Science.gov

Sample records for liquid chemical agents

  1. Liquid contents verification for explosives, chemical agents, and dissolved narcotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sankaran; McMichael, W. Casey; Magnuson, Erik E.; Lee, Young K.; Moeller, Charles R.; Czipott, Peter V.; Rayner, Timothy J.; Newman, David E.; Wroblewski, Dariusz

    2001-02-01

    An increasingly important need today is to guard against terrorist attacks at key locations such as airports and public buildings. Liquid explosives can avoid detection at security checkpoints by being concealed as beverages or other benign liquids. Magnetic resonance (MR) offers a safe, non-invasive technology for probing and classifying the liquid contents inside sealed non-metallic containers or packages. Quantum Magnetics has developed a Liquid Explosives Screening System or `Bottle Scanner' to screen for liquid explosives and flammables, described at an earlier SPIE conference in 1996. Since then, the Bottle Scanner's performance has been significantly improved by the incorporation of neural network-based liquid classification. Recently we have shown that the incorporation of additional discrimination parameters can further enhance liquid classification. In addition to screening for explosives and flammables, the Bottle Scanner can be effective against chemical agents, many of which contain fluorine or phosphorous, both of which have MR signatures. Finally, we have evidence that the Bottle Scanner may also be able to detect narcotics dissolved in beverages, one of the methods used to smuggle narcotics across international borders. The development of the Bottle Scanner has been funded by the Federal Aviation Administration.

  2. Laser-induced chemical liquid phase deposition of copper from aqueous solutions without reducing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kochemirovsky, V A; Tumkin, I I; Logunov, L S; Safonov, S V; Menchikov, Leonid G

    2012-08-31

    Laser-induced chemical liquid phase deposition of copper without a traditional reducing agent has been used for the first time to obtain conductive patterns on a dielectric surface having a reducing ability. It is shown that phenol-formaldehyde binder of the dielectric (glass fibre) can successfully play the role of a reducing agent in this process. The resulting copper sediments have low electrical resistance and good topology. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasmas)

  3. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

    2011-11-30

    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies. PMID:21944706

  4. Chemical crowd control agents.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Hussain, Syed Ather; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed; Anwar, Naureen; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian

    2016-03-01

    Chemical crowd control agents are also referred to as riot control agents and are mainly used by civil authorities and government agencies to curtail civil disobedience gatherings or processions by large crowds. Common riot control agents used to disperse large numbers of individuals into smaller, less destructive, and more easily controllable numbers include chloroacetophenone, chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, dibenzoxazepine, diphenylaminearsine, and oleoresin capsicum. In this paper, we discuss the emergency medical care needed by sufferers of acute chemical agent contamination and raise important issues concerning toxicology, safety and health. PMID:26658556

  5. Simultaneous Measurement of Serum Chemical Castration Agents and Testosterone Levels Using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ko, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Kyunghoon; Jeon, Sun-Hee; Song, Sang Hoon; Yun, Yeo-Min; Chun, Sail; Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Jin Young; In, Moon Kyo; Song, Junghan

    2016-05-01

    Chemical castration involves administration of drugs to prevent pathological sexual behavior, reduce abnormal sexual drive and treat hormone-dependent cancers. Various drugs have been used for chemical castration; however, substantial interindividual variability and side effects are often observed. In this study, we proposed a useful monitoring method for the application of chemical castration agents using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS). Testosterone, cyproterone acetate, medroxyprogesterone, goserelin acetate, leuprolide acetate and triptorelin acetate were analyzed by UPLC-MS-MS. The target drugs were extracted from serum samples by double protein precipitation using methanol. Testosterone-1,2-d2 and buserelin acetate were used as internal standards. Parameters of analytical performance were evaluated, including imprecision, linearity, ion suppression and detection capabilities. Testosterone measurements were compared with the results of immunoassays. Serum specimens from 51 subjects who underwent chemical castration were analyzed. All drugs and testosterone were well extracted and separated using our method. The method was essentially free from potential interferences and ion suppression. Within-run and between-run imprecision values were <15%. The lower limits of quantification were 0.125 and 0.5-1.0 ng/mL for testosterone and other drugs, respectively. Good correlations with pre-existing immunoassays for testosterone measurement were observed. Sera from subjects who underwent androgen deprivation therapy showed variable levels of drugs. We successfully developed a UPLC-MS-MS-based monitoring method for chemical castration. The performance of our method was generally acceptable. This method may provide a novel monitoring strategy for chemical castration to enhance expected effects while reducing unwanted side effects. PMID:26989223

  6. Broad-Spectrum Liquid- and Gas-Phase Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents by One-Dimensional Heteropolyniobates.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weiwei; Lv, Hongjin; Sullivan, Kevin P; Gordon, Wesley O; Balboa, Alex; Wagner, George W; Musaev, Djamaladdin G; Bacsa, John; Hill, Craig L

    2016-06-20

    A wide range of chemical warfare agents and their simulants are catalytically decontaminated by a new one-dimensional polymeric polyniobate (P-PONb), K12 [Ti2 O2 ][GeNb12 O40 ]⋅19 H2 O (KGeNb) under mild conditions and in the dark. Uniquely, KGeNb facilitates hydrolysis of nerve agents Sarin (GB) and Soman (GD) (and their less reactive simulants, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP)) as well as mustard (HD) in both liquid and gas phases at ambient temperature and in the absence of neutralizing bases or illumination. Three lines of evidence establish that KGeNb removes DMMP, and thus likely GB/GD, by general base catalysis: a) the k(H2 O)/k(D2 O) solvent isotope effect is 1.4; b) the rate law (hydrolysis at the same pH depends on the amount of P-PONb present); and c) hydroxide is far less active against the above simulants at the same pH than the P-PONbs themselves, a critical control experiment. PMID:27061963

  7. Chemical warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  8. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, K; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2010-07-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  9. JOHNSTON ATOLL CHEMICAL AGENT DISPOSAL SYSTEM (JACADS) CLOSURE PLAN DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The JACADS project consists of four incinerators including a liquid chemical agent waste processor, an explosives treatment incinerator and a batch metal parts treatment unit. Its mission was to disassemble and destroy chemcial weapons and bulk chemical agent. This prototypical...

  10. Analysis of chemical warfare agents in organic liquid samples with magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry for verification of the chemical weapons convention.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud, Raghavender D; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-05-27

    A simple, sensitive and low temperature sample preparation method is developed for detection and identification of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) and scheduled esters in organic liquid using magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (MDSPE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The method utilizes Iron oxide@Poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) resin (Fe2O3@Poly(MAA-co-EGDMA)) as sorbent. Variants of these sorbents were prepared by precipitation polymerization of methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (MAA-co-EGDMA) onto Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Fe2O3@poly(MAA-co-EGDMA) with 20% MAA showed highest recovery of analytes. Extractions were performed with magnetic microspheres by MDSPE. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, method showed linearity in the range of 0.1-3.0μgmL(-1) (r(2)=0.9966-0.9987). The repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviations (RSDs) %) were in the range of 4.5-7.6% and 3.4-6.2% respectively for organophosphorous esters in dodecane. Limits of detection (S/N=3/1) and limit of quantification (S/N=10/1) were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1μgmL(-1) and 0.1-0.12μgmL(-1) respectively in SIM mode for selected analytes. The method was successfully validated and applied to the extraction and identification of targeted analytes from three different organic liquids i.e. n-hexane, dodecane and silicon oil. Recoveries ranged from 58.7 to 97.3% and 53.8 to 95.5% at 3μgmL(-1) and 1μgmL(-1) spiking concentrations. Detection of diethyl methylphosphonate (DEMP) and O-Ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) in samples provided by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Proficiency Test (OPCW-PT) proved the utility of the developed method for the off-site analysis of CWC relevant chemicals. PMID:27113675

  11. A New Understanding of Chemical Agent Release

    SciTech Connect

    Nakafuji, G; Greenman, R; Theofanous, T

    2002-07-24

    The evolution of thickened chemical agent released at supersonic velocities, due to a missile defense intercept or a properly functioning warhead, has been misunderstood. Current and historical experimental and modeling efforts have attributed agent breakup to a variety of droplet breakup mechanisms. According to this model, drops of agent fragment into subsequent generations of smaller drops until a stable drop size is reached. Recent experimental data conducted in a supersonic wind tunnel show that agent breakup is not driven by any droplet breakup mechanism. The breakup of agent is instead governed by viscoelastic behavior and aerodynamic history effects. This viscoelastic breakup mechanism results in the formation of threads and sheets of liquid, instead of drops. The evolution and final state of agent released has broad implications not only for aerobreakup models, but also for all atmospheric dispersion models.

  12. Fate of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) on soil following accelerant-based fire and liquid decontamination.

    PubMed

    Gravett, M R; Hopkins, F B; Self, A J; Webb, A J; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

    2014-08-01

    In the event of alleged use of organophosphorus nerve agents, all kinds of environmental samples can be received for analysis. These might include decontaminated and charred matter collected from the site of a suspected chemical attack. In other scenarios, such matter might be sampled to confirm the site of a chemical weapon test or clandestine laboratory decontaminated and burned to prevent discovery. To provide an analytical capability for these contingencies, we present a preliminary investigation of the effect of accelerant-based fire and liquid decontamination on soil contaminated with the nerve agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). The objectives were (a) to determine if VX or its degradation products were detectable in soil after an accelerant-based fire promoted by aviation fuel, including following decontamination with Decontamination Solution 2 (DS2) or aqueous sodium hypochlorite, (b) to develop analytical methods to support forensic analysis of accelerant-soaked, decontaminated and charred soil and (c) to inform the design of future experiments of this type to improve analytical fidelity. Our results show for the first time that modern analytical techniques can be used to identify residual VX and its degradation products in contaminated soil after an accelerant-based fire and after chemical decontamination and then fire. Comparison of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiles of VX and its impurities/degradation products from contaminated burnt soil, and burnt soil spiked with VX, indicated that the fire resulted in the production of diethyl methylphosphonate and O,S-diethyl methylphosphonothiolate (by an unknown mechanism). Other products identified were indicative of chemical decontamination, and some of these provided evidence of the decontaminant used, for example, ethyl 2-methoxyethyl methylphosphonate and bis(2-methoxyethyl) methylphosphonate following decontamination with DS2. Sample preparation

  13. Wipe selection for the analysis of surface materials containing chemical warfare agent nitrogen mustard degradation products by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Willison, Stuart A

    2012-12-28

    Degradation products arising from nitrogen mustard chemical warfare agent were deposited on common urban surfaces and determined via surface wiping, wipe extraction, and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry detection. Wipes investigated included cotton gauze, glass fiber filter, non-woven polyester fiber and filter paper, and surfaces included several porous (vinyl tile, painted drywall, wood) and mostly non-porous (laminate, galvanized steel, glass) surfaces. Wipe extracts were analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) and compared with high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS) results. An evaluation of both techniques suggests UPLC–MS/MS provides a quick and sensitive analysis of targeted degradation products in addition to being nearly four times faster than a single HPLC run, allowing for greater throughput during a wide-spread release concerning large-scale contamination and subsequent remediation events. Based on the overall performance of all tested wipes, filter paper wipes were selected over other wipes because they did not contain interferences or native species (TEA and DEA) associated with the target analytes, resulting in high percent recoveries and low background levels during sample analysis. Other wipes, including cotton gauze, would require a pre-cleaning step due to the presence of large quantities of native species or interferences of the targeted analytes. Percent recoveries obtained from a laminate surface were 47–99% for all nitrogen mustard degradation products. The resulting detection limits achieved from wipes were 0.2 ng/cm(2) for triethanolamine (TEA), 0.03 ng/cm(2) for N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA), 0.1 ng/cm(2) for N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and 0.1 ng/cm(2) for diethanolamine (DEA). PMID:23218189

  14. Analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins, potential chemical threat agents, in food using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Daniel; Åstot, Crister

    2015-10-23

    A novel method for determining paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) profiles in food was developed using a combination of silica and strong cation exchange (SCX) solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). Besides the risk for natural contamination of seafood and drinking water, PSTs also pose potent threats through intentional contamination of food, due to their high toxicity and the wide distributions of toxin-producing algae. The new preparation method aim to maintain the samples' original toxin profiles by avoiding conditions known to induce interconversion or degradation of the PSTs. The method was evaluated for PST extraction from water, milk, orange juice, apple purée, baby food, and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). The extracts were found to produce reproducible retention times in HILIC-MS/MS analysis. When an authentic toxic mussel sample was analyzed using the novel method, saxitoxin and gonyautoxin-3 were identified, in agreement with data acquired using the Lawrence pre-column oxidation high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method. Overall recoveries of the PSTs from tested foods by the novel method ranged from 36% to 111%. PMID:26404910

  15. Kromoscopy for detection of chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, Kenneth J.; Sanghera, Jas; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.; Block, Myron J.

    2004-12-01

    The ability of a Kromoscope to discriminate between chemical warfare agent simulants and toxic industrial chemicals is evaluated. The Kromoscope response to the simulants DMMP and DIMP is compared to a pesticide (diazanon) and cyclopentanol. The response of a mid-infrared Kromoscope to the nerve agents VX and GB and the stimulant DF are calculated.

  16. A concept study on identification and attribution profiling of chemical threat agents using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry applied to Amanita toxins in food.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Daniel; Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Herrmann, Anders; Nilsson, Calle

    2012-09-10

    Accidental or deliberate poisoning of food is of great national and international concern. Detecting and identifying potentially toxic agents in food is challenging due to their large chemical diversity and the complexity range of food matrices. A methodology is presented whereby toxic agents are identified and further characterized using a two-step approach. First, generic screening is performed by LC/MS/MS to detect toxins based on a list of selected potential chemical threat agents (CTAs). After identifying the CTAs, a second LC/MS analysis is performed applying accurate mass determination and the generation of an attribution profile. To demonstrate the potential of the methodology, toxins from the mushrooms Amanita phalloides and Amanita virosa were analyzed. These mushrooms are known to produce cyclic peptide toxins, which can be grouped into amatoxins, phallotoxins and virotoxins, where α-amanitin and β-amanitin are regarded as the most potent. To represent a typical complex food sample, mushroom stews containing either A. phalloides or A. virosa were prepared. By combining the screening method with accurate mass analysis, the attribution profile for the identified toxins and related components in each stew was established and used to identify the mushroom species in question. In addition, the analytical data was consistent with the fact that the A. virosa specimens used in this study were of European origin. This adds an important piece of information that enables geographic attribution and strengthens the attribution profile. PMID:22503887

  17. Chemical warfare. Nerve agent poisoning.

    PubMed

    Holstege, C P; Kirk, M; Sidell, F R

    1997-10-01

    The threat of civilian and military casualties from nerve agent exposure has become a greater concern over the past decade. After rapidly assessing that a nerve agent attack has occurred, emphasis must be placed on decontamination and protection of both rescuers and medical personnel from exposure. The medical system can become rapidly overwhelmed and strong emotional reactions can confuse the clinical picture. Initially, care should first be focused on supportive care, with emphasis toward aggressive airway maintenance and decontamination. Atropine should be titrated, with the goal of therapy being drying of secretions and the resolution of bronchoconstriction and bradycardia. Early administration of pralidoxime chloride maximizes antidotal efficacy. Benzodiazepines, in addition to atropine, should be administered if seizures develop. Early, aggressive medical therapy is the key to prevention of the morbidity and mortality associated with nerve agent poisoning. PMID:9330846

  18. Characterization of chemical agent transport in paints.

    PubMed

    Willis, Matthew P; Gordon, Wesley; Lalain, Teri; Mantooth, Brent

    2013-09-15

    A combination of vacuum-based vapor emission measurements with a mass transport model was employed to determine the interaction of chemical warfare agents with various materials, including transport parameters of agents in paints. Accurate determination of mass transport parameters enables the simulation of the chemical agent distribution in a material for decontaminant performance modeling. The evaluation was performed with the chemical warfare agents bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (distilled mustard, known as the chemical warfare blister agent HD) and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), an organophosphate nerve agent, deposited on to two different types of polyurethane paint coatings. The results demonstrated alignment between the experimentally measured vapor emission flux and the predicted vapor flux. Mass transport modeling demonstrated rapid transport of VX into the coatings; VX penetrated through the aliphatic polyurethane-based coating (100 μm) within approximately 107 min. By comparison, while HD was more soluble in the coatings, the penetration depth in the coatings was approximately 2× lower than VX. Applications of mass transport parameters include the ability to predict agent uptake, and subsequent long-term vapor emission or contact transfer where the agent could present exposure risks. Additionally, these parameters and model enable the ability to perform decontamination modeling to predict how decontaminants remove agent from these materials. PMID:23872337

  19. Rapid chemical agent identification by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yuan-Hsiang; Farquharson, Stuart

    2001-08-01

    Although the Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, stockpiling, and use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), the use of these agents persists due to their low cost, simplicity in manufacturing and ease of deployment. These attributes make these weapons especially attractive to low technology countries and terrorists. The military and the public at large require portable, fast, sensitive, and accurate analyzers to provide early warning of the use of chemical weapons. Traditional laboratory analyzers such as the combination of gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy, although sensitive and accurate, are large and require up to an hour per analysis. New, chemical specific analyzers, such as immunoassays and molecular recognition sensors, are portable, fast, and sensitive, but are plagued by false-positives (response to interferents). To overcome these limitations, we have been investigating the potential of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to identify and quantify chemical warfare agents in either the gas or liquid phase. The approach is based on the extreme sensitivity of SERS demonstrated by single molecule detection, a new SERS material that we have developed to allow reproducible and reversible measurements, and the molecular specific information provided by Raman spectroscopy. Here we present SER spectra of chemical agent simulants in both the liquid and gas phase, as well as CWA hydrolysis phase.

  20. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents. PMID:16111798

  1. Chemical stability of ecomustine, a new antitumor agent in aqueous and biological media as assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    el Abed, I; Roger, P; Gosse, C; Atassi, G; Gouyette, A

    1991-01-01

    Ecomustine, or CY233 (NSC-609224), is a new water-soluble nitrosoureido sugar derived from acosamine. A high-performance liquid chromatographic assay (HPLC) developed to quantify the unchanged drug in aqueous solutions and biological specimens enabled us to study the chemical stability as a function of pH, light, and temperature. In buffered aqueous solutions, the kinetics of degradation of CY233 is a first-order process. The log k-pH profile demonstrated hydroxide ion-catalyzed solvolysis. The drug is most stable at pH 4, more stable than some other nitrosoureas in 5% glucose (t1/2, 62-67 h) and in 0.9% isotonic saline (t1/2, 25-37 h) solutions. Based on these findings, blood samples should be collected in cold tubes (4 degrees C) containing citrate buffer (pH 4) and all manipulations should be protected from heat and light. PMID:1998985

  2. Joint chemical agent detector (JCAD): the future of chemical agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laljer, Charles E.

    2003-08-01

    The Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD) has continued development through 2002. The JCAD has completed Contractor Validation Testing (CVT) that included chemical warfare agent testing, environmental testing, electromagnetic interferent testing, and platform integration validation. The JCAD provides state of the art chemical warfare agent detection capability to military and homeland security operators. Intelligence sources estimate that over twenty countries have active chemical weapons programs. The spread of weapons of mass destruction (and the industrial capability for manufacture of these weapons) to third world nations and terrorist organizations has greatly increased the chemical agent threat to U.S. interests. Coupled with the potential for U.S. involvement in localized conflicts in an operational or support capacity, increases the probability that the military Joint Services may encounter chemical agents anywhere in the world. The JCAD is a small (45 in3), lightweight (2 lb.) chemical agent detector for vehicle interiors, aircraft, individual personnel, shipboard, and fixed site locations. The system provides a common detection component across multi-service platforms. This common detector system will allow the Joint Services to use the same operational and support concept for more efficient utilization of resources. The JCAD detects, identifies, quantifies, and warns of the presence of chemical agents prior to onset of miosis. Upon detection of chemical agents, the detector provides local and remote audible and visual alarms to the operators. Advance warning will provide the vehicle crew and other personnel in the local area with the time necessary to protect themselves from the lethal effects of chemical agents. The JCAD is capable of being upgraded to protect against future chemical agent threats. The JCAD provides the operator with the warning necessary to survive and fight in a chemical warfare agent threat environment.

  3. Laser interrogation of surface agents (LISA) for chemical agent reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higdon, N. S.; Chyba, Thomas H.; Richter, Dale A.; Ponsardin, Patrick L.; Armstrong, Wayne T.; Lobb, C. T.; Kelly, Brian T.; Babnick, Robert D.; Sedlacek, Arthur J., III

    2002-06-01

    Laser Interrogation of Surface Agents (LISA) is a new technique which exploits Raman scattering to provide standoff detection and identification of surface-deposited chemical agents. ITT Industries, Advanced Engineering and Sciences Division is developing the LISA technology under a cost-sharing arrangement with the US Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command for incorporation on the Army's future reconnaissance vehicles. A field-engineered prototype LISA-Recon system is being designed to demonstrate on-the- move measurements of chemical contaminants. In this article, we will describe the LISA technique, data form proof-of- concept measurements, the LISA-Recon design, and some of the future realizations envisioned for military sensing applications.

  4. Screening of degradation products, impurities and precursors of chemical warfare agents in water and wet or dry organic liquid samples by in-sorbent tube silylation followed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Terzic, Oliver

    2010-07-23

    A standard method used by inspection teams of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for preparation of aqueous samples requires several extraction and derivatization steps. This results in tedious and time consuming on-site analysis. A simple thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to analyse for a broad range of degradation products, impurities and precursors of chemical warfare agents (CWA) in water solutions and wet or dry organic liquid samples. The method is fast, sensitive, requires only microliter volumes of sample and enables the simultaneous determination of a wide range of compounds with widely differing polarity, volatility and reactivity. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by successful analysis of five OPCW Official Proficiency Test samples. PMID:20541765

  5. 12 CFR 709.2 - NCUA Board as liquidating agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false NCUA Board as liquidating agent. 709.2 Section... INSURED CREDIT UNIONS IN LIQUIDATION § 709.2 NCUA Board as liquidating agent. (a) The Board, as... connection with any assets or property of any nature of the credit union. (b) The Board, as liquidating...

  6. Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD): the future of chemical agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laljer, Charles E.; Owen, Jeffery L.

    2002-06-01

    The Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD) will provide state of the art chemical warfare agent detection capability to ground vehicle operators. Intelligence sources estimate that over twenty counties have active chemical weapons programs. The spread of chemical weapons to third world nations, coupled with the potential for US involvement in these areas in an operational or support capacity, increases the probability that the Joint Services may encounter chemical agents and toxic industrial materials anywhere in the world. Currently, fielded chemical agent detectors are bulky, labor intensive, and subject to false readings. No legacy detector is sensitive enough to provide detection and warning of the low dose hazards associated with miosis contamination. The JCAD will provide a small, lightweight chemical agent detector for vehicle interiors, aircraft, individual personnel, shipboard, and fixed site locations. The system provides a common detection components across multi-service platforms. This common detector system will allow the Joint Services to use the same operational and support concept for more efficient utilization of resources. The JCAD will detect, identify, quantify, and warn of the presence of chemical agents prior to onset of miosis. Upon detection of chemical agents, the detector will provide local and remote audible and visual alarms to the operators. Advance warning will provide the vehicle crew with the time necessary to protect themselves from the lethal effects of chemical agents. The JCAD will also be capable of being upgraded to protect against future chemical agent threats. The JCAD will provide the vehicle operators with the warning necessary to survive and fight in a chemical warfare agent threat environment.

  7. Development of a chemical vision spectrometer to detect chemical agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1999-02-23

    This paper describes initial work in developing a no-moving-parts hyperspectral-imaging camera that provides both a thermal image and specific identification of chemical agents, even in the presence of nontoxic plumes. The camera uses enhanced stand-off chemical agent detector (ESCAD) technology based on a conventional thermal-imaging camera interfaced with an acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF). The AOTF is programmed to allow selected spectral frequencies to reach the two dimensional array detector. These frequencies are combined to produce a spectrum that is used for identification. If a chemical agent is detected, pixels containing the agent-absorbing bands are given a colored hue to indicate the presence of the agent. In test runs, two thermal-imaging cameras were used with a specially designed vaporizer capable of controlled low-level (low ppm-m) dynamic chemical releases. The objective was to obtain baseline information about detection levels. Dynamic releases allowed for realistic detection scenarios such as low sky, grass, and wall structures, in addition to reproducible laboratory releases. Chemical releases consisted of dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) and methanol. Initial results show that the combination of AOTF and thermal imaging will produce a chemical image of a plume that can be detected in the presence of interfering substances.

  8. Detection of electrophilic and nucleophilic chemical agents

    DOEpatents

    McElhanon, James R.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2014-08-12

    A "real time" method for detecting chemical agents generally and particularly electrophilic and nucleophilic species by employing tunable, precursor sensor materials that mimic the physiological interaction of these agents to form highly florescent berberine-type alkaloids that can be easily and rapidly detected. These novel precursor sensor materials can be tuned for reaction with both electrophilic (chemical species, toxins) and nucleophilic (proteins and other biological molecules) species. By bonding or otherwise attaching these precursor molecules to a surface or substrate they can be used in numerous applications.

  9. A traceable quantitative infrared spectral database of chemical agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, Alan C.; Williams, Barry R.; Ben-David, Avishai; Hulet, Melissa; Roelant, Geoffrey J.; Miles, Ronald W., Jr.; Green, Norman; Zhu, Changjiang

    2004-12-01

    Recent experimental field trials have demonstrated the ability of both Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and active light detection and ranging (LIDAR) sensors to detect particulate matter, including simulants for biological materials. Both systems require a reliable, validated, quantitative database of the mid infrared spectra of the targeted threat agents. While several databases are available, none are validated and traceable to primary standards for reference quality reliability. Most of the existing chemical agent databases have been developed using a bubbler or syringe-fed vapor generator, and all are fraught with errors and uncertainties as a result. In addition, no quantitative condensed phase data on the low volatility chemicals and biological agents have been reported. We are filling this data gap through the systematic measurement of gas phase chemical agent materials generated using a unique vapor-liquid equilibrium approach that allows the quantitation of the cross-sections using a mass measurement calibrated to primary, National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST) standards. In addition, we have developed quantitative methods for the measurement of condensed phase materials in both transmission and diffuse reflectance modes. The latter data are valuable for the development of complex index of refraction data, which is required for both system modeling and algorithm development of both FTIR and LIDAR based sensor systems. We will describe our measurement approach and progress toward compiling the first known comprehensive and validated database of both vapor and condensed phase chemical warfare agents.

  10. Passive standoff detection of chemical warfare agents on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Thériault, Jean-Marc; Puckrin, Eldon; Hancock, Jim; Lecavalier, Pierre; Lepage, Carmela Jackson; Jensen, James O

    2004-11-01

    Results are presented on the passive standoff detection and identification of chemical warfare (CW) liquid agents on surfaces by the Fourier-transform IR radiometry. This study was performed during surface contamination trials at Defence Research and Development Canada-Suffield in September 2002. The goal was to verify that passive long-wave IR spectrometric sensors can potentially remotely detect surfaces contaminated with CW agents. The passive sensor, the Compact Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, was used in the trial to obtain laboratory and field measurements of CW liquid agents, HD and VX. The agents were applied to high-reflectivity surfaces of aluminum, low-reflectivity surfaces of Mylar, and several other materials including an armored personnel carrier. The field measurements were obtained at a standoff distance of 60 m from the target surfaces. Results indicate that liquid contaminant agents deposited on high-reflectivity surfaces can be detected, identified, and possibly quantified with passive sensors. For low-reflectivity surfaces the presence of the contaminants can usually be detected; however, their identification based on simple correlations with the absorption spectrum of the pure contaminant is not possible. PMID:15540446

  11. Passive Standoff Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents on Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thériault, Jean-Marc; Puckrin, Eldon; Hancock, Jim; Lecavalier, Pierre; Lepage, Carmela Jackson; Jensen, James O.

    2004-11-01

    Results are presented on the passive standoff detection and identification of chemical warfare (CW) liquid agents on surfaces by the Fourier-transform IR radiometry. This study was performed during surface contamination trials at Defence Research and Development Canada-Suffield in September 2002. The goal was to verify that passive long-wave IR spectrometric sensors can potentially remotely detect surfaces contaminated with CW agents. The passive sensor, the Compact Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, was used in the trial to obtain laboratory and field measurements of CW liquid agents, HD and VX. The agents were applied to high-reflectivity surfaces of aluminum, low-reflectivity surfaces of Mylar, and several other materials including an armored personnel carrier. The field measurements were obtained at a standoff distance of 60 m from the target surfaces. Results indicate that liquid contaminant agents deposited on high-reflectivity surfaces can be detected, identified, and possibly quantified with passive sensors. For low-reflectivity surfaces the presence of the contaminants can usually be detected; however, their identification based on simple correlations with the absorption spectrum of the pure contaminant is not possible.

  12. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis. PMID:19122437

  13. Detection of Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Chemical Agents

    SciTech Connect

    McElhanon, James R.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2008-11-11

    A "real time" method for detecting electrophilic and nucleophilic species generally by employing tunable, precursor sensor materials that mimic the physiological interaction of these agents to form highly florescent berberine-type alkaloids that can be easily and rapidly detected. These novel precursor sensor materials can be tuned for reaction with both electrophilic (chemical species, toxins) and nucleophilic (proteins and other biological molecules) species.

  14. Environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    MacNaughton, M.G.; Brewer, J.H.; Ledbetter-Ferrill, J.

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes the approach used in the preparation of a Handbook for the Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division, on the environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents. The agents GB and HD will be used to illustrate the type of information in the report. Those readers interested in the full report should contact Mr. Arkie Fanning, Huntsville Corps of Engineers at (505) 955-5256. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) has identified approximately 7,200 formerly used defense sites (FUDS) in the United States, some of which are suspected to be contaminated with chemical warfare agents (CWA). The ACE has responsibility for environmental clean-up of FUDS, including site characterization, evaluation and remediation of the site. Thirty-four FUDS and 48 active DOD installations that may contain CWA were identified in an Interim Survey and Analysis Report by the USACMDA Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Material (NSCM). The chemical agents listed include sulfur mustard (H), lewisite (L), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), VX, hydrogen cyanide (AC), cyanogen chloride (CK), phosgene (CG), BZ, and CS.

  15. The Respiratory Toxicity of Chemical Warefare Agents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation is one of the most important routes of exposure for chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and thus, the lung remains a critical target of injury. Depending on the mode of action by which the CWAs cause injury, the nature of injury, the location being impacted within the respi...

  16. Environmental mimics of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Claborn, David M

    2004-12-01

    There are several natural and artificial factors that mimic the effects of chemical warfare agents, thereby causing unwarranted alarm and confusion on the battlefield. Symptoms associated with chemical warfare include paralysis, muscle tremors, heavy salivation, severe burns, blistering, and corrosive skin injuries among others. Similar symptoms can be produced from a variety of environmental sources, artificial and natural. This article reviews several published and unpublished examples of environmental factors that produce syndromes similar to those caused by these agents. Examples of such mimics include pesticides, blistering exudates from insects and plants, various types of bites, and naturally occurring diseases. The potential for confusion caused by these factors is discussed and means of discriminating between warfare agents and naturally occurring events are identified. Recommendations for the use of this information and for needed research are also discussed. PMID:15646185

  17. Simultaneous detection and identification of precursors, degradation and co-products of chemical warfare agents in drinking water by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tak, Vijay; Purohit, Ajay; Pardasani, Deepak; Goud, D Raghavender; Jain, Rajeev; Dubey, D K

    2014-11-28

    Environmental markers of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) comprise millions of chemical structures. The simultaneous detection and identification of these environmental markers poses difficulty due to their diverse chemical properties. In this work, by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF), a generic analytical method for the detection and identification of wide range of environmental markers of CWAs (including precursors, degradation and co-products of nerve agents and sesqui-mustards) in drinking water, was developed. The chromatographic analysis of 55 environmental markers of CWAs including isomeric and isobaric compounds was accomplished within 20 min, using 1.8 μm particle size column. Subsequent identification of the compounds was achieved by the accurate mass measurement of either protonated molecule [M+H](+) or ammonium adduct [M+NH4](+) and fragment ions. Isomeric and isobaric compounds were distinguished by chromatographic retention time, characteristic fragment ions generated by both in-source collision induced dissociation (CID) and CID in the collision cell by MS/MS experiments. The exact mass measurement errors for all ions were observed less than 3 ppm with internal calibration. The method limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were determined in drinking water and found to be 1-50 ng mL(-1) and 5-125 ng mL(-1), respectively. Applicability of the proposed method was proved by determining the environmental markers of CWAs in aqueous samples provided by Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons during 34th official proficiency test. PMID:25454132

  18. 12 CFR 709.2 - NCUA Board as liquidating agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSURED CREDIT UNIONS IN LIQUIDATION § 709.2 NCUA Board as liquidating agent. (a) The Board, as... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false NCUA Board as liquidating agent. 709.2 Section..., or directors, shall not thereafter have or exercise any such rights, powers, or privileges or act...

  19. Bacterial spores and chemical sporicidal agents.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, A D

    1990-01-01

    Bacterial spores are among the most resistant of all living cells to biocides, although the response depends on the stage of sporulation. The development of resistance to some agents such as chlorhexidine occurs much earlier in sporulation than does resistance to glutaraldehyde, which is a very late event. During germination or outgrowth or both, resistance is lost and the cells become as susceptible to biocides as nonsporulating bacteria. Mechanisms of spore resistance to, and the action of, biocides are discussed, and possible means of enhancing antispore activity are considered. The clinical and other uses of sporicidal and sporostatic chemical agents are described. Images PMID:2187595

  20. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith; Watson, Annetta Paule; Hauschild, Veronique; Munro, Nancy B; King, J.

    2007-02-01

    The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

  1. Differential mobility spectroscopy for chemical agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, M. Todd

    2006-05-01

    General Dynamics ATP (GDATP) and Sionex Corporation (Sionex) are carrying out a cooperative development for a handheld chemical agent detector, being called JUNO TM, which will have lower false positives, higher sensitivity, and improved interference rejection compared with presently available detectors. This enhanced performance is made possible by the use of a new principle of ion separation called Differential Mobility Spectrometry (DMS). The enhanced selectivity is provided by the field tunable nature of the Sionex differential mobility technology (microDMxTM) which forms the analytical heart of the JUNO system and enables fingerprinting of molecules by characterization of the ionized molecular behavior under multiple electric field conditions. This enhanced selectivity is valuable in addressing not only the traditional list of chemical warfare agents (CWA) but also the substantial list of Toxic Industrial Compounds (TICs) and Toxic Industrial Materials (TIMs) which may be released in warfare or terrorist situations. Experimental results showing the ability of the microDMx to reject interferences, detect and resolve live agents are presented. An additional breakthrough in the technology was realized by operating the device at a reduced pressure of around 0.5 atmospheres. This reduced pressure operation resulted in roughly doubling the spectrometers resolution over what has previously been reported [1]. Advances have also been made in power consumption and packaging leading to a device suitable for portable, handheld, applications. Experimental results illustrating the performance of the microDMx technology employed in JUNO are highlighted.

  2. Remote sensing of chemical warfare agent by CO2 -lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiko, Pavel P.; Smirnov, Sergey S.

    2014-11-01

    The possibilities of remote sensing of chemical warfare agent by differential absorption method were analyzed. The CO2 - laser emission lines suitable for sounding of chemical warfare agent with provision for disturbing absorptions by water vapor were choose. The detection range of chemical warfare agents was estimated for a lidar based on CO2 - laser The other factors influencing upon echolocation range were analyzed.

  3. In-Situ Chemical Precipitation of Radioactive Liquid Waste - 12492

    SciTech Connect

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2012-07-01

    This paper presented in-situ chemical precipitation for radioactive liquid waste by using chemical agents. Results are reported on large-scale implementation on the removal of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 60}Co from liquid radioactive waste generating from Nuclear Research and Training Centre. Total amount of liquid radioactive waste was 35 m{sup 3} and main radionuclides were Cs-137, Cs- 134 and Co-60. Initial radioactivity concentration of the liquid waste was 2264, 17 and 9 Bq/liter for Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60 respectively. Potassium ferro cyanide was selected as chemical agent at high pH levels 8-10 according to laboratory tests. After the process, radioactive sludge precipitated at the bottom of the tank and decontaminated clean liquid was evaluated depending on discharge limits. By this precipitation method decontamination factors were determined as 60, 9 and 17 for Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60 respectively. At the bottom of the tank radioactive sludge amount was 0.98 m{sup 3}. It was transferred by sludge pumps to cementation unit for solidification. By in situ chemical processing 97% of volume reduction was achieved. Using the optimal concentration of 0.75 M potassium ferro cyanide about 98% of the {sup 137}Cs can be removed at pH 8. The Potassium ferro cyanide precipitation method could be used successfully in large scale applications with nickel and ferrum agents for removal of Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co- 60. Although DF values of laboratory test were much higher than in-situ implementation, liquid radioactive waste was decontaminated successfully by using potassium ferro cyanide. Majority of liquid waste were discharged as clean liquid. %97.2 volumetric amount of liquid waste was cleaned and discharged at the original site. Reduced amount of sludge transportation in drums is more economical and safer method than liquid transportation. Although DF values could be different for each of applications related to main specifications of original liquid waste, this

  4. Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Michael E.; Pushkarsky, Michael B.; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2004-12-01

    We present an analytical model evaluating the suitability of optical absorption based spectroscopic techniques for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in ambient air. The sensor performance is modeled by simulating absorption spectra of a sample containing both the target and multitude of interfering species as well as an appropriate stochastic noise and determining the target concentrations from the simulated spectra via a least square fit (LSF) algorithm. The distribution of the LSF target concentrations determines the sensor sensitivity, probability of false positives (PFP) and probability of false negatives (PFN). The model was applied to CO2 laser based photoacosutic (L-PAS) CWA sensor and predicted single digit ppb sensitivity with very low PFP rates in the presence of significant amount of interferences. This approach will be useful for assessing sensor performance by developers and users alike; it also provides methodology for inter-comparison of different sensing technologies.

  5. Chemical and biological sensing using liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Rebecca J.; Hunter, Jacob T.; Miller, Daniel S.; Abbasi, Reza; Mushenheim, Peter C.; Tan, Lie Na; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    The liquid crystalline state of matter arises from orientation-dependent, non-covalent interaction between molecules within condensed phases. Because the balance of intermolecular forces that underlies formation of liquid crystals is delicate, this state of matter can, in general, be easily perturbed by external stimuli (such as an electric field in a display). In this review, we present an overview of recent efforts that have focused on exploiting the responsiveness of liquid crystals as the basis of chemical and biological sensors. In this application of liquid crystals, the challenge is to design liquid crystalline systems that undergo changes in organization when perturbed by targeted chemical and biological species of interest. The approaches described below revolve around the design of interfaces that selectively bind targeted species, thus leading to surface-driven changes in the organization of the liquid crystals. Because liquid crystals possess anisotropic optical and dielectric properties, a range of different methods can be used to read out the changes in organization of liquid crystals that are caused by targeted chemical and biological species. This review focuses on principles for liquid crystal-based sensors that provide an optical output. PMID:24795857

  6. Chemical warfare agents: estimating oral reference doses.

    PubMed

    Opresko, D M; Young, R A; Faust, R A; Talmage, S S; Watson, A P; Ross, R H; Davidson, K A; King, J

    1998-01-01

    Health risk assessments for sites contaminated with chemical warfare agents require a comparison of the potential levels of exposure with a characterization of the toxic potency of each chemical. For noncancer health effects, toxic potency is expressed in terms of Reference Doses (RfD). A RfD is a daily exposure level or dose (usually expressed in units of milligrams of chemical per kilogram body weight per day) for the human population, including sensitive subpopulations, that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects. A daily exposure at or below the RfD is not likely to be associated with health risks, but as the amount of chemical that an individual is exposed to increases above the RfD, the probability that an adverse effect will occur also increases. A RfD is derived by first examining the available human or animal toxicity data to identify a dose or exposure that corresponds to a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) or a lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL). The NOAEL is the exposure level at which there are no statistically or biologically significant increases in frequency or severity of adverse effects between the exposed population and its appropriate control. Effects may be produced at this level, but they are not considered to be adverse if they do not result in functional impairment or pathological lesions that affect the performance of the whole organism or which reduce an organism's ability to cope with additional challenge. The LOAEL is the lowest exposure level at which there are statistically or biologically significant increases in frequency or severity of adverse effects between the exposed population and its appropriate control. If only a LOAEL is identified by the toxicity data, a NOAEL is estimated by dividing the LOAEL by a factor no greater than 10. This extrapolation factor of 10 or less is termed the LOAEL-to-NOAEL Uncertainty Factor (UFL). The NOAEL is also adjusted by the application of other

  7. Exposure assessment for chemical and physical agents.

    PubMed

    Moretto, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Exposure assessment to either chemical or physical agents, as applicable, is a necessary step for both etiologic diagnosis of occupational disease and health surveillance of workers. The assessment can be carried out by measurements of concentrations in air of the substance by either fixed or personal samplers. The former give an indication of the general environment, the latter, applied near the mouth of the worker, provide personalized information. Dermal exposure (deposition) and absorption occur in the occupational setting, but their measurement is so complex that there are no routine methods and no exposure limits established. Oral exposure is accidental or associated with poor hygienic practices, is very difficult to assess, and there are no occupational exposure limits of oral intake. Also accidental injuries caused by needles or other sharp objects that might be contaminated by chemicals occur but exposure assessment in this condition is almost impossible. Exposure is also assessed by biologic monitoring that entails measurements of the substance and/or of its metabolite(s) in accessible fluids, generally urine, blood, or expired air. Biochemical changes, e.g., enzyme inhibition, associated with exposure are also measured. The results of these measurements are compared with existing limit values in order to conclude on the safety of the working conditions. Since the limit values are derived with the application of conservative assumptions, there are no fine lines between health and disease. Therefore, in the clinical setting values below the limit can be generally regarded as safe. Values above the limits should be considered in conjunction with all other information to judge on the likelihood that the disease under investigation may have been caused by exposure to the substance. PMID:26563782

  8. [Decontamination of chemical warfare agents by photocatalysis].

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Tsutomu; Mera, Nobuaki; Sano, Taizo; Negishi, Nobuaki; Takeuchi, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Photocatalysis has been widely applied to solar-energy conversion and environmental purification. Photocatalyst, typically titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), produces active oxygen species under irradiation of ultraviolet light, and can decompose not only conventional pollutants but also different types of hazardous substances at mild conditions. We have recently started the study of photocatalytic decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under collaboration with the National Research Institute of Police Science. This article reviews environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis, decontamination methods for CWAs, and previous photocatalytic studies applied to CWA degradation, together with some of our results obtained with CWAs and their simulant compounds. The data indicate that photocatalysis, which may not always give a striking power, certainly helps detoxification of such hazardous compounds. Unfortunately, there are not enough data obtained with real CWAs due to the difficulty in handling. We will add more scientific data using CWAs in the near future to develop useful decontamination systems that can reduce the damage caused by possible terrorism. PMID:19122438

  9. The Fate of Chemical Warfare Agents in the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith; Munro, Nancy B; Watson, Annetta Paule; King, J.; Hauschild, Veronique

    2007-05-01

    Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition has been totally revised since the successful first edition and expanded to about three times the length, with many new chapters and much more in-depth consideration of all the topics. The chapters have been written by distinguished international experts in various aspects of chemical warfare agents and edited by an experienced team to produce a clear review of the field. The book now contains a wealth of material on the mechanisms of action of the major chemical warfare agents, including the nerve agent cyclosarin, formally considered to be of secondary importance, as well as ricin and abrin. Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition discusses the physico-chemical properties of chemical warfare agents, their dispersion and fate in the environment, their toxicology and management of their effects on humans, decontamination and protective equipment. New chapters cover the experience gained after the use of sarin to attack travelers on the Tokyo subway and how to deal with the outcome of the deployment of riot control agents such as CS gas. This book provides a comprehensive review of chemical warfare agents, assessing all available evidence regarding the medical, technical and legal aspects of their use. It is an invaluable reference work for physicians, public health planners, regulators and any other professionals involved in this field.

  10. Proximal detection of chemical warfare agents using PMIRRAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petryk, Michael W. P.; Marenco, Armando J.

    2010-04-01

    Non-contact chemical warfare agent detection has been demonstrated on military painted surfaces using polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PMIRRAS). Notably, VX has been detected on chemical agent resistance coating (CARC) paint at a distance of approximately 10 cm. PMIRRAS does not rely on the presence of chemical vapors and is not affected by many common battlefield interferants such as aerosolized dust, water and diesel vapors, etc., making it highly suitable for use in operational environments.

  11. Rapid Ultrasensitive Chemical-Fingerprint Detection of Chemical and Biochemical Warfare Agents

    SciTech Connect

    ASHBY, CAROL I.; SHEPODD, TIMOTHY J.; YELTON, WILLIAM G.; MURON, DAVID J.

    2002-12-01

    Vibrational spectra can serve as chemical fingerprints for positive identification of chemical and biological warfare molecules. The required speed and sensitivity might be achieved with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using nanotextured metal surfaces. Systematic and reproducible methods for preparing metallic surfaces that maximize sensitivity have not been previously developed. This work sought to develop methods for forming high-efficiency metallic nanostructures that can be integrated with either gas or liquid-phase chem-lab-on-a-chip separation columns to provide a highly sensitive, highly selective microanalytical system for detecting current and future chem/bio agents. In addition, improved protein microchromatographic systems have been made by the creation of acrylate-based porous polymer monoliths that can serve as protein preconcentrators to reduce the optical system sensitivity required to detect and identify a particular protein, such as a bacterial toxin.

  12. Biomaterials for mediation of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Russell, Alan J; Berberich, Jason A; Drevon, Geraldine F; Koepsel, Richard R

    2003-01-01

    Recent events have emphasized the threat from chemical and biological warfare agents. Within the efforts to counter this threat, the biocatalytic destruction and sensing of chemical and biological weapons has become an important area of focus. The specificity and high catalytic rates of biological catalysts make them appropriate for decommissioning nerve agent stockpiles, counteracting nerve agent attacks, and remediation of organophosphate spills. A number of materials have been prepared containing enzymes for the destruction of and protection against organophosphate nerve agents and biological warfare agents. This review discusses the major chemical and biological warfare agents, decontamination methods, and biomaterials that have potential for the preparation of decontamination wipes, gas filters, column packings, protective wear, and self-decontaminating paints and coatings. PMID:12704086

  13. Fluorescent sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Burnworth, Mark; Rowan, Stuart J; Weder, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    Along with biological and nuclear threats, chemical warfare agents are some of the most feared weapons of mass destruction. Compared to nuclear weapons they are relatively easy to access and deploy, which makes them in some aspects a greater threat to national and global security. A particularly hazardous class of chemical warfare agents are the nerve agents. Their rapid and severe effects on human health originate in their ability to block the function of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that is vital to the central nervous system. This article outlines recent activities regarding the development of molecular sensors that can visualize the presence of nerve agents (and related pesticides) through changes of their fluorescence properties. Three different sensing principles are discussed: enzyme-based sensors, chemically reactive sensors, and supramolecular sensors. Typical examples are presented for each class and different fluorescent sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents are summarized and compared. PMID:17705326

  14. Laser-based instrumentation for the detection of chemical agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hartford, A. Jr.; Sander, R.K.; Quigley, G.P.; Radziemski, L.J.; Cremers, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Several laser-based techniques are being evaluated for the remote, point, and surface detection of chemical agents. Among the methods under investigation are optoacoustic spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence (SDLIF). Optoacoustic detection has already been shown to be capable of extremely sensitive point detection. Its application to remote sensing of chemical agents is currently being evaluated. Atomic emission from the region of a laser-generated plasma has been used to identify the characteristic elements contained in nerve (P and F) and blister (S and Cl) agents. Employing this LIBS approach, detection of chemical agent simulants dispersed in air and adsorbed on a variety of surfaces has been achieved. Synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence provides an attractive alternative to conventional LIF, in that an artificial narrowing of the fluorescence emission is obtained. The application of this technique to chemical agent simulants has been successfully demonstrated. 19 figures.

  15. Chemical characterization of commercial liquid smoke products

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Naim; Oliveira, Alexandra CM; Himelbloom, Brian H; Leigh, Mary Beth; Crapo, Charles A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine important chemical characteristics of a full-strength liquid smoke, Code 10-Poly, and three refined liquid smoke products (AM-3, AM-10 and 1291) commercially available (Kerry Ingredients and Flavors, Monterey, TN). The pH of the products were significantly different (P < 0.05) and ranged from 2.3 (Code 10-Poly) to 5.7 (1291). The pH was inversely correlated with titratable acidity (R2 = 0.87), which was significantly different (P < 0.05) among products ranging from 10.3% acetic acid (Code 10-Poly) to 0.7% acetic acid (1291). Total phenol content was quantified using the Gibbs reaction; the only liquid smoke containing appreciable level of phenolic compounds was Code 10-Poly at 3.22 mg mL−1. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of liquid smoke dichloromethane extracts revealed that carbonyl-containing compounds were major constituents of all products, in which 1-hydroxy-2-butanone, 2(5H)-furanone, propanal and cyclopentenone predominated. Organic acids were detected by GC-MS in all extracts and correlated positively (R2 = 0.98) with titratable acidity. The GC-MS data showed that phenolic compounds constituted a major portion of Code 10-Poly, and were detected only in trace quantities in 1291. The refined liquid smokes had lighter color, lower acidity, and reduced level of carbonyl-containing compounds and organic acids. Our study revealed major differences in pH, titratable acidity, total phenol content, color and chemical make-up of the full-strength and refined liquid smokes. The three refined liquid smoke products studied have less flavor and color active compounds, when compared with the full-strength product. Furthermore, the three refined products studied have unique chemical characteristics and will impart specific sensorial properties to food systems. Understanding the chemical composition of liquid smokes, be these refined or full-strength products, is an important step to

  16. Surface-enhanced Raman spectrometry of organophosphorus chemical agents

    SciTech Connect

    Alak, A.M.; Vo-Dinh, T.

    1987-09-01

    Organophosphorus chemical agents have been analyzed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrometry. Significant spectral enhancement was achieved with special substrates that were prepared with silver-coated microspheres. Organophosphorus compounds were easily and rapidly measured at nanogram levels. The SERS spectra of eight of these organophosphorus chemical agents are presented. The sensitivity and spectral selectivity of this new spectrochemical technique for trace organic analysis of toxic chemical agents are discussed. Analyses of a two-component mixture and contaminated soil sample extract are illustrated.

  17. Decontamination of chemical warfare agents. Final report, June 1991-August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.C.; Baker, J.A.; Ward, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    Reviews of the development of systems to decontaminate chemical warfare agents and of the chemical reactions involved in decontamination are presented in this report. Decontamination is defined as the rapid removal of agents from contaminated surfaces. Simple physical methods, such as evaporation, washing, and scrubbing, fall under this broad definition; however, most of the decontaminants contain reactive components to detoxify as well as remove the agents. In nonaqueous media, a strong base reacts rapidly with the four major chemical agents; mustard, VX, GB, and GD. In aqueous mixtures, H and VX are detoxified with an oxidant; whereas, the G agents are hydrolyzed with an excess of hydroxide ion. Current research efforts are aimed at developing effective decontaminants that are noncorrosive, nontoxic, and environmentally safe. Both catalytic and enzymatic approaches using solid or heterogeneous liquid media are being pursued. A fundamental understanding of the chemical nature of the agents is essential in the success of these approaches.... Decontamination, Sarin, VX, Chemical agents, Soman, Hydrolysis, Review, Mustard gas.

  18. Laser Induced Chemical Liquid Phase Deposition (LCLD)

    SciTech Connect

    Nanai, Laszlo; Balint, Agneta M.

    2012-08-17

    Laser induced chemical deposition (LCLD) of metals onto different substrates attracts growing attention during the last decade. Deposition of metals onto the surface of dielectrics and semiconductors with help of laser beam allows the creation of conducting metal of very complex architecture even in 3D. In the processes examined the deposition occurs from solutions containing metal ions and reducing agents. The deposition happens in the region of surface irradiated by laser beam (micro reactors). Physics -chemical reactions driven by laser beam will be discussed for different metal-substrate systems. The electrical, optical, mechanical properties of created interfaces will be demonstrated also including some practical-industrial applications.

  19. Diphosphonium Ionic Liquids as Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    O’Toole, George A.; Wathier, Michel; Zegans, Michael E.; Shanks, Robert M.Q.; Kowalski, Regis; Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose One of the most disturbing trends in recent years is the growth of resistant strains of bacteria with the simultaneous dearth of new antimicrobial agents. Thus, new antimicrobial agents for use on the ocular surface are needed. Methods We synthesized a variety of ionic liquid compounds, which possess two positively charged phosphonium groups separated by ten methylene units in a “bola” type configuration. We tested these compounds for antimicrobial activity versus a variety of ocular pathogens, as well as their cytoxicity in vitro in a corneal cell line and in vivo in mice. Results The ionic liquid Di-Hex C10 demonstrated broad in vitro antimicrobial activity at the low micromolar concentrations versus Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, as well as ocular fungal pathogens. Treatment with Di-Hex C10 resulted in bacterial killing in as little as 15 minutes in vitro. Di-Hex C10 showed little cytotoxicity at 1 μM versus a corneal epithelial cell line or at 10 μM in a mouse corneal wound model. We also show that this bis-phosphonium ionic liquid structure is key, as a comparable mono phosphonium ionic liquid is cytotoxic to both bacteria and corneal epithelial cells. Conclusions Here we report the first use of dicationic bis-phosphonium ionic liquids as antimicrobial agents. Our data suggest that diphosphonium ionic liquids may represent a new class of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents for use on the ocular surface. PMID:22236790

  20. Fiber Optic Detector For Liquid Chemical Leaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luukkala, Mauri; Raatikainen, Pekka; Salo, Olli

    1989-10-01

    This paper describes a simple and economical sensor which employs fiber optics to detect the presence of hazardous liquid chemicals, particularly undiluted hydrocarbons. The device is best suited to monitor the interstitial space of double walled underground storage tanks. Because the sensor is plastic and is situated at the end of a passive and insulating optical fiber the sensor can be considered inherently safe. The optical fiber used for this device can be up to several hundred meters long.

  1. Chemical Agents: Personal Cleaning and Disposal of Contaminated Clothing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts About Sheltering Facts About Personal Cleaning Public Health Emergency Response Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Chemical Agents: Facts About Personal Cleaning and Disposal of Contaminated ...

  2. The induction of synaesthesia with chemical agents: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Luke, David P.; Terhune, Devin B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the general consensus that synaesthesia emerges at an early developmental stage and is only rarely acquired during adulthood, the transient induction of synaesthesia with chemical agents has been frequently reported in research on different psychoactive substances. Nevertheless, these effects remain poorly understood and have not been systematically incorporated. Here we review the known published studies in which chemical agents were observed to elicit synaesthesia. Across studies there is consistent evidence that serotonin agonists elicit transient experiences of synaesthesia. Despite convergent results across studies, studies investigating the induction of synaesthesia with chemical agents have numerous methodological limitations and little experimental research has been conducted. Cumulatively, these studies implicate the serotonergic system in synaesthesia and have implications for the neurochemical mechanisms underlying this phenomenon but methodological limitations in this research area preclude making firm conclusions regarding whether chemical agents can induce genuine synaesthesia. PMID:24146659

  3. Raidiation-Induced Fragmentation of Diamide Extraction Agents in Ionic Liquid Diluents

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Jason R; Dai, Sheng; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Marin, Timothy W.; Luo, Huimin; Hatcher, Jasmine; Rimmer, R. Dale; Wishart, James F.

    2012-01-01

    N,N,N',N'-Tetraalkyldiglycolamides are extracting agents that are used for liquid-liquid extraction of trivalent metal ions in wet processing of spent nuclear fuel. This application places such agents in contact with the decaying radionuclides, causing radiolysis of the agent in the organic diluent. Recent research seeks to replace common molecular diluents (such as n-dodecane) with hydrophobic room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs), which have superior solvation properties. In alkane diluents, rapid radiolytic deterioration of diglycolamide agents can be inhibited by addition of an aromatic cosolvent that scavenges highly reactive alkane radical cations before these oxidize the extracting agent. Do aromatic ILs exhibit a similar radioprotective effect? To answer this question, we used electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the fragmentation pathways in radiolysis of neat diglycolamides, their model compounds, and their solutions in the ILs. Our study indicates that aromatic ILs do not protect these types of solutes from extensive radiolytic damage. Previous research indicated a similar lack of protection for crown ethers, whereas the ILs readily protected di- and trialkyl phosphates (another large class of metal-extracting agents). Our analysis of these unanticipated failures suggests that new types of organic anions are required in order to formulate ILs capable of radioprotection for these classes of solutes. This study is a cautionary tale of the fallacy of analogical thinking when applied to an entirely new and insufficiently understood class of chemical materials.

  4. Chemical kinetics of cetane number improving agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, K.; Akutsu, Y.; Arai, M.; Tamura, M.

    1996-12-31

    The increasing demand for diesel fuels has resulted in the use of greater percentage of cracked distillates having poor ignition properties. The ignition properties of diesel fuels can be rated in terms of their cetane number and diesel fuels having low cetane number may have poor ignition properties such as diesel knock, difficulties to start engines in the cold weather and so on. Such diesel fuels need cetane number improving agents. In the 1940s and 1950s alkyl nitrates, alkyl nitrites and organic peroxides were found to be effective cetane number improving additives. Our recent study suggests that free radicals produced from thermal decomposition just before ignition should have an important role to improve their ignition properties. However no studies on the reaction mechanism for improving effect of these additives have been attempted because of complex nature of spontaneous ignition reaction of hydrocarbons. In order to clarify the reaction mechanism for improving effects of cetane number improving agents. We here have attempted to simulate the spontaneous ignition of n-butane as a model compound in the presence of alkyl nitrites as cetane number improving agents.

  5. Chemical Action of Halogenated Agents in Fire Extinguishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belles, Frank E.

    1955-01-01

    The action of halogenated agents in preventing flame propagation in fuel-air mixtures in laboratory tests is discussed in terms of a possible chemical mechanism. The mechanism chosen is that of chain-breaking reactions between agent and active particles (hydrogen and oxygen atoms and hydroxyl radicsls). Data from the literature on the flammability peaks of n-heptane agent-air mixtures are treated. Ratings of agent effectiveness in terms of the fuel equivalent of the agent, based on both fuel and agent concentrations at the peak, are proposed as preferable to ratings in terms of agent concentration alone. These fuel-equivalent ratings are roughly correlated by reactivities assigned to halogen and hydrogen atoms in the agent molecules. It is concluded that the presence of hydrogen in agent need not reduce its fire-fighting ability, provided there is enough halogen to make the agent nonflammable. A method is presented for estimating from quenching-distance data a rate constant for the reaction of agent with active particles. A quantitative result is obtained for methyl bromide. This rate constant predicts the observed peak concentration of methyl bromide quite well. However, more data are needed to prove the validity of the method. The assumption that hal.ogenatedagents act mainly by chain-bresking reactions with active particles is consistent with the experimental facts and should help guide the selection of agents for further tests.

  6. Development of a persistent chemical agent simulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A Persistent Chemical Agent Simulation System was developed (PCASS) to simulate, for force-on-force training exercises, the field environment produced by the presence of persistent chemical agents. Such a simulant system must satisfy several requirements to be of value as a training aid. Specifically, it must provide for realistic training which will generate competency in at least the following areas: (1) detection of the persistent agent presence; (2) proper use of protective equipment and procedures; (3) determination of the extent of contamination; and (4) decontamination of equipment and personnel.

  7. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

    1995-01-01

    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  8. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  9. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000 l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3 min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  10. Solid-water detoxifying reagents for chemical and biological agents

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, Dennis M.; Chiu, Ing Lap

    2006-04-18

    Formation of solid-water detoxifying reagents for chemical and biological agents. Solutions of detoxifying reagent for chemical and biological agents are coated using small quantities of hydrophobic nanoparticles by vigorous agitation or by aerosolization of the solution in the presence of the hydrophobic nanoparticles to form a solid powder. For example, when hydrophobic fumed silica particles are shaken in the presence of IN oxone solution in approximately a 95:5-weight ratio, a dry powder results. The hydrophobic silica forms a porous coating of insoluble fine particles around the solution. Since the chemical or biological agent tends to be hydrophobic on contact with the weakly encapsulated detoxifying solution, the porous coating breaks down and the detoxifying reagent is delivered directly to the chemical or biological agent for maximum concentration at the point of need. The solid-water (coated) detoxifying solutions can be blown into contaminated ventilation ducting or other difficult to reach sites for detoxification of pools of chemical or biological agent. Once the agent has been detoxified, it can be removed by flushing the area with air or other techniques.

  11. Review of systemization of the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    In 1993, at Tooele Army Depot, Utah, the Army completed construction of the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (TOCDF), the first complete facility for destruction of lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions to be built in the continental United States. The TOCDF will employ the Army`s baseline incineration system to destroy the depot`s increment of the nation`s aging unitary chemical stockpile. This book assesses Army changes and improvements to the TOCDF in response to recommendations contained in earlier reports of the committee. It assesses aspects of the facility`s readiness for safe agent handling and destruction operations, its agent monitoring system, and its site specific risk assessment.

  12. LOW VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) CHEMICAL AGENT RESISTANT COATING (CARC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical warfare causes many problems on the battlefield, among which is decontamination of exposed equipment. Because of this threat, the US Army ahs required the use of a Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) system on its equipment, beginning in FY 85. The equipment covere...

  13. GaN-based micro chemical sensor nodes for early warning chemical agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, K.-A.; Yang, B.; Prokopuk, N.; Moon, J. S.; Liao, A.; Gallegos, M.; Yang, J.; Khan, M. A.

    2007-04-01

    We are developing micro chemical sensor nodes that can be used for real time, remote detection and early warning of chemical agent threats. The chemical sensors in our sensor nodes utilize GaN HEMTs (High Electron Mobility Transistors) fabricated with catalytically active transition metal gate electrodes. The GaN HEMT chemical sensors exhibit high sensitivity and selectivity toward chemical agent simulants such as DECNP (Diethyl cyano phosphonate), and this is the first time that chemical agent simulants have been detected with GaN micro sensors. Response time of the GaN HEMT sensor to a chemical species is within a second, and the maximum electronic response speed of the sensor is ~3 GHz. A prototype micro chemical sensor node has been constructed with the GaN sensor, a micro controller, and an RF link. The RF sensor node is operated with a single 3V Li battery, dissipating 15 mW during the RF transmission with 5 dBm output power. The microcontroller allows the operation of the RF sensor nodes with a duty cycle down to 1 %, extending lifetime of the RF sensor nodes over 47 days. Designed to transmit RF signals only at the exposures to chemical agents and produce collective responses to a chemical agent via a sensorweb, the GaN micro chemical sensor nodes seem to be promising for chemical agent beacons.

  14. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Mondloch, Joseph E; Katz, Michael J; Isley, William C; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W; Hall, Morgan G; DeCoste, Jared B; Peterson, Gregory W; Snurr, Randall Q; Cramer, Christopher J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic Zr(IV) ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy. PMID:25774952

  15. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondloch, Joseph E.; Katz, Michael J.; Isley, William C., III; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W.; Hall, Morgan G.; Decoste, Jared B.; Peterson, Gregory W.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic ZrIV ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy.

  16. Air monitoring and detection of chemical and biological agents

    SciTech Connect

    Leonelli, J.; Althouse, M.L.

    1999-06-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of SPIE`s remote sensing symposium which was held November 2--3, 1998 in Boston, Massachusetts. Topics of discussion include the following: system simulations, atmospheric modeling, and performance prediction studies of chemical warfare remote sensing technologies; ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence and aerosol detection methods for remote sensing of biological warfare agents; passive detection methods for remote detection of chemical warfare agents; and lidar-based system performance assessments, demonstrations, and new concepts for chemical warfare/biological warfare detection.

  17. Chemical Microsensors For Detection Of Explosives And Chemical Warfare Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Swanson, Basil I.

    2001-11-13

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a layer of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bonded to said substrate, said layer of a cyclodextrin derivative adapted for the inclusion of selected compounds, e.g., nitro-containing organic compounds, therewith. Such an article can be a chemical microsensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the nitro-containing organic compound.

  18. Fighting nerve agent chemical weapons with enzyme technology.

    PubMed

    LeJeune, K E; Dravis, B C; Yang, F; Hetro, A D; Doctor, B P; Russell, A J

    1998-12-13

    The extreme toxicity of organophosphorous-based compounds has been known since the late 1930s. Starting in the mid-1940s, many nations throughout the world have been producing large quantities of organophosphorous (OP) nerve agents. Huge stockpiles of nerve agents have since developed. There are reportedly more than 200,000 tons of nerve agents in existence worldwide. There is an obvious need for protective clothing capable of guarding an individual from exposure to OP chemical weapons. Also, chemical processes that can effectively demilitarize and detoxify stored nerve agents are in great demand. The new and widely publicized Chemical Weapons Treaty requires such processes to soon be in place throughout the world. Biotechnology may provide the tools necessary to make such processes not only possible, but quite efficient in reducing the nerve agent dilemma. The following paper discusses some of the history in developing enzyme technology against nerve agents. Our laboratory has interest in enhancing the productivity and potential utility of these systems in both demilitarization and decontamination applications. Freeze-dried nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzyme preparations have been shown to be effective in decontaminating gaseous nerve agents. The direct incorporation of nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzymes within cross-linked polyurethane foam matrices during polymer synthesis has been shown to dramatically enhance the productivity of two different enzyme systems. The future goal of such work lies in building a bridge between the clinical application of nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzymes and practical processing techniques that may take advantage of the initial results already achieved in the laboratory. PMID:9928090

  19. Experimental examination of ultraviolet Raman cross sections of chemical warfare agent simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullander, F.; Landström, L.; Lundén, H.; Wästerby, Pär.

    2015-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering from the commonly used chemical warfare agent simulants dimethyl sulfoxide, tributyl phosphate, triethyl phosphonoacetate was measured at excitation wavelengths ranging from 210 to 410 nm using a pulsed laser based spectrometer system with a probing distance of 1.4 m and with a field of view on the target of less than 1mm. For the purpose of comparison with well explored reference liquids the Raman scattering from simulants was measured in the form of an extended liquid surface layer on top of a silicon wafer. This way of measuring enabled direct comparison to the Raman scattering strength from cyclohexane. The reference Raman spectra were used to validate the signal strength of the simulants and the calibration of the experimental set up. Measured UV absorbance functions were used to calculate Raman cross sections. Established Raman cross sections of the simulants make it possible to use them as reference samples when measuring on chemical warfare agents in droplet form.

  20. Oxidizer gels for detoxification of chemical and biological agents

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, Dennis M.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2002-01-01

    A gel composition containing oxidizing agents and thickening or gelling agents is used to detoxify chemical and biological agents by application directly to a contaminated area. The gelling agent is a colloidal material, such as silica, alumina, or alumino-silicate clays, which forms a viscous gel that does not flow when applied to tilted or contoured surfaces. Aqueous or organic solutions of oxidizing agents can be readily gelled with less than about 30% colloidal material. Gel preparation is simple and suitable for field implementation, as the gels can be prepared at the site of decontamination and applied quickly and uniformly over an area by a sprayer. After decontamination, the residue can be washed away or vacuumed up for disposal.

  1. Ultraviolet Raman scattering from persistent chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Wästerby, Pär.; Landström, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering at excitation wavelengths in the middle ultraviolet was examined using a pulsed tunable laser based spectrometer system. Droplets of chemical warfare agents, with a volume of 2 μl, were placed on a silicon surface and irradiated with sequences of laser pulses. The Raman scattering from V-series nerve agents, Tabun (GA) and Mustard gas (HD) was studied with the aim of finding the optimum parameters and the requirements for a detection system. A particular emphasis was put on V-agents that have been previously shown to yield relatively weak Raman scattering in this excitation band.

  2. Development of a solid-phase microextraction fiber by the chemical binding of graphene oxide on a silver-coated stainless-steel wire with an ionic liquid as the crosslinking agent.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Bu, Yanan; Duan, Huimin; Wang, Xiaojiao; Luo, Chuannan

    2014-12-01

    Graphene oxide was bonded onto a silver-coated stainless-steel wire using an ionic liquid as the crosslinking agent by a layer-by-layer strategy. The novel solid-phase microextraction fiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman microscopy. A multilayer graphene oxide layer was closely coated onto the supporting substrate. The thickness of the coating was about 4 μm. Coupled with gas chromatography, the fiber was evaluated using five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluorene, anthracene, fluoranthene, 1,2-benzophenanthrene, and benzo(a)pyrene) as model analytes in direct-immersion mode. The main conditions (extraction time, extraction temperature, ionic strength, and desorption time) were optimized by a factor-by-factor optimization. The as-established method exhibited a wide linearity range (0.5-200 μg/L) and low limits of determination (0.05-0.10 μg/L). It was applied to analyze environmental water samples of rain and river water. Three kinds of the model analytes were quantified and the recoveries of samples spiked at 10 μg/L were in the range of 92.3-120 and 93.8-115%, respectively. The obtained results indicated the fiber was efficient for solid-phase microextraction analysis. PMID:25283136

  3. Toxicity of vesicant agents scheduled for destruction by the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program.

    PubMed

    Watson, A P; Griffin, G D

    1992-11-01

    The vesicant agents of the unitary chemical munitions stockpile include various formulations of sulfur mustard [bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide; agents H, HD, and HT] and small quantities of the organic arsenical Lewisite [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl) arsine; agent L]. These agents can be dispersed in liquid, aerosol, or vapor form and are capable of producing severe chemical burns upon direct contact with tissue. Moist tissues such as the eyes, respiratory tract, and axillary areas are particularly affected. Available data summarizing acute dose response in humans and laboratory animals are summarized. Vesicant agents are also capable of generating delayed effects such as chronic bronchitis, carcinogenesis, or keratitis/keratopathy of the eye under appropriate conditions of exposure and dose. These effects may not become manifest until years following exposure. Risk analysis derived from carcinogenesis data indicates that sulfur mustard possesses a carcinogenic potency similar to that of benzo[a]pyrene. Because mustard agents are alkylating compounds, they destroy individual cells by reaction with cellular proteins, enzymes, RNA, and DNA. Once begun, tissue reaction is irreversible. Mustard agents are mutagenic; data for cellular and laboratory animal assays are presented. Reproductive effects have not been demonstrated in the offspring of laboratory rats. Acute Lewisite exposure has been implicated in cases of Bowen's disease, an intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma. Lewisite is not known to generate reproductive or teratogenic effects. PMID:1486858

  4. Toxicity of vesicant agents scheduled for destruction by the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, A P; Griffin, G D

    1992-01-01

    The vesicant agents of the unitary chemical munitions stockpile include various formulations of sulfur mustard [bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide; agents H, HD, and HT] and small quantities of the organic arsenical Lewisite [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl) arsine; agent L]. These agents can be dispersed in liquid, aerosol, or vapor form and are capable of producing severe chemical burns upon direct contact with tissue. Moist tissues such as the eyes, respiratory tract, and axillary areas are particularly affected. Available data summarizing acute dose response in humans and laboratory animals are summarized. Vesicant agents are also capable of generating delayed effects such as chronic bronchitis, carcinogenesis, or keratitis/keratopathy of the eye under appropriate conditions of exposure and dose. These effects may not become manifest until years following exposure. Risk analysis derived from carcinogenesis data indicates that sulfur mustard possesses a carcinogenic potency similar to that of benzo[a]pyrene. Because mustard agents are alkylating compounds, they destroy individual cells by reaction with cellular proteins, enzymes, RNA, and DNA. Once begun, tissue reaction is irreversible. Mustard agents are mutagenic; data for cellular and laboratory animal assays are presented. Reproductive effects have not been demonstrated in the offspring of laboratory rats. Acute Lewisite exposure has been implicated in cases of Bowen's disease, an intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma. Lewisite is not known to generate reproductive or teratogenic effects. PMID:1486858

  5. Toxicity of vesicant agents scheduled for destruction by the chemical stockpile disposal program

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.; Griffin, G.D. )

    1992-11-01

    The vesicant agents of the unitary chemical munitions stockpile include various formulations of sulfur mustard [bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide; agents H, HD, and HT] and small quantities of the organic arsenical Lewisite [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine; agent L]. These agents can be dispersed in liquid, aerosol, or vapor form and are capable of producing severe chemical burns upon direct contact with tissue. Moist tissues such as the eyes, respiratory tract, and axillary areas are particularly affected. Available data summarizing acute dose response in humans and laboratory animals are summarized. Vesicant agents are also capable of generating delayed effects such as chronic bronchitis, carcinogenesis, or keratitis/keratopathy of the eye under appropriate conditions of exposure and dose. These effects may not become manifest until years following exposure. Risk analysis derived from carcinogenesis data indicates that sulfur mustard possesses a carcinogenic potency similar to that of benzo[a]pyrene. Because mustard agents are alkylating compounds, they destroy individual cells by reaction with cellular proteins, enzymes, RNA, and DNA. Once begun, tissue reaction is irreversible. Mustard agents are mutagenic; data for cellular and laboratory animal assays are presented. Reproductive effects have not been demonstrated in the offspring of laboratory rats. Acute Lewisite exposure has been implicated in cases of Bowen's disease, an intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma. Lewisite is not known to generate reproductive or teratogenic effects. 112 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  6. Development and evaluation of liquid embolic agents based on liquid crystalline material of glyceryl monooleate.

    PubMed

    Du, Ling-Ran; Lu, Xiao-Jing; Guan, Hai-Tao; Yang, Yong-Jie; Gu, Meng-Jie; Zheng, Zhuo-Zhao; Lv, Tian-Shi; Yan, Zi-Guang; Song, Li; Zou, Ying-Hua; Fu, Nai-Qi; Qi, Xian-Rong; Fan, Tian-Yuan

    2014-08-25

    New type of liquid embolic agents based on a liquid crystalline material of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) was developed and evaluated in this study. Ternary phase diagram of GMO, water and ethanol was constructed and three isotropic liquids (ILs, GMO:ethanol:water=49:21:30, 60:20:20 and 72:18:10 (w/w/w)) were selected as potential liquid embolic agents, which could spontaneously form viscous gel cast when contacting with water or physiological fluid. The ILs exhibited excellent microcatheter deliverability due to low viscosity, and were proved to successfully block the saline flow when performed in a device to simulate embolization in vitro. The ILs also showed good cytocompatibility on L929 mouse fibroblast cell line. The embolization of ILs to rabbit kidneys was performed successfully under monitoring of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and embolic degree was affected by the initial formulation composition and used volume. At 5th week after embolization, DSA and computed tomography (CT) confirmed the renal arteries embolized with IL did not recanalize in follow-up period, and an obvious atrophy of the embolized kidney was observed. Therefore, the GMO-based liquid embolic agents showed feasible and effective to embolize, and potential use in clinical interventional embolization therapy. PMID:24858389

  7. The fate of the chemical warfare agent during DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Della A; Hulst, Albert G; de Reuver, Leo P J; van Krimpen, Simon H; van Baar, Ben M L

    2007-11-01

    Forensic laboratories do not have the infrastructure to process or store contaminated DNA samples that have been recovered from a crime scene contaminated with chemical or biological warfare agents. Previous research has shown that DNA profiles can be recovered from blood exposed to several chemical warfare agents after the agent has been removed. The fate of four toxic agents, sulfur mustard, sodium 2-fluoroacetate, sarin, and diazinon, in a lysis buffer used in Promega DNA IQ extraction protocol was studied to determine if extraction would render the samples safe. Two independent analytical methods were used per agent, selected from GC-MS, 1H NMR, 19F NMR, (31)P NMR, or LC-ES MS. The methods were validated before use. Determinations were carried out in a semi-quantitative way, by direct comparison to standards. Agent levels in the elution buffer were found to be below the detectable limits for mustard, sarin, sodium 2-fluoroacetate or low (<0.02 mg/mL) for diazinon. Therefore, once extracted these DNA samples could be safely processed in a forensic laboratory. PMID:18093062

  8. Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse (II): effects of some currently used skin decontaminants (RSDL and Fuller's earth) against liquid sulphur mustard and VX exposure.

    PubMed

    Taysse, L; Dorandeu, F; Daulon, S; Foquin, A; Perrier, N; Lallement, G; Breton, P

    2011-06-01

    Using the hairless mouse screening model presented in the companion paper(1) the aim of this study was to assess two skin decontaminating systems: Fuller's earth (FE) and Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) against two extremely toxic chemical warfare agents that represent a special percutaneous hazard, sulphur mustard (SM) and O-ethyl-S-(2[di-isopropylamino]ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX). Five minutes after being exposed on the back to either 2 µL of neat sulphur mustard or 50 µg.kg(-1) of diluted VX, mice were decontaminated. Both systems were able to reduce blisters 3 days after SM exposure. However, RSDL was found to be more efficient than FE in reducing the necrosis of the epidermis and erosion. In the case of VX exposure, RSDL, whatever the ratio of decontaminant to toxicant used (RSDL 10, 20, 50), was not able to sufficiently prevent the inhibition of plasma cholinesterases taken as a surrogate marker of exposure and toxicity. Only FE reduced significantly the ChE inhibition. Some of these observations are different from our previous results obtained in domestic swine and these changes are thus discussed in the perspective of using SKH-1 hairless mice for the initial in vivo screening of decontaminants. PMID:20534641

  9. Appendix C. Collection of Samples for Chemical Agent Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C; Thompson, C; Doerr, T; Scripsick, R

    2005-09-23

    This chapter describes procedures for the collection and analysis of samples of various matrices for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical agents in a civilian setting. This appendix is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to make informed decisions about the sampling and analysis process and to suggest analytical strategies that might be implemented by the scientists performing sampling and analysis. This appendix is not intended to be used as a standard operating procedure to provide detailed instructions as to how trained scientists should handle samples. Chemical agents can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Table 1 lists the chemical agents considered by this report. In selecting sampling and analysis methods, we have considered procedures proposed by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and peer-reviewed scientific literature. EPA analytical methods are good resources describing issues of quality assurance with respect to chain-of-custody, sample handling, and quality control requirements.

  10. Bubble Jet agent release cartridge for chemical single cell stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wangler, N; Welsche, M; Blazek, M; Blessing, M; Vervliet-Scheebaum, M; Reski, R; Müller, C; Reinecke, H; Steigert, J; Roth, G; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2013-02-01

    We present a new method for the distinct specific chemical stimulation of single cells and small cell clusters within their natural environment. By single-drop release of chemical agents with droplets in size of typical cell diameters (d <30 μm) on-demand micro gradients can be generated for the specific manipulation of single cells. A single channel and a double channel agent release cartridge with integrated fluidic structures and integrated agent reservoirs are shown, tested, and compared in this publication. The single channel setup features a fluidic structure fabricated by anisotropic etching of silicon. To allow for simultaneous release of different agents even though maintaining the same device size, the second type comprises a double channel fluidic structure, fabricated by photolithographic patterning of TMMF. Dispensed droplet volumes are V = 15 pl and V = 10 pl for the silicon and the TMMF based setups, respectively. Utilizing the agent release cartridges, the application in biological assays was demonstrated by hormone-stimulated premature bud formation in Physcomitrella patens and the individual staining of one single L 929 cell within a confluent grown cell culture. PMID:22833153

  11. Microwave spectroscopy of chemical warfare agents: prospects for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, Alan C.; Jensen, James O.; Suenram, Richard D.; Hight Walker, Angela R.; Woolard, Dwight L.

    1999-07-01

    The high level of interest in the sensor development community in millimeter wave technology development demonstrates the potential for several multipurpose applications of millimeter wave sensors. The potential for remote sensing of hazardous chemical materials based on their millimeter wave rotational signatures is yet another possible applications, offering certain distinct advantages over FTIR remote sensing. The high specificity of the rotational spectra to the molecular structures affords the capability of detecting chemical warfare (CW) agents and degradation products in complex mixtures including water vapor and smoke, an important consideration in military applications. Furthermore, the rotational modes are not complicated by electronic or vibrational transitions, reducing the potential for false alarms. We have conducted microwave spectroscopic measurements on two CW nerve agents (sarin and soman) and one blister agent (H-mustard). The assignment of the observed band furnishes us with an extremely accurate tool for predicting the rotational spectrum of these agents at any arbitrary frequency. By factoring in the effects of pressure (Lorentzian broadening and intensity reduction), we present the predicted spectral signatures of the CW agents in the 80 - 300 GHz region. This frequency regime is important for atmospheric monitoring as it exploits the wide bandwidth capability of millimeter wave sensors as well as the atmospheric windows that occur in this region.

  12. DESI-MS/MS of Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, Paul A.

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were used to headspace ­sample chemical warfare agents and their hydrolysis products from glass vials and glass vials containing spiked media, including Dacron swabs, office carpet, paper and fabric. The interface of the Z-spray source was modified to permit safe introduction of the SPME fibers for desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (DESI-MS) analysis. A "dip and shoot" method was also developed for the rapid sampling and DESI-MS analysis of chemical warfare agents and their hydrolysis products in liquid samples. Sampling was performed by simply dipping fused silica, stainless steel or SPME tips into the organic or aqueous samples. Replicate analyses were completed within several minutes under ambient conditions with no sample pre-treatment, resulting in a significant increase in sample throughput. The developed sample handling and analysis method was applied to the determination of chemical warfare agent content in samples containing unknown chemical and/or biological warfare agents. Ottawa sand was spiked with sulfur mustard, extracted with water and autoclaved to ensure sterility. Sulfur mustard was completely hydrolysed during the extraction/autoclave step and thiodiglycol was identified by DESI-MS, with analyses generally being completed within 1 min using the "dip and shoot" method.

  13. Chemically modified tetracyclines: The novel host modulating agents

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Devulapalli Narasimha; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kapalavai, Vasavi

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal pathogens and destructive host responses are involved in the initiation and progression of periodontitis. The emergence of host response modulation as a treatment concept has resulted from our improved understanding of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. A variety of drugs have been evaluated as host modulation agents (HMA), including Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS), bisphosphonates, tetracyclines, enamel matrix proteins and bone morphogenetic proteins. Chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) are one such group of drugs which have been viewed as potential host modulating agents by their anticollagenolytic property. The CMTs are designed to be more potent inhibitors of pro inflammatory mediators and can increase the levels of anti inflammatory mediators. PMID:26392682

  14. Chemically modified tetracyclines: The novel host modulating agents.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Devulapalli Narasimha; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kapalavai, Vasavi

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal pathogens and destructive host responses are involved in the initiation and progression of periodontitis. The emergence of host response modulation as a treatment concept has resulted from our improved understanding of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. A variety of drugs have been evaluated as host modulation agents (HMA), including Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS), bisphosphonates, tetracyclines, enamel matrix proteins and bone morphogenetic proteins. Chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) are one such group of drugs which have been viewed as potential host modulating agents by their anticollagenolytic property. The CMTs are designed to be more potent inhibitors of pro inflammatory mediators and can increase the levels of anti inflammatory mediators. PMID:26392682

  15. 12 CFR 709.4 - Powers and duties of liquidating agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... desirable or expedient in its discretion to wind up the affairs of the credit union including, but not... power to: (1) Pay all costs and expenses of the liquidation as determined by the liquidating agent; (2... performance of their duties. (e) Assets, claims, and contracts. The liquidating agent shall have power to:...

  16. 12 CFR 709.4 - Powers and duties of liquidating agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... desirable or expedient in its discretion to wind up the affairs of the credit union including, but not... power to: (1) Pay all costs and expenses of the liquidation as determined by the liquidating agent; (2... performance of their duties. (e) Assets, claims, and contracts. The liquidating agent shall have power to:...

  17. 12 CFR 709.4 - Powers and duties of liquidating agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... desirable or expedient in its discretion to wind up the affairs of the credit union including, but not... power to: (1) Pay all costs and expenses of the liquidation as determined by the liquidating agent; (2... performance of their duties. (e) Assets, claims, and contracts. The liquidating agent shall have power to:...

  18. 12 CFR 709.4 - Powers and duties of liquidating agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... desirable or expedient in its discretion to wind up the affairs of the credit union including, but not... power to: (1) Pay all costs and expenses of the liquidation as determined by the liquidating agent; (2... performance of their duties. (e) Assets, claims, and contracts. The liquidating agent shall have power to:...

  19. 12 CFR 709.4 - Powers and duties of liquidating agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... desirable or expedient in its discretion to wind up the affairs of the credit union including, but not... power to: (1) Pay all costs and expenses of the liquidation as determined by the liquidating agent; (2... performance of their duties. (e) Assets, claims, and contracts. The liquidating agent shall have power to:...

  20. Development of a Persistent Chemical Agent Simulator System (PCASS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcginness, W. G.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a persistent chemical agent simulation system (PCASS) is described. This PCASS is to be used for the military training of troops to simulate actual chemical warfare. The purpose of this system is to facilitate in the determination of chemical contamination and effectiveness of decontamination for training purposes. The fluorescent tracer employed has no daylight activation, but yet is easily removed with a decontaminate solution or water and surfactants. Also employed is a time delayed color developing system. When an individual is subjected to the PCASS and does not decontaminate adequately, red blotches or red coloration will develop as a function of time and temperature. The intent of this is to simulate the delayed chemical reaction of mustard contaminates.

  1. Agent-Based Chemical Plume Tracing Using Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zarzhitsky, Dimitri; Spears, Diana; Thayer, David; Spears, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a rigorous evaluation of a novel, distributed chemical plume tracing algorithm. The algorithm is a combination of the best aspects of the two most popular predecessors for this task. Furthermore, it is based on solid, formal principles from the field of fluid mechanics. The algorithm is applied by a network of mobile sensing agents (e.g., robots or micro-air vehicles) that sense the ambient fluid velocity and chemical concentration, and calculate derivatives. The algorithm drives the robotic network to the source of the toxic plume, where measures can be taken to disable the source emitter. This work is part of a much larger effort in research and development of a physics-based approach to developing networks of mobile sensing agents for monitoring, tracking, reporting and responding to hazardous conditions.

  2. Infrared spectroscopy for chemical agent detection using tailored hypersorbent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, Dmitry A.; McGill, R. Andrew; Stievater, Todd H.; Furstenberg, Robert; Pruessner, Marcel W.; Nguyen, Viet

    2015-06-01

    We report long-wave infrared (LWIR, 5-15 μm) and mid-wave infrared (MWIR, 2.5 - 5 μm) differential absorption spectra of different nerve agent simulants and common solutes sorbed to poly(methyldi(1,1,1-trifluoro-2-trifluoromethyl- 2-hydroxypent-4-enyl)silane, HCSFA2, an NRL developed hypersorbent polymer. HCSFA2 is a strong hydrogen-bond acidic polymer which exhibits large gas-polymer partitions for a variety of hazardous chemicals with hydrogen-bond basic properties such as the phosphonate ester G-nerve agents or their simulants. The measured ATR-FTIR differential absorption spectra show complex fingerprint signal changes in the resonances for the sorbent material itself, as well as new resonances arising from chemical bonding between the solute or analyte and the sorbent or the solute itself being present in the sorbent.

  3. Tissue-based standoff biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-11-18

    A tissue-based, deployable, standoff air quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent, includes: a cell containing entrapped photosynthetic tissue, the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; means for introducing an air sample into the cell and contacting the air sample with the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; a fluorometer in operable relationship with the cell for measuring photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; and transmitting means for transmitting analytical data generated by the fluorometer relating to the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the air sample, the sensor adapted for deployment into a selected area.

  4. I-SCAD® standoff chemical agent detector overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Mirela O.; Griffin, Matthew T.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a system-level description of the I-SCAD® Standoff Chemical Agent Detector, a passive Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) based remote sensing system, for detecting chemical vapor threats. The passive infrared detection system automatically searches the 7 to 14 micron region of the surrounding atmosphere for agent vapor clouds. It is capable of operating while on the move to accomplish reconnaissance, surveillance, and contamination avoidance missions. Additionally, the system is designed to meet the needs for application on air and sea as well as ground mobile and fixed site platforms. The lightweight, passive, and fully automatic detection system scans the surrounding atmosphere for chemical warfare agent vapors. It provides on-the-move, 360-deg coverage from a variety of tactical and reconnaissance platforms at distances up to 5 km. The core of the system is a rugged Michelson interferometer with a flexure spring bearing mechanism and bi-directional data acquisition capability. The modular system design facilitates interfacing to many platforms. A Reduced Field of View (RFOV) variant includes novel modifications to the scanner subcomponent assembly optical design that gives extended performance in detection range and detection probability without sacrificing existing radiometric sensitivity performance. This paper will deliver an overview of system.

  5. Chemical agent detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Gift, Alan; Maksymiuk, Paul; Inscore, Frank E.; Smith, Wayne W.; Morrisey, Kevin; Christesen, Steven D.

    2004-03-01

    In the past decade, the Unites States and its allies have been challenged by a different kind of warfare, exemplified by the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Although suicide bombings are the most often used form of terror, military personnel must consider a wide range of attack scenarios. Among these is the intentional poisoning of water supplies to obstruct military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. To counter such attacks, the military is developing portable analyzers that can identify and quantify potential chemical agents in water supplies at microgram per liter concentrations within 10 minutes. To aid this effort we have been investigating the value of a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based portable analyzer. In particular we have been developing silver-doped sol-gels to generate SER spectra of chemical agents and their hydrolysis products. Here we present SER spectra of several chemical agents measured in a generic tap water. Repeat measurements were performed to establish statistical error associated with SERS obtained using the sol-gel coated vials.

  6. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J

    2008-05-01

    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

  7. Properties of agents that effectively entrap liquid lipids.

    PubMed

    Imagi, J; Yamanouchi, T; Okada, K; Tanimoto, M; Matsuno, R

    1992-03-01

    A droplet of an oil-in-water emulsion of methyl linoleate in a saccharide or protein solution that contained with a surfactant, a stabilizer, or both was dehydrated by drying equipment for a single droplet that resembled a spray drier. The lipid exposed on the surface of dehydated samples was extracted and measured by gas chromatography. Gum arabic or gelatin without additives resulted in little lipid being exposed; they were good entrapping agents. Little lipid was exposed with a pullulan solution containing lecithin, sugar ester, carboxymethylcellulose, or sodium caseinate but much was exposed with a maltodextrin solution containing any of the surfactants tested. When both the surfactant lecithin and the stabilizer xanthan gum were added to the emulsion prepared in a maltodextrin solution, lipid was not detected. The results suggested that effective entrapping agents of liquid lipids cause much emulsification, stabilize the emulsion (that is, they cause the continuous phase to be very viscous), and create a dehydrated matrix of fine, dense network layers. PMID:1368332

  8. Chemical Computer Man: Chemical Agent Response Simulation (CARS). Technical report, January 1983-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.G.; Mioduszewski, R.J.

    1988-03-01

    The Chemical Computer Man: Chemical Agent Response Simulation (CARS) is a computer model and simulation program for estimating the dynamic changes in human physiological dysfunction resulting from exposures to chemical-threat nerve agents. The newly developed CARS methodology simulates agent exposure effects on the following five indices of human physiological function: mental, vision, cardio-respiratory, visceral, and limbs. Mathematical models and the application of basic pharmacokinetic principles were incorporated into the simulation so that for each chemical exposure, the relationship between exposure dosage, absorbed dosage (agent blood plasma concentration), and level of physiological response are computed as a function of time. CARS, as a simulation tool, is designed for the users with little or no computer-related experience. The model combines maximum flexibility with a comprehensive user-friendly interactive menu-driven system. Users define an exposure problem and obtain immediate results displayed in tabular, graphical, and image formats. CARS has broad scientific and engineering applications, not only in technology for the soldier in the area of Chemical Defense, but also in minimizing animal testing in biomedical and toxicological research and the development of a modeling system for human exposure to hazardous-waste chemicals.

  9. Chemical shift of hyperpolarized 129Xe dissolved in liquid nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, B.; Kuzma, N. N.; Happer, W.

    2002-01-01

    We report NMR measurements of hyperpolarized xenon dissolved in liquid nitrogen. The dependence of the 129Xe frequency shift on liquid nitrogen temperature was measured along the nitrogen saturated vapor curve from 77 to 93 K. Plotted as a function of the liquid nitrogen density, the chemical shift of xenon is very well described by a simple proportionality relation, with a slope of 0.2135(15) ppm/amagat. The relationship between the chemical shift and the longitudinal spin relaxation is considered in terms of the spin-rotation interaction, and estimates of Xe relaxation time in liquid nitrogen are discussed.

  10. Reactive chromophores for sensitive and selective detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frye-Mason, Greg; Leuschen, Martin; Wald, Lara; Paul, Kateri; Hancock, Lawrence F.

    2005-05-01

    A reactive chromophore developed at MIT exhibits sensitive and selective detection of surrogates for G-class nerve agents. This reporter acts by reacting with the agent to form an intermediate that goes through an internal cyclization reaction. The reaction locks the molecule into a form that provides a strong fluorescent signal. Using a fluorescent sensor platform, Nomadics has demonstrated rapid and sensitive detection of reactive simulants such as diethyl chloro-phosphate (simulant for sarin, soman, and related agents) and diethyl cyanophosphate (simulant for tabun). Since the unreacted chromophore does not fluoresce at the excitation wavelength used for the cyclized reporter, the onset of fluo-rescence can be easily detected. This fluorescence-based detection method provides very high sensitivity and could enable rapid detection at permissible exposure levels. Tests with potential interferents show that the reporter is very selective, with responses from only a few highly toxic, electrophilic chemicals such as phosgene, thionyl chloride, and strong acids such as HF, HCl, and nitric acid. Dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP), a common and inactive simu-lant for other CW detectors, is not reactive enough to generate a signal. The unique selectivity to chemical reactivity means that a highly toxic and hazardous chemical is present when the reporter responds and illustrates that this sensor can provide very low false alarm rates. Current efforts focus on demonstrating the sensitivity and range of agents and toxic industrial chemicals detected with this reporter as well as developing additional fluorescent reporters for a range of chemical reactivity classes. The goal is to produce a hand-held sensor that can sensitively detect a broad range of chemical warfare agent and toxic industrial chemical threats.

  11. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, D.E.

    1995-06-01

    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were reported as capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detecting soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition, these antibodies were highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies reported an extension of the level of sensitivity to -80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These antibodies offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances.

  12. Chemical warfare agent detectors probe the fogs of war

    SciTech Connect

    Ember, L.R. )

    1994-08-01

    The air-power-dominated Persian Gulf War was the largest massing of coalition forces since World War II. This short conflict left its own intriguing legacy of unanswered questions. Were chemical weapons used in the theater of war Some US Allies, many US service members, and a US Senator believe they were. Yet both US and U.K. defense establishments offer emphatic denials. If Saddam Hussein didn't use chemical weapons, how can the multitude of warning alarms that sounded, alarms indicating the presence of these warfare agents, be explained Did the chemical warfare (CW) agent monitors and detectors the US deployed operate properly And were they sensitive enough to detect not just militarily significant levels, for which troops would have had to don full protective gear, but also very low concentrations of these weapons, levels that Sen. Richard C. Shelby (D.-Ala.) believes may be responsible for the illnesses many Gulf War veterans are now experiencing In this paper, the author addressed these questions.

  13. The efficacy of chemical agents in cleaning and disinfection programs

    PubMed Central

    Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Silva Martins, Alzira Maria

    2001-01-01

    Background Due to the growing number of outbreaks of infection in hospital nurseries, it becomes essential to set up a sanitation program that indicates that the appropriate chemical agent was chosen for application in the most effective way. Method For the purpose of evaluating the efficacy of a chemical agent, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was reached by the classic method of successive broth dilutions. The reference bacteria utilized were Bacillus subtilis var. globigii ATCC 9372, Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The strains of Enterobacter cloacae IAL 1976 (Adolfo Lutz Institute), Serratia marcescens IAL 1478 and Acinetobactev calcoaceticus IAL 124 (ATCC 19606), were isolated from material collected from babies involved in outbreaks of infection in hospital nurseries. Results The MIC intervals, which reduced bacteria populations over 08 log10, were: 59 to 156 mg/L of quaternarium ammonium compounds (QACs); 63 to 10000 mg/L of chlorhexidine digluconate; 1375 to 3250 mg/L of glutaraldehyde; 39 to 246 mg/L of formaldehyde; 43750 to 87500 mg/L of isopropanol or ethanol; 1250 to 6250 mg/L of iodine in polyvinyl-pyrolidone complexes, 150 to 4491 mg/L of chlorine-releasing-agents (CRAs); 469 to 2500 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide; and, 2310 to 18500 mg/L of peracetic acid. Conclusions Chlorhexidine showed non inhibitory activity over germinating spores. A. calcoaceticus, was observed to show resistance to the majority of the agents tested, followed by E. cloacae and S. marcescens. PMID:11591223

  14. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, D.E.; Brimfield, A.A.; Cook, L.

    1996-10-01

    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detection soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition these antibodies were found to be highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies extended the level of sensitivity to {approximately}80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These reagents offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances. More recent efforts have focussed on developing antibodies specific for sulfur mustard a highly reactive vesicating agent.

  15. Supercritical fluid extraction of chemical warfare agent simulants from soil.

    PubMed

    Griest, W H; Ramsey, R S; Ho, C H; Caldwell, W M

    1992-05-29

    Chemical warfare agent simulants are efficiently recovered from 2-ppm spikes in 1 g of Rocky Mountain Arsenal Standard Soil using methanol-carbon dioxide (5:95) at 300 atm for 2 min at 60 degrees C. Recoveries (n = 3) were 79 +/- 23% for dimethylmethylphosphonate, 93 +/- 14% for 2-chloroethylethyl sulfide, 92 +/- 13% for diisopropylfluorophosphate and 95 +/- 17% for diisopropylmethylphosphonate. Recoveries are higher than, but less precise than those achieved from a 5-min ultrasonic micro-scale extraction using methanol. Much less laboratory waste is generated than the current standard organic solvent extraction method (33 g of soil shaken with 100 ml of chloroform). PMID:1400849

  16. Modeling and Visualizing Flow of Chemical Agents Across Complex Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Kramer, Marc; Chaderjian, Neal

    2005-01-01

    Release of chemical agents across complex terrain presents a real threat to homeland security. Modeling and visualization tools are being developed that capture flow fluid terrain interaction as well as point dispersal downstream flow paths. These analytic tools when coupled with UAV atmospheric observations provide predictive capabilities to allow for rapid emergency response as well as developing a comprehensive preemptive counter-threat evacuation plan. The visualization tools involve high-end computing and massive parallel processing combined with texture mapping. We demonstrate our approach across a mountainous portion of North California under two contrasting meteorological conditions. Animations depicting flow over this geographical location provide immediate assistance in decision support and crisis management.

  17. New Chemically Functionalized Nanomaterials for Electrical Nerve Agents Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonato, Jean-Pierre; Clavaguera, Simon; Carella, Alexandre; Delalande, Michael; Raoul, Nicolas; Lenfant, Stephane; Vuillaume, Dominique; Dubois, Emmanuel

    2011-08-01

    A chemical receptor specific to traces of organophosphorus nerve agents (OPs) has been synthesized and grafted to carbon nanotubes and silicon nanowires in order to make electrical sensors. Our results show that it is possible to detect efficiently sub-ppm traces of OPs with excellent selectivity notably with the use of silicon nanowires by monitoring the Drain-Source current of the SiNW-FET at an optimum back Gate voltage as a function of time. First developments of a prototype have also been realized.

  18. Mass Spectrometry Applications for the Identification and Quantitation of Biomarkers Resulting from Human Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. Richard; Capacio, Benedict R.

    In recent years, a number of analytical methods using biomedical samples such as blood and urine have been developed for the verification of exposure to chemical warfare agents. The majority of methods utilize gas or liquid chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry. In a small number of cases of suspected human exposure to chemical warfare agents, biomedical specimens have been made available for testing. This chapter provides an overview of biomarkers that have been verified in human biomedical samples, details of the exposure incidents, the methods utilized for analysis, and the biomarker concentration levels determined in the blood and/or urine.

  19. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., including chemical agents. 552.25 Section 552.25 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF... Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a) The Warden may authorize the use of less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing chemical agents, only when the situation is...

  20. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of chemical agents or non-lethal... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.25 Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. The Warden may authorize the use of chemical agents or non-lethal...

  1. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., including chemical agents. 552.25 Section 552.25 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF... Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a) The Warden may authorize the use of less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing chemical agents, only when the situation is...

  2. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., including chemical agents. 552.25 Section 552.25 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF... Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a) The Warden may authorize the use of less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing chemical agents, only when the situation is...

  3. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., including chemical agents. 552.25 Section 552.25 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF... Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a) The Warden may authorize the use of less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing chemical agents, only when the situation is...

  4. Detection of simulants and degradation products of chemical warfare agents by vibrational spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Pesante, Orlando; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C.; Primera-Pedrozo, Oliva M.; Ortiz, William; Soto-Feliciano, Yadira M.; Nieves, Deborah E.; Ramirez, Michael L.; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2007-04-01

    This work was focused in the measurement of spectroscopic signatures of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants (CWAS) and degradation products of chemical agents using vibrational spectroscopy for the generation of spectroscopic libraries. The chemicals studied were: DMMP, DIMP, 2-CEES, 2-BAET, 1,4-thioxane, thiodiglycol sulfoxide, dihexylamine, cyclohexylamine, among others. Raman microscopy experiments were performed at different excitation wavelengths that spanned from NIR at 1064 and 785 nm to the VIS at 532, 514.5 and 488 nm and even the deep ultraviolet region at 244 nm. For the compounds studied the optimum excitation lines were 488 nm and 532 nm with a laser power of 25 mW. Among the most prominent bands were at these incident wavelengths were located ca. 652 and 1444 cm-1. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy in liquid and gas phase and Fiber Optics Coupled-Grazing Angle Probe-FTIR (FOCGAP- FTIR) were used to characterize the spectroscopic signature of target threat agents. The surface experiments were performed at detection levels of about 1 μg/cm2 suggest that limits of detection (LOD) achievable could be as low as nanograms/cm2. Remote sensing experiments were performed using a telescope coupled with a Raman spectrophotometer as a function of power and acquisition time. Characterization of compounds by vibrational spectroscopy and the early stages of the transition from the lab based experiments to remote detection experiments will be presented.

  5. Hand-Held Devices Detect Explosives and Chemical Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Ion Applications Inc., of West Palm Beach, Florida, partnered with Ames Research Center through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements to develop a miniature version ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). While NASA was interested in the instrument for detecting chemicals during exploration of distant planets, moons, and comets, the company has incorporated the technology into a commercial hand-held IMS device for use by the military and other public safety organizations. Capable of detecting and identifying molecules with part-per-billion sensitivity, the technology now provides soldiers with portable explosives and chemical warfare agent detection. The device is also being adapted for detecting drugs and is employed in industrial processes such as semiconductor manufacturing.

  6. Management of Root Resorption Using Chemical Agents: A Review.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zahed; C Cehreli, Zafer; Shalavi, Sousan; Giardino, Luciano; Palazzi, Flavio; Asgary, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Root resorption (RR) is defined as the loss of dental hard tissues because of clastic activity inside or outside of tooth the root. In the permanent dentition, RR is a pathologic event; if untreated, it might result in the premature loss of the affected tooth. Several hypotheses have been suggested as the mechanisms of root resorption such as absence of the remnants of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) and the absence of some intrinsic factors in cementum and predentin such as amelogenin or osteoprotegerin (OPG). It seems that a barrier is formed by the less-calcified intermediate cementum or the cementodentin junction that prevents external RR. There are several chemical strategies to manage root resorption. The purpose of this paper was to review several chemical agents to manage RR such as tetracycline, sodium hypochlorite, acids (citric acid, phosphoric acid, ascorbic acid and hydrochloric acid), acetazolamide, calcitonin, alendronate, fluoride, Ledermix and Emdogain. PMID:26843869

  7. Evaluation of SERS substrates for chemical agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hermes; Shende, Chetan; Sengupta, Atanu; Inscore, Frank; Farquharson, Stuart

    2012-06-01

    US Military forces are dependent on indigenous water supplies, which are considered prime targets to effect a chemical or biological attack. Consequently, there is a clear need for a portable analyzer capable of evaluating water supplies prior to use. To this end we have been investigating the use of a portable Raman analyzer with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sampling systems. The superior selectivity and exceptional sensitivity of SERS has been demonstrated by the detection of single molecules. However, the extreme sensitivity provided by SERS is attributed to "hot spot" structures, such as particle junctions that can provide as much as 10 orders of magnitude enhancement. Unfortunately, hotspots are not evenly distributed across substrates, which results in enhancements that cannot be quantitatively reproduced. Here we present analysis of uniformity for a newly developed substrate and commercial sample vials using benzenethiol and bispyridylethylene, two chemicals often used to characterize SERS substrates, and methyl phosphonic acid, a major hydrolysis product of the nerve agents.

  8. Management of Root Resorption Using Chemical Agents: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; C. Cehreli, Zafer; Shalavi, Sousan; Giardino, Luciano; Palazzi, Flavio; Asgary, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Root resorption (RR) is defined as the loss of dental hard tissues because of clastic activity inside or outside of tooth the root. In the permanent dentition, RR is a pathologic event; if untreated, it might result in the premature loss of the affected tooth. Several hypotheses have been suggested as the mechanisms of root resorption such as absence of the remnants of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) and the absence of some intrinsic factors in cementum and predentin such as amelogenin or osteoprotegerin (OPG). It seems that a barrier is formed by the less-calcified intermediate cementum or the cementodentin junction that prevents external RR. There are several chemical strategies to manage root resorption. The purpose of this paper was to review several chemical agents to manage RR such as tetracycline, sodium hypochlorite, acids (citric acid, phosphoric acid, ascorbic acid and hydrochloric acid), acetazolamide, calcitonin, alendronate, fluoride, Ledermix and Emdogain. PMID:26843869

  9. Insect-gene-activity detection system for chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackie, Ryan S.; Schilling, Amanda S.; Lopez, Arturo M.; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo

    2002-02-01

    Detection of multiple chemical and biological weapons (CBW) agents and/or complex mixtures of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) is imperative for both the commercial and military sectors. In a military scenario, a multi-CBW attack would create confusion, thereby delaying decontamination and therapeutic efforts. In the commercial sector, polluted sites invariably contain a mixture of TIC. Novel detection systems capable of detecting CBW and TIC are sorely needed. While it may be impossible to build a detector capable of discriminating all the possible combinations of CBW, a detection system capable of statistically predicting the most likely composition of a given mixture is within the reach of current emerging technologies. Aquatic insect-gene activity may prove to be a sensitive, discriminating, and elegant paradigm for the detection of CBW and TIC. We propose to systematically establish the expression patterns of selected protein markers in insects exposed to specific mixtures of chemical and biological warfare agents to generate a library of biosignatures of exposure. The predicting capabilities of an operational library of biosignatures of exposures will allow the detection of emerging novel or genetically engineered agents, as well as complex mixtures of chemical and biological weapons agents. CBW and TIC are discussed in the context of war, terrorism, and pollution.

  10. Ocular scanning instrumentation: rapid diagnosis of chemical threat agent exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Lance R.; Odom, J. V.; DeRoos, Bradley G.; Kolanko, Christopher J.

    2004-09-01

    Military personnel and first responders are in critical need of a sensitive technology for the rapid evaluation and diagnosis of exposure to adverse chemical agents. Ideally such a technology would be automated, easily portable, possess a high degree of sensitivity and specificity, and provide non-invasive assessment of health status. A potential method for meeting these requirements is via monitoring of ocular characteristics. Due to the interconnection between the eyes and the various physiological systems of the body, insults to the body may create a unique "thumbprint" upon the eyes based upon how these various physiological systems are differentially affected. In turn, these thumbprints (biomarkers) may be used to perform diagnostic evaluations of an individual"s health status. Based upon this principle, the Ocular Scanning Instrumentation (OSI) technology is being developed as an automated device for non-invasive monitoring of optically apparent characteristics and attributes of the eyes for in-the-field diagnosis of battlefield traumas, insults, and threat agent exposures. The current manuscript presents comparative data for two of the agents which we have evaluated, carbon monoxide and cyanide. The defined methods provide the required specificity and sensitivity needed for detecting exposures at time points which provide an ample therapeutic window for medical intervention.

  11. μ-PADs for detection of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Pardasani, Deepak; Tak, Vijay; Purohit, Ajay K; Dubey, D K

    2012-12-01

    Conventional methods of detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) based on chromogenic reactions are time and solvent intensive. The development of cost, time and solvent effective microfluidic paper based analytical devices (μ-PADs) for the detection of nerve and vesicant agents is described. The detection of analytes was based upon their reactions with rhodamine hydroxamate and para-nitrobenzyl pyridine, producing red and blue colours respectively. Reactions were optimized on the μ-PADs to produce the limits of detection (LODs) as low as 100 μM for sulfur mustard in aqueous samples. Results were quantified with the help of a simple desktop scanner and Photoshop software. Sarin achieved a linear response in the two concentration ranges of 20-100 mM and 100-500 mM, whereas the response of sulfur mustard was found to be linear in the concentration range of 10-75 mM. Results were precise enough to establish the μ-PADs as a valuable tool for security personnel fighting against chemical terrorism. PMID:23086107

  12. Tear gas--harassing agent or toxic chemical weapon

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, H.; Fine, J.; Epstein, P.; Kelsey, K.; Reynolds, P.; Walker, B.

    1989-08-04

    Tear gas has gained widespread acceptance as a means of controlling civilian crowds and subduing barricaded criminals. The most widely used forms of tear gas have been o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and omega-chloroacetophenone. Proponents of their use claim that, if used correctly, the noxious effects of exposure are transient and of no long-term consequences. The use of tear gas in recent situations of civil unrest, however, demonstrates that exposure to the weapon is difficult to control and indiscriminate, and the weapon is often not used correctly. Severe traumatic injury from exploding tear gas bombs as well as lethal toxic injury have been documented. Moreover, available toxicological data are deficient as to the potential of tear gas agents to cause long-term pulmonary, carcinogenic, and reproductive effects. Published and recent unpublished in vitro tests have shown o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile to be both clastogenic and mutagenic. Sadly, the nature of its use renders analytic epidemiologic investigation of exposed persons difficult. In 1969, eighty countries voted to include tear gas agents among chemical weapons banned under the Geneva Protocol. There is an ongoing need for investigation into the full toxicological potential of tear gas chemicals and renewed debate on whether their use can be condoned under any circumstances. 48 references.

  13. Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry for the detection and identification of chemical warfare agent simulants.

    PubMed

    Martin, Audrey N; Farquar, George R; Frank, Matthias; Gard, Eric E; Fergenson, David P

    2007-08-15

    Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was used for the real-time detection of liquid nerve agent simulants. A total of 1000 dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for micrometer-sized single particles each of dimethyl methyl phosphonate, diethyl ethyl phosphonate, diethyl phosphoramidate, and diethyl phthalate using laser fluences between 0.58 and 7.83 nJ/microm2, and mass spectral variation with laser fluence was studied. The mass spectra obtained allowed identification of single particles of the chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants at each laser fluence used although lower laser fluences allowed more facile identification. SPAMS is presented as a promising real-time detection system for the presence of CWAs. PMID:17630721

  14. Electro-induced manipulations of liquid marbles for chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhou; Fu, Xiangyu; Binks, Bernard P.; Shum, Ho Cheung; Microfluidics; Soft Matter Group in University of Hong Kong Team; Surfactant; Colloid Group at Hull Team

    2015-11-01

    Liquid marbles, liquid droplets coated by non-wetting particles, have been well demonstrated as a promising template for various droplet-based applications, in particular for chemical reactions. In these applications, controlled manipulations on liquid marbles, including coalescence and mixing, are highly demanded but yet rarely investigated. In this work, we study the coalescence and mixing of liquid marbles controlled by an electric field. We found that a sufficiently large applied voltage can cause the coalescence of two or multiple marbles arranged in a chain. This critical voltage, leading to the consequent coalescence, increases with the number of the liquid marbles. In addition, the imposed electric stress can induce convective liquid flow within the different liquid marbles, resulting in rapid and efficient mixing. The mixing efficiency can be conveniently tuned through varying the applied voltage. Our approach based on electro-assisted manipulations of liquids marbles represents a robust and feasible template for chemical or biomedical reactions involving multiple reagents and steps. We have demonstrated its potential by performing a chemiluminescence to detect the hydrogen peroxide encapsulated in liquid marbles.

  15. Sensitive detection of chemical agents and toxic industrial chemicals using active open-path FTIRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, William T.

    2004-03-01

    Active open-path FTIR sensors provide more sensitive detection of chemical agents than passive FTIRs, such as the M21 RSCAAL and JSLSCAD, and at the same time identify and quantify toxic industrial chemicals (TIC). Passive FTIRs are bistatic sensors relying on infrared sources of opportunity. Utilization of earth-based sources of opportunity limits the source temperatures available for passive chemical-agent FTIR sensors to 300° K. Active FTIR chemical-agent sensors utilize silicon carbide sources, which can be operated at 1500° K. The higher source temperature provides more than an 80-times increase in the infrared radiant flux emitted per unit area in the 7 to 14 micron spectral fingerprint region. Minimum detection limits are better than 5 μgm/m3 for GA, GB, GD, GF and VX. Active FTIR sensors can (1) assist first responders and emergency response teams in their assessment of and reaction to a terrorist threat, (2) provide information on the identification of the TIC present and their concentrations and (3) contribute to the understanding and prevention of debilitating disorders analogous to the Gulf War Syndrome for military and civilian personnel.

  16. A Survey of Commercially Available Chemical Agent Instrumentation for Use in the Field

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, J S; Alcaraz, A; Andresen, B D; Pruneda, C O

    2002-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Forensic Science Center (FSC) has extensive experience and capabilities in the analysis of chemical agents (CA) and related compounds as well as experience in identifying these materials in the field (i.e. samples such as those found in soils, liquids, gases). An open source survey was performed to determine viable, commercially available technology that can detect, in situ, CA and also meet field-use performance criteria as specified by the Program Management Consultant (PMC). The performance requirements of the technology include accuracy, reliability, integration onto robotics, and chemical detection sensitivities that meet required specifications. Not included in this survey are technologies and methodologies to detect CA decomposition products and related waste streams.

  17. Anti-ulcer agents: chemical aspect of solving the problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogoza, L. N.; Salakhutdinov, N. F.

    2015-01-01

    The data on chemical structures and specific activities of compounds functioning as histamine H2-receptor antagonists, H+/K+-ATPase inhibitors at the exchange sites of hydrogen ions (proton pump inhibitors) and potassium ions (K+-competitive acid blockers) published from 1990 to 2013 are surveyed. The antisecretory agents with studied cytoprotective activity or with additional therapeutic properties compensating for disorders of internal defence mechanisms are presented. A separate section is devoted to the drugs that prevent or mitigate the NSAID-induced intestinal damage. All of the considered structures are classified according to the type of biological mechanism of action. Some aspects of the structure-activity relationships for such compounds are considered. The bibliography includes 83 references.

  18. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    PubMed

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janoš, Pavel; Skoumal, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxides have very important applications in many areas of chemistry, physics and materials science; their properties are dependent on the method of preparation, the morphology and texture. Nanostructured metal oxides can exhibit unique characteristics unlike those of the bulk form depending on their morphology, with a high density of edges, corners and defect surfaces. In recent years, methods have been developed for the preparation of metal oxide powders with tunable control of the primary particle size as well as of a secondary particle size: the size of agglomerates of crystallites. One of the many ways to take advantage of unique properties of nanostructured oxide materials is stoichiometric degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) pollutants on their surfaces. PMID:26423076

  19. High-throughput screening of chemical exchange saturation transfer MR contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guanshu; Gilad, Assaf A; Bulte, Jeff W M; van Zijl, Peter C M; McMahon, Michael T

    2010-01-01

    A new high-throughput MRI method for screening chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents is demonstrated, allowing simultaneous testing of multiple samples with minimal attention to sample configuration and shimming of the main magnetic field (B(0)). This approach, which is applicable to diamagnetic, paramagnetic and liposome CEST agents, employs a set of inexpensive glass or plastic capillary tubes containing CEST agents put together in a cheap plastic tube holder, without the need for liquid between the tubes to reduce magnetic susceptibility effects. In this setup, a reference image of direct water saturation spectra is acquired in order to map the absolute water frequency for each volume element (voxel) in the sample image, followed by an image of saturation transfer spectra to determine the CEST properties. Even though the field over the total sample is very inhomogeneous due to air-tube interfaces, the shape of the direct saturation spectra is not affected, allowing removal of susceptibility shift effects from the CEST data by using the absolute water frequencies from the reference map. As a result, quantitative information such as the mean CEST intensity for each sample can be extracted for multiple CEST agents at once. As an initial application, we demonstrate rapid screening of a library of 16 polypeptides for their CEST properties, but in principle the number of tubes is limited only by the available signal-noise-ratio, field of view and gradient strength for imaging. PMID:20586030

  20. Toxicology and pharmacology of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard.

    PubMed

    Dacre, J C; Goldman, M

    1996-06-01

    There have been reports of chemical attacks in which sulfur mustard might have been used (a) on Iranian soldiers and civilians during the Gulf War in 1984 and 1985 and (b) in an Iraqi chemical attack on the Iranian-occupied village of Halbja in 1988, resulting in many civilian casualties. Heavy use of chemical warfare in Afghanistan by the Soviet military is a recent innovation in military tactics that has been highly successful and may ensure further use of chemical agents in future military conflicts and terrorist attacks as a profitable adjunct to conventional military arms. Mustard is a poisonous chemical agent that exerts a local action on the eyes, skin, and respiratory tissue, with subsequent systemic action on the nervous, cardiac, and digestive systems in humans and laboratory animals, causing lacrimation, malaise, anorexia, salivation, respiratory distress, vomiting, hyperexcitability, and cardiac distress. Under extreme circumstances, dependent upon the dose and length of exposure to the agent, necrosis of the skin and mucous membranes of the respiratory system, bronchitis, bronchopneumonia, intestinal lesions, hemoconcentration, leucopenia, convulsions with systemic distress, and death occur. Severe mustard poisoning in humans is associated with systemic injury, which is manifested as headache, epigastric distresses, anorexia, diarrhea, and cachexia and is usually observed at mustard doses of 1000 mg/min/m3 with damage to hematopoietic tissues and progressive leucopenia. Sulfur mustard is a cell poison that causes disruption and impairment of a variety of cellular activities that are dependent upon a very specific integral relationship. These cytotoxic effects are manifested in widespread metabolic disturbances whose variable characteristics are observed in enzymatic deficiencies, vesicant action, abnormal mitotic activity and cell division, bone marrow disruption, disturbances in hematopoietic activity, and systemic poisoning. Indeed, mustard gas

  1. Blending ionic liquids: how physico-chemical properties change.

    PubMed

    Castiglione, Franca; Raos, Guido; Appetecchi, Giovanni Battista; Montanino, Maria; Passerini, Stefano; Moreno, Margherita; Famulari, Antonino; Mele, Andrea

    2010-02-28

    Ionic liquids offer the opportunity of tailoring their properties by changing the chemical structure of the cation and anion. Blending of two or more liquids adds a further dimension to this "chemical space". Here we present the results of a study of three binary and one ternary mixture of the ionic liquids formed by the N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium cation with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide, bis(pentafluoroethanesulfonyl) imide and (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)(nonafluorobutanesulfonyl) imide. We have collected viscosity and NMR-based data on ionxion correlations (NOE) and diffusion (DOSY). We also attempt to establish a quantitative correlation between mixture and the corresponding pure liquid properties. We find that the binary mixture containing the two very different anions has an intriguing and somewhat anomalous behaviour. PMID:20145843

  2. Liquid cultivation techniques for enhancing the effectiveness of yeast biocontrol agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biocontrol agents will gain broader acceptance into integrated pest management programs if products with enhanced efficacy and consistency of performance are developed. Though given comparatively little research attention, liquid cultivation environments and protocols can and should be optimized to...

  3. Forward-Osmosis Desalination with Poly(Ionic Liquid) Hydrogels as Smart Draw Agents.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xuelin; Liu, Huili; Gao, Yating; Zou, Zhu; Craig, Vincent S J; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming

    2016-06-01

    The combination of high desalination efficiency, negligible draw-solute leakage, nontoxicity, ease of regeneration, and effective separation to produce liquid water makes the smart draw agents developed here highly suited for forward-osmosis desalination. PMID:27007083

  4. Radiation chemical effects of X-rays on liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Holroyd, R.A.; Preses, J.M.

    1998-11-01

    This review describes some of the chemical changes induced by photoelectrons which are released in liquids when X-rays are absorbed. Both experimental studies and theory are discussed. In part 1, the basic processes occurring upon absorption of X-rays are described. Parts 2 and 3 deal with hydrocarbon liquids; in part 2 the ion yields, including effects at K-edges, and in part 3, the yields of excited states. Part 4 discusses chemical effects of X-rays in aqueous solutions. The authors end with a summary of future needs and directions.

  5. Micropyrolyzer for chemical analysis of liquid and solid samples

    DOEpatents

    Mowry, Curtis D.; Morgan, Catherine H.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2006-07-18

    A micropyrolyzer has applications to pyrolysis, heated chemistry, and thermal desorption from liquid or solid samples. The micropyrolyzer can be fabricated from semiconductor materials and metals using standard integrated circuit technologies. The micropyrolyzer enables very small volume samples of less than 3 microliters and high sample heating rates of greater than 20.degree. C. per millisecond. A portable analyzer for the field analysis of liquid and solid samples can be realized when the micropyrolyzer is combined with a chemical preconcentrator, chemical separator, and chemical detector. Such a portable analyzer can be used in a variety of government and industrial applications, such as non-proliferation monitoring, chemical and biological warfare detection, industrial process control, water and air quality monitoring, and industrial hygiene.

  6. Reduced chemical warfare agent sorption in polyurethane-painted surfaces via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of perfluoroalkanes.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Wesley O; Peterson, Gregory W; Durke, Erin M

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoralkalation via plasma chemical vapor deposition has been used to improve hydrophobicity of surfaces. We have investigated this technique to improve the resistance of commercial polyurethane coatings to chemicals, such as chemical warfare agents. The reported results indicate the surface treatment minimizes the spread of agent droplets and the sorption of agent into the coating. The improvement in resistance is likely due to reduction of the coating's surface free energy via fluorine incorporation, but may also have contributing effects from surface morphology changes. The data indicates that plasma-based surface modifications may have utility in improving chemical resistance of commercial coatings. PMID:25775244

  7. Antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Cameron S; Day, Brian J

    2016-01-15

    The continuing horrors of military conflicts and terrorism often involve the use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Many CWA and TIC exposures are difficult to treat due to the danger they pose to first responders and their rapid onset that can produce death shortly after exposure. While the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of these agents are diverse, many are associated either directly or indirectly with increased oxidative stress in affected tissues. This has led to the exploration of various antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC exposures. Studies have been performed across a wide array of agents, model organisms, exposure systems, and antioxidants, looking at an almost equally diverse set of endpoints. Attempts at treating CWAs/TICs with antioxidants have met with mixed results, ranging from no effect to nearly complete protection. The aim of this commentary is to summarize the literature in each category for evidence of oxidative stress and antioxidant efficacy against CWAs and TICs. While there is great disparity in the data concerning methods, models, and remedies, the outlook on antioxidants as medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC management appears promising. PMID:26476351

  8. Non-cancer effects of chemical agents on children's health.

    PubMed

    Röösli, Martin

    2011-12-01

    This paper provides an overview about the non-cancer health effects for children from relevant chemical agents in our environment. In addition, a meta-analysis was conducted on the association between sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and maternal smoking during pregnancy as well as postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In children, birth deformities, neurodevelopment, reproductive outcomes and respiratory system are mainly affected by chemical exposures. According to recent systematic reviews, evidence is sufficient for cognitive impairments caused by low lead exposure levels. Evidence for neurotoxicity from prenatal methylmercury exposure is sufficient for high exposure levels and limited for low levels. Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and related toxicants results in cognitive and motor deficits. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm birth, foetal growth deficit and SIDS. The meta-analytic pooled risk estimate for SIDS based on 15 studies is 2.94 (95% confidence interval: 2.43-3.57). Postnatal exposure to ETS was found to increase the SIDS risk by a factor of 1.72 (95% CI: 1.28-2.30) based on six studies which took into account maternal smoking during pregnancy. Additionally, postnatal ETS exposure causes acute respiratory infections, ear problems, respiratory symptoms, more severe asthma, and it slows lung growth. These health effects are also of concern for postnatal exposure to ambient and indoor air pollution. Children differ from adults with respect to several aspects which are relevant for assessing their health risk. Thus, independent evaluation of toxicity in childhood populations is essential. PMID:21906619

  9. Can Ionic Liquids Be Used As Templating Agents For Controlled Design of Uranium-Containing Nanomaterials?

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A.; Bridges, N.; Tosten, M.

    2013-04-09

    Nanostructured uranium oxides have been prepared in ionic liquids as templating agents. Using the ionic liquids as reaction media for inorganic nanomaterials takes advantage of the pre-organized structure of the ionic liquids which in turn controls the morphology of the inorganic nanomaterials. Variation of ionic liquid cation structure was investigated to determine the impact on the uranium oxide morphologies. For two ionic liquid cations, increasing the alkyl chain length increases the aspect ratio of the resulting nanostructured oxides. Understanding the resulting metal oxide morphologies could enhance fuel stability and design.

  10. Human scalp permeability to the chemical warfare agent VX.

    PubMed

    Rolland, P; Bolzinger, M-A; Cruz, C; Briançon, S; Josse, D

    2011-12-01

    The use of chemical warfare agents such as VX in terrorism act might lead to contamination of the civilian population. Human scalp decontamination may require appropriate products and procedures. Due to ethical reasons, skin decontamination studies usually involve in vitro skin models, but human scalp skin samples are uncommon and expensive. The purpose of this study was to characterize the in vitro permeability to VX of human scalp, and to compare it with (a) human abdominal skin, and (b) pig skin from two different anatomic sites: ear and skull roof, in order to design a relevant model. Based on the VX skin permeation kinetics and distribution, we demonstrated that (a) human scalp was significantly more permeable to VX than abdominal skin and (b) pig-ear skin was the most relevant model to predict the in vitro human scalp permeability. Our results indicated that the follicular pathway significantly contributed to the skin absorption of VX through human scalp. In addition, the hair follicles and the stratum corneum significantly contributed to the formation of a skin reservoir for VX. PMID:21762776

  11. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination. PMID:25710477

  12. 78 FR 56837 - 2012 Liquid Chemical Categorization Updates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... date of the interim rule published at 78 FR 50147, August 16, 2013, and amending 46 CFR parts 30, 150... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Parts 30, 150, and 153 RIN 1625-AB94 2012 Liquid Chemical Categorization... categorizations, but would not change which substances are approved or how each substance is categorized....

  13. 14. VIEW OF THE LIQUID CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS. THE FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF THE LIQUID CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS. THE FLOOR IS SURFACED WITH STAINLESS STEEL TO CONTAIN SPILLS AND FACILITATE CLEANING. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. TOXICITY-BASED CHEMICAL AGENT DETECTION SYSTEMS: CONTINUOUS MONITOR AND EXPOSURE HISTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will develop and characterize chemical agent detection systems that will provide broad toxicological screening information to first responders and building decontamination personnel. The primary goal for this technology is to detect the presence of airborne chemic...

  15. Chemical stress by different agents affects the melatonin content of barley roots.

    PubMed

    Arnao, Marino B; Hernández-Ruiz, Josefa

    2009-04-01

    The presence of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) in plants has been clearly demonstrated. However, while this indoleamine has been intensively studied in animals, especially in mammals, the same is not true in the case of plants, where one of the most interesting aspects is its possible role as antioxidative molecule in physiological processes. Some data reflect the possible protective role that melatonin may exert in some stress situations such as ultraviolet (UV)-radiation, induced senescence and copper stress. The present work was designed to establish how the melatonin content changes in plants as a result of chemically induced stress. For this, barley plants were exposed in different treatments to the chemical-stress agents: sodium chloride, zinc sulphate or hydrogen peroxide. After different times, the content of melatonin in treated roots and control roots were determined using liquid chromatography (LC) with time-of-flight/mass spectrometry and LC with fluorescence detection for identification and quantification, respectively. The data show that the melatonin content in roots increased due to stress, reaching up to six times the melatonin content of control roots. Induction was time dependent, while hydrogen peroxide (10 mm) and zinc sulphate (1 mm) were the most effective inducers. The capacity of roots to absorb melatonin from soil was also studied. The data establish, for first time, that the chemical-stress agents assayed can induce the biosynthesis of melatonin in barley roots and produce a significant increase in their melatonin content. Such an increase in melatonin probably plays an important antioxidative role in the defense against chemically induced stress and other abiotic/biotic stresses. PMID:19196434

  16. Experimental Simulations for Elimination of Biological and/or Chemical Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yong C.; Kim, Jeong H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2003-10-01

    The threat of biological and/or chemical agents in a domestic terrorist attack and in military conflict is increasing worldwide. The 2oo1 anthrax terror throughout the USA, 1995 sarin nerve gas attack on Tokyo subway, and the like are evident for this threat. Elimination and decontamination of biological and/or chemical agents are needed for such an attack. Experimental simulation for elimination of biological and/or chemical agents using an atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torch is carried out. The elimination of biological and/or chemical agents through the vitrification or burnout of sewage sludge powders and the decomposition of toluene gas as a chemical agent stimulant is presented. A detailed characterization for the elimination of the simulant chemicals using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Gas Chromatography (GC) is also presented.

  17. Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals: Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Michael E.; Pushkarsky, Michael; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2005-06-01

    We present an analysis of optical techniques for the detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals in real-world conditions. We analyze the problem of detecting a target species in the presence of a multitude of interferences that are often stochastic and we provide a broadly applicable technique for evaluating the sensitivity, probability of false positives (PFP), and probability of false negatives (PFN) for a sensor through the illustrative example of a laser photoacoustic spectrometer (L-PAS). This methodology includes (1) a model of real-world air composition, (2) an analytical model of an actual field-deployed L-PAS, (3) stochasticity in instrument response and air composition, (4) repeated detection calculations to obtain statistics and receiver operating characteristic curves, and (5) analyzing these statistics to determine the sensor's sensitivity, PFP, and PFN. This methodology was used to analyze variations in sensor design and ambient conditions, and can be utilized as a framework for comparing different sensors.

  18. Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Mixing Laboratory for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pour, Sanaz Barar; Norca, Gregory Benoit; Fradette, Louis; Legros, Robert; Tanguy, Philippe A.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-liquid and liquid-liquid mixing experiments have been developed to provide students with a practical experience on suspension and emulsification processes. The laboratory focuses on the characterization of the process efficiency, specifically the influence of the main operating parameters and the effect of the impeller type. (Contains 2…

  19. Detection of warfare agents in liquid foods using the brine shrimp lethality assay.

    PubMed

    Lumor, Stephen E; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Labuza, Theodore P

    2011-01-01

    The brine shrimp lethality assay (BSLA) was used for rapid and non-specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents at concentrations considerably below that which will cause harm to humans. Warfare agents detected include T-2 toxin, trimethylsilyl cyanide, and commercially available pesticides such as dichlorvos, diazinon, dursban, malathion, and parathion. The assay was performed by introducing 50 μL of milk or orange juice contaminated with each analyte into vials containing 10 freshly hatched brine shrimp nauplii in seawater. This was incubated at 28 °C for 24 h, after which mortality was determined. Mortality was converted to probits and the LC(50) was determined for each analyte by plotting probits of mortality against analyte concentration (log(10)). Our findings were the following: (1) the lethal effects of toxins dissolved in milk were observed, with T-2 toxin being the most lethal and malathion being the least, (2) except for parathion, the dosage (based on LC(50)) of analyte in a cup of milk (200 mL) consumed by a 6-y-old (20 kg) was less than the respective published rat LD(50) values, and (3) the BSLA was only suitable for detecting toxins dissolved in orange juice if incubation time was reduced to 6 h. Our results support the application of the BSLA for routine, rapid, and non-specific prescreening of liquid foods for possible sabotage by an employee or an intentional bioterrorist act. Practical Application: The findings of this study strongly indicate that the brine shrimp lethality assay can be adapted for nonspecific detection of warfare agents or toxins in food at any point during food production and distribution. PMID:21535725

  20. Fast Method for Computing Chemical Potentials and Liquid-Liquid Phase Equilibria of Macromolecular Solutions.

    PubMed

    Qin, Sanbo; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2016-08-25

    Chemical potential is a fundamental property for determining thermodynamic equilibria involving exchange of molecules, such as between two phases of molecular systems. Previously, we developed the fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based method for Modeling Atomistic Protein-crowder interactions (FMAP) to calculate excess chemical potentials according to the Widom insertion. Intermolecular interaction energies were expressed as correlation functions and evaluated via FFT. Here, we extend this method to calculate liquid-liquid phase equilibria of macromolecular solutions. Chemical potentials are calculated by FMAP over a wide range of molecular densities, and the condition for coexistence of low- and high-density phases is determined by the Maxwell equal-area rule. When benchmarked on Lennard-Jones fluids, our method produces an accurate phase diagram at 18% of the computational cost of the current best method. Importantly, the gain in computational speed increases dramatically as the molecules become more complex, leading to many orders of magnitude in speed up for atomistically represented proteins. We demonstrate the power of FMAP by reporting the first results for the liquid-liquid coexistence curve of γII-crystallin represented at the all-atom level. Our method may thus open the door to accurate determination of phase equilibria for macromolecular mixtures such as protein-protein mixtures and protein-RNA mixtures, that are known to undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27327881

  1. Recent Developments in Chemical Synthesis with Biocatalysts in Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Potdar, Mahesh K; Kelso, Geoffrey F; Schwarz, Lachlan; Zhang, Chunfang; Hearn, Milton T W

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, a variety of ionic liquids have emerged as greener solvents for use in the chemical manufacturing industries. Their unique properties have attracted the interest of chemists worldwide to employ them as replacement for conventional solvents in a diverse range of chemical transformations including biotransformations. Biocatalysts are often regarded as green catalysts compared to conventional chemical catalysts in organic synthesis owing to their properties of low toxicity, biodegradability, excellent selectivity and good catalytic performance under mild reaction conditions. Similarly, a selected number of specific ionic liquids can be considered as greener solvents superior to organic solvents owing to their negligible vapor pressure, low flammability, low toxicity and ability to dissolve a wide range of organic and biological substances, including proteins. A combination of biocatalysts and ionic liquids thus appears to be a logical and promising opportunity for industrial use as an alternative to conventional organic chemistry processes employing organic solvents. This article provides an overview of recent developments in this field with special emphasis on the application of more sustainable enzyme-catalyzed reactions and separation processes employing ionic liquids, driven by advances in fundamental knowledge, process optimization and industrial deployment. PMID:26389873

  2. Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning. PMID:23351280

  3. Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Moshiri, Mohammd; Darchini-Maragheh, Emadodin; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning. PMID:23351280

  4. Technological advancements for the detection of and protection against biological and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Lisa M; Dickerson, Tobin J; Janda, Kim D

    2007-03-01

    There is a growing need for technological advancements to combat agents of chemical and biological warfare, particularly in the context of the deliberate use of a chemical and/or biological warfare agent by a terrorist organization. In this tutorial review, we describe methods that have been developed both for the specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents in a field setting, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for treating exposure to these toxic species. In particular, nerve agents are described as a typical chemical warfare agent, and the two potent biothreat agents, anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin, are used as illustrative examples of potent weapons for which countermeasures are urgently needed. PMID:17325785

  5. Estimated Chemical Warfare Agent Surface Clearance Goals for Remediation Pre-Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Dolislager, Frederick; Bansleben, Dr. Donald; Watson, Annetta Paule

    2010-01-01

    Health-based surface clearance goals, in units of mg/cm2, have been developed for the persistent chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard (HD) and nerve agent VX as well as their principal degradation products. Selection of model parameters and critical receptor (toddler child) allow calculation of surface residue estimates protective for the toddler child, the general population and adult employees of a facilty that has undergone chemical warfare agent attack.

  6. Molecular dynamics averaging of Xe chemical shifts in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, Cynthia J.; Sears, Devin N.; Murad, Sohail

    2004-11-01

    The Xe nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift differences that afford the discrimination between various biological environments are of current interest for biosensor applications and medical diagnostic purposes. In many such environments the Xe signal appears close to that in water. We calculate average Xe chemical shifts (relative to the free Xe atom) in solution in eleven liquids: water, isobutane, perfluoro-isobutane, n-butane, n-pentane, neopentane, perfluoroneopentane, n-hexane, n-octane, n-perfluorooctane, and perfluorooctyl bromide. The latter is a liquid used for intravenous Xe delivery. We calculate quantum mechanically the Xe shielding response in Xe-molecule van der Waals complexes, from which calculations we develop Xe (atomic site) interpolating functions that reproduce the ab initio Xe shielding response in the complex. By assuming additivity, these Xe-site shielding functions can be used to calculate the shielding for any configuration of such molecules around Xe. The averaging over configurations is done via molecular dynamics (MD). The simulations were carried out using a MD technique that one of us had developed previously for the simulation of Henry's constants of gases dissolved in liquids. It is based on separating a gaseous compartment in the MD system from the solvent using a semipermeable membrane that is permeable only to the gas molecules. We reproduce the experimental trends in the Xe chemical shifts in n-alkanes with increasing number of carbons and the large chemical shift difference between Xe in water and in perfluorooctyl bromide. We also reproduce the trend for a given solvent of decreasing Xe chemical shift with increasing temperature. We predict chemical shift differences between Xe in alkanes vs their perfluoro counterparts.

  7. Stand-off spectroscopy for the detection of chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clewes, Rhea J.; Howle, Chris R.; Stothard, David J. M.; Dunn, Malcolm H.; Robertson, Gordon; Miller, William; Malcolm, Graeme; Maker, Gareth; Cox, Rick; Williams, Brad; Russell, Matt

    2012-10-01

    The most desirable configuration for detection of toxic chemicals utilises the maximum distance between detector and hazard. This approach minimises the contamination of equipment or personnel. Where the target chemical is an involatile liquid, indirect detection of the liquid contamination is made difficult by inherently low vapour pressure. In this instance, direct detection of the chemical hazard is the best approach. Recent technology developments have allowed spectroscopic systems to provide multiple options for the stand-off detection of involatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Two different stand-off spectroscopic systems, based upon IR absorption and Raman spectroscopic techniques are described here. The Negative Contrast Imager (NCI) is based upon an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) source comprising a Q-switched intracavity MgO:PPLN crystal. This crystal has a fanned grating design and wavelength tuning is achieved by translating the PPLN crystal within the 1064 nm pump beam. This approach enables the production of shortwave and midwave IR radiation (1.5 - 1.8 μm and 2.6 - 3.8 μm, respectively), which is scanned across the scene of interest. Target materials that have an absorption feature commensurate with the wavelength of incoming radiation reduce the intensity of returned signal, resulting in dark pixels in the acquired image. This method enables location and classification of the target material. Stand-off Raman spectroscopy allows target chemicals to be identified at range through comparison of the acquired signature relative to a spectral database. In this work, we used a Raman system based upon a 1047 nm Nd:YLF laser source and a proprietary InGaAsP camera system. Utilisation of a longer excitation wavelength than most conventional stand-off detection systems (e.g. 532 or 785 nm) enables reduction of fluorescence from both the surface and the deposited chemicals, thereby revealing the Raman spectrum. NCI and Raman spectroscopy are able to

  8. Mass spectrometric study of selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Papousková, Barbora; Bednár, Petr; Frysová, Iveta; Stýskala, Jakub; Hlavác, Jan; Barták, Petr; Ulrichová, Jitka; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Lemr, Karel

    2007-12-01

    Selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents namely N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-ols, N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides and some of related N-quaternary salts were studied by means of electrospray ionization-multiple tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)). Proposed structures were confirmed with accurate mass measurement. General fragmentation patterns of these compounds are discussed in detail and suggested processes are confirmed using deuterated standards. The typical processes are elimination of alkene, hydrogen chloride, or water, respectively. Besides, elimination of ethene from propyl chain under specific conditions was observed and unambiguously confirmed using exact mass measurement and labelled standard. The potential of mass spectrometry to distinguish the positional isomers occurring among the studied compounds is reviewed in detail using two different MS instruments (i.e. ion trap and hybrid quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) analyzer). A new microcolumn liquid chromatography (microLC)/MS(n) method was designed for the cases where the resolution based solely on differences in fragmentation is not sufficient. Low retention of the derivatives on reversed phase (RP) was overcome by using addition of less typical ion pairing agent (1 mM/l, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid) to the mobile phase (mixture water : acetonitrile). PMID:18085550

  9. Chemical agent simulants for testing transparent materials. Contractor report, September 1987-January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.E.; Liebman, S.A.; Isaacson, L.; Grasso, P.S.; Sarver, E.W.

    1988-05-01

    Transparent polymeric materials undergo physical changes when exposed to chemical warfare agents. The object of this task was to: 1) select candidate liquids to simulate GB, VX and HD effects (three each) and 2) perform three point bend tests to determine critical strain values for cracking/crazing for simulant/transparent-polymer materials combinations. The critical-strain tests were accomplished using ASTM method D790-80 for stress crazing. The method was modified and enhanced to detect stress crazing via changes in reflection/diffraction patterns produced with a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser. Four transparent-polymer materials were tested; namely, as cast polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), biaxially stretched PMMA, polycarbonate and polyurethane GAC-590. The critical-strain values obtained for the simulant/polymer combinations are presented as a four-by-nine map that allows easy comparisons as a function of material or simulant. Comparison with actual agent data is possible using this four-by-nine map.

  10. Can ionic liquids be used as templating agents for controlled design of uranium-containing nanomaterials?

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, Ann E. Bridges, Nicholas J.; Tosten, Michael H.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Uranium oxides nanoparticles prepared using ionic liquids. • IL cation alkyl length impacts oxide morphology. • Low temperature UO{sub 2} synthesis. - Abstract: Nanostructured uranium oxides have been prepared in ionic liquids as templating agents. Using the ionic liquids as reaction media for inorganic nanomaterials takes advantage of the pre-organized structure of the ionic liquids which in turn controls the morphology of the inorganic nanomaterials. Variation of ionic liquid cation structure was investigated to determine the impact on the uranium oxide morphologies. For two ionic liquid cations, increasing the alkyl chain length increases the aspect ratio of the resulting nanostructured oxides. Understanding the resulting metal oxide morphologies could enhance fuel stability and design.

  11. Paint for detection of radiological or chemical agents

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, Sumner Daniel

    2010-08-24

    A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

  12. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Haffenden, R.; Kimmell, T.

    2002-02-20

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable.

  13. Origins of behavioral teratology and distinctions between research on pharmaceutical agents and environmental/industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, B.K. )

    1990-07-01

    Most behavioral teratology studies have focused on pharmaceutical agents. Investigations of developmental toxicity are lacking for the majority of the nearly 100,000 industrial chemicals currently in use. Only some three dozen chemicals have been examined for behavioral/neurochemical deviations in offspring following maternal exposures. Examination of industrial agents for developmental toxicity, therefore, remains a major public health need. Most developmental research addresses the effects of pharmaceutical agents, but these studies frequently do not address environmental/industrial concerns due to fundamental differences in experimental methodology. The route, duration, and timing of exposure, usefulness of fostering of offspring, and potential concomitant exposure of both parents are all variables which should be treated differently in research on industrial chemicals as opposed to pharmaceutical agents. After briefly tracking the history of behavioral teratology, the present paper discusses differences in application of behavioral teratological principles to industrial versus pharmaceutical agents, and points to the largely untested number of industrial chemicals needing investigation. 57 references.

  14. Detection of harmful vapors and biological agents by means of liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, Jon; Shibaev, Petr

    2014-03-01

    Orientation of liquid crystals is determined by surface energy and molecular orientation at the surface. This opens a possibility of exploring liquid crystals as gas sensors. In this work the simple model that takes into account gas concentration, absorption rate and material characteristics of liquid crystals (MBBA and pentylcyanobiphenyl) is experimentally tested in order to determine the sensitivity of the method. Thin films and droplets of chiral and non-chiral liquid crystals were used to detect vapors of volatile organic solvents. It was found that sensitivity of the method depends on the chemical nature of gas and structure of liquid crystal. Modification of liquid crystalline composition by means of additions of specifically tailored compounds (for example, hydrogen bonded acids) can lead to significant increase in sensitivity of liquid crystal to harmful vapors. The method was also tested for detection of biological molecules.

  15. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  16. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  17. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  18. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  19. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  20. Chemical approaches for detection and destruction of nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Ajami, Dariush; Rebek, Julius

    2013-06-28

    Since the introduction of organophosphorus (OP) compounds as nerve agents and pesticides, methods of dealing with their toxicity to humans have been intensely researched. There are studies on sensing, pretreatments, prophylactics, antidotes and therapies. There is some overlap in all of these endeavors because they have to deal with the reactivity of the phosphorus atom in various contexts. The contexts range from large spaces, the thinly spread vapors in the air, to very small spaces in the active sites of enzymes - acetylcholinesterase (AChE) or butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) - that have reacted with the OP agent. PMID:23604461

  1. Response of Rabbiteye Blueberries to Chemical Thinning Agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The thinning potential of various chemicals sprayed on 'Tifblue' rabbiteye blueberry was examined under field conditions for two years. Chemicals used were 7-benzylamino purine (BA), gibberellic acid (GA3), 2- naphaleneacetic acid (NAA), and 1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate (carbaryl). BA at 75 mg/L and...

  2. Decontamination of chemical agents from drinking water infrastructure: a literature review and summary.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Jeff; Minamyer, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This report summarizes the current state of knowledge on the persistence of chemical contamination on drinking water infrastructure (such as pipes) along with information on decontamination should persistence occur. Decontamination options for drinking water infrastructure have been explored for some chemical contaminants, but important data gaps remain. In general, data on chemical persistence on drinking water infrastructure is available for inorganics such as arsenic and mercury, as well as select organics such as petroleum products, pesticides and rodenticides. Data specific to chemical warfare agents and pharmaceuticals was not found and data on toxins is scant. Future research suggestions focus on expanding the available chemical persistence data to other common drinking water infrastructure materials. Decontaminating agents that successfully removed persistent contamination from one infrastructure material should be used in further studies. Methods for sampling or extracting chemical agents from water infrastructure surfaces are needed. PMID:24565672

  3. A convenient first aid kit for chemical and biological agents and for radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, R; Bhaskar, A S B; Gautam, Anshoo; Gopalan, N; Singh, A K; Singh, Beer; Flora, S J S

    2012-05-01

    The chemical and biological warfare agents are extremely toxic in nature. They act rapidly even in very small quantities and death may occur in minutes. Hence, physical and medical protection must be provided immediately to save life or avoid serious injury. A first aid kit has thus been developed for providing immediate relief from chemical and biological warfare agents (FAKCBW) with the objective of easy detection, personal decontamination, antidote for chemical warfare agents (like nerve agents, sulphur mustard, phosgene, cyanide, radiation exposure and bacterial agents), along with basic medication aid for pain, fever and inflammation. The kit box also includes a user friendly handbook with a simple standard operating procedure. In addition, the kit is rugged to withstand normal jerks, vibration and is water-proof. PMID:23029921

  4. Nematic liquid crystal interfaces for chemical and biological detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Most, Darrin R.; VanTreeck, Heidi J.; Grinwald, Bart A.; Kupcho, Kurt A.; Sen, Avijit; Bonds, Michael D.; Anhalt, Karla; Israel, Barbara A.; Acharya, Bharat R.

    2011-03-01

    Nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) have traditionally been used in displays and other electro-optical applications where the orientation of NLC is manipulated by using an external electric field to display the information. In recent years, there have been significant advances in unconventional applications of NLCs in photonics, sensors, and diagnostics. In this paper, the application of NLCs for detection of vapor phase chemicals and biological entities is presented. When NLCs are in contact with another medium (solid, liquid or air) the delicate interplay between the properties of medium and NLCs determines the nature of the alignment assumed by NLCs at the interface. Interfaces functionalized with select chemical or biological entities promote alignment of NLCs in predetermined orientations (perpendicular or parallel to that interface) that are primarily dictated by local interactions at the interface. When these interfaces are exposed to target analytes, the interactions at the interfaces are perturbed and the NLC films undergo orientational transitions from perpendicular to parallel alignment, or vice versa. The orientational transition can be detected by viewing the film of NLCs between crossed polarizers (optical signal) or by measuring the differential capacitance associated with the change in alignment of NLCs (electrical signal). By engineering surfaces with different interfacial properties, sensors based on this principle have been demonstrated to selectively detect a wide variety of chemical and biological analytes that have relevance in industrial hygiene, environmental monitoring, homeland security, diagnostics, and biomedical applications.

  5. Applications of Mass Spectrometry in Investigations of Alleged Use of Chemical Warfare Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Robert W.

    Chemical warfare agents were used extensively throughout the twentieth century. Many such uses are well documented; however some allegations of use of chemical warfare agents were not easily confirmed. During the early 1980s interest developed into investigation of alleged use by analytical techniques, particularly mass spectrometry. Since that time, many combined chromatographic - mass spectrometric methods have been developed, both for application to the analysis of environmental and biomedical samples and for investigation of physiological interactions of chemical warfare agents. Examples are given of some of the investigations in which the author has been involved, including those into Yellow Rain and uses of chemical warfare agents in Iraq and Iran. These examples illustrate the use of combined chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods and emphasise the importance of controls in analytical investigations.

  6. Measuring indigenous photosynthetic organisms to detect chemical warefare agents in water

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2005-11-15

    A method of testing water to detect the presence of a chemical or biological warfare agent is disclosed. The method is carried out by establishing control data by providing control water containing indigenous organisms but substantially free of a chemical and a biological warfare agent. Then measuring photosynthetic activity of the control water with a fluorometer to obtain control data to compare with test data to detect the presence of the chemical or agent. The test data is gathered by providing test water comprising the same indigenous organisms as contained in the control water. Further, the test water is suspected of containing the chemical or agent to be tested for. Photosynthetic activity is also measured by fluorescence induction in the test water using a fluorometer.

  7. Microwave detection of chemical agents: a review. Special publication, January 1982-July 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, S.D.

    1986-06-01

    This report represents an overview of microwave-detection techniques and an analysis of their possible application to chemical agent point and remote sensing. Microwave rotational spectroscopy and millimeter-wavelength radar are also discussed.

  8. Liquid-phase chemical sensing using lateral mode resonant cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Beardslee, L A; Demirci, K S; Luzinova, Y; Mizaikoff, B; Heinrich, S M; Josse, F; Brand, O

    2010-09-15

    Liquid-phase operation of resonant cantilevers vibrating in an out-of-plane flexural mode has to date been limited by the considerable fluid damping and the resulting low quality factors (Q factors). To reduce fluid damping in liquids and to improve the detection limit for liquid-phase sensing applications, resonant cantilever transducers vibrating in their in-plane rather than their out-of-plane flexural resonant mode have been fabricated and shown to have Q factors up to 67 in water (up to 4300 in air). In the present work, resonant cantilevers, thermally excited in an in-plane flexural mode, are investigated and applied as sensors for volatile organic compounds in water. The cantilevers are fabricated using a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication process based on bulk micromachining. The devices were coated with chemically sensitive polymers allowing for analyte sorption into the polymer. Poly(isobutylene) (PIB) and poly(ethylene-co-propylene) (EPCO) were investigated as sensitive layers with seven different analytes screened with PIB and 12 analytes tested with EPCO. Analyte concentrations in the range of 1-100 ppm have been measured in the present experiments, and detection limits in the parts per billion concentration range have been estimated for the polymer-coated cantilevers exposed to volatile organics in water. These results demonstrate significantly improved sensing properties in liquids and indicate the potential of cantilever-type mass-sensitive chemical sensors operating in their in-plane rather than out-of-plane flexural modes. PMID:20715842

  9. Long-term health effects of exposure to sarin and other anticholinesterase chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Page, William F

    2003-03-01

    In a telephone survey of 4,022 military volunteers for a 1955-1975 program of experimental exposures to chemical agents at Edgewood, Maryland, the current health of those exposed to anticholinesterase agents was compared with that of men exposed to no active chemicals (no chemical test) and to two or more other types of chemical agents (other chemical tests). The survey posed questions about general health and about neurological and psychological deficits. There were only two statistically significant differences: volunteers in anticholinesterase agent tests reported fewer attention problems than those in other chemical tests and greater sleep disturbance than those in no chemical tests. In contrast, volunteers who reported exposure to civilian or military chemical agents outside of their participation in the Edgewood program reported many statistically significant adverse neurological and psychological effects, regardless of their experimental exposure. In this study, the health effects of self-reported, nonexperimental exposure, which are subject to recall bias, were greater than the health effects of experimental exposure. PMID:12685692

  10. Fluorescent discrimination between traces of chemical warfare agents and their mimics.

    PubMed

    Díaz de Greñu, Borja; Moreno, Daniel; Torroba, Tomás; Berg, Alexander; Gunnars, Johan; Nilsson, Tobias; Nyman, Rasmus; Persson, Milton; Pettersson, Johannes; Eklind, Ida; Wästerby, Pär

    2014-03-19

    An array of fluorogenic probes is able to discriminate between nerve agents, sarin, soman, tabun, VX and their mimics, in water or organic solvent, by qualitative fluorescence patterns and quantitative multivariate analysis, thus making the system suitable for the in-the-field detection of traces of chemical warfare agents as well as to differentiate between the real nerve agents and other related compounds. PMID:24597942

  11. Multidimensional conducting polymer nanotubes for ultrasensitive chemical nerve agent sensing.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Seok; Park, Seon Joo; Lee, Jun Seop; Park, Eunyu; Kim, Taejoon; Park, Hyun-Woo; You, Sun Ah; Yoon, Hyeonseok; Jang, Jyongsik

    2012-06-13

    Tailoring the morphology of materials in the nanometer regime is vital to realizing enhanced device performance. Here, we demonstrate flexible nerve agent sensors, based on hydroxylated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanotubes (HPNTs) with surface substructures such as nanonodules (NNs) and nanorods (NRs). The surface substructures can be grown on a nanofiber surface by controlling critical synthetic conditions during vapor deposition polymerization (VDP) on the polymer nanotemplate, leading to the formation of multidimensional conducting polymer nanostructures. Hydroxyl groups are found to interact with the nerve agents. Representatively, the sensing response of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) as a simulant for sarin is highly sensitive and reversible from the aligned nanotubes. The minimum detection limit is as low as 10 ppt. Additionally, the sensor had excellent mechanical bendability and durability. PMID:22545863

  12. EVALUATION OF LABORATORY TESTS TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CHEMICAL SURFACE WASHING AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When spilled oil reaches a shoreline, it coats a myriad of surfaces. n many cases, chemical agents are used to clean the shoreline substrates, with varying degrees of effectiveness. oth dispersants and surface washing agents have been used. n this study, the Environmental Protect...

  13. CHEMICAL SHORELINE CLEANING AGENTS - EVALUATION OF TWO LABORATORY PROCEDURES FOR ESTIMATING PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents data from studies designed to evaluate characteristics of selected bench-scale test methods for estimating cleaning performance of chemical agents for removal of oil from substrate surfaces. uch agents have the potential to be used to remove oil that might st...

  14. Modeling Dispersion of Chemical-Biological Agents in Three Dimensional Living Space

    SciTech Connect

    William S. Winters

    2002-02-01

    This report documents a series of calculations designed to demonstrate Sandia's capability in modeling the dispersal of chemical and biological agents in complex three-dimensional spaces. The transport of particles representing biological agents is modeled in a single room and in several connected rooms. The influence of particle size, particle weight and injection method are studied.

  15. Sensitivity of human dental pulp cells to eighteen chemical agents used for endodontic treatments in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Morio; Tsutsui, Takeo W; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Ohno, Maki; Higo, Yukari; Inaba, Tomohiro; Tsutsui, Takeki

    2013-01-01

    To determine the adverse effects against human dental pulp tissue, the sensitivity of human dental pulp cells (D824 cells) to 18 chemical agents used for endodontic treatments in dentistry was examined. The cytotoxicity, as determined by a decrease in colony-forming ability of cells treated with the chemical agents, increased as the concentration increased. As a quantitative measure of the cytotoxic effect, LC(50), the concentration which induces a 50% lethality, was extrapolated from the concentration-response curves. The rank of the chemical agents according to their cytotoxic effect (LC(50)) was sodium arsenite > formaldehyde > hydrogen peroxide > zinc oxide > thymol ≈ iodoform ≈ eugenol > guaiacol > ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ≈ iodine > procaine > lidocaine ≈ chloramphenicol ≈ m-cresol > calcium hydroxide ≈ sodium hypochlorite ≈ phenol ≈ p-phenolsulfonic acid. To compare the cytotoxicity and the levels of apoptosis and mRNA expression of five genes related to the function of dental pulp tissue, D824 cells treated with the LC(50) concentrations of chemical agents were assayed by the TUNEL method and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, respectively. The inducibility of apoptotic cells and the level of mRNA expression of the genes varied with the chemical agents, indicating that both effects occurred independent of the rank of cytotoxic effect of the chemical agents. The results not only provide information concerning cytotoxicity of various chemical agents to human dental pulp cells, but also show an insight into the diversity of the pharmacodynamic action of the chemical agents. PMID:22083529

  16. Modeling the transport of chemical warfare agents and simulants in polymeric substrates for reactive decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearl, Thomas; Mantooth, Brent; Varady, Mark; Willis, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Chemical warfare agent simulants are often used for environmental testing in place of highly toxic agents. This work sets the foundation for modeling decontamination of absorbing polymeric materials with the focus on determining relationships between agents and simulants. The correlations of agents to simulants must consider the three way interactions in the chemical-material-decontaminant system where transport and reaction occur in polymer materials. To this end, diffusion modeling of the subsurface transport of simulants and live chemical warfare agents was conducted for various polymer systems (e.g., paint coatings) with and without reaction pathways with applied decontamination. The models utilized 1D and 2D finite difference diffusion and reaction models to simulate absorption and reaction in the polymers, and subsequent flux of the chemicals out of the polymers. Experimental data including vapor flux measurements and dynamic contact angle measurements were used to determine model input parameters. Through modeling, an understanding of the relationship of simulant to live chemical warfare agent was established, focusing on vapor emission of agents and simulants from materials.

  17. Chemical characterization of some aerobic liquids in CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, Brooks C.

    1993-01-01

    Untreated aqueous soybean and wheat leachate and aerobically treated wheat leachate prepared from crop residues that are produced as a component of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System program designed to support long duration space missions were compared, and a general chemical characterization was accomplished. Solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography were used to accomplish comparisons based on chromatographic and ultraviolet absorption properties of the components that are present. Specific compounds were not identified; however, general composition related to the initial presence of phenol-like compounds and their disappearance during aerobic treatment was explored.

  18. Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Merriweather, R.; Ilgner, R.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Watson, A.P.

    1992-07-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such as wood, masonry and gypsum wall board. Persistent agents such as VX or mustard are particularly problematic. The report which follows documents a measurement protocol developed in a scoping investigation characterizing the permeation of chemical warfare agent simulants (diisopropylmethyl phosphonate (DIMP) for warfare agent GB, dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP) for warfare agent VX and chlorethylethyl sulfide (CEES) for warfare agent sulfur mustard) through several, common porous, construction materials. The porous media'' selected for examination were wood, brick, cinder block, and gypsum wall board. Simulants were tested rather than actual warfare agents because of their low toxicity, commercial availability, and the lack of surety capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present work is considered a protocol for confirmation testing with live'' agents.

  19. Protocol for determination of chemical warfare agent simulant movement through porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Merriweather, R.; Ilgner, R.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Watson, A.P.

    1992-07-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical warfare agent during any phase of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), a (small) potential exists for contamination of buildings and materials used in their construction. Guidelines for unrestricted access to potentially agent-contaminated private and public property are presently undefined due to uncertainties regarding the adequacy of decontaminating porous surfaces such as wood, masonry and gypsum wall board. Persistent agents such as VX or mustard are particularly problematic. The report which follows documents a measurement protocol developed in a scoping investigation characterizing the permeation of chemical warfare agent simulants [diisopropylmethyl phosphonate (DIMP) for warfare agent GB, dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP) for warfare agent VX and chlorethylethyl sulfide (CEES) for warfare agent sulfur mustard] through several, common porous, construction materials. The ``porous media`` selected for examination were wood, brick, cinder block, and gypsum wall board. Simulants were tested rather than actual warfare agents because of their low toxicity, commercial availability, and the lack of surety capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present work is considered a protocol for confirmation testing with ``live`` agents.

  20. Novel fluorescence-based integrated sensor for chemical and biological agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frye-Mason, Greg; Leuschen, Martin; Wald, Lara; Paul, Kateri; Hancock, Lawrence F.; Fagan, Steve; Krouse, Justin; Hutchinson, Kira D.

    2004-12-01

    There is a renewed interest in the development of chemical and biological agent sensors due to the increased threat of weapons deployment by terrorist organizations and rogue states. Optically based sensors address the needs of military and homeland security forces in that they are reliable, rapidly deployed, and can provide continuous monitoring with little to no operator involvement. Nomadics has developed optically based chemical weapons sensors that utilize reactive fluorescent chromophores initially developed by Professor Tim Swager at MIT. The chromophores provide unprecedented sensitivity and selectivity toward toxic industrial chemicals and certain chemical weapon agents. The selectivity is based upon the reactivity of the G-class nerve agents (phosphorylation of acetylcholinesterase enzyme) that makes them toxic. Because the sensor recognizes the reactivity of strong electrophiles and not molecular weight, chemical affinity or ionizability, our system detects a specific class of reactive agents and will be able to detect newly developed or modified agents that are not currently known. We have recently extended this work to pursue a combined chemical/biological agent sensor system incorporating technologies based upon novel deep ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) developed out of the DARPA Semiconductor UV Optical Sources (SUVOS) program.

  1. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

    2012-08-01

    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas. PMID:22352732

  2. Laboratory evaluation of a chemical coupling agent to prevent debonding of asphalts from aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divito, J. A.

    1981-08-01

    Debonding of asphalt from mineral aggregates (stripping) was investigated. A silane coupling agent was compared with a well known, commercially available liquid antistrip (amine) in the immersion compression and double punch debonding tests on two Arizona mineral aggregate sources. The silane was used as a mineral aggregate pretreatment while the amine was added to the asphalt. It is indicated that the silane generally performed as well as the liquid antistrip or better.

  3. Quantitative Infrared Spectra of Vapor Phase Chemical Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Chu, P M.; Kleimeyer, J; Rowland, Brad; Gardner, Patrick J.

    2003-04-21

    Quantitative high resolution (0.1 cm -1) infrared spectra have been acquired for a number of pressure broadened (101.3 KPa N2), vapor phase chemicals including: Sarin (GB), Soman (GD), Tabun (GA), Cyclosarin (GF), VX, nitrogen mustard (HN3), sulfur mustard (HD) and Lewisite (L).

  4. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  5. 46 CFR 194.05-19 - Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... combustible liquids shall be regulated by the appropriate portions of 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176 or part... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail... and Marking § 194.05-19 Combustible liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a)...

  6. 46 CFR 194.05-13 - Corrosive liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... liquids are regulated by the appropriate portions of 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176 or part 147 of... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Corrosive liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-13 Corrosive liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a)...

  7. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... regulated by the appropriate portions of 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176 or part 147 of Subchapter N... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids...

  8. 46 CFR 194.05-19 - Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... combustible liquids shall be regulated by the appropriate portions of 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176 or part... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail... and Marking § 194.05-19 Combustible liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a)...

  9. 46 CFR 194.05-13 - Corrosive liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... liquids are regulated by the appropriate portions of 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176 or part 147 of... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosive liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-13 Corrosive liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a)...

  10. 46 CFR 194.05-13 - Corrosive liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... liquids are regulated by the appropriate portions of 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176 or part 147 of... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Corrosive liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-13 Corrosive liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a)...

  11. 46 CFR 194.05-19 - Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... combustible liquids shall be regulated by the appropriate portions of 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176 or part... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail... and Marking § 194.05-19 Combustible liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a)...

  12. 46 CFR 194.05-19 - Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... combustible liquids shall be regulated by the appropriate portions of 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176 or part... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail... and Marking § 194.05-19 Combustible liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a)...

  13. 46 CFR 194.05-13 - Corrosive liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... liquids are regulated by the appropriate portions of 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176 or part 147 of... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Corrosive liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-13 Corrosive liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a)...

  14. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regulated by the appropriate portions of 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176 or part 147 of Subchapter N... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids...

  15. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... regulated by the appropriate portions of 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176 or part 147 of Subchapter N... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids...

  16. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... regulated by the appropriate portions of 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176 or part 147 of Subchapter N... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids...

  17. 46 CFR 194.05-13 - Corrosive liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... liquids are regulated by the appropriate portions of 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176 or part 147 of... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Corrosive liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-13 Corrosive liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a)...

  18. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulated by the appropriate portions of 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176 or part 147 of Subchapter N... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids...

  19. 46 CFR 194.05-19 - Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... combustible liquids shall be regulated by the appropriate portions of 49 CFR parts 172, 173, and 176 or part... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail... and Marking § 194.05-19 Combustible liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a)...

  20. Design criteria for extraction with chemical reaction and liquid membrane permeation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bart, H. J.; Bauer, A.; Lorbach, D.; Marr, R.

    1988-01-01

    The design criteria for heterogeneous chemical reactions in liquid/liquid systems formally correspond to those of classical physical extraction. More complex models are presented which describe the material exchange at the individual droplets in an extraction with chemical reaction and in liquid membrane permeation.

  1. Chemical structure and pharmacokinetics of novel quinolone agents represented by avarofloxacin, delafloxacin, finafloxacin, zabofloxacin and nemonoxacin.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Bela; Domokos, J; Szabo, D

    2016-01-01

    Quinolones are potent antimicrobial agents with a basic chemical structure of bicyclic ring. Fluorine atom at position C-6 and various substitutions on the basic quinolone structure yielded fluoroquinolones, namely norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and numerous other agents. The target molecules of quinolones and fluoroquinolones are bacterial gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes. Broad-spectrum and excellent tissue penetration make fluoroquinolones potent agents but their toxic side effects and increasing number of resistant pathogens set limits on their use. This review focuses on recent advances concerning quinolones and fluoroquinolones, we will be summarising chemical structure, mode of action, pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity. We will be describing fluoroquinolones introduced in clinical trials, namely avarofloxacin, delafloxacin, finafloxacin, zabofloxacin and non-fluorinated nemonoxacin. These agents have been proved to have enhanced antibacterial effect even against ciprofloxacin resistant pathogens, and found to be well tolerated in both oral and parenteral administrations. These features are going to make them potential antimicrobial agents in the future. PMID:27215369

  2. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. The DoD Component controlling real property known to contain or suspected of containing explosive...

  3. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. The DoD Component controlling real property known to contain or suspected of containing explosive...

  4. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. The DoD Component controlling real property known to contain or suspected of containing explosive...

  5. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. The DoD Component controlling real property known to contain or suspected of containing explosive...

  6. PERMANENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work is to permit EPA/ORD's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to collaborate together to test the permanence of biological and chemical warfare agents in municipal solid waste landfills. Research into ...

  7. A Portable System for Nuclear, Chemical Agent and Explosives Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, W.E.; Buckley, W.M.; Kreek, S.A.; Caffrey, A.J.; Mauger, G.J.; Lavietes, A.D.; Dougan, A.D.

    2000-09-29

    The FRIS/PINS hybrid integrates the LLNL-developed Field Radionuclide Identification System (FRIS) with the INEEL-developed Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) chemical assay system to yield a combined general radioisotope, special nuclear material, and chemical weapons/explosives detection and identification system. The PINS system uses a neutron source and a high-purity germanium {gamma}-ray detector. The FRIS system uses an electrochemically cooled germanium detector and its own analysis software to detect and identify special nuclear material and other radioisotopes. The FRIS/PINS combined system also uses the electromechanically-cooled germanium detector. There is no other currently available integrated technology that can combine an active neutron interrogation and analysis capability for CWE with a passive radioisotope measurement and identification capability for special nuclear material.

  8. Measurements of Raman scattering in the middle ultraviolet band from persistent chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Landström, Lars; Lundén, Hampus; Mohammed, Abdesalam; Olofsson, Göran; Wästerby, Pär.

    2014-05-01

    The very low Raman scattering cross section and the fluorescence background limit the measuring range of Raman based instruments operating in the visible or infrared band. We are exploring if laser excitation in the middle ultraviolet (UV) band between 200 and 300 nm is useful and advantageous for detection of persistent chemical warfare agents (CWA) on various kinds of surfaces. The UV Raman scattering from tabun, mustard gas, VX and relevant simulants in the form of liquid surface contaminations has been measured using a laboratory experimental setup with a short standoff distance around 1 meter. Droplets having a volume of 1 μl were irradiated with a tunable pulsed laser swept within the middle UV band. A general trend is that the signal strength moves through an optimum when the laser excitation wavelength is swept between 240 and 300 nm. The signal from tabun reaches a maximum around 265 nm, the signal from mustard gas around 275 nm. The Raman signal from VX is comparably weak. Raman imaging by the use of a narrow bandpass UV filter is also demonstrated.

  9. Use of hyperspectral remote sensing for detection and monitoring of chemical and biological agents: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Richard B.; Dasgupta, Swarvanu

    2004-12-01

    This paper surveys the potential use of hyperspectral imaging technology for standoff detection of chemical and biological agents in terrorism defense applications. In particular it focuses on the uses of hyperspectral imaging technology to detect and monitor chemical and biological attacks. In so doing it examines current technologies, their advantages and disadvantages, and investigates the possible role of hyperspectral imaging for homeland security applications. The study also addresses and provides applicable solutions for several of the potential challenges that currently create barriers to the full use of hyperspectral technology in the standoff detection of likely available chemical and biological agents.

  10. Analytical methods for environmental sampling of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.; Kistner, S.

    1995-06-01

    This first technical conference promoted the standardization of analytical procotols to reliably detect chemical warfare agents and their degradation products in soil, water, and other complex environmental media. This supports the various chemical weapons disposal and emergency preparedness programs, Chemical Weapons Convention treaty compliance, installation restoration and base closure decisions. Five major topics were addressed: Implementation for treaty compliance, installation, restoration and stockpile disposal decisions, existing analytical methods, practical applications of existing analytical techniques, immunoassay technologies, environmental and biological fate of agents and their degradation products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Dielectric relaxations of polyether-based polyurethanes containing ionic liquids as antistatic agents.

    PubMed

    Tsurumaki, Akiko; Bertasi, Federico; Vezzù, Keti; Negro, Enrico; Di Noto, Vito; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-28

    Dielectric properties of polyurethanes containing poly(propylene oxide) (PO) and poly(ethylene oxide) (EO) units are discussed, along with the results of direct current (DC) measurements and broadband electrical spectroscopy (BES) studies. The dielectric properties of polyether-containing polyurethanes (PUs) are compared to those of PUs containing 1000 ppm of ionic liquids (ILs) as antistatic agents. The effects of the chemical environment of these ILs, including anion-fixed polymers (PU-AF), cation-fixed polymers (PU-CF), and a simple mixture of IL with the PUs (PU-IL), are compared and discussed on the basis of ion mobility. DC measurements suggest that the charge current is attributed not only to the electrode polarization but also to continuous dielectric relaxation. BES studies elucidate that both fast and slow relaxations are taking place in EO-rich domains in pristine PU and PU-AF. The activation energies of the slow relaxation and of the ionic conductivity are similar, suggesting that the ionic conductivity of these materials is attributed to the ion exchange reaction in EO/ion complexes. In contrast, only fast relaxations are observed in the domains mostly comprised of ion-depleted EO in the PUs containing "free" anions, i.e., PU-CF and PU-IL. This suggests that [Tf2N](-) ligands are weakly interacting with the EO chains and contribute effectively to the ion conduction. Thus, enhanced ionic conductivity is observed in PU-CF and PU-IL, yielding sufficient antistatic effects. Taking into account its long shelf life, arising from the lack of IL bleed-out, PU-CF is concluded to be the most promising candidate. PMID:26700822

  12. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical Warfare Agent and explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, C. K. N.

    2008-01-01

    Tunable laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is maturing rapidly in its applications to real world problems. One of the burning problems of the current turbulent times is the threat of terrorist acts against civilian population. This threat appears in two distinct forms. The first is the potential release of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as the nerve agents, in a crowded environment. An example of this is the release of Sarin by Aum Shinrikyo sect in a crowded Tokyo subway in 1995. An example of the second terrorist threat is the ever-present possible suicide bomber in crowded environment such as airports, markets and large buildings. Minimizing the impact of both of these threats requires early detection of the presence of the CWAs and explosives. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is an exquisitely sensitive technique for the detection of trace gaseous species, a property that Pranalytica has extensively exploited in its CO2 laser based commercial instrumentation for the sub-ppb level detection of a number of industrially important gases including ammonia, ethylene, acrolein, sulfur hexafluoride, phosphine, arsine, boron trichloride and boron trifluoride. In this presentation, I will focus, however, on our recent use of broadly tunable single frequency high power room temperature quantum cascade lasers (QCL) for the detection of the CWAs and explosives. Using external grating cavity geometry, we have developed room temperature QCLs that produce continuously tunable single frequency CW power output in excess of 300 mW at wavelengths covering 5 μm to 12 μm. I will present data that show a CWA detection capability at ppb levels with false alarm rates below 1:108. I will also show the capability of detecting a variety of explosives at a ppb level, again with very low false alarm rates. Among the explosives, we have demonstrated the capability of detecting homemade explosives such as triacetone triperoxide and its liquid precursor, acetone which is a common household

  13. Can Chemical Mouthwash Agents Achieve Plaque/Gingivitis Control?

    PubMed

    Van der Weijden, Fridus A; Van der Sluijs, Eveline; Ciancio, Sebastian G; Slot, Dagmar E

    2015-10-01

    Also note that structured abstracts are not allowed per journal style: What is the effect of a mouthwash containing various active chemical ingredients on plaque control and managing gingivitis in adults based on evidence gathered from existing systematic reviews? The summarized evidence suggests that mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine(CHX) and essential oils (EO) had a large effect supported by a strong body of evidence. Also there was strong evidence for a moderate effect of cetylpyridinium chloride(CPC). Evidence suggests that a CHX mouthwash is the first choice, the most reliable alternative is EO. No difference between CHX and EO with respect to gingivitis was observed. PMID:26427569

  14. Absorbent pads for Containment, Neutralization, and Clean-Up of Environmental Spills Containing Chemically-Reactive Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dennis D. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A pad for cleaning up liquid spills is described which contains a porous surface covering, and an absorbent interior containing chemically reactive reagents for neutralizing noxious chemicals within the spilled liquid. The porous surface and the absorbent component would normally consist of chemically resistant materials allowing tentative spill to pass. The absorbent interior which contains the neutralizing reagents can but is not required to be chemically resilient and conducts the liquid chemical spill towards the absorbent interior containing the chemically reactive reagents where the dangerous and undesirable chemicals within the chemical spill are then neutralized as well as removed from the premises.

  15. Mass spectrometry in identification of ecotoxicants including chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Albert T

    2005-09-01

    Mass spectrometry is a unique tool to detect and identify trace levels of organic and bioorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in the environment. The range of potential chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents is very broad. An important advantage of mass spectrometry over other techniques involves potential for full spectrum detection of chemical and biological agents including mid-spectrum materials (i.e. bioactive peptides, toxins, etc.) for which biological approaches are inadequate. Being very fast (seconds and minutes), extremely sensitive (zeptomoles 10(-21)), and informative (detailed qualitative and quantitative composition of mixtures containing hundreds of chemicals), mass spectrometry is a principal analytical tool at the sites of destruction of CW. Due to its unique features, mass spectrometry is applied not only for the detection of CW agents, but for the analysis of products of metabolism and degradation of these agents in organisms or environment as well. The present paper deals with some examples of successful application of mass spectrometry for the analyses of ecotoxicants, chemical warfare agents, explosives, and microorganisms including biology warfare agents. PMID:16024060

  16. Mass spectrometry in identification of ecotoxicants including chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Albert T. . E-mail: lebedev@org.chem.msu.ru

    2005-09-01

    Mass spectrometry is a unique tool to detect and identify trace levels of organic and bioorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in the environment. The range of potential chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents is very broad. An important advantage of mass spectrometry over other techniques involves potential for full spectrum detection of chemical and biological agents including mid-spectrum materials (i.e. bioactive peptides, toxins, etc.) for which biological approaches are inadequate. Being very fast (seconds and minutes), extremely sensitive (zeptomoles 10{sup -21}), and informative (detailed qualitative and quantitative composition of mixtures containing hundreds of chemicals), mass spectrometry is a principal analytical tool at the sites of destruction of CW. Due to its unique features, mass spectrometry is applied not only for the detection of CW agents, but for the analysis of products of metabolism and degradation of these agents in organisms or environment as well. The present paper deals with some examples of successful application of mass spectrometry for the analyses of ecotoxicants, chemical warfare agents, explosives, and microorganisms including biology warfare agents.

  17. Two Microcatheter Technique for Embolization of Arteriovenous Fistula with Liquid Embolic Agent

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lin-Bo; Shim, Jae Ho; Lee, Dong-geun

    2014-01-01

    Problem with embolization of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with liquid embolic agent is its over-penetration into the veins or regurgitation to the proximal feeder without reaching the shunt point. We present a technique that controls the flow of AVF during embolization. Two microcatheter technique consists of positioning one microcatheter close to the AVF for embolization, and with another microcatheter at the proximal feeding artery to control the AVF flow by coiling. Selective angiograms obtained using a distally positioned microcatheter before and after coiling, were compared how much stagnant effect was achieved. Using two microcatheter technique, AVF occlusion was achieved with good penetration of glue to the venous side of the AVF. Its advantage is the ability to push glue into the shunt without causing over-penetration of glue or its reflux along the feeder. Two microcatheter technique was safe and effective in glue embolization of AVF and also expected to be applied with other liquid embolic agent like Onyx. PMID:24642961

  18. Airborne exposure limits for chemical and biological warfare agents: is everything set and clear?

    PubMed

    Sabelnikov, Alex; Zhukov, Vladimir; Kempf, C Ruth

    2006-08-01

    Emergency response strategies (guidelines) for biological, chemical, nuclear, or radiological terrorist events should be based on scientifically established exposure limits for all the agents or materials involved. In the case of a radiological terrorist event, emergency response guidelines (ERG) have been worked out. In the case of a terrorist event with the use of chemical warfare (CW) agents the situation is not that clear, though the new guidelines and clean-up values are being generated based on re-evaluation of toxicological and risk data. For biological warfare (BW) agents, such guidelines do not yet exist. In this paper the current status of airborne exposure limits (AELs) for chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are reviewed. Particular emphasis is put on BW agents that lack such data. An efficient, temporary solution to bridge the gap in experimental infectious data and to set provisional AELs for BW agents is suggested. It is based on mathematically generated risks of infection for BW agents grouped by their alleged ID50 values in three categories: with low, intermediate and high ID50 values. PMID:16854669

  19. Quantitative Infrared Spectra of Vapor Phase Chemical Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Chu, P. M.; Kleimeyer, J.; Rowland, Brad

    2003-08-01

    Quantitative, moderately high resolution (0.1 cm-1) infrared spectra have been acquired for a number of nitrogen broadened (1 atm N2) vapor phase chemicals including: Sarin (GB), Soman (GD), Tabun (GA), Cyclosarin (GF), VX, Nitrogen Mustard (HN3), Sulfur Mustard (HD), and Lewisite (L). The spectra are acquired using a heated, flow-through White Cell1 of 5.6 meter optical path length. Each reported spectrum represents a statistical fit to Beer’s law, which allows for a rigorous calculation of uncertainty in the absorption coefficients. As part of an ongoing collaboration with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), cross-laboratory validation is a critical aspect of this work. In order to identify possible errors in the Dugway flow-through system, quantitative spectra of isopropyl alcohol from both NIST and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are compared to similar data taken at Dugway proving Grounds (DPG).

  20. [Measurement of chemical agents in metallurgy field: electric steel plant].

    PubMed

    Cottica, D; Grignani, E; Ghitti, R; Festa, D; Apostoli, P

    2012-01-01

    The steel industry maintains its important position in the context of the Italian production involving thousands of workers. The iron and steel processes are divided into primary steel industry, production of intermediate minerals, and secondary steel, scrap from the production of semi-finished industrial and consumer sector (metal inserted into components and metal used for dissipative uses, primarily coatings) and industrial waste. The paper presents the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some electric steel plant for the measurement of airborne chemicals that characterize the occupational exposure of workers employed in particular area like electric oven, to treatment outside the furnace, continuous casting area. For the sampling of the pollutants were used both personal and in fixed positions samplers. The pollutants measured are those typical of steel processes inhalable dust, metals, respirable dust, crystalline silica, but also Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). PMID:23213795

  1. Mortality among chemical workers exposed to benzene and other agents

    SciTech Connect

    Decoufle, P.; Blattner, W.A.; Blair, A.

    1983-02-01

    A historical cohort mortality study was conducted of 259 male employees of a chemical plant where benzene has been used in large quantites. The study group included all persons who were employed by the Company any time between January 1, 1947 and December 31, 1960. The cohort was followed through December 31, 1977 at which time 58 known deaths were identified. The only unusual findings was four deaths from lymphoreticular cancers when 1.1 would have been expected on the basis of national mortality rates. Three of the deaths were due to leukemia and one was caused by multiple myeloma. In addition, one of the leukemia deaths had multiple myeloma listed on the death certificate. The findings are consistent with previous reports of leukemia following occupational exposure to benzene and raise the possibility that multiple myeloma could be linked to benzene, also.

  2. Detection/classification/quantification of chemical agents using an array of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, G. Martin

    2005-05-01

    ChemSentry is a portable system used to detect, identify, and quantify chemical warfare (CW) agents. Electro chemical (EC) cell sensor technology is used for blood agents and an array of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors is used for nerve and blister agents. The combination of the EC cell and the SAW array provides sufficient sensor information to detect, classify and quantify all CW agents of concern using smaller, lighter, lower cost units. Initial development of the SAW array and processing was a key challenge for ChemSentry requiring several years of fundamental testing of polymers and coating methods to finalize the sensor array design in 2001. Following the finalization of the SAW array, nearly three (3) years of intensive testing in both laboratory and field environments were required in order to gather sufficient data to fully understand the response characteristics. Virtually unbounded permutations of agent characteristics and environmental characteristics must be considered in order to operate against all agents and all environments of interest to the U.S. military and other potential users of ChemSentry. The resulting signal processing design matched to this extensive body of measured data (over 8,000 agent challenges and 10,000 hours of ambient data) is considered to be a significant advance in state-of-the-art for CW agent detection.

  3. Materials Problems in Chemical Liquid-Propellant Rocket Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, L. L.

    1959-01-01

    With the advent of the space age, new adjustments in technical thinking and engineering experience are necessary. There is an increasing and extensive interest in the utilization of materials for components to be used at temperatures ranging from -423 to over 3500 deg F. This paper presents a description of the materials problems associated with the various components of chemical liquid rocket systems. These components include cooled and uncooled thrust chambers, injectors, turbine drive systems, propellant tanks, and cryogenic propellant containers. In addition to materials limitations associated with these components, suggested research approaches for improving materials properties are made. Materials such as high-temperature alloys, cermets, carbides, nonferrous alloys, plastics, refractory metals, and porous materials are considered.

  4. Activation of aluminum as an effective reducing agent by pitting corrosion for wet-chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Metallic aluminum (Al) is of interest as a reducing agent because of its low standard reduction potential. However, its surface is invariably covered with a dense aluminum oxide film, which prevents its effective use as a reducing agent in wet-chemical synthesis. Pitting corrosion, known as an undesired reaction destroying Al and is enhanced by anions such as F⁻, Cl⁻, and Br⁻ in aqueous solutions, is applied here for the first time to activate Al as a reducing agent for wet-chemical synthesis of a diverse array of metals and alloys. Specifically, we demonstrate the synthesis of highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles on carbon black with stabilizers and the intermetallic Cu₂Sb/C, which are promising candidates, respectively, for fuel cell catalysts and lithium-ion battery anodes. Atomic hydrogen, an intermediate during the pitting corrosion of Al in protonic solvents (e.g., water and ethylene glycol), is validated as the actual reducing agent. PMID:23390579

  5. Activation of Aluminum as an Effective Reducing Agent by Pitting Corrosion for Wet-chemical Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Metallic aluminum (Al) is of interest as a reducing agent because of its low standard reduction potential. However, its surface is invariably covered with a dense aluminum oxide film, which prevents its effective use as a reducing agent in wet-chemical synthesis. Pitting corrosion, known as an undesired reaction destroying Al and is enhanced by anions such as F−, Cl−, and Br− in aqueous solutions, is applied here for the first time to activate Al as a reducing agent for wet-chemical synthesis of a diverse array of metals and alloys. Specifically, we demonstrate the synthesis of highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles on carbon black with stabilizers and the intermetallic Cu2Sb/C, which are promising candidates, respectively, for fuel cell catalysts and lithium-ion battery anodes. Atomic hydrogen, an intermediate during the pitting corrosion of Al in protonic solvents (e.g., water and ethylene glycol), is validated as the actual reducing agent. PMID:23390579

  6. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-09-01

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

  7. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-09-18

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

  8. Absorbent Pads for Containment, neutralization, and clean-up of environmental spills containing chemically-reactive agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dennis D. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A pad for cleaning up liquid spills is described which contains a porous surface covering, and an absorbent interior containing chemically reactive reagents for neutralizing noxious chemicals within the spilled liquid. The porous surface and the absorbent component would normally consist of chemically resistant materials allowing tentative spill to pass. The absorbent interior which contains the neutralizing reagents can but is not required to be chemically resilient and conducts the liquid chemically reactive reagents where the dangerous and undesirable chemicals within the chemical spill are then neutralized as well as removed from the premises.

  9. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection for chemical and biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fei; Stokes, David L.; Wabuyele, Musundi B.; Griffin, Guy D.; Vass, Arpad A.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2004-07-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of chemical agent simulants such as dimethyl methylphonate (DMMP), pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMP), diethyl phosphoramidate (DEPA), and 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (CEES), and biological agent simulants such as bacillus globigii (BG), erwinia herbicola (EH), and bacillus thuringiensis (BT) were obtained from silver oxide film-deposited substrates. Thin AgO films ranging in thickness from 50 nm to 250 nm were produced by chemical bath deposition onto glass slides. Further Raman intensity enhancements were noticed in UV irradiated surfaces due to photo-induced Ag nanocluster formation, which may provide a possible route to producing highly useful plasmonic sensors for the detection of chemical and biological agents upon visible light illumination.

  10. Toxicity of the Organophosphate Chemical Warfare Agents GA, GB, and VX: Implications for Public Protection.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, N

    1994-01-01

    The nerve agents, GA, GB, and VX are organophosphorus esters that form a major portion of the total agent volume contained in the U.S. stockpile of unitary chemical munitions. Congress has mandated the destruction of these agents, which is currently slated for completion in 2004. The acute, chronic, and delayed toxicity of these agents is reviewed in this analysis. The largely negative results from studies of genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, developmental, and reproductive toxicity are also presented. Nerve agents show few or delayed effects. At supralethal doses, GB can cause delayed neuropathy in antidote-protected chickens, but there is no evidence that it causes this syndrome in humans at any dose. Agent VX shows no potential for inducing delayed neuropathy in any species. In view of their lack of genotoxcity, the nerve agents are not likely to be carcinogens. The overreaching concern with regard to nerve agent exposure is the extraordinarily high acute toxicity of these substances. Furthermore, acute effects of moderate exposure such as nausea, diarrhea, inability to perform simple mental tasks, and respiratory effects may render the public unable to respond adequately to emergency instructions in the unlikely event of agent releaase, making early warning and exposure avoidance important. Likewise, exposure or self-contamination of first responders and medical personnel must be avoided. Control limits for exposure via surface contact of drinking water are needed, as are detection methods for low levels in water or foodstuffs. Images Figure 2. PMID:9719666