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Sample records for liquid chromatographic fractions

  1. Synthesis, liquid chromatographic fractionation and partial characterization of polybrominated dibenzofuran congeners.

    PubMed

    Gallistl, Christoph; Vetter, Walter

    2016-04-15

    Polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) are a class of highly toxic environmental contaminants which comprises 135 structurally different congeners. While the gas chromatographic separation and analysis of the most polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are well-documented, comparably little data is currently available in the case of PBDFs. In this study dibenzofuran was brominated to give a mixture of ∼40 PBDFs with one to seven bromine atoms. This synthesis mixture was fractionated by both countercurrent chromatography (CCC) with the solvent system n-hexane/toluene/acetonitrile and non-aqueous reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with acetonitrile as the mobile phase. All together 80 consecutive CCC fractions and 40 HPLC fractions were taken and analyzed for PBDFs by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). CCC and RP-HPLC offered orthogonal separation of the PBDF mixture. As a consequence, selected CCC fractions were further fractionated by RP-HPLC. In this way, eight PBDFs could be isolated and the structures of twelve PBDFs were elucidated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR). PMID:26993783

  2. High performance liquid chromatographic hydrocarbon group-type analyses of mid-distillates employing fuel-derived fractions as standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, G. T.; Otterson, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Two high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods have been developed for the determination of saturates, olefins and aromatics in petroleum and shale derived mid-distillate fuels. In one method the fuel to be analyzed is reacted with sulfuric acid, to remove a substantial portion of the aromatics, which provides a reacted fuel fraction for use in group type quantitation. The second involves the removal of a substantial portion of the saturates fraction from the HPLC system to permit the determination of olefin concentrations as low as 0.3 volume percent, and to improve the accuracy and precision of olefins determinations. Each method was evaluated using model compound mixtures and real fuel samples.

  3. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  4. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  5. Analysis of anthocyanin pigments in Lonicera (Caerulea) extracts using chromatographic fractionation followed by microcolumn liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Myjavcová, Renáta; Marhol, Petr; Křen, Vladimír; Simánek, Vilím; Ulrichová, Jitka; Palíková, Irena; Papoušková, Barbora; Lemr, Karel; Bednář, Petr

    2010-12-17

    Anthocyanins from the fruit Lonicera caerulea L. var. kamtschatica (blueberry honeysuckle, Caprifoliaceae) were studied via (semi)preparative chromatographic fractionation followed by MS and μLC/MS analysis. The extraction procedure was optimized with respect to analytical purposes as well as its potential use for the preparation of nutraceuticals. The highest yield of anthocyanins was obtained using acidified methanol as the extraction medium. A comparable total anthocyanin content was obtained using a mixture of methanol and acetone. However, when Lonicera anthocyanins were in contact with acetone, a condensation reaction occurred to a large extent and related 5-methylpyranoanthocyanins were found. The effect of other extraction media, including ethanol as a "green" solvent, is also discussed. The potential of two fractionation procedures for extract purification differing in their chromatographic selectivity and scale was studied (i.e. using a Sephadex LH-20 gel column and a reversed phase). Fractions obtained by both procedures were used for a detailed analysis. MS and μLC/MS(2) methods were used for monitoring anthocyanin and 5-methylpyranoderivatives content as well as identifying less common and more complex dyes (dimer of cyanidin-3-hexoside, cyanidin-ethyl-catechin-hexosides, etc.). These more complex dyes are most likely formed during fruit treatment. PMID:21111888

  6. Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Don D.

    1985-01-01

    A chromatographic system that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a non-transparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extremely low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

  7. Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system

    DOEpatents

    Gay, D.D.

    A chromatographic system is described that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a nontransparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extreme low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

  8. Liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of the brominated flame retardant 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE) and enantiomer fractions in seal blubber.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Walter; Recke, Roland von der; Ostrowicz, Patrizia; Rosenfelder, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    Enantioselective analyses of the chiral brominated flame retardant 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE) are the focus of this work. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a column that had a chiral stationary phase consisting of a modified cellulose derivative allowed for the fractionation of the enantiomers of DPTE. The enantiomeric excess was 98.2% for enantiomer 1 and 99% for enantiomer 2. Polarimetric measurements verified that the first eluting enantiomer originated from (-)-DPTE and the second peak originated from (+)-DPTE. Two gas chromatographic columns allowed for the direct enantioresolution of DPTE. The elution order of DPTE enantiomers was the same as observed in the chiral HPLC system ((-)-DPTE before (+)-DPTE). The best enantioseparation was achieved on a Chirasil-DEX CB column, which was used to analyze the enantiomer fractions of DPTE in blubber and brain samples of hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) and harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) from the Barents and Greenland Seas. Analyses were carried out by means of gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion mass spectrometry operated in the selected ion monitoring (GC/ECNI-MS-SIM) mode. In both matrices, only minute deviations from the racemate were observed (maximum +/-3% excess of (-)-DPTE). However, the samples from the Barents Sea were either racemic or showed a slight excess of (+)-DPTE (up to 2.5%), whereas all samples from the Greenland Sea contained a slight excess (up to 4%) of (-)-DPTE. PMID:19863996

  9. AUTOMATED MEASUREMENTS OF INFRARED SPECTRA OF CHROMATOGRAPHICALLY SEPARATED FRACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid identification of trace organic pollutants in water presents one of the more severe problems for environmental analytical chemists today. Spectroscopic identifications of chromatographically separated fractions, preferably without trapping each sample, yields more certa...

  10. Micro-column plasma emission liquid chromatograph

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Don D.

    1984-01-01

    In a direct current plasma emission spectrometer for use in combination with a micro-column liquid chromatograph, an improved plasma source unit. The plasma source unit includes a quartz capillary tube having an inlet means, outlet off gas means and a pair of spaced electrodes defining a plasma region in the tube. The inlet means is connected to and adapted to receive eluant of the liquid chromatograph along with a stream of plasma-forming gas. There is an opening through the wall of the capillary tube penetrating into the plasma region. A soft glass capillary light pipe is disposed at the opening, is connected to the spectrometer, and is adapted to transmit light passing from the plasma region to the spectrometer. There is also a source of electromotive force connected to the electrodes sufficient to initiate and sustain a plasma in the plasma region of the tube.

  11. High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOEpatents

    Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

    1982-09-08

    A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

  12. High pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOEpatents

    Daughton, Christian G.; Sakaji, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    A gradient mixer which effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum "band-broadening".

  13. Interface for liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Fought, Eric R.

    1989-01-01

    A moving belt interface for real-time, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)/mass spectrometer (MS) analysis which strips away the HPLC solvent as it emerges from the end of the HPLC column and leaves a residue suitable for mass-spectral analysis. The interface includes a portable, stand-alone apparatus having a plural stage vacuum station, a continuous ribbon or belt, a drive train magnetically coupled to an external drive motor, a calibrated HPLC delivery system, a heated probe tip and means located adjacent the probe tip for direct ionization of the residue on the belt. The interface is also capable of being readily adapted to fit any mass spectrometer.

  14. Interface for liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Fought, E.R.

    1989-09-19

    A moving belt interface is described for real-time, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)/mass spectrometer (MS) analysis which strips away the HPLC solvent as it emerges from the end of the HPLC column and leaves a residue suitable for mass-spectral analysis. The interface includes a portable, stand-alone apparatus having a plural stage vacuum station, a continuous ribbon or belt, a drive train magnetically coupled to an external drive motor, a calibrated HPLC delivery system, a heated probe tip and means located adjacent the probe tip for direct ionization of the residue on the belt. The interface is also capable of being readily adapted to fit any mass spectrometer. 8 figs.

  15. Chromatographic method for determining fouling tendency of liquid hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Dickakian, G.B.

    1988-06-21

    A method is described for determining the tendency of a liquid hydrocarbon stream to foul equipment comprising the steps of: (a) depositing a sample of liquid hydrocarbon from a liquid hydrocarbon stream onto a surface of a thin film in the presence of an asphaltene antisolvent, wherein the thin film is made up of a chromatographic separation material; (b) letting the sample of liquid hydrocarbon migrate radially outward within the film for sufficient time so that hydrocarbon compatible fractions in the sample separate from any hydrocarbon-incompatible asphaltenes in the sample, wherein the hydrocarbon compatible fractions form a matrix portion in the film and any hydrocarbon-incompatible asphaltenes form a dark ring within the matrix portion and wherein any ring formed is disposed within a central region of the matrix portion and is distinguished from the matrix portion by a dark area having a boundary with respect to a lighter area; and (c) determining the tendency of the liquid hydrocarbon stream to fuel equipment by comparing the matrix portion with any dark ring formed from any hydrocarbon-incompatible asphaltenes in the sample, wherein the area and intensity of any ring formed in relation to the matrix portion provides an indication of the tendency of the liquid hydrocarbon stream to foul equipment.

  16. NEW LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETECTION SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resonance enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectrometry (CARS) has been demonstrated as a specific identification system for liquid chromatography for water pollution identification. To achieve this, liquid chromatographic preconcentration and separation and computer control o...

  17. Liquid chromatographic assay for dicloxacillin in plasma.

    PubMed

    Alderete, Oscar; González-Esquivel, Dinora F; Del Rivero, L Misael; Castro Torres, Nelly

    2004-06-15

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of dicloxacillin in plasma has been developed. The method only requires 0.5 ml of plasma, phosphate buffer solution (pH = 4.7), acidification with 0.5N hydrochloride acid and liquid extraction with dichloromethane. Posterior evaporation of organic under nitrogen steam and redissolution in mobile phase is carried out. The analysis was performed on a Spherisorb C18 (5 microm) column, using methanol -0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH = 4.7 (75:25; v/v) as mobile phase, with ultraviolet detection at 220 nm. Results showed that the assay is sensitive: 0.5 microg/ml. The response is linear in the range of 0.5 - 10 microg/ml. Maximum inter-day coefficient of variation was 12.4%. Mean extraction recovery obtained was 96.95%. Stability studies showed that the loss was not higher than 10%, samples are stable at room temperature for 6 h, at -20 Celsius for 2 months, processed samples were stable at least for 24 h and also after two freeze-thaw cycles. The method has been used to perform pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies in humans. PMID:15135112

  18. Liquid chromatographic determination of nicarbazin in feeds.

    PubMed

    Krabel, B J; Dickson, D A; Zimmermann, A G; Coleman, M R

    2000-01-01

    A new liquid chromatographic method has been developed for determination of nicarbazin in feeds. Approximately 40 g feed is extracted with 200 mL acetonitrile-water (80 + 20, v/v). An aliquot of the extract is filtered and assayed using a reversed-phase isocratic method that measures the 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide moiety of nicarbazin at a wavelength of 340 nm. For medicated feeds, the method uses a standard linear range of 5 to 100 microg/mL. For lower levels, a linear range of 50 to 150 ng/mL can be used. The method has a limit of detection of 250 ng/g and a limit of quantitation of 500 ng/g in a 40 g feed sample. Recovery was 99.1%, with a range of 95.2 to 101.8%. In the typical U.S. dosing range of 27 to 113.5 g/ton, the precision of the method based on one analyst, one day, and 2 weighings ranged from 2.8% (113.5 g/ton) to 4.7% (27 g/ton). PMID:11048841

  19. Comparison of enzymatic and liquid chromatographic chloramphenicol assays

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.F.; Opheim, K.E.; Koup, J.R.; Smith, A.L.

    1981-02-01

    A radioenzymatic assay and a ''high-performance'' liquid chromatographic assay for chloramphenicol were compared by using 52 patient specimens, 24 mock unknowns, and 13 quality control samples. Both methods were found to be rapid, precise, accurate, and sensitive, and either would be suitable for monitoring chloramphenicol concentrations in small volumes of serum. Linear regression analysis of serum chloramphenicol concentrations in patients receiving chloramphenicol succinate yielded a regression equation of Y . 1.04X + 0.274 (X . high-performance liquid chromatographic assay; Y . radioenzymatic assay), with a correlation coefficient of 0.971.

  20. Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of morphine, heroin, and cocaine.

    PubMed

    Prager, M J; Harrington, S M; Governo, T F

    1979-03-01

    Morphine, heroin, and cocaine are quantitatively determined with the same gas-liquid chromatographic system. The compounds are separated on a 6 ft X 2 mm id glass column packed with a 1:1 mixture of 5% SE-30 on 80--100 mesh Chromosorb W and 3% OV-17 on 80--100 mesh Varaport 30. The column is temperature-programmed. Flame ionization detector responses are measured with a computer-based data system. Heroin and cocaine are chromatographed directly; morphine is derivatized first. The procedure was evaluated with previously analyzed commercial and forensic samples. Accuracy and precision were 5 and 3%, respectively. PMID:447602

  1. Combined liquid chromatograph/mass spectrometer for involatile biological samples.

    PubMed

    Blakley, C R; Carmody, J C; Vestal, M L

    1980-09-01

    A new liquid chromatograph/mass spectrometer has been developed in our laboratory for application to analysis of biological molecules of extremely low volatility. Oxyhydrogen flames rapidly vaporize the total liquid-chromatographic effluent, and molecular and particle beam techniques are used to efficiently transfer the sample to the ionization source of the mass spectrometer. This new instrument is comparable in cost and complexity to a combined gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, but extends the capabilities of combined chromatography/mass spectrometry to a broad range of compounds not previously accessible. We are currently testing biologically significant samples with this instrument, using reversed-phase liquid-chromatographic separation and both positive and negative ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. Results have been obtained from mixtures of nucleic acid components--bases, nucleosides, and nucleotides--and from amino acids, peptides, saccharides, fatty acids, vitamins, and antibiotics. In all cases investigated to date, ions indicative of molecular mass are obtained in at least one of the operating modes available. Detection limits are typically in the 1-10 ng range for full mass scans (about 80-600 amu); sub-nanogram quantities are usually detectable with single-ion monitoring. PMID:7408175

  2. Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.

    1992-04-07

    The main objectives of this proposed research work are to refine further the inverse liquid chromatography technique for the study of surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals in water, to evaluate relatively surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals by inverse liquid chromatography, and to evaluate flotability of various treated coals in conjunction with surface properties of coals. Coals such as Pittsburgh seam coal, Illinois No. 6 coal, Wyodak coal are chosen as representatives of high-rank bituminous coal, high volatile bituminous coal and subbituminous coal, respectively. Coal minerals such as pyrite and dolomite are chosen as representative coal minerals.

  3. [Chromatographic analysis of low molecular weight fraction of cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute neuroinfections].

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, L A; Shatik, S V; Sorokina, M N; Karasev, V V

    2002-05-01

    Low molecular-weight (oligopeptide) fraction of the cerebrospinal fluid was analyzed by high-performance reversed phase liquid chromatography in 30 children with bacterial and viral neuroinfections. The incidence and height of chromathoraphic peaks in bacterial meningitis depended on the disease etiology, stage, and severity. Qualitative and quantitative composition of low molecular-weight fraction of the liquor varied in patients with viral neuroinfections, depending on the severity of the cerebral parenchyma involvement. Differences in chromatographic profiles in complicated and uneventful course of neuroinfections indicate a possible damaging, protective, or regulatory effect of the liquor peptides. These data focus the attention on the role of oligopeptides in the genesis of neuroinfectious process, significance of search for peptide markers, their further isolation, identification, and development of test systems available for clinical application. PMID:12085699

  4. Liquid chromatographic determination of benzo(a)pyrene in total particulate matter of cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, B.A.; Jenkins, R.A.; Griest, W.H.; Reagan, R.R.; Holladay, S.K.

    1985-09-01

    The benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) delivery of reference and commercially available tobacco cigarettes, as well as reference and placebo marijuana cigarettes, is determined using a sequential liquid chromatographic/liquid chromatographic procedure. The total particulate matter of sample cigarette smoke is collected using a Cambridge filter pad, which is ultrasonically extracted with acetone. The resulting extract is filtered, then fractionated using semipreparative-scale normal phase liquid chromatography (LC). Quantitative determination is achieved using analytical-scale reverse phase LC equipped with a fluorescence detector. The method is precise (+/- 10-15% relative standard deviation) and yields 85% or better BaP recovery at the ng/cig. level. A single pad may be analyzed in 8 person-hours, while a more typical lot of 12 pads (6 pads each for 2 cigarette brands) may be analyzed in 10 person-days.

  5. [Development of online conventional array-based two-dimensional liquid chromatographic system for proteins separation in human plasma].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi; Hong, Guangfeng; Gao, Mingxia; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2014-04-01

    Human plasma is one of the proteins-containing samples most difficult to characterize on account of the wide dynamic concentration range of its intact proteins. Herein, we developed a high-throughput conventional array-based two-dimensional liquid chromatographic system for proteins separation in human plasma in online mode. In the system, a conventional strong-anion exchange chromatographic column was used as the first separation dimension and eight parallel conventional reversed-phase liquid chromatographic columns were integrated as the second separation dimension. The fractions from the first dimension were sequentially transferred into the corresponding reversed-phase liquid chromatographic precolumns for retention and enrichment using a 10-port electrically actuated multi-position valve. The second dimensional solvent flow was directly and identically split into 8 channels. The fractions were concurrently back-flushed from the precolumns into the 8 conventional RP columns and were separated simultaneously. An 8-channel fraction collector was refitted to collect the reversed-phase liquid chromatographic fractions for further investigation. Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) dyein solution was conveniently used for high-abundance protein location. Two separation dimensions were relatively independent parts, as well as each channel of the second dimensional array separation. Therefore, the new system could improve the separation throughput and total peak capacity. The system was successfully applied for the separation of human plasma intact proteins. The results indicated the established system is an effective method for removing high abundance proteins in plasma and in-depth research in plasma proteomics. PMID:25069321

  6. Hand-portable liquid chromatographic instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sonika; Tolley, Luke T; Tolley, H Dennis; Plistil, Alex; Stearns, Stanley D; Lee, Milton L

    2015-11-20

    Over the last four decades, liquid chromatography (LC) has experienced an evolution to smaller columns and particles, new stationary phases and low flow rate instrumentation. However, the development of person-portable LC has not followed, mainly due to difficulties encountered in miniaturizing pumps and detectors, and in reducing solvent consumption. The recent introduction of small, non-splitting pumping systems and UV-absorption detectors for use with capillary columns has finally provided miniaturized instrumentation suitable for high-performance hand-portable LC. Fully integrated microfabricated LC still remains a significant challenge. Ion chromatography (IC) has been successfully miniaturized and applied for field analysis; however, applications are mostly limited to inorganic and small organic ions. This review covers advancements that make possible more rapid expansion of portable forms of LC and IC. PMID:26592464

  7. Micro-column plasma emission liquid chromatograph. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Gay, D.D.

    1982-08-12

    In a direct current plasma emission spectrometer for use in combination with a microcolumn liquid chromatograph, an improved plasma source unit is claimed. The plasma source unit includes a quartz capillary tube having an inlet means, outlet off gas means and a pair of spaced electrodes defining a plasma region in the tube. The inlet means is connected to and adapted to receive eluant of the liquid chromatograph along with a stream of plasma-forming gas. There is an opening through the wall of the capillary tube penetrating into the plasma region. A soft glass capillary light pipe is disposed at the opening, is connected to the spectrometer, and is adapted to transmit light passing from the plasma region to the spectrometer. There is also a source of electromotive force connected to the electrodes sufficient to initiate and sustain a plasma in the plasma region of the tube.

  8. Basicity of aromatic amines from liquid chromatographic behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, P. R.; Mcnair, H. M.

    1975-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic investigation was conducted to determine whether the adsorption of weakly basic aromatic amines on slightly acidic silica gel adsorbents could be used to study their relative basicity. Under proper conditions, a linear correlation between pKb and log of capacity factor was observed. This finding may prove useful in helping to predict the relative basicity of closely related aromatic diamines, especially new amines being synthesized for polymer synthesis.

  9. Fractionalized gapless quantum vortex liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chong; Senthil, T.

    2015-05-01

    The standard theoretical approach to gapless spin liquid phases of two-dimensional frustrated quantum antiferromagnets invokes the concept of fermionic slave particles into which the spin fractionalizes. As an alternate we explore different kinds of gapless spin liquid phases in frustrated quantum magnets with X Y anisotropy where the vortex of the spin fractionalizes into gapless itinerant fermions. The resulting gapless fractionalized vortex liquid phases are studied within a slave particle framework that is dual to the usual one. We demonstrate the stability of some such phases and describe their properties. We give an explicit construction in an X Y -spin-1 system on triangular lattice, and interpret it as a critical phase in the vicinity of spin-nematic states.

  10. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of ampicillin.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, K; Robertson, J H

    1975-09-01

    A high-pressure liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of ampicillin is described. The method uses a 1-m long stainless steel column packed with anionic exchange resin, with a mobile phase of 0.02 M NaNO3 in 0.01 M pH 9.15 borate buffer at a flow rate of 0.45 ml/min. The degradation products of ampicillin, penicillenic and penicilloic acids of ampicillin, can be separated and quantitated in less than 12 min of chromatographic time. The relative standard deviation for the analysis of ampicillin is less than 1%, and the method is sensitive to approximately 20 ng of ampicillin/sample injected. The method was applied to the analysis of various pharmaceutical preparations of ampicillin. It is also applicable, with a slight modification, for the analysis of penicillins G and V. PMID:1185575

  11. Liquid chromatographic determination of carbadox residues in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Roybal, J E; Munns, R K; Shimoda, W

    1985-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method for determining residues of carbadox in the 0.01-10 ppm range in swine feed is described. Carbadox is extracted from ground feed with 25% acidified methanol-CHCl3, removed from emulsion-forming coextractables via an alumina column, separated from highly colored pigments by acid-base liquid-liquid partitioning, and finally isolated from interferences on a second alumina column. Isocratic reverse phase LC at 305 nm is used for quantitation. The average overall recovery at the 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm spike levels was 83.0% with a standard deviation of 2.04% and a coefficient of variation of 2.46%. PMID:4030635

  12. Liquid chromatographic determination of clobetasone-17-butyrate in ointments.

    PubMed

    Patel, A G; Patel, R B; Patel, M R

    1990-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method has been developed for determination of clobetasone-17-butyrate in ointment using clobetasone propionate as an internal standard. Separation was carried out on a C18 reverse-phase column using water-methanol as a mobile phase. Methylparaben and propylparaben (both sodium salt) used as preservatives did not interfere with separation. Compounds are detected photometrically at 235 nm. Mean assay results for 0.05% commercial ointments were 100.36% (n = 5). Mean recovery of clobetasone-17-butyrate added to commercial ointment was 99.89%. PMID:2289922

  13. Liquid chromatographic determination and liquid chromatographic-thermospray mass spectrometric confirmation of nicarbazin in chicken tissues: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Leadbetter, M G; Matusik, J E

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sponsored an interlaboratory study of a liquid chromatographic determination with ultraviolet detection of nicarbazin in chicken liver and muscle tissues. The method determined the 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) portion of nicarbazin. The interlaboratory study of the determinative method was successful for nicarbazin at the 4 ppm level. Results showed good reproducibility for the fortified liver and muscle samples. Mean interlaboratory recoveries and percent coefficients of variation at about 4 ppm were 87.1 and 10.9%, respectively, for muscle and 87.4 and 7.5%, respectively, for liver. The interlaboratory analyses of the dosed liver and muscle tissues produced concentration levels similar to those obtained by the sponsor. The confirmatory procedure, which identified DNC in purified tissue extracts, used liquid chromatography-thermospray/mass spectrometry. The confirmatory procedure was successfully evaluated by one FDA laboratory. PMID:8471868

  14. Chromatographic fractionation of fullerenes containing noble gas atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, M.; Khong, A.; Shimshi, R.; Jiménez-Vázquez, H. A.; Cross, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    Buckminsterfullerence containing krypton atoms inside the cage was partially separated from empty fullerene via column chromatography. The krypton content of portions of the peak emerging from the column was determined by the pyrolytic release of the krypton followed by mass spectrometry. It was found that material emerging more slowly is about 30% enriched over a faster fraction.

  15. Liquid chromatographic determination of tetracycline residues in animal feeds.

    PubMed

    Martinez, E E; Shimoda, W

    1988-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method for the multiresidue determination of tetracyclines (TCs) in feeds is described. The levels of quantitation were 10 ppm each for tetracycline-HCl (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC), and chlortetracycline-HCl (CTC); the detection limit was 40 ppb for each. The calibration curves were linear between 2.5 and 100 ppm. The procedure involved double extraction with pH 2.0 and pH 4.5 McIlvain buffers, cleanup on a Sephadex LH-20 column, separation on a Nova-Pak C18 column, and detection at 370 nm. Recoveries of 10 micrograms/g of each TC in multiresidue feed samples ranged from 55.8 to 75.5% for OTC, 71.6 to 100% for TC, and 22.4 to 60.6% for CTC. The identities of the TCs were confirmed by thin layer chromatography. PMID:3391942

  16. Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Amnesic Shellfish Poison in Mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duxbury, Mark

    2000-10-01

    A simple, rapid, high-performance liquid chromatographic experiment suitable for undergraduate students is described for determining amnesic shellfish poison in mussels. The poison itself is an unusual naturally occurring amino acid, domoic acid, that has been found in seafood, particularly shellfish, worldwide. The symptoms of poisoning include amnesia (memory loss), loss of balance, mental confusion, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, coma, and in extreme cases death. The domoic acid is extracted from homogenized mussel tissue by boiling in water for 5 minutes. The homogenate is cooled and centrifuged, and an aliquot of the supernatant is diluted and analyzed by isocratic HPLC using a C18 column and an acetonitrile-water mobile phase at pH 2.5 with UV detection at 242 nm.

  17. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatographic analysis of poloxamers.

    PubMed

    Malik, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Sanghoon; Chang, Taihyun

    2016-04-15

    Poloxamers are low molar mass triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), having number of applications as non-ionic surfactants. Comprehensive one and two-dimensional liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis of these materials is proposed in this study. The separation of oligomers of both types (PEO and PPO) is demonstrated for several commercial poloxamers. This is accomplished at the critical conditions for one of the block while interaction for the other block. Reversed phase LC at CAP of PEO allowed for oligomeric separation of triblock copolymers with regard to PPO block whereas normal phase LC at CAP of PPO renders oligomeric separation with respect to PEO block. The oligomeric separation with regard to PEO and PPO are coupled online (comprehensive 2D-LC) to reveal two-dimensional contour plots by unconventional 2D IC×IC (interaction chromatography) coupling. The study provides chemical composition mapping of both PEO and PPO, equivalent to combined molar mass and chemical composition mapping for several commercial poloxamers. PMID:26994923

  18. Liquid-chromatographic determination of sarafloxacin residues in channel catfish muscle-tissue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, J.R.; Dawson, V.K.; Gingerich, W.H.; Cheng, B.; Tubergen, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method is described for the determination of sarafloxacin hydrochloride residues i n channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) fillets. Sarafloxacin was extracted from fillet tissue with acetonitrile=water (1 + 1). The extract was centrifuged and the supernatant was partitioned with hexane. The aqueous fraction was filtered through a 0.45 Mum filter and evaporated to dryness. The sample was redissolved with 20% acetonitrile-methanol (3 + 2) and 80% trifluoroacetic acid (0.1%), Centrifuged, and filtered to remove proteins. Samples were analyzed by chromatography with gradient elution on a c18 column and with fluorescence detection (excitation at 280 nm and emission above 389 nm). Mean recoveries ranged from 85.4 To 104%, and relative standard deviations ranged from 1.06 To 5.58% In samples spiked at concentrations of 10.0-863.8 Ng/g. The method detection limit for sarafloxacin was 1.4 Ng/g.

  19. Method for liquid chromatographic extraction of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  20. Cefaclor pharmacokinetic parameters: serum concentrations determined by a new high-performance liquid chromatographic technique.

    PubMed

    Rotschafer, J C; Crossley, K B; Lesar, T S; Zaske, D; Miller, K

    1982-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters of cefaclor were studied in eight patients after an oral dose of 250 mg. Serum samples were obtained before and on 19 occasions after oral administration. Cefaclor serum concentrations were determined by a new high-performance liquid chromatographic technique. PMID:7081972

  1. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Analysis of Phytoplankton Pigments Using a C16-Amide Column

    EPA Science Inventory

    A reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed to analyze in a single run, most polar and non-polar chlorophylls and carotenoids from marine phytoplankton. The method is based on a RP-C16-Amide column and a ternary gradient system consistin...

  2. Three radioactivity detectors for liquid-chromatographic systems compared

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, B.M.; Frey, F.J.

    1982-04-01

    Three radioactivity detectors coupled to a ''high-performance'' liquid-chromatography system are compared with regard to static efficiency, dynamic efficiency, background measurements, and within- and between-day variabilities. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  3. Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions

    DOEpatents

    Davies, Geoffrey; El-Toukhy, Ahmed

    1987-01-01

    Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

  4. A rapid and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of clofazimine in plasma.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, T R; Abraham, I

    1992-12-01

    The high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method of Gidoh, et al. has been modified substantially to provide a simple, rapid, and relatively inexpensive procedure for measuring clofazimine in plasma. The modification involves the use of commonly available laboratory reagents instead of custom-made ones. It also employs a solid phase system for efficient extraction instead of the conventional, less efficient and more labor intensive, liquid-liquid extraction. The inclusion of an internal standard (salicylic acid) improves the precision and reproducibility. It is demonstrated that the method can be used to monitor in vivo clofazimine levels as may be required in formal pharmacokinetic studies or therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID:1299710

  5. Liquid chromatographic analysis and characterization of inorganic nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcoxon, J.P.; Craft, S.A.

    1996-07-01

    We describe the application of the techniques of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to analyze and characterize various types of inorganic nanoclusters. Both metal and semiconductor nanoclusters were grown in inverse micelles and we demonstrate how the nanoclusters can be separated from the surfactants and other byproducts of the reaction by using a variety of HPLC columns. We also discuss passivation of the cluster surface to prevent aggregation. The HPLC columns separate the clusters based upon a combination of size exclusion and chemical affinity mechanisms and the optical properties of the purified clusters are determined on- line using a variety of detectors. These include a photodiode array for collecting absorbance spectra, a fluorescence detector to monitor luminescence, and a conductivity detector to monitor surface charge on the nanoclusters. We illustrate the analysis of nanoclusters using HPLC by showing data from semiconductor Si, MoS{sub 2} nanoclusters and Au nanoclusters. An extremely novel luminescence was observed from very small metal nanoclusters.

  6. High-pressure liquid chromatographic method for the determination of patulin in apple butter.

    PubMed

    Ware, G M

    1975-07-01

    Patulin is extracted from apple butter samples with ethyl acetate and the extract is cleaned up on a silica gel column, using benzene-ethyl acetate (75+25) as the eluant. High-pressure liquid chromatography, using a 25 cm ZorbaxSil column, isooctane-ethyl ether-acetic acid (750+250+0.5) as the mobile solvent, and a 254 nm ultraviolet detector, is used for the determinative step. Under these conditions, patulin is eluted before 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, a component of apple butter which interferes with other liquid chromatographic and thin layer chromatographic methods. Recoveries of patulin added at levels of 34.6, 138.4, and 276.8 mug/kg ranged from 89.0 to 112.1%. PMID:168176

  7. Red-green-blue fluorescent hollow carbon nanoparticles isolated from chromatographic fractions for cellular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiaojuan; Hu, Qin; Paau, Man Chin; Zhang, Yan; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan; Choi, Martin M. F.

    2014-06-01

    An as-synthesised hollow carbon nanoparticle (HC-NP) sample has been proved to be a relatively complex mixture, and its complexity can be reduced significantly by high-performance liquid chromatography. An unprecedented reduction in such complexity can reveal fractions of HC-NP with unique luminescence properties. While the UV-vis absorption profile for the HC-NP mixture is featureless, the HC-NP fractions do possess unique absorption bands and specific emission wavelengths. The HC-NP fractions are fully anatomised by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry, displaying their fragmentation mass ion features. The shell thickness and crystal lattices of the selected HC-NP fractions are determined as 6.13, 8.31, 2.22, and 8.66 nm, and 0.37, 0.35, 0.33, and 0.32 nm by transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The fractionated HC-NP show profound differences in emission quantum yield, allowing for brighter HC-NP to be isolated from an apparent low quantum yield mixture. Finally, red, green and blue emissive HC-NP are isolated from the as-synthesised HC-NP sample. They show good photostability and have been demonstrated to be excellent probes for cellular imaging.An as-synthesised hollow carbon nanoparticle (HC-NP) sample has been proved to be a relatively complex mixture, and its complexity can be reduced significantly by high-performance liquid chromatography. An unprecedented reduction in such complexity can reveal fractions of HC-NP with unique luminescence properties. While the UV-vis absorption profile for the HC-NP mixture is featureless, the HC-NP fractions do possess unique absorption bands and specific emission wavelengths. The HC-NP fractions are fully anatomised by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry, displaying their fragmentation mass ion features. The shell thickness and crystal lattices of the selected HC-NP fractions are determined as 6.13, 8.31, 2.22, and 8.66 nm, and 0

  8. A validated high performance liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of Goldenseal.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenkui; Fitzloff, John F

    2002-03-01

    Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) has emerged as one of the top ten herbal supplements on the worldwide market. A rapid, simple and validated high performance liquid chromatographic method, with photodiode array detection, has been developed for the analysis of commercial Goldenseal products. Samples were treated by sonication with acidified methanol/water. The method was validated for LOD, LOQ, linearity, reproducibility and recovery with good results. PMID:11902811

  9. Deep liquid-chromatographic purification of uranium extract from technetium

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, V.; Dvoeglazov, K; Podrezova, L.; Vidanov, V.; Pavlyukevich, E.

    2013-07-01

    The recycling of uranium in the nuclear fuel cycle requires the removal of a number of radioactive and stable impurities like {sup 99}Tc from spent fuels. In order to improve the grade of uranium extract purification from technetium the method of liquid chromatography and the apparatus for its performance have been developed. Process of technetium extraction and concentrating in aqueous solution containing reducing agent has been studied on simulated solutions (U-Tc-HNO{sub 3}-30% TBP-isoparM). The dynamic tests of the method have been carried out on the laboratory unit. Solution of diformyl-hydrazine in nitric acid was used as a stationary phase. Silica gel with specific surface of 186 m{sup 2}/g was used as a carrier of the stationary phase. It is shown that the volume of purified extract increases as the solution temperature increases, concentration of reducing agent increases and extract flow rate decreases. It is established that the technetium content in uranium by this method could achieve a value below 0.3 ppm. Some variants of overload and composition of the stationary phase containing the extracted technetium have been offered and tested. It is defined that the method provides reduction of processing medium-active wastes by more than 10 times during finish refining process. (authors)

  10. Liquid chromatographic determination of oxfendazole in swine feeds.

    PubMed

    Shah, G; Bradley, D; Shek, E

    1984-01-01

    A relatively simple analytical method is presented for determination of oxfendazole (2-(methoxycarbonylamino)-5-phenylsulfinyl-benzimidazole) at levels as low as 0.012% in swine feeds, using cation exchange liquid chromatography (LC). The sample was extracted with a solvent mixture of methanol-glacial acetic acid (90 + 10) at 45 degrees C, using a gyrorotory shaker. Plant pigments and other feed excipients were removed using zinc acetate treatment and pH-controlled extraction. Oxfendazole was further separated from the remaining interferences and quantitatively determined by LC on a Partisil SCX column with acetonitrile-0.01M phosphate buffer as mobile phase. The method is stability-specific, linear, precise, and accurate at 80-120% labeled strength (relative standard deviation 0.9-1.7 with mean recovery of 98-99%). Supporting data at a level of 0.0135% oxfendazole in swine feed indicated that this method is capable of complete recovery of oxfendazole from medicated swine feeds. PMID:6469900

  11. CHROMATOGRAPHIC ALTERATION OF A NONIONIC SURFACTANT MIXTURE DURING TRANSPORT IN DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUID CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT (R826650)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromatographic alteration of a nonionic surfactant mixture during transport through DNAPL-contaminated aquifer sediment may occur due to differential loss of oligomers to sediment and to dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). These losses may significantly alter the solubilizing...

  12. High-performance liquid-chromatographic separation of subcomponents of antimycin-A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abidi, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    Using a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique, a mixture of antimycins A was separated into eight hitherto unreported subcomponents, Ala, Alb, A2a, A2b, A3a, A3b, A4a, and A4b. Although a base-line resolution of the known four major antimycins Al, A2, A3, and A4 was readily achieved with mobile phases containing acetate buffers, the separation of the new antibiotic subcomponents was highly sensitive to variation in mobile phase conditions. The type and composition of organic modifiers, the nature of buffer salts, and the concentration of added electrolytes had profound effects on capacity factors, separation factors, and peak resolution values. Of the numerous chromatographic systems examined, a mobile phase consisting of methanol-water (70:30) and 0.005 M tetrabutylammonium phosphate at pH 3.0 yielded the most satisfactory results for the separation of the subcomponents. Reversed-phase gradient HPLC separation of the dansylated or methylated antibiotic compounds produced superior chromatographic characteristics and the presence of added electrolytes was not a critical factor for achieving separation. Differences in the chromatographic outcome between homologous and structural isomers were interpretated based on a differential solvophobic interaction rationale. Preparative reversed-phase HPLC under optimal conditions enabled isolation of pure samples of the methylated antimycin subcomponents for use in structural studies.

  13. Evaluation of coverage, retention patterns, and selectivity of seven liquid chromatographic methods for metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Wernisch, Stefanie; Pennathur, Subramaniam

    2016-09-01

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics studies require highly selective and efficient chromatographic techniques. Typically employed reversed-phase (RP) methods fail to target polar metabolites, but the introduction of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) is slow due to perceived issues of reproducibility and ruggedness and a limited understanding of the complex retention mechanisms. In this study, we present a comparison of the chromatographic performance of a traditional RP-C18 column with zwitterionic, amide-, alkyl diol-, and aminoalkyl-based HILIC and mixed-mode columns. Our metabolite library represents one of the largest analyte sets available and consists of 764 authentic metabolite standards, including amino acids, nucleotides, sugars, and other metabolites, representing all major biological pathways and commonly observed exogenous metabolites (drugs). The coverage, retention patterns, and selectivity of the individual methods are highly diverse even between conceptually related HILIC methods. Furthermore, we show that HILIC sorbents having highly orthogonal selectivity and specificity enhance the coverage of major metabolite groups in (semi-) targeted applications compared to RP. Finally, we discuss issues encountered in the analysis of biological samples based on the results obtained with human plasma extracts. Our results demonstrate that fast and highly reproducible separations on zwitterionic columns are feasible, but knowledge of analyte properties is essential to avoid chromatographic bias and exclusion of key analytes in metabolomics studies. Graphical Abstract The chromatographic parameters of 764 authentic metabolite standards provide the basis for a comparison of coverage, selectivity and orthogonality of 7 reversed-phase (RP), mixed-mode (MM) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) methods. PMID:27370688

  14. GAS CHROMATOGRAPH-BASED SYSTEM FOR MEASURING THE METHANE FRACTION OF DIESEL ENGINE HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An instrument has been developed (termed the 'methane analytical system') enabling diesel methane emissions to be quatified separately from total unburned hydrocarbon emissions. The instrument employed gas chromatographic principles whereby a molecular sieve column operating isot...

  15. Liquid chromatographic method for the determination of rizatriptan in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Jiang, Xinguo; Jiang, Wenming; Mei, Ni; Gao, Xiaoling; Zhang, Qizhi

    2004-06-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection has been developed for the determination of rizatriptan in human plasma. Following a single-step liquid-liquid extraction with methyl tertiarybutyl ether, the analytes were separated using a mobile phase consisting of 0.05% (v/v) triethylamine in water (adjusting to pH 2.75 with 85% phosphoric acid) and acetonitrile (92:8, v/v). Fluorescence detection was performed at an excitation wavelength of 225nm and an emission wavelength of 360nm. The linearity for rizatriptan was within the concentration range of 0.5-50ng/ml. The intra- and inter-day precisions of the method were not more than 8.0%. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.5ng/ml for rizatriptan. The method was sensitive, simple and repeatable enough to be used in pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:15113554

  16. Application of Sigmoidal Transformation Functions in Optimization of Micellar Liquid Chromatographic Separation of Six Quinolone Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Hadjmohammadi, Mohammadreza; Salary, Mina

    2016-03-01

    A chemometrics approach has been used to optimize the separation of six quinolone compounds by micellar liquid chromatography (MLC). A Derringer's desirability function, a multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) method, was tested for evaluation of two different measures of chromatographic performance (resolution and analysis time). The effect of three experimental parameters on a chromatographic response function (CRF) expressed as a product of two sigmoidal desirability functions was investigated. The sigmoidal functions were used to transform the optimization criteria, resolution and analysis time into the desirability values. The factors studied were the concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate, butanol content and pH of the mobile phase. The experiments were done according to the face-centered cube central composite design, and the calculated CRF values were fitted to a polynomial model to correlate the CRF values with the variables and their interactions. The developed regression model showed good descriptive and predictive ability (R(2) = 0.815, F = 6.919, SE = 0.038, [Formula: see text]) and used, by a grid search algorithm, to optimize the chromatographic conditions for the separation of the mixture. The efficiency of prediction of polynomial model was confirmed by performing the experiment under the optimal conditions. PMID:26590234

  17. Gas and liquid chromatographic analyses of nimodipine calcium antagonist in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Krol, G J; Noe, A J; Yeh, S C; Raemsch, K D

    1984-01-13

    Gas (GC) and liquid chromatographic (LC) assay procedures were developed for analysis of nimodipine (1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, BAY e 9736) in blood plasma at low nanogram concentration levels. To avoid decomposition during gas chromatography, nimodipine was oxidized to nimodipine pyridine (P) analogue before it was chromatographed on the OV-17 column and quantitated using an electron-capture detector. In contrast, the LC procedure involved chromatographic separation and quantitation of the underivatized nimodipine and of the endogenous P analogue using a 3-micron Spherisorb ODS column and UV detection. The same plasma extract and three alternative internal standards were used for both assays. Taking into consideration the fact that the GC assay result includes endogenous P analogue as well as nimodipine, good correlation between GC and LC assay data was obtained. Comparison of the results observed with the two procedures confirmed the accuracy of each procedure and provided an alternative when one of the assay results was subject to patient plasma constituent interference. The LC assay was also used for analysis of the demethylated metabolites of nimodipine. To detect sub-nanogram concentrations of nimodipine in cerebrospinal fluid a combined LC-GC procedure using an LC clean-up step and a GC quantitation step was also developed. The above GC and LC procedures were used to obtain preliminary pharmacokinetic data. PMID:6707134

  18. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the assay of oxytetracycline.

    PubMed

    Barnes, W N; Ray, A; Bates, L J

    1985-10-25

    The British Pharmacopoeia monograph for oxytetracycline calcium describes an high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay which requires packing of the column by the analyst. Presented in this report is an HPLC method for the assay of oxytetracycline which employs a commercially available reversed-phase column and a solvent system which gives improved separation of the antibiotic from common impurities. Results obtained using this method for both bulk and dosage forms of oxytetracycline are in accord with the results of the microbiological assays. PMID:4086631

  19. High-performance liquid chromatographic characterization of some medical plant extracts used in cosmetic formulas.

    PubMed

    Schulz, H; Albroscheit, G

    1988-06-17

    Rapid and reliable methods are presented for the characterization of biologically active and/or characteristic constituents in aqueous extracts of Hamamelis virginiana, Matricaria chamomilla, Achillea millefolium, Thymus vulgaris, Althaea officinalis and Cinchonia spp. Prior to high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation a clean-up step was performed using a solid-phase extraction system. The purified extracts were analysed by HPLC coupled with a diode-array detector and a fluorescence detector. In some instances, previously unreported components of the aqueous plant extracts were found. PMID:3417826

  20. A trade off between separation, detection and sustainability in liquid chromatographic fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Funari, Cristiano S; Carneiro, Renato L; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; Hilder, Emily F

    2014-08-01

    It is now recognized that analytical chemistry must also be a target for green principles, in particular chromatographic methods which typically use relatively large volumes of hazardous organic solvents. More generally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is employed routinely for quality control of complex mixtures in various industries. Acetonitrile and methanol are the most commonly used organic solvents in HPLC, but they generate an impact on the environment and can have a negative effect on the health of analysts. Ethanol offers an exciting alternative as a less toxic, biodegradable solvent for HPLC. In this work we demonstrate that replacement of acetonitrile with ethanol as the organic modifier for HPLC can be achieved without significantly compromising analytical performance. This general approach is demonstrated through the specific example analysis of a complex plant extract. A benchmark method employing acetonitrile for the analysis of Bidens pilosa extract was statistically optimized using the Green Chromatographic Fingerprinting Response (GCFR) which includes factors relating to separation performance and environmental parameters. Methods employing ethanol at 30 and 80°C were developed and compared with the reference method regarding their performance of separation (GCFR) as well as by a new metric, Comprehensive Metric to Compare Liquid Chromatography Methods (CM). The fingerprint with ethanol at 80°C was similar to or better than that with MeCN according to GCFR and CM. This demonstrates that temperature may be used to replace harmful solvents with greener ones in HPLC, including for solvents with significantly different physiochemical properties and without loss in separation performance. This work offers a general approach for the chromatographic analysis of complex samples without compromising green analytical chemistry principles. PMID:24952659

  1. Fully automated high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the analysis of free catecholamines in urine.

    PubMed

    Said, R; Robinet, D; Barbier, C; Sartre, J; Huguet, C

    1990-08-24

    A totally automated and reliable high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the routine determination of free catecholamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine) in urine. The catecholamines were isolated from urine samples using small alumina columns. A standard automated method for pH adjustment of urine before the extraction step has been developed. The extraction was performed on an ASPEC (Automatic Sample Preparation with Extraction Columns, Gilson). The eluate was collected in a separate tube and then automatically injected into the chromatographic column. The catecholamines were separated by reversed-phase ion-pair liquid chromatography and quantified by fluorescence detection. No manual intervention was required during the extraction and separation procedure. One sample may be run every 15 min, ca. 96 samples in 24 h. Analytical recoveries for all three catecholamines are 63-87%, and the detection limits are 0.01, 0.01, and 0.03 microM for norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine, respectively, which is highly satisfactory for urine. Day-to-day coefficients of variation were less than 10%. PMID:2277100

  2. Decomposition of pilocarpine eye drops assessed by a highly efficient high pressure liquid chromatographic method.

    PubMed

    Kuks, P F; Weekers, L E; Goldhoorn, P B

    1990-10-19

    A rapid high-resolution high pressure liquid chromatographic method was developed for assaying pilocarpine. Pilocarpine in ophthalmic solutions decomposes fairly rapidly to give isopilocarpine, pilocarpic acid and isopilocarpic acid. The quality of an ophthalmic solution can be assessed by assaying these decomposition products. Existing high pressure liquid chromatographic methods suffer from long analysis times and poor resolution. The new method uses as the mobile phase 6 ml/l of triethylamine in water (pH 2.3, adjusted with 85% phosphoric acid) at a flow of 1.5 ml/min and as the stationary phase a C18-silica 125 x 4.6 mm column. 2-Amino-1-phenyl-1,3-propanediol is used as an internal standard. Complete separation was obtained within 8 min. Pilocarpine eye drops were stored under different conditions and then analysed for decomposition products. During heat treatment, decomposition to isopilocarpine predominated over decomposition to pilocarpic or isopilocarpic acid. However, when stored at room temperature or in a refrigerator, formation of pilocarpic acid clearly prevailed. Thus, from assessment of decomposition products, the cause of decomposition can be established. PMID:2255589

  3. Determination of calcium stearate in polyolefin samples by gas chromatographic technique after performing dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Ranji, Ali; Ghorbani Ravandi, Mahboobeh; Farajzadeh, Mir Ali

    2008-05-01

    In this study, a gas chromatographic method is presented for the determination of calcium stearate after its conversion to stearic acid in a polymeric matrix. A solution of hydrochloric acid in 2-propanol is used as an extracting solvent of calcium stearate and its converter to stearic acid. For stearic acid preconcentration before its injection to a separation system, a recently presented extraction method, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, using carbon tetrachloride as an extracting solvent is used. Finally, 1 microL of the organic phase collected at the bottom of a conical test tube after centrifuging is injected into a gas chromatograph (GC) for quantification. This method has a relatively broad linear dynamic range (50 - 2000 mg/L) with a limit of detection (LOD) of 15 mg/L for stearic acid in solution. The LOD of the proposed method in a polymeric sample using 10 mg of polymer is 60 ppm as calcium stearate. Some effective parameters, such as the time and temperature of heating, the concentration of hydrochloric acid and the volume of distilled water, were studied. PMID:18469468

  4. Simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of medroxyprogesterone acetate in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Read, J; Mould, G; Stevenson, D

    1985-06-14

    The high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed as a simple, reliable alternative to available methods for measuring plasma concentrations of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). The HPLC method has been successfully automated and is suitable for the rapid, inexpensive analysis of large batches of plasma samples. The best approach involves a solvent extraction followed by HPLC separation and analysis. MPA can be efficiently extracted, at all pH values, by nonpolar solvents. The Spherisorb 5-ODS2 HPLC column provides excellent separation of MPA from endogenous steroids of similar structure and from extraneous plasma blank peaks. A batch of 30-40 samples can be prepared by HPLC analysis in 2-3 hours, with a chromatographic run time of 10 minutes/sample. Calibration curves between 5-250 ng/ml show a good correlation between peak height ratio and MPA concentration, even at low levels. Plasma concentrations of MPA in patients receiving 1 g/day were between 12.6-270 ng/ml in this study, suggesting that the sensitivity of this method, 10 ng/ml, is sufficient for monitoring therapeutic concentrations of MPA. The results show a wide individual variation in plasma concentrations following similar dosing schedules--a finding reported by other workers. PMID:3161906

  5. Mass spectrometric and high-performance liquid chromatographic studies of medroxyprogesterone acetate metabolites in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Sturm, G; Häberlein, H; Bauer, T; Plaum, T; Stalker, D J

    1991-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) treatment has been shown to exert several beneficial effects in cancer patients. It has been suggested that such effects are due in part to the metabolites derived from MPA in vivo. The first results are reported on the identification of 2 alpha-hydroxy- and 21-hydroxy-MPA, 20-dihydro-MPA, 17 alpha-acetoxy-2 alpha,3 beta-dihydroxy-6 alpha-methylpregn-1,4-dien-20-one and two X,21-dihydroxy-MPAs, one of them presumably being 6 alpha-hydroxymethyl-21-hydroxy-MPA, in patient's plasma by high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC), gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric and NMR methods. Additionally, the presence of other metabolites such as di- and tetrahydro-MPAs and 6,21-dihydroxy-MPA, found in urine and other samples, was demonstrated in plasma. For routine clinical examinations an HPLC method is described for determination of, e.g., the unreduced MPA metabolite group in Sep-Pak-ODS column extracts of patients' plasma. PMID:1827448

  6. Direct zonal liquid chromatographic method for the kinetic study of actinomycin-DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Madjar, Claire; Florentina, Cañada-Cañada; Gherghi, Ioanna; Jaulmes, Alain; Pantazaki, Anastasia; Taverna, Myriam

    2004-07-01

    The binding of an anticancer drug (actinomycin D or ACTD) to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) was studied by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). ACTD is an antitumor antibiotic containing one chromophore group and two pentapeptidic lactone cycles that binds dsDNA. Incubations of ACTD with DNA were performed at physiological pH. The complexed and free ligand concentrations of the mixture were quantified at 440 nm from their separation on a size-exclusion chromatographic (SEC) column using the same buffer for the elution and the sample incubation. The DNA and the ACTD-DNA complexes were eluted at the column exclusion volume while the ligand was retained on the support. An apparent binding curve was obtained by plotting the amount emerging at the exclusion column volume against that eluted at free ACTD retention volume. A dissociating effect was evidenced and the binding parameters were significantly different from those obtained at equilibrium by visible absorbance titration. The equilibrium binding parameters determined by absorption spectroscopy were used as starting data in the numerical simulations of the chromatographic process. The results showed a strong dependency of the apparent binding parameters on the reaction kinetics. Finally the comparison of the apparent binding curve obtained from the HPLC experiments and from the numerical simulations permitted an evaluation of the dissociation rate constant (kd = 0.004 s(-1)). PMID:15296384

  7. Liquid chromatographic determination of residual hydrogen peroxide in pharmaceutical excipients using platinum and wired enzyme electrodes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tiehua; Garceau, Michelle E; Gao, Ping

    2003-04-10

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is a chemically reactive reagent that can oxidize and degrade many pharmaceutical compounds under normal conditions. Unfortunately, H(2)O(2) is often introduced into pharmaceutical excipients during manufacturing and it may significantly affect the chemical stability of drugs in formulations. Thus, a sensitive analytical method for determination of residual H(2)O(2) in excipients is of importance in formulation development and product quality control. A liquid chromatographic system with a dual channel electrochemical detector (LCEC) was equipped with either a platinum electrode or a wired peroxidase electrode for determination of H(2)O(2). The excipient (0.1 g) was dissolved in 10 ml of mobile phase and 5 microl of the dissolved solution was directly injected. The chromatographic run time for each sample was 1 min with a detection limit of 10 ng/ml (S/N=5) using the platinum electrode and 1 ng/ml (S/N=5) using the wired enzyme coated electrode, respectively. The peak purity was assured by comparing the peak ratios at different potentials for both the standard and the samples. The H(2)O(2) levels in different batches of PVP, PEG, and other surfactants from different manufacturers were determined and the values ranged from 0 to 244 ppm. The LCEC method is exceptionally fast, accurate and convenient for quantitation of low levels of residual H(2)O(2) in pharmaceutical formulation excipients. PMID:12667936

  8. Reverse phase liquid chromatographic assay for calcium pantothenate in multivitamin preparations and raw materials.

    PubMed

    Timmons, J A; Meyer, J C; Steible, D J; Assenza, S P

    1987-01-01

    A reverse phase liquid chromatographic (LC) method has been developed for the assay of calcium pantothenate in commercial multivitamin tablet formulations and raw materials. The assay was validated according to the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association Quality Control HPLC Committee guidelines. The chromatographic system includes a C-18 column and a mobile phase consisting of 0.25M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 2.5, and acetonitrile (97 + 3 v/v). The column effluent is monitored by UV detection at 205 nm. The sample preparation involves only extraction in water followed by filtration. The method is stability-indicating with a detection limit of approximately 50 ng/mL of the calcium pantothenate in the samples. The system is linear from at least 0.02 to 0.10 mg/mL. The mean recovery of spiked placebos ranged from 98.7 to 99.8%. The within-day precision of the assay on finished products (N = 6) ranged from 0.3 to 2.0% CV. A system suitability criterion for resolution is based on the separation between calcium pantothenate and 2 closely eluting compounds, saccharin and a saccharin degradation product, 2-sulfamoylbenzoic acid. PMID:3610964

  9. Quantitative Metabolome Analysis Based on Chromatographic Peak Reconstruction in Chemical Isotope Labeling Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huan, Tao; Li, Liang

    2015-07-21

    Generating precise and accurate quantitative information on metabolomic changes in comparative samples is important for metabolomics research where technical variations in the metabolomic data should be minimized in order to reveal biological changes. We report a method and software program, IsoMS-Quant, for extracting quantitative information from a metabolomic data set generated by chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Unlike previous work of relying on mass spectral peak ratio of the highest intensity peak pair to measure relative quantity difference of a differentially labeled metabolite, this new program reconstructs the chromatographic peaks of the light- and heavy-labeled metabolite pair and then calculates the ratio of their peak areas to represent the relative concentration difference in two comparative samples. Using chromatographic peaks to perform relative quantification is shown to be more precise and accurate. IsoMS-Quant is integrated with IsoMS for picking peak pairs and Zero-fill for retrieving missing peak pairs in the initial peak pairs table generated by IsoMS to form a complete tool for processing CIL LC-MS data. This program can be freely downloaded from the www.MyCompoundID.org web site for noncommercial use. PMID:26086729

  10. Liquid chromatographic determination of residual isocyanate monomers in plastics intended for food contact use.

    PubMed

    Damant, A P; Jickells, S M; Castle, L

    1995-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for the analysis of 10 isocyanates in polyurethane articles and laminates intended for food use. Residual isocyanates are extracted by dichloromethane with concurrent derivatization by 9-(methylaminomethyl)anthracene. The resultant derivatives are analyzed by reversed-phase LC with fluorescence detection. Separation of the isocyanates was studied and optimized. Quantitation uses 1-naphthyl isocyanate as internal standard and standard addition to the food package. Validation demonstrated the method to have good precision (+/- 2-5%) and recovery (83-95%) for samples spiked with isocyanates at 0.1 mg/kg. The limit of detection was 0.03 mg/kg. Analysis of 19 commercial polyurethane or laminate food packages demonstrated that the method was not prone to interferences. Residues of diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate were detected in 5 packages and ranged from 0.14 to 1.08 mg/kg. PMID:7756886

  11. Liquid chromatographic determination of five benzoylurea insecticides in fruit and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Gamón, M; Saez, A; Pelegrí, R; Peris, I; de la Cuadra, J G; Coscollá, R

    1998-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed to determine 5 benzoylureas--diflubenzuron, hexaflumuron, teflubenzuron, flufenozuron, and lufenuron--in peppers, tomatoes, eggplants, cucumbers, and oranges. Preparation of samples involve extraction with acetone and partitioning into dichloromethane-petroleum ether. A portion of this extract is cleaned up with a solid-phase extraction aminopropyl disposable column. With LC analysis using an RP-8-DB microbore column, acetonitrile-water (70 + 30, v/v) as mobile phase, and photodiode array detection at 254 nm, recovery and repeatability data were collected for the 5 benzoylureas on 4 vegetables and citrus in the range 0.04-2.0 mg/kg. Validated limits of detection and quantitation were 0.01 and 0.04 mg/kg, respectively. The method is reliable for routine analysis of vegetables and fruits. PMID:9772746

  12. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of methyl anthranilate, hydroxymethylfurfural and related compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Nozal, M J; Bernal, J L; Toribio, L; Jiménez, J J; Martín, M T

    2001-05-11

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determining 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (hydroxymethylfurfural), 2-furaldehyde (furfural), furan-2-carboxylic acid (2-furoic acid), furan-3-carboxylic acid (3-furoic acid), furan-3-carboxaldehyde (3-furaldehyde) and 2-aminobenzoic acid methyl ester (methyl anthranilate) in honey and honeydew samples is described. To prevent matrix interference and to isolate the compounds, a clean-up step which implies a solid-phase extraction on polymeric cartridges and an elution with 0.5 ml methanol is recommended. The compounds are separated on a reversed-phase column with a gradient of (A) 1% aqueous acetic acid-acetonitrile (97:3, v/v) and (B) acetonitrile-water (50:50, v/v), with UV detection at 250 nm. The method is applied to the analysis of samples from different botanical origin. PMID:11403496

  13. Rapid gas-liquid chromatographic method for determination of sulfathiazole in swine feed.

    PubMed

    Munns, R K; Roybal, J E

    1983-03-01

    A gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) method for determining residues of sulfathiazole (STZ) in swine feed has been developed. Feed is extracted first with acetone and then with ammonia-acetone. STZ is isolated from other feed extractives on a Sephadex LH-20 column with methanol-toluene. The sulfa residues are methylated with diazomethane, and the eluate is evaporated to dryness. A solution containing an internal standard of methyl sulfasymazine is used to dilute the sample before injection onto an OV-25 GLC column. The precision of the method was determined by assaying 10 sets of feed spiked at 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 ppm STZ. The mean recoveries and coefficients of variation were 90.2 (5.90), 89.5 (4.67), 87.4 (5.62), and 87.7% (4.29), respectively. The critical steps of the method, including the stability of STZ, were also determined. PMID:6853414

  14. Rapid gas-liquid chromatographic method for determination of sulfamethazine in swine feed.

    PubMed

    Munns, R K; Roybal, J E

    1982-09-01

    A gas-liquid chromatographic method is described for the quantitative determination of trace amounts of sulfamethazine in swine feed. Sulfamethazine is extracted in ammoniated acetone and isolated from other extractants on a Sephadex LH-20 column. The eluate is methylated with diazomethane and evaporated to dryness. The residue is dissolved in a solvent containing an internal standard of methyl sulfasymazine before being injected onto an OV-25 GLC column. An estimation of precision was established by assaying 10 sets of swine feed fortified with 0.5, 1,2, and 5 ppm SMZ. Mean recoveries were 96.0, 94.3, 93.5, and 94.0%, respectively, with an average coefficient of variation of 3.07%. The critical steps and ruggedness of the method were also determined. PMID:7130074

  15. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of naltrexone in plasma of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kambia, K; Bah, S; Dine, T; Azar, R; Odou, P; Gressier, B; Luyckx, M; Brunet, C; Ballester, L; Cazin, M; Cazin, J C

    2000-05-01

    A simple, sensitive, selective and reliable reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with UV detection is described for the determination of naltrexone in plasma samples. Naltrexone and the internal standard, naloxone, were isolated from plasma either with a liquid-liquid extraction method using ethyl acetate or with a solid-phase extraction method using Sep-Pack C18 cartridge before chromatography. The extracts were dried under a stream of nitrogen and the samples were reconstituted in the mobile phase, then 20 microL were injected on a Waters Symmetry C18 column (5 microm particle size, 4.6 x 150 mm). The mobile phase consisted of 0.06% triethylamine (pH 2.8)-acetonitrile (92:8, v/v) pumped at 1 mL/min. The peak-area ratio versus plasma concentration was linear over the range of 10-500 ng/mL and the detection limit was less than 8 ng/mL. Quantification was by ultra-violet detection at 204 nm. The present method was applied to the determination of the plasma concentration of naltrexone in dialyzed patients. Patients (n = 8) with severe generalized pruritus received 50 mg of naltrexone orally per day for 2 weeks. The variability in the therapeutic response in treated patients required plasma concentration investigations of this opioid antagonist. PMID:10850617

  16. Simultaneous liquid-chromatographic determination of vitamin K1 and vitamin E in serum.

    PubMed

    Cham, B E; Roeser, H P; Kamst, T W

    1989-12-01

    We describe a high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous measurement of vitamins K1 and E in human serum. Delipidated human serum (free of vitamins K1 and E) was used to make standard solutions of these vitamins, and cetyl naphthoate and alpha-tocopheryl acetate were the internal standards for vitamin K1 and vitamin E, respectively. A simple, novel separation method utilizing liquid-liquid partition chromatography was used as a preparative "clean-up" procedure. Cetyl naphthoate and vitamin K1 (after post-column reduction) were detected by fluorescence, alpha-tocopheryl acetate and vitamin E by ultraviolet absorption. Sensitivity (detection limit) of the assay was 30 pg for vitamin K1 and 5 ng for vitamin E per injection. The method is specific, precise, and more rapid than previously described procedures. Within- and between-assay CVs were 8.1% and 12.9%, respectively, for vitamin K1; 3.5% and 6.0%, respectively, for vitamin E. Analytical recoveries of vitamins K1 and E were 80% and 93%, respectively, from serum and from delipidated serum (standards). The average neonatal serum concentration of vitamin K1 was 83 ng/L, 2.5 mg/L for vitamin E; for normolipidemic adults, the values were 343 ng/L and 7.9 mg/L, respectively, and for hyperlipidemic adults, 541 ng/L and 11.1 mg/L, respectively. PMID:2591045

  17. INTERFACE OF A REVERSE-PHASE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH WITH A DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    An approach to the interface of a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatograph and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer has been developed in which the solutes eluting from the column are continuously extracted into dichloromethane. The application of both flow cell a...

  18. Liquid chromatographic method for determination of water in soils and the optimization of anion separations by capillary zone electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, N.

    1994-10-01

    A liquid chromatographic method for the determination of water in soil or clay samples is presented. In a separate study, the optimization of electrophoretic separation of alkylated phenolate ions was optimized by varying the pH and acetonitrile concentration of the buffer solutions.

  19. Development and validation of a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic method for determination of aromatic amines in environmental water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, precise, and accurate hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic (HILIC) method has been developed for the determination of 5 aromatic amines in environmental water samples. Chromatography was carried out on a bare silica column, using a mixture of acetonitrile: phosphate buffer (10 mM...

  20. 34 GHz EPR FTIR spectra of chromatographically separated Boscan asphaltene fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, V.M. ); Buckmaster, H.A. )

    1989-03-01

    The authors report on their re-examination of the 34 GHz and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements on three fractions of Boxcan asphaltene separated by the gel permeation chromatography (GPC) technique. The authors attempted to determine various types of vanadium coordination in GPC fractions by their partial combustion and subsequent EPR AND FTIR measurements.

  1. Application of Analytical Quality by Design concept for bilastine and its degradation impurities determination by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic method.

    PubMed

    Terzić, Jelena; Popović, Igor; Stajić, Ana; Tumpa, Anja; Jančić-Stojanović, Biljana

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the development of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic (HILIC) method for the analysis of bilastine and its degradation impurities following Analytical Quality by Design approach. It is the first time that the method for bilastine and its impurities is proposed. The main objective was to identify the conditions where an adequate separation in minimal analysis duration could be achieved within a robust region. Critical process parameters which have the most influence on method performance were defined as acetonitrile content in the mobile phase, pH of the aqueous phase and ammonium acetate concentration in the aqueous phase. Box-Behnken design was applied for establishing a relationship between critical process parameters and critical quality attributes. The defined mathematical models and Monte Carlo simulations were used to identify the design space. Fractional factorial design was applied for experimental robustness testing and the method is validated to verify the adequacy of selected optimal conditions: the analytical column Luna(®) HILIC (100mm×4.6mm, 5μm particle size); mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-aqueous phase (50mM ammonium acetate, pH adjusted to 5.3 with glacial acetic acid) (90.5:9.5, v/v); column temperature 30°C, mobile phase flow rate 1mLmin(-1), wavelength of detection 275nm. PMID:27131148

  2. Rayleigh light scattering detection of three α1-adrenoceptor antagonists coupled with high performance liquid chromatograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ai Ping; Peng, Huanjun; Peng, Jing Dong; Zhou, Ming Qiong; Zhang, Jing

    2015-08-01

    Herein, a Rayleigh light-scattering (RLS) detection method combined with high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) without any post-column probe was developed for the separation and determination of three α1-adrenoceptor antagonists. The quantitative analysis is benefiting from RLS signal enhancement upon addition of methanol which induced molecular aggregation to form an hydrophobic interface between aggregates and water that produce a sort of superficial enhanced scattering effect. A good chromatographic separation among the compounds was achieved using a Gemini 5u C18 reversed phase column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 4 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of methanol and ammonium acetate-formic acid buffer solution (25 mM; pH = 3.0) at the flow rate of 0.7 mL min-1. The RLS signal was monitored at λex = λem = 354 nm. A limit of detection (LOD) of 0.065-0.70 μg L-1 was reached and a linear range was found between peak height and concentration in the range of 0.75-15 μg L-1 for doxazosin mesylate (DOX), 0.075-3.0 μg L-1 for prazosin hydrochloride (PRH), and 0.25-5 μg L-1 for terazosin hydrochloride (TEH), with linear regression coefficients all above 0.999. Recoveries from spiked urine samples were 88.4-99.0% which is within acceptable limits. The proposed method is convenient, reliable and sensitive which has been used successfully in human urine samples.

  3. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatographic analysis of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) phenolics.

    PubMed

    Beelders, Theresa; Kalili, Kathithileni M; Joubert, Elizabeth; de Beer, Dalene; de Villiers, André

    2012-07-01

    Rooibos tea is an unique beverage prepared from unfermented and fermented plant material of the endemic Cape fynbos plant, Aspalathus linearis. The well-known health-promoting benefits of rooibos are partly attributed to its phenolic composition. Detailed investigation of the minor phenolic constituents of rooibos is, however, hampered by the limitations associated with conventional HPLC methods used for its analysis. In this study, the applicability of comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatographic methods for the in-depth analysis of rooibos phenolics was investigated. Phenolic compounds were separated according to polarity by hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) in the first dimension, whilst reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) provided separation according to hydrophobicity in the second dimension. Ultraviolet photodiode array and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry were used to identify phenolic compounds. Comprehensive HILIC × RP-LC demonstrated its applicability for the analysis of a diverse range of phenolic compounds in unfermented and fermented rooibos samples, in which large qualitative differences in the phenolic composition were established. The combination of these orthogonal separations provided a significant improvement in resolution, as exemplified by practical peak capacities in excess of 2000 and 500 for off-line and on-line methods, respectively. PMID:22807363

  4. A high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of major phenolic compounds in tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Risner, C.H.; Cash, S.L. )

    1990-05-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is developed that simultaneously quantifies the dihydroxy compounds hydroquinone, resorcinol, and catechol and the monohydroxy compounds phenol, m + p-cresol and o-cresol in cigarette smoke. Particulate matter samples collected on Cambridge pads and in impingers by conventional trapping techniques are simply (no derivatization required) subjected to reversed-phase gradient liquid chromatography. Samples of both mainstream and sidestream smoke can be analyzed. Selective fluorescence detection is used to monitor the mobile phase effluent, by which these phenolic compounds are detected in the nanogram range. The detector response is linear, overall precision is good, and recoveries are greater than 95 percent. The total run time, excluding extraction, is one hour. The procedure has been applied to tobacco products whose smoke contains varying amounts of these phenols. Kentucky Reference Cigarette 1R4F was found to contain substantially more of these compounds than a new cigarette that heats but does not burn tobacco (New Cigarette). The method is compared with other procedures used to determine phenolics in cigarette smoke.

  5. High-performance liquid chromatographic assays for protoporphyrinogen oxidase and ferrochelatase in human leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Guo, R; Lim, C K; Peters, T J

    1991-05-31

    Rapid, sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatographic assays are described for protoporphyrinogen oxidase and ferrochelatase in human leucocytes. The enzyme reaction products were separated and quantitated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The optimal pH for the protoporphyrinogen oxidase assay was 8.6 and the Michaelis constant for protoporphyrinogen IX was 9.78 +/- 0.96 microM (mean +/- S.D.). The mean (+/- S.D.) activity of protoporphyrinogen oxidase in fourteen apparently healthy subjects was 0.146 +/- 0.023 nmol protoporphyrin IX per min per mg protein. In one patient with variegate porphyria, the activity was 0.028 nmol protoporphyrin IX per min per mg protein. The optimal pH for ferrochelatase was 7.4 and with protoporphyrin and Zn2+ as substrates, the Michaelis constants were 1.49 and 8.33 microM, respectively. The mean activity of ferrochelatase in ten control subjects was 0.24 nM Zn-protoporphyrin or 2.05 nM Zn-mesoporphyrin formed per h per mg protein. PMID:1939451

  6. [Development of an automatic vacuum liquid chromatographic device and its application in the separation of the components from Schisandra chinensis (Turz) Baill].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingbo; Liu, Baoyue; Shan, Shibo; Ding, Yanl; Kou, Zinong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    In order to meet the needs of efficient purification of products from natural resources, this paper developed an automatic vacuum liquid chromatographic device (AUTO-VLC) and applied it to the component separation of petroleum ether extracts of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Baill. The device was comprised of a solvent system, a 10-position distribution valve, a 3-position changes valve, dynamic axis compress chromatographic columns with three diameters, and a 10-position fraction valve. The programmable logic controller (PLC) S7- 200 was adopted to realize the automatic control and monitoring of the mobile phase changing, column selection, separation time setting and fraction collection. The separation results showed that six fractions (S1-S6) of different chemical components from 100 g Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Baill. petroleum ether phase were obtained by the AUTO-VLC with 150 mm diameter dynamic axis compress chromatographic column. A new method used for the VLC separation parameters screened by using multiple development TLC was developed and confirmed. The initial mobile phase of AUTO-VLC was selected by taking Rf of all the target compounds ranging from 0 to 0.45 for fist development on the TLC; gradient elution ratio was selected according to k value (the slope of the linear function of Rf value and development times on the TLC) and the resolution of target compounds; elution times (n) were calculated by the formula n ≈ ΔRf/k. A total of four compounds with the purity more than 85% and 13 other components were separated from S5 under the selected conditions for only 17 h. Therefore, the development of the automatic VLC and its method are significant to the automatic and systematic separation of traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:26749864

  7. Gas chromatograph-based system for measuring the methane fraction of diesel-engine hydrocarbon emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.S.; Geyer, S.M.; Lestz, S.S.; Black, F.M.

    1987-03-01

    An instrument has been developed (termed the methane analytical system) enabling diesel methane emissions to be quatified separately from total unburned hydrocarbon emissions. The instrument employed gas-chromatographic principles whereby a molecular-sieve column operating isothermally separated methane from the nonmethane hydrocarbons. Direct on-line sampling occurred via constant-volume sample loops. The effluent was monitored with a flame ionization detector. The instrument was fully calibrated (i.e., extremely linear response over a large concentration range) for use with diesel engines as part of an on-going alternative-fuels research program. Methane emissions from a light-duty, multi-cylinder, indirect-injected diesel engine fumigated with natural gas were measured on-line using the methane analytical system. Methane emissions were found to range from as low as 250 ppm to a high of nearly 2%. The nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions were determined by subtracting the methane level from the total unburned hydrocarbon level. In the event that the federal engine certification procedures are changed to be based on nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions, a methane analytical system such as the one described here would have great utility.

  8. Anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction of dairy manure

    SciTech Connect

    Haugen, V.; Dahlberg, S.; Lindley, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    The authors tested several solid liquid separation systems suitable for processing dairy manure prior to anaerobic digestion. None of the systems tried have completely satisfied the requirements. Evaluated effects of separation on biogas production. Unseparated dairy manure produced more biogas than the liquid fraction.

  9. Systematic Robustness Testing of a Liquid Chromatographic Method: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Mannemala, Sai Sandeep; Kannappan, Valliappan

    2015-01-01

    Robustness testing of a method plays a crucial role in establishing its reliability. It examines the potential sources of variability in one or more responses of the proposed method. In this study, the robustness testing of a method proposed for simultaneous determination of warfarin and its two process related impurities was evaluated by using two level, fractional factorial design. Factors that are sensitive to a variation during method transfer were selected as independent variables [aqueous content (range: 39-43%, v/v), concentration of acetic acid (range: 0.08-0.12%, v/v), flow rate (range: 0.93-1.33 mL/min), and wavelength (range: 218-222 nm)]. Variables that determine the quality of separation, viz., retention factor of the first peak, resolution between the critical peak pair, tailing factor of warfarin, and total analysis time were selected as responses. Robustness was assessed by graphical (half normal probability and Pareto plots) and statistical (analysis of variance) methods. It was found that, among the studied variables, aqueous content had a significant effect on capacity factor and analysis time. Furthermore, non-significant intervals for significant factors were established by contour profiling. This study demonstrated the significance of experimental design and other statistical tools in understanding the effects of investigating factors of the chromatographic system and in defining their limits. PMID:26651591

  10. Liquid chromatographic determination of para-substituted N,N-dialkylaniline N-oxides.

    PubMed

    Seto, Y; Guengerich, F P

    1993-09-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of p-substituted N,N-dialkylaniline N-oxides [N,N-dimethylaniline N-oxide (DMANO), N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine N-oxide, N,N-diethylaniline N-oxide, N-ethyl-N-methylaniline N-oxide (EMANO), p-cyano-N,N-dimethylaniline N-oxide (pCNDMANO), and N-phenylpyrrolidine N-oxide (PPNO)] has been developed. It uses an octadecylsilica column, a mobile phase of methanol-phosphate buffer (pH 7.0, adjusted by triethylamine) and ultraviolet detection. N-Oxides were eluted in the order of hydrophilicity except for PPNO, which eluted between DMANO and EMANO. The number of theoretical plates and the detection limit under optimized conditions were between 2400 (DMANO) and 5400 (pCNDMANO) and between 2.3 microM (pCNDMANO) and 30 microM (PPNO), respectively. The concentration of N-oxides recovered from enzyme reaction mixtures by solid-phase extraction using Sep-Pak C18 (prior to chromatography) was also optimized with regard to the sensitivity and interference. PMID:8245165

  11. Liquid chromatographic determination of folate monoglutamates in fish, meat, egg, and dairy products consumed in Finland.

    PubMed

    Vahteristo, L T; Ollilainen, V; Varo, P

    1997-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method with fluorescence and UV detection was used to determine the folate contents of fish, meat, fish and meat products, chicken, eggs, and milk consumed in Finland. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, tetrahydrofolate, 5-formyltetrahydrofolate, 10-formylfolic acid, and folic acid from 24 commodities obtained from supermarkets, retail stores, and different outlets in the Helsinki area were analyzed. Pooled samples were extracted at pH 6.0 in the presence of antioxidants and deconjugated with hog kidney deconjugase. Very low levels of folates were detected in meat and meat products. Fresh fish, fish sticks, and chicken meat contained reasonable amounts (3-13 micrograms/100 g) of tetrahydrofolate and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. Egg yolk contained high concentrations of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (140-150 micrograms/100 g); 10-formylfolic acid was also detected (14-17 micrograms/100 g). Between-species differences in folate monoglutamate distributions were observed. The highest levels of tetrahydrofolate, > 5 micrograms/100 g, were found in chicken meat and fillets of rainbow trout, whitefish, and baltic herring. Tetrahydrofolate was most abundant in fresh fish. LC was well suited for analyzing folate compositions of meat, fish, and other foods of animal origin. Recovery of added folates ranged from 49 to 96%. PMID:9086593

  12. Group-type hydrocarbon standards for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of middistillate fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterson, D. A.; Seng, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    A new high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for group-type analysis of middistillate fuels is described. It uses a refractive index detector and standards that are prepared by reacting a portion of the fuel sample with sulfuric acid. A complete analysis of a middistillate fuel for saturates and aromatics (including the preparation of the standard) requires about 15 min if standards for several fuels are prepared simultaneously. From model fuel studies, the method was found to be accurate to within 0.4 vol% saturates or aromatics, and provides a precision of + or - 0.4 vol%. Olefin determinations require an additional 15 min of analysis time. However, this determination is needed only for those fuels displaying a significant olefin response at 200 nm (obtained routinely during the saturated/aromatics analysis procedure). The olefin determination uses the responses of the olefins and the corresponding saturates, as well as the average value of their refractive index sensitivity ratios (1.1). Studied indicated that, although the relative error in the olefins result could reach 10 percent by using this average sensitivity ratio, it was 5 percent for the fuels used in this study. Olefin concentrations as low as 0.1 vol% have been determined using this method.

  13. Liquid chromatographic determination of safrole in sassafras-derived herbal products.

    PubMed

    Carlson, M; Thompson, R D

    1997-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for determining safrole in herbal products derived from sassafras (Sassafras albidum), as well as related compounds such as isosafrole and dihydrosafrole. The procedure involves solvent extraction and isolation of analyte by reversed-phase LC with UV detection at 235 nm. Safrole is resolved from related compounds and other sample constituents including thymol, a component of thyme. A linear concentration range of 0.003-0.200 mg/mL was obtained for safrole, isosafrole, and dihydrosafrole. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were e0.0015 and 0.0051 micrograms/mL for safrole, 0.0018 and 0.0061 micrograms/mL for isosafrole, and 0.0038 and 0.0125 micrograms/mL for dihydrosafrole, respectively. Intraday relative standard deviations (RSDs) for safrole (n = 5) from various samples ranged from 1.30 to 5.39% at analyte levels of 0.01-1.5%. Safrole contents of 26 samples including root bark powder, leaves, oils, tea concentrate, herbal extract tinctures, and herbal powder capsules ranged from < LOD for most leaf samples to 92.4% for an oil. Recoveries of safrole from fortified samples ranged from 83.6% for an oil to 117.2% for a tincture preparation. Safrole contents of 0.09-4.66 mg/cup were found for brewed teas prepared from sassafras root bark powders and tinctures. PMID:9325580

  14. Selective and sensitive liquid chromatographic determination method of 5-hydroxyindoles with fluorous and fluorogenic derivatization.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yohei; Ikenaga, Jun; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Hayama, Tadashi; Itoyama, Miki; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Imakyure, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Nohta, Hitoshi

    2015-10-10

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method with improved selectivity for the simultaneous determination of 5-hydroxyindoles (5-HIs; 5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid, and 5-hydroxytryptophol) is described. This method involves precolumn derivatization with 4-(3',3',4',4',5',5',6',6',7',7',8',8',9',9',10',10',10'-heptadecafluorodecyl)benzylamine (HFBA) and separation of the derivatives using a fluorous LC column. In this study, stable benzoxazole derivatives of 5-HIs with HFBA have been obtained by a simple derivatization procedure; their fluorescent properties enabled highly sensitive detection. In addition, only the HFBA derivatives of 5-HIs has been selectively retained on the fluorous LC column via fluorous interaction whereby perfluoroalkyl compounds show affinities with each other, while the non-fluorous compounds did not. The HFBA derivatives were separated within 30 min and the detection limits for 5-HIs in a 20-μL injection volume were 1.2-14 fmol (S/N=3). Furthermore, this method was applied to the analysis of 5-HIs in the human plasma from healthy subjects. PMID:26112924

  15. High-performance liquid chromatographic-fluorescence determination of traces of selenium in biological materials.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, W C; Kutnink, M A

    1996-10-15

    An improved method for the determination of selenium in biological materials has been developed. This work both extends and validates the procedure of Vézina and Bleau (J. Chromatog. 426, 385-391, 1988) which is based on high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of the fluorophore formed by reaction of Se(IV) with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene. The mass detection limit is 48 pg selenium (3 sigma) and the concentration detection limits are 48 parts per trillion in biological fluids and 120 to 480 parts per trillion in dried biological materials. The linear dynamic range of the method has been extended up to approximately 800 ng. Relative standard deviations of 9.4 to 2.7% were observed in repeated analyses of standards in the range of 0.5 to 500 ng. The proposed method was validated with respect to 23 biological reference materials spanning an 1800-fold range of selenium concentrations and was found to be free of significant constant or proportional biases despite greatly different matrix compositions. This method offers an unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, accuracy, linear dynamic range, and freedom from matrix interferences and may be considered a reference method for the reliable determination of selenium in biological materials. PMID:8921189

  16. Spectrophotometric and liquid chromatographic determination of trimebutine maleate in the presence of its degradation products.

    PubMed

    El-Gindy, Alaa; Emara, Samy; Hadad, Ghada M

    2003-09-19

    Three methods are presented for the determination of trimebutine maleate (TM) in the presence of its degradation products. The first method was based on a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation of TM from its degradation products using an ODS column at ambient temperature with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-5 mM heptane sulfonic acid disodium salt (45:55, v/v, pH 4) with UV detection at 215 nm. The second method depends on using first derivative spectrophotometry (1D) by measurement of the amplitude at 252.2 nm. The third method depends on using first derivative of the ratio spectrophotometry (1DD) by measurement of the amplitude at 282.4 nm where a normalized spectrum of 3,4,5-trimethoxy benzoic acid is used as divisor. The proposed HPLC and 1D methods were used to investigate the kinetics of acidic and alkaline degradation processes. The pH-rate profile of degradation of TM in Britton-Robinson buffer solutions within the pH range 2-11.9 was studied. PMID:12972088

  17. Liquid chromatographic method for determining the concentration of bisazir in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholefield, Ronald J.; Slaght, Karen S.; Allen, John L.

    1997-01-01

    Barrier dams, traps, and lampricides are the techniques currently used by the Great Lakes Fishery Commission to control sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes. To augment these control techniques, a sterile-male-release research program was initiated at the Lake Huron Biological Station. Male sea lampreys were sterilized by intraperitoneal injection of the chemical sterilant P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide (bisazir). An analytical method was needed to quantitate the concentration of bisazir in water and to routinely verify that bisazir (>25 μg/L) does not persist in the treated effluent discharged from the sterilization facility to Lake Huron. A rapid, accurate, and sensitive liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for determining bisazir in water. Bisazir was dissolved in Lake Huron water; extracted and concentrated on a C18 solid-phase extraction column; eluted with methanol; and quantitated by reversed-phase LC using a C18 column, a mobile phase of 70% water and 30% methanol (v/v), and UV detection (205 nm). Bisazir retention time was 7-8 min; total run time was about 20 min. Method detection limit for bisazir dissolved in Lake Huron water was about 15 μg/L. Recovery from Lake Huron water fortified with bisazir at 100 μg/L was 94% (95% confidence interval, 90.2-98.2%).

  18. Rapid liquid chromatographic determination of dimetridazole and ipronidazole in swine feed.

    PubMed

    Roybal, J E; Munns, R K; Hurlbut, J A; Shimoda, W; Morrison, T R; Vieira, C L

    1987-01-01

    A simple and rapid method is described for the determination of dimetridazole (DMZ) and ipronidazole (IPR) in swine feeds at various levels (0.11-110 ppm). The drugs are released from feed by prewetting with a buffer, followed by extraction with either methanol or methylene chloride, depending on the drug level; if necessary, an acid-base cleanup is used before the liquid chromatographic analysis. The analytes are separated on a C18 column and monitored at 320 nm for detection and quantitation. Recoveries of DMZ from several feed formulations averaged 108% at the 92.8 ppm level with a standard deviation (SD) of 4.00% and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 3.70%, 101% at the 11.2 ppm level with an SD of 11.9% and a CV of 11.8%, and 100% at the 0.112 ppm level with an SD of 9.27% and a CV of 9.25%. Recoveries of IPR averaged 77.1% at the 12.9 ppm level with an SD of 1.75% and a CV of 2.27%; IPR recoveries averaged 35.2% at the 0.129 ppm level with an SD of 3.39% and a CV of 9.63%. PMID:3624165

  19. The gas-liquid chromatograph and the electron capture detection in equine drug testing.

    PubMed Central

    Blake, J. W.; Tobin, T.

    1976-01-01

    Three gas-liquid chromatographic (G.L.C.) procedures discussed have been designed around the four "esses" of detection tests--speed, sensitivity, simplicity, and specificity. These techniques are admirably applicable to the very low plasma drug levels encountered in blood testing under pre-race conditions. The methods are equally applicable to post-race testing procedures, where both blood and urine samples are tested. Drugs can only rarely be detected by the electron capture detector (E.C.D.) without a prior derivatization step, which conveys to the drug(s) high electron affinity. Because of broad applicability, two derivatizing agents, heptafluorobutyric (HFBA) and pentafluorpropionic (PFPA) anhydrides are employed. The three techniques, allowing broad coverage of various drug classes are: 1) direct derivatization of drugs to form strongly electron capturing amides and esters. 2) reductive fragmentation of drugs with lithium aluminum hydride to form alcohols, with conversion to ester derivatives. 3) oxidative fragmentation of drugs with potassium dichromate to form derivatizable groups, followed by direct derivatization. PMID:1000157

  20. Method modification for liquid chromatographic determination of thiamine, riboflavin, and pyridoxine in medical foods.

    PubMed

    Chase, G W; Landen, W O; Soliman, A G; Eitenmiller, R R

    1993-01-01

    A reversed-phased ion pair liquid chromatographic method developed for the simultaneous determination of thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), and pyridoxine (B6) in perchloric acid extracts of infant formulas was modified to include medical foods. UV detection of B1 and B2 was replaced by fluorescence detection, which resulted in improved sensitivity and specificity. B1 was detected by fluorescence after conversion to thiochrome by a postcolumn reaction with sodium hydroxide and potassium ferricyanide. The method uses a mobile phase of water, acetonitrile, hexanesulfonic acid sodium salt, ammonium hydroxide, and phosphoric acid adjusted to pH 3.6. The column is a 300 x 3.9 mm Nova Pak C18. Limits of detection were 0.05 microgram/mL for B1 and B2 and 0.01 microgram/mL for B6 by fluorescence detection. The system reproducibility was evaluated by completing 10 repetitive determinations on a medical food that gave a coefficient of variation of 5.9, 6.0, and 10.7% for B1, B2, and B6, respectively. Mean recoveries (n = 10) were 111, 96.3, and 113% for B1, B2, and B6, respectively. The results compared favorably with those by AOAC Official Methods 942.23, 940.33, and 961.15 for B1, B2, and B6, respectively. PMID:8286968

  1. Liquid chromatographic determination of oxytetracycline in edible fish fillets from six species of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, J.R.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The approved use of oxytetracycline (OTC) in U.S. Aquaculture is limited to specific diseases in salmonids and channel catfish. OTC may also be effective in controlling diseases in other fish species important to public aquaculture, but before approved use of OTC can be augmented, an analytical method for determining OTC in fillet tissue from multiple species of fish will be required to support residue depletion studies. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a liquid chromatographic (LC) method that is accurate, precise, and sensitive for OTC in edible fillets from multiple species of fish. Homogenized fillet tissues from walleye, Atlantic salmon, striped bass, white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and channel catfish were fortified with OTC at nominal concentrations of 10, 20, 100, 1000, and 5000 ng/g. In tissues fortified with OTC at 100, 1000, and 5000 ng/g, mean recoveries ranged from 83 to 90%, and relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0.9 to 5.8%. In all other tissues, mean recoveries ranged from 59 to 98%, and RSDs ranged from 3.3 to 20%. Method quantitation limits ranged from 6 to 22 ng/g for the 6 species. The LC parameters produced easily integratable OTC peaks without coelution of endogenous compounds. The method is accurate, precise, and sensitive for OTC in fillet tissue from 6 species of fish from 5 phylogenetically diverse groups.

  2. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of triclosan and triclocarban in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Liu, T; Wu, D

    2012-10-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of triclosan and triclocarban in cosmetic products was developed. Triclosan and triclocarban quantities in 168 of cosmetics were investigated and statistical analyzed with this method. The optimal condition are as follows: An Agilent SB-C8 analytical column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5μm) was utilized, and mixed buffer solution of methanol and 0.01 mol L(-1) phosphate (pH 3.0) (72 : 28, V/V) were used for isocratic elution at a total flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) . It is found the calibration curves had a good linear regression with UV detection (280 nm) within test range of 0-110 μg mL(-1) with the correlation coefficients of 0.999 in all cases. This method is simple, selective, convenient, and reproducible for the determination of triclosan and triclocarban in commercial cosmetic products. PMID:22809056

  3. High-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of aztreonam in sera and urine.

    PubMed Central

    Pilkiewicz, F G; Remsburg, B J; Fisher, S M; Sykes, R B

    1983-01-01

    Aztreonam (SQ 26,776) is a new synthetic monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic which is specifically active against aerobic gram-negative bacteria. High-pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) systems were developed for the quantitative analysis of aztreonam in human, monkey, rat, mouse, and rabbit sera and urine. The HPLC conditions employed for these analyses were a muBondapak C18 column, a mobile phase made up of 0.005 M tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate at pH 3.0 and acetonitrile or methanol, UV detection at 293 nm, and a flow rate of 2.0 ml/min. For human sera and urine, the mobile phase was 80% 0.005 M tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate-0.005M (NH4)2SO4 and 20% acetonitrile (vol/vol). For the range of sera and urine, HPLC analyses were shown to have excellent detector linearity of aztreonam over a concentration range of 1.0 mg/ml to 0.5 microgram/ml. Correlation coefficients for plots of aztreonam peak area versus its concentration were greater than or equal to 0.990. The detection limit of aztreonam was 1.0 micrograms/ml in sera and 5.0 micrograms/ml in urine. HPLC and microbiological assays of aztreonam in human sera and urine were in good agreement. PMID:6684412

  4. Development and Validation of Liquid Chromatographic Method for Estimation of Naringin in Nanoformulation

    PubMed Central

    Musmade, Kranti P.; Trilok, M.; Dengale, Swapnil J.; Bhat, Krishnamurthy; Reddy, M. S.; Musmade, Prashant B.; Udupa, N.

    2014-01-01

    A simple, precise, accurate, rapid, and sensitive reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with UV detection has been developed and validated for quantification of naringin (NAR) in novel pharmaceutical formulation. NAR is a polyphenolic flavonoid present in most of the citrus plants having variety of pharmacological activities. Method optimization was carried out by considering the various parameters such as effect of pH and column. The analyte was separated by employing a C18 (250.0 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column at ambient temperature in isocratic conditions using phosphate buffer pH 3.5: acetonitrile (75 : 25% v/v) as mobile phase pumped at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. UV detection was carried out at 282 nm. The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines Q2(R1). The method was found to be precise and accurate on statistical evaluation with a linearity range of 0.1 to 20.0 μg/mL for NAR. The intra- and interday precision studies showed good reproducibility with coefficients of variation (CV) less than 1.0%. The mean recovery of NAR was found to be 99.33 ± 0.16%. The proposed method was found to be highly accurate, sensitive, and robust. The proposed liquid chromatographic method was successfully employed for the routine analysis of said compound in developed novel nanopharmaceuticals. The presence of excipients did not show any interference on the determination of NAR, indicating method specificity. PMID:26556205

  5. Chromatogram Handler: A unique computer program that efficiently processes data generated in liquid chromatographic investigations of organic ligand adsorption on mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreller, David I.; Young, Stephen P.; Mendez, Eladio A.; McGunigale, Samantha L.

    2012-09-01

    We describe a unique C# computer program developed in our laboratory to efficiently manipulate data generated when a novel liquid chromatographic (LC) 'pulsed addition' technique is used to study organic ligand interactions with mineral surfaces. We are not aware of the existence of a program of this nature elsewhere. Geochemically-relevant ligands studied include dissolved organic matter (DOM) mixtures and single component low molecular weight organic acids. Although our LC system has three optical (absorbance and fluorescence) detection channels, the utility can process data from experiments in which data was collected in one, two or three detection channels. If not automated, data management and processing for the technique is prohibitively complex and time-consuming, due large data volumes and the number of operations involved. The input for the utility in a processing run is the set of detector output files generated during an LC experiment. During processing, the utility generates an MS Excel output file within which, for each detection channel: (i) chromatographic peak areas and peak retention times are determined, (ii) area-normalized per-injection and cumulative adsorption densities are calculated, and (iii) graphical representations of various quantities calculated from the raw data are automatically generated. When processing data from experiments with multiple detection channels, the utility additionally prepares graphs that compare recovery values calculated from data in different detection channels, and calculates (and plots) spectroscopic/chromatographic indices which are ratios of signals in various detection channels. The utility was programmed to perform these additional operations on data from multi-channel experiments because (i) 'Interchannel' comparisons of recovery provide insight into the differing surface behavior of distinct DOM sub-fractions, and (ii) the spectroscopic indices provide a useful new form of data that provides insight into

  6. Performance characteristics of bioassay, radioenzymatic assay, homogeneous enzyme immunoassay, and high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of serum gentamicin

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, C.J.; Opheim, K.E.; Smith, A.L.; Plorde, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    We compared the accuracy, precision, and between-method error of the microbiological assay, the radioenzymatic assay, the homogeneous enzyme immunoassay, and the high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the quantitation of gentamicin in serum. Precision and accuracy were evaluated by reference samples prepared to contain 0.0 to 32.7 micrograms of gentamicin per ml. Correlations between the methods utilized patient sera with gentamicin concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 13.3 micrograms/ml. All methods were reliable within acceptable limits for routine clinical use; intermethod correlation coefficients exceeded 0.96. Relative to the microbiological assay, the alternative methods offer the advantage of rapid analysis. The elapsed times for acquiring data on a set of 10 specimens under routine operating conditions were 0.5 h by the enzyme immunoassay, 4 h by the radioenzymatic assay, 5 h by the high-performance liquid chromatographic assay, and 10 h by the microbiological assay.

  7. Performance characteristics of bioassay, radioenzymatic assay, homogeneous enzyme immunoassay, and high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of serum gentamicin.

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, C J; Opheim, K E; Smith, A L; Plorde, J J

    1982-01-01

    We compared the accuracy, precision, and between-method error of the microbiological assay, the radioenzymatic assay, the homogeneous enzyme immunoassay, and the high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the quantitation of gentamicin in serum. Precision and accuracy were evaluated by reference samples prepared to contain 0.0 to 32.7 micrograms of gentamicin per ml. Correlations between the methods utilized patient sera with gentamicin concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 13.3 micrograms/ml. All methods were reliable within acceptable limits for routine clinical use; intermethod correlation coefficients exceeded 0.96. Relative to the microbiological assay, the alternative methods offer the advantage of rapid analysis. The elapsed times for acquiring data on a set of 10 specimens under routine operating conditions were 0.5 h by the enzyme immunoassay, 4 h by the radioenzymatic assay, 5 h by the high-performance liquid chromatographic assay, and 10 h by the microbiological assay. PMID:7044297

  8. Liquid chromatographic determination of methylxanthines and catechins in herbal preparations containing guaraná.

    PubMed

    Carlson, M; Thompson, R D

    1998-01-01

    Herbal preparations derived from the dried seeds of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) have become a popular nutritional supplement used for stimulatory purposes. Once considered a drug substance in the United States, guaraná currently is classified as a food additive and dietary supplement. The pharmacological activity of guaraná-containing products is primarily due to methylxanthine alkaloids. For guaraná preparations, methylxanthine levels and, more significantly, the presence of several polyphenol compounds (i.e., catechins) provide phytochemical markers of authenticity. Methylxanthines and polyphenols are extracted from sample matrix with a heated phosphate buffer-methanol solution, the cooled extract is filtered, and the extract is injected into the liquid chromatographic (LC) system. A Nova-Pak C18 column eluted with phosphate buffer-methanol mobile phase (pH = 3.50) and monitored at 272 nm gave satisfactory resolution for the methylxanthines theobromine, theophylline, caffeine and the polyphenols (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. Twenty-four products including dried seeds, dried paste, seed powders, tablets, and capsule formulations were assayed and conclusions were drawn about their authenticity. The LC system responded linearly to methylxanthines over the 100-fold range in concentration from 0.043 to 4.30 micrograms/mL for theobromine and caffeine and from 0.041 to 4.10 micrograms/mL for theophylline. Precision data for the 3 methylxanthines obtained from 10 different products (n = 5) gave relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 1.18-15.52% within a concentration range of 0.01-52.28 mg/g. Recoveries of methylxanthines from fortified products varied from 87.5 to 120.0%. The response for catechins was linear over a 200-fold range in concentration of 0.05-10.0 micrograms/mL. Precision data from 5 products (n = 5) gave RSD values of 1.08-5.54% within a concentration range of 0.34-32.65 mg/g. Recoveries from these products ranged from 87.7 to 109.7%. Results

  9. High performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of cinepazide maleate and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinyi; Song, Ying; Wang, Hujun; Sun, Yuan; Liu, Meiyou; Lu, Chengtao; Li, Yan; Wang, Shan; Zhu, Xiaohe; Hai, Wenli; Wen, Aidong; Jia, Yanyan

    2014-04-15

    A simple and reliable high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed and validated to quantify cinepazide maleate, a calcium blocker, in rat plasma. Cinepazide maleate and Tinidazole (internal standard) have been extracted by a simple liquid-liquid extraction before injection into chromatographic system. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed phase C18 column with a mobile phase consisted of a water mixture of 10mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH=4.5):methanol (40:60, v/v), pumped at flow rate of 1.0mL/min, and detected at 303nm. The method exhibited a linear range of 0.12-120μg/mL in blank rat plasma, with the lower detection limit of 0.06μg/mL. The method was statistically validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity and stability following FDA guidelines. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation did not exceed ±15% from the nominal concentration. The accuracy of cinepazide maleate was within ±15% of the theoretical value. The assay has been applied successfully in a pharmacokinetic study of cinepazide maleate after a single intravenous at three doses in rat. And cinepazide maleate injection can improve the bioavailability of cinepazide maleate greatly, and has a dose-dependence profile in rats. PMID:24674989

  10. LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF THE ENANTIOMERS OF TRANS-CHLORDANE, CIS-CHLORDANE, HEPTACHLOR, HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE AND ALPHA-HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE WITH APPLICATION TO SMALL-SCALE PREPARATIVE SEPARATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical high-performance liquid chromatographic separations of the individual enantiomers of five polychlorinated compounds were obtained on polysaccharide stereoselective HPLC columns. The enantiomers of the pesticides trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane and heptachlor were separa...

  11. Solvated liquid-lignin fractions from a Kraft black liquor.

    PubMed

    Velez, Julian; Thies, Mark C

    2013-11-01

    A softwood Kraft black liquor was acidified with carbon dioxide at 115°C and 6.2 bar over a pH range of 13.6-9.5, resulting in the precipitation of liquefied-lignin fractions as a separate phase. Seven such "liquid-lignin" fractions were produced, with each fraction being phase-separated within a narrow pH band of 0.5 units. The fractions were found to be highly hydrated phases, containing 32.3-48.2 wt.% water; as a result, their measured melting points were quite low, 90.7-110.5°C. In contrast, no melting point was detected up to 375°C for any of the lignin fractions after drying. Significant reductions in metals content were observed for the lignin fractions compared to the original black-liquor feed. PMID:24054066

  12. Computer assisted optimization of liquid chromatographic separations of small molecules using mixed-mode stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Ordoñez, Edgar Y; Benito Quintana, José; Rodil, Rosario; Cela, Rafael

    2012-05-18

    Mixed-mode stationary phases are gaining adepts in liquid chromatography (LC) as more and more applications are published and new commercial columns appear in the market ought to their ability to retain and separate analytes with multiple functionalities. The increased number of adjustable variables gives these columns an enhanced value for the chromatographer, but, on the other hand, it complicates the process of developing satisfactory separations when complex samples must be analyzed. Thus, the availability of computer assisted methods development (CAMD) tools is highly desirable in this field. Therefore, the first specific tool for the CAMD of LC separations in mixed-mode columns is presented. The tool consists in two processes. The first one develops a retention model for peaks in a predefined experimental domain of pH and buffer concentration. In this domain, the retention as a function of the proportion of organic modifier is modeled using a two-stage re-calibration process departing from isocratic retention data and then, from gradient elutions. With this two-stage approach, reliability is gained. In the second process, the model is finally interpolated and used for the unattended optimization of the different possible elution modes available in these columns. This optimization process is driven by an evolutionary algorithm. The development and application of this new chemometrics tool is demonstrated by the optimization of a mixture of neutral and ionizable compounds. Hence, several different types of gradients were generated, showing a good agreement between simulated and experimental data, with retention time errors lower than 5% in most cases. On the other hand, classical CAMD tools, such as design of experiments, were unable to efficiently deal with mixed-mode optimizations, rendering errors above 30% for several compounds. PMID:22494641

  13. Retention projection enables accurate calculation of liquid chromatographic retention times across labs and methods.

    PubMed

    Abate-Pella, Daniel; Freund, Dana M; Ma, Yan; Simón-Manso, Yamil; Hollender, Juliane; Broeckling, Corey D; Huhman, David V; Krokhin, Oleg V; Stoll, Dwight R; Hegeman, Adrian D; Kind, Tobias; Fiehn, Oliver; Schymanski, Emma L; Prenni, Jessica E; Sumner, Lloyd W; Boswell, Paul G

    2015-09-18

    Identification of small molecules by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be greatly improved if the chromatographic retention information is used along with mass spectral information to narrow down the lists of candidates. Linear retention indexing remains the standard for sharing retention data across labs, but it is unreliable because it cannot properly account for differences in the experimental conditions used by various labs, even when the differences are relatively small and unintentional. On the other hand, an approach called "retention projection" properly accounts for many intentional differences in experimental conditions, and when combined with a "back-calculation" methodology described recently, it also accounts for unintentional differences. In this study, the accuracy of this methodology is compared with linear retention indexing across eight different labs. When each lab ran a test mixture under a range of multi-segment gradients and flow rates they selected independently, retention projections averaged 22-fold more accurate for uncharged compounds because they properly accounted for these intentional differences, which were more pronounced in steep gradients. When each lab ran the test mixture under nominally the same conditions, which is the ideal situation to reproduce linear retention indices, retention projections still averaged 2-fold more accurate because they properly accounted for many unintentional differences between the LC systems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most successful study to date aiming to calculate (or even just to reproduce) LC gradient retention across labs, and it is the only study in which retention was reliably calculated under various multi-segment gradients and flow rates chosen independently by labs. PMID:26292625

  14. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma using sensitive fluorometric derivatization.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mei-Fen; Zhou, Wei; Tong, Xin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Le; Cai, Yi; Li, Yan; Duan, Geng-Li

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we investigated a simple, sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method for the determination of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma which was based on derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl). For the first time, FMOC-Cl was introduced into derivatization of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma. The amino groups of memantine hydrochloride and amantadine hydrochloride (internal standard) were trapped with FMOC-Cl to form memantine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl and amantadine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl compositions, which can be very compatible for LC-FLD. Precipitation of plasma proteins by acetonitrile was followed by vortex mixing and centrifugation. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C(18) column (DIAMONSIL 150 × 4.6 mm, id 5 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The retention times of memantine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl and amantadine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl compositions were 23.69 and 40.27 min, respectively. Optimal conditions for the derivatization of memantine hydrochloride were also described. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 25 ng/mL for memantine hydrochloride in plasma, the linear range was 0.025-5.0 μg/mL in plasma with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra-day and inter-day assays were 4.46-12.19 and 5.23-11.50%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to the determination of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma samples. PMID:21268245

  15. Pharmacokinetics of mitomycin C in dogs: application of a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay.

    PubMed

    Barbhaiya, R H; Papp, E A; Van Harken, D R; Smyth, R D

    1984-09-01

    A normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay was developed for the determination of mitomycin C in plasma and urine. The method involves extraction of mitomycin C from plasma or urine into ethyl acetate-2-propanol-chloroform (70:15:15) with UV detection at 365 nm. Quantitation was performed with an internal standard (porfiromycin) by the peak height ratio method. Excellent correlation was obtained between the HPLC assay and the established microbiological cup-plate bioassay. The pharmacokinetics of mitomycin C were investigated in beagle dogs following a 1-mg/kg iv (22-mg/m2) bolus dose. The plasma mitomycin C concentration versus time data were analyzed by using an open three-compartment model. The average volume of distribution was 1.90 L or 17% of body weight for the central compartment and 7.7 L or 68% of body weight for the terminal elimination phase. The volumes of distribution at steady state, calculated by model-dependent and -independent methods, compared very well with each other and were 6.5 L or 58% of body weight. Total body clearance averaged 112 mL/min, and the mean terminal plasma half-life was 53 min. The 0-24-h urinary excretion of intact mitomycin C accounted for 19% of the dose. The terminal half-life and percent urinary recovery of mitomycin C in dogs is similar to that in humans. Based on these observations, the dog appears to be a good model for studying the disposition of mitomycin C. PMID:6436466

  16. Determination of formate in natural waters by a coupled enzymatic/high-performance liquid chromatographic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kieber, D.J.; Vaughan, G.M.; Mopper, K.

    1988-09-01

    An enzymatic method was developed to quantify formic acid in natural water samples at submicromolar concentrations. The method is based on the oxidation of formate by formate dehydrogenase with corresponding reduction of ..beta..-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (..beta..-NAD/sup +/) to reduced ..beta..-NAD/sup +/ (..beta..-NADH); ..beta..-NADH is quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. An important feature of this method is that the enzymatic reaction occurs directly in aqueous media, even sea water, and does not require sample pretreatment other than sample filtration. The reaction proceeds at room temperature at a slightly alkaline pH (7.5 - 8.5) and is specific for formate with a detection limit of 0.5 ..mu..M (S/N = 4) for a 200-..mu..L injection. The precision of the method was 4.6% relative standard deviation (n = 6) for a 0.6 ..mu..M standard addition of formate to Sargasso sea water. Average recoveries of 2 ..mu..M additions of formate to sea water, pore water, or rain were 103, 103, and 87%, respectively. Intercalibration with a Dionex ion chromatographic system showed an excellent agreement of 98%. Concentrations of formate present in natural samples ranged from 0.2 to 0.8 ..mu..M for Biscayne Bay sea water, 0.4 to 10.0 ..mu..M for Miami rain, and 0.9 to 8.4 ..mu..M for Biscayne Bay sediment pore water.

  17. Liquid chromatographic-electrochemical determination of ethylenethiourea in foods by revised official method.

    PubMed

    Krause, R T

    1989-01-01

    AOAC official method 29.119-29.125 was revised to determine ethylenethiourea (ETU) directly by a liquid chromatographic-electrochemical (LC-EC) determinative technique and to improve ETU recovery. ETU is extracted from food products with a methanol-aqueous sodium acetate solution. A portion of the concentrated filtrate is added to a column of diatomaceous earth, and ETU is eluted with 2% methanol in methylene chloride to separate it from food coextractives, which are retained on the column. The eluate is collected in a siliconized flask and evaporated, the residue is dissolved in water, and 20 microL of solution is injected onto an LC graphitized carbon column. ETU is eluted from the LC column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-aqueous 0.1M phosphoric acid-water (5 + 25 + 70), and the eluted ETU is detected by using an amperometric electrochemical detector equipped with a gold/mercury working electrode. Recovery data were obtained by fortifying 13 food products with ETU: baked potatoes; canned applesauce, mushrooms, creamed spinach, green beans, spinach, and tomatoes; cooked fresh cabbage and frozen collards; fresh celery and lettuce; grape jelly; and powdered sugar cake donuts. Raw celery was found to cause low ETU recoveries. Average percent recoveries of ETU from the other 12 food products were 92 with a standard deviation of 12 for the low (0.05 and 0.1 ppm) fortification levels and 90 with a standard deviation of 6 for the higher (0.5 and 1 ppm) fortification levels. The limits of quantitation were 0.01 and 0.02 ppm for food products with low and high sugar content, respectively. PMID:2592320

  18. Liquid chromatographic determination of para-toluenesulfonamide in edible fillet tissues from three species of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, J.R.; Schmidt, L.J.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Chloramine-T (N-sodium-N-chloro-p-toluene-sulfonamide) is a candidate therapeutic drug for treating bacterial gill disease, a predominant disease of a variety of fish species. Research has been initiated to obtain the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) approval for the use of chloramine-T on a variety of fish species. An attribute of a therapeutic aquaculture drug that must be characterized before the FDA approves its use is depletion of the drug's marker residue (the drug's parent compound or metabolite of highest concentration in an edible tissue). Para-Toluenesulfonamide (p-TSA) is the primary degradation product and marker residue for chloramine-T in rainbow trout. To conduct residue depletion studies for chloramine-T in fish, a robust analytical method sensitive and specific for p-TSA residues in edible fillet tissue from a variety of fish was required. Homogenized fillet tissues from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were fortified at nominal p-TSA concentrations of 17, 67, 200, 333, and 1000 ng/g. Samples were analyzed by isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) with absorbance detection at 226 nm. Mean recoveries of p-TSA ranged from 77 to 93.17%; relative standard deviations ranged from 1.5 to 14%; method quantitation limits ranged from 13 to 18 ng/g; and method detection limits ranged from 3.8 to 5.2 ng/g. The LC parameters produced p-TSA peaks without coelution of endogenous compounds and excluded chromatographic interference from at least 20 chemicals and drugs of potential use in aquaculture.

  19. QbD-oriented development and validation of a bioanalytical method for nevirapine with enhanced liquid-liquid extraction and chromatographic separation.

    PubMed

    Beg, Sarwar; Chaudhary, Vandna; Sharma, Gajanand; Garg, Babita; Panda, Sagar Suman; Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-06-01

    The present studies describe the systematic quality by design (QbD)-oriented development and validation of a simple, rapid, sensitive and cost-effective reversed-phase HPLC bioanalytical method for nevirapine in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column using isocratic 68:9:23% v/v elution of methanol, acetonitrile and water (pH 3, adjusted by orthophosphoric acid) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min using UV detection at 230 nm. A Box-Behnken design was applied for chromatographic method optimization taking mobile phase ratio, pH and flow rate as the critical method parameters (CMPs) from screening studies. Peak area, retention time, theoretical plates and peak tailing were measured as the critical analytical attributes (CAAs). Further, the bioanalytical liquid-liquid extraction process was optimized using an optimal design by selecting extraction time, centrifugation speed and temperature as the CMPs for percentage recovery of nevirapine as the CAA. The search for an optimum chromatographic solution was conducted through numerical desirability function. Validation studies performed as per the US Food and Drug Administration requirements revealed results within the acceptance limit. In a nutshell, the studies successfully demonstrate the utility of analytical QbD approach for the rational development of a bioanalytical method with enhanced chromatographic separation and recovery of nevirapine in rat plasma. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26352459

  20. Liquid chromatographic determination of hydralazine in human plasma with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde pre-column derivatization.

    PubMed

    Mañes, J; Mari, J; Garcia, R; Font, G

    1990-01-01

    A selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for determination of hydralazine and its metabolites in human plasma. The method involves pre-column derivatization with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde at pH 1.2. The reaction product and Methyl Red used as internal standard are extracted into dichloromethane and chromatographed in the reversed-phase mode on an ODS-2 column using acetonitrile-aqueous triethylamine phosphate buffer (80:20, v/v) at pH 3 as eluent. The plasma calibration curve of hydralazine is linear in the concentration range 10-500 ng ml-1. The detection limit is 1 ng ml-1 and the relative standard deviation is less than 2.4. In vivo pharmacokinetics of hydralazine in two volunteers after oral administration of 50 mg of the drug is studied using the proposed LC method. PMID:2100625

  1. Quantitative liquid chromatographic determination of cefatrizine in serum and urine by fluorescence detection after post-column derivatization.

    PubMed

    Crombez, E; Van der Weken, G; Van den Bossche, W; De Moerloose, P

    1979-09-21

    A fast, specific and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure for the determination of cefatrizine, an orally active cephalosporin, in serum and urine is proposed. The drug is determined by the internal standard method, using cephradine as the internal standard. The separation is carried out on a reversed-phase column, filled with octadecylsilane chemically bonded microparticles. The eluent is a mixture of acetonitrile with 0.025 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7). Quantitation is effected by fluorescence detection of the fluorophores formed after post-column derivatization with fluorescamine in a packed-bed reactor. The chromatographic conditions and the conditions for the post-column derivatization are discussed. The method has been applied to serum and urine samples, which were analysed after deproteinization with trichloroacetic acid and injection of the clear supernatant. The accuracy and reproducibility of the procedure were investigated by the determination of the cefatrizine content in spiked serum and urine samples. PMID:528641

  2. Storing of Extracts in Polypropylene Microcentrifuge Tubes Yields Contaminant Peak During Ultra-flow Liquid Chromatographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, Parthraj R.; Hegde, Harsha; Pai, Sandeep R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: This study was designed to understand the effect of storage in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials during ultra-flow liquid chromatographic (UFLC) analysis. Materials and Methods: One ml of methanol was placed in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes (PP material, Autoclavable) and glass vials (Borosilicate) separately for 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 20, 40, and 80 days intervals stored at −4°C. Results: Contaminant peak was detected in methanol stored in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes using UFLC analysis. The contaminant peak detected was prominent, sharp detectable at 9.176 ± 0.138 min on a Waters 250–4.6 mm, 4 μ, Nova-Pak C18 column with mobile phase consisting of methanol:water (70:30). Conclusion: It was evident from the study that long-term storage of biological samples prepared using methanol in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes produce contaminant peak. Further, this may mislead in future reporting an unnatural compound by researchers. SUMMARY Long-term storage of biological samples prepared using methanol in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes produce contaminant peakContamination peak with higher area under the curve (609993) was obtained in ultra-flow liquid chromatographic run for methanol stored in PP microcentrifuge tubesContamination peak was detected at retention time 9.113 min with a lambda max of 220.38 nm and 300 mAU intensity on the given chromatographic conditionsGlass vials serve better option over PP microcentrifuge tubes for storing biological samples. Abbreviations used: UFLC: Ultra Flow Liquid Chromatography; LC: Liquid Chromatography; MS: Mass spectrometry; AUC: Area Under Curve. PMID:27563216

  3. Multiresidue chromatographic method for the determination of macrolide residues in muscle by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Juhel-Gaugain, M; Anger, B; Laurentie, M

    1999-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of tilmicosin, tylosin, spiramycin, and its major metabolite neospiramycin was developed that is suitable for porcine, bovine, and poultry muscles. Macrolide residues were extracted from muscle with acetonitrile, fat was removed by liquid-liquid extraction with isooctane, and the extract was then cleaned on Bond Elut C18 cartridges. The HPLC separation was performed on an Inertsil ODS3 C18 column (150 x 4 mm) with 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid-acetonitrile in a gradient mode. Two different chromatographic gradients were used for tilmicosin-tylosin and spiramycin-neospiramycin, and the detection wavelengths were 287 and 232 nm, respectively. The method was validated from 1/2 the maximum residue limit (MRL) to 4 times the MRL with pork muscle samples. Mean recoveries were 60, 63.5, 51, and 42% for tilmicosin, tylosin, spiramycin, and neospiramycin, respectively. The detection limits are 15 micrograms/kg for tilmicosin and tylosin, 30 micrograms/kg for spiramycin, and 25 micrograms/kg for neospiramycin. Linearity, precision, and accuracy of the method were also tested. PMID:10513006

  4. Column performance study of different variants of liquid chromatographic technique: an application on pharmaceutical ternary mixtures containing tetryzoline.

    PubMed

    Salem, Hesham; Hassan, Nagiba Y; Lotfy, Hayam M; Saleh, Sarah S

    2015-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and rapid resolution liquid chromatographic (RRLC) methods have been developed and validated for the separation and quantitation of both or either of two ternary mixtures present in ophthalmic solutions. The first mixture contains chloramphenicol, dexamethasone sodium phosphate and tetryzoline HCl (TZH); while the second one contains ofloxacin, prednisolone acetate and TZH. Both preparations contain benzalkonium chloride as a preservative. The columns used were a HPLC column (C18 5 µm particle size), a RRLC column (C18 2.6 µm particle size) and a UPLC column (C18 1.7 µm particle size). A comparative study was conducted to illustrate the effect of the change in column particle size and dimensions on the other chromatographic conditions, backpressure and the separation of both ternary mixtures. The methods were validated as per ICH guidelines where accuracy, repeatability, interday precision and robustness were found to be within the acceptable limits. The RRLC column provided shorter run time and better resolution than HPLC, while the UPLC column gave the shortest run time for all columns. The RRLC column resulted in minimum backpressure, so it could be used with any HPLC instrument, which makes the method more practical and economic. The results obtained from the proposed methods were statistically compared with official ones where no significant difference was observed. PMID:25217705

  5. A general static-headspace gas chromatographic method for determination of residual benzene in oral liquid pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Tang, Qinglin; Markovich, Robert J; Rustum, Abu M

    2011-01-25

    Sodium benzoate is used in oral liquid pharmaceutical products for its anti-microbial properties. The benzoate salts present in liquid pharmaceutical products can potentially generate residual levels of free benzene during manufacturing of the drug product and or during the shelf-life of the product under its storage conditions. To ensure the safety and quality of the pharmaceutical products (containing benzoate in the formulation), a selective and sensitive analytical method is required to monitor residual benzene in oral liquid pharmaceutical products. In this paper, we report the development and validation of a general static-headspace gas chromatographic (SH-GC) method to determine residual benzene in oral liquid pharmaceutical products. The liquid pharmaceutical drug product sample is dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in a GC headspace vial. A DB-624 capillary column (30 m x 0.32 mm I.D. and 1.8 μm film thickness) was used under isothermal conditions with a flame ionization detection (FID). The benzene peak was well separated from all other volatile compounds that are present in the formulation of a number of liquid drug products. This method was successfully validated using a representative oral liquid pharmaceutical drug product. The limit of detection of the method for benzene is 0.5 ppm which met the 2 ppm limit of current ICH guideline for residual benzene in pharmaceutical products. PMID:20926217

  6. High performance liquid chromatographic separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on microparticulate pyrrolidone and application to the analysis of shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Mourey, T.H.; Siggia, S.; Uden, P.C.; Crowley, R.J.

    1980-05-01

    A chemically bonded pyrrolidone substrate is used for the high performance liquid chromatographic separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The cyclic amide phase interacts electronically with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in both the normal and reversed phase modes. Separation is effected according to the number of aromatic rings and the type of ring condensation. Information obtained is very different from that observed on hydrocarbon substrates, and thus these phases can be used in a complementary fashion to give a profile of polycyclic aromatics in shale oil samples. 7 figures, 1 table.

  7. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester in various food products and formulations.

    PubMed

    Fox, L; Anthony, G D; Lau, E P

    1976-09-01

    A simple, rapid, and specific high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure is described for the analysis of the chemical sweetener L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (aspartame). Using a strong cation exchange column and pressures less than 1000 psig, an analysis can be performed in less than 15 min. The technique has been applied to a wide range of food products and formulations. No interferences were found in the samples studied. Recoveries are quantitative, and the coefficients of variation for replicate analyses are less than or equal to 2.5%. PMID:965327

  8. Fractional Consumption of Liquid Hydrogen and Liquid Oxygen During the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Jonathan K.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle uses the propellants, liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, to meet part of the propulsion requirements from ground to orbit. The Kennedy Space Center procured over 25 million kilograms of liquid hydrogen and over 250 million kilograms of liquid oxygen during the 3D-year Space Shuttle Program. Because of the cryogenic nature of the propellants, approximately 55% of the total purchased liquid hydrogen and 30% of the total purchased liquid oxygen were used in the Space Shuttle Main Engines. The balance of the propellants were vaporized during operations for various purposes. This paper dissects the total consumption of liqUid hydrogen and liqUid oxygen and determines the fraction attributable to each of the various processing and launch operations that occurred during the entire Space Shuttle Program at the Kennedy Space Center.

  9. Fractional consumption of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen during the space shuttle program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, Jonathan K.

    2012-06-01

    The Space Shuttle uses the propellants, liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, to meet part of the propulsion requirements from ground to orbit. The Kennedy Space Center procured over 350 million liters of liquid hydrogen and over 200 million liters of liquid oxygen during the 30-year Space Shuttle Program. Because of the nature of the cryogenic propellants, approximately 54% of the total purchased liquid hydrogen and 32% of the total purchased liquid oxygen were used in the Space Shuttle Main Engines. The balance of the propellants were vaporized during operations for various purposes. This paper dissects the total consumption of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen and determines the fraction attributable to each of the various processing and launch operations that occurred during the entire Space Shuttle Program at the Kennedy Space Center.

  10. Chromatographic speciation of Cr(III)-species, inter-species equilibrium isotope fractionation and improved chemical purification strategies for high-precision isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Larsen, K K; Wielandt, D; Schiller, M; Bizzarro, M

    2016-04-22

    Chromatographic purification of chromium (Cr), which is required for high-precision isotope analysis, is complicated by the presence of multiple Cr-species with different effective charges in the acid digested sample aliquots. The differing ion exchange selectivity and sluggish reaction rates of these species can result in incomplete Cr recovery during chromatographic purification. Because of large mass-dependent inter-species isotope fractionation, incomplete recovery can affect the accuracy of high-precision Cr isotope analysis. Here, we demonstrate widely differing cation distribution coefficients of Cr(III)-species (Cr(3+), CrCl(2+) and CrCl2(+)) with equilibrium mass-dependent isotope fractionation spanning a range of ∼1‰/amu and consistent with theory. The heaviest isotopes partition into Cr(3+), intermediates in CrCl(2+) and the lightest in CrCl2(+)/CrCl3°. Thus, for a typical reported loss of ∼25% Cr (in the form of Cr(3+)) through chromatographic purification, this translates into 185ppm/amu offset in the stable Cr isotope ratio of the residual sample. Depending on the validity of the mass-bias correction during isotope analysis, this further results in artificial mass-independent effects in the mass-bias corrected (53)Cr/(52)Cr (μ(53)Cr* of 5.2ppm) and (54)Cr/(52)Cr (μ(54)Cr* of 13.5ppm) components used to infer chronometric and nucleosynthetic information in meteorites. To mitigate these fractionation effects, we developed strategic chemical sample pre-treatment procedures that ensure high and reproducible Cr recovery. This is achieved either through 1) effective promotion of Cr(3+) by >5 days exposure to HNO3H2O2 solutions at room temperature, resulting in >∼98% Cr recovery for most types of sample matrices tested using a cationic chromatographic retention strategy, or 2) formation of Cr(III)-Cl complexes through exposure to concentrated HCl at high temperature (>120°C) for several hours, resulting in >97.5% Cr recovery using a

  11. Chromatographic speciation of Cr(III)-species, inter-species equilibrium isotope fractionation and improved chemical purification strategies for high-precision isotope analysis

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, K.K.; Wielandt, D.; Schiller, M.; Bizzarro, M.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatographic purification of chromium (Cr), which is required for high-precision isotope analysis, is complicated by the presence of multiple Cr-species with different effective charges in the acid digested sample aliquots. The differing ion exchange selectivity and sluggish reaction rates of these species can result in incomplete Cr recovery during chromatographic purification. Because of large mass-dependent inter-species isotope fractionation, incomplete recovery can affect the accuracy of high-precision Cr isotope analysis. Here, we demonstrate widely differing cation distribution coefficients of Cr(III)-species (Cr3+, CrCl2+ and CrCl2+) with equilibrium mass-dependent isotope fractionation spanning a range of ~1‰/amu and consistent with theory. The heaviest isotopes partition into Cr3+, intermediates in CrCl2+ and the lightest in CrCl2+/CrCl3°. Thus, for a typical reported loss of ~25% Cr (in the form of Cr3+) through chromatographic purification, this translates into 185 ppm/amu offset in the stable Cr isotope ratio of the residual sample. Depending on the validity of the mass-bias correction during isotope analysis, this further results in artificial mass-independent effects in the mass-bias corrected 53Cr/52Cr (μ53 Cr* of 5.2 ppm) and 54Cr/52Cr (μ54Cr* of 13.5 ppm) components used to infer chronometric and nucleosynthetic information in meteorites. To mitigate these fractionation effects, we developed strategic chemical sample pre-treatment procedures that ensure high and reproducible Cr recovery. This is achieved either through 1) effective promotion of Cr3+ by >5 days exposure to HNO3 —H2O2 solutions at room temperature, resulting in >~98% Cr recovery for most types of sample matrices tested using a cationic chromatographic retention strategy, or 2) formation of Cr(III)-Cl complexes through exposure to concentrated HCl at high temperature (>120 °C) for several hours, resulting in >97.5% Cr recovery using a chromatographic elution strategy that

  12. High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic and High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatographic Method for the Quantitative Estimation of Dolutegravir Sodium in Bulk Drug and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form.

    PubMed

    Bhavar, Girija B; Pekamwar, Sanjay S; Aher, Kiran B; Thorat, Ravindra S; Chaudhari, Sanjay R

    2016-01-01

    Simple, sensitive, precise, and specific high-performance liquid chromategraphic (HPLC) and high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) methods for the determination of dolutegravir sodium in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form were developed and validated. In the HPLC method, analysis of the drug was carried out on the ODS C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size) using a mixture of acetonitrile: water (pH 7.5) in the ratio of 80:20 v/v as the mobile phase at the flow rate 1 mL/min at 260 nm. This method was found to be linear in the concentration range of 5-35 μg/mL. The peak for dolutegravir sodium was observed at 3.0 ± 0.1 minutes. In the HPTLC method, analysis was performed on aluminum-backed plates pre-coated with silica gel G60 F254 using methanol: chloroform: formic acid in the proportion of 8:2:0.5 v/v/v as the mobile phase. This solvent system was found to give compact spots for dolutegravir sodium with the Rf value 0.77 ± 0.01. Densitometric analysis of dolutegravir sodium was carried out in the absorbance mode at 265 nm. Linear regression analysis showed good linearity with respect to peak area in the concentration range of 200-900 ng/spot. The methods were validated for precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), accuracy, and specificity. Statistical analysis showed that both of the methods are repeatable and specific for the estimation of the said drug. The methods can be used for routine quality control analysis of dolutegravir sodium. PMID:27222606

  13. High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic and High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatographic Method for the Quantitative Estimation of Dolutegravir Sodium in Bulk Drug and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Bhavar, Girija B.; Pekamwar, Sanjay S.; Aher, Kiran B.; Thorat, Ravindra S.; Chaudhari, Sanjay R.

    2016-01-01

    Simple, sensitive, precise, and specific high-performance liquid chromategraphic (HPLC) and high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) methods for the determination of dolutegravir sodium in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form were developed and validated. In the HPLC method, analysis of the drug was carried out on the ODS C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size) using a mixture of acetonitrile: water (pH 7.5) in the ratio of 80:20 v/v as the mobile phase at the flow rate 1 mL/min at 260 nm. This method was found to be linear in the concentration range of 5–35 μg/mL. The peak for dolutegravir sodium was observed at 3.0 ± 0.1 minutes. In the HPTLC method, analysis was performed on aluminum-backed plates pre-coated with silica gel G60 F254 using methanol: chloroform: formic acid in the proportion of 8:2:0.5 v/v/v as the mobile phase. This solvent system was found to give compact spots for dolutegravir sodium with the Rf value 0.77 ± 0.01. Densitometric analysis of dolutegravir sodium was carried out in the absorbance mode at 265 nm. Linear regression analysis showed good linearity with respect to peak area in the concentration range of 200–900 ng/spot. The methods were validated for precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), accuracy, and specificity. Statistical analysis showed that both of the methods are repeatable and specific for the estimation of the said drug. The methods can be used for routine quality control analysis of dolutegravir sodium. PMID:27222606

  14. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating Liquid Chromatographic Method for Estimating Olmesartan Medoxomil Using Quality by Design.

    PubMed

    Beg, Sarwar; Sharma, Gajanand; Katare, O P; Lohan, Shikha; Singh, Bhupinder

    2015-08-01

    The current studies entail systematic quality by design (QbD)-based development of a simple, rapid, sensitive and cost-effective stability-indicating method for the estimation of olmesartan medoxomil. Quality target method profile was defined and critical analytical attributes (CAAs) for the reverse-phase liquid chromatography method earmarked. Chromatographic separation accomplished on a C18 column using acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% orthophosphoric acid, pH 3.5) in 40 : 60 (v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 243 nm. Risk assessment studies and screening studies facilitated comprehensive understanding of the factors affecting CAAs. The mobile phase ratio and flow rate were identified as critical method parameters (CMPs) and were systematically optimized using face-centered cubic design, evaluating for CAAs, namely peak area, retention time, theoretical plates and peak tailing. Statistical modelization was accomplished followed by response surface analysis for comprehending plausible interaction(s) among CMPs. Search for optimum solution was conducted through numerical and graphical optimization for demarcating the design space. Analytical method validation and subsequent forced degradation studies corroborated the method to be highly efficient for routine analysis of drug and its degradation products. The studies successfully demonstrate the utility of QbD approach for developing the highly sensitive liquid chromatographic method with enhanced method performance. PMID:25583970

  15. Simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of aspartame and its metabolites in foods.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, B F; Alli, I; Mulligan, C N

    1996-02-23

    A method for the determination of aspartame (N-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) and its metabolites, applicable on a routine quality assurance basis, is described. Liquid samples (diet Coke, 7-Up, Pepsi, etc.) were injected directly onto a mini-cartridge reversed-phase column on a high-performance liquid chromatographic system, whereas solid samples (Equal, hot chocolate powder, pudding, etc.) were extracted with water. Optimising chromatographic conditions resulted in resolved components of interest within 12 min. The by-products were confirmed by mass spectrometry. Although the method was developed on a two-pump HPLC system fitted with a diode-array detector, it is straightforward and can be transformed to the simplest HPLC configuration. Using a single-piston pump (with damper), a fixed-wavelength detector and a recorder/integrator, the degradation of products can be monitored as they decompose. The results obtained were in harmony with previously reported tedious methods. The method is simple, rapid, quantitative and does not involve complex, hazardous or toxic chemistry. PMID:8900578

  16. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of occupational exposure to the pesticide abamectin.

    PubMed

    Jongen, M J; Engel, R; Leenheers, L H

    1991-10-01

    As part of a survey of occupational exposure to pesticides in greenhouses for growing ornamentals, analytical methods were developed and validated for the measurement of exposure of workers to the pesticide abamectin. Abamectin consists of a mixture of avermectin-B1a and avermectin-B1b, which are members of a class of fermentation products of the soil microorganism Streptomyces Avermitilis. Because of the high molecular weight of the avermectins (greater than 800 daltons), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was the analytical method of choice. Previously described HPLC methods that used fluorescence detection were adapted and validated for the determination of dermal exposure by the analysis of cotton gloves and foliar dislodgeable residue. IOM samplers (developed at the Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh, U.K.) for collecting the inspirable fraction of dust or aerosols were tested for the determination of airborne abamectin concentrations in greenhouses. An analytical procedure considerably simpler than published methods appeared suitable for the determination of abamectin residues on cotton gloves and on greenhouse foliage. Analytical recovery from cotton gloves, solutions of foliar dislodgeable residues, and air-sampling filters was essentially complete. However, air concentrations of abamectin could not be reliably measured by using the IOM sampling device because of breakdown during sampling. Between-day coefficients of variation for solutions of dislodgeable residue and cotton glove extracts were between 3% and 6% for abamectin concentrations between 5 and 140 micrograms/L. PMID:1951054

  17. Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of total cholesterol in multicomponent foods.

    PubMed

    Punwar, J K

    1975-07-01

    A method is described for the determination of total cholesterol in multicomponent foods and also other products such as nonfat dry milk, dried whole egg solids, and certain candy bars. The lipid is extracted from the sample by a mixed solvent and saponified. The unsaponifiable fraction which contains the cholesterol and other sterols is extracted with benzene. An aliquot is evaporated to dryness and the residue is dissolved in dimethylformamide. The sterols are derivatized to form trimethylsilyl (TMS) ethers. The TMS-cholesterol derivative is quantitatively determined by gas-liquid chromatography, using 5alpha-cholestane as an internal standard. Nine laboratories participated in a collaborative study of the determination of total cholesterol in deviled ham sandwich spread, vegetable beef stew, corned beef hash, frozen chicken pot pie, pizza pepperoni, fish sticks, breaded shrimp, chocolate-covered candy bars, dried whole egg solids, and nonfat dry milk and the results are reported here. The coefficient of variation ranged from 5.64 to 23.2%, with an average coefficient of variation of 14.8%. PMID:1173811

  18. Organics Analyzer for Sampling Icy Surfaces: A liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer for future in situ small body missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Martin, Mildred; Zheng, Yun; Balvin, Manuel; Southard, Adrian E.; Feng, Steven; Ferrance, Jerome; Kotecki, Carl; Malespin, Charles; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is an important laboratory technique for the detection and analysis of organic molecules with high sensitivity and selectivity. This approach has been especially fruitful in the analysis of nucleobases, amino acids, and measuring amino acid enantiomeric ratios in extraterrestrial materials. We are developing OASIS, Organics Analyzer for Sampling Icy Surfaces, for in situ analysis on future landed missions to astrochemically important icy bodies, such as asteroids, comets, and icy moons. The OASIS design employs a microfabricated, on-chip analytical column to chromatographically separate liquid analytes using known LC stationary phase chemistries. The elution products are then interfaced through spray ionization and analyzed by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). A particular advantage of our design is its suitability for microgravity environments, such as for a primitive small body.

  19. Chromatographic behaviour of steroidal saponins studied by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Porter, Elaine A; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2007-05-01

    The chromatographic behaviour of steroidal saponins found in Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Asparagus officinalis, Convallaria majalis, Digitalis purpurea and Ruscus aculeatus was studied by HPLC-MS using a C-18 reversed-phase column and aqueous acetonitrile or aqueous methanol mobile phase gradients, with or without the addition of 1% acetic acid. The behaviour was compared to that of triterpene saponins found in Aesculus hippocastanum, Centella asiatica, Panax notoginseng and Potentilla tormentilla. Inclusion of methanol in the mobile phase under acidic conditions was found to cause furostanol saponins hydroxylated at C-22 to chromatograph as broad peaks, whereas the peak shapes of the spirostanol saponins and triterpene saponins studied remained acceptable. In aqueous methanol mobile phases without the addition of acid, furostanol saponins chromatographed with good peak shape, but each C-22 hydroxylated furostanol saponin was accompanied by a second chromatographic peak identified as its C-22 methyl ether. Methanolic extracts analysed in non-acidified aqueous acetonitrile mobile phases also resolved pairs of C-22 hydroxy and C-22 methoxy furostanol saponins. The C-22 methyl ether of deglucoruscoside was found to convert to deglucoruscoside during chromatography in acidified aqueous acetonitrile, or by dissolving in water. Poor chromatography of furostanol saponins in acidified aqueous methanol is due to the interconversion of the C-22 hydroxy and C-22 methoxy forms. It is recommended that initial analysis of saponins by HPLC-MS using a C-18 stationary phase is performed using acidified aqueous acetonitrile mobile phase gradients. The existence of naturally-occurring furostanol saponins methoxylated at C-22 can be investigated with aqueous acetonitrile mobile phases and avoiding methanol in the extraction solvent. PMID:17391684

  20. Evaluation and application of a mixed-mode chromatographic stationary phase in two-dimensional liquid chromatography for the separation of traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhishen; Fu, Qing; Cai, Jianfeng; Huan, Liyun; Zhao, Jianchao; Shi, Hui; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2016-06-01

    In this study, two mixed-mode chromatography stationary phases (C8SAX and C8SCX) were evaluated and used to establish a two-dimensional liquid chromatography system for the separation of traditional Chinese medicine. The chromatographic properties of the mixed-mode columns were systematically evaluated by comparing with other three columns of C8, strong anion exchanger, and strong cation exchanger. The result showed that C8SAX and C8SCX had a mixed-mode retention mechanism including electrostatic interaction and hydrophobic interaction. Especially, they were suitable for separating acidic and/or basic compounds and their separation selectivities could be easily adjusted by changing pH value. Then, several off-line 2D-LC systems based on the C8SAX in the first dimension and C8SAX, C8SCX, or C8 columns in the second dimension were developed to analyze a traditional Chinese medicine-Uncaria rhynchophylla. The two-dimensional liquid chromatography system of C8SAX (pH 3.0) × C8SAX (pH 6.0) exhibited the most effective peak distribution. Finally, fractions of U. rhynchophylla prepared from the first dimension were successfully separated on the C8SAX column with a gradient pH. Thus, the mixed-mode stationary phase could provide a platform to separate the traditional Chinese medicine in practical applications. PMID:27159545

  1. Fractional Josephson current through a Luttinger liquid with topological excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Baigeng Xing, D.Y.

    2015-07-15

    Recently, the Majorana fermion has received great attentions due to its promising application in the fault-tolerant quantum computation. This application requires more accessible methods to detect the motion and braiding of the Majorana fermions. We use a Luttinger liquid ring to achieve this goal, where the ring geometry is nontrivial in the sense that it leads to fermion-parity-dependent topological excitations. First, we briefly review the essential physics of the Luttinger liquid and the Majorana fermion, in order to give an introduction of the general framework used in the following main work. Then, we theoretically investigated the DC Josephson effect between two topological superconductors via a Luttinger liquid ring. A low-energy effective Hamiltonian is derived to show the existence of the fractional Josephson current. Also, we find that the amplitude of the Josephson current, which is determined by the correlation function of Luttinger liquid, exhibits different behaviors in terms of the parity of Luttinger liquid due to the topological excitations. Our results suggest a possible method to detect the Majorana fermions and their tunneling process.

  2. Comparison of nano and conventional liquid chromatographic methods for the separation of (+)-catechin-ethyl-malvidin-3-glucoside diastereoisomers.

    PubMed

    Kučera, Lukáš; Fanali, Salvatore; Aturki, Zeineb; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Bednář, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Nano-liquid chromatography and conventional HPLC were used for the separation of diastereomers of (+)-catechin-ethyl-malvidin-3-glucoside. Those bridged anthocyanin dyes were obtained by reaction of (+)-catechin with malvidin-3-glucoside in the presence of acetaldehyde. Both diastereomers were isolated with semipreparative chromatography and their structures were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. In-laboratory prepared capillary columns packed with fully porous particles Chromosphere C18, dp=3μm, core-shell particles Kinetex C18, dp=2.6μm (100μm i.d.) and monolithic column Chromolith CapRod (100μm i.d.) were used for the separation of (+)-catechin, malvidin-3-glucoside and both diastereomers. Chromosphere C18 stationary phase provided the best chromatographic performance. Mobile phase containing water:acetonitrile (80:20) acidified with trifluoroacetic acid (0.1%, v/v/v) was used in an isocratic elution mode with a flow rate of 360nLmin(-1). Separation of studied compounds was achieved in less than 7min under optimized conditions. The nano-liquid chromatographic method and a conventional HPLC one using the same fully porous particles (Chromosphere C18, 3μm, 100mm×4.6mm) were compared providing higher separation efficiency with the first analytical method and similar selectivity. A better peak symmetry and higher resolution of the studied diastereomers was achieved by conventional chromatography. Nevertheless, nano-liquid chromatography appeared to be useful for the separation of complex anthocyanin dyes and can be utilized for their analysis in plant and food micro-samples. The developed method was used for analysis of red wine grape pomace. PMID:26433264

  3. Simple, Fast and Reliable Liquid Chromatographic and Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Theophylline in Urine, Saliva and Plasma Samples

    PubMed Central

    Charehsaz, Mohammad; Gürbay, Aylin; Aydin, Ahmet; Şahin, Gönül

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) and UV spectrophotometric method were developed, validated and applied for the determination of theophylline in biological fluids. Liquid- liquid extraction is performed for isolation of the drug and elimination of plasma and saliva interferences. Urine samples were applied without any extraction. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column by using 60:40 methanol:water as mobile phase under isocratic conditions at a flow rate of 0.75 mL/min with UV detection at 280 nm in HPLC method. UV spectrophotometric analysis was performed at 275 nm. The results of HPLC analysis were as follows: the limit of quantification: 1.1 µg/mL for urine, 1.9 µg/mL for saliva, 3.1 µg/mL for plasma; recovery: 94.85% for plasma, 100.45% for saliva, 101.39% for urine; intra-day precision: 0.22–2.33%, inter-day precision: 3.17-13.12%. Spectrophotometric analysis results were as follows: the limit of quantitation: 5.23 µg/mL for plasma, 8.7 µg/mL for urine; recovery: 98.27% for plasma, 95.25% for urine; intra-day precision: 2.37 – 3.00%, inter-day precision: 5.43-7.91%. It can be concluded that this validated HPLC method is easy, precise, accurate, sensitive and selective for determination of theophylline in biological samples. Also spectrophotometric analysis can be used where it can be applicable. PMID:25237338

  4. Classification of gasoline by octane number and light gas condensate fractions by origin with using dielectric or gas-chromatographic data and chemometrics tools.

    PubMed

    Rudnev, Vasiliy A; Boichenko, Alexander P; Karnozhytskiy, Pavel V

    2011-05-15

    The approach for classification of gasoline by octane number and light gas condensate fractions by origin with using dielectric permeability data has been proposed and compared with classification of same samples on the basis of gas-chromatographic data. The precision of dielectric permeability measurements was investigated by using ANOVA. The relative standard deviation of dielectric permeability was in the range from 0.3 to 0.5% for the range of dielectric permeability from 1.8 to 4.4. The application of exploratory chemometrics tools (cluster analysis and principal component analysis) allow to explicitly differentiate the gasoline and light gas condensate fractions into groups of samples related to specific octane number or origin. The neural networks allow to perfectly classifying the gasoline and light gas condensate fractions. PMID:21482310

  5. Fractionation of sugar cane with hot, compressed, liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S.G.; Kam, L.C.; Zemann, A.J.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1996-08-01

    Sugar-cane bagasse and leaves (10--15 g oven-dry basis) were fractionated without size reduction by a rapid (45 s to 4 min), immersed percolation using only hot (190--230 C), compressed (P > P{sub sat}), liquid water (0.6--1.2 kg). Over 50% of the biomass could be solubilized. All of the hemicellulose, together with much of the acid-insoluble lignin in the bagasse (>60%), was solubilized, while less than 10% of the cellulose entered the liquid phase. Moreover, recovery of the hemicellulose as monomeric sugars (after a mild posthydrolysis) exceeded 80%. Less than 5% of the hemicellulose was converted to furfural. Percolation beyond that needed to immerse the biomass in hot liquid water did not result in increased solubilization. The yield of lignocellulosic residue was also not sensitive to the form of the sugar cane used (bagasse or leaves) or its moisture content (8--50%). Commercial applications for this fractionation process include the pretreatment of lignocellulosics for bioconversion to ethanol and the production of pulp and paper products.

  6. Evaluation of the retention pattern on ionic liquid columns for gas chromatographic analyses of fatty acid methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen-Chen; Wasta, Ziar; Mjøs, Svein A

    2014-07-11

    Fatty acid methyl esters from marine sources were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry on three ionic liquid columns, SLB-IL61, SLB-IL82 and SLB-IL100 (Supelco). Retention indices (equivalent chain lengths) are reported for more than 100 compounds and the overlap patterns are evaluated from these data. The influence of chromatographic conditions on the retention indices of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters is also evaluated. Compared to typical alternative phases the retention patterns on all three columns are highly dependent on the conditions. The SLB-IL61 phase had overlaps between nutritionally important fatty acids that could not be resolved by changing the chromatographic conditions. This column is therefore regarded as unsuitable for clinical and nutritional studies of the fatty acid composition, but similar overlaps may be avoided on IL82 and IL100. On all three columns double bonds close to the carboxyl group in the analytes contribute with limited retention, which makes it challenging to predict the retention of polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters. PMID:24873965

  7. Application of a sensitive liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric method to pharmacokinetic study of nalmefene in humans.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Chen, Xiaoyan; Dai, Xiaojian; Wen, Aidong; Zhang, Yifan; Zhong, Dafang

    2007-06-01

    A sensitive, specific and rapid liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) method was developed and validated for quantification of nalmefene in human plasma. An aliquot of 200 microL plasma sample was simply precipitated by 400 microL methanol. Separation of nalmefene and the internal standard hydromorphone from the interferences was achieved on a C(18) column followed by MS/MS detection. The analytes were monitored in the positive ionization mode with a TurboIonspray source. The method had a total chromatographic run time of 4.5 min and linear calibration curves over the concentration range of 10-5000 pg/mL. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 10 pg/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 10.1% determined from QC samples at concentrations of 30, 300 and 4500 pg/mL, and the accuracy was within +/-3.4%. As the method was more sensitive (10 times higher) than those reported previously, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of nalmefene in healthy volunteers after a single intravenous injection of low dose (30 microg) of nalmefene hydrochloride for the first time. PMID:17329173

  8. High-performance liquid chromatographic strategies for the determination and confirmation of anticoagulant rodenticide residues in animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Hunter, K

    1985-03-15

    A comprehensive approach to the analysis of anticoagulant rodenticide residues in animal tissues based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed. Residues of warfarin, coumatetralyl, difenacoum, brodifacoum, bromadiolone, diphacinone and chlorophacinone were extracted with chloroformacetone (1:1, v/v). Extracts were cleaned-up by an integrated gel permeation and adsorption chromatographic procedure which divided the rodenticides into two groups. Residues were then determined and confirmed using normal-phase, ion-pair and weak ion-exchange HPLC techniques. Ion-pair gradient separation resolved all seven rodenticides in a single chromatographic analysis. UV detection methods were employed for all seven rodenticides. Use of a diode array detection system permitted additional confirmation of residues down to 0.1 mg kg-1 by matching UV spectra and derivatives of spectra. Sensitive fluorescence detection was possible for the coumarin-based rodenticides but not for diphacinone and chlorophacinone. Post-column pH-switching fluorescence detection methods were shown to be superior to other methods of fluorescence detection of coumarin-based rodenticides. Recoveries from spiked liver tissue were around 90% at levels from 0.05 to 1 mg kg-1. Detection limits of around 0.002 mg kg-1 for most rodenticides and of 0.01 mg kg-1 for warfarin could be achieved with animal tissue extracts. PMID:3988841

  9. Determination of Cefadroxil in Tablet/Capsule formulations by a validated Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Najia; Naqvi, Syed Baqir-Shyum; Shakeel, Sadia; Iffat, Wajiha; Muhammad, Iyad Naeem

    2015-07-01

    An innovative, selective and rapid reversed phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the analysis of cefadroxil in bulk material and oral solid dosage forms has been developed and validated. The chromatographic system consisted of Sil-20A auto sampler, LC-20A pump and SPD-20A UV/visible detector. The separation was achieved by C18 column at ambient temperature with a mobile phase consisting of methanol: Phosphate buffer (10: 90) at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. The method is reproducible, repeatable (%RSD for intra-day and inter-day ranged between 1.75-5.33% and 0.58-2.69%) and linear (R2=0.9935). The LOD and LOQ of the method were 0.5 and 1.0 μg/ml, respectively. The present RP-HPLC method was found to be sensitive, accurate, precise, rapid and cost effective that can be efficiently used in QC/QA laboratories for routine analysis of the raw materials as well as oral dosage formulations of cefadroxil. PMID:26142506

  10. New reagents for enhanced liquid chromatographic separation and charging of intact protein ions for electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Valeja, Santosh G; Tipton, Jeremiah D; Emmett, Mark R; Marshall, Alan G

    2010-09-01

    Electrospray ionization produces multiply charged ions, thereby lowering the mass-to-charge ratio for peptides and small proteins to a range readily accessed by quadrupole ion trap, orbitrap, and ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass analyzers (m/z = 400-2000). For Fourier transform mass analyzers (orbitrap and ICR), higher charge also improves signal-to-noise ratio, mass resolution, and mass accuracy. Addition of m-nitrobenzyl alcohol (m-NBA) or sulfolane has previously been shown to increase the charge states of proteins. Moreover, polar aprotic dimethylformamide (DMF) improves chromatographic separation of proteolytic peptides for mass analysis of solution-phase protein hydrogen/deuterium exchange for improved (78-96%) sequence coverage. Here, we show that addition of each of the various modifiers (DMF, thiodiglycol, dimethylacetamide, dimethylsulfoxide, and N-methylpyrrolidone) can significantly increase the charge states of proteins up to 78 kDa. Moreover, incorporation of the same modifiers into reversed-phase liquid chromatography solvents improves sensitivity, charging, and chromatographic resolution for intact proteins. PMID:20704305

  11. Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for determination of eleven coccidiostats in milk.

    PubMed

    Nász, Szilárd; Debreczeni, Lajos; Rikker, Tamás; Eke, Zsuzsanna

    2012-07-15

    A reversed phase liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method with simple solvent extraction and purification by solid phase extraction (SPE) has been developed for the determination of coccidiostats in milk. For sample preparation matrix solid phase dispersion, extraction by organic solvent and SPE with different cartridges were also tested. The compounds determined include lasalocid, narasin, salinomycin, monensin, semduramicin, maduramicin, robenidine, decoquinate, halofuginone, nicarbazin and diclazuril. Main steps of the method are addition of acetonitrile to the milk samples, centrifugation, removal of matrix by SPE, concentration by evaporation and LC-MS-MS determination. During a 15 min time segmented chromatographic run compounds are ionised either positively or negatively. Calculated recoveries range between 77.1% and 118.2%. Maximum levels are in the range of 1-20 μg/kg. The developed method was validated in line with the requirements of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC (2002). It is applicable for control of coccidiostat residues in milk as indicated in Regulation 124/2009/EC (2009). PMID:25683430

  12. Differential chemical derivatization integrated with chromatographic separation for analysis of isomeric sialylated N-glycans: a nano-hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-MS platform.

    PubMed

    Tousi, Fateme; Bones, Jonathan; Hancock, William S; Hincapie, Marina

    2013-09-01

    MS analysis of sialylated glycans is challenging due to their low ionization efficiency in positive ion mode as well as the possibility of in-source fragmentation. Chemical derivatization strategies have been developed to address this issue focused on removal of the labile acidic proton prior to MS analysis. Highly sialylated negatively charged glycans also exhibit high retention and unsatisfactory separation efficiency when analyzed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) due to their high polarity. Here, we combined linkage specific derivatization of sialic acids by reaction with the condensation reagent 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMT-MM) in methanol with nanoscale liquid chromatographic separation prior to accurate mass Orbitrap MS analysis. Coupling DMT-MM charge neutralization of sialic acids with nano-HILIC-Orbitrap-MS not only allows for linkage specific characterization of sialylated glycans directly from the precursor mass but also improves the preceding HILIC separation by increasing the hydrophobicity and altering the selectivity of the oligosaccharide analytes. We focused on the trisialylated N-glycan fraction from haptoglobin and human plasma, enriched using weak anion exchange chromatography, as this trisialylated fraction has been linked with cancer associated changes in the serum N-glycome. The developed methodology was applied to investigate whether structural alterations in this oligosaccharide pool, enriched from the sera of pathological stage and sex matched patients bearing lung, breast, ovarian, pancreatic, or gastric cancer, demonstrate any degree of cancer specificity or whether changes in expression levels are purely cancer associated. The results of this pilot study indicate limited degrees of cancer specificity, particularly for pancreatic cancer, based on alterations in the relative abundance of specific trisialylated isomers. PMID:23901877

  13. Liquid chromatographic determination of benzocaine and N-acetylbenzocaine in the edible fillet tissue from rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, J.R.; Stehly, G.R.; Hubert, T.D.; Bernardy, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    A method was developed for determining benzocaine and N-acetylbenzocaine concentrations in fillet tissue of rainbow trout. The method involves extracting the analytes with acetonitrile, removing lipids or hydrophobic compounds from the extract with hexane, and providing additional clean-up with solid-phase extraction techniques. Analyte concentrations are determined using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic techniques with an isocratic mobile phase and UV detection. The accuracy (range, 92 to 121%), precision (R.S.D., <14%), and sensitivity (method quantitation limit, <24 ng/g) for each analyte indicate the usefulness of this method for studies characterizing the depletion of benzocaine residues from fish exposed to benzocaine. Copyright (C) 1999.

  14. [Diol column as stationary phase for high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of carbohydrates in drinks with evaporative light scattering detection].

    PubMed

    Wei, Y; Guo, L; Ding, M Y

    2001-11-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method with a diol column and evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) was established for the direct analysis of fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose and raffinose in mixture. A separation column (Lichrospher 100 Diol, 250 mm x 4.0 mm i.d., 5 microns, Hewlett-Packard, USA) and a guard column (Zorbax Rx-SIL, 12.5 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 microns) were used. The mobile phase was a mixture of dichloromethane-methanol (3.2:1, volume ratio). Regression equations revealed linear relationship (correlation coefficients: 0.995-0.999) between the mass of carbohydrates injected and the peak area of carbohydrates detected by ELSD. The detection limits of ELSD (S/N = 3) were about 0.20 microgram for all carbohydrates. This system could be used for the routine analysis of simple carbohydrates in some common drinks on market. PMID:12545463

  15. High-performance liquid chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous determination of norfloxacin, fenbufen and felbinac in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Y; Naora, K; Ichikawa, N; Hayashibara, M; Iwamoto, K

    1989-10-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of norfloxacin, fenbufen and felbinac extracted from 50 microliters of rat plasma is described. Chromatography was performed on a reversed-phase column with ultraviolet detection. By the present method, quantitative and reproducible determinations were possible for norfloxacin, fenbufen and felbinac over the concentration ranges of 0.2-20, 0.2-120 and 0.4-40 micrograms/ml, respectively. The recoveries of norfloxacin, fenbufen and felbinac added to plasma were nearly 100% with a coefficient of variation of less than 8.0%. This method was found to be applicable to pharmacokinetic studies of each drug after the concomitant administration of norfloxacin and fenbufen. PMID:2611947

  16. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of loracarbef, a potential metabolite, cefaclor and cephalexin in human plasma, serum and urine.

    PubMed

    Kovach, P M; Lantz, R J; Brier, G

    1991-06-14

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is reported for the determination of a new carbacephem antibiotic, loracarbef, a hydroxylated analogue, and two cephalosporins, cefaclor and cephalexin, in plasma, serum, and urine. The antibiotics are extracted from plasma by means of C18 solid-phase cartridges. Urine samples are diluted with water and directly injected on the HPLC system. The HPLC system utilizes a Supelcosil LC-18-DB (250 mm x 4.6 mm I.D.) reversed-phase column and ultraviolet detection at 265 nm. The limit of quantitation is 0.5 micrograms/ml for each compound. Excellent correlation of plasma concentrations is shown between results determined by HPLC and those obtained by microbiological agar-well diffusion assays. Stability studies of loracarbef in human plasma show the antibiotic to be stable for at least 24 h at room temperature and for at least twelve months at -20 degrees C. PMID:1918240

  17. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of propylthiouracil in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Fattah, A M; Bhargava, H N

    2001-09-01

    A simple, rapid, and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the assay of propylthiouracil (PTU). The method was used to quantify PTU in topical formulations and in tablets. Excellent linearity was observed between PTU concentration and the peak area (R2= 0.999). The limit of detection was 1 ng, and the limit of quantitation was 1.2 ng. The method proved to be selective. Selectivity was validated by subjecting a stock solution of PTU to acidic, basic, and oxidative degradations. The peaks of the degradation products did not interfere with the peak of PTU. Excipients present in the dosage forms did not interfere with the analysis, and the recovery of PTU from each dosage form was quantitative. PMID:11699835

  18. [Preparation and chromatographic performance of a eugenol-bonded silica gel stationary phase for high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Xu, Lili; Zhong, Minghua; Chen, Xiaojing

    2015-05-01

    A eugenol-bonded silica gel stationary phase (EGSP) for high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC) has been synthesized by the solid-liquid successive reaction method. The preparation process included two steps: firstly, γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy-silane (KH-560) was covalently attached to the surface of spherical silica gel. Then the bonded silica gel continued to react with eugenol ligand, which was a plant active component, and obtained EGSP. The structure of EGSP was characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Using naphthalene as a probe, the column efficiency was tested under the mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (35:65, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The chromatographic properties and the retention mechanism of EGSP were evaluated by using neutral, basic and acidic analytes as solute probes. Meanwhile, the comparative study with C18 column and phenyl column was also carried out under the same chromatographic conditions. The result showed that the eugenol ligand was successfully bonded to the surface of silica gel with a 0.28 mmol/g of bonded amount, and the theoretical plate number of EGSP column was about 24 707 N/m. The EGSP appeared to be a kind of excellent reversed-phase stationary phase with suitable hydrophobicity and various synergistic sites. The eugenol ligand bonded on silica gel could first provide π-π interaction sites for different analytes because of its benzene ring and alkenyl. In addition, the methoxy groups of eugenol were responsible for dipole-dipole and hydrogen-bonding interactions between the ligand and solutes in the effective separation process. Comparing with traditional C18 column and phenyl column, EGSP has an advantage in the fast separation of polar compounds under simple experimental conditions. PMID:26387202

  19. Simultaneous derivatisation and preconcentration of parabens in food and other matrices by isobutyl chloroformate and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rajeev; Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Chauhan, Abhishek; Ch, Ratnasekhar; Murthy, R C; Khan, Haider A

    2013-11-01

    A simple, rapid and economical method has been proposed for the quantitative determination of parabens (methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl paraben) in different samples (food, cosmetics and water) based on isobutyl chloroformate (IBCF) derivatisation and preconcentration using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction in single step. Under optimum conditions, solid samples were extracted with ethanol (disperser solvent) and 200 μL of this extract along with 50 μL of chloroform (extraction solvent) and 10 μL of IBCF was rapidly injected into 2 mL of ultra-pure water containing 150 μL of pyridine to induce formation of a cloudy state. After centrifugation, 1 μL of the sedimented phase was analysed using gas chromatograph-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) and the peaks were confirmed using gas chromatograph-positive chemical ionisation-mass spectrometer (GC-PCI-MS). Method was found to be linear over the range of 0.1-10 μg mL(-1) with square of correlation coefficient (R(2)) in the range of 0.9913-0.9992. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 0.029-0.102 μg mL(-1) and 0.095-0.336 μg mL(-1) with a signal to noise ratio of 3:1 and 10:1, respectively. PMID:23768377

  20. Polyanionic and polyzwitterionic azobenzene ionic liquid-functionalized silica materials and their chromatographic applications.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hongdeng; Jiang, Shengxiang; Takafuji, Makoto; Ihara, Hirotaka

    2013-03-25

    New polyanionic and polyzwitterionic azobenzene ionic liquid-functionalized silica materials were designed based on the preparation of a new polymerizable azobenzene anionic monomer and either its cation-exchange with alkylimidazolium after grafting or the formation of an ionic liquid monomer pair before grafting onto silica. PMID:23417018

  1. LIQUID AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF DIETHYL PHTHALATE IN WATER AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diethyl phthalate was determined in water and sediment by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and in water by gas-liquid chromatography with electron capture detection (GLC-ECD). Water samples were extracted with hexane, using a high-speed homogenizer-ultrasonic apparat...

  2. Determination of rizatriptan in human plasma by liquid chromatographic-eletrospray tandem mass spectrometry: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ji-fen; Zhang, Ai-jun; Zhao, Ling; Sun, Xiao-hong; Zhao, Yi-min; Gao, Hong-zhi; Liu, Ze-yuan; Qiao, Shan-yi

    2006-01-01

    A sensitive liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of rizatriptan in human plasma. The analytes were extracted from plasma samples by liquid-liquid extraction, separated on a Zorbax XDB C8 column (150 x 4.6 mm i.d.) and detected by tandem mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization interface. Zomitriptan was used as the internal standard. The method had a lower limit of quantitation of 50 pg/mL for rizatriptan, which showed more sensitivity and speed of analysis compared with reported methods. The within- and between-day precision was measured to be below 11.71% and accuracy between -5.87 and 0.86% for all quality control samples. This quantitation method was successfully applied to the evaluation of the pharmacokinetic profiles of rizatriptan after single oral administration of 5, 10 and 15 mg rizatriptan tablets to 10 healthy volunteers (five males and five females). PMID:15954161

  3. Fractionation in Gay-Berne liquid crystal mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Razo, J. Antonio; Díaz-Herrera, Enrique; Klapp, Sabine H. L.

    2007-10-01

    We present a constant-pressure molecular dynamics simulation study of the phase behavior of binary (50:50) Gay-Berne liquid crystal mixtures consisting of elongated particles with different lengths (LA>LB) and equal diameters. We focus on systems at dense liquid-state conditions. Considering three mixtures characterized by different values of LA(B) and different length ratios q=LB/LA<1 , we find complex fluid-fluid phase behavior resulting from the interplay between nematic, smectic- A -type, or smectic- B -type orientational ordering, on the one hand, and demixing into two phases of different composition (fractionation), on the other hand. The driving “forces” of demixing transitions are the temperature and the length ratio. Indeed, in the system characterized by the largest value of q (q=0.86) orientational order occurs already in mixed states, whereas full fractionation is found at q=0.71 . The two resulting states are either of type smectic- B -nematic (intermediate temperatures) or smectic- B -smectic- B (low temperatures). In the intermediate case q=0.80 we observe a stepwise ordering and demixing behavior on cooling the system from high temperatures. Moreover, our results show that the stability range of (partially) nematic structures in mixtures of sufficiently small q can be significantly larger than in the pure counterparts, in qualitative agreement with experimental observations.

  4. Fractionation in Gay-Berne liquid crystal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Razo, J Antonio; Díaz-Herrera, Enrique; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2007-10-01

    We present a constant-pressure molecular dynamics simulation study of the phase behavior of binary (50:50) Gay-Berne liquid crystal mixtures consisting of elongated particles with different lengths (LA>LB) and equal diameters. We focus on systems at dense liquid-state conditions. Considering three mixtures characterized by different values of LA(B) and different length ratios q=LB/LA<1, we find complex fluid-fluid phase behavior resulting from the interplay between nematic, smectic-A-type, or smectic-B-type orientational ordering, on the one hand, and demixing into two phases of different composition (fractionation), on the other hand. The driving "forces" of demixing transitions are the temperature and the length ratio. Indeed, in the system characterized by the largest value of q (q=0.86) orientational order occurs already in mixed states, whereas full fractionation is found at q=0.71. The two resulting states are either of type smectic-B-nematic (intermediate temperatures) or smectic-B-smectic-B (low temperatures). In the intermediate case q=0.80 we observe a stepwise ordering and demixing behavior on cooling the system from high temperatures. Moreover, our results show that the stability range of (partially) nematic structures in mixtures of sufficiently small q can be significantly larger than in the pure counterparts, in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. PMID:17995009

  5. INTERLABORATORY STUDY OF A THERMOSPRAY-LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC/MASS SPECTROMETRIC METHOD FOR SELECTED N-METHYL CARBAMATES, N-METHYL CARBAMOYLOXIMES, AND SUBSTITUTED UREA PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A thermospray-liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric (TS-LC/MS) method was evaluated in an interlaboratory study for determining 3 N-methyl carbamates (bendiocarb, carbaryl, and carbofuran), 3-N-methyl carbamoyloximes (aldicarb, methomyl, and oxamyl), 2 substituted urea pestic...

  6. Chromatographic sample collection from two-phase (gas+liquid) flows.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Thomas J; Windom, Bret C

    2011-12-01

    A particularly challenging sample presentation in analytical chemistry is a flowing stream that consists of both a gas and liquid phase, combined with the common situation in which a reliable analysis is needed for both phases, separately. In these cases, the vapor and liquid must be physically separated (without change to either), before the individual phases can be collected and analyzed. It is not possible to analyze two-phase flows otherwise. Although the two phases are at equilibrium, it is imperative that no liquid contaminate the vapor, and no vapor be entrained in the liquid at a given temperature and pressure. In this paper, we describe a simple on-line device that can individually separate and collect the vapor and liquid phases of a two-phase flow. The apparatus, which we call P(2)SC, uses an adaptation of the branch point separator, with vapor collection done downstream in a metal bellows. The liquid collection is done in a length of Teflon tube. The separated vapor and liquid phases are then easily transferred into any desired analytical instrument with a syringe, although any sample introduction method, such as a valve, could be used as well. We discuss the application of this device with a stream of thermally stressed rocket kerosene. PMID:22036084

  7. Experimental determination of the Si isotope fractionation factor between liquid metal and liquid silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hin, Remco C.; Fitoussi, Caroline; Schmidt, Max W.; Bourdon, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    The conditions of core formation and the abundances of the light elements in Earth's core remain debated. Silicon isotope fractionation provides a tool contributing to this subject. We present experimentally determined Si isotope fractionation factors between liquid metal and liquid silicate at 1450 °C and 1750 °C, which allow calibrating the temperature dependence of Si isotope fractionation. Experiments were performed in a centrifuging piston cylinder at 1 GPa, employing both graphite and MgO capsules. Tin was used to lower the melting temperature of the metal alloys for experiments performed at 1450 °C. Tests reveal that neither Sn nor C significantly affects Si isotope fractionation. An alkaline fusion technique was employed to dissolve silicate as well as metal phases prior to ion exchange chemistry and mass spectrometric analysis. The results show that metal is consistently enriched in light isotopes relative to the silicate, yielding average metal-silicate fractionation factors of -1.48±0.08‰ and -1.11±0.14‰ at 1450 °C and 1750 °C, respectively. The temperature dependence of equilibrium Si isotope fractionation between metal and silicate can thus be described as Δ30SiMetal-Silicate=-4.42(±0.05)×106/T2. The Si isotope equilibrium fractionation is thus about 1.7 times smaller than previously proposed on the basis of experiments. A consequence of this smaller fractionation is that the calculated difference between the Si isotope composition of the bulk Earth and that of the bulk silicate Earth generated by core formation is smaller than previously thought. It is therefore increasingly difficult to match the Si isotope composition of the bulk silicate Earth with that of chondrites for metal-silicate equilibration temperatures above ∼2500 K. This suggests that Si isotopes were more sensitive to the early stages of core formation when low oxygen fugacities allowed significant incorporation of Si into metal.

  8. Liquid chromatographic analysis of glucosamine in commercial dietary supplements using indirect fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaoxuan; Yang, Min; Tomellini, Sterling A

    2007-02-01

    A method of using indirect fluorescence detection is evaluated for the analysis of glucosamine in commercial dietary supplements following chromatographic separation. In this method, the eluting analyte, glucosamine, was detected by monitoring an increase in the fluorescence signal for L-tryptophan (L-Trp) or DL-5-methoxytryptophan (5-MTP) after glucosamine complexed with a copper(II) ion and released either L-Trp or 5-MTP from a copper(II) complex, which is introduced postcolumn. The fluorescence of L-Trp and 5-MTP are quenched when complexed with the copper(II) ion. The results obtained using indirect fluorescence detection are compared with the results obtained for precolumn derivatization with phenylisothiocyanate. Statistical analysis is performed to compare the results obtained for the two postcolumn interaction components, Cu(L-Trp)2 and Cu(5-MTP)2, as well as the results obtained using the indirect fluorescence detection method and a precolumn derivatization method. The indirect fluorescence detection method provided an alternative to precolumn derivatization for determining the concentration of glucosamine in commercial dietary supplements. The stability of the glucosamine-o-phthalaldehyde-3-mercaptopropionic acid derivative is also evaluated to investigate the applicability of the popular precolumn derivatization reagent, o-phthalaldehyde-3-mercaptopropionic acid, for this analysis. PMID:17425135

  9. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Analysis of Almotriptan Malate in Bulk and Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Lavudu, Petikam; Rani, Avula Prameela; Divya, Chepuri; Sekharan, Chandra Bala

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A simple RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the determination of almotriptan malate (ATM) in bulk and tablets. Methods: Chromatographic separation of ATM was achieved by using a Thermo Scientific C18 column. A Mobile phase containing a mixture of methanol, water and acetic acid (4:8:0.1 v/v) was pumped at the flow rate of 1 mL/min. Detection was performed at 227 nm. According to ICH guidelines, the method was validated. Results: The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range 5–60 µg/mL for the ATM with regression coefficient 0.9999. The method was precise with RSD <1.2%. Excellent recoveries of 99.60 - 100.80% proved the accuracy of the method. The limits of detection and quantification were found to be 0.025 and 0.075 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The method was successfully applied for the quantification of ATM in tablets with acceptable accuracy and precision. PMID:24312833

  10. Glycosylated haemoglobin: high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfuraldehyde after haemoglobin hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Ménez, J F; Berthou, F; Meskar, A; Picart, D; Le Bras, R; Bardou, L G

    1984-08-01

    A specific and accurate method for the quantitation of the azomethine linkage present in non-enzymatically glycosylated haemoglobin is described. This protein is hydrolysed for 5 h in 1 M oxalic acid at 100 degrees C to yield 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfur-aldehyde (5-HMF), known as a specific degradation product of hexoses linked to the protein. 5-HMF is then purified through a Sep-Pak C18 cartridge and measured by its absorption at 280 nm after separation on a C18 reversed-phase silica column. Quantitation is made accurate by using 1-methylxanthine as internal standard throughout the whole procedure. The identity and the purity of the 5-HMF chromatographic peak was ascertained by UV spectroscopy, gas chromatography on a glass capillary column and mass spectrometry. The method has been successfully used for 5-HMF determinations in monitoring diabetes mellitus patients. The mean values, expressed as nmol of 5-HMF per mg of haemoglobin were 0.64 +/- 0.13 (S.D.) for 27 controls and 1.32 +/- 0.39 for 78 diabetic patients. Unlike the usually employed thiobarbituric acid assay, the present procedure is truly specific for the 5-HMF determination. PMID:6490766

  11. Liquid chromatographic resolution of mexiletine and its analogs on crown ether-based chiral stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kab Bong; Kim, Hee Eun; Hyun, Myung Ho

    2014-05-01

    Mexiletine, an effective class IB antiarrhythmic agent, and its analogs were resolved on three different crown ether-based chiral stationary phases (CSPs), one (CSP 1) of which is based on (+)-(18-crown-6)-2,3,11,12-tetracarboxylic acid and the other two (CSP 2 and CSP 3) are based on (3,3'-diphenyl-1,1'-binaphthyl)-20-crown-6. Mexiletine was resolved with a resolution (R(S)) of greater than 1.00 on CSP 1 and CSP 3 containing residual silanol group-protecting n-octyl groups on the silica surface, but with a resolution (R(S)) of less than 1.00 on CSP 2. The chromatographic behaviors for the resolution of mexiletine analogs containing a substituted phenyl group at the chiral center on the three CSPs were quite dependent on the phenoxy group of analytes. Namely, mexiletine analogs containing 2,6-dimethylphenoxy, 3,4-dimethylphenoxy, 3-methylphenoxy, 4-methylphenoxy, and a simple phenoxy group were resolved very well on the three CSPs even though the chiral recognition efficiencies vary with the CSPs. However, mexiletine analogs containing 2-methylphenoxy group were not resolved at all or only slightly resolved. Among the three CSPs, CSP 3 was found to show the highest chiral recognition efficiencies for the resolution of mexiletine and its analogs, especially in terms of resolution (R(S)). PMID:24677299

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Resorcinol from Marketed Hair Tonic Using Liquid Chromatographic Technique

    PubMed Central

    De, Amit Kumar; Chowdhury, Partha Pratim; Chattapadhyay, Shyamaprasad

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative estimation of resorcinol from marketed pharmaceutical formulation has been reported in this study. Resorcinol as a pharmaceutical ingredient has a broad spectrum of application but its application is limited due to its toxic side effects. Method for the accurate estimation of resorcinol is therefore essential. In the current study we have developed a chromatographic technique for its estimation from a marketed hair tonic meant for the treatment of several dermatological diseases of the scalp. A stainless steel column 25 cm in length and 4 mm internal diameter packed with octadecylsilane (5 µm) was used for this purpose. The mobile phase was a mixture of phosphate buffer of pH 2.8 and acetonitrile. The flow rate was 0.6 mL·min−1 and the detection wavelength was 280 nm. The method was found to be linear between concentration range 10.28 µg·mL−1 to 71.96 µg·mL−1 with r2 value 0.999. The accuracy of the method and the intraday and interday precession study presents the applicability of the method for the estimation of resorcinol from any pharmaceutical and cosmetic product containing resorcinol. PMID:27379340

  13. Characterization and multi-mode liquid chromatographic application of 4-propylaminomethyl benzoic acid bonded silica--a zwitterionic stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Wijekoon, A; Gangoda, M E; Gregory, R B

    2012-12-28

    solvent content in the aqueous mobile phase. An increase in retention with decreasing water content in the mobile phase was observed, consistent with a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic (HILIC) mode of separation. PMID:23200307

  14. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) isolation and liquid chromatographic determination of oxytetracycline, tetracycline, and chlortetracycline in milk.

    PubMed

    Long, A R; Hsieh, L C; Malbrough, M S; Short, C R; Barker, S A

    1990-01-01

    A multiresidue method for the isolation and liquid chromatographic determination of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), and chlortetracycline (CTC) antibiotics in milk is presented. Blank and tetracycline (OTC, TC, and CTC) fortified milk samples (0.5 mL) were blended with octadecylsilyl (C18, 40 microns, 18% load, endcapped, 2 g) derivatized silica packing material containing 0.05 g each of oxalic acid and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic. A column made from the C18/milk matrix was first washed with hexane (8 mL), following which the tetracyclines were eluted with ethyl acetate-acetonitrile (1 + 3; v/v). The eluate contained tetracycline analytes that were free from interfering compounds when analyzed by liquid chromatography with UV detection (photodiode array, 365 nm). Correlation coefficients of standards curves for individual tetracycline isolated from fortified samples were linear (from 0.982 +/- 0.009 to 0.996 +/- 0.004) with average percentage recoveries from 63.5 to 93.3 for the concentration range (100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, and 3200 ng/mL) examined. The inter-assay variability ranged from 8.5 +/- 2.4% to 20.7 +/- 13.0% with an intra-assay variability of 1.0-9.3%. PMID:2115861

  15. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of aflatoxins in chilli, peanut and rice using silica based monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Khayoon, Wejdan Shakir; Saad, Bahruddin; Lee, Tien Ping; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2012-07-15

    A simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatographic with fluorescence detection method for the determination of the aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in peanuts, rice and chilli was developed. The sample was extracted using acetonitrile:water (90:10, v/v%) and then purified by using ISOLUTE® multimode solid phase extraction. After the pre-column derivatisation, the analytes were separated within 3.7 min using Chromolith® performance RP-18e (100-4.6mm) monolithic column. To assess the possible effects of endogenous components in the food items, matrix-matched calibration was used for the quantification and validation. The recoveries of aflatoxins that were spiked into food samples were 86.38-104.5% and RSDs were <4.4%. The method was applied to the determination of aflatoxins in peanut (9), rice (5) and chilli (10) samples. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis using triple quadruple analyser and operated in the multiple reaction monitoring modes on the contaminated samples was performed for confirmation. PMID:25683424

  16. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic determination of antioxidants in teas using inkjet-printed graphene-polyaniline electrode.

    PubMed

    Bardpho, Chayanee; Rattanarat, Poomrat; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2016-02-01

    A development of ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic coupled with a novel inkjet-printed conductive ink-modified electrode for a fast and simultaneous determination of polyphenolic antioxidants was achieved. Two printing techniques were selected for fabrication and modification including (i) an in-house screen-printing method and (ii) an inkjet-printing method, respectively. A conductive ink containing graphene and polyaniline nanocomposite (G-PANI) was precisely casted onto the surface of screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) using a dimatix inkjet material printer. Compared to a bare SPCE, the G-PANI-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (G-PANI/SPCE) exhibited higher electrochemical sensitivity with increase (2-4 times) of peak current of each antioxidant. Moreover, four antioxidants were successfully separated and determined within 3 min using a reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with a mobile phase containing phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (90:10 v/v). Under an optimal detection potential at +1.2V vs. Ag/AgCl, linear calibrations and limits of detection (S/N=3) for antioxidants were found to be 0.01-10 µg mL(-1) and 1.38-1.94 ng mL(-1), respectively. Finally, this proposed method has been successfully used for the determination of antioxidants in tea samples, the results obtained from our presented method were within a highly good agreement those obtained from a standard UHPLC-UV method. PMID:26653500

  17. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine. PMID:26113454

  18. Accessing topological order in fractionalized liquids with gapped edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iadecola, Thomas; Neupert, Titus; Chamon, Claudio; Mudry, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    We consider manifestations of topological order in time-reversal-symmetric fractional topological liquids (TRS-FTLs), defined on planar surfaces with holes. We derive a formula for the topological ground state degeneracy of such a TRS-FTL, which applies to cases where the edge modes on each boundary are fully gapped by appropriate backscattering terms. The degeneracy is exact in the limit of infinite system size, and is given by qNh, where Nh is the number of holes and q is an integer that is determined by the topological field theory. When the degeneracy is lifted by finite-size effects, the holes realize a system of Nh coupled spin-like q-state degrees of freedom. In particular, we provide examples where Zqquantum clock models are realized on the low-energy manifold of states. We also investigate the possibility of measuring the topological ground state degeneracy with calorimetry.

  19. Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties. Quarterly progress report, January--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.

    1992-04-07

    The main objectives of this proposed research work are to refine further the inverse liquid chromatography technique for the study of surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals in water, to evaluate relatively surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals by inverse liquid chromatography, and to evaluate flotability of various treated coals in conjunction with surface properties of coals. Coals such as Pittsburgh seam coal, Illinois No. 6 coal, Wyodak coal are chosen as representatives of high-rank bituminous coal, high volatile bituminous coal and subbituminous coal, respectively. Coal minerals such as pyrite and dolomite are chosen as representative coal minerals.

  20. Acetone as a greener alternative to acetonitrile in liquid chromatographic fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Funari, Cristiano Soleo; Carneiro, Renato Lajarim; Khandagale, Manish M; Cavalheiro, Alberto José; Hilder, Emily F

    2015-05-01

    A considerable amount of chemical waste from liquid chromatography analysis is generated worldwide. Acetonitrile is the most employed solvent in liquid chromatography analyses since it exhibits favorable physicochemical properties for separation and detection, but it is an unwelcome solvent from an environmental point of view. Acetone might be a much greener alternative to replace acetonitrile in reversed-phase liquid chromatography, since both share similar physicochemical properties, but its applicability with ultraviolet absorbance-based detectors is limited. In this work, a reference method using acetonitrile and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ultraviolet photodiode array detector coupled to a corona charged aerosol detector system was developed to fingerprint a complex sample. The possibility of effectively substituting acetonitrile with acetone was investigated. Design of experiments was adopted to maximize the number of peaks acquired in both fingerprint developments. The methods with acetonitrile or acetone were successfully optimized and proved to be statistically similar when only the number of peaks or peak capacity was taken into consideration. However, the superiority of the latter was evidenced when parameters of separation and those related to greenness were heuristically combined. A green, comprehensive, time- and resource-saving approach is presented here, which is generic and applicable to other complex matrices. Furthermore, it is in line with environmental legislation and analytical trends. PMID:25708832

  1. High Speed Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Total Aromatics in Enamel and Lacquer Solvents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, G. G.

    Aromatic solvents possess the strongest solvency of the hydrogen types, but various air pollution control districts have established maximum limits on the amount that may be present in organic coatings. In the proposed procedure, high efficiency liquid chromatography is used to determine total aromatics in enamels and lacquer thinners, their…

  2. Matrix solid-phase dispersion for the liquid chromatographic determination of phenolic acids in Melissa officinalis.

    PubMed

    Ziaková, Alica; Brandsteterová, Eva; Blahová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was used for sample preparation of plant material (Melissa officinalis, Lemon Balm) prior to liquid chromatography of rosmarinic, caffeic and protocatechuic acids, phenolic compounds present in this herb. Different MSPD sorbents and various elution agents were tested and the optimal extraction conditions determined with the aim to obtain extraction recoveries greater than 90% for all analytes. PMID:12568390

  3. Liquid Chromatographic Detection of Permethrin from Filter Paper Wipes of White-tailed Deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, small-scale method for the determination of the presence or absence of permethrin on the hair coat of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), by high performance liquid chromatography was developed. White-tailed deer in South Texas and the northeastern U.S. are routinely tr...

  4. Ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of aspartame and related products.

    PubMed

    Verzella, G; Bagnasco, G; Mangia, A

    1985-12-01

    A simple and accurate quantitative determination of aspartame (L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester), a new artificial sweetener, is described. The method, which is based on ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography, allows the determination of aspartame in finished bulk and dosage forms, and the detection of a few related products at levels down to 0.1%. PMID:4086646

  5. Liquid chromatographic and spectrophotometric determination of diflucortolone valerate and isoconazole nitrate in creams.

    PubMed

    Karacan, Elif; Cağlayan, Mehmet Gokhan; Palabiyik, Ismail Murat; Onur, Feyyaz

    2011-01-01

    A new RP-LC method and two new spectrophotometric methods, principal component regression (PCR) and first derivative spectrophotometry, are proposed for simultaneous determination of diflucortolone valerate (DIF) and isoconazole nitrate (ISO) in cream formulations. An isocratic system consisting of an ACE C18 column and a mobile phase composed of methanol-water (95 + 5, v/v) was used for the optimal chromatographic separation. In PCR, the concentration data matrix was prepared by using synthetic mixtures containing these drugs in methanol-water (3 + 1, v/v). The absorbance data matrix corresponding to the concentration data matrix was obtained by measuring the absorbances at 29 wavelengths in the range of 242-298 nm for DIF and ISO in the zero-order spectra of their combinations. In first derivative spectrophotometry, dA/dlambda values were measured at 247.8 nm for DIF and at 240.2 nm for ISO in first derivative spectra of the solution of DIF and ISO in methanol-water (3 + 1, v/v). The linear ranges were 4.00-48.0 microg/mL for DIF and 50.0-400 microg/mL for ISO in the LC method, and 2.40-40.0 microg/mL for DIF and 60.0-260 microg/mL for ISO in the PCR and first derivative spectrophotometric methods. These methods were validated by analyzing synthetic mixtures. These three methods were successfully applied to two pharmaceutical cream preparations. PMID:21391489

  6. [Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of etofenamate/ Determination, method and use in biological material (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Dell, H D; Fiedler, J; Jacobi, H; Kolle, J

    1981-01-01

    Etofenamate in biological specimen can be determined by gas-liquid chromatography with etofenamate benzyl ether as internal standard. Determination in urine is done directly after extraction and concentration, whereas plasma and homogenates from organs have to be prepurified by thin-layer chromatography. Unchanged etofenamate is found in small amounts in human urine (0--4, 6--6, 6--8 h p. appl.). Inflamed rat paws after local application contain up to 75 microgram etofenamate/g in comparison to only 2 microgram flufenamic acid/g tissue. Both compounds are also found in non-inflamed paws, contents being only 3--4% as compared to the inflamed tissue. Elimination of etofenamate from the inflamed area occurs with a half-life of approx. 8.5 h. These results from gas-liquid chromatography correspond to results from t.l.c./fluorescence measurements. PMID:6971109

  7. High-performance liquid chromatographic-amperometric determination of naloxone hydrochloride injection.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T D

    1984-08-17

    Naloxone hydrochloride has been measured in the injectable dosage form at 0.4 and 0.02 mg/ml using high-performance liquid chromatography with amperometric detection. This method was contrasted with an ultraviolet detection method at 229 nm and found to provide comparable recovery and linearity results. At the electrochemical detection limit of 0.1 ng injected a signal-to-noise ratio of 10.4 was found. PMID:6480748

  8. High performance liquid chromatographic method fo pyrantel tartrate in swine feeds and supplements.

    PubMed

    Goras, J T

    1981-11-01

    A new method for the determination of pyrantel tartrate in swine feed an supplements has been developed because the current official AOAC method is not applicable to feeds co-medicated with tylosin. The new method involves: (a) leaching of drug from feed with methanolic NaCl solution, (b) removal of interfering substances by ion pair liquid-liquid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography, and (c) quantitation of pyrantel tartrate by monitoring the ultraviolet absorption of the effluent stream at 313nm. The method of standard addition is used to compensate for the effect of the feed matrix on drug recovery. No interference is encountered from tylosin, carbadox, lincomycin, non-drug components of feeds and supplements, or potential degradation products of pyrantel tartrate, i.e., cis isomer of pyrantel tartrate and (E)-N-(3-methylaminopropyl)-2-thiopheneacrylamide. Results for the assay of 3 lots each of feeds and supplements containing 0.0106 and 0.106% pyrantel tartrate, respectively, were within +/-4% of label claim. Coefficients of variation ranged from 1.6 to 1.8% for feeds and from 1.9 to 3.9% for supplements. PMID:7309651

  9. Development and evaluation of gas and liquid chromatographic methods for the analysis of fatty amines.

    PubMed

    Breitbach, Zachary S; Weatherly, Choyce A; Woods, Ross M; Xu, Chengdong; Vale, Glenda; Berthod, Alain; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2014-03-01

    In contrast to the plethora of publications on the separation of fatty acids, analogous studies involving fatty amines are scarce. A recently introduced ionic-liquid-based capillary column for GC was used to separate trifluoroacetylated fatty amines focusing on the analysis of a commercial sample. Using the ionic liquid column (isothermal mode at 200 °C) it was possible to separate linear primary fatty amines from C12 to C22 chain length in less 25 min with MS identification. The log of the amine retention factors are linearly related to the alkyl chain length with a methylene selectivity of 0.117 kcal/mol for the saturated amines and 0.128 kcal/mol for the mono-unsaturated amines. The sp2 selectivity for unsaturated fatty amines also could be calculated as 0.107 kcal/mol for the ionic liquid column. The commercial sample was quantified by GC with flame ionization detection (FID). An LC method also was developed with a reversed phase gradient separation using acetonitrile/formate buffer mobile phases and ESI-MS detection. Native amines could be detected and identified by their single ion monitoring chromatograms even when partial coelution was observed. The analysis of the commercial sample returned results coherent with those obtained by GC-FID and with the manufacturer's data. PMID:24415651

  10. [Transfer possibilities of the mobile phases between different liquid chromatographic techniques for the analysis and isolation of compounds of biological matrices].

    PubMed

    Nyiredy, S

    1999-01-01

    After the survey and characterisation of the solid/liquid chromatographic methods, the author summarized the features of overpressure layer chromatography; the disturbing zone and the multi-front effect as well as the elimination of their influence. In light of these effects, the strategy of the mobile phase transfer possibilities is demonstrated between the various analytical and preparative liquid chromatographic methods, with the OPLC playing a central role. The main point of this strategy is that the examination of biological matrices is always begun with unsaturated TLC chamber, in which the compounds to be separated are placed between the Rf values of 0.3 and 0.8. The optimized TLC mobile phase is transferred without changes to the OPLC technique where a prerun is applied. For separation of nonpolar compounds, the prerun can be performed with hexane; for separation of polar substances the prerun can be performed with any component of the mobile phase in which the components are unable to migrate. The selection of this solvent might be considered during optimization of the mobile phase. Using HPTLC chromatoplate and analytical OPLC technique, highly effective separation can be achieved. The scaling-up for the various preparative chromatographic systems can be performed on basis of the applied chromatographic circumstances. The dry-filled preparative (FC, LPLC, MPLC) columns can be equilibrated with the solvent used for the prerun in analytical OPLC, while in case of filling with slurry technique, the slurry has to be prepared using the same solvent as was used for the prerun of OPLC. The air bubbles can be eliminated in both cases by pumping over the appropriate quantity of the solvent used for prerun, afterwards the preparative separation can be started with the optimized unsaturated TLC mobile phase. The author deals separately with the mobile phase transfer possibilities between the different analytical and preparative planar (OPLC and RPC with various

  11. An Interactive Computer Program for Simulating the Effects of Olivine Fractionation from Basaltic and Ultrabasic Liquids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Thomas H.

    1983-01-01

    Describes interactive computer program (listing available from author) which simulates olivine fractionation from basaltic/ultrabasic liquid. The menu-driven nature of the program (for Apple II microcomputer) allows students to select ideal Rayleigh fractionation or equilibrium crystallization. (JN)

  12. Liquid chromatographic determination of florfenicol in the plasma of multiple species of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vue, C.; Schmidt, L.J.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    A simple method was developed for determining florfenicol concentration in a small volume (250 mul) of plasma from five phylogenetically diverse species of freshwater fish. Florfenicol was isolated from the plasma matrix through C-18 solid-phase extraction and quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The accuracy (84-104%), precision (%RSDless than or equal to8), and sensitivity (quantitation limit <30 ng/ml) of the method indicate its usefulness for conducting pharmacokinetic studies on a variety of freshwater fish. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol residues in fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.L.; Sills, J.B.

    1974-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of 3-mftuormethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) in fish tissues is described. Homogenized tissues are extracted with hexane-ethyl ether; the extract is cleaned up by partitioning the TFM from the extracting solvent into O.IN NaOB, acidifying the aqueous solution, and partitioning again with hexaneethyl ether. The TFM is methylated with diazomethane and analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography, using electron capture detection. Recoveries ranged from 75 to 1000/., from fish muscles that were spiked with 0.01-2.00 JA#g TFM/g.

  14. Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Coburn, J A; Chau, A S

    1976-07-01

    A procedure for the analysis of 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) in natural waters is described. The lampricide is extracted from acidified water samples on the macroreticular resin XAD-7 and eluted from the column with ethyl ether. The ether extract is dried, concentrated, and partitioned with potassium carbonate. TFM is acetylated in the aqueous alkaline solution and the acetate derivative is extracted into benzene for analysis by electron capture gas-liquid chromatography. Recoveries of TFM from natural waters exceeded 90% and as little as 0.01 mug TFM can be quantitated in a 1 L sample. PMID:939751

  15. Capillary liquid chromatographic fingerprint used for discrimination of Zingiber montanum from related species.

    PubMed

    Rafi, Mohamad; Lim, Lee Wah; Takeuchi, Toyohide; Darusman, Latifah Kosim

    2013-08-01

    Fingerprint analysis using capillary liquid chromatography (CLC) has been developed for discrimination of Zingiber montanum (ZM) from related species, for example Z. americans (ZA) and Z. zerumbet (ZZ). By comparing the fingerprint chromatograms of ZM, ZA, and ZZ we could identify ZM samples and discriminate them from ZA and ZZ by using their marker peaks. We also combined CLC fingerprint with multivariate analysis, including principal-component analysis (PCA) and canonical variate analysis (CVA); all three species were discriminated successfully. This result indicates that CLC fingerprint analysis in combination with PCA and CVA can be used for discrimination of ZM samples from samples of related species. PMID:23760136

  16. Comparison of ultraviolet detection and charged aerosol detection methods for liquid-chromatographic determination of protoescigenin.

    PubMed

    Filip, Katarzyna; Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Gruza, Mariusz; Jatczak, Kamil; Zagrodzki, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Escin, a complex mixture of pentacyclic triterpene saponins obtained from horse chestnut seeds extract (HCSE; Aesculus hippocastanum L.), constitutes a traditional herbal active substance of preparations (drugs) used for a treatment of chronic venous insufficiency and capillary blood vessel leakage. A new approach to exploitation of pharmacological potential of this saponin complex has been recently proposed, in which the β-escin mixture is perceived as a source of a hitherto unavailable raw material, pentacyclic triterpene aglycone-protoescigenin. Although many liquid chromatography methods are described in the literature for saponins determination, analysis of protoescigenin is barely mentioned. In this work, a new ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method developed for protoescigenin quantification has been described. CAD (charged aerosol detection), as a relatively new detection method based on aerosol charging, has been applied in this method as an alternative to ultraviolet (UV) detection. The influence of individual parameters on CAD response and sensitivity was studied. The detection was performed using CAD and UV (200 nm) simultaneously and the results were compared with reference to linearity, accuracy, precision and limit of detection. PMID:25745765

  17. High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Rivastigmine in Human Plasma for Application in Pharmacokinetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Hossein; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2010-01-01

    A simple and reproducible HPLC method with spectrophotometric detection was developed for determination of rivastigmine in human plasma. Liquid-liquid extraction of rivastigmine and donepezil (as internal standard) from plasma samples was performed with 1-butanol/n-hexane (2:98 v/v) in alkaline condition followed by back-extraction into diluted acetic acid. Chromatography was carried out using a Silica column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) under isocratic elution with acetonitrile-50 mM aqueous sodium dihydrogen phosphate (17: 83 v/v, pH 3.1. Analyses were run at a flow-rate of 1.3 mL/min at of 50°C. The recovery was 90.8% and 95.7% for rivastigmine and the internal standard donepezil, respectively. The precision of the method was 2.6% to 9.1% over the concentration range of 0.5-16 ng/mL for rivastigmine in plasma with a linearity greater than 0.999. The method was specific and sensitive, with a quantification limit of 0.5 ng/mL and a detection limit of 0.2 ng/mL in plasma. The method was used for a bioequivalence study in healthy subjects. PMID:24363716

  18. Chromatographic determination of biogenic amines in wines after treatment with ionic liquids as novel media.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai-Liang; Ying, Li-Yan; Zhou, Sai-Chun; Ying, Min; Shen, Wei; Qiu, Dong-He

    2011-05-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(4) MIM][PF(6) ]), were used as the novel media for derivatization, extraction and preconcentration of biogenic amines (BAs) in wines. Six BAs, tryptamine (Try), phenylethylamine (Phe), putrescine (Put), cadaverine (Cad), tyramine (Tyr) and spermine (Spe) were selected as the model compounds and dansyl chloride (Dns-Cl) as the derivatizing reagent. The derivatizations of amines were conducted in water-IL two-phase system, in which the partition property of related substance in the IL was investigated and the mechanism (http://www.iciba.com/mechanism/) of derivation and extraction of amines was discussed. The influencing factors, including sample volume, derivatizing reagent concentration, pH value and ultrasound reaction time, were optimized. The Dns-amines were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and detected with UVD at 254 nm. For each of the tested amines, a good linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 0.1-20 mg/L with the correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9814-0.9930. The limits of detection reached μg/L level and the relative standard deviations (RSD, n=3) were between 3.2 and 8.1%. Satisfactory recovery for each BA was obtained, ranging from 82.3 to 114.0%. The developed method was successfully applied to determine six BAs in red wines and Chinese yellow wine. PMID:21416603

  19. Development and Validation of Stability-indicating High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Estimation of Everolimus in Tablets.

    PubMed

    Sharmila, D; Rao, A Lakshmana; Kalyani, L

    2015-01-01

    The present study depicts the development of a validated reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of the everolimus in presence of degradation products or pharmaceutical excipients. Stress study was performed on everolimus and it was found that it degrade sufficiently in oxidizing and acidic conditions but less degradation was found in alkaline, neutral, thermal and photolytic conditions. The separation was carried out on Hypersil BDS C18 column (100×4.6 mm, 5 μ) column having particle size 5 μ using acetate buffer:acetonitrile (50:50 v/v) with pH 6.5 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid as mobile phase at flow rate of 1 ml/min. The wavelength of the detection was 280 nm. A retention time (Rt) nearly 3.110 min was observed. The calibration curve for everolimus was linear (r(2)=0.999) from range of 25-150 μg/ml with limit of detection and limit of quantification of 0.036 μg/ml and 0.109 μg/ml, respectively. Analytical validation parameters such as selectivity, specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision were evaluated and relative standard deviation value for all the key parameters were less than 2.0%. The recovery of the drug after standard addition was found to be 100.55%. Thus, the developed RP-HPLC method was found to be suitable for the determination of everolimus in tablets containing various excipients. PMID:26798176

  20. Combined column-mobile phase mixture statistical design optimization of high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of multicomponent systems.

    PubMed

    Breitkreitz, Márcia C; Jardim, Isabel C S F; Bruns, Roy E

    2009-02-27

    A statistical approach for the simultaneous optimization of the mobile and stationary phases used in reversed-phase liquid chromatography is presented. Mixture designs using aqueous mixtures of acetonitrile (ACN), methanol (MeOH) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) organic modifiers were performed simultaneously with column type optimization, according to a split-plot design, to achieve the best separation of compounds in two sample sets: one containing 10 neutral compounds with similar retention factors and another containing 11 pesticides. Combined models were obtained by multiplying a linear model for column type, C8 or C18, by quadratic or special cubic mixture models. Instead of using an objective response function, combined models were built for elementary chromatographic criteria (retention factors, resolution and relative retention) of each solute or pair of solutes and, after their validation, the global separation was accomplished by means of Derringer's desirability functions. For neutral compounds a 37:12:8:43 (v/v/v/v) percentage mixture of ACN:MeOH:THF:H2O with the C18 column and for pesticides a 15:15:70 (v/v/v) ACN:THF:H2O mixture with the C8 column provide excellent resolution of all peaks. PMID:19167715

  1. Ion-pair ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of monoamines: peak-splitting at high flow rates.

    PubMed

    Van Schoors, Jolien; Brouwer, Hendrik-Jan; Maes, Katrien; Michotte, Yvette; Van Eeckhaut, Ann

    2013-12-20

    The use of ion-pair ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with electrochemical detection (ECD) is of great interest for the fast and sensitive determination of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin in microdialysis samples. However, when applying high flow rates in ion-pair UHPLC, other peaks than the initial compound peaks appear on the chromatogram. This peak-splitting phenomenon is caused by disturbed ion-pair retention mechanisms. The influence of several chromatographic parameters is investigated. Peak-splitting is delayed to higher flow rates when increasing the concentration of ion-pair reagent or buffering agent in the mobile phase, when decreasing the percentage of organic modifier in the mobile phase, when applying a stationary phase with a smaller amount of packing material or when increasing the separation temperature. One or a combination of these conditions can be applied to analyze the monoamine neurotransmitters using ion-pair UHPLC-ECD at high flow rates. PMID:24238712

  2. Development and Validation of Stability-indicating High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Estimation of Everolimus in Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sharmila, D.; Rao, A. Lakshmana; Kalyani, L.

    2015-01-01

    The present study depicts the development of a validated reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of the everolimus in presence of degradation products or pharmaceutical excipients. Stress study was performed on everolimus and it was found that it degrade sufficiently in oxidizing and acidic conditions but less degradation was found in alkaline, neutral, thermal and photolytic conditions. The separation was carried out on Hypersil BDS C18 column (100×4.6 mm, 5 μ) column having particle size 5 μ using acetate buffer:acetonitrile (50:50 v/v) with pH 6.5 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid as mobile phase at flow rate of 1 ml/min. The wavelength of the detection was 280 nm. A retention time (Rt) nearly 3.110 min was observed. The calibration curve for everolimus was linear (r2=0.999) from range of 25-150 μg/ml with limit of detection and limit of quantification of 0.036 μg/ml and 0.109 μg/ml, respectively. Analytical validation parameters such as selectivity, specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision were evaluated and relative standard deviation value for all the key parameters were less than 2.0%. The recovery of the drug after standard addition was found to be 100.55%. Thus, the developed RP-HPLC method was found to be suitable for the determination of everolimus in tablets containing various excipients. PMID:26798176

  3. Development of a high-performance-liquid-chromatographic method for the determination of biapigenin in biorelevant media.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Löbbert, S; Westerhoff, K; Wilke, A; Schubert-Zsilavecz, M; Wurglics, M

    2003-09-15

    A new precise, rapid and selective high-performance-liquid-chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed to quantify biapigenin in St. John's Wort (SJW) preparations and to investigate its release characteristics in the dissolution test using both compendial and biorelevant media. Experiments were carried out on a LiChroCart 125-4, RP-18 (5 microm) column, using gradient elution at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The binary mobile phase consisted of solvent A (acetic acid, 5:100, w:w) and B (a mixture of acetonitrile and methanol (3:1, v:v)). Detection was performed at a wavelength of 270 nm using a photodiodearray detector. The limit of detection was 0.05 microg/ml, the injection volume 20 microl. Five SJW preparations were chosen to determine the amount of biapigenin in the dosage form and to investigate their release characteristics. Best results in terms of release as well as discriminating the tested products were obtained, using fed state simulated intestinal fluid (FeSSIF), where over 80% of biapigenin was dissolved after 20 min comparing to 70% using simulated gastric fluid sine pepsin (SGF(sp)) as compendial medium. Experiments in fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) show 80% release of biapigenin within 80 min. PMID:12946531

  4. Triazolines. XXIII. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay in rat blood for a novel triazoline anticonvulsant (ADD17014).

    PubMed

    Stevenson, P J; Hamelijnck, M A; Kadaba, P K; Damani, L A

    1991-02-15

    A sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the analysis of 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-delta 2-1,2,3-triazoline (ADD17014, I), a novel anticonvulsant agent, in rat blood is described. Compound I and the internal standard (dipyridamole) were extracted into diethyl ether (5 ml) from alkalinised blood (0.25 ml of blood plus 0.75 ml of pH 10.7 buffer), with extractability nearing 100% under these conditions. The assay is based on reversed-phase HPLC (25 cm x 0.46 cm I.D. Spherisorb 5-ODS) using a mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-McIlvaine's citric acid-phosphate buffer (pH 8.0, 0.005 M) (30:30:40, v/v) and ultraviolet detection at 290 nm. Calibration curves were linear and reproducible (correlation coefficient greater than 0.999). Measurement of I in rat blood (250 microliters sample size) was linear in the range 0-40 microgram/ml and the coefficient of variation was less than 5%. The minimum detectable level was about 0.1 microgram/ml; however, a larger blood sample size (1-2 ml) allowed measurement of levels as low as 10 ng/ml, especially for estimation of drug levels in samples withdrawn at later time points (24 h). PMID:2056006

  5. Validation and application of a liquid-chromatographic/enzymatic assay for individual bile acids in the serum of rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M B; Blair, P C; Morris, R W; Neptun, D A; Deyo, D F; Popp, J A

    1987-10-01

    A liquid-chromatographic technique with a post-column enzymatic reaction and fluorescence detection was validated for analysis of individual bile acids in the serum of rats. Extraction recoveries averaged 91.1% (SD 6.9%) for all bile acids. The assay was sensitive (minimum detection of 16.8 pmol per 100-microL injection), linear (r greater than 0.999 for concentrations ranging between 45 and 112,500 pmol per 100-microL injection), and reproducible (mean CVs for three different concentrations of standards and a serum pool ranged from 4.4% to 12.2%). In rats treated for three days with either neomycin, carbon tetrachloride, alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate, or total bile-duct ligation (five animals per group), total concentrations of bile acids were significantly increased (P less than 0.004). Concentrations of 16 of 17 individual bile acids differed significantly between groups (P less than 0.04). Examination of the relative concentrations (percent of total) of individual bile acids by canonical discriminant analysis placed each animal into the appropriate treatment or control group. Use of this technique in toxicological studies can help detect and identify specific types of disruptions in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. PMID:3665040

  6. Development and validation of a reversed phase liquid chromatographic method for analysis of oxytetracycline and related impurities.

    PubMed

    Kahsay, Getu; Shraim, Fairouz; Villatte, Philippe; Rotger, Jacques; Cassus-Coussère, Céline; Van Schepdael, Ann; Hoogmartens, Jos; Adams, Erwin

    2013-03-01

    A simple, robust and fast high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the analysis of oxytetracycline and its related impurities. The principal peak and impurities are all baseline separated in 20 min using an Inertsil C₈ (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column kept at 50 °C. The mobile phase consists of a gradient mixture of mobile phases A (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid in water) and B (acetonitrile-methanol-tetrahydrofuran, 80:15:5, v/v/v) pumped at a flow rate of 1.3 ml/min. UV detection was performed at 254 nm. The developed method was validated for its robustness, sensitivity, precision and linearity in the range from limit of quantification (LOQ) to 120%. The limits of detection (LOD) and LOQ were found to be 0.08 μg/ml and 0.32 μg/ml, respectively. This method allows the separation of oxytetracycline from all known and 5 unknown impurities, which is better than previously reported in the literature. Moreover, the simple mobile phase composition devoid of non-volatile buffers made the method suitable to interface with mass spectrometry for further characterization of unknown impurities. The developed method has been applied for determination of related substances in oxytetracycline bulk samples available from four manufacturers. The validation results demonstrate that the method is reliable for quantification of oxytetracycline and its impurities. PMID:23277151

  7. Liquid chromatographic determination of chloramine-T and its primary degradation product, p-toluenesulfonamide, in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Verdel K.; Davis, Ruth A.

    1997-01-01

    N-sodium-N-chloro-rho-toluenesulfonamide (chloramine-T) effectively controls bacterial gill disease (BGD) in cultured fishes, BGD, a common disease of hatchery-reared salmonids, causes more fish losses than any other disease among these species. This study describes a liquid chromatographic (LC) method that is capable of direct, simultaneous analysis of chloramine-T and its primary degradation product, rho-toluenesulfonamide (rho-TSA), in water. The procedure involves reversed-phase (C-18) LC analysis with ion suppression, using 0.01 M phosphate buffer at pH 3. The mobile phase is phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (60 + 40) at 1 mL/min. Both chemicals can be detected with a UV spectrophotometer at 229 nm; the method is linear up to 40 mg, chloramine-T or rho-TSA/L. Mean recoveries were 96.4 +/- 6.1% for water samples fortified with 0.03 mg chloramine-T/L and 95.3 +/- 4.6% for water samples fortified with 0.005 mg rho-TSA/L. Limits of detection without sample enrichment for chloramine-T and rho-TSA are 0.01 mg/L and 0.001 mg/L, respectively.

  8. Liquid chromatographic determination of chloramine-T and its primary degradation product, p-toluenesulfonamide, in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Davis, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    N-sodium-N-chloro-rho-toluenesulfonamide (chloramine-T) effectively controls bacterial gill disease (BGD) in cultured fishes, BGD, a common disease of hatchery-reared salmonids, causes more fish losses than any other disease among these species, This study describes a liquid chromatographic (LC) method that is capable of direct, simultaneous analysis of chloramine-T and its primary degradation product, rho-toluenesulfonamide (rho-TSA), in water. The procedure involves reversed-phase (C-18) LC analysis with ion suppression, using 0.01 M phosphate buffer at pH 3. The mobile phase is phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (60 + 40) at 1 mL/min. Both chemicals can be detected with a UV spectrophotometer at 229 nm; the method is linear up to 40 mg, chloramine-T or rho-TSA/L. Mean recoveries were 96.4 +/- 6.1% for water samples fortified with 0.03 mg chloramine-T/L and 95.3 +/- 4.6% for water samples fortified with 0.005 mg rho-TSA/L. Limits of detection without sample enrichment for chloramine-T and rho-TSA are 0.01 mg/L and 0.001 mg/L, respectively.

  9. Ultra-performance liquid chromatographic determination of L-ergothioneine in commercially available classes of cow milk.

    PubMed

    Sotgia, Salvatore; Pisanu, Elisabetta; Cambedda, Debora; Pintus, Gianfranco; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo

    2014-09-01

    A new efficient and sensitive precolumn hydrophilic interaction ultra-performance liquid chromatography (HILIC-UPLC) method was established for the quantitative determination of L-ergothioneine (ERT) in milk. After derivatization of ERT with 7-diethylamino-3-[4-(iodoacetamido)phenyl]-4-methylcoumarin, chromatographic separation was achieved in a fairly short time, less than 5 min, on a 100 × 2.1 mm Waters Cortecs UPLC HILIC 1.6-μm column, by using a mixture of 30 mmol/L ammonium acetate/acetonitrile (10:90, v/v) as a mobile phase flowing isocratically at 0.9 mL/min. Limit of detection and the limit of quantification were 0.03 and 0.10 μmol/L, respectively. The method exhibited linearity in a concentration range of 0.16 and 5.08 μmol/L. Mean recovery was 106.66%, whereas intra- and interassay precisions were determined to be within 6 RSD%. On average, ERT concentration in different commercially available classes of cow milk was found to be 0.442 ± 0.191 μmol/L, with the highest levels in the ultra-high temperature milks and low values in the unprocessed and HTST whole milks. In this light, our experiments suggest that ERT could be used as a marker for the heat treatment of milk. PMID:25154712

  10. Sensitive and convenient high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of mitomycin C in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Joseph, G; Biederbick, W; Woschée, U; Theisohn, M; Klaus, W

    1997-09-26

    An improved high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the cytostatic drug mitomycin C in plasma is presented. The principal steps are precipitation of plasma proteins with acetonitrile, lyophilization of the supernatant and reversed-phase chromatography on a Hypersil ODS 5 microm column with 0.01 M NaH2PO4 buffer (pH 6.5)-methanol (70:30, v/v) in isocratic mode. At a flow-rate of 1.3 ml/min a column pressure of 180-220 bar resulted. Porfiromycin served as internal standard. UV detection was performed at 365 nm. Quantitation limit based on a coefficient of variation <10% in intra- and inter-day assay was 5 microg/l mitomycin C, detection limit based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 1 microg/l. Recovery was 100% and linearity was shown for the whole range of concentration (1-500 microg/l). None of the five drugs used during chemoembolisation interfered with the assay in vitro. The assay meets the requirements for pharmacokinetic studies of mitomycin C in patients as regards sensitivity and ease of use. PMID:9367216

  11. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the simultaneous determination of ipratropium bromide, fenoterol, salbutamol and terbutaline in nebulizer solution.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, G A; Peterson, G M

    1994-06-01

    A reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography assay was developed for the simultaneous determination of ipratropium bromide, fenoterol hydrobromide, salbutamol sulphate and terbutaline sulphate in nebulizer solution. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a Nova-Pak C18 4 microns 10 cm x 8 mm i.d. Radial-pak cartridge inside a Waters RCM 8 x 10 compression module using ternary gradient analysis. Detection was performed using UV detection at 220 nm. The standard curves were linear over the following ranges: ipratropium bromide 20.8-250.0 micrograms ml-1, fenoterol hydrobromide 27.8-500.0 micrograms ml-1, salbutamol sulphate 34.7-2500.0 micrograms ml-1 and terbutaline sulphate 69.5-2500 micrograms ml-1. Inter-day and intra-day relative standard deviations for each compound ranged from 4.5-5.2% and 3.5-3.9%, respectively. The assay procedure was developed to allow the accurate determination of constituents in various combinations of nebulizer solution, as well as for stability indicating purposes. This provides a convenient means of testing long-term compatibility and stability following the post-manufacture mixing of commonly used nebulized preparations. PMID:7918785

  12. Chromatographic performance of synthetic polycrystalline diamond as a stationary phase in normal phase high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Peristyy, Anton; Paull, Brett; Nesterenko, Pavel N

    2015-04-24

    The chromatographic properties of high pressure high temperature synthesised diamond (HPHT) are investigated in normal phase mode of high performance liquid chromatography. Purified nonporous irregular shape particles of average particles size 1.2 μm and specific surface area 5.1 m(2) g(-1) were used for packing 100×4.6 mm ID or 50×4.6 mm ID stainless steel columns. The retention behaviour of several classes of compounds including alkyl benzenes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), alkylphenylketones, phenols, aromatic acids and bases were studied using n-hexane-2-propanol mixtures as mobile phase. The results are compared with those observed for microdispersed sintered detonation nanodiamond (MSDN) and porous graphitic carbon (PGC). HPHT diamond revealed distinctive separation selectivity, which is orthogonal to that observed for porous graphitic carbon; while selectivities of HPHT diamond and microdispersed sintered detonation nanodiamonds are similar. Owing to non-porous particle nature, columns packed with high pressure high temperature diamond exhibited excellent mass transfer and produce separations with maximum column efficiency of 128,200 theoretical plates per meter. PMID:25777051

  13. Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatographic Method for Estimation of Dicyclomine Hydrochloride, Mefenamic Acid and Paracetamol in Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Shah, D. A.; Rana, Jainika P.; Chhalotiya, Usmangani K.; Baldania, S. L.; Bhatt, K. K.

    2014-01-01

    Liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous quantitative determination of dicyclomine hydrochloride, mefenamic acid and paracetamol in their combined dosage form. The separation was achieved using a C18 column (250×4.6 mm id, 5 μm) using acetonitrile:20 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate 70:30 (v/v) adjusted to pH 4 using orthophosphoric acid as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml/min and detection at 220 nm. Separation was completed within 12 min. The retention times of dicyclomine hydrochloride, mefenamic acid and paracetamol were 3.8, 9.3 and 2.5 minutes respectively. The proposed method was found to have linearity in concentration range of 10–100 μg/ml for dicyclomine hydrochloride, 0.05-10 μg/ml for mefenamic acid and 0.1−20 μg/ml for paracetamol. The developed method has been statistically validated and was found to be simple, precise, reproducible and accurate. The developed and validated method was successfully used for the quantitative analysis of commercially available dosage form. PMID:25593386

  14. Development and validation of column high-performance liquid chromatographic and ultraviolet spectrophotometric methods for citalopram in tablets.

    PubMed

    Menegola, Júlia; Steppe, Martin; Schapoval, Elfrides E S

    2008-01-01

    Column high-performance liquid chromatographic (LC) and UV spectrophotometric methods for the quantitative determination of citalopram, a potent and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in tablets were developed. The parameters linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, robustness, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation were studied according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Chromatography was carried out by the reversed-phase technique on an ACE C18 column with a mobile phase composed of 0.30% triethylamine solution-acetonitrile (55 + 45, v/v) adjusted to pH 6.6 with 10% ortho-phosphoric acid at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and 25 degrees C. The UV spectrophotometric method was performed at 239 nm. The linearity of the LC method was in the range of 10.00-70.00 microg/mL, and 2.50-17.50 microg/mL for the UV spectrophotometric method. The interday and intraday assay precision was < 1.5% (relative standard deviation) for the LC and UV spectrophotometric methods. The recoveries were in the range 100.70-101.35% for the LC method and 98.48-98.65% for the UV spectrophotometric method. Statistical analysis by Student's t-test showed no significant difference between the results obtained by the 2 methods. The proposed methods are highly sensitive, precise, and accurate and can be used for the reliable quantitation of citalopram in tablets. PMID:18376585

  15. Comparison of three liquid chromatographic methods with FDA optimized Monier-Williams method for determination of total sulfite in foods.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J F; Chadha, R K; Ménard, C

    1990-01-01

    Three liquid chromatographic (LC) methods employing amperometric detection were compared with the collaboratively studied FDA optimized Monier-Williams distillation method for the determination of total sulfite in 5 food types. The foods included lemon juice, white wine, instant mashed potatoes, golden raisins, and onion flakes. Two of the LC methods (one employing headspace sampling and the other direct injection) used ion-exchange chromatography with a basic mobile phase (pH about 10.8) and a glassy carbon electrode; the third (employing direct injection) used ion-exclusion chromatography with an acidic mobile phase (pH about 2) and a platinum electrode. All 4 methods produced similar results for the wine, lemon juice, and raisins. Results were different for instant mashed potatoes and onion flakes. The headspace-LC method and direct ion-exclusion LC method, both of which employed an alkaline sample extraction, yielded significantly higher values for sulfite in instant potatoes than did the other 2 methods. A large interfering peak with both direct LC methods prevented quantitation of sulfite in the onion flakes. All methods can detect sulfite as low as about 1 microgram/g in 4 of 5 food types examined. PMID:2312516

  16. Simultaneous quantification of related substances of perindopril tert-butylamine using a novel stability indicating liquid chromatographic method.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zoltán-István; Réti, Zenkő-Zsuzsánna; Gagyi, László; Kis, Erika Lilla; Sipos, Emese

    2015-03-01

    A novel stability indicating gradient reverse-phased high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the quantification of impurities of perindopril tert-butylamine (PER) in pharmaceutical dosage form. Separation of the active substance and its known (Impurities B, C, D, E, F) and unknown impurities was achieved on a BDS Hypersil C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm), thermostated at 70°C, using a mobile phase comprised of aqueous solution of sodium 1-heptanesulfonate adjusted to pH 2 with perchloric acid and acetonitrile. The flow rate was maintained at 1.5 mL min(-1), injection volume of 20 µL was utilized and detection of analytes was performed at 215 nm. The developed method was validated in accordance with current ICH Guidelines for all suggested parameters, including forced degradation studies and proved to be linear, accurate, precise and suitable for the impurity testing of PER, being subsequently applied during on-going stability studies of a newly developed generic formulation. PMID:25616989

  17. A Simple, Inexpensive, High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic Method for Separating Cytokinins in Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Tudor H.; Carroll, James E.; Isenberg, Francis M. R.; Pendergrass, Ann; Howell, Lydia

    1975-01-01

    Separation of a mixture of the main cytokinins occurring naturally in plant tissues was achieved by high pressure liquid chromatography using insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone as the solid support. The separation of each cytokinin was first assessed over a range of salt and l-butanol concentrations and pH using a mixture of borate buffer and l-butanol as the mobile phase to determine the conditions necessary for optimum resolution. A discrete separation of zeatin, N-6-(Δ-2-isopentenyl)adenine, their related ribonucleosides, and kinetin was achieved using a simple isocratic elution with 0.025 m borate buffer at pH 6.8 and 4% (v/v) l-butanol. A number of cytokinin-active compounds were detected in cabbage extracts by the Amaranthus betacyanin bioassay using this separation technique. PMID:16659314

  18. Liquid chromatographic determination of sugar alcohols in beverages and foods after nitrobenzoylation.

    PubMed

    Nojiri, S; Saito, K; Taguchi, N; Oishi, M; Maki, T

    1999-01-01

    Use of p-nitrobenzoyl chloride (PNBC) to form an ultraviolet-absorbing derivative was attempted to determine the sugar alcohols meso-erythritol, xylitol, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol by liquid chromatography (LC). LC determination of derivatives was performed on an ODS column with acetonitrile-water (65 + 35) as mobile phase. Calibration curves were linear in the concentration range 0.01-100 micrograms/mL. Method sensitivity is 10 to 1000 times higher than that of LC with refractive index detection and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Recoveries of sugars added to various foods at 0.1 and 1% ranged from 91 to 102% for meso-erythritol, 75 to 115% for xylitol, 81 to 105% for D-sorbitol, and 81 to 108% for D-mannitol. PMID:10028682

  19. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the determination of Aloe Emodin in mouse plasma.

    PubMed

    Zaffaroni, M; Mucignat, C; Pecere, T; Zagotto, G; Frapolli, R; D'Incalci, M; Zucchetti, M

    2003-10-25

    An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated to determine Aloe Emodin (AE) in mouse plasma. The analysis required 0.3 ml of plasma and involves extraction with dichloromethane. The HPLC separation was carried out on Symmetry Shield RP18, a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (65:35:0.2) and fluorescence detection at lambda(ex)=410 nm and lambda(em)=510 nm. The retention time of AE was 11.7 min. The assay was linear from 10 to 1,000 ng/ml (r2 > or = 0.999), showed intra- and inter-day precision within 7.8 and 4.7%, and accuracy of 87.3-105.7%. Detection limit (LOD) and quantification limit (LOQ) were 4.5 and 5 ng/ml, respectively. The method was applied to determine for the first time the pharmacokinetic of AE in mice. PMID:14552822

  20. Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of kepone in field-collected avian tissues and eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stafford, C.J.; Reichel, W.L.; Swineford, D.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Gay, M.L.

    1978-01-01

    A procedure is described for determining Kepone (decachlorooctahydro-1,3,4-metheno-2H-cyclobuta [cd] pentalene-2-one) residues in avian egg, liver, and tissue. Samples were extracted with benzene-isopropanol, and the extract was cleaned up with fuming H2SO4-concentrated H2SO4. Kepone was separated from organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls on a Florisil column and analyzed by electron capture gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The average recovery from spiked tissues was 86%. The analyses performed on 14 bald eagle carcasses and livers, 3 bald eagle eggs, and 14 osprey eggs show measurable levels which indicate that Kepone accumulates in the tissues of fish-eating birds. Residues were confirmed by GLC-mass spectrometry.

  1. Simultaneous high-pressure liquid chromatographic determination of acetaminophen, guaifenesin, and dextromethorphan hydrobromide in cough syrup.

    PubMed

    McSharry, W O; Savage, I V

    1980-02-01

    Acetaminophen (I), guaifenesin (II), and dextromethorphan hydrobromide (III) were separated and quantitated simultaneously in cough syrup by high-pressure liquid chromatography. A chemically bonded octadecylsilane stationary phase was used with a mobile phase of 48% (v/v) aqueous methanol. The mobile phase pH was stabilized to 4.2 by adding formic acid--ammonium formate buffer (approximately 0.4%). The internal standard was o-dinitrobenzene. Retention volumes were 4 ml for I, 6 ml for II, 11 ml for the internal standard, and 20 ml for III. Inactive syrup components did not interfere, permitting direct diluted sample injection. Results on active ingredients were essentially 100% of the claim, with standard deviations of +/- 1.5, 1.2, and 2.1% for I, II, and III, respectively. PMID:7359328

  2. Rapid reversed-phase liquid chromatographic determination of patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Gökmen, V; Acar, J

    1996-04-12

    A rapid, simple and economical method using a limited amount of organic solvent is described for the determination of patulin in apple juice. The sample was extracted with ethyl acetate and the extract was cleaned up by extraction with sodium carbonate solution. Patulin was then determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using a MicroPack C18 column and a variable-wavelength UV-Vis detector set at 276 nm. Patulin and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural were completely resolved by using water-acetonitrile (99:1, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min. The detection limit was < 5 micrograms/l and the recovery was 98%. PMID:8680596

  3. Liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric determination of five coccidiostats in poultry eggs and feed.

    PubMed

    Mortier, Leen; Daeseleire, Els; Van Peteghem, Carlos

    2005-06-25

    A method is described which permits the quantitative detection of the chemical coccidiostats halofuginone, robenidine, diclazuril, nicarbazin and dimetridazole and its main metabolite 2-hydroxydimetridazole in poultry eggs and feed. Sample preparations were kept very simple and are based upon extraction with an organic solvent. Sample extracts were injected into the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system on a C18 column and a gradient elution was performed. Dimetridazole-D3 and diclazuril-bis, a structural analogue of diclazuril, were used as internal standards. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in the selected reaction monitoring mode after ionisation in the positive or negative electrospray ionisation mode. Argon was applied as collision gas for collision induced dissociation. Validation of the methods was performed based on Commission Decision 2002/657/EC [Official Journal of the European Communities L221 (2002) 8]. PMID:15893963

  4. Sample preparation and liquid chromatographic determination of vitamin D in food products.

    PubMed

    Bui, M H

    1987-01-01

    Vitamin D in different fortified foods is determined by using liquid chromatography (LC). Sample preparation is described for fortified skim milk, infant formulas, chocolate drink powder, and diet food. The procedure involves 2 main steps: saponification of the sample followed by extraction, and quantitation by LC analysis. Depending on the sample matrix, additional steps are necessary, i.e., enzymatic digestion for hydrolyzing the starch in the sample and cartridge purification before LC injection. An isocratic system consisting of 0.5% water in methanol (v/v) on two 5 microns ODS Hypersil, 12 X 0.4 cm id columns is used. Recovery of vitamin D added to unfortified skim milk is 98%. The results of vitamin D determination in homogenized skim milk, fortified milk powder, fortified milk powder with soybean, chocolate drink powder, and sports diet food are given. PMID:3680113

  5. Liquid chromatographic-photodiode array mass spectrometric analysis of dietary phytoestrogens from human urine and blood.

    PubMed

    Franke, Adrian A; Custer, Laurie J; Wilkens, Lynne R; Le Marchand, Loïc Le; Nomura, Abraham M Y; Goodman, Marc T; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2002-09-25

    Dietary phytoestrogens have been implicated in the prevention of chronic diseases. However, it is uncertain whether the phytoestrogens or the foods associated with phytoestrogens account for the observed effects. We report here a new liquid chromatography photodiode array mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-MS) assay for the determination of nanomolar amounts of the most prominent dietary phytoestrogens (genistein, dihydrogenistein, daidzein, dihydrodaidzein, glycitein, O-desmethylangolensin, hesperetin, naringenin, quercetin, enterodiol, enterolactone) in human plasma or serum and urine. This assay was found to be suitable for the assessment of quercetin exposure in an onion intervention study by measuring urinary quercetin levels. Other successful applications of this assay in clinical and epidemiologic studies validated the developed method and confirmed previous results on the negative association between urinary isoflavone excretion and breast cancer risk. PMID:12270199

  6. Comparison of liquid chromatographic and bioassay procedures for determining depletion of intramuscularly injected tylosin.

    PubMed

    Moats, W A; Harris, E W; Steele, N C

    1985-01-01

    Crossbred pigs weighing 80-110 kg were injected intramuscularly in the ham with 8.8 mg/kg tylosin. Animals were slaughtered in groups of 3 at intervals of 4 h, and 1, 2, 4, and 8 days after injection, and samples of blood, injected muscle, uninjected muscle, liver, and kidney were analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC) and by bioassay using Sarcina lutea as the test organism. The LC method was far more sensitive with a detection limit of less than 0.1 ppm, while the detection limit by bioassay was about 0.5 ppm in tissue. Results by bioassay and LC sometimes differed considerably for tissue samples. Residues in all tissues were below the tolerance limit of 0.2 ppm at 24 h, except in the injected muscle in one animal. Residues were not detected in any tissue of any animal at 48 h after treatment. PMID:4019360

  7. High pressure liquid chromatographic determination of carbadox and pyrantel tartrate in swine feed and supplements.

    PubMed

    Lowie, D M; Teague, R T; Quick, F E; Foster, C L

    1983-05-01

    A rapid yet reliable procedure for the simultaneous extraction and assay of carbadox and pyrantel tartrate is described. The feed is extracted with water-acetonitrile-methanol and cleaned up on a short alumina column. The eluant is separated by high pressure liquid chromatography and the compounds are detected at different wavelengths. The drugs of interest are well resolved in all feeds studied. The procedure has also been applied to a wide range of feeds which contained either one of the drugs or both in combination. No significant interferences were observed. Spiked sample recoveries were 97% for carbadox and 101% for pyrantel tartrate. Ruggedness test coefficients of variation were 2.0% for carbadox and 2.1% for pyrantel tartrate. PMID:6863181

  8. Characterization of Gas Chromatographic Liquid Phases Using McReynolds Constants. An Experiment for Instrumental Analysis Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erskine, Steven R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment that is designed to aid in the understanding of the fundamental process involved in gas chromatographic separations. Introduces the Kovats retention index system for use by chemistry students to establish criteria for the optimal selection of gas chromatographic stationary phases. (TW)

  9. Simultaneous liquid chromatographic determination of carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols in human buccal mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Y S; Peng, Y M

    1992-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data have suggested that some micronutrients, including various carotenoids, retinoids, and alpha-tocopherol, may have chemopreventive activity against certain types of human cancer. In order to define the role of these micronutrients in cancer prevention, it is necessary to measure their concentrations in the target tissues, since these are critical to the chemopreventive effect. We have developed a sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography procedure for the simultaneous determination of lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, cis-beta-carotene, retinol, retinyl palmitate, alpha-tocopherol, and gamma-tocopherol in an easily accessible human target tissue, the buccal mucosal cells. This procedure used a gradient of two mobile phases which consisted of acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran, methanol, 1% ammonium acetate, and butylated hydroxytoluene (in v/v/v/v/w): mobile phase A, 85:5:5:5:0.05; mobile phase B, 55:35:5:5:0.05. The run time, including reequilibration, was 47 min: from 100% A to 100% B in 27 min, remaining at that mobile phase for 10 min, then back to 100% A at 43 min at a constant flow rate of 1.3 ml/min. The high-performance liquid chromatography effluent was monitored at 300, 325, and 452 nm for tocopherols, retinoids, and carotenoids, respectively, with a photodiode array detector. The average recovery was 83% for lycopene and > 92% for others. The precision of the assay for all the compounds was less than 10% in a 1-month period. The micronutrients were extracted by incubating the cells with protease, followed by vortex mixing with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in ethanol containing 0.1% butylated hydroxytoluene, and, finally, hexane extraction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1305470

  10. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for 4-nitrophenol hydroxylation, a putative cytochrome P-4502E1 activity, in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Tassaneeyakul, W; Veronese, M E; Birkett, D J; Miners, J O

    1993-06-23

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method which measures formation of product 4-nitrocatechol (4NC) has been developed and applied to the study of human liver microsomal 4-nitrophenol (4NP) hydroxylation. Following diethyl ether extraction, 4NC and the assay internal standard (salicylamide) were separated by reversed-phase (C18) liquid chromatography. Extraction efficiencies of 4NC and internal standard were both > 90%. The assay, which has a limit of detection of 15 pmol injected (or an incubation 4NC concentration of 0.25 microM), is accurate, reproducible and straightforward. With a chromatographic time of 12 min, 40-50 samples may be analyzed per day. Rates of 4NC formation were linear with time and protein concentration to 50 min and 0.5 mg/ml, respectively. Preliminary studies of 4NP hydroxylation showed that this reaction followed single enzyme Michaelis-Menten kinetics in human liver microsomes. PMID:8376495

  11. Accessing topological order in fractionalized liquids with gapped edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iadecola, Thomas; Neupert, Titus; Chamon, Claudio; Mudry, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    We consider manifestations of topological order in time-reversal-symmetric fractional topological liquids (TRS-FTLs), defined on planar surfaces with holes. We derive a formula for the topological ground-state degeneracy of such a TRS-FTL, which applies to cases where the edge modes on each boundary are fully gapped by appropriate backscattering terms. The degeneracy is exact in the limit of infinite system size, and is given by qNh, where Nh is the number of holes and q is an integer that is determined by the topological field theory. When the degeneracy is lifted by finite-size effects, the holes realize a system of Nh coupled spinlike q -state degrees of freedom. In particular, we provide examples where Zq quantum clock models are realized on the low-energy manifold of states. We also investigate the possibility of measuring the topological ground-state degeneracy with calorimetry, and briefly revisit the notion of topological order in s -wave BCS superconductors.

  12. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the unusual pathway of oxidation of L-arginine to citrulline and nitric oxide in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Chenais, B; Yapo, A; Lepoivre, M; Tenu, J P

    1991-02-22

    A very unusual pathway of the oxidation of L-arginine to citrulline and nitric oxide has been discovered recently in cytotoxic macrophages. In an attempt to detect molecules generated through this metabolic pathway, a fast radio high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to analyse the whole set of radiolabelled L-arginine-derived metabolites produced by mammalian cells after appropriate induction. A new intermediate which might be NG-hydroxy-L-arginine was found. PMID:2045453

  13. Chromatographic behaviour of ionic liquid cations in view of quantitative structure-retention relationship.

    PubMed

    Molíková, M; Markuszewski, M J; Kaliszan, R; Jandera, P

    2010-02-19

    The availability of ionic liquids (ILs) in wide areas of application often results in the requirement on their determination. The attention is also often focused on the knowledge of hydrophobicity as it plays a key role in the biological effects, in the assessment of environmental risk and in the prediction of the fate of chemicals in the environment and of its influence on retention in RP HPLC. One can get information regarding hydrophobicity and retention mechanism if quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRRs) are identified. The QSRRs were derived for logarithms of retention factors extrapolated to a pure water (or aqueous buffer) eluent, log k(w), determined for the pyridinium and imidazolium ionic liquid (IL) cations on two C8 (Supelcosil LC-8-DB, Symmetry C8) and two C18 (ACE 5 C18, Symmetry C18) stationary phases with isocratic elution by a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/40 mM phosphate buffer. The analyses of ILs were performed at a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1) with UV detection at 218 nm. The QSRRs were derived based on the retention parameters determined experimentally and the structural descriptors of test analytes from molecular modeling. Separations of ILs were obtained with aqueous acetonitrile buffered at pH 3.55 mobile phases. The statistically most significant two-parameter QSRR regression equations related log k(w) to the solvent accessible surface (SAS) of the analytes and the differences in the energies of the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (diffHL). These equations were especially good in case of columns with the highest carbon loads and larger specific surface areas, i.e. Symmetry C18 and Symmetry C8. On the other hand, the column ACE 5 C18 appeared to produce the best quality separations of the ILs studied. The QSRRs derived in the research shed light on the molecular mechanism of HPLC separation of ILs and helped to predict their relative separations. PMID:20060528

  14. Ionic liquids as mobile phase additives for the high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in water samples.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2008-12-01

    In this work, four ionic liquids differing in the length of the alkyl chain on the imidazolium cation and one ionic liquid containing tetraethylammonium, all with the same counterion, (i.e. 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIm-BF(4)), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIm-BF(4)), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (HMIm-BF(4)), 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (MOIm-BF(4)), and tetraethylammonium tetrafluroborate (Et(4)N-BF(4))) were tested as mobile phase additives for HPLC separation of a group of seven basic fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics for human and veterinary use (i.e. fleroxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, and difloxacin) using a conventional reversed-phase Nova-Pak C(18) column. Fluorescence detection was used. Among the ionic liquids selected, use of BMIm-BF(4) enabled effective separation of these compounds with relatively low analysis time (14 min). The best separation was achieved by isocratic elution at 1 mL min(-1) with 5 mmol L(-1) BMIm-BF(4) and 10 mmol L(-1) ammonium acetate at pH 3.0 with 13% (v/v) acetonitrile. Limits of detection (LODs) for fluorescence detection were in the range 0.5-11 microg L(-1). The method was tested by analyzing several water samples after the optimization of a suitable solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using Oasis HLB cartridges. Mean recovery values were above 84% for all analytes with LODs in the range 1-29 ng L(-1). PMID:18854988

  15. Capillary zone electrophoresis and packed capillary column liquid chromatographic analysis of recombinant human interleukin-4.

    PubMed

    Bullock, J

    1993-02-24

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and packed capillary column liquid chromatography (micro-LC) have been applied to the analysis of the recombinant human protein interleukin-4 (rhIL-4). Separations for both the parent protein and its enzymatic digest were developed for the purpose of characterizing protein purity and identity. CZE separations of the intact protein were investigated over the pH range of 4.5 to 8.0 using uncoated fused silica capillaries. Gradient reversed-phase micro-LC was performed using 0.32 mm packed capillary columns at flow-rates of 5-6 microliters/min. Emphasis was placed on the ability of these methods to separate close structural variants and degradation products of the protein. Peptide mapping of the tryptic digest of rhIL-4 using a combination of CZE and micro-LC provided complimentary high resolution methods for establishing protein identity. Reproducible separations were achieved using sub-picomol amounts of sample. The advantages and problems encountered with these two techniques for characterizing rhIL-4 were assessed. PMID:8450025

  16. Chromatographic analysis of Polygalae Radix by online hyphenating pressurized liquid extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuelin; Song, Qingqing; Li, Jun; Shi, Shepo; Guo, Liping; Zhao, Yunfang; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-06-01

    Practicing “green analytical chemistry” is of great importance when profiling the chemical composition of complex matrices. Herein, a novel hybrid analytical platform was developed for direct chemical analysis of complex matrices by online hyphenating pressurized warm water extraction followed by turbulent flow chromatography coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PWWE-TFC-LC-MS/MS). Two parallel hollow guard columns acted as extraction vessels connected to a long narrow polyether ether ketone tube, while warm water served as extraction solvent and was delivered at a flow rate of 2.5 mL/min to generate considerable back pressure at either vessel. A column oven heated both the solvent and crude materials. A TFC column, which is advantageous for the comprehensive trapping of small molecular substances from fluids under turbulent flow conditions, was employed to transfer analytes from the PWWE module to LC-MS/MS. Two electronic valves alternated each vessel between extraction and elution phases. As a proof-of-concept, a famous herbal medicine for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, namely Polygalae Radix, was selected for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results suggest that the hybrid platform is advantageous in terms of decreasing time, material, and solvent consumption and in its automation, versatility, and environmental friendliness.

  17. High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Resolution of Neutral and Cationic Hetero[6]Helicenes.

    PubMed

    Labrador, Geraldine M; Bosson, Johann; Breitbach, Zachary S; Lim, Yeeun; Francotte, Eric R; Sabia, Rocchina; Villani, Claudio; Armstrong, Daniel W; Lacour, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    Cationic hetero[6]helicenes , and have been recently disclosed. Herein we report on their enantiomeric separation using high-performance liquid chromatography. Separation of the antipodes can be achieved in preparative scale on neutral adducts with Chiralcel OD-I or Chiralpak ID CSP. Selectivity factors of 1.90, 1.67, and 1.96 were obtained for , , and , respectively. Separation can also be performed on the carbenium ions on regular Chiralpak IA CSP using water-containing eluents, thus allowing for enantiomeric purity determinations in aqueous environments. Resolution of neutral and cationic helicenes is also achieved on more recently developed LARIHC columns. The versatility of the cyclofructan phases allows for baseline separations for both cases and their loading capabilities are demonstrated. Finally, the configurational stability of , , and was measured. For each replacement of an oxygen atom by an amino group, the racemization barrier increases significantly (ΔG(‡)  = 29.8, 36.3 and >37 kcal mol(-1) for , , and respectively). Chirality 28:282-289, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26901116

  18. High-performance liquid chromatographic procedure for routine residue monitoring of seven sulfonamides in milk.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, N; Kishida, K

    2001-12-01

    A simplified method for routine monitoring of 7 residual sulfonamides (SAs) (sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamerazine (SMR), sulfadimidine (SDD), sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfadimethoxine (SDM), and sulfaquinoxaline (SQ)) in milk using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a photodiode array detector is described. The spiked and blank samples were cleaned up by using an Ultrafree-MC/PL centrifugal ultrafiltration unit. For determination/identification, a Mightysil RP-4 GP column and a mobile phase of 25% (v/v) ethanol in water with a photodiode array detector were used. Average recoveries from milk samples spiked with 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 microg mL(-1) of each drug were >82%. The inter- and intra-assay variabilities were 2.0-3.1%. The practical detection limits for 7 SAs were 0.005-0.02 microg mL(-1). The total time and amount of solvent required for the analysis of one sample were <40 min and <6 mL of ethanol, respectively. No toxic solvents were used. PMID:11769794

  19. Spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatographic methods for sensitive determination of bisphenol A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Yafeng; Zhou, Meng; Gu, Jia; Li, Xiangmei

    2014-03-01

    A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of bisphenol A based on a diazotization-coupling reaction was developed. In acidic solution, clenbuterol was first diazotized with sodium nitrite, then coupled with bisphenol A to from an azo-compound [I] in NH3-NH4Cl buffer, which shows a maximum absorption at 410 nm. The effects of the amount of sodium nitrite, diazo reaction time, the amount of clenbuterol, coupling reaction time and coupling reaction temperature have been examined. Under the optional conditions, the determination of the linear range of bisphenol A is 0.24-8.4 μg/mL, correlation coefficient is 0.9905 and detection limit of this method is 0.15 μg/mL. The spectrophotometric method is simple, rapid, high sensitivity with better accuracy. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique combined with this new spectrophotometric method has been also developed for the measurement of bisphenol A. The analysis was achieved on a C18 column using water and methanol as a mobile phase and the detection was done spectrophotometrically at 410 nm. These reported methods were applied to the determination of bisphenol A in hot water in contact with commercially available table-water bottle samples.

  20. Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of nifursol in frozen turkey tissues to ten parts per billion.

    PubMed

    Frahm, L J; George, G M; McDonnell, J P

    1975-07-01

    Nifursol (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (5-nitrofurfurylidene) hydrazide) is extracted into ethyl acetate from 10 g tissue in the presence of sodium sulfate. Tissue interferences are removed from the tissue extract by washing with petroleum ether after the extract has been transferred into an aqueous solution by evaporation of ethyl acetate. The drug is hydrolyzed under acid conditions to form 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde (5NF). After partition of 5NF from the aqueous phase into benzene the extract is further cleaned up on a Florisil column. The 5NF is eluted from the Florisil column with benzeneethyl acetate. Electron capture gas-liquid chromatography of a 10 mul injection of the concentrated column eluate is the determinative step. Quantitation is accomplished by comparison of the peak height of the sample to the peak height of the standard which is carried through the method simultaneously. Studies of method performance on turkey muscle, liver, kidney, and skin tissues fortified to contain 10 ppb nifursol show a recovery range of 87.4-95.0% and a coefficent of variation range of 5.7-11.2%. PMID:1150608

  1. A sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method for determining small amounts of glycosylproteins.

    PubMed

    Sampietro, T; Lenzi, S; Giampietro, O; Cecchetti, P; Masoni, A; Navalesi, R

    1987-01-01

    We developed a simple isocratic high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the quantitative determination of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde (5-HMF) liberated by mild hydrolysis of small amounts of glycosyl proteins. The absorbance of hydrolysate components after HPLC separation was recorded at 280 nm. To detect substances possibly interfering with the 5-HMF peak we always recorded the ratio of the peak heights A280 nm/A254 nm which was a constant value of 4.4. For each sample the blank was obtained by reduction with NaBH4 before hydrolysis with oxalic acid 1 mol/l. The best NaBH4/protein ratio was found to be 4 mg/mg. With this method we measured the nonenzymatic glycosylation (glycation) as 5-HMF in samples with a protein concentration as low as 0.8 mg/ml. 5-HMF produced per milligram of protein was independent from protein concentration for a wide range (0.8-10 mg/ml). The mean coefficient of variation for within assay and between precision was 6.8 and 11.6%, respectively. The 5-HMF measured on plasma proteins from normal subjects (n = 7) was 0.16 +/- 0.04 nmol/mg. Protein from insulin-dependent diabetic patients was 0.31 +/- 0.07 nmol/mg. With this method we succeeded in detecting an excessive glycation of platelet membrane proteins in 13 type-I diabetic patients. PMID:3581652

  2. Liquid chromatographic assay for metronidazole and tinidazole: pharmacokinetic and metabolic studies in human subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson-Ehle, I; Ursing, B; Nilsson-Ehle, P

    1981-01-01

    We developed methods for measuring metronidazole, its two major metabolites, and tinidazole in serum and urine. After treatment of each sample with an equal volume of 5% perchloric acid, the drugs were separated by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (retention times, 6 to 18 min). Quantitation was based on spectrometry at 320 nm. These assays were sensitive, rapid, and specific, and recoveries from biological samples were quantitative. Metronidazole and tinidazole were given as rapid intravenous infusions to four healthy human volunteers. The biological half-lives of these two compounds were 5.4 and 11.1 h, respectively. The hydroxy metabolite of metronidazole appeared quickly in serum and was eliminated at a slow rate. The acetic acid metabolite of metronidazole was detected in serum at very low levels and only for a limited time. No metabolic products of tinidazole were found in serum samples. In urine, 43.7% of the administered dose of metronidazole was recovered over a period of 24 h (24.1% of the dose as the hydroxy metabolite, 12.0% as the acetic acid metabolite, and 7.6% as unchanged drug). Only 18.4% of the infused dose of tinidazole was eliminated in urine over a period of 72 h, and no metabolic products were detected. PMID:7294765

  3. Chromatographic analysis of Polygalae Radix by online hyphenating pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuelin; Song, Qingqing; Li, Jun; Shi, Shepo; Guo, Liping; Zhao, Yunfang; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Practicing "green analytical chemistry" is of great importance when profiling the chemical composition of complex matrices. Herein, a novel hybrid analytical platform was developed for direct chemical analysis of complex matrices by online hyphenating pressurized warm water extraction followed by turbulent flow chromatography coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PWWE-TFC-LC-MS/MS). Two parallel hollow guard columns acted as extraction vessels connected to a long narrow polyether ether ketone tube, while warm water served as extraction solvent and was delivered at a flow rate of 2.5 mL/min to generate considerable back pressure at either vessel. A column oven heated both the solvent and crude materials. A TFC column, which is advantageous for the comprehensive trapping of small molecular substances from fluids under turbulent flow conditions, was employed to transfer analytes from the PWWE module to LC-MS/MS. Two electronic valves alternated each vessel between extraction and elution phases. As a proof-of-concept, a famous herbal medicine for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, namely Polygalae Radix, was selected for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results suggest that the hybrid platform is advantageous in terms of decreasing time, material, and solvent consumption and in its automation, versatility, and environmental friendliness. PMID:27272557

  4. Liquid chromatographic method for toxic biogenic amines in foods using a chaotropic salt.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jian-Jun; Liao, Ningbo; Ding, Tian; Ye, Xingqian; Liu, Dong-Hong

    2015-08-01

    Direct separation of biogenic amines by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) is not an easy task because their basic and hydrophilic characteristics can lead to poor retention, column overloading, peak tailing, and hence low efficiency. Rather than routinely resorting to derivatization or using classical hydrophobic ion-pair reagents (IPR), this work proposes a new RPLC method making use of the chaotropic salt KPF6 as inorganic additive to an acidic acetonitrilic eluent to remedy the difficulties. Amine retention, overload behavior, peak shape, and column efficiency were significantly improved. The use of excess KPF6 led to a very slight decrease of amine retention. Depending on amine, the dependence of the logarithmic retention factor on the volume percent of acetonitrile could be reasonably linear or quite convex. Coupled with UV detection, the method was applied to trace analysis for six biogenic, aromatic or heterocyclic amines in three types of food after a sample cleanup, as necessary, by ion-pair extraction. The reliability of the whole analysis was demonstrated to be satisfactory. The proposed method outperforms existing methods in that it eliminates the need for long and cumbersome derivatization procedures without losing sensitivity; it also represents a good surrogate for classical ion-pair chromatography (IPC) because of the desirable hydrophilicity of chaotropic salts. PMID:26141272

  5. Chromatographic analysis of Polygalae Radix by online hyphenating pressurized liquid extraction

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuelin; Song, Qingqing; Li, Jun; Shi, Shepo; Guo, Liping; Zhao, Yunfang; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Practicing “green analytical chemistry” is of great importance when profiling the chemical composition of complex matrices. Herein, a novel hybrid analytical platform was developed for direct chemical analysis of complex matrices by online hyphenating pressurized warm water extraction followed by turbulent flow chromatography coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PWWE-TFC-LC-MS/MS). Two parallel hollow guard columns acted as extraction vessels connected to a long narrow polyether ether ketone tube, while warm water served as extraction solvent and was delivered at a flow rate of 2.5 mL/min to generate considerable back pressure at either vessel. A column oven heated both the solvent and crude materials. A TFC column, which is advantageous for the comprehensive trapping of small molecular substances from fluids under turbulent flow conditions, was employed to transfer analytes from the PWWE module to LC-MS/MS. Two electronic valves alternated each vessel between extraction and elution phases. As a proof-of-concept, a famous herbal medicine for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, namely Polygalae Radix, was selected for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results suggest that the hybrid platform is advantageous in terms of decreasing time, material, and solvent consumption and in its automation, versatility, and environmental friendliness. PMID:27272557

  6. A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic practical approach for determination of flurbiprofen

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaq, Muhammad; Khan, Gul Majid; Wahab, Abdul; Khan, Arshad; Hussain, Abid; Nawaz, Asif; Abdelkader, Hamdy

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for flurbiprofen has been developed and validated practically. The chromatography was conducted using Gemini C18 column (5 μm; 4.6 mm × 250 mm, Phenomenex, California, USA). The mobile phase containing disodium hydrogen phosphate solution (30 mM) pH 7.0 and acetonitrile (50:50); and the isocratic flow rate of 1.0 ml/min were used in the current study. Detection was made at 247 nm. The calibration curve was linear (r ≥ 0.9996) over the concentration range of 5-50 μm/ml. Mean percentage (%) recovery ± % relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 97.07 ± 0.008 to 103.66 ± 0.013. Within-day and between-day precision were also in acceptable range of 98.83 ± 0.004 to 104.56 ± 0.009. In order to confirm the practical applicability of the method developed, flurbiprofen controlled release matrix tablets were subjected to the dissolution studies and the release rate was analyzed. The reported HPLC for flurbiprofen provides several advantages of simplicity, high specificity, accuracy, and very short run-cycle time. It is suggested that the method should be used for the routine quality control analysis of flurbiprofen pure drug and its dosage forms. PMID:22171311

  7. Liquid chromatographic method for nicarbazin in broiler feeds and premixtures: development, validation, and interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jacob; Tomassen, Marinka; Driessen, Jaap; Keukens, Henk; Hans-Artur, Putzka; Brambilla, Glanfranco

    2004-01-01

    A reversed-phase liquid chromatography method for nicarbazin in broiler feeds and premixtures was developed, validated, and interlaboratory studied. The extraction solvent was an acetonitrile-methanol (1 + 1) mixture. For feedingstuffs, water was also added. The 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide moiety of nicarbazin was detected at a wavelength of 350 nm. Recovery was > or =87%. At 20 mg/kg, the repeatability was 0.7% and the within-laboratory reproducibility was 2.7%. The limit of determination was <20 mg/kg. Other feed additives did not interfere in the assay that proved to be applicable to broiler feeds from different European Union countries. In an interlaboratory study, 4 positive broiler feeds, 1 blank pig feed, and 1 broiler premixture were analyzed by 19 laboratories using the method developed in this study. The relative standard deviation for repeatability (RSDr) of the feedingstuffs (20-240 mg/kg) varied between 2.6 and 10.2%. The HORRAT ranged between 0.70 and 1.22. Recoveries were 91-108%. Three laboratories detected small signals in the blind blank samples, ranging from 0.4 to 2 mg/kg. For the premixture, acceptable results for reproducibility could only be obtained after the sample weight and volume of extraction had been doubled. To avoid excessive dilution of the extracts, the range of the calibration curve had also been doubled. With this modified method, the RSDr was 5.7% and the HORRAT was 1.95 (10 laboratories). PMID:15675436

  8. Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties. Final report, September 1991--February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.

    1996-03-01

    Experiments on equilibrium adsorption loadings of various probe compounds on 60-200 mesh Illinois {number_sign}6 coal (PSOC-1539), Adaville {number_sign}1 coal (PSOC-1544), Wyodak coal (PSOC-1545) and Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 coal (PSOC-1549) were performed. the probe compounds include m-cresol, p-cresol, o-cresol, phenol, n-octanol, n-heptanol, n-propanol, isopropanol n-butanol, s-butanol, 2-butanol, t-butanol, 2-naphthol, cyclohexanol, 2-methyl-1-pentanol (2M1P), 4-methyl-2-pentanol (4M2P), benzene and toluene. Equilibrium adsorption of various probe compounds on the coals were measured with the inverse liquid chromatography method. Experiments on flotation of various 60-200 mesh treated coals such as Illinois {number_sign}6 coal (PSOC-1539), Adaville {number_sign}1 coal (PSOC-1544), Wyodak coal (PSOC-1545) and Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 coal (PSOC-1549) were performed. The chosen coals were treated with steam, nitrogen and air at 1 atm and 125-225{degrees}C for 24 hours. The coals were treated with water as well as 20-1000 ppm aqueous alcohol solutions for 3-24 hours at 150-225{degrees}C. The coals also were treated with 20-ppm alcohol aqueous solutions for 1-24 hours at the 0.002-g/min mass flow rate of alcohol aqueous solutions and at 225{degrees}C. Flotation experiments were conducted with a 500-cm{sup 3} batch-type micro flotation apparatus, introducing nitrogen at the bottom of the apparatus. This final report was prepared with the experimental data obtained during the period of September 1991-March 1994.

  9. Simultaneous determination of piracetam and vincamine by spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    El-Saharty, Yasser Shaker Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    A mixture of piracetam and vincamine was determined by 3 different methods. The first was the determination of piracetam and vincamine using the ratio-spectra first-derivative (DD1) spectrophotometric technique at 209 and 293 nm in concentration ranges of 10-45 and 2-14 microg/mL with mean recoveries of 99.22 +/- 0.72 and 99.67 +/- 0.79%, respectively. The second method was based on the resolution of the 2 components by bivariate calibration depending on a mathematic algorithm that provides simplicity and rapidity. The method depended on quantitative evaluation of the absorbencies at 210 and 225 nm in concentration ranges of 5-45 and 2-14 microg/mL, with mean recoveries of 100.33 +/- 0.54 and 100.44 +/- 0.98% for piracetam and vincamine, respectively. The third method was reversed-phase liquid chromatography using 0.05 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate-methanol (50 + 50, v/v) as the mobile phase, with the pH adjusted to 3.5 with phosphoric acid. The eluent was monitored at 215 nm in concentration ranges of 5-100 and 2-200 microg/mL, with mean recoveries of 99.62 +/- 0.67 and 99.32 +/- 0.85% for piracetam and vincamine, respectively. The suggested procedures were checked using laboratory-prepared mixtures and were successfully applied for the analysis of their pharmaceutical preparation. The methods retained their accuracy and precision when applying the standard addition technique. The results obtained by applying the proposed methods were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by the manufacturer's method. PMID:18476342

  10. A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid and allantoin in serum.

    PubMed

    Kock, R; Delvoux, B; Greiling, H

    1993-05-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid and allantoin based on isocratic reversed-phase chromatography. This HPLC-method additionally allows the direct determination with UV-detection of inosine-5'-phosphate, uridine, thymine, orotic acid, allopurinol and oxipurinol, besides hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid in the same chromatographic run. Allantoin elutes in this system near the void volume and a fraction is collected covering the retention time range for this substance. After hydrolysis allantoin is converted to glyoxylate-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone, rechromatographed and detected at 360 nm. The coefficient of variation for this method does not exceed 5.0% for a serum concentration of 0.3 mumol/l hypoxanthine and is not greater than 5.3% for a xanthine concentration of 0.3 mumol/l serum. Recoveries were 90-110% for both hypoxanthine and xanthine. The determination of uric acid had an imprecision and inaccuracy not exceeding 1.45% in the concentration range of 103-568 mumol/l. Due to the more complex procedure required for the determination of allantoin, the coefficient of variation between days was 13.6% for a sample containing 0.8 mumol/l allantoin and the recoveries for this analyte were in the range of 86-93%. Reference ranges (mean +/- SD) determined on 171 serum samples from healthy adults were 12.7 +/- 6.6 mumol/l for hypoxanthine, 3.3 +/- 1.4 mumol/l for xanthine, and 15.7 +/- 7.9 mumol/l for allantoin. No significant age or sex dependence was observed. Uric acid concentrations were 320 +/- 55 mumol/l serum for men and 206 +/- 55 mumol/l for women. PMID:8357939