Wen, M.Y.

    1995-11-21

    Supported catalysts, either in fixed bed or ebullating bed reactors, are subject to deactivation with time, especially if the feed contains deactivating species, such as metals and coke precursors. Dispersed catalyst systems avoid significant catalyst deactivation because there are no catalyst pores to plug, hence no pore mouth plugging, and hopefully, no relevant decline of catalyst surface area or pore volume. The tests carried out in 1994, at the Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL) for DOE covered a slate of 5 dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal, which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested earlier at Wilsonville. The catalysts included three iron and two molybdenum types. The Bailey iron oxide and the two molybdenum catalysts have previously been tested in DOE-sponsored research. These known catalysts will be used to help provide a base line and tie-in to previous work. The two new catalysts, Bayferrox PK 5210 and Mach-1`s Nanocat are very finely divided iron oxides. The iron oxide addition rate was varied from 1.0 to 0.25 wt % (dry coal basis) but the molybdenum addition rate remained constant at 100 wppm throughout the experiments. The effect of changing recycle rate, sulfur and iron oxide addition rates, first stage reactor temperature, mass velocity and catalyst type were tested in the 1994 operations of ERDL`s recycle coal liquefaction unit (RCLU). DOE will use these results to update economics and plan future work. The test program will resume in mid 1995, with another 2-3 months of pilot plant testing.

  6. Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar

    1984-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

  7. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Norman L.; Moon, William G.; Prudich, Michael E.

    1983-01-01

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  8. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Wiser, Wendell H.; Oblad, Alex G.; Shabtai, Joseph S.

    1994-01-01

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

  9. Beowawe Bottoming Binary Unit - Final Technical Report for EE0002856

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Dale Edward

    2013-02-12

    This binary plant is the first high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a butane based cycle are not necessary. The unit is modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. This project proves the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy for Nevada, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  10. Workshop on molecular methods for genetic diagnosis. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rinchik, E.M.

    1997-07-01

    The Sarah Lawrence College Human Genetics Program received Department of Energy funding to offer a continuing medical education workshop for genetic counselors in the New York metropolitan area. According to statistics from the National Society of Genetic Counselors, there are approximately 160 genetic counselors working in the tri-state area (New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut), and many of them had been working in the field for more than 10 years. Thus, there was a real need to offer these counselors an in-depth opportunity to learn the specifics of the major advances in molecular genetics, and, in particular, the new approaches to diagnostic testing for genetic disease. As a result of the DOE Award DE-FG02-95ER62048 ($20,583), in July 1995 we offered the {open_quotes}Workshop on Molecular Methods for Genetic Diagnosis{close_quotes} for 24 genetic counselors in the New York metropolitan area. The workshop included an initial review session on the basics of molecular biology, lectures and discussions on past and current topics in molecular genetics and diagnostic procedures, and, importantly, daily laboratory exercises. Each counselor gained not only background, but also firsthand experience, in the major techniques of biochemical and molecular methods for diagnosing genetic diseases as well as in mathematical and computational techniques involved in human genetics analyses. Our goal in offering this workshop was not to make genetic counselors experts in these laboratory diagnostic techniques, but to acquaint them, by hands-on experience, about some of the techniques currently in use. We also wanted to provide them a technical foundation upon which they can understand and appreciate new technical developments arising in the near future.

  11. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  12. New York State technical and economic MAGLEV evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The study is the preliminary evaluation of magnetically levitated ground transportation systems (MAGLEV). The evaluation focuses on using the New York State Thruway right-of-way in combination with MAGLEV systems currently in development in Germany and Japan and those proposed for development in the United States. The Energy Authority's goal in cosponsoring the study was to determine if MAGLEV offered the potential to meet future New York State transportation demands cost-effectively, and to evaluate the benefits that the State might expect from supporting MAGLEV technology development and system implementation. According to the preliminary report, substantial economic benefits could accrue to the State through MAGLEV-related research, development, manufacturing and construction. Implementation would have a favorable impact on issues related to transportation, the environment and energy conservation. With the exception of the German Transrapid system, developing a domestic prototype MAGLEV vehicle would take seven to nine years; no insurmountable technical barriers are apparent. EMF shielding (electromagnetic fields) is, however, a concern. It will cost an estimated $1 billion to develop a new MAGLEV system design; however, innovative designs may reduce the price.

  13. Technical assessment of maglev system concepts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lever, J.H.

    1998-10-01

    The Government Maglev System Assessment Team operated from 1991 to 1993 as part of the National Maglev Initiative. They assessed the technical viability of four US Maglev system concepts, using the French TGV high speed train and the German TR07 Maglev system as assessment baselines. Maglev in general offers advantages that include high speed potential, excellent system control, high capacity, low energy consumption, low maintenance, modest land requirements, low operating costs, and ability to meet a variety of transportation missions. Further, the US Maglev concepts could provide superior performance to TR07 for similar cost or similar performance for less cost. They also could achieve both lower trip times and lower energy consumption along typical US routes. These advantages result generally from the use of large gap magnetic suspensions, more powerful linear synchronous motors and tilting vehicles. Innovative concepts for motors, guideways, suspension, and superconducting magnets all contribute to a potential for superior long term performance of US Maglev systems compared with TGV and TR07.

  14. Investigation of gigawatt millimeter wave source applications. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bruder, J.A.; Belcher, M.L.

    1991-09-01

    The Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) investigated potential applications of millimeter wave (MMW) sources with peak powers on the order of a gigawatt. This power level is representative of MMW devices such as the free electron laser (FEL) and the cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM) that are under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In addition to determining the technical requirements for these applications, the investigation considered potential users and how a high power MMW system would expand their current capabilities. Two of the more promising applications were examined in detail to include trade-off evaluations system parameters. The trade-off evaluations included overall system configuration, frequency and coherence, component availability, and performance estimates. Brainstorming sessions were held to try and uncover additional applications for a gigawatt MMW source. In setting up guidelines for the session, the need to attempt to predict applications for the years 2000 to 2030 was stressed. Also, possible non-DoD applications needed to be considered. While some of these applications could not in themselves justify the costs involved in the development of the radar system, they could be considered potential secondary applications of the system. As a result of the sessions, a number of interesting potential applications evolved including: space object identification; low angle tracking; illuminator for space-based radar; radio astronomy; space vehicle navigation; space debris location; atmospheric research; wind shear detection; electronic countermeasures; low observable detection; and long range detection via ducting.

  15. Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    The Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) was an EV propulsion system development program in which the technical effort was contracted by DOE to Ford Motor Company. The General Electric Company was a major subcontractor to Ford for the development of the electric subsystem. Sundstrand Power Systems was also a subcontractor to Ford, providing a modified gas turbine engine APU for emissions and performance testing as well as a preliminary design and producibility study for a Gas Turbine-APU for potential use in hybrid/electric vehicles. The four-year research and development effort was cost-shared between Ford, General Electric, Sundstrand Power Systems and DOE. The contract was awarded in response to Ford`s unsolicited proposal. The program objective was to bring electric vehicle propulsion system technology closer to commercialization by developing subsystem components which can be produced from a common design and accommodate a wide range of vehicles; i.e., modularize the components. This concept would enable industry to introduce electric vehicles into the marketplace sooner than would be accomplished via traditional designs in that the economies of mass production could be realized across a spectrum of product offerings. This would eliminate the need to dedicate the design and capital investment to a limited volume product offering which would increase consumer cost and/or lengthen the time required to realize a return on the investment.

  16. Pressurized Oxidative Recovery of Energy from Biomass Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    M. Misra

    2007-06-10

    This study was conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility of using pressurized oxyfuel, the ThermoEnergy Integrated Power System (TIPS), to recover energy from biomass. The study was focused on two fronts—computer simulation of the TIPS plant and corrosion testing to determine the best materials of construction for the critical heat exchanger components of the process. The goals were to demonstrate that a successful strategy of applying the TIPS process to wood waste could be achieved. To fully investigate the technical and economic benefits of using TIPS, it was necessary to model a conventional air-fired biomass power plant for comparison purposes. The TIPS process recovers and utilizes the latent heat of vaporization of water entrained in the fuel or produced during combustion. This latent heat energy is unavailable in the ambient processes. An average composition of wood waste based on data from the Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, and the South was used for the study. The high moisture content of wood waste is a major advantage of the TIPS process. The process can utilize the higher heating value of the fuel by condensing most of the water vapor in the flue gas and making the flue gas a useful source of heat. This is a considerable thermal efficiency gain over conventional power plants which use the lower heating value of the fuel. The elevated pressure also allows TIPS the option of recovering CO2 at near ambient temperatures with high purity oxygen used in combustion. Unlike ambient pressure processes which need high energy multi-stage CO2 compression to supply pipeline quality product, TIPS is able to simply pump the CO2 liquid using very little auxiliary power. In this study, a 15.0 MWe net biomass power plant was modeled, and when a CO2 pump was included it only used 0.1 MWe auxiliary power. The need for refrigeration is eliminated at such pressures resulting in significant energy, capital, and operating and maintenance savings. Since wood

  17. Final Technical Report Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, Yvonne; Salminen, Reijo; Karlsnes, Andy

    2008-09-22

    Project Abstract for “Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp” When completed, the patented SC Washer will provide an innovative, energy efficient demonstration project to wash unbleached pulp using a pressure vessel charged with steam. The Port Townsend Paper Corporation’s pulp mill in Port Townsend, WA was initially selected as the host site for conducting the demonstration of the SCW. Due to 2006 and 2007 delays in the project caused by issues with 21st Century Pulp & Paper, the developer of the SCW, and the 2007 bankruptcy proceedings and subsequent restructuring at Port Townsend Paper, the mill can no longer serve as a host site. An alternate host site is now being sought to complete the commercial demonstration of the Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp. Additionally, estimated costs to complete the project have more than doubled since the initial estimates for the project were completed in 2002. Additional grant funding from DOE was sought and in July, 2008 the additional DOE funds were procured under a new DOE award, DE-PS36-08GO98014 issued to INL. Once the new host site is secured the completion of the project will begin under the management of INL. Future progress reports and milestone tracking will be completed under requirements of new DOE Award Number DE-PS36-08GO98014. The following are excerpts from the project Peer Review completed in 2006. They describe the project in some detail. Additional information can be found by reviewing DOE Award Number: DE-PS36-08GO98014. 5. Statement of Problem and Technical Barriers: The chemical pulping industry is one of the major users of fresh water in the United States. On average the industry uses over 80 tons of water to produce one ton of pulp, some states use up to 50% more (Washington 120 and Wisconsin 140). In order to process one ton of pulp using 80 tons of process water, a large amount of: • energy is used in process heat and • power is required for pumping the large volume of pulp slurries

  18. Skin protectant drug products for over-the-counter human use; final monograph; technical amendment. Final rule; technical amendment.

    PubMed

    2003-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulation that established conditions under which over-the-counter (OTC) skin protectant drug products are generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded as part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products. This amendment revises several of the indications for OTC skin protectant drug products to provide additional labeling claims that should not have been excluded from the final monograph (FM). PMID:14664244

  19. Development of an AC Module System: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Suparna Kadam; Miles Russell

    2012-06-15

    The GreenRay Inc. program focused on simplifying solar electricity and making it affordable and accessible to the mainstream population. This was accomplished by integrating a solar module, micro-inverter, mounting and monitoring into a reliable, 'plug and play' AC system for residential rooftops, offering the following advantages: (1) Reduced Cost: Reduction in installation labor with fewer components, faster mounting, faster wiring. (2) Maximized Energy Production: Each AC Module operates at its maximum, reducing overall losses from shading, mismatch, or module downtime. (3) Increased Safety. Electrical and fire safety experts agree that AC Modules have significant benefits, with no energized wiring or live connections during installation, maintenance or emergency conditions. (4) Simplified PV for a Broader Group of Installers. Dramatic simplification of design and installation of a solar power system, enabling faster and more efficient delivery of the product into the market through well-established, mainstream channels. This makes solar more accessible to the public. (5) Broadened the Rooftop Market: AC Modules enable solar for many homes that have shading, split roofs, or obstructions. In addition, due to the smaller building block size of 200W vs. 1000W, homeowners with budget limitations can start small and add to their systems over time. Through this DOE program GreenRay developed the all-in-one AC Module system with an integrated PV Module and microinverter, custom residential mounting and performance monitoring. Development efforts took the product from its initial concept, through prototypes, to a commercial product sold and deployed in the residential market. This pilot deployment has demonstrated the technical effectiveness of the AC Module system in meeting the needs and solving the problems of the residential market. While more expensive than the traditional central inverter systems at the pilot scale, the economics of AC Modules become more and more

  20. Final Scientific Technical Report Crowder College MARET Center

    SciTech Connect

    Boyt, Art; Eberle, Dan; Hudson, Pam; Hopper, Russ

    2013-06-30

    and validating new applications of solar and other renewable technologies, the MARET Facility will house a wide variety of programs which will advance implementation of renewable energy throughout the region. These program goals include; Curriculum in renewable energy for pre-engineering transfer programs; Certification and degree programs for technical degrees for Energy Efficiency, Wind, Photovoltaic and Solar Thermal professionals; Short courses and workshops for building management and design professionals; Public education and demonstration projects in renewable energy through conferences and K-12 educational outreach; Technical degree offering in building construction incorporating “best practices” for energy efficiency and renewables; and Business incubators for new renewable energy businesses and new product development The new MARET facility will support the mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Program, “to improve America’s security, environmental quality, and economic prosperity through public-private partnerships that bring reliable and affordable solar energy technologies to the marketplace,” through a variety of educational and business assistance programs. Further, technical innovations planned for the MARET facility and its applied research activities will advance the Solar Program strategic goals to “reduce the cost of solar energy to the point it becomes competitive in relevant energy markets (e.g., buildings, power plants) and for solar technology to enable a sustainable solar industry.” Overarching Goals relative to program needs, future expansion, flexibility, quality of materials, and construction and operational costs:; Experimental: The structure and systems of the building operate as an educational resource. The systems are meant to be a source for data collection and study for building users and instructors; Educational: Part of the evolution of this building and its ongoing goals is to use the building as an

  1. Research on the marine food chain. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Eppley, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This final report includes summaries of the Food Chain Research Group's extensive basic research in Southern California Bight waters and on planktonic organisms which are important components of the bight's pelagic food web. Additionally, the report conveys much of the information resulting from biological, chemical and physical oceanographic research by others active in the study of the pelagic realm of the Bight, especially that conducted during the last several decades. Hence, the book is intended to be a comprehensive description and analysis of the pelagic food web form and function in the Bight and of interactions between food web components and the environmental parameters affecting these. It is presented in a style intended to be informative to the layman as well as the scientist interested in the important coastal resources represented by the Southern California Bight.

  2. Liquefaction potential index: Field assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toprak, S.; Holzer, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    Cone penetration test (CPT) soundings at historic liquefaction sites in California were used to evaluate the predictive capability of the liquefaction potential index (LPI), which was defined by Iwasaki et al. in 1978. LPI combines depth, thickness, and factor of safety of liquefiable material inferred from a CPT sounding into a single parameter. LPI data from the Monterey Bay region indicate that the probability of surface manifestations of liquefaction is 58 and 93%, respectively, when LPI equals or exceeds 5 and 15. LPI values also generally correlate with surface effects of liquefaction: Decreasing from a median of 12 for soundings in lateral spreads to 0 for soundings where no surface effects were reported. The index is particularly promising for probabilistic liquefaction hazard mapping where it may be a useful parameter for characterizing the liquefaction potential of geologic units.

  3. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive use of a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives data base, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented in 1986. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings relating the status of air liquefaction technology are presented both as a singular technical area, and also as that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; Heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; Para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; Hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; Hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sinks; Liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket type combustion devices; Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES); and Technically related engine concepts.

  4. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report is a coordinated effort of the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science. The topics concerning coal liquefaction discussed are: sulfate promoted metal oxides as direct coal liquefaction catalysts; low temperature depolymerization and liquefaction of premium R.S. coal samples; construction of continuous flow-through gas reactor for liquefaction investigations; generic structural characterization and liquefaction research; macerals, model compounds and iron catalyst dispersion; coal structure/liquefaction yield correlation by means of advanced NMR techniques; GC/MS of model compound mixtures; catalytic cracking, hydrogenation and liquefaction of coals under milder conditions; ENDOR investigations of coal liquefaction under mild conditions; catalytic dehydrogenation of model compounds in relation to direct coal liquefaction; surface characterization of catalyst added coal samples; computational chemistry of model compounds and molecular fragments of relevance to coal liquefaction; chemical characterization and hydrogenation reactions of single coal particles; thermolytic cleavage of selected coal-related linkages at mild temperatures; solvent sorption and FTIR studies on the effect of catalytic depolymerization reactions in coal; bioprocessing of coal; chemical routes to breaking bonds; novel liquefaction concepts cyclic olefins: novel new donors for coal liquefaction; better hydrogen transfer in coal liquefaction; catalytic hydropyrolysis and energized extraction of coals; gallium catalyst in mild coal liquefaction; potential of temperature microscope in coal liquefaction; evaluation of nitride catalysts for hydrotreatment and coal liquefaction; coprocessing and coal liquefaction with novel catalysts.

  5. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Winkelman; Tim Hargrave; Christine Vanderlan

    1999-10-01

    The authors conclude in this report that an upstream system would ensure complete regulatory coverage of transportation sector emissions in an efficient and feasible manner, and as such represents a key component of a national least-cost GHG emissions abatement strategy. The broad coverage provided by an upstream system recommends this approach over vehicle-maker based approaches, which would not cover emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and the aviation, marine and off-road sub-sectors. The on-road fleet approach unfairly and inefficiently burdens vehicle manufacturers with responsibility for emissions that they cannot control. A new vehicles approach would exclude emissions from vehicles on the road prior to program inception. The hybrid approach faces significant technical and political complications, and it is not clear that the approach would actually change behavior among vehicle makers and users, which is its main purpose. They also note that a trading system would fail to encourage many land use and infrastructure measures that affect VMT growth and GHG emissions. They recommend that this market failure be addressed by complementing the trading system with a program specifically targeting land use- and infrastructure-related activities. A key issue that must be addressed in designing a national GHG control strategy is whether or not it is necessary to guarantee GHG reductions from the transport sector. Neither an upstream system nor a downstream approach would do so, since both would direct capital to the least-cost abatement opportunities wherever they were found. They review two reasons why it may be desirable to force transportation sector reductions: first, that the long-term response to climate change will require reductions in all sectors; and second, the many ancillary benefits associated with transportation-related, and especially VMT-related, emissions reduction activities. If policy makers find it desirable to establish transportation

  6. High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gonterman, J. Ronald; Weinstein, Michael A.

    2006-10-27

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the energy efficiency and reduced emissions that can be obtained with a dual torch DC plasma transferred arc-melting system. Plasmelt Glass Technologies, LLC was formed to solicit and execute the project, which utilize a full-scale test melter system. The system is similar to the one that was originally constructed by Johns Manville, but Plasmelt has added significant improvements to the torch design and melter system that has extended the original JM short torch lives. The original JM design has been shown to achieve melt rates 5 to 10 times faster than conventional gas or electric melting, with improved energy efficiency and reduced emissions. This project began on 7/28/2003 and ended 7/27/06. A laboratory scale melter was designed, constructed, and operated to conduct multiple experimental melting trials on various glass compositions. Glass quality was assessed. Although the melter design is generic and equally applicable to all sectors within the glass industry, the development of this melter has focused primarily on fiberglass with additional exploratory melting trials of frits, specialty, and minerals-melting applications. Throughput, energy efficiency, and glass quality have been shown to be heavily dependent on the selected glass composition. During this project, Plasmelt completed the proof-of-concept work in our Boulder, CO Lab to show the technical feasibility of this transferred-arc plasma melter. Late in the project, the work was focused on developing the processes and evaluating the economic viability of plasma melting aimed at the specific glasses of interest to specific client companies. Post project work is on going with client companies to address broader non-glass materials such as refractories and industrial minerals. Exploratory melting trials have been conducted on several glasses of commercial interest including: C-glass, E-glass, S-Glass, AR-Glass, B-glass, Lighting Glass, NE-Glass, and various

  7. Texas Hydrogen Education Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, David; Bullock, Dan

    2011-06-30

    fork lifts, and hydrogen fueling) are effective for engaging target audiences, and (3) a clear path forward is needed for state and local agencies interested in project implementation (funding, financing, preliminary design, technical assistance, etc.).

  8. Low pressure high speed Stirling air engine. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.A.

    1980-06-16

    The purpose of this project was to design, construct and test a simple, appropriate technology low pressure, high speed, wood-fired Stirling air engine of 100 W output. The final design was a concentric piston/displacer engine of 454 in. bore and 1 in. stroke with a rhombic drive mechanism. The project engine was ultimately completed and tested, using a propane burner for all tests as a matter of convenience. The 100 W aim was exceeded, at atmospheric pressure, over a wide range of engine speed with the maximum power being 112 W at 1150 rpm. A pressure can was constructed to permit pressurization; however the grant funds were running out, and the only pressurized power test attempted was unsuccessful due to seal difficulties. This was a disappointment because numerous tests on the 4 cubic inch engine suggested power would be more than doubled with pressurization at 25 psig. A manifold was designed and constructed to permit operation of the engine over a standard No. 40 pot bellied stove. The engine was run successfully, but at reduced speed and power, over this stove. The project engine started out being rather noisy in operation, but modifications ultimately resulted in a very quiet engine. Various other difficulties and their solutions also are discussed. (LCL)

  9. Louisiana Industrial Assessment Center--Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Theodore A. Kozman

    2007-10-17

    This is the Final Report for the Louisiana Industrial Assessment Center for the period of 9/1/2002 through 11/30/2006, although we were still gathering data through 02/16/2007. During this period, our Industrial Assessment Center completed 109 energy assessments for manufacturing firms in our area, offered 3 Save Energy Workshops, taught 26 students (9 graduate and 17 undergraduate) energy management savings techniques and offered an Energy Management Graduate class three times. These 109 energy assessments made a total of 738 energy savings recommendations, 33 waste reduction recommendations, and 108 productivity improvement recommendations. These combined recommendations would save client companies more than $87,741,221.16, annually at the then current energy costs. If all of these recommendations were implemented separately, the implementation cost would have been $34,113,482.10 or a Simple Payback Period, SPP=4.7 months. Between 9 months and 12 months after the assessment, we surveyed the manufacturing firms to find out what they implemented. They had implemented approximately 50 percent of our recommendations at an annual saving of $25,867,613.18. The three Save Energy Workshops had an average attendance of twelve individuals. The three graduate Energy Management courses had an average attendance of eleven students.

  10. Expanded bicycling route system for Denver. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Maltempo, M.M.

    1983-11-01

    This final report describes the results of a study of the potential energy savings associated with increased utilitarian bicycle transportation in the Denver metropolitan area. The project has included computer modeling of the carrying capacity of the present bicycle route system, future route systems, as well as outreach activities to convey the results to public officials and the general public. A key feature of the project has been a consideration of the benefits associated with an expanded bikeway system which includes ''bike boulevards''. Data from the west coast cities and other sources, have been used to generate quantitative estimates of the benefits associated with a Denver bikeway system which includes bike boulevards. The development of a network of bike boulevards in Denver should result in energy savings of about 20.2 million gallons of gasoline per year, as well as a 3.4% reduction in vehicular carbon monoxide emissions. These benefits are in addition to those accruing from current levels of bicycling.

  11. Technical assistance for Meharry Medical College Energy Efficiency Project. Final project status and technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-08

    This report presents the results of a program to provide technical assistance to Meharry Medical College. The purpose of the program is to facilitate Meharry`s effort to finance a campus-wide facility retrofit. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) funded the program through a grant to the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development (TECD). The University of Memphis-Technology and Energy Services (UM-TES), under contract to TECD, performed program services. The report has three sections: (1) introduction; (2) project definition, financing, and participants; and (3) opportunities for federal participation.

  12. Final Technical Report - Photovoltaics for You (PV4You) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, J. M.; Sherwood, L.; Pulaski, J.; Cook, C.; Kalland, S.; Haynes, J.

    2005-08-14

    position in developing quality and competency standards for solar professionals and for training programs critical components to bring the solar industry into step with other recognized craft labor forces. IREC's objective was to provide consumer assurances and assist the states and the solar industry in building a strong and qualified workforce. IREC's Schools Going Solar Clearinghouse provided channels of information to educate students, teachers, parents and the community at large about the benefits of solar energy. Solar school projects enhance science and math education while creating an initial entry market for domestic PV. And, IREC's community and outreach network got the right information out to capture the interest and met the needs of different audiences and reached groups that weren't traditionally part of the solar community. IREC's PV4You project was effective because it resulted in reduced costs through easier interconnection and better net metering agreements and by raising the competency standards for solar practitioners. The project provided ways to eliminate barriers and constraints by providing technical assistance, offering model agreements based on industry consensus that were used by state and local decision makers. And, the project increased public acceptance by providing information, news and guidelines for different audiences.

  13. Verification of Steelmaking Slags Iron Content Final Technical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    J.Y. Hwang

    2006-10-04

    The steel industry in the United States generates about 30 million tons of by-products each year, including 6 million tons of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slag. The recycling of BF (blast furnace) slag has made significant progress in past years with much of the material being utilized as construction aggregate and in cementitious applications. However, the recycling of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slags still faces many technical, economic, and environmental challenges. Previous efforts have focused on in-plant recycling of the by-products, achieving only limited success. As a result, large amounts of by-products of various qualities have been stockpiled at steel mills or disposed into landfills. After more than 50 years of stockpiling and landfilling, available mill site space has diminished and environmental constraints have increased. The prospect of conventionally landfilling of the material is a high cost option, a waste of true national resources, and an eternal material liability issue. The research effort has demonstrated that major inroads have been made in establishing the viability of recycling and reuse of the steelmaking slags. The research identified key components in the slags, developed technologies to separate the iron units and produce marketable products from the separation processes. Three products are generated from the technology developed in this research, including a high grade iron product containing about 90%Fe, a medium grade iron product containing about 60% Fe, and a low grade iron product containing less than 10% Fe. The high grade iron product contains primarily metallic iron and can be marketed as a replacement of pig iron or DRI (Direct Reduced Iron) for steel mills. The medium grade iron product contains both iron oxide and metallic iron and can be utilized as a substitute for the iron ore in the blast furnace. The low grade iron product is rich in calcium, magnesium and iron oxides and silicates. It has a sufficient lime value and

  14. Final Technical Report: Development of Post-Installation Monitoring Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Polagye, Brian

    2014-03-31

    The development of approaches to harness marine and hydrokinetic energy at large-scale is predicated on the compatibility of these generation technologies with the marine environment. At present, aspects of this compatibility are uncertain. Demonstration projects provide an opportunity to address these uncertainties in a way that moves the entire industry forward. However, the monitoring capabilities to realize these advances are often under-developed in comparison to the marine and hydrokinetic energy technologies being studied. Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County has proposed to deploy two 6-meter diameter tidal turbines manufactured by OpenHydro in northern Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington. The goal of this deployment is to provide information about the environmental, technical, and economic performance of such turbines that can advance the development of larger-scale tidal energy projects, both in the United States and internationally. The objective of this particular project was to develop environmental monitoring plans in collaboration with resource agencies, while simultaneously advancing the capabilities of monitoring technologies to the point that they could be realistically implemented as part of these plans. In this, the District was joined by researchers at the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center at the University of Washington, Sea Mammal Research Unit, LLC, H.T. Harvey & Associates, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Over a two year period, the project team successfully developed four environmental monitoring and mitigation plans that were adopted as a condition of the operating license for the demonstration project that issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in March 2014. These plans address nearturbine interactions with marine animals, the sound produced by the turbines, marine mammal behavioral changes associated with the turbines, and changes to benthic habitat associated with colonization

  15. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ji-Lu; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-01

    It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250°C, a reaction time of 60min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels. PMID:26013692

  16. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Karr, Jr., Clarence

    1977-04-19

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided which enables conversion of a coal-oil slurry to a synthetic crude refinable to produce larger yields of gasoline and diesel oil. The process is characterized by a two-step operation applied to the slurry prior to catalytic desulfurization and hydrogenation in which the slurry undergoes partial hydrogenation to crack and hydrogenate asphaltenes and the partially hydrogenated slurry is filtered to remove minerals prior to subsequent catalytic hydrogenation.

  17. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  18. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.; Shabtai, J.S.

    1994-05-03

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400 C at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1. 1 figures.

  19. Solar water heating technical support. Technical report for November 1997--April 1998 and final report

    SciTech Connect

    Huggins, J.

    1998-10-01

    This progress report covers the time period November 1, 1997 through April 30, 1998, and also summarizes the project as the final report. The topics of the report include certification of solar collectors for water heating systems, modeling and testing of solar collectors and gas water heater backup systems, ratings of collectors for specific climates, and solar pool heating systems.

  20. OTEC Advanced Composite Cold Water Pipe: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Alan Miller; Matthew Ascari

    2011-09-12

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion can exploit natural temperature gradients in the oceans to generate usable forms of energy (for example, cost-competitive baseload electricity in tropical regions such as Hawaii) free from fossil fuel consumption and global warming emissions.The No.1 acknowledged challenge of constructing an OTEC plant is the Cold Water Pipe (CWP), which draws cold water from 1000m depths up to the surface, to serve as the coolant for the OTEC Rankine cycle. For a commercial-scale plant, the CWP is on the order of 10m in diameter.This report describes work done by LMSSC developing the CWP for LM MS2 New Ventures emerging OTEC business. The work started in early 2008 deciding on the minimum-cost CWP architecture, materials, and fabrication process. In order to eliminate what in previous OTEC work had been a very large assembly/deployment risk, we took the innovative approach of building an integral CWP directly from theOTEC platform and down into the water. During the latter half of 2008, we proceeded to a successful small-scale Proof-of-Principles validation of the new fabrication process, at the Engineering Development Lab in Sunnyvale. During 2009-10, under the Cooperative Agreement with the US Dept. of Energy, we have now successfully validated key elements of the process and apparatus at a 4m diameter scale suitable for a future OTEC Pilot Plant. The validations include: (1) Assembly of sandwich core rings from pre-pultruded hollow 'planks,' holding final dimensions accurately; (2) Machine-based dispensing of overlapping strips of thick fiberglass fabric to form the lengthwise-continuous face sheets, holding accurate overlap dimensions; (3) Initial testing of the fabric architecture, showing that the overlap splices develop adequate mechanical strength (work done under a parallel US Naval Facilities Command program); and (4) Successful resin infusion/cure of 4m diameter workpieces, obtaining full wet-out and a non-discernable knitline between

  1. Final Technical Report for DE-SC0005467

    SciTech Connect

    Broccoli, Anthony J.

    2014-09-14

    The objective of this project is to gain a comprehensive understanding of the key atmospheric mechanisms and physical processes associated with temperature extremes in order to better interpret and constrain uncertainty in climate model simulations of future extreme temperatures. To achieve this objective, we first used climate observations and a reanalysis product to identify the key atmospheric circulation patterns associated with extreme temperature days over North America during the late twentieth century. We found that temperature extremes were associated with distinctive signatures in near-surface and mid-tropospheric circulation. The orientations and spatial scales of these circulation anomalies vary with latitude, season, and proximity to important geographic features such as mountains and coastlines. We next examined the associations between daily and monthly temperature extremes and large-scale, recurrent modes of climate variability, including the Pacific-North American (PNA) pattern, the northern annular mode (NAM), and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The strength of the associations are strongest with the PNA and NAM and weaker for ENSO, and also depend upon season, time scale, and location. The associations are stronger in winter than summer, stronger for monthly than daily extremes, and stronger in the vicinity of the centers of action of the PNA and NAM patterns. In the final stage of this project, we compared climate model simulations of the circulation patterns associated with extreme temperature days over North America with those obtained from observations. Using a variety of metrics and self-organizing maps, we found the multi-model ensemble and the majority of individual models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) generally capture the observed patterns well, including their strength and as well as variations with latitude and season. The results from this project indicate that current models are capable

  2. Final Technical Report - In-line Uranium Immunosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Diane A.

    2006-07-05

    In this project, personnel at Tulane University and Sapidyne Instruments Inc. developed an in-line uranium immunosensor that could be used to determine the efficacy of specific in situ biostimulation approaches. This sensor was designed to operate autonomously over relatively long periods of time (2-10 days) and was able to provide near real-time data about uranium immobilization in the absence of personnel at the site of the biostimulation experiments. An alpha prototype of the in-line immmunosensor was delivered from Sapidyne Instruments to Tulane University in December of 2002 and a beta prototype was delivered in November of 2003. The beta prototype of this instrument (now available commercially from Sapidyne Instruments) was programmed to autonomously dilute standard uranium to final concentrations of 2.5 to 100 nM (0.6 to 24 ppb) in buffer containing a fluorescently labeled anti-uranium antibody and the uranium chelator, 2,9-dicarboxyl-1,10-phenanthroline. The assay limit of detection for hexavalent uranium was 5.8 nM or 1.38 ppb. This limit of detection is well below the drinking water standard of 30 ppb recently promulgated by the EPA. The assay showed excellent precision; the coefficients of variation (CV’s) in the linear range of the assay were less than 5% and CV’s never rose above 14%. Analytical recovery in the immunosensors-based assay was assessed by adding variable known quantities of uranium to purified water samples. A quantitative recovery (93.75% - 108.17%) was obtained for sample with concentrations from 7.5 to 20 nM (2-4.75 ppb). In August of 2005 the sensor was transported to Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for testing of water samples at the Criddle test site (see Wu et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 40:3978-3985 2006 for a description of this site). In this first on-site test, the in-line sensor was able to accurately detect changes in the concentrations of uranium in effluent samples from this site. Although the absolute values for the

  3. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Cooperative research in coal liquefaction is presented. Topics include: Sulfate-promoted metal oxides as direct coal liquefaction catalysts; low temperature depolymerization and liquefaction of premium US coal samples; construction of continuous flow-through gas reactor for liquefaction investigations; examination of ferric sulfide as a liquefaction catalyst; generic structural characterization and liquefaction research; spectroscopic studies of coal macerals depolymerization catalyzed by iron chloride; characterization of catalysts used in coal hydrogenation systems; coal structure/liquefaction yield correlation by means of advanced NMR techniques; mass spectrometry of coal derived liquids: determination of molecular weight distributions; catalyst cracking, hydrogenation and liquefaction of coals under milder conditions; ENDOR investigations of coal liquefaction under mild conditions; direct determination of hydroaromatic structures in coal and coal conversion products by catalytic dehydrogenation; surface characterization of APCSB coals by XPS; computation chemistry of model compounds and molecular fragments of relevance to coal liquefaction; chemical characterization and hydrogenation reactions of single coal particles; the role of hydrogen during liquefaction using donor and non-donor solvents; solvent sorption and FTIR studies on the effect of catalytic depolymerization reactions in coal; bioprocessing of coal; chemical routes to breaking bonds: new approaches to low-temperature liquefaction; an investigation into the reactivity of isotetralin and tetralin using molecular orbital calculations; coal liquefaction modification for enhanced reactivity; catalytic hydropyrolysis and energized extraction of coals; gallium catalyst in mild coal liquefaction -- potential of temperature microscope in coal liquefaction; evaluation of nitride catalysts for hydrotreatment and coal liquefaction; and improved catalysts for coal liquefaction and coprocessing.

  4. 42 CFR 137.144 - Is technical assistance available to an Indian Tribe to avoid rejection of a final offer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Tribe to avoid rejection of a final offer? 137.144 Section 137.144 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... SELF-GOVERNANCE Final Offer Rejection of Final Offers § 137.144 Is technical assistance available to an Indian Tribe to avoid rejection of a final offer? Yes, upon receiving a final offer, the Secretary...

  5. 42 CFR 137.144 - Is technical assistance available to an Indian Tribe to avoid rejection of a final offer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Tribe to avoid rejection of a final offer? 137.144 Section 137.144 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... SELF-GOVERNANCE Final Offer Rejection of Final Offers § 137.144 Is technical assistance available to an Indian Tribe to avoid rejection of a final offer? Yes, upon receiving a final offer, the Secretary...

  6. 42 CFR 137.144 - Is technical assistance available to an Indian Tribe to avoid rejection of a final offer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Tribe to avoid rejection of a final offer? 137.144 Section 137.144 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... SELF-GOVERNANCE Final Offer Rejection of Final Offers § 137.144 Is technical assistance available to an Indian Tribe to avoid rejection of a final offer? Yes, upon receiving a final offer, the Secretary...

  7. 42 CFR 137.144 - Is technical assistance available to an Indian Tribe to avoid rejection of a final offer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Tribe to avoid rejection of a final offer? 137.144 Section 137.144 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... SELF-GOVERNANCE Final Offer Rejection of Final Offers § 137.144 Is technical assistance available to an Indian Tribe to avoid rejection of a final offer? Yes, upon receiving a final offer, the Secretary...

  8. 42 CFR 137.144 - Is technical assistance available to an Indian Tribe to avoid rejection of a final offer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Tribe to avoid rejection of a final offer? 137.144 Section 137.144 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... SELF-GOVERNANCE Final Offer Rejection of Final Offers § 137.144 Is technical assistance available to an Indian Tribe to avoid rejection of a final offer? Yes, upon receiving a final offer, the Secretary...

  9. ADVANCED DIRECT LIQUEFACTION CONCEPTS FOR PETC GENERIC UNITS

    SciTech Connect

    Adam J. Berkovich

    2001-08-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period April 1, 2001 to June 30 2001. This work involves the introduction into the basic two-stage liquefaction process several novel concepts, which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This project has been modified to include an investigation into the production of value added materials from coal using low-severity liquefaction based technologies.

  10. ADVANCED DIRECT LIQUEFACTION CONCEPTS FOR PETC GENERIC UNITS

    SciTech Connect

    Adam J. Berkovich

    2001-11-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period July 1, 2001 to September 30 2001. This work involves the introduction into the basic two-stage liquefaction process several novel concepts, which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This project has been modified to include an investigation into the production of value added materials from coal using low-severity liquefaction based technologies.

  11. ADVANCED DIRECT LIQUEFACTION CONCEPTS FOR PETC GENERIC UNITS

    SciTech Connect

    Adam J. Berkovich

    2001-04-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period January 1, 2001 to March 31 2001. This work involves the introduction into the basic two-stage liquefaction process several novel concepts, which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This project has been modified to include an investigation into the production of value added materials from coal using low-severity liquefaction based technologies.

  12. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  13. ESEA Title I Regular Program, 1979-80. Final Technical Report. Publication No. 72.23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    Seventeen instruments were used to provide the answers to the design and evaluation questions for the 1979-80 ESEA Title I regular program in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District. In the final technical report, a separate appendix for each instrument includes a description of its purpose, procedure, and results as related to specific…

  14. ESEA Title I Regular Program, 1980-81. Volume II, Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    Data from 8 of the 13 instruments used to provide answers to the decision and evaluation questions for evaluation of the 1980-81 ESEA Title I regular program in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District comprise Volume II of the final technical report. A separate appendix for each instrument includes a description of its purpose, procedure,…

  15. Final Technical Report: Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances from Type Ia Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Saurabh W. Jha

    2012-10-03

    The final technical report from the project "Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances from Type Ia Supernovae" led at Rutgers the State University of New Jersey by Prof. Saurabh W. Jha is presented, including all publications resulting from this award.

  16. Minnesota Deafblind Technical Assistance Project. Final Report: October 1, 1995 to September 30, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, George

    This final report describes activities of the 4-year federally-funded Minnesota DeafBlind Assistance Project in meeting the following objectives: (1) provide technical assistance throughout the state; (2) deliver training to improve transitions from school to adult life for youth with deaf-blindness; (3) develop and implement procedures to locate…

  17. PITTSBURGH TECHNICAL HEALTH TRAINING INSTITUTE DEMONSTRATION PROJECT. FINAL REPORT, VOLUME II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KISHKUNAS, LOUIS J.

    APPENDIXES TO THE "FINAL REPORT," VOLUME I (VT 005 511), ARE INCLUDED--(1) A SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT, (2) TECHNICAL BEHAVIOR CHECKLISTS, (3) PERFORMANCE INVENTORY FORMS USED IN ON-THE-JOB OBSERVATIONS, (4) REPORT FORM FOR TYPICAL JOB BEHAVIOR OF EMPLOYEE, (5) COOPERATING AREA HEALTH INSTITUTIONS, (6) TABLES OF Z SCORES…

  18. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1991-05-28

    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  19. Magnetic refrigerator for hydrogen liquefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numazawa, T.; Kamiya, K.; Utaki, T.; Matsumoto, K.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the status of magnetic refrigeration system for hydrogen liquefaction. There is no doubt that hydrogen is one of most important energy sources in the near future. In particular, liquid hydrogen can be utilized for infrastructure construction consisting of storage and transportation. When we compare the consuming energy of hydrogen liquefaction with high pressurized hydrogen gas, FOM must be larger than 0.57 for hydrogen liquefaction. Thus, we need to develop a highly efficient liquefaction method. Magnetic refrigeration using the magneto-caloric effect has potential to realize not only the higher liquefaction efficiency >50%, but also to be environmentally friendly and cost effective. Our hydrogen magnetic refrigeration system consists of Carnot cycle for liquefaction stage and AMR (active magnetic regenerator) cycle for precooling stages. For the Carnot cycle, we develop the high efficient system with >80% liquefaction efficiency by using the heat pipe. For the AMR cycle, we studied two kinds of displacer systems, which transferred the working fluid. We confirmed the AMR effect with the cooling temperature span of 12 K for 1.8 T of the magnetic field and 6 s of the cycle. By using the simulation, we estimate the efficiency of the hydrogen liquefaction plant for 10 kg/day. A FOM of 0.47 is obtained for operation temperature between 20 K and 77 K including LN2 work input.

  20. Final Priority. Rehabilitation Training: Vocational Rehabilitation Workforce Innovation Technical Assistance Center. Final priority.

    PubMed

    2015-08-13

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Rehabilitation Training program. The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year 2015 and later years. We take this action to provide training and technical assistance to State vocational rehabilitation agencies to improve services under the State Vocational Rehabilitation Services program and State Supported Employment Services program for individuals with disabilities, including those with the most significant disabilities, and to implement changes to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended by the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA), signed into law on July 22, 2014. PMID:26292366

  1. BPA-Solicited Technical Review of "Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge: Final Report for 2001 Baseline", Technical Report 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, David

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this report was to provide, at BPA's request, a technical review of interim products received for Project 2001-015-00 under contract 6925. BPA sometimes solicits technical reviews for Fish and Wildlife products or issues where outside expertise is required. External review of complex project deliverables assures BPA as a funding agency that the contractor is continuing with scientifically-credible experimental techniques envisioned in the original proposal. If the project's methodology proves feasible, there could be potential applications beyond the project area to similar situations in the Columbia Basin. The Experiment involves artificial flooding during high flow periods and a determination of the portion of the return flows that end up in the Umatilla River during low flow months and within acceptable water quality parameters (e.g., low temperature, few contaminants). Flooding could be a critical water source for aquatic organisms at times of the year when flows in the lower reaches of the Umatilla River are low and water is warmer than would be desired. The experiment was proposed to test whether 'this process, recharges the shallow aquifers of the old flood plain, for natural filtration through the alluvial soils as it returns to the Umatilla River, cleaner and cooler (about 50 degree Fahrenheit) five to six month later (about July and August) substantially cooling the river and [making it] more beneficial to anadromous [fish]'. A substantial amount of preliminary data had been collected and preliminary results were submitted in an interim report 'Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge: Final Report for 2001 Baseline (December 2002)'. A substantial amount of addition funding was provided for the last cycle of flooding (Phases II) and final analyses of the full compliment of data collected over the life of the contract (Phase III). Third party scientific review may assist the contractor in producing a higher quality Final Report with

  2. Reducing viscosity of coal-liquefaction products with additives

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, T.S.; Kutta H.W.; Smith, A.C. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A research program to investigate the cause of high viscosity of coal liquefaction products and to improve this critical property was carried out at Harvey Technical Center under the joint sponsorship by Electric Power Research Institute and Atlantic Richfield Company. Prior to this joint program an in-house project was also initiated by Atlantic Richfield to determine causes and remedies for high viscosity of coal liquefaction products. One result of these programs is the discovery that certain chemical compounds, when used at concentrations of 1 to 10%, are effective in reducing the melt viscosity and softening temperature of these coal liquefaction products. These compounds can be divided into two groups, reactive and unreactive additives. Acids, anhydrides, amides and epoxides fall in the reactive group, while pyrrolidines and compounds belonging to the chemical classes of amides, phosphoramides, lactams and ketones belong to the unreactive additives. This paper summarizes findings on this subject and explains the mechanism of action involved.

  3. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fornetti, Micheal; Freeman, Douglas

    2012-10-31

    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  4. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  5. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Charles H.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  6. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M.; Darnell, R.

    1993-08-01

    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA`s Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities.

  7. Technical approach to finalizing sensible soil cleanup levels at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.; Hertel, B.; Jewett, M.; Janke, R.; Conner, B.

    1996-02-01

    The remedial strategy for addressing contaminated environmental media was recently finalized for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) following almost 10 years of detailed technical analysis. The FEMP represents one of the first major nuclear facilities to successfully complete the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) phase of the environmental restoration process. A critical element of this success was the establishment of sensible cleanup levels for contaminated soil and groundwater both on and off the FEMP property. These cleanup levels were derived based upon a strict application of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) regulations and guidance, coupled with positive input from the regulatory agencies and the local community regarding projected future land uses for the site. The approach for establishing the cleanup levels was based upon a Feasibility Study (FS) strategy that examined a bounding range of viable future land uses for the site. Within each land use, the cost and technical implications of a range of health-protective cleanup levels for the environmental media were analyzed. Technical considerations in driving these cleanup levels included: direct exposure routes to viable human receptors; cross- media impacts to air, surface water, and groundwater; technical practicality of attaining the levels; volume of affected media; impact to sensitive environmental receptors or ecosystems; and cost. This paper will discuss the technical approach used to support the finalization of the cleanup levels for the site. The final cleanup levels provide the last remaining significant piece to the puzzle of establishing a final site-wide remedial strategy for the FEMP, and positions the facility for the expedient completion of site-wide remedial activities.

  8. Final Technical Report of Project DE-FG02-96ER14647

    SciTech Connect

    Lundeen, Stephen R.

    2015-05-31

    This is the final technical report of work completed under DOE support over the period Sept. 1, 1996 until May 31, 2015. The title of the project was "Ion/Excited Atom Collision Studies with a Rydberg Target and a CO2 Laser" from 9/1/96 to 10/31/06, and "Properties of Actinide Ions from Measurements of Rydberg Ion Fine Structure" from 11/1/06 until 5/31/15. The primary technical results were a detailed experimental study of resonant charge transfer between Rydberg atoms and highly-charged ions, and unique measurements of many properties of multiply-charged Thorium ions.

  9. Characterization of the radon source in North-Central Florida. Final report part 1 -- Final project report; Final report part 2 -- Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report contains two separate parts: Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (final report part 1 -- final project report); and Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (technical report). The objectives were to characterize the radon 222 source in a region having a demonstrated elevated indoor radon potential and having geology, lithology, and climate that are different from those in other regions of the U.S. where radon is being studied. Radon availability and transport in this region were described. Approaches for predicting the radon potential of lands in this region were developed.

  10. Bioechnology of indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, R.; Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, A.J.; Soni, B.; Zeikus, J.G.; Grethlein, H.

    1990-05-07

    The project on biotechnology of indirect liquefaction was focused on conversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels using a two-stage, acidogenic and solventogenic, anaerobic bioconversion process. The acidogenic fermentation used a novel and versatile organism, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum, which was fully capable of using CO as the sole carbon and energy source for organic acid production. In extended batch CO fermentations the organism was induced to produce butyrate at the expense of acetate at low pH values. Long-term, steady-state operation was achieved during continuous CO fermentations with this organism, and at low pH values (a pH of 6.0 or less) minor amounts of butanol and ethanol were produced. During continuous, steady-state fermentations of CO with cell recycle, concentrations of mixed acids and alcohols were achieved (approximately 12 g/l and 2 g/l, respectively) which are high enough for efficient conversion in stage two of the indirect liquefaction process. The metabolic pathway to produce 4-carbon alcohols from CO was a novel discovery and is believed to be unique to our CO strain of B. methylotrophicum. In the solventogenic phase, the parent strain ATCC 4259 of Clostridium acetobutylicum was mutagenized using nitrosoguanidine and ethyl methane sulfonate. The E-604 mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum showed improved characteristics as compared to parent strain ATCC 4259 in batch fermentation of carbohydrates.

  11. Kinetic and product composition study on the cellulose liquefaction in polyhydric alcohols.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Li, Jingdan; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Tiantian; Yang, Hongmin; Jiang, Jianchun; Jiang, Xiaoxiang

    2016-08-01

    The liquefaction process of cellulose in polyhydric alcohols (PEG 400 and glycerol) was studied by TG-FTIR. Three stages were observed during the solvolysis process and the main liquefaction stage could be further divided into two zones. The differences of liquefaction behavior of cellulose in the two solvents were compared, and the functional groups of volatiles produced by solvolysis were also evaluated. A step-wise procedure based on iso-conversional and Master-plots methods was used for the kinetic and mechanism analysis of the main liquefaction stage. The calculation results based on the kinetic model were in agreement with the experimental data of the conversion rate. The kinetic parameters and mechanism functions between cellulose liquefaction in PEG400 and in glycerol were quite different, which verified that solvolysis behavior and reaction process were seriously influenced by solvent species. Finally, the detailed types of volatiles and product distribution were measured by Py-GC-MS. PMID:27155797

  12. Final Technical Report - Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, Alan

    2014-10-21

    This is a final technical report for the University of Maryland work in the SciDAC Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS). The Maryland work focused on software tools for coupling parallel software components built using the Common Component Architecture (CCA) APIs. Those tools are based on the Maryland InterComm software framework that has been used in multiple computational science applications to build large-scale simulations of complex physical systems that employ multiple separately developed codes.

  13. Experimental Program Final Technical Progress Report: 15 February 2007 to 30 September 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, Edward R.

    2014-09-12

    This is the final technical report of the grant DE-FG02-04ER41301 to the University of Colorado at Boulder entitled "Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics" and describes the results of our funded activities during the period 15 February 2007 to 30 September 2012. These activities were primarily carried out at Fermilab, RHIC, and the German lab DESY. Significant advances in these experiments were carried out by members of the Colorado group and are described in detail.

  14. Some thoughts on the strategy of direct coal liquefaction -- Partial liquefaction and utilization of heavy liquefaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z.; Yang, J.

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogenation has long been the only goal of coal liquefaction. However, analysis show that partial hydrogenation along with carbon rejection may be a better strategy for coal liquefaction, which reduces hydrogen consumption and reaction severity, eliminates the necessity for expensive catalyst, and may results in better economy for overall liquefaction. The hydrogenation and carbon rejection approach can be called partial liquefaction of coal. This paper presents analysis supporting the strategy of partial coal liquefaction based on the point of view of mass and energy balance, chemical reaction kinetics, reactivity of coal constituents and possible use of the heavy liquefaction products.

  15. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this program is to design and fabricate an experimental ultra-fine particle generation system; use this system to generate ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles; and to access the ability of these ultra-fine catalyst particles to improve the performance of the solubilization stage of two-stage, catalytic-catalytic liquefaction processes.

  16. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to design and fabricate an experimental ultra-fine particle generation system; use this system to generate ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles; and to access the ability of these ultra-fine catalyst particles to improve the performance of solubilization stage of two-stage, catalytic-catalytic liquefaction processes.

  17. Estimating deformation due to soil liquefaction in Urayasu city, Japan using permanent scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElGharbawi, Tamer; Tamura, Masayuki

    2015-11-01

    In Japan, several cities endured severe damage due to soil liquefaction phenomenon, which was developed in association with the massive shaking of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Measuring soil liquefaction deformations was not an easy task, mainly because of the total loss of signal coherence in the affected regions. In this paper, we present our approach to estimate the deformations associated with soil liquefaction using interferometric synthetic aperture radar techniques. We use a stack of coseismic interferograms to identify the reliable pixels in the damaged areas using permanent scatterers technique. Then, we estimate and remove the preseismic mean velocity and DEM error components. Finally, we identify the liquefaction deformation component using least squares inversion and spatial phase filtering. We test the performance of the proposed approach using synthetic data, simulating the effects of soil liquefaction. The simulation results show a RMSE of the liquefaction deformation of 5.23 mm. After that, we estimate the deformation associated with soil liquefaction in Urayasu city, Japan, using ALOS-PALSAR data. The proposed approach allows a prompt estimation of the liquefaction deformation by utilizing the SAR images archives with only one postseismic SAR image.

  18. Viscosity Depressants for Coal Liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed process modification incorporates viscosity depressants to prevent coal from solidifying during liquefaction. Depressants reduce amount of heat needed to liquefy coal. Possible depressants are metallic soaps, such as stearate, and amides, such as stearamide and dimer acid amides.

  19. Two stage liquefaction of coal

    DOEpatents

    Neuworth, Martin B.

    1981-01-01

    A two stage coal liquefaction process and apparatus comprising hydrogen donor solvent extracting, solvent deashing, and catalytic hydrocracking. Preferrably, the catalytic hydrocracking is performed in an ebullating bed hydrocracker.

  20. Direct coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.

    1993-10-26

    An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300 C to 400 C for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

  1. Direct coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Rindt, John R.; Hetland, Melanie D.

    1993-01-01

    An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

  2. 77 FR 58118 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC, FLNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freeport LNG Development, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 3, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 31, 2012, Freeport LNG Development, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC, and FLNG Liquefaction 3,...

  3. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Volume 1, Base program activities

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1994-05-01

    This 4.5-year project consisted of routine analytical support to DOE`s direct liquefaction process development effort (the Base Program), and an extensive effort to develop, demonstrate, and apply new analytical methods for the characterization of liquefaction process streams (the Participants Program). The objective of the Base Program was to support the on-going DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program. Feed, process, and product samples were used to assess process operations, product quality, and the effects of process variables, and to direct future testing. The primary objective of the Participants Program was to identify and demonstrate analytical methods for use in support of liquefaction process development, and in so doing, provide a bridge between process design, and development, and operation and analytical chemistry. To achieve this objective, novel analytical methods were evaluated for application to direct coal liquefaction-derived materials. CONSOL teamed with 24 research groups in the program. Well-defined and characterized samples of coal liquefaction process-derived materials were provided to each group. CONSOL made an evaluation of each analytical technique. During the performance of this project, we obtained analyses on samples from numerous process development and research programs and we evaluated a variety of analytical techniques for their usefulness in supporting liquefaction process development. Because of the diverse nature of this program, we provide here an annotated bibliography of the technical reports, publications, and formal presentations that resulted from this program to serve as a comprehensive summary of contract activities.

  4. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chunshan; Schobert, H.H.

    1993-02-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on the development of novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed liquefaction. The ultimate goal of the present research is to develop novel catalytic hydroliquefaction process using highly active dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research is to develop novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular that can be used in low precursors concentrations (< 1 %) but exhibit high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. The major technical approaches are, first, to prepare the desired heteronuclear organometallic molecules as catalyst precursors that contain covalently bound, two different metal atoms and sulfur in a single molecule. Such precursors will generate finely dispersed bimetallic catalysts such as Fe-Mo, Co-Mo and Ni-Mo binary sulfides upon thermal decomposition. The second major technical approach is to perform the liquefaction of coals unpregnated with the organometallic precursors under temperature-programmed conditions, where the programmed heat-up serves as a step for both catalyst activation and coal pretreatment or preconversion. Two to three different complexes for each of the Fe-Mo, Co-Mo, and Ni-Mo combinations will be prepared. Initial catalyst screening tests will be conducted using a subbituminous coal and a bituminous coal. Effects of coal rank and solvents will be examined with the selected bimetallic catalysts which showed much higher activity than the dispersed catalysts from conventional precursors.

  5. Optics and materials research for controlled radiant energy transfer in buildings. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.

    1996-07-01

    The primary objective of this project was to perform the optics and materials research necessary to identify and solve the technical problems associated with fabricating durable, variable reflectivity electrochromic windows for energy efficient buildings and vehicles. The research performed at the Tufts Electro-Optics Technology Center (EOTC) has identified and solved nearly all the significant problems, as discussed below in this final technical report. There still remains, however, one important problem to be solved--i.e., to better understand the science of deposition processes and thereby develop and optimize one or more production-worthy deposition processes that could be used for the practical production of affordable, variable reflectivity electrochromic windows. Therefore, it is recommended that such studies be carried out with the goals of: (1) determining the probable practical limits of performance; and, very importantly, (2) to develop and optimize deposition processes that could be used for the practical production of affordable electrochromic windows.

  6. NEET-AMM Final Technical Report on Laser Direct Manufacturing (LDM) for Nuclear Power Components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Scott; Baca, Georgina; O'Connor, Michael

    2015-12-31

    Final technical report summarizes the program progress and technical accomplishments of the Laser Direct Manufacturing (LDM) for Nuclear Power Components project. A series of experiments varying build process parameters (scan speed and laser power) were conducted at the outset to establish the optimal build conditions for each of the alloys. Fabrication was completed in collaboration with Quad City Manufacturing Laboratory (QCML). The density of all sample specimens was measured and compared to literature values. Optimal build process conditions giving fabricated part densities close to literature values were chosen for making mechanical test coupons. Test coupons whose principal axis is on the x-y plane (perpendicular to build direction) and on the z plane (parallel to build direction) were built and tested as part of the experimental build matrix to understand the impact of the anisotropic nature of the process.. Investigations are described 316L SS, Inconel 600, 718 and 800 and oxide dispersion strengthed 316L SS (Yttria) alloys.

  7. Liquefaction processes and systems and liquefaction process intermediate compositions

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hart, Todd R.; Billing, Justin M.; Maupin, Gary D.; Hallen, Richard T.; Anderson, Daniel B.

    2014-07-12

    Liquefaction processes are provided that can include: providing a biomass slurry solution having a temperature of at least 300.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 2000 psig; cooling the solution to a temperature of less than 150.degree. C.; and depressurizing the solution to release carbon dioxide from the solution and form at least part of a bio-oil foam. Liquefaction processes are also provided that can include: filtering the biomass slurry to remove particulates; and cooling and depressurizing the filtered solution to form the bio-oil foam. Liquefaction systems are provided that can include: a heated biomass slurry reaction zone maintained above 300.degree. C. and at least 2000 psig and in continuous fluid communication with a flash cooling/depressurization zone maintained below 150.degree. C. and between about 125 psig and about atmospheric pressure. Liquefaction systems are also provided that can include a foam/liquid separation system. Liquefaction process intermediate compositions are provided that can include a bio-oil foam phase separated from an aqueous biomass solids solution.

  8. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-08-01

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Process oils from Wilsonville Run 262 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 262 was operated from July 10 through September 30, 1991, in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) configuration with ash recycle. The feed coal was Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal. The high/low temperature sequence was used. Each reactor was operated at 50% of the available reactor volume. The interstage separator was in use throughout the run. The second-stage reactor was charged with aged Criterion 324 catalyst (Ni/Mo on 1/16 inch alumina extrudate support). Slurry catalysts and sulfiding agent were fed to the first-stage reactor. Molyvan L is an organometallic compound which contains 8.1% Mo, and is commercially available as an oil-soluble lubricant additive. It was used in Run 262 as a dispersed hydrogenation catalyst precursor, primarily to alleviate deposition problems which plagued past runs with Black Thunder coal. One test was made with little supported catalyst in the second stage. The role of phenolic groups in donor solvent properties was examined. In this study, four samples from direct liquefaction process oils were subjected to O-methylation of the phenolic groups, followed by chemical analysis and solvent quality testing.

  9. Final Technical Report on DOE Grant for Modeling of Plasma Rotation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K. C.

    2009-07-09

    This is the final technical report on the Modeling of Plasma Rotation in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-02ER54679. The research subjects, technical abstracts, and publications where details of the research results can be found are reported here.

  10. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1, 1993--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, G.P.

    1994-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in four areas of research under the general heading of Coal Liquefaction. Results of studies concerning the coliquefaction of coal with waste organic polymers or chemical products of these polymers were reported. Secondly, studies of catalytic systems for the production of clean transportation fuels from coal were discussed. Thirdly, investigations of the chemical composition of coals and their dehydrogenated counterparts were presented. These studies were directed toward elucidation of coal liquefaction processes on the chemical level. Finally, analytical methodologies developed for in situ monitoring of coal liquefaction were reported. Techniques utilizing model reactions and methods based on XAFS, ESR, and GC/MS are discussed.

  11. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this program is to design and fabricate an experimental ultra-fine particle generation system; use this system to generate ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles; and to access the ability of these ultra-fine catalyst particles to improve the performance of the solubilization stage of two-stage, catalytic-catalytic liquefaction processes. The effort applied to this program during this reporting period was devoted to experimental design and fabrication tasks.

  12. The latest developments and outlook for hydrogen liquefaction technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlig, K.; Decker, L.

    2014-01-29

    Liquefied hydrogen is presently mainly used for space applications and the semiconductor industry. While clean energy applications, for e.g. the automotive sector, currently contribute to this demand with a small share only, their demand may see a significant boost in the next years with the need for large scale liquefaction plants exceeding the current plant sizes by far. Hydrogen liquefaction for small scale plants with a maximum capacity of 3 tons per day (tpd) is accomplished with a Brayton refrigeration cycle using helium as refrigerant. This technology is characterized by low investment costs but lower process efficiency and hence higher operating costs. For larger plants, a hydrogen Claude cycle is used, characterized by higher investment but lower operating costs. However, liquefaction plants meeting the potentially high demand in the clean energy sector will need further optimization with regard to energy efficiency and hence operating costs. The present paper gives an overview of the currently applied technologies, including their thermodynamic and technical background. Areas of improvement are identified to derive process concepts for future large scale hydrogen liquefaction plants meeting the needs of clean energy applications with optimized energy efficiency and hence minimized operating costs. Compared to studies in this field, this paper focuses on application of new technology and innovative concepts which are either readily available or will require short qualification procedures. They will hence allow implementation in plants in the close future.

  13. The latest developments and outlook for hydrogen liquefaction technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlig, K.; Decker, L.

    2014-01-01

    Liquefied hydrogen is presently mainly used for space applications and the semiconductor industry. While clean energy applications, for e.g. the automotive sector, currently contribute to this demand with a small share only, their demand may see a significant boost in the next years with the need for large scale liquefaction plants exceeding the current plant sizes by far. Hydrogen liquefaction for small scale plants with a maximum capacity of 3 tons per day (tpd) is accomplished with a Brayton refrigeration cycle using helium as refrigerant. This technology is characterized by low investment costs but lower process efficiency and hence higher operating costs. For larger plants, a hydrogen Claude cycle is used, characterized by higher investment but lower operating costs. However, liquefaction plants meeting the potentially high demand in the clean energy sector will need further optimization with regard to energy efficiency and hence operating costs. The present paper gives an overview of the currently applied technologies, including their thermodynamic and technical background. Areas of improvement are identified to derive process concepts for future large scale hydrogen liquefaction plants meeting the needs of clean energy applications with optimized energy efficiency and hence minimized operating costs. Compared to studies in this field, this paper focuses on application of new technology and innovative concepts which are either readily available or will require short qualification procedures. They will hence allow implementation in plants in the close future.

  14. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W. ); Gutterman, C. ); Chander, S. )

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  15. DE-FG02-04ER63746 FinalTechnicalReport

    SciTech Connect

    Lidstrom, M.E.

    2009-09-05

    This is the final technical report for a project involving the study of stress response systems in the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans. Three stresses of importance for a mixed waste treatment strain were studied, heat shock, solvent shock, and phosphate starvation. In each case, specific genes involved in the ability to survive the stress were identified using a systems biology approach, and analysis of mutants was used to understand mechanisms. This study has led to increased understanding of the ways in which a potential treatment strain could be manipulated to survive multiple stresses for treatment of mixed wastes.

  16. [Tampa Electric Company IGCC project]. Final public design report; Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This final Public Design Report (PDR) provides completed design information about Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, which will demonstrate in a commercial 250 MW unit the operating parameters and benefits of the integration of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification with advanced combined cycle technology. Pending development of technically and commercially viable sorbent for the Hot Gas Cleanup System, the HGCU also is demonstrated. The report is organized under the following sections: design basis description; plant descriptions; plant systems; project costs and schedule; heat and material balances; general arrangement drawings; equipment list; and miscellaneous drawings.

  17. Alumina reinforced tetragonal zirconia (TZP) composites. Final technical report, July 1, 1993--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Shetty, D.K.

    1997-06-01

    This final technical report summarizes the significant research results obtained during the period July 1, 1993 through December 31, 1996 in the DOE-supported research project entitled, {open_quotes}Alumina Reinforced Tetragonal Zirconia (TZP) Composites{close_quotes}. The objective of the research was to develop high-strength and high-toughness ceramic composites by combining mechanisms of platelet, whisker or fiber reinforcement with transformation toughening. The approach used included reinforcement of Celia- or yttria-partially-stabilized zirconia (Ce-TZP or Y-TZP) with particulates, platelets, or continuous filaments of alumina.

  18. Opportunities given by final degree dissertations inside the EHEA to enhance ethical learning in technical education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román-Suero, S.; Sánchez-Martín, J.; Zamora-Polo, F.

    2013-05-01

    Final degree dissertations in cooperation and development (FDDCD) can be a suitable tool for raising the awareness of the university community. In this paper the paradigmatic actions made in this frame in the University of Extremadura for the last five years have been analysed with the aim of elucidating the possible ways to improve the teaching-learning process. For this target, FDDCDs have to be included in a learning project that is designed according to the needs and circumstances of each student. In this way, both the ethics and technical knowledge of future professionals are enhanced.

  19. Subtask 3.3 - Feasibility of Direct Coal Liquefaction in the Modern Economic Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Oster; Joshua Strege; Marc Kurz; Anthony Snyder; Melanie Jensen

    2009-06-15

    Coal liquefaction provides an alternative to petroleum for the production of liquid hydrocarbon-based fuels. There are two main processes to liquefy coal: direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). Because ICL has been demonstrated to a greater extent than DCL, ICL may be viewed as the lower-risk option when it comes to building a coal liquefaction facility. However, a closer look, based on conversion efficiencies and economics, is necessary to determine the optimal technology. This report summarizes historical DCL efforts in the United States, describes the technical challenges facing DCL, overviews Shenhua's current DCL project in China, provides a DCL conceptual cost estimate based on a literature review, and compares the carbon dioxide emissions from a DCL facility to those from an ICL facility.

  20. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The program objective is to generate ultra-fine catalyst particles (20 to 400 {Angstrom} in size) and quantify their potential for improving coal dissolution in the solubilization stage of two-stage catalytic-catalytic liquefaction systems. In the first quarterly report for this program the concept behind our approach was detailed, the structure of the program was presented, key technical issues were identified, preliminary designs were outlined, and technical progress was discussed. All progress made during the second quarter of this program related to experiment design of the proposed supercritical expansion technique for generating ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles. This second quarterly report, therefore, presents descriptions of the final designs for most system components; diagnostic approaches and designs for determining particles size and size distributions, and the composition of the pre-expansion supercritical solution; and the overall technique progress made during this reporting period. 6 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The authors have examined the pyrolysis of Argonne samples of Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coal in argon, undecane, Tetralin, and water. The effects of the pyrolysis on individual particles of coal were monitored visually in a cell with diamond windows capable of operation to temperature and pressures in excess of 500{degrees}C and 3000 psi. The changes in the particles from ambient to 460{degrees}C were recorded in real time on video tape, and images were then taken from the tape record and analyzed. The study showed that in argon both coals developed tars at 350{degrees}-370{degrees}C. The tars then quickly evaporated, leaving core particles remarkably similar in size and shape to the initial particles. These observations suggest that coal does not melt nor become fully liquid when heated. Nor does the softened coal undergo crosslinking to generate coke. Rather the simple loss of volatiles leaves behind the core residue as coke. Contrary to the common view, there appears to be no link between the bond-breaking processes yielding tar and the interaction of the coal with H-donors leading to liquefaction. Water as a medium was surprising in its effect. Both coals began to shrink at 300{degrees}-350{degrees}C, with the effect appearing to be more of an erosion rather than a uniform loss of substance as seen in Tetralin. The Wyodak continued to shrink to 460{degrees}C to about half its initial size. With the Illinois No. 6 coal, however, the process reversed at around 420{degrees}C, and the particles appeared to grow with the evolution of a tar, continuing to 460{degrees}C. The authors submit that this final observation is evidence for hydrothermal synthesis of hydrocarbons at these conditions.

  2. Reaction engineering in direct coal liquefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Y. T.

    Processes for direct coal liquefaction by solvent extraction are considered along with the structure and properties of coal and the mechanism of coal liquefaction, heteroatom removal during liquefaction, kinetic models for donor-solvent coal liquefaction, the design of coal liquefaction reactors, and the refining of coal liquids. Attention is given to the catalytic hydrogenation of coal in the presence of a solvent, the origin and character of coal, laboratory reactors for rate measurements, reaction networks based on lumped fractions, free-radical reaction models, reactor types, the compatibility of coal-derived liquids and petroleum fuels, the stability of coal liquids, thermal cracking, catalytic hydrotreating, catalytic cracking, and catalytic reforming.

  3. Performance-based design and evaluation for liquefaction-related seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Min

    complete procedure for estimating post-liquefaction settlement was developed based on the PEER PBEE framework with consideration of maximum volumetric strain. An analysis tool for this research was developed as a final product. WSLiq, the analysis tool, provides a user-friendly interface and various features to help engineers understand and evaluate liquefaction-related hazards using conventional, advanced, and performance-based procedures. WSLiq provides a tool that can be used assist engineers with liquefaction hazard evaluation and design.

  4. Documenting Liquefaction Failures Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Artificial Intelligence Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oommen, T.; Baise, L. G.; Gens, R.; Prakash, A.; Gupta, R. P.

    2009-12-01

    bands by neighborhood correlation image analysis using an artificial intelligence algorithm called support vector machine to remotely identify and document liquefaction failures across a region; and assess the reliability and accuracy of the thermal remote sensing approach in documenting regional liquefaction failures. Finally, we present the applicability of the satellite data analyzed and appropriateness of a multisensor and multispectral approach for documenting liquefaction related failures.

  5. Liquefaction sites, Imperial Valley, California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Youd, T.L.; Bennett, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Sands that did and did not liquefy at two sites during the 1979 Imperial Valley, Calif., earthquake (ML = 6.6) are identified and their properties evaluated. SPT tests were used to evaluate liquefaction susceptibility. Loose fine sands in an abandoned channel liquefied and produced sand boils, ground fissures, and a lateral spread at the Heber Road sites. Evidence of liquefaction was not observed over moderately dense over-bank sand east of the channel nor over dense point-bar sand to the west. -from ASCE Publications Information

  6. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    The advantages of biomass as a feedstock are examined and biomass conversion techniques are described. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products gas, wood tars, and charcoal can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  7. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  8. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to design and fabricate an experimental ultra-fine particle generation system; use this system to generate ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles; and to access the ability of these ultra-fine catalyst particles to improve the performance of the solubilization stage of two-stage, catalytic-catalytic liquefaction processes. The effort applied to this program during this reporting period focused on assembling the supercritical particle generation/collection system. Effort was applied to constructing a shakedown testing plan also.

  9. Dependence of liquefaction behavior on coal characteristics. Part V. Penetration of solvent vapor into coal particles. Final technical report, March 1981-February 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, S. T.; Duda, J. L.

    1984-04-01

    The investigation of the sorption of solvent vapor into high volatile bituminous coal at temperatures up to 175/sup 0/C indicates that the solvent weight gain involves a complex coupling of several phenomena including adsorption, sorption into the coal matrix, capillary condensation and extraction into the condensed vapor phase. It appears that the sorption in untreated coal is dominated by capillary condensation induced by solvent extraction. As a result, an equilibrium state is not attainable. This extraction mechanism can be eliminated by the preextraction of the coal particles with pyridine. Vapor sorption experiments conducted on pyridine-extracted coal can be used to obtain information concerning the adsorption process and the process associated with the diffusion of the solvent molecules into the coal matrix. Vapor sorption studies conducted on pyridine-extracted coal particles indicate that the sorption process involves a coupling of adsorption, molecular diffusion and a relaxation of the coal structure to a new state. The results have been compared with models derived to describe the coupling of molecular diffusion and polymer chain relaxation in glassy polymers. The thermodynamics of solvent sorption into coal particles is complicated by the presence of severe hysteresis effects. The amount of solvent sorbed by a coal particle is not only a function of solvent activity but depends upon the past history of the sorption process which influences the structure of coal. As a result, fits all the data to various models were obtained but the resulting parameters had doubtful physical significance. (LTN)

  10. Surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    Improved process of coal liquefaction utilizing nonaqueous surfactant has increased oil yield from 50 to about 80%. Asphaltene molecule formation of colloid particles is prevented by surfactant. Separated molecules present more surface area for hydrogenation reaction. Lower requirements for temperature, pressure, and hydrogen lead to reduction in capital and operation costs.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL LIQUEFACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of a study of the environmental aspects of 14 of the most prominent coal liquefaction systems, in terms of background, process description, major operations, input and output streams, status, and schedule of system development. As a result of the stu...

  12. Advanced coal liquefaction. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-02

    Molecular level liquid phase separation was explored using modified microporous ceramic membranes with pore size reduced from 40{Angstrom} via chemical vapor deposition. At room temperature, membranes with pore sizes <30{Angstrom} were sufficient to achieve >97% rejection of naphthyl-bibenzyl-methane (NBBM) in toluene, likely attributed to the hindrance effect of NBBM through the porous avenue of the membrane. The rejection diminished dramatically as the temperature was increased. The permeance of the mixture was substantially lower than that of the solvent resulted from the interference by the solute through the transport avenue. Also, it was found that the rejection increases along with the transmembrane pressure increase, probably attributed to the pore size distribution of the membrane. The smaller pore sizes become accessible to the solvent while rejecting the solute at the higher pressure. In addition to size-based separation, active transport of molecules through an appropriate pore size at 300-400{degrees}C was observed, as a result of interaction with the surface. Decomposition of NBBM took place at 400{degrees}C in a modified membrane packed with the catalyst synthesized using the similar protocol as membranes. The separation property of this membrane at 400{degrees}C was analyzed indirectly based upon the reaction product distribution.

  13. ADVANCED DIRECT LIQUEFACTION CONCEPTS FOR PETC GENERIC UNITS

    SciTech Connect

    Adam J. Berkovich

    2000-02-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 is reported for the period July 1, 1998 to September 30, 1998. This contract is with the University of kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Researc, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two-stage liquefaction process several novel concepts, which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This project has been modified to include an investigation into the production of value added materials from coal using liquefaction based technologies.

  14. Final technical evaluation report for the proposed revised reclamation plan for the Atlas Corporation Moab Mill

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This final Technical Evaluation Report (TER) summarizes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff`s review of Atlas Corporation`s proposed reclamation plan for its uranium mill tailings pile near Moab, Utah. The proposed reclamation would allow Atlas to (1) reclaim the tailings pile for permanent disposal and long-term custodial care by a government agency in its current location on the Moab site, (2) prepare the site for closure, and (3) relinquish responsibility of the site after having its NRC license terminated. The NRC staff concludes that, subject to license conditions identified in the TER, the proposed reclamation plan meets the requirements identified in NRC regulations, which appear primarily in 10 CFR Part 40. 112 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Final Technical Report for Grant DE-FG02-04ER54795

    SciTech Connect

    Merlino, Robert L

    2015-10-02

    This is the final technical report for DOE Grant #DE-FG02-04ER54795-Experimental Investigations of Fundamental Processes in Dusty Plasmas. A plasma is an ionized gas, and a dusty plasmas is a plasma that contains, in addition to electrons and ions, micron-sized dust particles. The dust particles acquire and electric charge in the plasma by collecting electrons and ions. The electrons move more rapidly than the ions, so the dust charge is negative. A 1 micron dust particle in a typical low temperature plasma has a charge corresponding to approximately 2000 electrons. Dusty plasmas are naturally found in astrophysical plasmas, planetary rings, technological plasmas, and magnetic fusion plasmas. The goal of this project was to study in the laboratory, the basic physical processes that occur in dusty plasmas. This report provides a summary of the major scientific products and activities of this award.

  16. Burning of hazardous waste in boilers and industrial furnaces--EPA. Final rule: corrections; technical amendments.

    PubMed

    1991-07-17

    On February 21, 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a final rule to regulate air emissions from the burning of hazardous waste in boilers and industrial furnaces (56 FR 7134). Today's notice corrects typographical and editorial errors that appeared in the regulatory text, including corrections to appendices II and III, and adds two appendices, appendix IX and appendix X, to part 266. Appendices IX and X were not ready at the time of publication; therefore, a note was placed in the appropriate location in the rule to inform readers that these appendices were to be published at a later date. Copies of these appendices were, however, made available to the public through the RCRA Docket maintained at EPA and through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). PMID:10112734

  17. Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Prismatic HTGR Conceptual Design Project - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Saurwein, John

    2011-07-15

    This report is the Final Technical Report for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Prismatic HTGR Conceptual Design Project conducted by a team led by General Atomics under DOE Award DE-NE0000245. The primary overall objective of the project was to develop and document a conceptual design for the Steam Cycle Modular Helium Reactor (SC-MHR), which is the reactor concept proposed by General Atomics for the NGNP Demonstration Plant. The report summarizes the project activities over the entire funding period, compares the accomplishments with the goals and objectives of the project, and discusses the benefits of the work. The report provides complete listings of the products developed under the award and the key documents delivered to the DOE.

  18. Final technical report; Mercury Release from Organic matter (OM) and OM-Coated Mineral Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, George

    2014-10-02

    This document is the final technical report for a project designed to address fundamental processes controlling the release of mercury from flood plain soils associated with East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee near the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge facility. The report summarizes the activities, findings, presentations, and publications resulting from an award to the U.S. Geological that were part of a larger overall effort including Kathy Nagy (University of Illinois, Chicago, Ill) and Joseph Ryan (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO). The specific charge for the U.S.G.S. portion of the study was to provide analytical support for the larger group effort (Nagy and Ryan), especially with regard to analyses of Hg and dissolved organic matter, and to provide information about the release of mercury from the floodplain soils.

  19. Liquefaction, flow, and associated ground failure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Youd, T. Leslie

    1973-01-01

    Ambiguities in the use of the term liquefaction and in defining the relation between liquefaction and ground failure have led to encumbered communication between workers in various fields and between specialists in the same field, and the possibility that evaluations of liquefaction potential could be misinterpreted or misapplied. Explicit definitions of liquefaction and related concepts are proposed herein. These definitions, based on observed laboratory behavior, are then used to clarify the relation between liquefaction and ground failure. Soil liquefaction is defined as the transformation of a granular material from a solid into a liquefied state as a consequence of increased pore-water pressures. This definition avoids confusion between liquefaction and possible flow-failure conditions after liquefaction. Flow-failure conditions are divided into two types: (1) unlimited flow if pore-pressure reductions caused by dilatancy during flow deformation are not sufficient to solidify the material and thus arrest flow, and (2) limited flow if they are sufficient to solidify the material after a finite deformation. After liquefaction in the field, unlimited flow commonly leads to flow landslides, whereas limited flow leads at most to lateral-spreading landslides. Quick-condition failures such as loss of bearing capacity form a third type of ground failure associated with liquefaction.

  20. Separation of solids from coal liquefaction products using sonic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Slomka, B.J.

    1994-10-01

    Product streams containing solids are generated in both direct and indirect coal liquefaction processes. This project seeks to improve the effectiveness of coal liquefaction by novel application of sonic and ultrasonic energy to separation of solids from coal liquefaction streams.

  1. [Study of institutional issues relating to transportation of high level waste]. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-25

    This is the ``seventh`` and final Quarterly Report under the scope of work for cooperative agreement between the Western Interstate Energy Board and the US Department of Energy. The report covers the period January--March 1993. The cooperative agreement was to expire in June 1992, but DOE granted an extension through March 24, 1993. Since this is the last Quarterly Report under the expired cooperative agreement, most tasks are noted as being completed. Two final items, however, will soon be sent to DOE -- final minutes from the March 9--11 High- Level Radioactive Waste Committee meeting, and the Year-End Technical Report. Some highlights from the quarter: The Committee decided on a preferred format for the revised Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. The document would be 100- 200 pages, accompanied by a series of white papers on key transportation elements. A 25--30 page handbook for educating western state elected officials would also be prepared. On March 24, the Committee sent a letter to DOE commenting on the Near-Site Transportation Infrastructure report findings. The Committee is concerned that infrastructure limitations may limit the rail shipping option in many instances, even after upgrades have been implemented. The NSTI findings may also have significant relevance to the decision to develop multi-purpose canisters. On April 1, the Committee sent DOE the white paper, Transportation Implications of Various NWPA Program Options, which determined that DOE cannot develop a national transportation system by 1998 for shipments to an MRS or other federal storage facility.

  2. Learning about Equipment from Technical Documentation: A Basic Comprehensible Writing Aid. Final Report. Technical Report No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieras, David E.

    Theoretical and empirical work was conducted on the role of the "mental model," or how-it-works information, in learning to operate equipment. The original project was concerned with empirical and cognitive modeling studies of how people learn to operate equipment from the kind of information contained in technical documentation. The goal was to…

  3. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1990--December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The program objective is to generate ultra-fine catalyst particles (20 to 400 {Angstrom} in size) and quantify their potential for improving coal dissolution in the solubilization stage of two-stage catalytic-catalytic liquefaction systems. It has been shown that catalyst activity increases significantly with decreasing particle size for particle sizes in the submicron range. Ultra-fine catalyst particle generation will be accomplished using a novel two-step process. First, the severe conditions produced by a supercritical fluid (e.g., supercritical H{sub 2}O or CO{sub 2}) will be used to dissolve suitable catalyst compounds (e.g., Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeS{sub 2}, and/or Fe(CO){sub 5}). Sulfur containing compounds may be added to the supercritical solvent during catalyst dissolution to enhance the catalytic activity of the resulting ultra-fine, iron based, catalyst particles.

  4. Final Technical Report: "Representing Endogenous Technological Change in Climate Policy Models: General Equilibrium Approaches"

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Sue Wing

    2006-04-18

    The research supported by this award pursued three lines of inquiry: (1) The construction of dynamic general equilibrium models to simulate the accumulation and substitution of knowledge, which has resulted in the preparation and submission of several papers: (a) A submitted pedagogic paper which clarifies the structure and operation of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models (C.2), and a review article in press which develops a taxonomy for understanding the representation of technical change in economic and engineering models for climate policy analysis (B.3). (b) A paper which models knowledge directly as a homogeneous factor, and demonstrates that inter-sectoral reallocation of knowledge is the key margin of adjustment which enables induced technical change to lower the costs of climate policy (C.1). (c) An empirical paper which estimates the contribution of embodied knowledge to aggregate energy intensity in the U.S. (C.3), followed by a companion article which embeds these results within a CGE model to understand the degree to which autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) is attributable to technical change as opposed to sub-sectoral shifts in industrial composition (C.4) (d) Finally, ongoing theoretical work to characterize the precursors and implications of the response of innovation to emission limits (E.2). (2) Data development and simulation modeling to understand how the characteristics of discrete energy supply technologies determine their succession in response to emission limits when they are embedded within a general equilibrium framework. This work has produced two peer-reviewed articles which are currently in press (B.1 and B.2). (3) Empirical investigation of trade as an avenue for the transmission of technological change to developing countries, and its implications for leakage, which has resulted in an econometric study which is being revised for submission to a journal (E.1). As work commenced on this topic, the U.S. withdrawal

  5. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Charles

    2015-05-15

    In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intent prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical information

  6. Quantification of seismic liquefaction risk

    SciTech Connect

    Arango, I.; Ostadan, F.; Lewis, M.R.; Gutierrez, B.J.

    1996-02-29

    Explicit goals of acceptable risk for natural phenomena hazards (earthquake, extreme wind, and flood) have been established by the Department of Energy (DOE) 1994. Closely associated to the earthquake risk is the issue of seismically-induced liquefaction. Because deterministic methods currently available to answer the question to whether a site is liquefiable or not are incapable of providing a clue as to the likelihood or risk of liquefaction, the application of the criteria to a given facility requires that alternative evaluation techniques be formulated. This paper describes the application to a nuclear facility of a newly developed probabilistic methodology which rigorously accounts for geotechnical and seismologic uncertainties. The results of the analyses are compared with the acceptable levels of risk presented by DOE. This comparison is used to emphasize the power of the methodology as a tool in the decision-making processes.

  7. Surfactant-Assisted Coal Liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1993-01-01

    Obtaining liquid fuels from coal which are economically competitive with those obtained from petroleum based sources is a significant challenge for the researcher as well as the chemical industry. Presently, the economics of coal liquefaction are not favorable because of relatively intense processing conditions (temperatures of 430 degrees C and pressures of 2200 psig), use of a costly catalyst, and a low quality product slate of relatively high boiling fractions. The economics could be made more favorable by achieving adequate coal conversions at less intense processing conditions and improving the product slate. A study has been carried out to examine the effect of a surfactant in reducing particle agglomeration and improving hydrodynamics in the coal liquefaction reactor to increase coal conversions...

  8. Complete liquefaction methods and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2013-10-15

    A method and apparatus are described to provide complete gas utilization in the liquefaction operation from a source of gas without return of natural gas to the source thereof from the process and apparatus. The mass flow rate of gas input into the system and apparatus may be substantially equal to the mass flow rate of liquefied product output from the system, such as for storage or use.

  9. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Hou, L.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-08-01

    Low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process- This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals in the subsequent liquefaction. This report describes the recent progress of our work. Substantial progress has been made in the spectroscopic characterization of structure and pretreatment-liquefaction reactions of a Montana subbituminous Coal (DECS-9), and thermochemical analysis of three mw and reacted bituminous coals. Temperature programmed liquefaction has been performed on three low-rank coals both in the presence and absence of dispersed molybdenum sulfide catalyst. We also performed a detailed study of the effects of mild thermal pretreatment -- drying in air and in vacuum -- on thermal and catalytic liquefaction of a Wyodak subbituminous coal. Important information on structure and structure transformation during thermal pretreatment and liquefaction reactions of low-rank coals has been derived by applying solid-state CPMAS [sup 13]C NMR and flash pyrolysis-GC-MS (Py-GC-MS) for characterization of the macromolecular network of a Montana subbituminous coal and its residues from temperature-programmed and nonprogrammed liquefaction (TPL and N-PL) at final temperatures ranging from 300 to 425[degree]C in H-donor and non-donor solvents. The results revealed that this coal contains significant quantities of oxygen-bearing structures, corresponding to about 18 O-bound C per 100 C atoms and one O-bound C per every 5 to 6 aromatic C.

  10. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Saini, A.K.; Burgess, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-12-01

    During this quarterly period progress has been made in the following three subjects related to the effects of low-temperature thermal and catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. First, the liquefaction behavior of three bituminous coals with a carbon content ranging from 77% to 85% was evaluated spectroscopically by [sup 13]C NMR and pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to delineate the structural changes that occur in the coal during liquefaction. Complementary data includes ultimate and proximate analysis, along with optical microscopy for maceral determinations. Even though these are all bituminous coals they exhibit quite different physical and chemical characteristics. The coals vary in rank, ranging from HvC b to HvA b, in petrographic composition, different maceral percentages, and in chemical nature, percent of carbon and of volatiles. It is these variations that govern the products, their distribution, and conversion percentages. Some of the products formed can be traced to a specific maceral group. Second, pyrolysis-GC-MS and FTIR techniques were used to characterize Wyodak coal before and after drying in vacuum and in air and the residues from its thermal and catalytic liquefactions. The analysis of the air-dried coal shows a decrease in the phenolic type structures in the coal network and increase in the carbonyl structures as the oxidative drying proceeds. An enhanced decrease in the carbonyl structure is observed in the liquefaction residues from the raw coal as compared to that of the vacuum dried coal. The analyses of the liquefaction residues of the air-dried coal show an increase in the ether linkages which may have a negative impact on liquefaction. The extent of the solvent adduction also increases during liquefaction with the extent of oxidation of the coal. Finally, the effects of reaction conditions were investigated on conversion of low-rank coals using a Texas subbituminous coal.

  11. 48 CFR 252.235-7011 - Final scientific or technical report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... contract to the Defense Technical Information Center, Attn: DTIC-O, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir... Technical Information Center or follow the instructions at http://www.dtic.mil. (End of clause)...

  12. 48 CFR 252.235-7011 - Final scientific or technical report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contract to the Defense Technical Information Center, Attn: DTIC-O, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir... Technical Information Center or follow the instructions at http://www.dtic.mil. (End of clause)...

  13. 48 CFR 252.235-7011 - Final scientific or technical report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... contract to the Defense Technical Information Center, Attn: DTIC-O, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir... Technical Information Center or follow the instructions at http://www.dtic.mil. (End of clause)...

  14. 48 CFR 252.235-7011 - Final scientific or technical report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... contract to the Defense Technical Information Center, Attn: DTIC-O, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir... Technical Information Center or follow the instructions at http://www.dtic.mil. (End of clause)...

  15. 48 CFR 252.235-7011 - Final scientific or technical report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... contract to the Defense Technical Information Center, Attn: DTIC-O, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir... Technical Information Center or follow the instructions at http://www.dtic.mil. (End of clause)...

  16. An Inquiry into Testing of Information Retrieval Systems. Comparative Systems Laboratory Final Technical Report, Part III: CSL Related Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zull, Carolyn Gifford, Ed.; And Others

    This third volume of the Comparative Systems Laboratory (CSL) Final Technical Report is a collection of relatively independent studies performed on CSL materials. Covered in this document are studies on: (1) properties of files, including a study of the growth rate of a dictionary of index terms as influenced by number of documents in the file and…

  17. Studying the Cost and Value of Library Services: Final Report. Technical Report APLAB/94-3/1,2,3,4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantor, Paul B.; And Others

    This is the final technical report (in three parts) of a 15-month long project to study the costs and value of library functions at five major research libraries. Twenty-one services or service aspects were studied, and numerous measures of the importance or benefit of the service to the users were made. These measures were studied together to lay…

  18. Transfer and Use of Training Technology in Air Force Technical Training: A Model to Guide Training Development. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haverland, Edgar M.

    This guide describes the final stage in a project to develop an Air Force technical training development model and presents the model. Chapter 1 summarizes the total project and its objective to facilitate the effective use of training technology through the development of a model for matching training approaches or innovations with specific…

  19. An Approach to Developing Independent Learning and Non-Technical Skills Amongst Final Year Mining Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobbs, C. G.; Grayson, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    There is mounting evidence to show that engineers need more than technical skills to succeed in industry. This paper describes a curriculum innovation in which so-called "soft" skills, specifically inter-personal and intra-personal skills, were integrated into a final year mining engineering course. The instructional approach was designed to…

  20. Selected Alternatives for Serving More High School-Aged Students in the Vocational-Technical Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell, and Co., Hartford, CT.

    This final report discusses a project designed to study increased use of the 16 vocational-technical (VT) schools in Connecticut to serve more individuals of high school age; compare advantages and disadvantages of feasible alternatives; and recommend viable approaches for increasing facility use for serving more individuals. Chapter I outlines…

  1. Final Technical Progress Report: Development of Low-Cost Suspension Heliostat; December 7, 2011 - December 6, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, W.

    2013-01-01

    Final technical progress report of SunShot Incubator Solaflect Energy. The project succeeded in demonstrating that the Solaflect Suspension Heliostat design is viable for large-scale CSP installations. Canting accuracy is acceptable and is continually improving as Solaflect improves its understanding of this design. Cost reduction initiatives were successful, and there are still many opportunities for further development and further cost reduction.

  2. 77 FR 43405 - Final Standard Review Plan, Branch Technical Position 7-19 on Guidance for Evaluation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... COMMISSION Final Standard Review Plan, Branch Technical Position 7-19 on Guidance for Evaluation of Diversity... ``Guidance for Evaluation of Diversity and Defense-in-Depth in Digital Computer-Based Instrumentation and Control Systems.'' This BTP is to be cited as the acceptance criteria for Diversity and...

  3. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 1: Transmittal documents; Executive summary; Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described.

  4. 77 FR 47495 - Final Priority; Technical Assistance on State Data Collection, Analysis, and Reporting-National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... (NPP) for this competition in the Federal Register on May 4, 2012 (77 FR 26522). That notice contained... State Data Collection, Analysis, and Reporting--National IDEA Technical Assistance Center on Early...; Technical Assistance on State Data Collection, Analysis, and Reporting--National IDEA Technical...

  5. A Revision of Technical Mathematics Based on the NCTM Standards. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Near, Barbara

    Between 1993 and 1996, Henry Ford Community College (Michigan) worked with business, industry, and technical instructors to revise their Technical Mathematics program in accordance with the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Standards. The purpose of the project was to restructure the technical math curriculum and create a context…

  6. Vadose zone microbial community structure and activity in metal/radionuclide contaminated sediments. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Balkwill, David L.

    2002-08-17

    This final technical report describes the research carried out during the final two months of the no-cost extension ending 11/14/01. The primary goals of the project were (1) to determine the potential for transformation of Cr(VI) (oxidized, mobile) to Cr(III) (reduced, immobile) under unsaturated conditions as a function of different levels and combinations of (a) chromium, (b) nitrate (co-disposed with Cr), and (c) molasses (inexpensive bioremediation substrate), and (2) to determine population structure and activity in experimental treatments by characterization of the microbial community by signature biomarker analysis and by RT-PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S ribosomal RNA genes. It was determined early in the one-year no-cost extension period that the T-RFLP approach was problematic in regard to providing information on the identities of microorganisms in the samples examined. As a result, it could not provide the detailed information on microbial community structure that was needed to assess the effects of treatments with chromium, nitrate, and/or molasses. Therefore, we decided to obtain the desired information by amplifying (using TR-PCR, with the same primers used for T-RFLP) and cloning 16S rRNA gene sequences from the same RNA extracts that were used for T-RFLP analysis. We also decided to use a restriction enzyme digest procedure (fingerprinting procedure) to place the clones into types. The primary focus of the research carried out during this report period was twofold: (a) to complete the sequencing of the clones, and (b) to analyze the clone sequences phylogenetically in order to determine the relatedness of the bacteria detected in the samples to each other and to previously described genera and species.

  7. Liquefaction macrophenomena in the great Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Longwei; Yuan, Xiaoming; Cao, Zhenzhong; Hou, Longqing; Sun, Rui; Dong, Lin; Wang, Weiming; Meng, Fanchao; Chen, Hongjuan

    2009-06-01

    On May 12, 2008 at 14:28, a catastrophic magnitude M s 8.0 earthquake struck the Sichuan Province of China. The epicenter was located at Wenchuan (31.00°N, 103.40°E). Liquefaction macrophenomena and corresponding destruction was observed throughout a vast area of 500 km long and 200 km wide following the earthquake. This paper illustrates the geographic distribution of the liquefaction and the relationship between liquefaction behavior and seismic intensity, and summarizes the liquefaction macrophenomena, including sandboils and waterspouts, ground subsidence, ground fissures etc., and relevant liquefaction features. A brief summary of the structural damage caused by liquefaction is presented and discussed. Based on comparisons with liquefaction phenomena observed in the 1976 Tangshan and 1975 Haicheng earthquakes, preliminary analyses were performed, which revealed some new features of liquefaction behavior and associated issues arising from this event. The site investigation indicated that the spatial non-uniformity of liquefaction distribution was obvious and most of the liquefied sites were located in regions of seismic intensity VIII. However, liquefaction phenomena at ten different sites in regions of seismic intensity VI were also observed for the first time in China mainland. Sandboils and waterspouts ranged from centimeters to tens of meters, with most between 1 m to 3 m. Dramatically high water/sand ejections, e.g., more than 10 m, were observed at four different sites. The sand ejections included silty sand, fine sand, medium sand, course sand and gravel, but the ejected sand amount was less than that in the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. Possible liquefaction of natural gravel soils was observed for the first time in China mainland.

  8. A configuration space toolkit for automated spatial reasoning: Technical results and LDRD project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, P.G.; LaFarge, R.A.

    1997-02-01

    A robot`s configuration space (c-space) is the space of its kinematic degrees of freedom, e.g., the joint-space of an arm. Sets in c-space can be defined that characterize a variety of spatial relationships, such as contact between the robot and its environment. C-space techniques have been fundamental to research progress in areas such as motion planning and physically-based reasoning. However, practical progress has been slowed by the difficulty of implementing the c-space abstraction inside each application. For this reason, we proposed a Configuration Space Toolkit of high-performance algorithms and data structures meeting these needs. Our intent was to develop this robotics software to provide enabling technology to emerging applications that apply the c-space abstraction, such as advanced motion planning, teleoperation supervision, mechanism functional analysis, and design tools. This final report presents the research results and technical achievements of this LDRD project. Key results and achievements included (1) a hybrid Common LISP/C prototype that implements the basic C-Space abstraction, (2) a new, generic, algorithm for constructing hierarchical geometric representations, and (3) a C++ implementation of an algorithm for fast distance computation, interference detection, and c-space point-classification. Since the project conclusion, motion planning researchers in Sandia`s Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center have been using the CSTk libcstk.so C++ library. The code continues to be used, supported, and improved by projects in the ISRC.

  9. Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications: electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. Final Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lonergan, Mark

    2015-05-29

    Final technical report for Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications, electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. The central goal of the work we completed was been to understand the photochemical and photovoltaic properties of ionically functionalized conjugated polymers (conjugated ionomers or polyelectrolytes) and energy conversion systems based on them. We primarily studied two classes of conjugated polymer interfaces that we developed based either upon undoped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in ionic composition (the ionic junction) or doped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in doping type (the p-n junction). The materials used for these studies have primarily been the polyacetylene ionomers. We completed a detailed study of p-n junctions with systematically varying dopant density, photochemical creation of doped junctions, and experimental and theoretical work on charge transport and injection in polyacetylene ionomers. We have also completed related work on the use of conjugated ionomers as interlayers that improve the efficiency or organic photovoltaic systems and studied several important aspects of the chemistry of ionically functionalized semiconductors, including mechanisms of so-called "anion-doping", the formation of charge transfer complexes with oxygen, and the synthesis of new polyfluorene polyelectrolytes. We also worked worked with the Haley group at the University of Oregon on new indenofluorene-based organic acceptors.

  10. Final Technical Report - SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    2012-07-01

    Final technical report for research performed by Dr. Thomas G. Jenkins in collaboration with Professor Dalton D. Schnack on SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodyanics, DE-FC02-06ER54899, for the period of 8/15/06 - 8/14/11. This report centers on the Slow MHD physics campaign work performed by Dr. Jenkins while at UW-Madison and then at Tech-X Corporation. To make progress on the problem of RF induced currents affect magnetic island evolution in toroidal plasmas, a set of research approaches are outlined. Three approaches can be addressed in parallel. These are: (1) Analytically prescribed additional term in Ohm's law to model the effect of localized ECCD current drive; (2) Introduce an additional evolution equation for the Ohm's law source term. Establish a RF source 'box' where information from the RF code couples to the fluid evolution; and (3) Carry out a more rigorous analytic calculation treating the additional RF terms in a closure problem. These approaches rely on the necessity of reinvigorating the computation modeling efforts of resistive and neoclassical tearing modes with present day versions of the numerical tools. For the RF community, the relevant action item is - RF ray tracing codes need to be modified so that general three-dimensional spatial information can be obtained. Further, interface efforts between the two codes require work as well as an assessment as to the numerical stability properties of the procedures to be used.

  11. Rawlins UCG Demonstration Project. Final technical progress report, January 1, 1987--February 9, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-03

    Department of Energy Participation in the Rawlins UCG Demonstration Project began officially on November 9, 1987. Even though their financial participation began at this time, they will receive technical information from the start of the project which was on January 1, 1987. The Rawlins UCG Demonstration Project is progressing in Phase I with the majority of the emphasis on facility design, site characterization and the environmental work. The site characterization field work is estimated to be completed by the end of February with the final report completion towards the end of Phase I. The facility design effort is close to the 40% level. It is anticipated that all permits will be applied for in Phase I and most of them will be granted by the end of Phase I. The obtaining of the private financing continues to be a major activity in the project. All of the financing must be in place before the continuation for DOE funding to Phase II will be applied for.

  12. Volatiles combustion in fluidized beds. Final technical report, 4 September 1992--4 June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergrass, R.A. II; Raffensperger, C.; Hesketh, R.P.

    1996-02-29

    The goal of this project is to investigate the conditions in which volatiles will burn within both the dense and freeboard regions of fluidized beds. Experiments using a fluidized bed operated at incipient fluidization are being conducted to characterize the effect of particle surface area, initial fuel concentration, and particle type on the inhibition of volatiles within a fluidized bed. A review of the work conducted under this grant is presented in this Final Technical Report. Both experimental and theoretical work have been conducted to examine the inhibition of the combustion by the fluidized bed material, sand. It has been shown that particulate phase at incipient fluidization inhibits the combustion of propane by free radical destruction at the surface of sand particles within the particulate phase. The implications of these findings is that at bed temperatures lower than the critical temperatures, gas combustion can only occur in the bubble phase or at the top surface of a bubbling fluidized bed. In modeling fluidized bed combustion this inhibition by the particulate phase should be included.

  13. Final Technical Report, Grant DE-FG02-87ER13714, "Fundamental Studies of Metastable Liquids"

    SciTech Connect

    Pablo G. Debenedetti

    2009-03-09

    Grant DE-FG02-87ER13714 supported fundamental work on the physical properties of metastable liquids from 6/1/87 to 4/30/08. Renewal proposals were submitted every three years (1990, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005), and included, in every case, a detailed Final Technical Report on the previous three years. Accordingly, the bulk of this report covers the final 2-year period 5/1/06 to 4/30/08 of this grant, which is not covered in any of the previous Final Technical Reports. This is preceded by a brief overview of the main research objectives and principal accomplishments during these very fruitful and productive 21 years of DOE-funded research.

  14. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Analysis of coal-derived synthetic crude from HRI CTSL Run CC-15 and HRI Run CMSL-2

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Kim, J.; Shay, J.

    1994-01-01

    Under subcontract from CONSOL Inc. (US DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-89PC89883), IIT Research Institute, National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research applied a suite of petroleum inspection tests to two direct coal liquefactions net product oils produced in two direct coal liquefaction processing runs. Two technical reports, authored by NIPER, are presented here. The following assessment briefly describes the two coal liquefaction runs and highlights the major findings of the project. It generally is concluded that the methods used in these studies can help define the value of liquefaction products and the requirements for further processing. The application of these methods adds substantially to our understanding of the coal liquefaction process and the chemistry of coal-derived materials. These results will be incorporated by CONSOL into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of this contract.

  15. Novel supports for coal liquefaction catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This research is divided into three parts: (1) Evaluation of Alkaline-Earth-Promoted CoMo/Alumina Catalysts in a Bench Scale Hydrotreater, (2) Development of a Novel Catalytic Coal Liquefaction Microreactor (CCLM) Unit, and (3) Evaluation of Novel Catalyst Preparations for Direct Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  16. Solvent treatment of coal for improved liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Appell, Herbert R.; Narain, Nand K.; Utz, Bruce R.

    1986-05-06

    Increased liquefaction yield is obtained by pretreating a slurry of solid carbonaceous material and a liquid hydrocarbonaceous solvent at a temperature above 200.degree. C. but below 350.degree. C. for a period of 10 minutes to four hours prior to exposure to liquefaction temperatures.

  17. Hydrogen-donor coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Jr., Edward L.; Mitchell, Willard N.

    1980-01-01

    Improved liquid yields are obtained during the hydrogen-donor solvent liquefaction of coal and similar carbonaceous solids by maintaining a higher concentration of material having hydrogenation catalytic activity in the downstream section of the liquefaction reactor system than in the upstream section of the system.

  18. ADVANCED DIRECT LIQUEFACTION CONCEPTS FOR PETC GENERIC UNITS

    SciTech Connect

    Adam J. Berkovich

    2000-03-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 is reported for the period April 1, 1998 to June 30, 1998. This contract is with the University of kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Researc, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two-stage liquefaction process several novel concepts, which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing.

  19. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Reported here are the results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC9104O during the period October 1, 1996 to December 31, 1996. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOI+ Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work invoives the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing.

  20. High dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly report No. 7, February 23, 1993--May 22, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschon, A.S.; Wilson, R.B.

    1993-08-19

    The objectives of this project are to study the effect of pretreatment methods on the two-stage liquefaction process. In particular, the effects of dispersed catalysts and carbon monoxide atmospheres on a coal liquefaction process. The project is divided into three technical tasks. Task 1 involves the analyses of the liquefaction products derived from liquefaction experiments using the catalysts Fe(CO){sub 5} and the sulfated iron catalyst, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}SO{sub 4}. We also analyzed the products derived from treating the recycle vehicle under coal liquefaction conditions with no coal or catalyst present, and found that the toluene and THF fractions had low H/C ratios. No CO or CO{sub 2} gases were detected after reaction, although considerable amount of methane gas was produced, suggesting that during the liquefaction runs the carbon oxides are produced only from the coal, as expected, but that methane gas is produced both from the recycle solvent and the coal. We now have more information about the recycle solvent from Wilsonville, who report that the residue was 63%, composed of 45% resid and 18% insoluble inorganic (CI), and a distilable portion of 37% (1050{degrees}F). During this quarter we compared coal conversions using Fe(CO){sub 5} with CO and H{sub 2}/CO atmospheres and determined the effect of using sulfated iron (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}SO{sub 4}) as a conversion catalyst. Also, the coal liquefaction recycle vehicle was subjected to coal product distribution. We found that the Fe(CO){sub 5} under a pure hydrogen atmosphere gave better conversions than under a CO/H{sub 2} atmosphere in terms of oils and asphaltenes but was equal in terms of overall conversion into soluble fractions.

  1. SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. Volume 43; SeaWiFS Prelaunch Technical Report Series Final Cumulative Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Hooker, Stanford B.

    1998-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), which ceased operations in 1986, after an eight-year mission. SeaWiFS was launched on 1 August 1997, on the SeaStar satellite, built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The SeaWiFS Project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), undertook the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. This documentation, entitled the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, is in the form of NASA Technical Memorandum Number 104566 and 1998-104566. All reports published are volumes within the series. This particular volume, which is the last of the so-called Prelaunch Series serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous 42 volumes and consists of 6 sections including: an addenda, an errata, an index to key words and phrases, lists of acronyms and symbols used, and a list of all references cited. The editors have published a cumulative index of this type after every five volumes. Each index covers the reference topics published in all previous editions, that is, each new index includes all of the information contained in the preceding indexes with the exception of any addenda.

  2. Liquefaction Potential Assessment Of Silty And Silty-Sand Deposits: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Presti, Diego C. F.; Squeglia, Nunziante

    2008-07-08

    The paper shows a case study concerning the liquefaction potential assessment of deposits which mainly consist of non plastic silts and sands (FC>35 %,I{sub p}<10%, CF negligible). The site under study has been characterized by means of in situ tests (CPTU, SPT and DPSH), boreholes and laboratory tests on undisturbed and remolded samples. More specifically, classification tests, cyclic undrained stress-controlled triaxial tests and resonant column tests have been performed. Liquefaction susceptibility has been evaluated by means of several procedures prescribed by codes or available in technical literature. The evaluation of liquefaction potential has been carried out by means of three different procedure based on in situ and laboratory tests.

  3. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  4. Effect of solvent characteristics on coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, He; Wang, Shaojie; Wang, Keyu; Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

    1996-12-31

    It has been known for a long time that the characteristics of the liquefaction solvent has a profound effect on direct coal liquefaction. The amount of hydrogen consumed during the liquefaction process, the degree and quantity of retrograde reactions that occur, and the quality of the liquid products are all influenced by the process solvent. A number of analytical approaches have been developed to determine the important characteristics of the solvent for coal liquefaction. The hydrogen donor ability has clearly been important. However, such other characteristics of a liquefaction solvent as solubility parameter, content and type of higher aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolic content have also been found to be significant. Finseth et al. have shown that the bulk of the hydrogen consumed from an uncatalyzed donor solvent liquefaction above 400{degrees}C is consumed in gas generation, heteroatom removal and hydrogenolysis of the coal matrix. Wilson et al. have also shown that the major role of hydrogen in uncatalyzed liquefaction is consumed by alkyl fission and hydrogenolysis reactions and not with hydrogenating aromatic rings. McMillan et al. have postulated that a radical hydrogen transfer process along with donor solvent capping of thermally produced radicals from the coal as possible processes involved with the hydroaromatic donor solvents in coal liquefaction. With the development of a short contact time batch reactor (SCTBR), determining the influence of the processing solvent on the liquefaction rates, conversion profiles and the quality of the liquid product at a particular time became possible. The influence of type of solvent, combined with other effects, such as gas atmosphere (i.e., in hydrogen and in nitrogen) and catalyst, on the coal liquefaction is reported in this paper.

  5. Technical and economical feasibility of buffalo gourd as a novel energy crop: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.

    1988-02-01

    The New Mexico Solar Energy Institute at NMSU has conducted a two-year investigation into the technical and economic feasibility of using the buffalo gourd plant as an energy feedstock in eastern New Mexico. The New Mexico buffalo gourd project conducted field planting trials to determine optimum planting density, fertilizer levels, and irrigation regime. Starchy roots produced by the field plantings were evaluated as an ethanol feedstock at both laboratory and pilot scale. These studies indicate that buffalo gourd is well suited for root production in eastern New Mexico. Current cultivars of buffalo gourd can be most efficiently produced under dry land farming conditions with little, if any, supplemental fertilizer. Traditional plant breeding techniques can be profitably employed on the buffalo gourd to breed a size and shape of root more easily harvested by existing farm machinery. Because of its sensitivity to root rot, buffalo gourd must be grown in well drained soils. Finally, buffalo gourd has been shown to be an excellent feedstock for ethanol production provided necessary pre-fermentation processing (chopping of roots) is performed correctly. A model was created to determine the economic feasibility of growing buffalo gourd in eastern New Mexico. It was determined that the net return to a farmer in eastern New Mexico can be higher planting buffalo gourd than many traditionally grown crops because of buffalo gourd's low water and fertilizer requirements. The model further indicates that net return is heavily influenced by root yield. Continued research is needed to optimize buffalo gourd root yield, as well as root size and shape, disease resistance, etc. A clearly defined R and D agenda and commercialization strategy is presented and discussed. Buffalo gourd has been demonstrated to have high potential as an alternative feedstock for ethanol production in eastern New Mexico. 128 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.

  6. Final Technical Report. DeepCwind Consortium Research Program. January 15, 2010 - March 31, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Dagher, Habib; Viselli, Anthony; Goupee, Andrew; Thaler, Jeffrey; Brady, Damian; Browne, Peter; Browning, James; Chung, Jade; Coulling, Alexander; Deese, Heather; Fowler, Matthew; Holberton, Rebecca; Anant, Jain; Jalbert, Dustin; Johnson, Theresa; Jonkman, Jason; Karlson, Benjamin; Kimball, Richard; Koo, Bonjun; Lackner, Matthew; Lambrakos, Kostas; Lankowski, Matthew; Leopold, Adrienne; Lim, Ho-Joon; Mangum, Linda; Martin, Heather; Masciola, Marco; Maynard, Melissa; McCleave, James; Mizrahi, Robert; Molta, Paul; Pershing, Andrew; Pettigrew, Neal; Prowell, Ian; Qua, Andrew; Sherwood, Graham; Snape, Thomas; Steneck, Robert; Stewart, Gordon; Stockwell, Jason; Swift, Andrew H. P.; Thomas, Dale; Viselli, Elizabeth; Zydlewski, Gayle

    2013-06-11

    This is the final technical report for the U.S. Department of Energy-funded program, DE-0002981: DeepCwind Consortium Research Program. The project objective was the partial validation of coupled models and optimization of materials for offshore wind structures. The United States has a great opportunity to harness an indigenous abundant renewable energy resource: offshore wind. In 2010, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) estimated there to be over 4,000 GW of potential offshore wind energy found within 50 nautical miles of the US coastlines (Musial and Ram, 2010). The US Energy Information Administration reported the total annual US electric energy generation in 2010 was 4,120 billion kilowatt-hours (equivalent to 470 GW) (US EIA, 2011), slightly more than 10% of the potential offshore wind resource. In addition, deep water offshore wind is the dominant US ocean energy resource available comprising 75% of the total assessed ocean energy resource as compared to wave and tidal resources (Musial, 2008). Through these assessments it is clear offshore wind can be a major contributor to US energy supplies. The caveat to capturing offshore wind along many parts of the US coast is deep water. Nearly 60%, or 2,450 GW, of the estimated US offshore wind resource is located in water depths of 60 m or more (Musial and Ram, 2010). At water depths over 60 m building fixed offshore wind turbine foundations, such as those found in Europe, is likely economically infeasible (Musial et al., 2006). Therefore floating wind turbine technology is seen as the best option for extracting a majority of the US offshore wind energy resource. Volume 1 - Test Site; Volume 2 - Coupled Models; and Volume 3 - Composite Materials

  7. Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization. [Final] technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lalvani, S.B.; Muchmore, C.B.; Koropchak, J.A.; Kim, Jong Won

    1992-12-31

    Liquefaction of an Illinois bituminous and a caustic lignin was studied in an initial hydrogen pressure of 140 psig. Experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 325-375{degree}C in tetralin. The addition of lignin to coal was found to be synergistic in that it significantly improves the quality and yield of the liquid products obtained. Kinetic data for coal conversion enhancement due to lignin addition were obtained. A mathematical model describing the reaction chemistry, using lignin, has been proposed and developed. The analysis of the results indicates that the intermediates produced from lignin were responsible for enhancement in coal depolymerization rate, however, the intermediates are short-lived as compared to the time needed for a significant coal conversion yield. Coal depolymerization rate was found to be a function of time; compared to processing coal alone, it doubled upon reacting coal with lignin at 375{degree}C and after 67 minutes from the beginning of the experiment. Overall mass recoveries of 95--98% of the total mass charged to the reactor were obtained. A careful statistical analysis of the data shows that coal depolymerization yield is enhanced by 11.9% due to the lignin addition. The liquids obtained were examined for their elemental composition, and molecular weight determination by size exclusion chromatography. The stability of liquid products was characterized by determining their solubility in pentane and benzene, and by evaluating the molecular weight.

  8. Superacid Catalyzed Coal Conversion Chemistry. Final Technical Report, September 1, 1983-September 1, 1986

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Olah, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    This research project involved the study of a raw comparatively mild coal conversion process. The goal of the project was to study model systems to understand the basic chemistry involved and to provide a possible effective pretreatment of coal which significantly improves liquefaction-depolymerization under mild conditions. The conversion process operates at relatively low temperatures (170 degrees C) and pressures and uses an easily recyclable, stable superacid catalysts (HF-BF{sub 3}). It consequently offers an attractive alternative to currently available processes. From the present studies it appears that the modification of coal structure by electrophilic alkylation and subsequent reaction of alkylated coal with HF-BF{sub 3}-H{sub 2} system under mild conditions considerably improves the extractability of coal in pyridine and cyclohexane. On the other hand, nitration of coal and its subsequent reaction with HF-BF{sub 3}H{sub 2} decreases the pyridine and cyclohexane extractability. Study of model compounds under conditions identical with the superacidic HF/BF{sub 3}/H{sub 2} system provided significant information about the basic chemistry of the involved cleavage-hydrogenation reactions.

  9. The role of catalyst precursor anions in coal gasification. Final technical report, September 1991--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, G.M.K.

    1995-01-01

    The utilization of coal is currently limited by several factors, including the environmental impacts of coal use and the lack of cost-effective technologies to convert coal into useful gaseous and liquid products. Several catalysts have been evaluated for coal gasification and liquefaction. The activities of the catalysts are dependent on many factors such as the method of catalyst addition to the coal and the catalyst precursor type. Since catalyst addition to coal is frequently conducted in aqueous solution, the surface chemistry of colloidal coal particles will be expected to exert an influence on catalyst uptake. However, the effects of the various coal gasification catalyst precursors on the interfacial properties of coal during catalyst loading from solution has received little attention. The aim of this study is to ascertain the influence of the metal salts (i): calcium acetate (Ca(OOCCH{sub 3}){sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) or calcium nitrate (Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and (ii): potassium acetate (KOOCCH{sub 3}), potassium chloride (KCl), potassium nitrate (KNO{sub 3}), potassium carbonate (K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) and potassium sulfate (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) on the electrokinetic and adsorptive properties of coal and determine the relationship, if any, between coal surface electrokinetic properties, and catalyst loading and eventually its effects on the reactivities of coal chars.

  10. Superacid catalyzed coal conversion chemistry. Final technical report, September 1, 1983-September 1, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Olah, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    This research project involved the study of a raw comparatively mild coal conversion process. The goal of the project was to study model systems to understand the basic chemistry involved and to provide a possible effective pretreatment of coal which significantly improves liquefaction-depolymerization under mild conditions. The conversion process operates at relatively low temperatues (170/sup 0/C) and pressures and uses an easily recyclable, stable superacid catalysts (HF-BF/sub 3/). It consequently offers an attractive alternative to currently available processes. From the present studies it appears that the modification of coal structure by electrophilic alkylation and subsequent reaction of alkylated coal with HF-BF/sub 3/-H/sub 2/ system under mild conditions considerably improves the extractability of coal in pyridine and cyclohexane. On the other hand, nitration of coal and its subsequent reaction with HF-BF/sub 3/H/sub 2/ decreases the pyridine and cyclohexane extractability. Study of model compounds under conditions identical with the superacidic HF/BF/sub 3//H/sub 2/ system provided significant information about the basic chemistry of the involved cleavage-hydrogenation reactions.

  11. Supercritical thermodynamics of sulfur and nitrogen species. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    Significant opportunity exists for the application of supercritical fluid (SCF) technology to coal processing, both for pretreatment of high sulfur coals, as well as liquefaction and treatment of coal liquids. Supercritical fluids are attractive solvents for a variety of coal processing applications because of their unusual solvating and mass transfer properties. Solubility studies have been carried out for a number of model coal and coal-liquid compounds, primarily in pure supercritical fluids. We have extended this database of model coal compound equilibria using modern techniques that have the advantage of being much more rapid than traditional techniques. Cosolvent effects on solubility have also been investigated over a variety of solvent properties. In addition, specific molecular interactions have been investigated through spectroscopic techniques. The resulting data has been used to develop a physical-chemical equation of state (EOS) model of SCF solutions with meaningful parameters. This equation of state model has been used to predict solubility behavior, which will permit the design and tailoring of SCF cosolvent systems for specific coal processing applications.

  12. Anaerobic biprocessing of low rank coals. Final technical report, September 12, 1990--August 10, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.

    1993-08-05

    Coal solubilization under aerobic conditions results in oxygenated coal product which, in turn, makes the coal poorer fuel than the starting material. A novel approach has been made in this project is to remove oxygen from coal by reductive decarboxylation. In Wyodak subbituminous coal the major oxygen functionality is carboxylic groups which exist predominantly as carboxylate anions strongly chelating metal cations like Ca{sup 2+} and forming strong macromolecular crosslinks which contribute in large measure to network polymer structure. Removal of the carboxylic groups at ambient temperature by anaerobic organisms would unravel the macromoleculer network, resulting in smaller coal macromolecules with increased H/C ratio which has better fuel value and better processing prospects. These studies described here sought to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal liquefaction. Efforts were made to establish anaerobic microbial consortia having decarboxylating ability, decarboxylate coal with the adapted microbial consortia, isolate the organisms, and characterize the biotreated coal products. Production of CO{sup 2} was used as the primary indicator for possible coal decarboxylation.

  13. Development of improved iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Final technical report: Project 6464

    SciTech Connect

    Bukur, D.B.; Ledakowicz, S.; Koranne, M.

    1994-02-28

    Despite the current worldwide oil glut, the United States will ultimately require large-scale production of liquid (transportation) fuels from coal. Slurry phase Fischer Tropsch (FT) technology, with its versatile product slate, may be expected to play a major role in production of transportation fuels via indirect coal liquefaction. Texas A&M University (TAMU) with sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, Center for Energy and Mineral Resources at TAMU, Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., has been working on development of improved iron FT catalysts and characterization of hydrodynamic parameters in two- and three-phase bubble columns with FT derived waxes. Our previous studies have provided an improved understanding of the role of promoters (Cu and K), binders (silica) and pretreatment procedures on catalyst activity, selectivity and longevity (deactivation). The objective of the present contract was to develop improved catalysts with enhanced slurry phase activity and higher selectivity to liquid fuels and wax. This was accomplished through systematic studies of the effects of pretreatment procedures and variations in catalyst composition (promoters and binders). The major accomplishments and results in each of these two main areas of research are summarized here.

  14. Ethanol production for automotive fuel usage. Final technical report, July 1979-August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R.A.; Yu, J.; Lindemuth, T.E.; Soo-Hoo, R.; May, S.C.; Yim, Y.J.; Houle, E.H.

    1980-08-01

    Production of ethanol from potatoes, sugar beets, and wheat using geothermal resources in the Raft River area of Idaho was evaluated. The south-central region of Idaho produces approximately 18 million bushels of wheat, 1.3 million tons of sugar beets, and 27 million cwt potatoes annually. A 20-million-gallon-per-year ethanol facility has been selected as the largest scale plant that can be supported with the current agricultural resources. The conceptual plant was designed to operate on each of these three feedstocks for a portion of the year, but could operate year-round on any of them. The processing facility uses conventional alcohol technology and uses geothermal energy for all process heating. There are three feedstock preparation sections, although the liquefaction and saccharification steps for potatoes and wheat involve common equipment. The fermentation, distillation, and by-product handling sections are common to all three feedstocks. Maximum geothermal fluid requirements are approximately 6000 gpm. It is anticipated that this flow will be supplied by nine production wells located on private and BLM lands in the Raft River KGRA. The geothermal fluid will be flashed from 280/sup 0/F in three stages to supply process steam at 250/sup 0/F, 225/sup 0/F, and 205/sup 0/F for various process needs. Steam condensate plus liquid remaining after the third flash will be returned to receiving strata through six injection wells.

  15. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    DOEpatents

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  16. Parkfield, California, liquefaction prediction ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Bennett, M.J.; Youd, T.L.; Chen, A.T.F.

    1988-01-01

    The primary purpose of this short note is to formally record the liquefaction prediction (Holzer et al., 1986) made in connection with this predicted earthquake. In addition, this note serves to alert the seismic engineering community to special instrumentation being installed at the prediction site. The instrumentation will consist of 4 downhole accelerometers at depths ranging from 3-30 m, a surface accelerometer, 7 dynamic piezometers distributed in the sand strata between depths of 5 and 15 m, and a network of bench marks for measuring permanent ground deformation.-from Authors

  17. Technical assistance and capability evaluation for the Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, C.J.

    1985-02-19

    US DOE contracted with Space Qualified Systems to provide technical and management assistance to the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) through three tasks: technical assistance, HBCU-capability evaluation, and management assistance. This report summarizes the approach taken, lessons learned, results realized, and gives the recommendations. (DLC)

  18. Environmentally responsible recycling of thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaic modules. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bohland, John

    2002-09-09

    Continuing from the third quarter, all technical objectives of this Phase II SBIR work were previously and successfully completed. This report is therefore brief and contains two elements (1) a comparison of technical objective accomplishments to the stated goals in the original grant proposal (2) a summary of the third key element of this work; a market analysis for the developed recycling technology systems.

  19. A Practical Demonstration Project in Teaching Technical Mathematics; Final Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Thomas J.; Witzke, Paul T.

    The primary purposes of this developmental and demonstration project were to reduce the number of dropouts and failures and to increase the amount of learning in the technical mathematics core courses. In June 1965 a decision was made to pilot test locally developed programed units in technical mathematics. After the identification of the desired…

  20. A Vocational Technical Institute Developmental Program for Commercial Fisheries. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sainsbury, John C.

    This document describes the development of a 2-year vocational-technical program in commercial fisheries designed to reduce the traditional training period for fishermen, educate and train future captains for the fishing fleets, and improve the technical and general education level of fishermen. A 72-credit curriculum was developed, three-quarters…

  1. Solutions for Some Technical Problems in Domain-Referenced Mastery Testing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Huynh; Saunders, Joseph C.

    A basic technical framework is provided for the design and use of mastery tests. The Mastery Testing Project (MTP) prepared this framework using advanced mathematics supplemented with computer simulation based on real test data collected by the South Carolina Statewide Testing Program. The MTP focused on basic technical issues encountered in using…

  2. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Lancet, M.S.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: (1) The results of a study designed to determine the effects of the conditions employed at the Wilsonville slurry preheater vessel on coal conversion is described. (2) Stable carbon isotope ratios were determined and used to source the carbon of three product samples from Period 49 of UOP bench-scale coprocessing Run 37. The results from this coprocessing run agree with the general trends observed in other coprocessing runs that we have studied. (3) Microautoclave tests and chemical analyses were performed to calibrate'' the reactivity of the standard coal used for determining donor solvent quality of process oils in this contract. (4) Several aspects of Wilsonville Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) resid conversion kinetics were investigated; results are presented. Error limits associated with calculations of deactivation rate constants previously reported for Runs 258 and 261 are revised and discussed. A new procedure is described that relates the conversions of 850[degrees]F[sup +] , 1050[degrees]F[sup +], and 850 [times] 1050[degrees]F material. Resid conversions and kinetic constants previously reported for Run 260 were incorrect; corrected data and discussion are found in Appendix I of this report.

  3. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 3: Appendix F through I

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  4. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  5. Production of low-cost hydrogen. Final report, September 1989--August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    Significant technical progress has been made over the last decade to develop efficient processes for upgrading coal resources to distillable hydrocarbons which may be used to displace petroleum-derived fuels. While several different direct coal liquefaction routes are under investigation, each of them have in common the need for large quantities of hydrogen to convert the aromatic coal matrix to liquid products in the normal distillation range, and for hydrotreating to improve liquid product quality. In fact, it has been estimated that the production, recovery, and efficient use of hydrogen accounts for over 50 percent of the capital cost of the liquefaction facility. For this reason, improved methods for producing low-cost hydrogen are essential to the operating economics of the liquefaction process. This Final Report provides an assessment of the application of the MTCI indirect gasification technology for the production of low-cost hydrogen from coal feedstocks. The MTCI gasification technology is unique in that it overcomes many of the problems and issues associated with direct and other indirectly heated coal gasification systems. Although the MTCI technology can be utilized for producing hydrogen from almost any carbonaceous feedstock (fossil, biomass and waste), this report presents the results of an experimental program sponsored by the Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Research Center, to demonstrate the production of hydrogen from coal, mild gasification chars, and liquefaction bottoms.

  6. Continuous enzymatic liquefaction of starch for saccharification

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, M.E.; Black, L.T.; Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    A process was explored for continuous enzymatic liquefaction of corn starch at high concentration and subsequent saccharification to glucose. The process appears to be quite efficient for conversion of starch to glucose and enzymatic liquefaction and should be readily adaptable to industrial fermentation processes. Preliminary work indicated that milled corn or other cereal grains also can be suitably converted by such a process. Essentially, the process involved incorporation of a thermostable, bacterial alpha-amylase for liquefaction and, subsequently, of a glucoamylase into the continuous mixer under conditions conductive to rapid enzymatic hydrolyses. Also studied was the effect on substrate liquefaction of variables such as starch concentration (40-70%), level of alpha-amylase (0.14-0.4%, dry starch basis), temperature (70-100 degrees C), pH (5.8-7.1), and residence time (6 and 12 minutes). The degree of liquefaction was assessed by determining 1) the Brookfield viscosity, 2) the amount of reducing groups, and 3) the rate and extent of glucose formed after glucoamylase treatment. Best liquefaction processing conditions were achieved by using 50-60% starch concentration, at 95 degrees C, with 0.4% alpha-amylase, and a 6 minute residence period in the mixer. Under these conditions, rates and extents of glucose obtained after glucoamylase treatment approached those obtained in longer laboratory batch liquefactions. The amount of glucose formed in 24 hours with the use of 0.4% glucoamylase was 86% of theory after a 6-min continuous liquefaction, compared to 90% for a 30-min laboratory batch liquefaction (95 degrees C, 0.4% alpha-amylase). (Refs. 15).

  7. Surfactant studies for coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, G.C.

    1990-12-20

    Objectives of this project include: select economical/practical surfactants for use in coal liquefaction; screen surfactants for the proposed work through simple laboratory screening tests; and check the survivability of the selected surfactants at 350{degrees}C and 2000 psi using a 1-hour residence time for the thermal treatment in a stirred autoclave. Surfactant screening studies have shown the lignin sulfonate salt being the best candidate studied. Based upon the findings from the screening studies and practical considerations (e.g., potential cost, thermal survivability and recycling recovery), two surfactant choices in the anionic and nonionic categories were tested further in the autoclave reactor and engineering experiments at JPL. The goal of the autoclave work was to engineering experiments at JPL. The goal of the autoclave work was to determine the effects of surfactants on coal liquefaction performance and to test surfactant survivability. A eight of (8) autoclave experiments using 100 grams of as-received coal were performed. Two commercial surfactant choices were evaluated. They were: Sodium Lignin Sulfonate (LS) as a colloidal (heterogenous) surfactant of anionic type; and Triton X-100 (TRI) (trade name of a polyoxyethylated tert-octyphenol) as a liquid (homogenous) surfactant of nonionic type. Two additional reference tests were performed. 10 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies for combined-cycle propulsion applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a technical assessment of the realization of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction technologies in a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process setting. The technical findings related to the status of air liquefaction technologies are reviewed. Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers, heat exchanger atmospheric constituent fouling alleviation measures, para/ortho-hydrogen shift-conversion catalysts, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps, hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as a heat sink, liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices, and technically related engine concepts are discussed. Much of the LACE work is related to aerospaceplane propulsion concepts that were developed in the 1960's. Emphasis is placed on the Liquid Air Cycle Engine (LACE).

  9. Technical data. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    This volume includes a description of the railway to transport the coal; possible unbalance in the electrical power supply is considered in detail, as well as communications, signalling, etc. The railway will also be used to transport ashes and sludges for waste disposal. Coal fines in the coal supply will be burned to generate power. A very brief description of the coal gasification plant and its components is accompanied by a printout of the dates final engineering is to be completed. Permit applications are listed and socio-economic factors are discussed. The financing plan is discussed in some detail: basically, a loan guarantee from the Synthetic Fuels Corporation; equity provided by investment tax credit, deferred taxes, AFUDC and the sponsors; price support; and gas purchase agreement (this whole section includes several legal details.). (LTN)

  10. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation. Final technical progress report, July 1, 1992--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

    1994-03-31

    The present work effort relates to an investigation of surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in overall coal conversions and the product quality. Based on the results of a Phase 1 preliminary study on the effect of several surfactants on coal liquefaction, sodium lignosulfonate was chosen as the surfactant for a detailed parametric study to be conducted at JPL using a batch autoclave reactor. These tests primarily related to thermal liquefaction of coal. The results of JPL autoclave test runs showed an increase in overall conversions from 5 to 15% due to surfactant addition over the base case of coal alone. A continuous-flow bench scale coal liquefaction process run was conducted over a 5-day period at Hydrocarbon Research Incorporated (HRI). This test showed that the surfactant is suitable for an industrial continuous recycle process, and does not interfere with the supported catalyst. After the bench scale test, a series of autoclave runs were conducted with coprocessing the surfactant and the Ni-Mo catalyst. These experiments showed that high conversions and product quality can be maintained at milder processing conditions. Based on results of the autoclave test runs, the overall product values were obtained for two stage reactors at 400{degrees}C. The best product value was realized for the two-stage case (e) which showed an 8% improvement over the base case.

  11. Corrosion and materials selection report update non-proprietary version. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, P.D.

    1984-06-01

    The revised Baseline design (dated 22 October, 1982) used most of the available information with regard to the corrosion, erosion and materials of construction. This information was collected through various programs conducted at the major coal liquefaction pilot plants, e.g. SRC-1 and SRC-2, H-Coal and EDS, and at various research laboratories. The selection of materials of construction was also based on certain basic assumptions with regard to the plant life and life of each type of equipment. Other selection criteria included various process considerations and economics. In cases where no data on corrosion and erosion was available, past experience, licensors' knowhow and engineering judgement, were utilized in the selection process. Beyond the date of publication of the revised Baseline document, additional data from various pilot plants and lab programs has been made available. On account of continuous review being performed by DOE and their subcontractors and consultants, a number of comments were forwarded to ICRC. These comments and latest developmental programs suggested several improvements in the design. This report consists of the following major sections: A discussion on corrosion/erosion related research and pilot plant programs; the materials selection criterion, including plant and equipment life, and various process considerations, are discussed in detail; copies of the materials diagrams from the Revised Baseline are attached; ICRC response to unresolved materials-related comments is included in the Appendix A; areas of concern and data gaps, with regard to the materials of construction are identified; and recommended areas of future research and development programs are listed.

  12. Coal liquefaction with coal tar solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Gir, S.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1986-12-16

    A method is described of liquefying coal, comprising: mixing solid coal with a process solvent comprising coal tar material which has been at least partially hydrogenated under conditions which selectively hydrogenate aromatic coal tar components to hydroaromatics and which preserve the integrity of organonitrogen coal tar components, to produce a coal-solvent slurry; treating the coal-solvent slurry under coal-liquefying conditions in a liquefaction zone to produce a solution containing coal liquefaction products; and recovering coal liquefaction products from the solution.

  13. Coal liquefaction with subsequent bottoms pyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Walchuk, George P.

    1978-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process wherein heavy bottoms produced in a liquefaction zone are upgraded by coking or a similar pyrolysis step, pyrolysis liquids boiling in excess of about 1000.degree. F. are further reacted with molecular hydrogen in a reaction zone external of the liquefaction zone, the resulting effluent is fractionated to produce one or more distillate fractions and a bottoms fraction, a portion of this bottoms fraction is recycled to the reaction zone, and the remaining portion of the bottoms fraction is recycled to the pyrolysis step.

  14. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, November 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1992-06-01

    Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  15. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, August 1, 1991--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-12-31

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  16. NATO Scientific and Technical Information Service (NSTIS): functional description. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Molholm, K.N.; Blados, W.N.; Bulca, C.; Cotter, G.A.; Cuffez, A.

    1987-08-01

    This report provides a functional description of the requirements for a NATO Scientific and Technical Information Service (NSTIS). The user requirements and much of the background information in this report were derived primarily from interviews with more than 60 NATO Headquarters staff members between 2 March and 25 March 1987. In addition, representatives of the Supreme Headquarters Applied Powers Europe (SHAPE) Technical Centre (STC), the Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (Anti-Submarine Warfare Research) Centre (SACLANTCEN), the NATO Communications and Information Systems Agency (NACISA), The Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD), the U.S. Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC), and the Technical Documentation Center for the Armed Forces in the Netherlands (TDCK), were interviewed, either in person or by telephone.

  17. Advancement of liquefaction assessment in Chinese building codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H.; Liu, F.; Jiang, M.

    2015-09-01

    China has suffered extensive liquefaction hazards in destructive earthquakes. The post-earthquake reconnaissance effort in the country largely advances the methodology of liquefaction assessment distinct from other countries. This paper reviews the evolution of the specifications regarding liquefaction assessment in the seismic design building code of mainland China, which first appeared in 1974, came into shape in 1989, and received major amendments in 2001 and 2010 as a result of accumulated knowledge on liquefaction phenomenon. The current version of the code requires a detailed assessment of liquefaction based on in situ test results if liquefaction concern cannot be eliminated by a preliminary assessment based on descriptive information with respect to site characterization. In addition, a liquefaction index is evaluated to recognize liquefaction severity, and to choose the most appropriate engineering measures for liquefaction mitigation at a site being considered.

  18. Biomass Direct Liquefaction Options. TechnoEconomic and Life Cycle Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Tews, Iva J.; Zhu, Yunhua; Drennan, Corinne; Elliott, Douglas C.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Onarheim, Kristin; Solantausta, Yrjo; Beckman, David

    2014-07-31

    The purpose of this work was to assess the competitiveness of two biomass to transportation fuel processing routes, which were under development in Finland, the U.S. and elsewhere. Concepts included fast pyrolysis (FP), and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), both followed by hydrodeoxygenation, and final product refining. This work was carried out as a collaboration between VTT (Finland), and PNNL (USA). The public funding agents for the work were Tekes in Finland and the Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy. The effort was proposed as an update of the earlier comparative technoeconomic assessment performed by the IEA Bioenergy Direct Biomass Liquefaction Task in the 1980s. New developments in HTL and the upgrading of the HTL biocrude product triggered the interest in reinvestigating this comparison of these biomass liquefaction processes. In addition, developments in FP bio-oil upgrading had provided additional definition of this process option, which could provide an interesting comparison.

  19. Status of the development of EDS coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Vick, G.K.; Epperly, W.R.

    1982-07-23

    This article traces the evolution and development of a modern coal liquefaction technology, the EDS (Exxon Donor Solvent) process, over a period of 15 years. During this time the technology has been advanced from laboratory experiments to a pilot plant with a coal feed rate of 250 tons per day, and findings from several areas of science and technology have been important. The process is now in the final stage of development to generate the data needed to design a plant of commercial size.

  20. SURFACE-MODIFIED COALS FOR ENHANCED CATALYST DISPERSION AND LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah

    1999-09-01

    This is the final report of the Department of Energy Sponsored project DE-FGF22-95PC95229 entitled, surface modified coals for enhanced catalyst dispersion and liquefaction. The aims of the study were to enhance catalyst loading and dispersion in coal for improved liquefaction by preadsorption of surfactants and catalysts on the coal and to train and educate minority scientists in catalysts and separation science. Illinois No. 6 Coal (DEC-24) was selected for the study. The surfactants investigated included dodecyl dimethyl ethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB), a cationic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate, an anionic surfactant, and Triton x-100, a neutral surfactant. Ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate was used as the molybdenum catalyst precursor. Zeta potential, BET, FTIR, AFM, UV-Vis and luminescence intensity measurements were undertaken to assess the surface properties and the liquefaction activities of the coal. The parent coal had a net negative surface charge over the pH range 2-12. However, in the presence of DDAB the negativity of the surface charge decreased. At higher concentrations of DDAB, a positive surface charge resulted. In contrast to the effect of DDAB, the zeta potential of the coal became more negative than the parent coal in the presence of SDS. Adsorption of Triton reduced the net negative charge density of the coal samples. The measured surface area of the coal surface was about 30 m{sup 2}/g compared to 77m{sup 2}/g after being washed with deionized water. Addition of the surfactants decreased the surface area of the samples. Adsorption of the molybdenum catalyst increased the surface area of the coal sample. The adsorption of molybdenum on the coal was significantly promoted by preadsorption of DDAB and SDS. Molybdenum adsorption showed that, over a wide range of concentrations and pH values, the DDAB treated coal adsorbed a higher amount of molybdenum than the samples treated with SDS. The infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the atomic force