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Sample records for liquid effluent monitoring

  1. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) System Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-10-11

    The liquid effluent sampling program is part of the effort to minimize adverse environmental impact during the cleanup operation at the Hanford Site. Of the 33 Phase I and Phase II liquid effluents, all streams actively discharged to the soil column will be sampled. The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Construction document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user.

  2. Nonradiological liquid effluent monitoring program. 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.A.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.; Meachum, T.R.

    1993-08-01

    A monitoring program for nonradioactive parameters and pollutants in liquid effluents was initiated in October 1985 for facilities operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Program design and implementation are discussed in this report. Design and methodologies for sampling, analysis, and data management are also discussed. Monitoring results for 28 liquid effluent streams from (October 1991 through December 1992) are presented with emphasis on calendar year 1992 activities. All parameter measurements and concentrations were below the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act toxic characteristics limits.

  3. Optimizing liquid effluent monitoring at a large nuclear complex.

    PubMed

    Chou, Charissa J; Barnett, D Brent; Johnson, Vernon G; Olson, Phil M

    2003-12-01

    Effluent monitoring typically requires a large number of analytes and samples during the initial or startup phase of a facility. Once a baseline is established, the analyte list and sampling frequency may be reduced. Although there is a large body of literature relevant to the initial design, few, if any, published papers exist on updating established effluent monitoring programs. This paper statistically evaluates four years of baseline data to optimize the liquid effluent monitoring efficiency of a centralized waste treatment and disposal facility at a large defense nuclear complex. Specific objectives were to: (1) assess temporal variability in analyte concentrations, (2) determine operational factors contributing to waste stream variability, (3) assess the probability of exceeding permit limits, and (4) streamline the sampling and analysis regime. Results indicated that the probability of exceeding permit limits was one in a million under normal facility operating conditions, sampling frequency could be reduced, and several analytes could be eliminated. Furthermore, indicators such as gross alpha and gross beta measurements could be used in lieu of more expensive specific isotopic analyses (radium, cesium-137, and strontium-90) for routine monitoring. Study results were used by the state regulatory agency to modify monitoring requirements for a new discharge permit, resulting in an annual cost savings of US dollars 223,000. This case study demonstrates that statistical evaluation of effluent contaminant variability coupled with process knowledge can help plant managers and regulators streamline analyte lists and sampling frequencies based on detection history and environmental risk. PMID:15160897

  4. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.

    1995-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting a program to monitor the waste water from PNL-operated research and development facilities on the Hanford Site. The purpose of the program is to collect data to assess administrative controls and to determine whether discharges to the process sewer meet sewer criteria. Samples have been collected on a regular basis from the major PNL facilities on the Hanford Site since March 1994. A broad range of analyses has been performed to determine the primary constituents in the liquid effluent. The sampling program is briefly summarized in the paper. Continuous monitoring of pH, conductivity, and flow also provides data on the liquid effluent streams. In addition to sampling and monitoring, the program is evaluating the dynamics of the waste stream with dye studies and is evaluating the use of newer technologies for potential deployment in future sampling/monitoring efforts. Information collected to date has been valuable in determining sources of constituents that may be higher than the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). This facility treats the waste streams before discharge to the Columbia River.

  5. Liquid effluent retention facility final-status groundwater monitoring plan

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, M.D.; Chou, C.J.; Bjornstad, B.N.

    1997-09-01

    The following sections describe the groundwater-monitoring program for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF). The LERF is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). The LERF is included in the {open_quotes}Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, Permit WA890008967{close_quotes}, (referred to herein as the Permit) (Ecology 1994) and is subject to final-status requirements for groundwater monitoring (WAC 173-303-645). This document describes a RCRA/WAC groundwater detection-monitoring program for groundwater in the uppermost aquifer system at the LERF. This plan describes the LERF monitoring network, constituent list, sampling schedule, statistical methods, and sampling and analysis protocols that will be employed for the LERF. This plan will be used to meet the groundwater monitoring requirements from the time the LERF becomes part of the Permit and through the post-closure care period, until certification of final closure.

  6. Radiochemical Sensor for Continuous and Remote Liquid Effluents Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Tarancon, A.; Garcia, J.F.; Rauret, G.; Padro, A.

    2008-07-01

    On-line radioactivity monitoring in liquid effluents is an increasing need according to the international regulations at present. Classical activity determination procedures include the sequence of sampling, chemical treatment, measurement and data treatment. These steps are man-power consuming, generate a great amount of waste and introduce an important delay between the potential pollution event and its detection and quantification. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a radiochemical sensor for liquid effluents capable of sending information about the specific activity and volume of a contamination episode to a remote position, on line and continuously. The capabilities of the sensor developed here allow detecting and quantifying contamination pulses of alpha, beta and gamma emitters of different volumes and activity levels included in a continuous stream. Sensor receptor includes two detection systems, one addressed to determine alpha, beta and gamma events and the other to detect sample gamma emissions. Detailed sensor structure will be shown at the conference because patent is in process at this moment. Detection efficiencies (%) obtained in the alpha-beta-gamma system for the range of contamination volumes considered (2- 300 ml) are: 1.6 - 3.2%, for Pu-240; 22.2 - 58.4%, for Sr-90/Y-90 and 8.8 -17.7%, for Cs-134. In the gamma system, values for Cs-134 detection range from 0.6% to 1.3%. Prediction errors obtained show that sensor is capable to detect Sr-90/Y-90 contamination pulses of at least 2 ml and 3 Bq/ml with a relative error lower of 10% in activity and 60% in volume. When contamination pulse increases up to 7 ml, relative errors decrease to 5% for both magnitudes. For Pu-240 and Cs-134, when contamination pulses are of at least 7 ml and 300 Bq/ml, the relative errors obtained in determinations performed in the alpha-beta-gamma system are lower than 10% in activity and 20 % in volume. The same errors are obtained in the gamma system for Cs

  7. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System test plans releases 2.0 and 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Guettler, D.A.

    1995-05-26

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user.

  8. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) test plans release 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-10-12

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user.

  9. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System test plans release 1.2

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-10-11

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user.

  10. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) test plans release 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-09-08

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user.

  11. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  12. Operability test procedure for the TK-900 beta/gamma liquid effluent monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenfels, R.D.

    1995-02-24

    This operability test procedure will verify that the 221-B beta/gamma liquid effluent monitoring system, installed near the east end of the six inch chemical sewer header, functions as intended by design. An off-line, skid mounted, beta/gamma radiation monitor and pH monitor was installed near stairwell three in the 221-B electrical gallery by Project W-007H. The skid mounted monitoring system includes two radiation detectors and a pH meter, both with local digital displays. Output signals from each monitor are also received and displayed by the Facility Process Monitor and Control System (FPMCS). Pumps, motors, gauges, valves and transport lines complement the skid monitoring system. The system is part of BAT/AKART for the BCE liquid effluent system.

  13. Operability test report for the TK-900 beta/gamma liquid effluent monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenfels, R.D.

    1995-04-10

    This operability test report will verify that the 221-B beta/gamma liquid effluent monitoring system installed near the east end of the six inch chemical sewer header, functions as intended by design. An off-line, skid mounted, beta/gamma radiation monitor and pH monitor was installed near stairwell three in the 221-B electrical gallery by Project W-007H. The skid mounted monitoring system includes two radiation detectors and a pH meter, both with local digital displays. Output signals from each monitor are also received and displayed by the Facility Process Monitor and Control System (FPMCS). Pumps, motors, gauges, valves and transport lines complement the skid monitoring system. The system is part of BAT/AKART for the BCE liquid effluent system.

  14. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 300 area facility liquid effluent monitoring: 1994 and 1995 field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.G.; Thompson, C.J.; Damberg, E.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1997-07-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Effluent Management Services manages liquid waste streams from some of the 300 Area buildings on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to ensure liquid discharges to the Columbia River are in compliance with permit requirements. The buildings are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. In fiscal year (FY) 1994 and FY 1995, three field tests were conducted to gather information that could be used to (1) increase the understanding of 300 Area building liquid waste streams based on the characterization and monitoring data collected during calendar year (CY) 1994 and CY 1995 and (2) establish improved methods for evaluating facility releases. The three field tests were (1) an evaluation of a continuous monitoring/event-triggered sampling system, (2) a volatile organic compound hold-time study, and (3) an investigation of the dilution and retention properties of the 300 Area process sewer. The results from the first field test showed that future characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams could benefit significantly from augmenting continuous monitoring with event-triggered sampling. Current continuous-monitoring practices (i.e., monitoring of pH, conductivity, and flow) cannot detect discharges of organic pollutants. Effluent control effectiveness would be enhanced by incorporating a continuous total organic carbon analyzer in the system to detect events involving releases of organic compounds. In the second field test, sample hold times were shown to have a significant effect on volatile organic compound data. Samples analyzed in the field within 1 hour of collection generally had 1.5 to 3 times higher volatile organic compound concentrations than those analyzed 1.5 to 4 weeks later at on-site and off-site laboratories, respectively. The number of volatile organic compounds detected also decreased with increasing hold times.

  15. Facility effluent monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  16. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H.

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  17. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper discusses the development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluent which has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion for analysis by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, a toluene-based cocktail showed the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%). In another technique, the sensitivity of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium in aqueous solutions was measured. The most efficient solid scintillator had a 2% tritium detection efficiency. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency.

  18. Air Emission, Liquid Effluent Inventory and Reporting

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-08-18

    The IES maintains an inventory of radiological air and liquid effluents released to the atmosphere. The IES utilizes the official stack numbers. Data may be entered by generators for any monitoring time period. Waste volumes released as well as their radiological constituents are tracked. The IES provides data to produce a report for NESHAPS as well as several administrative action/anomaly reports. These reports flag unusual occurences (releases) that are above normal range releases.

  19. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T.

    1991-12-31

    The development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluents has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion which was analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%) was determined for a toluene-based cocktail. In another technique, the response of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium solutions was measured. A 2% tritium detection efficiency was observed for the most efficient solid scintillators tested. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency. While sensitivities of {approximately}25 kBg/L of tritium for a short count have been attained using several of these techniques, non can reach the environmental level of <1 kBg/L in aqueous solutions.

  20. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluents has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion which was analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%) was determined for a toluene-based cocktail. In another technique, the response of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium solutions was measured. A 2% tritium detection efficiency was observed for the most efficient solid scintillators tested. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency. While sensitivities of {approximately}25 kBg/L of tritium for a short count have been attained using several of these techniques, non can reach the environmental level of <1 kBg/L in aqueous solutions.

  1. Waste monitoring system for effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, J.M.; Gomez, B.; Trujillo, L.; Malcom, J.E.; Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Bibeau, R.

    1995-07-01

    The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system.

  2. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    SciTech Connect

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-09-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

  3. Liquid effluent study characterization data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    During the development of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), public comments were received regarding reduction of the discharge of liquid effluents into the soil column. As a result, the US Department of Energy (DOE), with concurrence of the Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE)and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), committed to a special project designed to document the discharge history and the charter of Hanford Site liquid discharges. The results of this project will be used in determining the need for additional waste stream analysis, and/or to negotiate additional milestones pertaining to such discharges in the Tri-Party Agreement. Wastestream sampling data collected prior to October 1989 were reported in the Waste Stream Characterization Report. Preliminary Stream-specific Reports were prepared which evaluated that data and proposed dangerous waste designations for each stream. This document contains the wastestream sampling and analysis data collected as part of the liquid effluent study. Data contained in this report were obtained from samples collected from October 1989 through March 1990. Information is presented on the wastestreams that have been sampled, the parameters analyzed, and the dates and times at which the samples were collected. This information will be evaluated in the final Stream-Specific Reports. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 327 Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    The 327 Facility [Post-Irradiation Testing Laboratory] provides office and laboratory space for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of post-irradiated fuels and structural materials. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials in the conduct of these activities. This report summarizes the airborne emissions and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  5. Computer software configuration management plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, F.A. Jr.

    1995-02-27

    This computer software management configuration plan covers the control of the software for the monitor and control system that operates the Effluent Treatment Facility and its associated truck load in station and some key aspects of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility that stores condensate to be processed. Also controlled is the Treated Effluent Disposal System`s pumping stations and monitors waste generator flows in this system as well as the Phase Two Effluent Collection System.

  6. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 324 Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    The 324 Facility [Waste Technology Engineering Laboratory] in the 300 Area primarily supports the research and development of radioactive and nonradioactive waste vitrification technologies, biological waste remediation technologies, spent nuclear fuel studies, waste mixing and transport studies, and tritium development programs. All of the above-mentioned programs deal with, and have the potential to, release hazardous and/or radioactive material. The potential for discharge would primarily result from (1) conducting research activities using the hazardous materials, (2) storing radionuclides and hazardous chemicals, and (3) waste accumulation and storage. This report summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents, and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterizing effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  7. Effluent Treatment Facility tritium emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.L.

    1991-07-25

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved sampling and analysis protocol was developed and executed to verify atmospheric emissions compliance for the new Savannah River Site (SRS) F/H area Effluent Treatment Facility. Sampling equipment was fabricated, installed, and tested at stack monitoring points for filtrable particulate radionuclides, radioactive iodine, and tritium. The only detectable anthropogenic radionuclides released from Effluent Treatment Facility stacks during monitoring were iodine-129 and tritium oxide. This paper only examines the collection and analysis of tritium oxide.

  8. Liquid effluent study: Ground water characterization data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This report is a support document to the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Report (WHC 1990c). The focus is on sampling and analysis rationale, quality assurance (QA), data validation, and sampling conditions for the groundwater quality assessment. Interpretation of the groundwater data is provided in the final project report. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Millimeter wave sensor for monitoring effluents

    DOEpatents

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Bakhtiari, Sasan; Raptis, Apostolos C.; Dieckman, Stephen L.

    1995-01-01

    A millimeter-wave sensor for detecting and measuring effluents from processing plants either remotely or on-site includes a high frequency signal source for transmitting frequency-modulated continuous waves in the millimeter or submillimeter range with a wide sweep capability and a computer-controlled detector for detecting a plurality of species of effluents on a real time basis. A high resolution spectrum of an effluent, or effluents, is generated by a deconvolution of the measured spectra resulting in a narrowing of the line widths by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude as compared with the pressure broadened spectra detected at atmospheric pressure for improved spectral specificity and measurement sensitivity. The sensor is particularly adapted for remote monitoring such as where access is limited or sensor cost restricts multiple sensors as well as for large area monitoring under nearly all weather conditions.

  10. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities -- Quality assurance program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, L.

    1995-03-13

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance and management controls used by the 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) to perform its activities in accordance with DOE Order 5700.6C. The 200 Area LEF consists of the following facilities: Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF); Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF); Liquid Effluent Retention facility (LERF); and Truck Loading Facility -- (Project W291). The intent is to ensure that all activities such as collection of effluents, treatment, concentration of secondary wastes, verification, sampling and disposal of treated effluents and solids related with the LEF operations, conform to established requirements.

  11. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOEpatents

    Koster, James E.; Bolton, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  12. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOEpatents

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  13. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 3720 Building

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the Environmental Science Laboratory (3720 Facility) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs'' This FEMP has been prepared for the 3720 Facility primarily because it has a major (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The 3720 Facility provides office and laboratory space for PNNL scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of materials characterization and testing and waste management. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials to conduct these activities. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, and dispersible particulate. The facility is in the process of being vacated for shutdown, but is considered a Major Emission Point as of the date of this document approval.

  14. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 325 Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Applied Chemistry Laboratory (325 Facility) houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and mixed hazardous waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials, and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed, low-level, and transuranic wastes generated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, particulate, and gas. Some of these materials are also heated during testing which can produce vapors. The research activities have been assigned to the following activity designations: High-Level Hot Cell, Hazardous Waste Treatment Unit, Waste Form Development, Special Testing Projects, Chemical Process Development, Analytical Hot Cell, and Analytical Chemistry. The following summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  15. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the fast flux test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Nickels, J M; Dahl, N R

    1992-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in US Department of Energy Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determination was performed during calendar year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements.

  16. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA SYSTEMS USER GUIDE: LIQUID EFFLUENTS DATA SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a user guide to the Liquid Effluents Data System (LEDS), a computerized data base on liquid effluents (or wastewater) from stationary point sources. The LEDS is one of four waste stream data bases which are components of the Environmental Assessment Data Systems (EA...

  18. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-10-20

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans.

  19. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Real-time sewer effluent monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, S.; Yamauchi, R.K.

    1990-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has upgraded its early sewer monitoring system from the 1970's. LLNL must insure that its waste water is of a consistent and acceptable nature for the City of Livermore's community sewer system. The Sewer Monitor UpGrade system (SMUG) is now monitoring the Lab's sewer effluent. SMUG monitors the effluent for pH, flow rate, metals, and alpha, beta and gamma emitting isotopes. It turns on the appropriate alarms if present alarm levels are exceeded. The hardware consists of DEC Micro VAX II/GPX that has been repackaged by Nuclear Data Company as the Genie 9900 Data Acquisition and Display System. The gamma detector, three XRFAs, pH meter, and flow rate meter are commercially available. The metals sample cells are custom built at the Lab. The operating system is the VMS version 5.4. The application software is written in DEC's Fortran-77 and MACRO, and Nuclear Data software library. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the uranium trioxide facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L.; De Lorenzo, D.S.

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  2. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium uranium extraction facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegand, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  3. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farm facility

    SciTech Connect

    Crummel, G.M.

    1998-05-18

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements.

  4. Liquid effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) implementation summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-04-26

    This report summarizes liquid effluent analytical data collected during the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) Implementation Program, evaluates whether or not the sampling performed meets the requirements of the individual SAPs, compares the results to the WAC 173-200 Ground Water Quality Standards. Presented in the report are results from liquid effluent samples collected (1992-1994) from 18 of the 22 streams identified in the Consent Order (No. DE 91NM-177) requiring SAPs.

  5. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A evaporator facility

    SciTech Connect

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, as a minimum, every three years.

  6. Effluent emissions monitoring at the DOE Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, L.W.

    1993-05-01

    There are numerous regulatory requirements controlling the effluent emissions monitoring at a U.S. Department of Energy site. This paper defines how these regulatory effluent emissions monitoring requirements and the Quality Assurance oversight of these requirements were implemented by Westinghouse Hanford Company, the operations contractor, at the DOE Hanford Site.

  7. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 222-S Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Nickels, J.M.; Warwick, G.J.

    1992-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable Federal, State, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, as a minimum, every three years.

  8. Systems engineering implementation plan for the liquid effluents services program

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    A graded approach is being taken by the Liquid Effluents Services Program in implementing systems engineering because of the advanced state of the program. The approach is cost-effective and takes credit for related work already completed, yet retains the benefits of systems engineering. This plan describes how the Liquid Effluents Services Program will implement systems engineering so there is a common understanding. Systems engineering work to be performed and the products of that work are identified. The relation to the current planning process and integration with the sitewide systems engineering effort is described.

  9. Assessment of Radioactive Liquid Effluents Release at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    SciTech Connect

    Bessa Nisti, Marcelo; Godoy dos Santos, Adir Janete

    2008-08-07

    A continuous effluent monitoring program has been established at IPEN's plant in order to allow an environmental impact assessment due to radioactive liquid effluent discharge to sanitary system. Representative samples of radioactive liquid effluents are analyzed by using high resolution gamma spectroscopy and instrumental neutron activation analysis, facing to Brazilian radioprotection regulatory rules. The results are consolidating yearly in the Institute source-term. In this paper, results of the source-term are presented, concerning to years 2004, 2005 and 2006. The total activity discharged was 8.5xl0{sup 8} Bq, 5.7x10{sup 8} Bq and 2.7xl0{sup 8} Bq, respectively. As the release is strongly dependent on the total amount of the effluent and on the dilution factor, special attention is needed in order to obtain the correct value of that last one. The estimated inside plant dilution factor, considering the recent facilities and the reshaping of the sewerage system was 80, 180 and 130, for period of 2004, 2005 and 2006 discharged liquid radioactive effluent.

  10. Assessment of Radioactive Liquid Effluents Release at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa; dos Santos, Adir Janete Godoy

    2008-08-01

    A continuous effluent monitoring program has been established at IPEN's plant in order to allow an environmental impact assessment due to radioactive liquid effluent discharge to sanitary system. Representative samples of radioactive liquid effluents are analyzed by using high resolution gamma spectroscopy and instrumental neutron activation analysis, facing to Brazilian radioprotection regulatory rules. The results are consolidating yearly in the Institute source-term. In this paper, results of the source-term are presented, concerning to years 2004, 2005 and 2006. The total activity discharged was 8.5×l08 Bq, 5.7×108 Bq and 2.7×l08 Bq, respectively. As the release is strongly dependent on the total amount of the effluent and on the dilution factor, special attention is needed in order to obtain the correct value of that last one. The estimated inside plant dilution factor, considering the recent facilities and the reshaping of the sewerage system was 80, 180 and 130, for period of 2004, 2005 and 2006 discharged liquid radioactive effluent.

  11. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  12. 300 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) Authorization Envelope

    SciTech Connect

    WRIGHT, E.J.; STORDEUR, R.T.

    2000-04-07

    The purpose of this document is to establish the facility Authorization Envelope (AE) for the 300 Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEP )Project and identify the requirements related to the maintenance of the AE as Specified in HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The 300 LEF Project consists of two separate facilities operating under one management organization. They are the 310 Facility and the 340 Facility. The AE documents the limits of operations for all 300 LEF Project activities.

  13. Continuous environmental monitoring for aqueous effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, Jr., W. W.; Jones, G. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    An aquatic environmental monitor has been developed that will continuously monitor aqueous waste streams from coal processing plants. The monitor contains three different instruments: a continuous chemical oxygen demand monitor and two continuous-flow fluorometers with different excitation-emission characteristics. A prototype instrument was fabricated and evaluated for several different applications. The details of the instrument design and results of its evaluation are presented in this report.

  14. 1994 Environmental monitoring drinking water and nonradiological effluent programs annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, B.D.; Brock, T.A.; Meachum, T.R.

    1995-10-01

    EG&G Idaho, Inc., initiated monitoring programs for drinking water in 1988 and for nonradiological parameters and pollutants in liquid effluents in 1985. These programs were initiated for the facilities operated by EG&G Idaho for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. On October 1, 1994, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) replaced EG&G Idaho as the prime contractor at the INEL and assumed responsibility for these programs. Section I discusses the general site characteristics, the analytical laboratories, and sampling methodology general to both programs. Section 2, the Drinking Water Program, tracks the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters required by State and Federal regulations. This section describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at 17 LITCO-operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters detected and the regulatory limits exceeded during calendar year 1994. In addition, groundwater quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for LITCO production wells. Section 3 discusses the nonradiological liquid effluent monitoring results for 27 liquid effluent streams. These streams are presented with emphasis on calendar year 1994 activities. All parameter measurements and concentrations were below the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act toxic characteristics limits.

  15. Development of aqueous tritium effluent monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J. )

    1989-01-01

    A variety of techniques have been evaluated and tested in an attempt to develop a monitor for tritium at low-levels in aqueous streams. One system tested was commercially available, HPLC radioactivity monitor. This system uses crushed yttrium silicate as the scintillator and employs standard fast coincidence electronics to measure tritium in a flowing stream. Laboratory tests of this unit indicate that the monitor can sense tritium at concentrations above 600 pCi/cc using a two (2) minute counting interval. Pooling the count rate data over a longer interval, (e.g.,. 24 hours) results in a detection limit of {approximately}20 pCi/cc, under constant background conditions. Unfortunately, the cells are easily plugged with debris even under laboratory conditions. To overcome this problem, a prototype system was designed, fabricated, and is being tested in the laboratory. The prototype used unclad fibers of plastic scintillator as the detection medium. Approximately 500 1mm-diam fibers were assembled into a flow cell with two 51mm-diam photomultipliers (PMTs) coupled to the ends of the fiber bundles to detect the scintillations. Fast coincidence, pulse shaping electronics are used to minimize the single photon and dark current backgrounds. The tritium counting efficiency, background, and sensitivity will be determined in the laboratory followed by field reliability testing. 10 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Continuous tritium effluent water monitor at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T.

    1992-01-01

    A continuous monitor for tritium in water has been installed in the secondary cooling water effluent from the K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The monitor is designed to provide early detection of a small leak of the tritiated heavy water moderator and facilitate rapid isolation procedures. The tritium detector consists of an analysis cell containing 0.1--0.25 mm diameter beads of plastic scintillator interposed between two photomultiplier tubes and standard fast-slow coincidence electronics. A small portion of the effluent stream is first filtered through a series of cartridge filters (0.2 [mu]m final filter) and then chemically treated by ion exchange resin and activated charcoal before reaching the cell. Flow through the detector is [approx]3 mL/min. The tritium effluent water monitor (TEWM) will alarm if the tritium in the outfall exceeds 56 Bq/mL during a 10 minute counting interval. The installation and performance of the TEWM are discussed.

  17. Continuous tritium effluent water monitor at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T.

    1992-11-01

    A continuous monitor for tritium in water has been installed in the secondary cooling water effluent from the K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The monitor is designed to provide early detection of a small leak of the tritiated heavy water moderator and facilitate rapid isolation procedures. The tritium detector consists of an analysis cell containing 0.1--0.25 mm diameter beads of plastic scintillator interposed between two photomultiplier tubes and standard fast-slow coincidence electronics. A small portion of the effluent stream is first filtered through a series of cartridge filters (0.2 {mu}m final filter) and then chemically treated by ion exchange resin and activated charcoal before reaching the cell. Flow through the detector is {approx}3 mL/min. The tritium effluent water monitor (TEWM) will alarm if the tritium in the outfall exceeds 56 Bq/mL during a 10 minute counting interval. The installation and performance of the TEWM are discussed.

  18. New parameter for monitoring fouling during ultrafiltration of WWTP effluent.

    PubMed

    Roorda, J H; van der Graaf, J H

    2001-01-01

    Variations in water quality of waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluent complicate ultrafiltration of this feed water. Traditional parameters do not provide sufficient information to explain the fouling of membranes during ultrafiltration of WWTP effluent. New parameters for measuring and monitoring the fouling potential of feed water for ultrafiltration membranes need to be developed. The normalised membrane fouling index for ultrafiltration membranes (MFI-UFn) can be used as such and is according to the cake filtration theory calculated from the ratio of filtration time and filtration volume as a function of the filtration volume. MFI-UFn can be calculated from both experiments with constant Trans Membrane Pressure (TMP) and from experiments with constant flux. This parameter can also be calculated independent of the scale of the experiment. Results show that differences in fouling potential can be measured for various feed waters using the same membrane type and for various membrane types using the same feed water. Variation in feed water quality leads to a deviation of the MFI-UFn, as was found especially for WWTP effluent. The applied TMP influences the value of the MFI-UFn, indicating cake compression when applying a higher TMP. MFI-UFn can be used to identify the effect of pre-treatment methods, which is useful when using WWTP effluent as feed water for an ultrafiltration processes. PMID:11436787

  19. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2004-11-15

    located downstream of control technologies and just before discharge to the atmosphere. The need for monitoring airborne emissions of hazardous chemicals is established in the Hanford Site Air Operating Permit and in notices of construction. Based on the current potential-to-emit, the Hanford Site Air Operating Permit does not contain general monitoring requirements for BOP facilities. However, the permit identifies monitoring requirements for specific projects and buildings. Needs for future monitoring will be established by future permits issued pursuant to the applicable state and federal regulations. A number of liquid-effluent discharge systems serve the BOP facilities: sanitary sewer, process sewer, retention process sewer, and aquaculture system. Only the latter system discharges to the environment; the rest either discharge to treatment plants or to long-term storage. Routine compliance sampling of liquid effluents is only required at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory. Liquid effluents from other BOP facilities may be sampled or monitored to characterize facility effluents or to investigate discharges of concern. Effluent sampling and monitoring for the BOP facilities depends on the inventories, activities, and environmental permits in place for each facility. A description of routine compliance monitoring for BOP facilities is described in the BOP FEMP.

  20. AIRBORNE MONITORING OF COOLING TOWER EFFLUENTS. VOLUME I. TECHNICAL SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    MRI conducted an airborne plume monitoring program as part of the Chalk Point Cooling Tower Project. Plume measurement included: temperature, dew point, visibility, turbulence, droplet size distribution and concentration, liquid water content, sodium chloride concentration (NaCl)...

  1. LIQUID EFFLUENT RETENTION FACILITY (LERF) BASIN 42 STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB

    2004-10-29

    This report documents laboratory results obtained under test plan RPP-21533 for samples submitted by the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) from the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) Basin 42 (Reference 1). The LERF Basin 42 contains process condensate (PC) from the 242-A Evaporator and landfill leachate. The ETF processes one PC campaign approximately every 12 to 18 months. A typical PC campaign volume can range from 1.5 to 2.5 million gallons. During the September 2003 ETF Basin 42 processing campaign, a recurring problem with 'gelatinous buildup' on the outlet filters from 60A-TK-I (surge tank) was observed (Figure 1). This buildup appeared on the filters after the contents of the surge tank were adjusted to a pH of between 5 and 6 using sulfuric acid. Biological activity in the PC feed was suspected to be the cause of the gelatinous material. Due to this buildup, the filters (10 {micro}m CUNO) required daily change out to maintain process throughput.

  2. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.J.

    1995-10-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure lonq-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years.

  3. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium-uranium extraction facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L.; De Lorenzo, D.S.

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  4. EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Loos, Robert; Carvalho, Raquel; António, Diana C; Comero, Sara; Locoro, Giovanni; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Ghiani, Michela; Lettieri, Teresa; Blaha, Ludek; Jarosova, Barbora; Voorspoels, Stefan; Servaes, Kelly; Haglund, Peter; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Schwesig, David; Gawlik, Bernd M

    2013-11-01

    In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides

  5. 40 CFR 401.17 - pH Effluent limitations under continuous monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true pH Effluent limitations under... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.17 pH Effluent limitations under continuous monitoring. (a) Where a permittee continuously measures the pH of wastewater pursuant to...

  6. 40 CFR 401.17 - pH Effluent limitations under continuous monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false pH Effluent limitations under... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.17 pH Effluent limitations under continuous monitoring. (a) Where a permittee continuously measures the pH of wastewater pursuant to...

  7. 40 CFR 401.17 - pH Effluent limitations under continuous monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true pH Effluent limitations under continuous monitoring. 401.17 Section 401.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.17 pH Effluent limitations...

  8. 40 CFR 401.17 - pH Effluent limitations under continuous monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true pH Effluent limitations under continuous monitoring. 401.17 Section 401.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.17 pH Effluent limitations...

  9. 40 CFR 401.17 - pH Effluent limitations under continuous monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true pH Effluent limitations under continuous monitoring. 401.17 Section 401.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.17 pH Effluent limitations...

  10. Technology basis for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Operating Specifications. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.G.

    1995-05-17

    The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) consists of three retention basins, each with a nominal storage capacity of 6.5 million gallons. LERF serves as interim storage of 242-A Evaporator process condensate for treatment in the Effluent Treatment Facility. This document provides the technical basis for the LERF Operating Specifications, OSD-T-151-00029.

  11. Contribution of Hanford liquid effluents to strontium-90 levels in offsite soils

    SciTech Connect

    Jaquish, R.E.

    1993-08-01

    Strontium-90 is a major constituent of liquid effluents entering the Columbia River at the 100-N Area. The Columbia River also contains {sup 90}Sr from world-wide fallout that enters the Columbia River upstream of Hanford. Irrigation water pumped from the Columbia River can deposit {sup 90}Sr on soil where it can be taken up by farm crops. Fallout has also deposited {sup 90}Sr directly on soil by atmospheric deposition. A review of the sources of {sup 90}Sr in soil in the vicinity of Hanford indicates that about 2% can be attributed to Hanford liquid effluents. PNL measurements of {sup 90}Sr in soil at a background location agree with predicted levels of fallout made by the Federal Radiation Council in 1964. Alfalfa is routinely monitored for {sup 90}Sr and is of special interest since it has concentrations higher than other farm crops. The concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in alfalfa measured in the Hanford vicinity are in the range one would expect, based on measured soil concentrations and using uptake factors from an earlier {sup 90}Sr uptake study at Hanford.

  12. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bean, Vern E.; Long, Frederick G.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  13. Clinical Validation of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Imipenem in Spent Effluent in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Aiping; Li, Zhe; Yu, Junxian; Li, Ren; Cheng, Sheng; Duan, Meili; Bai, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The primary objective of this pilot study was to investigate whether the therapeutic drug monitoring of imipenem could be performed with spent effluent instead of blood sampling collected from critically ill patients under continuous renal replacement therapy. Methods A prospective open-label study was conducted in a real clinical setting. Both blood and effluent samples were collected pairwise before imipenem administration and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h after imipenem administration. Plasma and effluent imipenem concentrations were determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of blood and effluent samples were calculated. Results Eighty-three paired plasma and effluent samples were obtained from 10 patients. The Pearson correlation coefficient of the imipenem concentrations in plasma and effluent was 0.950 (P<0.0001). The average plasma-to-effluent imipenem concentration ratio was 1.044 (95% confidence interval, 0.975 to 1.114) with Bland-Altman analysis. No statistically significant difference was found in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters tested in paired plasma and effluent samples with Wilcoxon test. Conclusion Spent effluent of continuous renal replacement therapy could be used for therapeutic drug monitoring of imipenem instead of blood sampling in critically ill patients. PMID:27093294

  14. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, W.E.

    2000-03-08

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee public safety, or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan ensures long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and must be updated, as a minimum, every 3 years.

  15. Generic effluent monitoring system certification for salt well portable exhauster

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Maughan, A.D.

    1997-09-01

    Tests were conducted to verify that the Generic Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS), as it is applied to the Salt Well Portable Exhauster, meets all applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the air sampling probe location and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering air sampling probe location ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in the report. The tests demonstrated that the GEMS/Salt Well Exhauster system meets all applicable performance criteria. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted the testing using a mockup of the Salt Well Portable Exhauster stack at the Numatec Hanford Company`s 305 Building. The stack/sampling system configuration tested was designed to provide airborne effluent control for the Salt Well pumping operation at some U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, Washington. The portable design of the exhauster allows it to be used in other applications and over a range of exhaust air flowrates (approximately 200 - 1100 cubic feet per minute). The unit includes a stack section containing the sampling probe and another stack section containing the airflow, temperature and humidity sensors. The GEMS design features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and sample collection system. The collection system includes a filter holder to collect the sample of record and an in-line detector head and filter for monitoring beta radiation-emitting particles.

  16. Environmental regulatory guide for radiological effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is obligated to regulate its own activities so as to provide radiation protection for both workers and the public.'' Presidential Executive Order 12088, Federal Compliance with Pollution Control Standards,'' further requires the heads of executive agencies to ensure that all Federal facilities and activities comply with applicable pollution control standards and to take all actions necessary for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution. This regulatory guide describes the elements of an acceptable effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance program for DOE sites involving radioactive materials. These elements are applicable to all DOE and contractor activities for which the DOE exercises environmental, safety, and health responsibilities, and are intended to be applicable over the broad range of DOE facilities and sites. In situations where the high-priority elements may not provide sufficient coverage of a specific monitoring or surveillance topic, the document provides additional guidance. The high-priority elements are written as procedures and activities that should'' be performed, and the guidance is written as procedures and activities that should'' be performed. The regulatory guide both incorporates and expands on requirements embodied in DOE 5400.5 and DOE 5400.1. 221 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Statement of work for services provided by the waste sampling and characterization facility for the effluent and environmental monitoring program during calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-28

    This document defines the services the Waste Sampling & Characterization Facility (WSCF) shall provide the Effluent and Environmental Monitoring Program (EEM) throughout the calendar year for analysis. The purpose of the EEM Program is to monitor liquid and gaseous effluents, and the environment immediately around the facilities which may contain radioactive and hazardous materials. Monitoring data are collected, evaluated, and reported to determine their degree of compliance with applicable federal and state regulations and permits. The Appendix identifies the samples EEM plans to submit for analysis in CY-1997. Analysis of effluent (liquid and air discharges) and environmental (air, liquid, animal, and vegetative) samples is required using standard laboratory procedures, in accordance with regulatory and control requirements cited in Quality Assurance Program Plan for Radionuclide Airborne Emissions Monitoring (especially Appendix G) (VTHC 1995a), Effluent Monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan for Radionuclide Airborne Emissions Data (WHC 1995b), Operational Environmental Monitoring Program Quality Assurance Project Plan (WHC 1994b), and Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (DOE 1996). Should changes to this document be necessary, WSCF or the Air & Water Services (A&WS) Organization may amend it at any time with a jointly approved internal memo.

  18. Method and means of monitoring the effluent from nuclear facilities

    DOEpatents

    Lattin, Kenneth R.; Erickson, Gerald L.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is detected in the effluent cooling gas from a nuclear reactor or nuclear facility by passing the effluent gas through a continuously moving adsorbent filter material which is then purged of noble gases and conveyed continuously to a detector of radioactivity. The purging operation has little or no effect upon the concentration of radioactive iodine which is adsorbed on the filter material.

  19. Generic effluent monitoring system certification for AP-40 exhauster stack

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Davis, W.E.; Bussell, J.H.; Maughan, A.D.

    1997-09-01

    Tests were conducted to verify that the Generic Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS), as applied to the AP-40 exhauster stack, meets all applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the air sampling probe location and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering air sampling probe location ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in the report. The tests demonstrated that the GEMS/AP-40 system meets all applicable performance criteria. The contaminant mixing tests were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at the wind tunnel facility, 331-H Building, using a mockup of the actual stack. The particle sample transport tests were conducted by PNNL at the Numatec Hanford Company`s 305 Building. The AP-40 stack is typical of several 10-in. diameter stacks that discharge the filtered ventilation air from tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The GEMS design features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and sample collection system. The collection system includes a filter holder to collect the sample of record and an in-line detector head and filter for monitoring beta radiation-emitting particles. Unrelated to the performance criteria, it was found that the record sample filter holder exhibited symptoms of sample bypass around the particle collection filter. This filter holder should either be modified or replaced with a different type. 10 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project

    SciTech Connect

    HUNACEK, G.S.

    2000-08-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document was prepared using the specific guidelines identified in Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC)-EP-0438-1, ''A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans'', and assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the third revision to the original annual report. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it is updated as necessary.

  1. Liquid-Level Monitor for Pressurized Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Mall, G. H.

    1986-01-01

    Technique for monitoring water levels in pressurized stainless-steel cylinders, based on differences in gamma-ray attenuation coefficients in water and air, developed. Full-scale laboratory prototype system constructed to test technique. Technique usable with liquids other than water, since linear attenuation coefficients for intermediate-energy gamma rays in air considerably lower than in liquids. Also adaptable for continuous monitoring of liquid levels in resevoir systems and in underground storage tanks.

  2. Cost of meeting geothermal liquid effluent disposal regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, K.D.; Currie, J.W.; Price, B.A.; Rogers, E.A.

    1981-06-01

    Background information is presented on the characteristics of liquid wastes and the available disposal options. Regulations that may directly or indirectly influence liquid waste disposal are reviewed. An assessment of the available wastewater-treatment systems is provided. A case study of expected liquid-waste-treatment and disposal costs is summarized. (MHR)

  3. ASSESSMENT OF LIQUID EMULSION MEMBRANE FOR CLEAN UP OF AQUEOUS WASTE EFFLUENTS FROM HAZARDOUS ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    El-Reefy, Sohair A.; Selim, Y.T.; Hassan, M.A.; Aly, H.F.

    2003-02-27

    Four liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) systems are given to remove different hazardous elements such as uranium, thorium, cobalt, copper, lead, and cadmium from different aqueous waste effluents. The optimum conditions for use of these systems are deduced. The potentiality of LEM for removal of hazardous pollutants from aqueous waste solutions is given.

  4. Liquid effluent FY 1996 program plan WBS 1.2.2.1. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Liquid Effluents Program supports the three Hanford Site mission components: (1) Clean up the site, (2) provide scientific and technological excellence to meet global needs, and (3) Partner in the economic diversification of the region. Nine Hanford Site objectives have been established for the Hanford Site programs to accomplish all three components of this mission.

  5. Liquid effluents 1994 fiscal year work plan: WBS 1.2.2.1

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, F.L. Jr.

    1993-08-01

    The program mission is to manage current and future liquid effluent streams in a safe, responsible, cost effective and legally compliant manner. This is achieved through planning and integration, public and stakeholder interaction, definition of requirements for generators and provision of timely treatment, storage, disposal capability, and waste minimization of waste streams where applicable.

  6. Real-time aqueous tritium monitor using liquid scintillation counting

    SciTech Connect

    Sigg, R.A.; McCarty, J.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Sanders, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    An ability to continuously monitor low-level tritium releases in aqueous effluents is of particular interest to heavy water facilities such as those at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Canadian CANDU reactors. SRS developed a real-time monitoring system based on flow-through liquid scintillation (LS) counting. Sensitivities of 16 pCi/mL and 1 pCi/mL result from five minute and daily averages of counting data respectively. This sensitivity is about 200 times better than similar methods using solid scintillants. The LS system features uncomplicated sample pretreatment, precise of the cocktail and sample water, system features uncomplicated sample pretreatment, precise proportioning of the cocktail and sample water, on-line quench corrections, cocktail consumption as low as 0.15 mL/min, and response to changes in environmental tritium is less than 30 minutes. Field tests demonstrate that conditions necessary for stable analytical results are achieved.

  7. Effluent monitoring of the December 10, 1974, Titan 3-E launch at Air Force Eastern Test Range, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wornom, D. E.; Woods, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    Surface and airborne field measurements of the cloud behavior and effluent dispersion from a solid rocket motor launch vehicle are presented. The measurements were obtained as part of a continuing launch vehicle effluent monitoring program to obtain experimental field measurements in order to evaluate a model used to predict launch vehicle environmental impact. Results show that the model tends to overpredict effluent levels.

  8. Toxicity testing and instream biological monitoring in evaluating municipal effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Krier, K.; Pontasch, K.

    1995-12-31

    Twelve streams receiving municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents were evaluated in riffle areas above and below the outfall using the Environmental Protection Agency`s Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBPs) for benthic macroinvertebrates. Eight of the sites evaluated using RBP 1 exhibited stream health in the downstream riffles equaling or exceeding the upstream riffles. RBP 1 results suggested possible impacts at the remaining four sites, and these sites were more intensely evaluated using RBPs 2 and 3, acute effluent toxicity tests with Daphnia magna, and quantification of periphytic chlorophyll a and ash free dry weight (AFDW). Results from RBP 2 indicated three of the four sites evaluated have similar taxonomic richness above and below the outfall, while one site is heavily impacted by organic pollutants. Toxicity tests with 100% effluent resulted in no mortality with any of the four effluents tested. Relative to the respective upstream sites, chlorophyll a was significantly increased at one downstream site and significantly reduced at another. AFDW was similar above and below the outfalls in all streams. These results suggest that laboratory toxicity tests may not always be adequate predictors of instream biological effects.

  9. Gauging Systems Monitor Cryogenic Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Rocket fuel needs to stay cool - super cool, in fact. The ability to store gas propellants like liquid hydrogen and oxygen at cryogenic temperatures (below -243 F) is crucial for space missions in order to reduce their volumes and allow their storage in smaller (and therefore, less costly) tanks. The Agency has used these cryogenic fluids for vehicle propellants, reactants, and life support systems since 1962 with the Centaur upper stage rocket, which was powered with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. During proposed long-duration missions, super-cooled fluids will also be used in space power systems, spaceports, and lunar habitation systems. In the next generation of launch vehicles, gaseous propellants will be cooled to and stored for extended periods at even colder temperatures than currently employed via a process called densification. Densification sub-cools liquids to temperatures even closer to absolute zero (-459 F), increasing the fluid s density and shrinking its volume beyond common cryogenics. Sub-cooling cryogenic liquid hydrogen, for instance, from 20 K (-423 F) to 15 K (-432.4 F) reduces its mass by 10 percent. These densified liquid gases can provide more cost savings from reduced payload volume. In order to benefit from this cost savings, the Agency is working with private industry to prevent evaporation, leakage, and other inadvertent loss of liquids and gases in payloads - requiring new cryogenic systems to prevent 98 percent (or more) of boil-off loss. Boil-off occurs when cryogenic or densified liquids evaporate, and is a concern during launch pad holds. Accurate sensing of propellants aboard space vehicles is also critical for proper engine shutdown and re-ignition after launch, and zero boil-off fuel systems are also in development for the Altair lunar lander.

  10. 242-A Evaporator/Liquid Effluent Retention Facility data quality objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Von Bargen, B.H.

    1994-09-29

    The purpose of data quality objectives (DQO) is to determine the most cost effective methods of gathering the essential data necessary to make decisions to support successful operation of the facility. The essential data is defined by such information as sample amount, sample location, required analyses, and how sampling and analyses are performed. Successful operation is defined as meeting the campaign objectives while operating within established requirements. This DQO document addresses that portion of the system from 242-A Evaporator candidate feed tanks through discharge of process condensate to the Liquid Effluent Retention of Facility (LERF). Later revisions will incorporate and integrate the entire system, including the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF).

  11. Functional design criteria for Project W-252, Phase II Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, C.E.

    1994-11-10

    This document provides the functional design criteria required for the Phase 2 Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Project, Project W-252. Project W-252 shall provide new facilities and existing facility modifications required to implement Best Available Technology/All Known, Available, and Reasonable Methods of Prevention, Control, and Treatment (BAT/AKART) for the 200 East Phase II Liquid Effluent Streams. The project will also provide a 200 East Area Phase II Effluent Collection System (PTECS) for connection to a disposal system for relevant effluent streams to which BAT/AKART has been applied. Liquid wastestreams generated in the 200 East Area are currently discharged to the soil column. Included in these wastestreams are cooling water, steam condensate, raw water, and sanitary wastewaters. It is the policy of the DOE that the use of soil columns to treat and retain radionuclides and nonradioactive contaminants be discontinued at the earliest practical time in favor of wastewater treatment and waste minimization. In 1989, the DOE entered into an interagency agreement with Ecology and EPA. This agreement is referred to as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Project W-252 is one of the projects required to achieve the milestones set forth in the Tri-Party Agreement. One of the milestones requires BAT/AKART implementation for Phase II streams by October 1997. This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) document provides the technical baseline required to initiate Project W-252 to meet the Tri-Party Agreement milestone for the application of BAT/AKART to the Phase II effluents.

  12. Continuous monitoring for tritium in aqueous effluents at SRS using solid scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Effluents from selected facilities that routinely handle or produce large quantities of tritium are now continuously monitored for tritium concentration at the Savannah River site (SRS). The tritium effluent water monitors (TEWMs), developed at SRS, are placed at strategic locations in these facilities to sample and analyze the aqueous effluents in real time. The TEWM includes a water purification system, a flow cell containing solid scintillator, coincidence electronics, and alarm interfaces to plant systems. The main purpose of the TEWM is to alert cognizant personnel to an upset condition that might result in an unplanned release of tritium to the environment. Operation of the TEWMs supports the existing programs for sampling and analyses of tritium in the site's aqueous discharges.

  13. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification using an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-10-01

    We are developing an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for chemical effluent monitoring. The system consists of a 2-D infrared imaging array in the focal plane of a Michelson interferometer. Individual images are coordinated with the positioning of a moving mirror in the Michelson interferometer. A three dimensional data cube with two spatial dimensions and one interferogram dimension is then Fourier transformed to produce a hyperspectral data cube with one spectral dimension and two spatial dimensions. The spectral range of the instrument is determined by the choice of optical components and the spectral range of the focal plane array. Measurements in the near UV, visible, near IR, and mid-IR ranges are possible with the existing instrument. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification measurements will be primarily in the ``fingerprint`` region of the spectrum, ({lambda} = 8 to 12 {mu}m). Initial measurements of effluent using this imaging interferometer in the mid-IR will be presented.

  14. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  15. Photoelectric system continuously monitors liquid level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Immersion probe presents a depth-sensitive optical transmission path between a light source and a photoelectric cell to continuously monitor the level of a transparent liquid in a tank. This system operates automatically, without moving parts, and provides output signals to a remote recorder.

  16. Removal of nitrate from liquid effluents with bio-nano hybrid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eroglu, Ela; Haniff Wahid, M.; Chen, Xianjue; Smith, Steven M.; Raston, Colin L.

    2013-04-01

    Microalgae are a group of microorganisms that are abundant in the environment and have been commonly used as a tool for sustainable green technologies including bioenergy production1,2, CO2 sequestration2, wastewater treatment3,4, and nutritional supplement5. We have recently developed a hybridization process between common microalgal cells (Chlorella vulgaris) and multi-layer graphene sheets4. Graphene has very strong adhesion energies6 with an ability to attach on the surface of microalgal cells, which results in a functional hybrid material. Initially dynamic thin films formed within a microfluidic platform, as a vortex fluidic device, were used to exfoliate multi-layer graphene from graphite flakes in water. This was followed by hybridizing the multi-layer graphene with microalgal cells. The resulting bio-nano hybrid material was particularly efficient for the removal of nitrate from liquid effluents without being toxic for the microalgal cells. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy techniques were used for the characterization of the formed graphene sheets, with the fluorescence microscopy and chlorophyll content analyzed for monitoring the viability and growth pattern of the microalgal cells. E. Eroglu and A. Melis, Biotechnol. Bioeng., 2009, 102(5), 1406-1415. É. C Francisco, D. B. Neves, E. Jacob-Lopes, and T. T. Franco, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 2010, 85, 395-403. E. Eroglu, V. Agarwal, M. Bradshaw, X. Chen, S.M. Smith, C.L. Raston and K.S. Iyer, Green Chem., 2012, 14(10), 2682 - 2685. M. H. Wahid, E. Eroglu, X. Chen, S.M. Smith, and C.L. Raston, Green Chem., 2012, doi:10.1039/C2GC36892G. P. Spolaore, C. Joannis-Cassan, E. Duran and A. Isambert, J. Biosci. Bioeng., 2006, 101, 87-96. S. P. Koenig, N. G. Boddeti, M. L. Dunn and J. S. Bunch, Nat. Nanotechnol., 2011, 6, 543-546.

  17. Results of the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility biological monitoring program, July 1987--July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1992-07-01

    As required by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) under NPDES Permit SCO000175, biological monitoring was conducted in Upper Three Runs Creek to determine if discharges from the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility have adversely impacted the biotic community of the receiving stream. Data included in this summary report encompass July 1987 through July 1991. As originally designed, the F/H ETF was not expected to remove all of the mercury from the wastewater; therefore, SCDHEC specified that studies be conducted to determine if mercury was bioaccumulating in aquatic biota. Subsequent to approval of the biological monitoring program, an ion exchange column was added to the F/H ETF specifically to remove mercury, which eliminated mercury from the F/H ETF effluent. The results of the biological monitoring program indicate that at the present rate of discharge, the F/H ETF effluent has not adversely affected the receiving stream with respect to any of the parameters that were measured. The effluent is not toxic at the in-stream waste concentration and there is no evidence of mercury bioaccumulation.

  18. Best Available Technology (BAT) guidance for radiological liquid effluents at US Department of Energy Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wallo, A. III; Peterson, H.T. Jr. ); Ikenberry, T.A. ); Baker, R.E. )

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in DOE Order 5400.5 (1990), directs operators of DOE facilities to apply the Best Available Technology (BAT) to control radiological liquid effluents from these facilities when specific conditions are present. DOE has published interim guidance to assist facility operators in knowing when a BAT analysis is needed and how such an analysis should be performed and documented. The purpose of the guidance is to provide a uniform basis in determining BAT throughout DOE and to assist in evaluating BAT determinations during programmatic audits. The BAT analysis process involves characterizing the effluent source; identifying and selecting candidate control technologies; evaluating the potential environmental, operational, resource, and economic impacts of the control technologies; developing an evaluation matrix for comparing the technologies; selecting the BAT; and documenting the evaluation process. The BAT analysis process provides a basis for consistent evaluation of liquid effluent releases, yet allows an individual site or facility the flexibility to address site-specific issues or concerns in the most appropriate manner.

  19. Use of Fourier transform spectroscopy in combustion effluent monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Gordon S.; McIntosh, Bruce C.

    1991-04-01

    FTIR spectroscopy is a well demonstrated technique for laboratory analysis. However, its application in stationary source monitoring for waste incinerators and other sources of combustion is viewed with considerable caution. The E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. has committed significant resources to pioneer the use of FTIR analysis in continuous emission monitoring applications. Applications criteria derived from their experience will enhance the success of many future applications. The success of Du Pont's current efforts in this field will aid in opening the door to the widespread acceptance and use of this significant environmental technology.

  20. Effluent monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan for radioactive airborne emissions data. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, T.P.

    1995-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for compiling Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions data. These data will be reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy, and the Washington State Department of Health. Effluent Monitoring performs compliance assessments on radioactive airborne sampling and monitoring systems. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is prepared in compliance with interim guidelines and specifications. Topics include: project description; project organization and management; quality assurance objectives; sampling procedures; sample custody; calibration procedures; analytical procedures; monitoring and reporting criteria; data reduction, verification, and reporting; internal quality control; performance and system audits; corrective actions; and quality assurance reports.

  1. Application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in effluents from the production of petroleum bitumen.

    PubMed

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Makoś, Patrycja; Przyjazny, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    We present a new procedure for the determination of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in samples of postoxidative effluents from the production of petroleum bitumens using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. The eight extraction parameters were optimized for 43 oxygenated volatile organic compounds. The detection limits obtained ranged from 0.07 to 0.82 μg/mL for most of the analytes, the precision was good (relative standard deviation below 2.91% at the 5 μg/mL level and 4.75% at the limit of quantification), the recoveries for the majority of compounds varied from 70.6 to 118.9%, and the linear range was wide, which demonstrates the usefulness of the procedure. The developed procedure was used for the determination of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in samples of raw postoxidative effluents and in effluents after chemical treatment. In total, 23 compounds at concentration levels from 0.37 to 32.95 μg/mL were identified in real samples. The same samples were also analyzed in the SCAN mode, which resulted in four more phenol derivatives being identified and tentatively determined. The studies demonstrated the need for monitoring volatile organic compounds content in effluents following various treatments due to the formation of secondary oxygenated volatile organic compounds. PMID:27144480

  2. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    DB Barnett

    2000-05-17

    Seven years of groundwater monitoring at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) have shown that the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility is unaffected by TEDF effluent. Effluent discharges have been well below permitted and expected volumes. Groundwater mounding from TEDF operations predicted by various models has not been observed, and waterlevels in TEDF wells have continued declining with the dissipation of the nearby B Pond System groundwater mound. Analytical results for constituents with enforcement limits indicate that concentrations of all these are below Practical Quantitation Limits, and some have produced no detections. Likewise, other constituents on the permit-required list have produced results that are mostly below sitewide background. Comprehensive geochemical analyses of groundwater from TEDF wells has shown that most constituents are below background levels as calculated by two Hanford Site-wide studies. Additionally, major ion proportions and anomalously low tritium activities suggest that groundwater in the aquifer beneath the TEDF has been sequestered from influences of adjoining portions of the aquifer and any discharge activities. This inference is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations which indicate an extremely slow rate of groundwater movement beneath the TEDF. Detailed evaluation of TEDF-area hydrogeology and groundwater geochemistry indicate that additional points of compliance for groundwater monitoring would be ineffective for this facility, and would produce ambiguous results. Therefore, the current groundwater monitoring well network is retained for continued monitoring. A quarterly frequency of sampling and analysis is continued for all three TEDF wells. The constituents list is refined to include only those parameters key to discerning subtle changes in groundwater chemistry, those useful in detecting general groundwater quality changes from upgradient sources, or those retained for comparison with end

  3. Methods of reducing liquid effluent from the OSU TRIGA MKII Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, J.F.; Dodd, B.; Pratt, D.S.; Smith, S.; Anderson, T.V.

    1992-07-01

    In 1991, the OSU Radiation Center implemented a program to minimize the liquid effluent generated by the reactor facility. The goal of program is to become a 'zero' release facility with regards to routine liquid discharges. Only two liquid waste streams exist for the OSU reactor facility: discharges resulting from changing resin in the deminerializer and decontamination of equipment, primarily sample loading tubes. This paper describes a system which allows remote resin exchange to performed with the collection of all flush water. This water is then recycled for use as makeup for the primary water system. The service life of the resin is maximized by using a steam distillation unit as the source of makeup water to the deminerializer system instead of water coming directly from the City of Corvallis water supply. The second source of liquid waste water comes from the decontamination of the plastic loading tubes used to encapsulate samples. This process originally involved placing the tubes in a dishwasher and sending the discharge to a hold up tank. If the radionuclide concentrations in the tank were below the maximum permissible concentrations of 10CFR20 then it was released to the sanitary sewerage. This process was replaced in 1991 with a system which involved manual washing and rinsing of the tubes with the liquids being absorbed for disposal as solid waste. This paper will also describe the system which is being built to replace this process. It will use the dishwasher unit again but the liquid discharge will collected for absorption and disposal as solid waste. (author)

  4. Systems and methods for monitoring a solid-liquid interface

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, Nathan G; Lewis, Monte A.; Clark, Roger F

    2013-06-11

    Systems and methods are provided for monitoring a solid-liquid interface during a casting process. The systems and methods enable determination of the location of a solid-liquid interface during the casting process.

  5. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction (NOC) for Construction of Liquid Effluent Transfer System Project W-519

    SciTech Connect

    HOMAN, N.A.

    2000-05-01

    The proposed action is to install a new liquid effluent transfer system (three underground waste transfer pipelines). As such, a potential new source will be created as a result of the construction activities. The anticipated emissions associated with this activity are insignificant.

  6. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Facility hot test report

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    Prior to initial operation with radioactive feed or ``hot`` operation, the Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal (LET&D) Facility underwent extensive testing. This report provides a detailed description and analysis of this testing. Testing has determined that LET&D is capable of processing radioactive solutions between the design flowrates of 275 gph to 550 gph. Modifications made to prevent condensation on the off-gas HEPA filters, to the process vacuum control, bottoms cooler rupture disks, and feed control system operation were successful. Unfortunately, two mixers failed prior to ``hot`` testing due to manufacturer`s error which limited operation of the PEW Evaporator System and sampling was not able to prove that design removal efficiencies for Mercury, Cadmium, Plutonium, and Non-Volatile Radionuclides.

  7. Novel electrowinning technologies: The treatment and recovery of metals from liquid effluents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijie

    2008-10-01

    Over the past several years, considerable efforts have been made to evaluate two novel solution treatment and electrowinning technologies. These two technologies, due to their unique features and superior operating characteristics, could very well represent the next generation of plant practice for the treatment and recovery of metals from liquid effluents. This article reports on the results of using the two technologies to treat printed circuit board spent micro-etch solutions and compares these results with those of competing current technologies for treating similar solutions. The new technologies had about 1.5 10 times higher current efficiencies than current practice and reduced the concentration of metals such as 15 g/L to less than 1 ppm compared to levels as high as 300 ppm again for current practice.

  8. A continuous active monitoring approach to identify cross-connections between potable water and effluent distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Friedler, E; Alfiya, Y; Shaviv, A; Gilboa, Y; Harussi, Y; Raize, O

    2015-03-01

    A continuous active monitoring approach was developed for identification of cross-connections between potable water supply systems and treated wastewater effluent reuse distribution systems. The approach is based on monitoring the oxidation reduction potential (ORP) at the potable water system while injecting sulfite (a reducing agent) into the effluent line. A sharp decrease in the ORP of the potable water would indicate a cross-connection event. The approach was tested in batch experiments on treated municipal wastewater effluent of varying degree of treatment, and at dilution ratios of up to 1:100 (effluent/potable). The approach was then examined under continuous flow conditions, which simulated cross-connection events at various dilution ratios (up to 1:100). In the continuous runs, differences between the potable water ORP and the effluent-potable water mixture (containing sulfite as sodium bisulfite (SBS)) ORP were 450-630 mV. This suggests high potential for identifying a cross-connection event. Implementation of the approach includes adding sulfite to effluent used for agricultural irrigation; hence, possible effects on soil and on crops were studied in soil columns and pots planted with basil (Ocimum basilicum) as a model plant. No negative effects of sulfite addition to the irrigation effluent were observed in the irrigated soils and plants, and therefore, it could be safely implemented also in agricultural applications. PMID:25701471

  9. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Shields, K.D.

    1999-04-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R and D) facilities for the Department of Energy on the Hanford Site. According to DOE Order 5400.1, a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan is required for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials. Three of the R and D facilities: the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling and thus individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (FEMPs) have been developed for them. Because no definition of ''significant'' is provided in DOE Order 5400.1 or the accompanying regulatory guide DOE/EH-0173T, this FEMP was developed to describe monitoring requirements in the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities that do not have individual FEMPs. The remainder of the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities are referred to as Balance-of-Plant (BOP) facilities. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R and D. R and D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in the FEMP.

  10. Trace analysis and occurrence of anhydroerythromycin and tylosin in influent and effluent wastewater by liquid chromatography combined with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shinwoo; Cha, Jongmun; Carlson, Kenneth

    2006-06-01

    Two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of northern Colorado were monitored for anhydroerythromycin and tylosin. An analytical method has been developed and validated for the trace determination and confirmation of these compounds in the raw influent and final effluent water matrices. This method was used to evaluate the occurrence and fate of these compounds in WWTPs. The method uses solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization. Detection and quantification was performed using selected reaction monitoring, and a method detection limit of between 0.01 and 0.06 microg/L was obtained. Unequivocal confirmation analysis of analyte identity according to the criteria (based on the use of identification points) of the 2002/657/EC European Commission Decision was possible with satisfactory results. Average recoveries for the two compounds ranged from 89.2+/-9.7% for raw influent to 93.7+/-6.9% for effluent wastewaters. The within-run precision of the assay was found to be always less than 14.1% for the two analytes. The overall precision was always less than 13.7%. The relative uncertainty of the present assay was also evaluated and the combined relative uncertainty ranged from 6.4 to 15.5% over three days of the validation study. These compounds were partially removed in the WWTPs with a removal efficiency of >50%. The measured concentrations in raw influents and effluents ranged from 0.09-0.35 and 0.04-0.12 microg/L for anhydroerythromycin to 0.06-0.18 and ND-0.06 microg/L for tylosin, respectively. The results indicate that WWTP effluents are relevant point sources for residues of these compounds in the aquatic environment. These occurrence results were compared with those in WWTP wastewaters of other countries. PMID:16715282

  11. An evaluation of air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T. Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM )

    1993-02-01

    Improvements are needed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring prior to receipt of radioactive wastes. This report provides a detailed review Zf radioactivity air monitoring regulatory requirements and related facility design requirements. Air monitoring data, supplied by the Westinghouse Isolation Division, are analyzed. The WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) requires that the WIPP radiological facilities always have multiple confinement barriers to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material to the environment. The Waste Handling Building has standard confinement barriers that satisfy the regulatory requirements, but the underground confinement barriers.include a more complex system for filtering air in the event of-an accidental release. A continuous air monitor (CAM) is an integral part of the underground confinement barrier strategy. For the last four years'' the reliability and sensitivity of the CAMs have been the subject of numerous reports and meetings which are summarized in this report. Data supplied to the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) show that the Station A CAM, which monitors the underground.exhaust, does not satisfy the requirements of the FSAR. The CAM system is not fail-safe, and operations appear to be affected by high levels of salt aerosol and poor detector performance. Additional test information is needed to establish the limits of CAM performance. Findings and recommendations are also provided on alternative monitoring methods, procedures and calculations.

  12. An evaluation of air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T. |

    1993-02-01

    Improvements are needed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring prior to receipt of radioactive wastes. This report provides a detailed review Zf radioactivity air monitoring regulatory requirements and related facility design requirements. Air monitoring data, supplied by the Westinghouse Isolation Division, are analyzed. The WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) requires that the WIPP radiological facilities always have multiple confinement barriers to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material to the environment. The Waste Handling Building has standard confinement barriers that satisfy the regulatory requirements, but the underground confinement barriers.include a more complex system for filtering air in the event of-an accidental release. A continuous air monitor (CAM) is an integral part of the underground confinement barrier strategy. For the last four years`` the reliability and sensitivity of the CAMs have been the subject of numerous reports and meetings which are summarized in this report. Data supplied to the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) show that the Station A CAM, which monitors the underground.exhaust, does not satisfy the requirements of the FSAR. The CAM system is not fail-safe, and operations appear to be affected by high levels of salt aerosol and poor detector performance. Additional test information is needed to establish the limits of CAM performance. Findings and recommendations are also provided on alternative monitoring methods, procedures and calculations.

  13. Prioritization methodology for the monitoring of active pharmaceutical ingredients in hospital effluents.

    PubMed

    Daouk, Silwan; Chèvre, Nathalie; Vernaz, Nathalie; Bonnabry, Pascal; Dayer, Pierre; Daali, Youssef; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine

    2015-09-01

    The important number of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) available on the market along with their potential adverse effects in the aquatic ecosystems, lead to the development of prioritization methods, which allow choosing priority molecules to monitor based on a set of selected criteria. Due to the large volumes of API used in hospitals, an increasing attention has been recently paid to their effluents as a source of environmental pollution. Based on the consumption data of a Swiss university hospital, about hundred of API has been prioritized following an OPBT approach (Occurrence, Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Toxicity). In addition, an Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) allowed prioritizing API based on predicted concentrations and environmental toxicity data found in the literature for 71 compounds. Both prioritization approaches were compared. OPBT prioritization results highlight the high concern of some non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antiviral drugs, whereas antibiotics are revealed by ERA as potentially problematic to the aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, according to the predicted risk quotient, only the hospital fraction of ciprofloxacin represents a risk to the aquatic organisms. Some compounds were highlighted as high-priority with both methods: ibuprofen, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ritonavir, gabapentin, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, raltegravir, propofol, etc. Analyzing consumption data and building prioritization lists helped choosing about 15 API to be monitored in hospital wastewaters. The API ranking approach adopted in this study can be easily transposed to any other hospitals, which have the will to look at the contamination of their effluents. PMID:26144564

  14. Monitoring of environmental phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment effluents and river waters, Korea.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eun-Joung; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Kang, Seo-Young; Kim, Sang-Don; Bang, Sun-Baek; Hamm, Se-Yeong; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2007-10-15

    The last two decades have witnessed growing scientific and public concerns over endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) that have the potential to alter the normal structure or functions of the endocrine system in wildlife and humans. In this study, the phenolic EDCs such as alkylphenol, chlorinated phenol and bisphenol A were considered. They are commonly found in wastewater discharges and in sewage treatment plant. In order to monitor the levels and seasonal variations of phenolic EDCs in various aquatic environments, a total of 15 water samples from the discharged effluent from sewage and wastewater treatment plants and river water were collected for 3 years. Ten environmental phenolic EDCs were determined by GC-MS and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). GC-MS analysis revealed that most abundant phenolic EDCs were 4-n-heptylphenol, followed by nonlyphenol and bisphenol A during 2002-2003, while 4-t-butylphenol and 4-t-octylphenol were newly detected in aquatic environments in 2004. The category of phenolic EDCs showed similar fluorescence spectra and nearly equal fluorescence decay time. This makes it hard to distinguish each phenolic EDC from the EDCs mixture by LIF. Therefore, the results obtained from LIF analysis were expressed in terms of the fluorescence intensity of the total phenolic EDCs rather than that of the individual EDC. However, LIF monitoring and GC-MS analysis showed consistent result in that the river water samples had lower phenolic EDCs concentration compared to the effluent sample. This revealed a lower fluorescence intensity and the phenolic EDCs concentration in summer was lower than that in winter. For the validation of LIF monitoring for the phenolic EDCs, the correlation between EDCs concentration acquired from GC-MS and fluorescence intensity from LIF was obtained (R=0.7379). This study supports the feasibility of the application of LIF into EDCs monitoring in aquatic systems. PMID:19073088

  15. Effluent monitoring at a bleached kraft mill: directions for best management practices for eliminating effects on fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Martel, Pierre H; Kovacs, Tibor G; O'connor, Brian I; Semeniuk, Sharon; Hewitt, L Mark; Maclatchy, Deborah L; McMaster, Mark E; Parrott, Joanne L; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

    2011-01-01

    A long-term monitoring study was conducted on effluents from a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill located in Eastern Canada. The study was designed to gain insights into temporal effluent variability with respect to fish reproduction as it related to production upsets, mill restarts and conditions affecting biological treatment performance. Final effluent quality was monitored between February 2007 and May 2009 using biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, resin and fatty acids, a gas chromatographic profiling index, and the presence of methyl substituted 2-cyclopentenones. Selected effluent samples were evaluated for effects on fish reproduction (egg production) using a shortened version of the adult fathead minnow reproductive test. The events relating to negative effects on fish reproduction were upsets of the pulping liquor recovery system resulting in black liquor losses, operational upsets of the hardwood line resulting in the loss of oxygen delignification filtrates, and conditions that reduced the performance of biological treatment (e.g., mill shutdown and low ambient temperatures). The reductions in egg production observed in fathead minnow were associated with biochemical oxygen demand values > 20 mg/L, GC profiling indices > 1.2 and the presence of methyl-substituted 2-cyclopentenones at concentrations > 100 μg/L. This study demonstrated the importance of both in-plant measures for controlling the loss of organics as well as the optimum operation of biological effluent treatment for eliminating effluent-related effects on fish reproduction (egg production) in the laboratory. PMID:21644165

  16. Selective extraction of zinc(II) over iron(II) from spent hydrochloric acid pickling effluents by liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Marcelo Borges; Rocha, Sônia Denise Ferreira; Magalhães, Fernando Silva; Benedetto, Jeaneth dos Santos

    2008-02-11

    The selective removal of zinc(II) over iron(II) by liquid-liquid extraction from spent hydrochloric acid pickling effluents produced by the zinc hot-dip galvanizing industry was studied at room temperature. Two distinct effluents were investigated: effluent 1 containing 70.2g/L of Zn, 92.2g/L of Fe and pH 0.6, and effluent 2 containing 33.9 g/L of Zn, 203.9g/L of Fe and 2M HCl. The following extractants were compared: TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate), Cyanex 272 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid], Cyanex 301 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid] and Cyanex 302 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) monothiophosphinic acid]. The best separation results were obtained for extractants TBP and Cyanex 301. Around 92.5% of zinc and 11.2% of iron were extracted from effluent 1 in one single contact using 100% (v/v) of TBP. With Cyanex 301, around 80-95% of zinc and less than 10% of iron were extracted from effluent 2 at pH 0.3-1.0. For Cyanex 272, the highest extraction yield for zinc (70% of zinc with 20% of iron extraction) was found at pH 2.4. Cyanex 302 presented low metal extraction levels (below 10%) and slow phase disengagement characteristics. Reactions for the extraction of zinc with TBP and Cyanex 301 from hydrochloric acid solution were proposed. PMID:17570579

  17. Nitrous oxide emission from an agricultural field fertilized with liquid lagoonal swine effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, S. C.; Phillips, R. L.; Fischer, E. N.

    2000-06-01

    Contemporary agriculture is characterized by the intensive production of livestock in confined facilities and land application of stored waste as an organic fertilizer. Emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) from receiving soils is an important but poorly constrained term in the atmospheric N2O budget. In particular, there are few data for N2O emissions from spray fields associated with industrial scale swine production facilities that have rapidly expanded in the southeastern United States. In an intensive, 24-day investigation over three spray cycles, we followed the time course for changes in N2O emission and soil physicochemical variables in an agricultural field irrigated with liquid lagoonal swine effluent. The total N (535 mg L-1) of the liquid waste was almost entirely NH4+-N (>90%) and thus had a low mineralization potential. Soil profiles for nitrification and denitrification indicated that >90% of potential activity was localized in the surface 20 cm. Application of this liquid fertilizer to warm (19° to 28°C) soils in a form that is both readily volatilized and immediately utilizable by the endogenous N-cycling microbial community resulted in a sharp decline in soil NH4+-N and supported a rapid but short-lived (i.e., days) burst of nitrification, denitrification, and N2O emission. Nitrous oxide fluxes as high as 9200 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 were observed shortly after fertilization, but emissions decreased to prefertilization levels within a few days. Poor correlations between N2O efflux and soil physicochemical variables (temperature, moisture, NO3--N, NH4+-N) and fertilizer loading rate point to the complexity of interacting factors affecting N2O production and emission. Total fertilizer N applied and N2O-N emitted were 29.7 g m-2 (297 kg N ha-1) and 395 mg m-2, respectively. The fractional loss of applied N to N2O (corrected for background emission) was 1.4%, in agreement with the mean of 1.25% reported for mineral fertilizers. The direct effects of fertilizer

  18. Distillery effluent as a liquid fertilizer: a win-win option for sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kumari, K; Ranjan, N; Kumar, S; Sinha, R C

    2016-01-01

    A promising approach to recycle the residual distillery waste as a potential liquid fertilizer has been discussed in this paper. Field studies were conducted on Brassica compestris to assess the potential of the diluted post- methanated distillery effluent. The results indicated that there was not much variation in pH, conductivity and nitrate of soil, whereas total dissolved solids, conductivity, nitrate and chemical oxygen demand of the well water increased slightly but well within the permissible limit. However, there was a significant increase in the plant biomass, diameter of the shoot and root, area of leaf, as well as number and length of pods and root hairs. The hydrophilic colloids of the seed increased significantly (p < .01) and the yield of mustard seeds was increased by 30% as compared to the conventional fertilizer. The carbohydrate, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content of the leaf, stem and root were also analysed and its morpho- physiological significance is also presented in this paper. PMID:26229037

  19. A purity monitor for the KEDR liquid krypton calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtushenko, P. N.; Kotov, K. Yu.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Snopkov, R. G.; Rogozin, A. I.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.

    2016-06-01

    We present a purity monitor for the KEDR liquid krypton calorimeter. A new method is suggested based on the usage of a short pulse of a gas discharge as a source of ultraviolet radiation for the photoproduction of electrons in a drift cell of the monitor. This paper describes the design of the monitor, the results of experiments with gaseous and liquid krypton, as well as the experience of using the developed device in the process of krypton purification for the KEDR liquid krypton calorimeter.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 52 - Performance Specifications and, Specification Test Procedures for Monitoring Systems for Effluent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance Specifications and, Specification Test Procedures for Monitoring Systems for Effluent Stream Gas Volumetric Flow Rate E Appendix E to Part 52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 52 - Performance Specifications and, Specification Test Procedures for Monitoring Systems for Effluent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....7Reference method. Method 2 as delineated in 40 CFR Part 60. 4. Measurement system performance specifications... tube which uses the flow direction of the test gas, then the following test shall be followed and a..., Specification Test Procedures for Monitoring Systems for Effluent Stream Gas Volumetric Flow Rate E Appendix...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 52 - Performance Specifications and, Specification Test Procedures for Monitoring Systems for Effluent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance Specifications and, Specification Test Procedures for Monitoring Systems for Effluent Stream Gas Volumetric Flow Rate E Appendix E to Part 52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 52 - Performance Specifications and, Specification Test Procedures for Monitoring Systems for Effluent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....7Reference method. Method 2 as delineated in 40 CFR Part 60. 4. Measurement system performance specifications... tube which uses the flow direction of the test gas, then the following test shall be followed and a..., Specification Test Procedures for Monitoring Systems for Effluent Stream Gas Volumetric Flow Rate E Appendix...

  4. Nectophotometer: an infrared motility monitor used to rapidly identify toxicity in effluents and receiving waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Pinto, Richard W.; Santelli, John

    2007-04-01

    A change in the motility pattern of fish and aquatic invertebrates when initially exposed to a toxin has long been used in tests designed to signal the presence of toxins in effluents and receiving waters. We have discovered that the level of motility change occurring within 2.5 hours of exposure to all concentrations of a test toxicant correlates well with mortality observed after three days exposure to the toxin, but that the first 30 minutes of exposure is a poor predictor of mortality. Defining this 'best to use exposure time' can increase the sensitivity of toxicity monitoring systems to a weak toxin, one that causes a motility change so minor that it may otherwise go unnoticed. Motility is monitored and automatically recorded using a Nectophotometer, an automated bio-monitor with computer interface that senses interruptions of infrared beams when organisms separately exposed to multiple concentrations of a toxin move through the beams. In our tests changes in the motility of Artemia salina within the first 2.5 hours of exposure predict 3 day mortality with an average accuracy of 89%. The Nectophotometer has promise for allowing rapid assessment of the toxicity to invertebrates and fish, and may also be used to assess airborne toxicity if motile insects respond in a similar manner.

  5. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuqing; Shi, Jian; Lv, Wen; Yu, Zhongtang; Li, Yebo

    2013-01-01

    Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5L/kg VS(feed), while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6L/kg VS(feed). The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3g CaCO(3)/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents. PMID:22958949

  6. Methods and systems for monitoring a solid-liquid interface

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, Nathan G.; Clark, Roger F.; Kary, Tim

    2010-07-20

    Methods and systems are provided for monitoring a solid-liquid interface, including providing a vessel configured to contain an at least partially melted material; detecting radiation reflected from a surface of a liquid portion of the at least partially melted material that is parallel with the liquid surface; measuring a disturbance on the surface; calculating at least one frequency associated with the disturbance; and determining a thickness of the liquid portion based on the at least one frequency, wherein the thickness is calculated based on.times. ##EQU00001## where g is the gravitational constant, w is the horizontal width of the liquid, and f is the at least one frequency.

  7. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian; Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang; Li Yebo

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS{sub feed}, while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS{sub feed}. The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO{sub 3}/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

  8. Assessment and monitoring of nutrient loading in the sediments of tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent in Quang Ninh, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thuyet D; Luong-Van, Jim; Maier, Stefan W; Austin, Chris M

    2013-10-01

    Coastal shrimp farming may lead to the contamination of sediments of surrounding estuarine and marine ecosystems as shrimp farm effluent often contains high levels of pollutants including a range of organic compounds (from uneaten feed, shrimp feces, and living and dead organisms) which can accumulate in the sediments of receiving waterways. The assessment and monitoring of sediment quality in tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent can support environmental protection and decision making for sustainable development in coastal areas since sediment quality often shows essential information on long-term aquatic ecosystem health. Within this context, this paper investigates nutrient loadings in the sediments of tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent in Quang Ninh, Vietnam, which now have a high concentration of intensive and semi-intensive shrimp farms. Sediment samples taken from inside creek sections directly receiving effluent from concentrated shrimp farms (IEC), from main creeks adjacent to points of effluent discharge outside concentrated shrimp farms (OEC), and few kilometers away from shrimp farms (ASF) as reference sites were collected and analyzed before and after shrimp crops to investigate spatial and temporal variation. The results showed that there were statistically significant differences in the concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total organic carbon among IEC, OEC, and ASF sites while the seasonal variation being limited over study times. A sediment nutrient index (SNI) computed from coefficient scores of the factor analysis efficiently summarizes sediment nutrient loads, which are high, albeit quite variable, in canals directly receiving effluents from farms but then decline sharply with distance from shrimp farms. The visualization and monitoring of sediment quality data including SNI on maps can strongly support managers to manage eutrophication at concentrated shrimp farming areas, contributing to sustainable

  9. Calculation of releases of radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents from pressurized water reactors (PWR-GALE Code). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekaran, T.; Lee, J.Y.; Willis, C.A.

    1985-04-01

    This report revises the original issuance of NUREG-0017, ''Calculation of Releases of Radioactive Materials in Gaseous and Liquid Effluents from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR-GALE-Code)'' (April 1976), to incorporate more recent operating data now available as well as the results of a number of in-plant measurement programs at operating pressurized water reactors. The PWR-GALE Code is a computerized mathematical model for calculating the releases of radioactive material in gaseous and liquid effluents (i.e., the gaseous and liquid source terms). The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses the PWR-GALE Code to determine conformance with the requirements of Appendix I to 10 CFR Part 50.

  10. Mercury removal from liquid effluents of the chlor-alkali industry by using the biomass Sargassum sp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral, L. G. S.; de Barros Lima, R.; Leite, S. G. F.; Fernandes, A. L. V.

    2003-05-01

    In this work, the used biomass, for removing the mercuric species from the liquid effluents of the chlor-alkali plants was the macro-algae Sargassum sp. According to the results obtained, until this moment in time, it was possible to remove more than 99% of the ionic mercury with the advantage of not releasing me aqueous phase, that returns to the operation of brine production, the electrolyte of the electrolytic cells. In addition, it was verified that the biomass, once loaded with Mercury, can be reused in the biosorption step, after suffering an elution process.

  11. Degradation and monitoring of acetamiprid, thiabendazole and their transformation products in an agro-food industry effluent during solar photo-Fenton treatment in a raceway pond reactor.

    PubMed

    Carra, Irene; Sirtori, Carla; Ponce-Robles, Laura; Sánchez Pérez, José Antonio; Malato, Sixto; Agüera, Ana

    2015-07-01

    In this study, pesticides acetamiprid and thiabendazole and their transformation products (TPs), seven from each pesticide, were successfully monitored during solar photo-Fenton treatment in a real secondary effluent from an agro-food industry spiked with 100μgL(-1) of each pesticide. To this end, a highly sensitive procedure was developed, based on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (QqLIT-MS). In addition, finding low-cost and operational technology for the application of AOPs would then facilitate their use on a commercial level. Simple and extensive photoreactors such as raceway pond reactors (RPRs) are therefore proposed as an alternative for the application of solar photo-Fenton. Results showed that high degradation could be achieved in a complex water matrix (>99% TBZ and 91% ACTM in 240min) using a 120-L RPR pilot plant as novel technology. The analyses indicated that after the treatment only three TPs from ACTM were still present in the effluent, while the others had been removed. The study showed that the goal of either just removing the parent compounds, or going one step further and removing all the TPs, can significantly change the treatment time, which would affect process costs. PMID:25841181

  12. High-performance liquid chromatography and immunoassay techniques for monitoring urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, V.C.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) as sensitive techniques for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites in human urine. The method was tested using synthesized PAH conjugates as positive markers. Results showed that a PAH conjugate, S-(9,10-dihydro-9-hydroxy-10-phenanthryl)N-acetyl cysteine (PHONAC), present in HPLC effluent could be detected by ELISA at picomole levels, well below the sensitivity of the HPLC UV detector. Analyses of urine from mice dosed with phenanthrene demonstrated that a substance detected by HPLC which was not detected in ELISA tests was the principal phenanthrene metabolite. This substance was not hydrolysed by Beta-glucuronidase. PHONAC was detected by ELISA in mouse urine extracts subjected to HPLC.

  13. Liquid volume monitoring based on ultrasonic sensor and Arduino microcontroller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husni, M.; Siahaan, D. O.; Ciptaningtyas, H. T.; Studiawan, H.; Aliarham, Y. P.

    2016-04-01

    Incident of oil leakage and theft in oil tank often happens. To prevent it, the liquid volume insides the tank needs to be monitored continuously. Aim of the study is to calculate the liquid volume inside oil tank on any road condition and send the volume data and location data to the user. This research use some ultrasonic sensors (to monitor the fluid height), Bluetooth modules (to sent data from the sensors to the Arduino microcontroller), Arduino Microcontroller (to calculate the liquid volume), and also GPS/GPRS/GSM Shield module (to get location of vehicle and sent the data to the Server). The experimental results show that the accuracy rate of monitoring liquid volume inside tanker while the vehicle is in the flat road is 99.33% and the one while the vehicle is in the road with elevation angle is 84%. Thus, this system can be used to monitor the tanker position and the liquid volume in any road position continuously via web application to prevent illegal theft.

  14. Tritium monitoring in groundwater and evaluation of model predictions for the Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.; Bergeron, M.P.; Cole, C.R.; Freshley, M.D.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1997-08-01

    The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) disposal site, also known as the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS), receives treated effluent containing tritium, which is allowed to infiltrate through the soil column to the water table. Tritium was first detected in groundwater monitoring wells around the facility in July 1996. The SALDS groundwater monitoring plan requires revision of a predictive groundwater model and reevaluation of the monitoring well network one year from the first detection of tritium in groundwater. This document is written primarily to satisfy these requirements and to report on analytical results for tritium in the SALDS groundwater monitoring network through April 1997. The document also recommends an approach to continued groundwater monitoring for tritium at the SALDS. Comparison of numerical groundwater models applied over the last several years indicate that earlier predictions, which show tritium from the SALDS approaching the Columbia River, were too simplified or overly robust in source assumptions. The most recent modeling indicates that concentrations of tritium above 500 pCi/L will extend, at most, no further than {approximately}1.5 km from the facility, using the most reasonable projections of ETF operation. This extent encompasses only the wells in the current SALDS tritium-tracking network.

  15. Mineral composition and rates of flow of effluent from the distal ileum of liquid-fed calves.

    PubMed

    Smith, R H

    1966-04-01

    1. Liquid-fed calves (aged 1(1/2)-4 months) examined more than five weeks after inserting a re-entrant fistula into the distal ileum, of normal sodium and potassium status and without abnormal gut infection, showed mean emergence rates from the ileum for sodium, potassium and water of 2.3 m-mole/hr, 0.38 m-mole/hr and 21 g/hr respectively after 16 hr fasting.2. Sodium and potassium emergence rates changed little when the residues from a milk or glucose-solution feed arrived at the distal ileum. When magnesium chloride was added to a glucose-solution feed an increase sometimes occurred but only in association with decreased small-intestine transit time.3. Widely differing sodium and potassium intakes had no appreciable direct effect on their emergence rates. Continued feeding of a diet deficient in either ion, however, altered the calf's metabolism and led to appropriate changes in the sodium/potassium ratio of ileal effluent. These changes were not simulated by injecting adrenal cortex hormones. The ratio also decreased when ileal effluent was allowed to discharge for several weeks without being returned to the colon. It was abnormally high in samples obtained less than five weeks after inserting cannulae.4. An increase in sodium and potassium emergence rates, which often occurred spontaneously at about 3 months of age, appeared to be due to infection and was usually prevented by giving aureomycin orally.5. Water emergence rate reflected changes in the emergence rates of osmotically effective constituents and isotonicity was maintained. In effluent after fasting, the cations involved were mainly sodium and potassium, and [Na] + [K] was approximately constant (mean 132 m-mole/l.). In effluent following feeds of milk or glucose, magnesium chloride solution, [Na] + [K] was depressed and [Na] + [K] + 1.5 [Mg] was approximately constant (mean 139 m-mole/l.). Magnesium behaved as it were mainly ionic. Calcium had no apparent osmotic effect and was probably insoluble.6

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANICS IN TANNERY EFFLUENTS BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using a moving belt interface has been used to study extracts from five tannery and leather finishing industry discharges. Liquid chromatographic separation was performed with a Zorbax CN column using a normal phas...

  17. Pinellas Plant environmental monitoring plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1996-07-01

    The Pinellas Plant Environmental Monitoring Program is comprised of two major activities as follows: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. The collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents for the purpose of characterizing and quantifying contaminants, assessing radiation exposures to members of the public, providing a means to control effluents at or near the point of discharge, and demonstrating compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements. The collection and analysis of samples or direct measurements of air, water, soil, food stuff, biota, and other media from DOE sites and their environs for the purpose of determining compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, assessing radiation exposure to members of the public, and assessing the effects, if any, on the local environment. Effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at the Pinellas Plant include monitoring liquid and airborne effluents, groundwater, surface water, soil, and local weather conditions.

  18. Comparison of solid-state anaerobic digestion and composting of yard trimmings with effluent from liquid anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Long; Yang, Liangcheng; Xu, Fuqing; Michel, Frederick C; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) and composting of yard trimmings with effluent from liquid AD were compared under thermophilic condition. Total solids (TS) contents of 22%, 25%, and 30% were studied for SS-AD, and 35%, 45%, and 55% for composting. Feedstock/effluent (F/E) ratios of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 were tested. In composting, the greatest carbon loss was obtained at 35% TS, which was 2-3 times of that at 55% TS and was up to 50% higher than that in SS-AD. In SS-AD, over half of the degraded carbon was converted to methane with the greatest methane yield of 121 L/kg VS(feedstock). Methane production from SS-AD was low at F/E ratios of 2 and 3, likely due to the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (up to 5.6g/kg). The N-P-K values were similar for SS-AD digestate and compost with different dominant nitrogen forms. PMID:25079209

  19. Rocketdyne division, envionmental monitoring and facility effluent. Annual report, De Soto and Santa Susana Field Laboratories Sites, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J. D.

    1989-05-01

    Environmental and facility effluent radioactivity monitoring at the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International is performed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Group of the Health, Safety, and Environment Department. Soil and surface water are routinely sampled to a distance of 16 km from division sites. Groundwater from Santa Susana Field Laboratories (SSFL) supply water wells and other test wells is periodically sampled to measure radioactivity. Continuous ambient air sampling and direct radiation monitoring by thermoluminescent dosimetry are performed at several on-site and off-site locations for measuring airborne radioactivity concentrations and site ambient radiation levels. Radioactivity in effluents discharged to the atmosphere from nuclear facilities is continually sampled and monitored to assure that amounts released to uncontrolled areas are below appropriate limits. These procedures also help identify processes that may require additional engineering safeguards to minimize radioactivity in such discharges. In addition, selected nonradioactive chemical constituent concentrations in surface water discharged to uncontrolled areas are measured. The environmental radioactivity reported herein is attributed to natural sources and to residual fallout of radioactive material from past atmospheric testing of nuclear devices.

  20. Electrochemical treatment of olive mill wastewater: treatment extent and effluent phenolic compounds monitoring using some uncommon analytical tools.

    PubMed

    Belaid, Chokri; Khadraoui, Moncef; Mseddii, Salma; Kallel, Monem; Elleuch, Boubaker; Fauvarque, Jean Frangois

    2013-01-01

    Problems related with industrials effluents can be divided in two parts: (1) their toxicity associated to their chemical content which should be removed before discharging the wastewater into the receptor media; (2) and the second part is linked to the difficulties of pollution characterisation and monitoring caused by the complexity of these matrixes. This investigation deals with these two aspects, an electrochemical treatment method of an olive mill wastewater (OMW) under platinized expanded titanium electrodes using a modified Grignard reactor for toxicity removal as well as the exploration of the use of some specific analytical tools to monitor effluent phenolic compounds elimination. The results showed that electrochemical oxidation is able to remove/mitigate the OMW pollution. Indeed, 87% of OMW color was removed and all aromatic compounds were disappeared from the solution by anodic oxidation. Moreover, 55% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the total organic carbon (TOC) were reduced. On the other hand, UV-Visible spectrophotometry, Gaz chromatography/mass spectrometry, cyclic voltammetry and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) showed that the used treatment seems efficaciously to eliminate phenolic compounds from OMW. It was concluded that electrochemical oxidation in a modified Grignard reactor is a promising process for the destruction of all phenolic compounds present in OMW. Among the monitoring analytical tools applied, cyclic voltammetry and 13C NMR a re among th e techniques that are introduced for thefirst time to control the advancement of the OMW treatment and gave a close insight on polyphenols disappearance. PMID:23586318

  1. Rocketdyne division, environmental monitoring and facility effluent. Annual report, De Soto and Santa Susana Field Laboratories Sites, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J. D.

    1987-03-01

    Environmental and facility effluent radioactivity monitoring at the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International is performed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Group of the Health, Safety, and Environment Department. Soil and surface water are routinely sampled to a distance of 10 miles from Division sites. Ground water from site supply water wells and other test wells is periodically sampled to measure radioactivity in these waters. Continuous ambient air sampling and direct radiation monitoring by thermoluminescent dosimetry are performed at several on=site and off-site locations for measuring airborne radioactivity concentrations and site ambient radiation levels. Radioactivity in effluents discharged to the atmosphere from nuclear facilities is continuously sampled and monitored to ensure that amounts released to uncontrolled areas are below appropriate limits and to identify processes that may require additional engineering safeguards to minimize radioactivity in such discharges. In addition, selected nonradioactive chemical constituent concentrations in surface water discharged to uncontrolled areas are determined. The environmental radioactivity reported herein is attributed to natural sources, to local fallout of radioactive debris from the Chernobyl reactor accident, and to residual fallout of radioactive material from past atmospheric testing of nuclear devices.

  2. Rocketdyne division, environmental monitoring and facility effluent. Annual Report, De Soto and Santa Susana Field Laboratories Sites 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J. D.

    1988-03-01

    Environmental and facility effluent radioactivity monitoring at the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International is performed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Group of the Health, Safety, and Environment Department. Soil and surface water are routinely sampled to a distance of 10 miles from Division sites. Ground water from site supply water wells and other test wells is periodically sampled to measure radioactivity in these waters. Continuous ambient air sampling and direct radiation monitoring by thermoluminescent dosimetry are performed at several on-site and off-site locations for measuring airborne radioactivity concentrations and site ambient radiation levels. Radioactivity in effluents discharged to the atmosphere from nuclear facilities is continually sampled and monitored to ensure that amounts released to uncontrolled areas are below appropriate limited and to identify processes that rnay require additional engineering safeguards to minimize radioactivity in such discharges. In addition, selected nonradioactive chemical constituent concentrations in surface water discharged to uncontrolled areas are determined. The environmental radioactivity reported herein is attributed to natural sources and to residual fallout of radioactive material from past atmospheric testing of nuclear devices. Work in nuclear energy research and development in what has become the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation began in 1946. In addition to a broad spectrum of conventional programs in rocket propulsion, utilization of space, and national defense, Rocketdyne is working on the design, development, and testing of components and systems for central station nuclear power plants, the decladding of irradiated nuclear fuel, and the decontamination and decommissioning of facilities.

  3. Development of biological oxygen demand biosensor for monitoring the fermentation industry effluent.

    PubMed

    Verma, Neelam; Singh, Ashish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A biosensor was developed for the determination of BOD value of fermentation industry effluent. The developed biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the microbial consortium on cellulose acetate (CA) membrane in close proximity to a DO probe electrode. The microbial consortium was harvested from the fermentation industry effluent. The BOD biosensor was calibrated by using a solution containing the equivalent amount of glucose/glutamic acid (GGA) as a standard sample solution. The response time was optimized by immobilizing different concentrations of cell biomass on CA membrane. Once the response time was optimized, it was used for determination of BOD of fermentation industry effluent. For analysis of fermentation industry effluent, the response time was observed 7 minutes with detection limit 1 mg/L. Good linear range with GGA standard solution was observed, R (2) 0.99 with relative standard deviation (RSD) <%. The observed BOD value by biosensor showed a good comparison with the conventional method for the determination of BOD. PMID:25969770

  4. Development of Biological Oxygen Demand Biosensor for Monitoring the Fermentation Industry Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Neelam; Singh, Ashish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A biosensor was developed for the determination of BOD value of fermentation industry effluent. The developed biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the microbial consortium on cellulose acetate (CA) membrane in close proximity to a DO probe electrode. The microbial consortium was harvested from the fermentation industry effluent. The BOD biosensor was calibrated by using a solution containing the equivalent amount of glucose/glutamic acid (GGA) as a standard sample solution. The response time was optimized by immobilizing different concentrations of cell biomass on CA membrane. Once the response time was optimized, it was used for determination of BOD of fermentation industry effluent. For analysis of fermentation industry effluent, the response time was observed 7 minutes with detection limit 1 mg/L. Good linear range with GGA standard solution was observed, R2 0.99 with relative standard deviation (RSD) <%. The observed BOD value by biosensor showed a good comparison with the conventional method for the determination of BOD. PMID:25969770

  5. Monitoring endocrine activity in kraft mill effluent treated by aerobic moving bed bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, S; Pozo, G; Jarpa, M; Hernandez, V; Becerra, J; Vidal, G

    2010-01-01

    A Moving Bed Bioreactor (MBBR) was operated at three different hydraulic retention times for a period of 414 days. The fate of the extractive compounds and the estrogenic activity of the Pinus radiata kraft mill effluents were evaluated using Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. Results show that the MBBR reactor is able to remove between 80-83% of estrogenic activity present in the kraft mill Pinus radiata influent, where the values of the effluent's estrogenic activity ranged between 0.123-0.411 ng L(-1), expressed as estrogenic equivalent (EEqs) of 17-a-ethynylestradiol (EE2 eq.). Additionally, the biomass of the MBBR reactor accumulated estrogenic activity ranging between 0.29-0.37 ng EEqs EE2 during the different Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) operations. The main groups present in pulp mills effluents, corresponding to fatty acids, hydrocarbons, phenols, sterols and triterpenes, were detected by solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results suggest that the sterols produce the estrogenic activity in the evaluated effluent. PMID:20595766

  6. Advanced active health monitoring system of liquid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Xinlin P.; Wu, Zhanjun; Beard, Shawn; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2008-11-01

    An advanced SMART TAPE system has been developed for real-time in-situ monitoring and long term tracking of structural integrity of pressure vessels in liquid rocket engines. The practical implementation of the structural health monitoring (SHM) system including distributed sensor network, portable diagnostic hardware and dedicated data analysis software is addressed based on the harsh operating environment. Extensive tests were conducted on a simulated large booster LOX-H2 engine propellant duct to evaluate the survivability and functionality of the system under the operating conditions of typical liquid rocket engines such as cryogenic temperature, vibration loads. The test results demonstrated that the developed SHM system could survive the combined cryogenic temperature and vibration environments and effectively detect cracks as small as 2 mm.

  7. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Cochran, John Russell; Sol Shamsaldin, Emad

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  8. Methods and systems for monitoring a solid-liquid interface

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, Nathan G.; Clark, Roger F.

    2011-10-04

    Methods and systems are provided for monitoring a solid-liquid interface, including providing a vessel configured to contain an at least partially melted material; detecting radiation reflected from a surface of a liquid portion of the at least partially melted material; providing sound energy to the surface; measuring a disturbance on the surface; calculating at least one frequency associated with the disturbance; and determining a thickness of the liquid portion based on the at least one frequency, wherein the thickness is calculated based on L=(2m-1)v.sub.s/4f, where f is the frequency where the disturbance has an amplitude maximum, v.sub.s is the speed of sound in the material, and m is a positive integer (1, 2, 3, . . . ).

  9. Monitoring release of pharmaceutical compounds: occurrence and environmental risk assessment of two WWTP effluents and their receiving bodies in the Po Valley, Italy.

    PubMed

    Al Aukidy, M; Verlicchi, P; Jelic, A; Petrovic, M; Barcelò, D

    2012-11-01

    This study describes an investigation on the occurrence of 27 pharmaceutical compounds, belonging to different classes, in the effluent from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their receiving water bodies in the sensitive area of the Po Valley (northern Italy). These canals were monitored upstream and downstream of the effluent discharge points in order to evaluate the effluent impact on the quality of surface waters, commonly used for irrigation. An environmental risk assessment was also conducted by calculating the risk quotient, i.e. the ratio between measured concentration and predicted no effect concentration. Collected data show that, although average values of the selected compounds were in general higher in the effluent than in the surface waters, some compounds not detected in the WWTP effluent were detected in the receiving water (upstream as well as downstream), indicating that sources other than treated effluents are present as contaminations during extraction and analysis have to be excluded. The most critical compounds for the environment were found to be the antibiotics sulfamethoxazole, clarithromycin and azithromycin. The study shows that the potential toxicological effects of persistent micropollutants can be mitigated to some extent by a high dilution capacity, i.e. a high average flow rate in the receiving water body with respect to the effluent. PMID:22967493

  10. EFFECTS OF LIQUID DETERGENT PLANT EFFLUENT ON THE ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes data on the treatment of wastewaters from a liquid detergent manufacturing plant by a rotating biological contactor and presents the findings of an analytical effort to determine the presence or absence of metals and organic compounds which were among those...

  11. Method for analyzing the chemical composition of liquid effluent from a direct contact condenser

    DOEpatents

    Bharathan, Desikan; Parent, Yves; Hassani, A. Vahab

    2001-01-01

    A computational modeling method for predicting the chemical, physical, and thermodynamic performance of a condenser using calculations based on equations of physics for heat, momentum and mass transfer and equations of equilibrium thermodynamics to determine steady state profiles of parameters throughout the condenser. The method includes providing a set of input values relating to a condenser including liquid loading, vapor loading, and geometric characteristics of the contact medium in the condenser. The geometric and packing characteristics of the contact medium include the dimensions and orientation of a channel in the contact medium. The method further includes simulating performance of the condenser using the set of input values to determine a related set of output values such as outlet liquid temperature, outlet flow rates, pressures, and the concentration(s) of one or more dissolved noncondensable gas species in the outlet liquid. The method may also include iteratively performing the above computation steps using a plurality of sets of input values and then determining whether each of the resulting output values and performance profiles satisfies acceptance criteria.

  12. Ocean Circulation Modeling for Aquatic Dispersion of Liquid Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.G.; Lee, G.B.; Bang, S.Y.; Choi, S.B.; Lee, S.U.; Yoon, J.H.; Nam, S.Y.; Lee, H.R.

    2006-07-01

    Recently, three-dimensional models have been used for aquatic dispersion of radioactive effluents in relation to nuclear power plant siting based on the Notice No. 2003-12 'Guideline for investigating and assessing hydrological and aquatic characteristics of nuclear facility site' of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) in Korea. Several nuclear power plants have been under construction or planed, which are Shin-Kori Unit 1 and 2, Shin-Wolsong Unit 1 and 2, and Shin-Ulchin Unit 1 and 2. For assessing the aquatic dispersion of radionuclides released from the above nuclear power plants, it is necessary to know the coastal currents around sites which are affected by circulation of East Sea. In this study, a three dimensional hydrodynamic model for the circulation of the East Sea of Korea has been developed as the first phase, which is based on the RIAMOM (Research Institute of Applied Mechanics' Ocean Model, Kyushu University, Japan). The model uses the primitive equation with hydrostatic approximation, and uses Arakawa-B grid system horizontally and Z coordinate vertically. Model domain is 126.5 deg. E to 142.5 deg. E of east longitude and 33 deg. N and 52 deg. N of the north latitude. The space of the horizontal grid was 1/12 deg. to longitude and latitude direction and vertical level was divided to 20. This model uses Generalized Arakawa Scheme, Slant Advection, and Mode-Splitting Method. The input data were from JODC (Japan Oceanographic Data Center), KNFRDI (Korea National Fisheries Research and Development Institute), and ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The modeling results are in fairly good agreement with schematic patterns of the surface circulation in the East Sea/Japan Sea. The local current model and aquatic dispersion model of the coastal region will be developed as the second phase. The oceanic dispersion experiments will be also carried out by using ARGO Drifter around a nuclear power plant site. (authors)

  13. 75 FR 63856 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and... sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain liquid crystal... importation of certain liquid crystal display devices, including monitors, televisions, and modules,...

  14. 75 FR 74080 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... COMMISSION Inv. No. 337-TA-749 In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors... sale within the United States after importation of certain liquid crystal display devices, including... importation of certain liquid crystal display devices, including monitors, televisions, and modules,...

  15. [Transport processes of low-level radioactive liquid effluent of nuclear power station in closed water body].

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Zheng; Xu, Zong-Xue

    2012-07-01

    The transport processes of low-level radioactive liquid effluent of Xianning nuclear power station in the closed water body Fushui Reservoir are simulated using the EFDC model. Six nuclides concentration distribution with different half-lives in the reservoir are analyzed under the condition of 97% guarantee rate incoming water and four-running nuclear power units. The results show that the nuclides concentration distribution is mainly affected by the flow field of the reservoir and the concentration is decided by the half-lives of nuclide and the volume of incoming water. In addition, the influence region is enlarged as increasing of half-life and tends to be stable when the half-life is longer than 5 years. Moreover, the waste water discharged from the outlet of the nuclear power plant has no effect on the water-intake for the outlet located at the upstream of the water-intake and the flow field flows to the dam of the reservoir. PMID:23002624

  16. A comparison between floc morphology and the effluent clarity at a full-scale activated sludge plant using optical monitoring.

    PubMed

    Koivuranta, E; Keskitalo, J; Stoor, T; Hattuniemi, J; Sarén, M; Niinimäki, J

    2014-08-01

    A charge-coupled device camera was used for the optical monitoring of activated sludge flocs and filaments, and the image analysis results were compared with the effluent clarity at a full-scale activated sludge plant during a three-month period. The study included a maintenance stoppage at the wastewater treatment plant, which was followed by a settling problem. Thus, the study presents the development of floc morphology from poor flocculation to good flocculation. In this case, the evolution of flocs was a slow process, and the optimum floc morphology was achieved before the purification results improved. To diagnose the cause of the settling problems using optical monitoring, four major factors were found to be relevant: the mean area of the flocs, the amount of small particles, the amount of filament and the shape parameters of the flocs. In this case, the settling problem was caused by dispersed growth based on the image analysis results. In conclusion, the method used has the potential for usefulness in the development of monitoring applications to predict plant performance and also to diagnose the causes of the settling problems. PMID:24956750

  17. Ultrasonic technique for monitoring of liquid density variations.

    PubMed

    Kazys, R; Rekuviene, R; Sliteris, R; Mazeika, L; Zukauskas, E

    2015-01-01

    A novel ultrasonic measurement technique for density measurements of different liquids in extreme conditions has been developed. The proposed density measurement method is based on transformation of the acoustic impedance of the measured liquid. The higher accuracy of measurements is achieved by means of the λ/4 acoustic matching layer between the load and the ultrasonic waveguide transducer. Introduction of the matching layer enhances sensitivity of the measurement system. Sometimes, the density measurements must be performed in very complex conditions: high temperature (up to 200 °C), pressure (up to 10 MPa), and high chemical activity of the medium under measurement. In this case, the special geometry metal waveguides are proposed to use in order to protect the piezoelectric transducer surface from influence of a high temperature. The experimental set-up of technique was calibrated using the reference liquids with different densities: ethyl ether, ethyl alcohol, distilled water, and different concentration (20%, 40%, and 60%) sugar-water solutions. The uncertainty of measurements is less than 1%. The proposed measurement method was verified in real conditions by monitoring the density of a melted polypropylene during manufacturing process. PMID:25638115

  18. Monitoring system for a liquid-cooled nuclear fission reactor

    DOEpatents

    DeVolpi, Alexander

    1987-01-01

    A monitoring system for detecting changes in the liquid levels in various regions of a water-cooled nuclear power reactor, viz., in the downcomer, in the core, in the inlet and outlet plenums, at the head, and elsewhere; and also for detecting changes in the density of the liquid in these regions. A plurality of gamma radiation detectors are used, arranged vertically along the outside of the reactor vessel, and collimator means for each detector limits the gamma-radiation it receives as emitting from only isolated regions of the vessel. Excess neutrons produced by the fission reaction will be captured by the water coolant, by the steel reactor walls, or by the fuel or control structures in the vessel. Neutron capture by steel generates gamma radiation having an energy level of the order of 5-12 MeV, whereas neutron capture by water provides an energy level of approximately 2.2 MeV, and neutron capture by the fission fuel or its cladding provides an energy level of 1 MeV or less. The intensity of neutron capture thus changes significantly at any water-metal interface. Comparative analysis of adjacent gamma detectors senses changes from the normal condition with liquid coolant present to advise of changes in the presence and/or density of the coolant at these specific regions. The gamma detectors can also sense fission-product gas accumulation at the reactor head to advise of a failure of fuel-pin cladding.

  19. Ultrasonic technique for monitoring of liquid density variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazys, R.; Rekuviene, R.; Sliteris, R.; Mazeika, L.; Zukauskas, E.

    2015-01-01

    A novel ultrasonic measurement technique for density measurements of different liquids in extreme conditions has been developed. The proposed density measurement method is based on transformation of the acoustic impedance of the measured liquid. The higher accuracy of measurements is achieved by means of the λ/4 acoustic matching layer between the load and the ultrasonic waveguide transducer. Introduction of the matching layer enhances sensitivity of the measurement system. Sometimes, the density measurements must be performed in very complex conditions: high temperature (up to 200 °C), pressure (up to 10 MPa), and high chemical activity of the medium under measurement. In this case, the special geometry metal waveguides are proposed to use in order to protect the piezoelectric transducer surface from influence of a high temperature. The experimental set-up of technique was calibrated using the reference liquids with different densities: ethyl ether, ethyl alcohol, distilled water, and different concentration (20%, 40%, and 60%) sugar-water solutions. The uncertainty of measurements is less than 1%. The proposed measurement method was verified in real conditions by monitoring the density of a melted polypropylene during manufacturing process.

  20. Liquid effluent/Hanford Environmental compliance FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan/Fiscal Year Work Plan, WBS 1.2.2.1 and 1.2.2.2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document details the program effort to eliminate the use of the soil column for liquid effluent treatment and to manage current and future liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site, in a safe responsible cost effective and legally compliant mannger. This should be achieved through planning, public and stakeholder interaction, definition of requiremtns for generators, and provision of timely treatment, stroage, disposal capability, and waste minimization of waste streams.

  1. 40 CFR 417.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  2. 40 CFR 417.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  3. 40 CFR 417.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  4. 40 CFR 417.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  5. 40 CFR 417.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  6. 40 CFR 417.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  7. 40 CFR 417.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  8. 40 CFR 417.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  9. 40 CFR 417.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  10. 40 CFR 417.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  11. Determination of natural and synthetic glucocorticoids in effluent of sewage treatment plants using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Tomohiko; Sato, Kentaro; Joon-Woo, Kim; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Go; Nakayama, Kei

    2015-09-01

    A sensitive and comprehensive analytical method for glucocorticoids (GCs) in water samples was developed and applied to effluent of sewage treatment plants (STPs). In the present study, totally 10 natural and synthetic GCs, including cortisol, betamethasone valerate, clobetasol propionate, clobetasone butyrate, difluprednate, betamethasone, dexamethasone, betamethasone dipropionate, methylprednisolone, and prednisolone, were targeted. Analytes were extracted and concentrated using an OASIS HLB solid phase extraction cartridge. Chromatographic separation and quantification were achieved using an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatograph coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS). Method detection limits were 0.05 to 0.89 ng/L, which were 1-2 orders of magnitude more sensitive than in the previous reports. Cortisol was detected in more than half of (27 out of 50) analyzed effluent samples at concentrations in the range of ND-1.36 ng/L, indicating continuous discharge of natural GC via STP effluent. On the other hand, dexamethasone + betamethasone, prednisolone, betamethasone valerate, and clobetasol propionate were detected in 25, 8, 20, and 9 samples among 50 effluent samples, respectively, suggesting not extreme but significant administration of synthetic GCs. PMID:25963071

  12. Liquid intake monitoring through breathing signal using machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the design, system structure and performance for a wireless and wearable diet monitoring system. Food and drink intake can be detected by the way of detecting a person's swallow events. The system works based on the key observation that a person's otherwise continuous breathing process is interrupted by a short apnea when she or he swallows as a part of solid or liquid intake process. We detect the swallows through the difference between normal breathing cycle and breathing cycle with swallows using a wearable chest-belt. Three popular machine learning algorithms have been applied on both time and frequency domain features. Discrimination power of features is then analyzed for applications where only small number of features is allowed. It is shown that high detection performance can be achieved with only few features.

  13. Distributed Health Monitoring System for Reusable Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. F.; Figueroa, F.; Politopoulos, T.; Oonk, S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to correctly detect and identify any possible failure in the systems, subsystems, or sensors within a reusable liquid rocket engine is a major goal at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC). A health management (HM) system is required to provide an on-ground operation crew with an integrated awareness of the condition of every element of interest by determining anomalies, examining their causes, and making predictive statements. However, the complexity associated with relevant systems, and the large amount of data typically necessary for proper interpretation and analysis, presents difficulties in implementing complete failure detection, identification, and prognostics (FDI&P). As such, this paper presents a Distributed Health Monitoring System for Reusable Liquid Rocket Engines as a solution to these problems through the use of highly intelligent algorithms for real-time FDI&P, and efficient and embedded processing at multiple levels. The end result is the ability to successfully incorporate a comprehensive HM platform despite the complexity of the systems under consideration.

  14. Calibration of monitors used for surveillance of radioactivity in effluent water from CERN's accelerator installations.

    PubMed

    Vojtyla, P

    2001-07-01

    Water released into the environment from CERN's accelerator installations may contain both long-lived (7Be, 22Na) and short-lived (11C, 13N, 24Na) gamma radioactivity. Each potential release point is equipped with an on-line monitor for short-lived radionuclides, which consists of a scintillation probe immersed in a tank filled with monitored water. Whilst calibration standards are available for long-lived radioactivity, computer simulations are the only feasible way to determine the monitor efficiency for the short-lived radionuclides. The paper describes computer simulations using the Monte Carlo code GEANT 3.21. An excellent agreement between measured and computed efficiencies was obtained for the long-lived radionuclides, validating the computer model. A calibration method is proposed for light positron emitters, which combines an experimental calibration for 7Be and correction factors obtained in the simulations. PMID:11339535

  15. Fast liquid chromatography-diode array detection assisted by chemometrics for quantification of seven ultraviolet filters in effluent wastewater.

    PubMed

    Vosough, Maryam; Mojdehi, Nahal Rahimdoost

    2011-09-30

    A fast chromatographic method is presented for simultaneous quantification of seven organic ultraviolet (UV) filters (benzophenone-3,4-methylbenzilidene camphor, octocrylene, 1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-3-(4-methyoxyphenyl)1,3-propanedione), ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate, ethylhexyl salicylate and homosalate) in effluent wastewater samples. The UV filters were pre-concentrated by Bond Elut-ENV cartridges and separated on an ODS column (15 cm × 0.46 cm, 5 μm) in less than 2.5 min using a non-aqueous mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) with flow-rate of 1.5 mL min(-1). Appropriate baseline correction through asymmetric least squares was applied to reduce the matrix of background signals in three way data. Then, second-order calibration based on multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was implemented on the unfolded three-way data obtained from liquid chromatography with diode array detection (LC-DAD) through standard addition calibration method for handling co-eluted peaks, systematic and proportional errors. Recoveries ranging from 76% to 130% and %RSD values less than 11.2 for all UV filter shows the accuracy and precision of the proposed method in wastewater samples. In addition, statistical t-test as well as computed elliptical joint confidence region (EJCR) confirms the accuracy of the proposed method and indicates the absence of both constant and proportional errors in the predicted concentrations. This study demonstrates that coupling of the fast HPLC-DAD method with powerful algorithm of MCR-ALS can be considered as an efficient method for quantification of UV filters in highly contaminated samples of wastewaters where both time and cost per each analysis can be reduced significantly. PMID:21872075

  16. Real-time alpha monitoring of a radioactive liquid waste stream at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.D.; Whitley, C.R.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.

    1995-12-31

    This poster display concerns the development, installation, and testing of a real-time radioactive liquid waste monitor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detector system was designed for the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility so that influent to the plant could be monitored in real time. By knowing the activity of the influent, plant operators can better monitor treatment, better segregate waste (potentially), and monitor the regulatory compliance of users of the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System. The detector system uses long-range alpha detection technology, which is a nonintrusive method of characterization that determines alpha activity on the liquid surface by measuring the ionization of ambient air. Extensive testing has been performed to ensure long-term use with a minimal amount of maintenance. The final design was a simple cost-effective alpha monitor that could be modified for monitoring influent waste streams at various points in the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System.

  17. Novel nanohybrid materials for the effective removal of phosphates and nitrates from liquid effluents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eroglu, Ela; Haniff Wahid, M.; Boulos, Ramiz A.; Chen, Xianjue; Eggers, Paul K.; Toster, Jeremiah; D'Alonzo, Nicholas J.; Smith, Steven M.; Raston, Colin L.

    2014-05-01

    Within our research group, various types of nanofabrication processes have been applied for creating novel nanohybrid materials, including the immobilization of some microorganisms with electrospun nanofibres1, laminar nanomaterials (i.e. graphene and graphene oxide)2,3, microfibers of human hair4, and magnetic nanoparticles impregnated in polymer5. These approaches afford nanohybrid materials with microalgal cells1-5 or diatom frustules6 for the removal of waste pollutants, mainly nitrate and phosphate ions, while establishing a new paradigm in the field. Aside from these immobilization studies, we also investigated the improvement of nitrate removal with exfoliated graphene sheets in the presence of p-phosphonic acid calix[8]arene molecules.7 Various material characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were used for the characterization of the novel nanohybrid materials, while fluorescence microscopy and chlorophyll content analysis were mainly used for monitoring the viability and growth pattern of the microalgal cells. Nitrate and phosphate analyses were carried out by following HACH® standard methods. In this talk, a brief overview of the fabrication processes of these nanohybrid materials and their application for wastewater treatment will be highlighted. 1. E. Eroglu, V. Agarwal, M. Bradshaw, X. Chen, S.M. Smith, C.L. Raston and K.S. Iyer, Green Chemistry, 2012, 14(10), 2682 - 2685. 2. M.H. Wahid, E. Eroglu, X. Chen, S.M. Smith and C.L. Raston, Green Chemistry, 2013, 15(3), 650-655. 3. M.H. Wahid, E. Eroglu, X. Chen, S.M. Smith and C.L. Raston, RSC Advances, 2013, 3(22), 8180-8183. 4. R.A. Boulos, E. Eroglu, X. Chen, A. Scaffidi, J. Toster, B. Edwards and C.L. Raston, Green Chemistry, 2013, 15(5), 1268-1273. 5. E. Eroglu, N.J. D'Alonzo, S.M. Smith and C.L. Raston, Nanoscale, 2013, 5(7), 2627-2631. 6. J. Toster, I. Kusumawardani, E. Eroglu, K.S. Iyer, F

  18. Trinidad Head, California: New NOAA/CMDL Baseline Observatory for Monitoring Asian Atmospheric Effluents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, R. C.; Butler, J. H.

    2002-12-01

    Long-range transport of dust and air pollution from Asia to the Mauna Loa, Hawaii, Atmospheric Baseline Observatory has been documented since the early 1970s. In a single year, as many as 30 distinct pollution flow events from Asia have been observed there. Some flows last a few hours, whereas others persist for up to 5 days. More recently, it has been recognized by both measurements and satellite photos that there are significant numbers of air pollution flow events from Asia into North America along a broad front, ranging from the north slope of Alaska to central California. There is a valid concern that ozone and ozone precursors advecting from Asia could eventually put California into noncompliance with federal air-quality regulations. As a component of the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) program, NOAA/CMDL established an atmospheric monitoring observatory (April 2002) at Trinidad Head, California in collaboration with Humboldt State University, to monitor both the inflow of air pollution from Asia as well as regionally influenced air. The station monitors aerosols, ozone (continuous surface and weekly ozonesonde balloon profiles), radiation, and halocarbon and carbon cycle trace gases (weekly flasks). Data from Trinidad Head are monitored via the internet at CMDL in Boulder. Plans call for the installation of a GC/MS for the measurement of PAN, hydrocarbons, and certain halocarbons, and for vertical profiles of trace gases and ozone to be obtained (with light aircraft) upwind and above the site on a weekly basis. It is expected that the Trinidad Head observatory will expand measurement programs over the next 5 years and be in operation for many decades to come.

  19. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory annual environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations.

  20. Gas-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methodology for the quantitation of estrogenic contaminants in bile of fish exposed to wastewater treatment works effluents and from wild populations.

    PubMed

    Fenlon, Kate A; Johnson, Andrew C; Tyler, Charles R; Hill, Elizabeth M

    2010-01-01

    Fish can be exposed to a complex mixture of chemical contaminants arising from the exposure to wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) effluents. Some of these contaminants are estrogenic and have been associated with feminisation of male fish and the presence of populations containing intersex individuals. However the detection of trace levels (ng/L) of estrogenic chemicals surface waters can be difficult and does not give information on the exposure of aquatic organisms to these contaminants. In this study we assessed whether the analysis of estrogenic substances that bioconcentrate in fish bile can be used to detect the exposure of fish to feminising contaminants in receiving waters and effluents, and thus facilitate their monitoring of these substances in aquatic environments. Estrogenic metabolites in bile were deconjugated using enzymatic hydrolysis and partially purified by solid phase extraction. Steroidal and xenoestrogens were derivatized to their trimethylsilyl ethers and quantified by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring. The method was validated using spiked bile samples from immature female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as well as bile from sexually mature roach (Rutilus rutilus) that had been exposed to either tap water or an undiluted estrogenic effluent for 10 days or captured from a river site downstream of a WwTWs effluent discharge. The mean recovery of target analytes from spiked bile was between 86 and 99% and the limit of detection was between 0.1 and 0.7ng/mL bile for bisphenol A (BPA), 17beta-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and 11, 60 and 327ng/mL bile for branched nonyl chain isomeric mixtures of 4-nonylphenolethoxylate (NP1EO), 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-nonylphenoldiethoxylate (NP2EO), respectively. All target analytes were detected in bile from roach exposed directly to a WwTWs effluent, with concentrations between 6-13microg/mL bile for NP, 18-21microg

  1. Comparison of digestate from solid anaerobic digesters and dewatered effluent from liquid anaerobic digesters as inocula for solid state anaerobic digestion of yard trimmings.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuqing; Wang, Feng; Lin, Long; Li, Yebo

    2016-01-01

    To select a proper inoculum for the solid state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of yard trimmings, digestate from solid anaerobic digesters and dewatered effluent from liquid anaerobic digesters were compared at substrate-to-inoculum (S/I) ratios from 0.2 to 2 (dry basis), and total solids (TS) contents from 20% to 35%. The highest methane yield of around 244L/kg VSfeed was obtained at an S/I ratio of 0.2 and TS content of 20% for both types of inoculum. The highest volumetric methane productivity was obtained with dewatered effluent at an S/I ratio of 0.6 and TS content of 24%. The two types of inoculum were found comparable regarding methane yields and volumetric methane productivities at each S/I ratio, while using dewatered effluent as inoculum reduced the startup time. An S/I ratio of 1 was determined to be a critical level and should be set as the upper limit for mesophilic SS-AD of yard trimmings. PMID:26575617

  2. Characterization of an Am-Be PGNAA set-up developed for in situ liquid analysis: Application to domestic waste water and industrial liquid effluents analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idiri, Z.; Mazrou, H.; Amokrane, A.; Bedek, S.

    2010-01-01

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) set-up with an Am-Be source developed for in situ analysis of liquid samples is described. The linearity of its response was tested for chlorine and cadmium dissolved in water. Prompt gamma efficiency of the system has been determined experimentally using prompt gamma of chlorine dissolved in water and detection limits for different elements have been derived for domestic waste water. A methodology to analyze any kind of liquid is then proposed. This methodology consists mainly on using standards with water as bulk or in the case of absolute method, to use gamma efficiency determined with prompt gammas emitted by chlorine dissolved in water. To take into account the thermal neutron flux variations inside the samples, flux monitoring was carried out using a He-3 neutron detector placed at the external sample container surface. Finally, to correct for the differences in gamma attenuation, average gamma attenuations factors were calculated using MCNP5 code. This method was then checked successfully by determining cadmium in industrial phosphoric acid and our result was in good agreement with that obtained with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method.

  3. 40 CFR 417.162 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.162 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): (a) For normal liquid detergent operations the following values pertain:...

  4. 40 CFR 417.162 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.162 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): (a) For normal liquid detergent operations the following values pertain:...

  5. 40 CFR 417.162 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.162 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): (a) For normal liquid detergent operations the following values pertain:...

  6. 77 FR 3793 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and Modules, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and Modules, and Components Thereof; Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade...

  7. Filtration device for active effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.; Meunier, G.

    1994-12-31

    Among the various techniques relating to solid/liquid separations, filtration is currently utilized for treating radioactive effluents. After testing different equipments on various simulated effluents, the Valduc Center has decided to substitute a monoplate filter for a rotative diatomite precoated filter.

  8. Solidification of Simulated Liquid Effluents Originating From Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, FY-03 Report

    SciTech Connect

    S. V. Raman; A. K. Herbst; B. A. Scholes; S. H. Hinckley; R. D. Colby

    2003-09-01

    In this report, the mechanism and methods of fixation of acidic waste effluents in grout form are explored. From the variations in the pH as a function of total solids addition to acidic waste effluent solutions, the stages of gellation, liquefaction, slurry formation and grout development are quantitatively revealed. Experimental results indicate the completion of these reaction steps to be significant for elimination of bleed liquid and for setting of the grout to a dimensionally stable and hardened solid within a reasonable period of about twenty eight days that is often observed in the cement and concrete industry. The reactions also suggest increases in the waste loading in the direction of decreasing acid molarity. Consequently, 1.0 molar SBW-180 waste is contained in higher quantity than the 2.8 molar SBW-189, given the same grout formulation for both effluents. The variations in the formulations involving components of slag, cement, waste and neutralizing agent are represented in the form of a ternary formulation map. The map in turn graphically reveals the relations among the various formulations and grout properties, and is useful in predicting the potential directions of waste loading in grouts with suitable properties such as slurry viscosity, Vicat hardness, and mechanical strength. A uniform formulation for the fixation of both SBW-180 and SBW-189 has emerged from the development of the formulation map. The boundaries for the processing regime on this map are 100 wt% cement to 50 wt% cement / 50 wt% slag, with waste loadings ranging from 55 wt% to 68 wt%. Within these compositional bounds all the three waste streams SBW-180, SBW-189 and Scrub solution are amenable to solidification. A large cost advantage is envisaged to stem from savings in labor, processing time, and processing methodology by adopting a uniform formulation concept for fixation of compositionally diverse waste streams. The experimental efforts contained in this report constitute the

  9. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, Charles M.; Shapiro, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor.

  10. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, C.M.; Shapiro, C.

    1997-11-25

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor. 6 figs.

  11. Organic liquid scintillation detector shape and volume impact on radiation portal monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paff, Marc G.; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2016-07-01

    We have developed and tested a radiation portal monitor using organic liquid scintillation detectors. In order to optimize our system designs, neutron measurements were carried out with three organic liquid scintillation detectors of different shapes and sizes, along with a 3He radiation portal monitor (RPM) as a reference. The three liquids tested were a 7.62 cm diameter by 7.62 cm length cylindrical active volume organic liquid scintillation detector, a 12.7 cm diameter by 12.7 cm length cylindrical active volume organic liquid scintillation detector, and a 25 cm by 25 cm by 10 cm "paddle" shaped organic liquid scintillation detector. Background and Cf-252 neutron measurements were recorded to allow for a comparison of neutron intrinsic efficiencies as well as receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves between detectors. The 12.7 cm diameter cylindrical active volume organic liquid scintillation detector exhibited the highest intrinsic neutron efficiency (54%) of all three liquid scintillators. An ROC curve analysis for a heavily moderated Cf-252 measurement showed that using the 12.7 cm diameter by 12.7 cm length cylindrical active volume Eljen EJ309 organic liquid scintillation detector would result in the fewest needed detector units in order to achieve a near 100% positive neutron alarm rate while maintaining a better than 1 in 10,000 false alarm rate on natural neutron background. A small number of organic liquid scintillation detectors could therefore be a valid alternative to 3He in some RPM applications.

  12. Rapid determination of 12 antibiotics and caffeine in sewage and bioreactor effluent by online column-switching liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lima Gomes, Paulo C F; Tomita, Inês N; Santos-Neto, Álvaro J; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2015-11-01

    This study presents a column-switching solid-phase extraction online-coupled to a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 12 antibiotics (7 sulfonamides and 5 fluoroquinolones) and caffeine detected in the sewage and effluent of a pilot anaerobic reactor used in sewage treatment. After acidification and filtration, the samples were directly injected into a simple and conventional LC system. Backflush and foreflush modes were compared based on the theoretical plates and peak asymmetry observed. The method was tested in terms of detection (MDL) and quantification limit (MQL), linearity, relative recovery, and precision intra- and inter-day in lab-made sewage samples. The method presented suitable figures of merit in terms of detection, varying from 8.00 × 10(-5) to 6.00 × 10(-2) ng (0.800 up to 600 ng L(-1); caffeine) with direct injection volume of only 100 μL and 13 min of total analysis time (sample preparation and chromatographic run). When the method was applied in the analysis of sewage and effluent of the anaerobic reactor (n = 15), six antibiotics and caffeine were detected in concentrations ranging from 0.018 to 1097 μg L(-1). To guarantee a reliable quantification, standard addition was used to overcome the matrix effect. PMID:26446896

  13. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution time of flight mass spectrometry for chemical characterization of sewage treatment plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xiyu; Leonards, Pim; Legler, Juliette; van der Oost, Ron; de Boer, Jacob; Lamoree, Marja

    2015-02-01

    For the first time a comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC) system coupled with a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HR-ToF MS) was developed and applied for analysis of emerging toxicants in wastewater effluent. The system was optimized and validated using environmental standard compound mixtures of e.g. carbamate pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), to characterize the chromatographic system, to test the stability of the retention times and orthogonality. Various stationary phases in the second dimension were compared for the LC×LC analysis of silicon rubber passive sampler extracts of a wastewater effluent. A combination of C18 and Pentafluorophenyl (PFP) was found to be most effective. Finally, the hyphenation of LC×LC with HR-ToF MS was optimized, including splitter settings, transfer of data files between the different software packages and background subtraction using instrument software tools, after which tentative identification of 20 environmental contaminants was achieved, including pesticides, pharmaceuticals and food additives. As examples, three pesticides (isoproturon, terbutryn and diazinon) were confirmed by two-dimensional retention alignment. PMID:25578044

  14. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory Environmental Monitoring Report, Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    2003-12-31

    The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as environmental monitoring of air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and at off-site background locations.

  15. Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-09-01

    The Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent site is located in the southeastern portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site. This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) 12-19-01 and is the only CAS assigned to Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. Post-closure sampling and inspection of the site were completed on March 27, 2002. Post-closure monitoring activities were scheduled biennially (every two years) in the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the Closure Report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent, Nevada Test Site (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 1997). A baseline for the site was established by sampling in 1997. Based on the recommendations from the 1999 post-closure monitoring report (DOE/NV, 1999), samples were collected in 2000, earlier than originally proposed, because the 1999 sample results did not provide the expected decrease in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations at the site. Sampling results from 2000 (DOE/NV, 2000) and 2001 (DOE/NV, 2001) revealed favorable conditions for natural degradation at the CAU 339 site, but because of differing sample methods and heterogeneity of the soil, data results from 2000 and later were not directly correlated with previous results. Post-closure monitoring activities for 2002 consisted of the following: (1) Soil sample collection from three undisturbed plots (Plots A, B, and C, Figure 2). (2) Sample analysis for TPH as oil and bio-characterization parameters (Comparative Enumeration Assay [CEA] and Standard Nutrient Panel [SNP]). (3) Site inspection to evaluate the condition of the fencing and signs. (4) Preparation and submittal of the Post-Closure Monitoring Report.

  16. 40 CFR 409.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 409.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 409.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 409.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 409.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 418.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... material ammonia is in the gaseous form: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Ammonia (as N) 0.0045 0.00045 Nitrate... ammonia is in the shipped liquid form: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  2. 40 CFR 418.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... material ammonia is in the gaseous form: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Ammonia (as N) 0.0045 0.00045 Nitrate... ammonia is in the shipped liquid form: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  3. 40 CFR 418.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... material ammonia is in the gaseous form: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Ammonia (as N) 0.0045 0.00045 Nitrate... ammonia is in the shipped liquid form: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  4. 40 CFR 418.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... material ammonia is in the gaseous form: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Ammonia (as N) 0.0045 0.00045 Nitrate... ammonia is in the shipped liquid form: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  5. 40 CFR 418.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... material ammonia is in the gaseous form: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Ammonia (as N) 0.0045 0.00045 Nitrate... ammonia is in the shipped liquid form: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  6. Method for monitoring the crystallization of an organic material from a liquid

    DOEpatents

    Asay, Blaine W.; Henson, Bryan F.; Sander, Robert K.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Son, Steven F.; Dickson, Peter M.

    2004-10-05

    Method for monitoring the crystallization of at least one organic material from a liquid. According to the method, a liquid having at least one organic material capable of existing in at least one non-centrosymmetric phase is prepared. The liquid is interrogated with a laser beam at a chosen wavelength. As at least a portion of the at least one organic material crystallizes from the liquid, the intensity of any light scattered by the crystallized material at a wavelength equal to one-half the chosen wavelength of the interrogating laser beam is monitored. If the intensity of this scattered light, increases, then the crystals that form include at least one non-cetrosymmetric phase.

  7. Out-Of-Drum Grout Mixer Testing With Simulated Liquid Effluents Originating From Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    B. A. Scholes; A. K. Herbst; S. V. Raman; S. H. Hinckley

    2003-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering several optional processes for disposal of liquid sodium-bearing waste. During fiscal year 2003, alternatives were evaluated for grout formulation development and associated mixing for the Sodium-Bearing Waste cesium ion exchange process. The neutralization agents calcium or sodium hydroxide and the solidification agents Portland cement, with or without blast furnace slag were evaluated. A desired uniform formulation was pursued to develop a grout waste form without any bleed liquid and solidify within a reasonable period of about twenty-eight days. This testing evaluates the out-of-drum alternative of mixing the effluent with solidification agents prior to being poured into drums versus the in-drum alternative of mixing them all together after being poured into the drums. Experimental results indicate that sodium-bearing waste can be immobilized in grout using the Autocon continuous mixer within the range of 66 to 72 weight percent. Furthermore, a loading of 30 weight percent NWCF scrubber simulant also produced an acceptable grout waste form.

  8. Distributed temperature monitoring for liquid sodium leakage detection using OFDR-based Rayleigh backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldyreva, E.; Cotillard, R.; Laffont, G.; Ferdinand, P.; Cambet, D.; Jeannot, J.-P.; Charvet, P.; Albaladéjo, S.; Rodriguez, G.

    2014-05-01

    For the first time, a gold coated single mode optical fiber has been used to detect a liquid sodium leakage on a pipe of secondary circuit pipe mock-up of nuclear fast reactor (Gen IV) by means of Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry-based on Rayleigh backscattering. During 150 min of the experiment we were able to detect and monitor the evolution of a liquid sodium leakage on the surface of the pipe.

  9. A cryogenic monitor system for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter in the SLD detector

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.J.; Fox, J.D.

    1988-10-01

    This paper describes the monitoring electronics system design for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) portion of the SLD detector. This system measures temperatures and liquid levels inside the LAC cryostat and transfers the results over a fiber-optic serial link to an external monitoring computer. System requirements, unique design constraints, and detailed analog, digital and software designs are presented. Fault tolerance and the requirement for a single design to work in several different operating environments are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Engineering evaluation of alternatives: Technologies for monitoring interstitial liquids in single-shell tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Jenkins, C.E.

    1996-02-01

    A global search of mature, emerging, and conceptual tank liquid monitoring technologies, along with a historical review of Hanford tank farm waste monitoring instrumentation, was conducted to identify methods for gauging the quantity of interstitial waste liquids contained in Hanford SSTs. Upon completion of the search, an initial screening of alternatives was conducted to identify candidates which might be capable of monitoring interstitial tank liquids. The nine candidate technologies that were selected, evaluated, and ranked are summarized. Hydrostatic tank gauging (HTG) is the technology generally recommended for gauging the quantity of process materials contained in Hanford SSTs. HTG is a mass-based technique that has the capability for continuous remote monitoring. HTG has the advantages of no moving parts, intrinsic safety, and potentially gauging a one-million gal tank with a precision of approximately {+-}500 pounds (i.e., {+-}62 gal of water or {+-}0.02 in. of level in a 75 ft diameter tank). HTG is relatively inexpensive and probe design, construction, testing, installation, and operation should be straightforward. HTG should be configured as part of a hybrid tank gauging system. A hybrid system employs two or more independent measurement systems which function in concert to provide redundancy, improved accuracy, and maximum information at minimum cost. An excellent hybrid system choice for monitoring interstitial liquids in SSTs might be the combination of HTG with thermal differential technology.

  11. A zero power harmonic transponder sensor for ubiquitous wireless μL liquid-volume monitoring.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiyu; Chen, Pai-Yen; Hung, Cheng-Hsien; Gharpurey, Ranjit; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous liquid-volume monitoring is crucial in ubiquitous healthcare. However, conventional approach is based on either human visual observation or expensive detectors, which are costly for future pervasive monitoring. Here we introduce a novel approach based on passive harmonic transponder antenna sensor and frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) pattern analysis, to provide a very low cost wireless μL-resolution liquid-volume monitoring without battery or digital circuits. In our conceptual demonstration, the harmonic transponder comprises of a passive nonlinear frequency multiplier connected to a metamaterial-inspired 3-D antenna designed to be highly sensitive to the liquid-volume within a confined region. The transponder first receives some FHSS signal from an interrogator, then converts such signal to its harmonic band and re-radiates through the antenna sensor. The harmonic signal is picked up by a sniffer receiver and decoded through pattern analysis of the high dimensional FHSS signal strength data. A robust, zero power, absolute accuracy wireless liquid-volume monitoring is realized in the presence of strong direct coupling, background scatters, distance variance as well as near-field human-body interference. The concepts of passive harmonic transponder sensor, metamaterial-inspired antenna sensor, and FHSS pattern analysis based sensor decoding may help establishing cost-effective, energy-efficient and intelligent wireless pervasive healthcare monitoring platforms. PMID:26732251

  12. A zero power harmonic transponder sensor for ubiquitous wireless μL liquid-volume monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiyu; Chen, Pai-Yen; Hung, Cheng-Hsien; Gharpurey, Ranjit; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous liquid-volume monitoring is crucial in ubiquitous healthcare. However, conventional approach is based on either human visual observation or expensive detectors, which are costly for future pervasive monitoring. Here we introduce a novel approach based on passive harmonic transponder antenna sensor and frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) pattern analysis, to provide a very low cost wireless μL-resolution liquid-volume monitoring without battery or digital circuits. In our conceptual demonstration, the harmonic transponder comprises of a passive nonlinear frequency multiplier connected to a metamaterial-inspired 3-D antenna designed to be highly sensitive to the liquid-volume within a confined region. The transponder first receives some FHSS signal from an interrogator, then converts such signal to its harmonic band and re-radiates through the antenna sensor. The harmonic signal is picked up by a sniffer receiver and decoded through pattern analysis of the high dimensional FHSS signal strength data. A robust, zero power, absolute accuracy wireless liquid-volume monitoring is realized in the presence of strong direct coupling, background scatters, distance variance as well as near-field human-body interference. The concepts of passive harmonic transponder sensor, metamaterial-inspired antenna sensor, and FHSS pattern analysis based sensor decoding may help establishing cost-effective, energy-efficient and intelligent wireless pervasive healthcare monitoring platforms.

  13. A zero power harmonic transponder sensor for ubiquitous wireless μL liquid-volume monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiyu; Chen, Pai-Yen; Hung, Cheng-Hsien; Gharpurey, Ranjit; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous liquid-volume monitoring is crucial in ubiquitous healthcare. However, conventional approach is based on either human visual observation or expensive detectors, which are costly for future pervasive monitoring. Here we introduce a novel approach based on passive harmonic transponder antenna sensor and frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) pattern analysis, to provide a very low cost wireless μL-resolution liquid-volume monitoring without battery or digital circuits. In our conceptual demonstration, the harmonic transponder comprises of a passive nonlinear frequency multiplier connected to a metamaterial-inspired 3-D antenna designed to be highly sensitive to the liquid-volume within a confined region. The transponder first receives some FHSS signal from an interrogator, then converts such signal to its harmonic band and re-radiates through the antenna sensor. The harmonic signal is picked up by a sniffer receiver and decoded through pattern analysis of the high dimensional FHSS signal strength data. A robust, zero power, absolute accuracy wireless liquid-volume monitoring is realized in the presence of strong direct coupling, background scatters, distance variance as well as near-field human-body interference. The concepts of passive harmonic transponder sensor, metamaterial-inspired antenna sensor, and FHSS pattern analysis based sensor decoding may help establishing cost-effective, energy-efficient and intelligent wireless pervasive healthcare monitoring platforms. PMID:26732251

  14. Uptake calibration of polymer-based passive samplers for monitoring priority and emerging organic non-polar pollutants in WWTP effluents.

    PubMed

    Posada-Ureta, Oscar; Olivares, Maitane; Zatón, Leire; Delgado, Alejandra; Prieto, Ailette; Vallejo, Asier; Paschke, Albrecht; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2016-05-01

    The uptake calibration of more than 12 non-polar organic contaminants by 3 polymeric materials is shown: bare polydimetilsiloxane (PDMS, stir-bars), polyethersulfone tubes and membranes (PES) and polyoxymethylene membranes (POM), both in their free form and membrane-enclosed sorptive coating (MESCO). The calibration process was carried out exposing the samplers to a continuous flow of contaminated water at 100 ng mL(-1) for up to 28 days, and, consequently, the sampling rates (Rs, mL day(-1)) of several organic microcontaminants were provided for the first time. In situ Rs values were also determined disposing the samplers in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant. Finally, these passive samplers were applied to monitor the effluents of two wastewater treatment plants. This application lead to the confirmation of the presence of galaxolide, tonalide and 4-tert-octylphenol at high ng mL(-1) levels, as well as the identification of compounds like some phthalates and alkylphenols at levels below the detection limits for active sampling methods. PMID:26892638

  15. Multi-residue analytical methodology-based liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry for the analysis of pharmaceutical residues in surface water and effluents from sewage treatment plants and hospitals.

    PubMed

    Al-Qaim, Fouad F; Abdullah, M P; Othman, Mohamed R; Latip, Jalifah; Zakaria, Zuriati

    2014-06-01

    An analytical method that facilitated the analysis of 11 pharmaceuticals residue (caffeine, prazosin, enalapril, carbamazepine, nifedipine, levonorgestrel, simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, gliclazide, diclofenac-Na, and mefenamic acid) with a single pre-treatment protocol was developed. The proposed method included an isolation and concentration procedure using solid phase extraction (Oasis HLB), a separation step using high-performance liquid chromatography, and a detection procedure that applies time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The method was validated for drinking water (DW), surface water (SW), sewage treatment plant (STP) influent and effluent, and hospital (HSP) influent and effluent. The limits of quantification were as low as 0.4, 1.6, 5, 3, 2.2 and 11 ng/L in DW, SW, HSP influent and effluent, STP effluent, and STP influent, respectively. On average, good recoveries higher than 75% were obtained for most of the target analytes in all matrices. Matrix effect was evaluated for all samples matrices. The proposed method successfully determined and quantified the target compounds in raw and treated wastewater of four STPs and three hospitals in Malaysia, as well as in two SW sites. The results showed that a number of the studied compounds pose moderate to high persistency in sewage treatment effluents as well as in the recipient rivers, namely; caffeine, simvastatin, and hydrochlorothiazide. Ten out of 11 compounds were detected and quantified in 13 sampling points. Caffeine was detected with the highest level, with concentrations reaching up to 9099 ng/L in STP influent. PMID:24768127

  16. 78 FR 71817 - Liquidity Coverage Ratio: Liquidity Risk Measurement, Standards, and Monitoring

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Covered Companies,'' 77 FR 594 (Jan. 5, 2010); ``Enhanced Prudential Standards and Early Remediation Requirements for Foreign Banking Organizations and Foreign Nonbank Financial Companies,'' 77 FR 76628 (Dec. 28... and liquidity risk management. \\10\\ 75 FR 13656 (March 22, 2010). Additionally, in 2012, pursuant...

  17. Westinghouse Hanford Company effluent report for 300 and 400 area operations for calendar year 1987

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, M.J.

    1989-02-01

    Releases from the facilities in the 300 and 400 Areas remain well within the applicable administrative control values (ACV). No significant trends were noted in either the airborne or liquid effluent data. Airborne and liquid radioactive effluents constitute a major portion of the effluent sampling and monitoring program. Radioactive releases from facilities in the 300 and 400 Areas, which are operated by Westinghouse Hanford, totaled 36.5 Ci. Noble gases released from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) represented 36.3 Ci of this total. Nonradioactive airborne emissions from the 384 Powerhouse remained far below regulatory limits. The only other potential source of significant nonradioactive airborne emissions are the defense reactor fuel fabrication facilities located in the 300 Area. However, these facilities were shut down during calendar year (CY) 1987 and, therefore, were not a significant emission source. The fuel fabrication facilities are currently being placed in cold standby. There are a number of nonradioactive liquid effluent streams located in the 300 and 400 Areas. Of these, only the 300 Area process sewer system has a significant potential for the release of chemical contaminants to the environment. The other liquid effluent streams (e.g., the sanitary waste systems or the water treatment plant filter backwash) are single purpose, adequately characterized, and not significantly threatened by chemical contaminants. 3 refs., 7 tabs.

  18. 77 FR 37067 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... France and Thomson Licensing LLC of Princeton, New Jersey (collectively ``Thomson''). 75 FR 63856 (Oct... Thomson. 75 FR 74080 (Nov. 30, 2010). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the Tariff Act of... COMMISSION Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and...

  19. Benzoin Condensation: Monitoring a Chemical Reaction by High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharya, Apurba; Purohit, Vikram C.; Bellar, Nicholas R.

    2004-01-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the preferred method of separating a variety of materials in complex mixtures such as pharmaceuticals, polymers, soils, food products and biological fluids and is also considered to be a powerful analytical tool in both academia and industry. The use of HPLC analysis as a means of monitoring and…

  20. A nonintrusive nuclear monitor for measuring liquid contents in sealed vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Mall, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    A nonintrusive nuclear technique for monitoring fluid contents in sealed vessels, regardless of the fluid distribution inside the vessels is described. The technique is applicable to all-g environments. It is based on the differences in Cesium-137 gamma ray attenuation coefficients in air and the test liquids.

  1. Monitoring defects on monolayer graphene using nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Lim, Young Jin; Lee, Byung Hoon; Kwon, You Ri; Choi, Young Eun; Murali, G; Lee, Joong Hee; Nguyen, Van Luan; Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Seung Hee

    2015-06-01

    Defects in graphene governs electrical and optical properties. Although grain boundaries in graphene inevitably formed during large area synthesis process, which act as scattering centers for charge carriers to degrade mobility, have been studied extensively, point defects have been rarely investigated mainly due to the absence of facile observation tools. Here, we report polarized optical microscopy to observe defect distributions in monolayer graphene. This was realized by aligning liquid crystal s (LC) on graphene where the defect population was modulated by irradiating ultraviolet (UV) light directly on graphene surface under moisture condition. Aromatic rings in LC molecules are oriented with hexagonal rings in graphene to have preferred orientation, providing a way to identify relative orientations of graphene domains and point defects. Our studies show that point defects generated by prolonged UV irradiation time give rise to irregular LC alignment with disclination lines on the graphene surface and a large-size LC domain associated with graphene single domain eventually disappeared. This indicates that defects associated with oxygen-containing functional groups cause to reduce the strong stacking interaction between graphene and LC molecules. PMID:26072784

  2. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... subpart after application of the best available technology economically achievable: (a) For normal...

  3. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... subpart after application of the best available technology economically achievable: (a) For normal...

  4. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... subpart after application of the best available technology economically achievable: (a) For normal...

  5. Impact of membrane-induced particle immobilization on seeded growth monitored by in situ liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Weiner, Rebecca G.; Chen, Dennis P.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Skrabalak, Sara E.

    2016-04-01

    In situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy probes seeded growth in real time. The growth of Pd on Au nanocubes is monitored as a model system to compare growth within a liquid cell and traditional colloidal synthesis. Furthermore, different growth patterns are observed due to seed immobilization and the highly reducing environment within the liquid cell.

  6. Treating separated liquid dairy manure derived from mesophilic anaerobic digester effluent to reduce indicator pathogens and Salmonella concentrations for use as organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Collins, Elizabeth W; Ogejo, Jactone A; Krometis, Leigh Anne H

    2015-01-01

    Dairy manure has much potential for use as an organic fertilizer in the United States. However, the levels of indicator organisms and pathogens in dairy manure can be ten times higher than stipulated use guidelines by the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) even after undergoing anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperatures. The objective of this study was to identify pasteurization temperatures and treatment durations to reduce fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella concentrations in separated liquid dairy manure (SLDM) of a mesophilic anaerobic digester effluent to levels sufficient for use as an organic fertilizer. Samples of SLDM were pasteurized at 70, 75, and 80°C for durations of 0 to 120 min. Fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella concentrations were assessed via culture-based techniques. All of the tested pasteurization temperatures and duration combinations reduced microbial concentrations to levels below the NOSB guidelines. The fecal coliforms and E. coli reductions ranged 2from 0.76 to 1.34 logs, while Salmonella concentrations were reduced by more than 99% at all the pasteurization temperatures and active treatment durations. PMID:26061210

  7. Selection of liquid-level monitoring method for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive liquid low-level waste tanks, remedial investigation/feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    Several of the inactive liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory contain residual wastes in liquid or solid (sludge) form or both. A plan of action has been developed to ensure that potential environmental impacts from the waste remaining in the inactive LLLW tank systems are minimized. This document describes the evaluation and selection of a methodology for monitoring the level of the liquid in inactive LLLW tanks. Criteria are established for comparison of existing level monitoring and leak testing methods; a preferred method is selected and a decision methodology for monitoring the level of the liquid in the tanks is presented for implementation. The methodology selected can be used to continuously monitor the tanks pending disposition of the wastes for treatment and disposal. Tanks that are empty, are scheduled to be emptied in the near future, or have liquid contents that are very low risk to the environment were not considered to be candidates for installing level monitoring. Tanks requiring new monitoring equipment were provided with conductivity probes; tanks with existing level monitoring instrumentation were not modified. The resulting data will be analyzed to determine inactive LLLW tank liquid level trends as a function of time.

  8. Laser ablation of absorbing liquids under transparent cover: acoustical and optical monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samokhin, A. A.; Il'ichev, N. N.; Pivovarov, P. A.; Sidorin, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Phase transition induced with infrared (λ = 2920 nm and λ = 2940 nm) nanosecond laser pulses in strongly absorbing liquids (water, ethanol) under transparent solid cover is investigated with the help of acoustical and optical monitoring. LiNbO3 transducer is used for registration of pressure pulses generated in irradiated liquids. Optical signals due to scattering and specular reflection of probing optical beams are explored with the schemes involving total internal reflection and interference effects. Combination of these two optical diagnostic methods permits for the first time to show that irradiation of covered liquids leads to vapor cavity formation which is divided from the cover with thin (submicron) liquid film despite the fact that radiation intensity maximum is located just at the liquid-plate boundary. The cavity formation is due to explosive boiling which occurs when the superheated liquid reaches its superheating limit in near critical region. After the first acoustical signal, the second signal is observed with several hundreds microseconds time delay which is caused by the vapor cavity collapse. Some results of optical and acoustical diagnostics in the case of free liquid surface are also presented.

  9. Method for radioactivity monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Umbarger, C. John; Cowder, Leo R.

    1976-10-26

    The disclosure relates to a method for analyzing uranium and/or thorium contents of liquid effluents preferably utilizing a sample containing counting chamber. Basically, 185.7-keV gamma rays following .sup.235 U alpha decay to .sup.231 Th which indicate .sup.235 U content and a 63-keV gamma ray doublet found in the nucleus of .sup.234 Pa, a granddaughter of .sup.238 U, are monitored and the ratio thereof taken to derive uranium content and isotopic enrichment .sup.235 U/.sup.235 U + .sup.238 U) in the liquid effluent. Thorium content is determined by monitoring the intensity of 238-keV gamma rays from the nucleus of .sup.212 Bi in the decay chain of .sup.232 Th.

  10. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the three KAPL Sites [Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York; Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York; S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut] during calendar year 1999 resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations.

  11. Groundwater screening evaluation/monitoring plan: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.; Davis, J.D.; Collard, L.B.; Freeman, P.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report consists of the groundwater screening evaluation required by Section S.8 of the State Waste Discharge Permit for the 200 Area TEDF. Chapter 1.0 describes the purpose of the groundwater monitoring plan. The information in Chapter 2.0 establishes a water quality baseline for the facility and is the groundwater screening evaluation. The following information is included in Chapter 2.0: Facility description;Well locations, construction, and development data; Geologic and hydrologic description of the site and affected area; Ambient groundwater quality and current use; Water balance information; Hydrologic parameters; Potentiometric map, hydraulic gradients, and flow velocities; Results of infiltration and hydraulic tests; Groundwater and soils chemistry sampling and analysis data; Statistical evaluation of groundwater background data; and Projected effects of facility operation on groundwater flow and water quality. Chapter 3.0 defines, based on the information in Chapter 2.0, how effects of the TEDF on the environment will be evaluated and how compliance with groundwater quality standards will be documented in accordance with the terms and conditions of the permit. Chapter 3.0 contains the following information: Media to be monitored; Wells proposed as the point of compliance in the uppermost aquifer; Basis for monitoring well network and evidence of monitoring adequacy; Contingency planning approach for vadose zone monitoring wells; Which field parameters will be measured and how measurements will be made; Specification of constituents to be sampled and analyzed; and Specification of the sampling and analysis procedures that will be used. Chapter 4.0 provides information on how the monitoring results will be reported and the proposed frequency of monitoring and reporting. Chapter 5.0 lists all the references cited in this monitoring plan. These references should be consulted for additional or more detailed information.

  12. Impact of different ratios of feedstock to liquid anaerobic digestion effluent on the performance and microbiome of solid-state anaerobic digesters digesting corn stover.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Shi, Jian; Nelson, Michael C; Chen, Po-Hsu; Graf, Joerg; Li, Yebo; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand how the non-microbial factors of L-AD effluent affected the microbiome composition and successions in the SS-AD digesters using both Illumina sequencing and qPCR quantification of major genera of methanogens. The SS-AD digesters started with a feedstock/total effluent (F/Et) ratio 2.2 (half of the effluent was autoclaved) performed stably, while the SS-AD digesters started with a 4.4 F/Et ratio (no autoclaved effluent) suffered from digester acidification, accumulation of volatile fatty acids, and ceased biogas production two weeks after startup. Some bacteria and methanogens were affected by non-microbial factors of the L-AD fluent. Alkalinity, the main difference between the two F/Et ratios, may be the crucial factor when SS-AD digesters were started using L-AD effluent. PMID:26575616

  13. Optically monitored dip coating as a contactless viscometry method for liquid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michels, Alexandre F.; Menegotto, Thiago; Horowitz, Flavio

    2005-02-01

    Real-time interferometric monitoring of the dip coating process is applied to the study of properties of flowing liquids. Nonvolatile Newtonian oils are considered, allowing validity of a simple model after the steady state is reached where film physical thickness depends on time as t^- 1/2 . Measurement of two distinct mineral oil standards, under several withdrawing speeds, resulted in kinematic viscosities of 1.17 ± 0.03 and 9.9 ± 0.2 S (1S = 1 cm^2/s). Agreement of these results with nominal values from the manufacturer suggests that interferometric monitoring of dip coating may become a valuable method for accurate, contactless viscometry of liquid films. Advantages and present limitations are discussed.

  14. Quantitative NMR monitoring of liquid ingress into repellent heterogeneous layered fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencsik, Martin; Adriaensen, Hans; Brewer, Stuart A.; McHale, Glen

    2008-07-01

    Fabrics which are water repellent and repellent to other liquids are often constructed using multiple layers of material. Such a construction is preferable to a single layer of a liquid-repellent textile because, under the action of an applied pressure, ingress of a liquid through the first layer can be halted by the second or subsequent layers. In the quantitative investigation of this problem, current techniques provide limited information on the progress and distribution of the liquid as it ingresses into a fabric. Moreover, many techniques require that the material is delaminated prior to analysis, and cannot be conducted in real time to measure the progress of a liquid through the textile substrate. In this work we demonstrate that unilateral NMR, which allows signal to be collected from a volume of interest in a material residing above the instrument, can be a powerful tool to quantitatively monitor the ingress of a liquid through a layered sample exhibiting pronounced heterogeneities in repellency. A known volume of oil was placed on the top of a model textile sample composed of three 80 μm thick layers. Spatially resolved one dimensional vertical NMR profiles of the system were acquired as a function of the pressure vertically applied to the top of the sample. These profiles show that the absolute liquid volume present in each layer of textile can routinely be measured within 4 min with a spatial resolution of 15 μm. If each individual layer exhibits different repellency to the test liquid, the complexity of the dynamics of the ingress can be investigated in great detail. An elegant application of the unilateral instrument was obtained in which the sensitive volume matched the region of interest of the individual layers of the textile under investigation.

  15. Quantitative NMR monitoring of liquid ingress into repellent heterogeneous layered fabrics.

    PubMed

    Bencsik, Martin; Adriaensen, Hans; Brewer, Stuart A; McHale, Glen

    2008-07-01

    Fabrics which are water repellent and repellent to other liquids are often constructed using multiple layers of material. Such a construction is preferable to a single layer of a liquid-repellent textile because, under the action of an applied pressure, ingress of a liquid through the first layer can be halted by the second or subsequent layers. In the quantitative investigation of this problem, current techniques provide limited information on the progress and distribution of the liquid as it ingresses into a fabric. Moreover, many techniques require that the material is delaminated prior to analysis, and cannot be conducted in real time to measure the progress of a liquid through the textile substrate. In this work we demonstrate that unilateral NMR, which allows signal to be collected from a volume of interest in a material residing above the instrument, can be a powerful tool to quantitatively monitor the ingress of a liquid through a layered sample exhibiting pronounced heterogeneities in repellency. A known volume of oil was placed on the top of a model textile sample composed of three 80 microm thick layers. Spatially resolved one dimensional vertical NMR profiles of the system were acquired as a function of the pressure vertically applied to the top of the sample. These profiles show that the absolute liquid volume present in each layer of textile can routinely be measured within 4 min with a spatial resolution of 15 microm. If each individual layer exhibits different repellency to the test liquid, the complexity of the dynamics of the ingress can be investigated in great detail. An elegant application of the unilateral instrument was obtained in which the sensitive volume matched the region of interest of the individual layers of the textile under investigation. PMID:18450487

  16. Fiber optic liquid level monitoring system using microstructured polymer fiber Bragg grating array sensors: performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, C. A. F.; Pospori, A.; Sáez-Rodríguez, D.; Nielsen, K.; Bang, O.; Webb, D. J.

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive liquid level monitoring system based on microstructured polymer optical fiber Bragg grating (mPOFBG) array sensors is reported for the first time. The configuration is based on five mPOFBGs inscribed in the same fiber in the 850 nm spectral region, showing the potential to interrogate liquid level by measuring the strain induced in each mPOFBG embedded in a silicone rubber (SR) diaphragm, which deforms due to hydrostatic pressure variations. The sensor exhibits a highly linear response over the sensing range, a good repeatability, and a high resolution. The sensitivity of the sensor is found to be 98 pm/cm of water, enhanced by more than a factor of 9 when compared to an equivalent sensor based on a silica fiber around 1550 nm. The temperature sensitivity is studied and a multi-sensor arrangement proposed, which has the potential to provide level readings independent of temperature and the liquid density.

  17. Liquid-purity monitor for the LUX-ZEPLIN dark matter search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manalaysay, Aaron; Lux-Zeplin Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiment will be the first liquid-xenon (LXe) dark matter search to feature a multi-tonne fiducial target. Drawing on the lessons learned in the LUX and ZEPLIN experiments, this next step will probe dark-matter candidates with unprecedented sensitivity. As these LXe detectors have grown larger, so too has the distance over which ionization electrons (from particle interactions) must be drifted through the liquid. Because of this, even minute levels of electronegative impurities can significantly attenuate the ionization signal, and must therefore be closely monitored. I will present the concept of a liquid-purity monitor which uses new and novel techniques, including state-of-the-art UV LEDs and low-work-function materials, and will measure levels of impurities in LZ's liquid circulation line in real time. This device will provide vital supplemental data to the roughly weekly in-situ purity measurements carried out within the detector's active volume, will greatly improve the resolution of the ionization channel in this detector, and will yield instant feedback in response to changing detector conditions.

  18. Analysis of benzalkonium chloride in the effluent from European hospitals by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column ion-pairing and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kümmerer, K; Eitel, A; Braun, U; Hubner, P; Daschner, F; Mascart, G; Milandri, M; Reinthaler, F; Verhoef, J

    1997-07-11

    A highly reproducible and specific method for the analysis of the quaternary ammonium compound, benzalkonium chloride, in effluents from European hospitals is presented. Benzalkonium chloride was extracted with end-capped RP-18 solid-phase cartridges and was selectively eluted. The resulting solution was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After elution from the analytical column of the HPLC system, 9,10-dimethoxyanthracene-2-sulfonate was added continuously as a fluorescence marker, forming a hydrophobic ion-pair with benzalkonium chloride. The ion-pair was analyzed by fluorescence detection. The method was applied to highly complex effluent samples from different sized European hospitals. The measured concentrations were between 0.05 and 6.03 mg/l. The amounts emitted per bed and year were 4.5-362 g and did not correlate with the size of the hospital. The total amounts were 2.6-909 kg/year. PMID:9253191

  19. Colorimetric humidity sensor based on liquid composite materials for the monitoring of food and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Bridgeman, Devon; Corral, Javier; Quach, Ashley; Xian, Xiaojun; Forzani, Erica

    2014-09-01

    Using supported ionic-liquid membrane (SILM)-inspired methodologies, we have synthesized, characterized, and developed a humidity sensor by coating a liquid composite material onto a hygroscopic, porous substrate. Similar to pH paper, the sensor responds to the environment's relative humidity and changes color accordingly. The humidity indicator is prepared by casting a few microliters of low-toxicity reagents on a nontoxic substrate. The sensing material is a newly synthesized liquid composite that comprises a hygroscopic medium for environmental humidity capture and a color indicator that translates the humidity level into a distinct color change. Sodium borohydride was used to form a liquid composite medium, and DenimBlu30 dye was used as a redox indicator. The liquid composite medium provides a hygroscopic response to the relative humidity, and DenimBlu30 translates the chemical changes into a visual change from yellow to blue. The borate-redox dye-based humidity sensor was prepared, and then Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and image analysis methods were used to characterize the chemical composition, optimize synthesis, and gain insight into the sensor reactivity. Test results indicated that this new sensing material can detect relative humidity in the range of 5-100% in an irreversible manner with good reproducibility and high accuracy. The sensor is a low-cost, highly sensitive, easy-to-use humidity indicator. More importantly, it can be easily packaged with products to monitor humidity levels in pharmaceutical and food packaging. PMID:25141132

  20. Polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS): application for monitoring organic micropollutants in wastewater effluent and surface water.

    PubMed

    Miège, Cécile; Budzinski, Hélène; Jacquet, Romain; Soulier, Coralie; Pelte, Thomas; Coquery, Marina

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of POCIS (Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler) for the evaluation of river water quality downstream of wastewater treatment plants. POCIS proved well adapted to sampling alkylphenols and several pharmaceuticals. Concentration factors and the decrease in limits of quantification, compared to grab water sample analyses, were significant except for hormones, β-blockers and bronchodilators. Promising preliminary results obtained in situ on deuterated atenolol used as a performance reference compound need to be confirmed in-lab. This work confirms that POCIS is a valuable tool for monitoring hydrophilic organic molecules in river and wastewaters. PMID:22193508

  1. Development of a new neutron monitor using a boron-loaded organic liquid scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasolonjatovo, A. H. D.; Shiomi, T.; Kim, E.; Nakamura, T.; Nunomiya, T.; Endo, A.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yoshizawa, M.

    2002-10-01

    A new type of neutron dose monitor was developed by using a 12.7 cm diameter×12.7 cm long boron-loaded organic liquid scintillation detector BC523A. This detector aims to have a response in the wide energy range of thermal energy to 100 MeV by using the H and C reactions to the fast neutrons of organic liquid and the 10B(n, α) reaction to thermalized neutrons in the liquid. The response functions of this detector were determined by the Monte Carlo simulation in the energy region from thermal energy to 100 MeV. Using these response functions, the spectrum-weighted dose function, G-function, to get the neutron dose from the light output spectrum of the detector was also determined by the unfolding technique. The calculated G-function was applied to determine the neutron dose in real neutron fields having energies ranging from thermal energy to several tens of MeV, where the light output spectra were measured with the BC523A detector. The thus-obtained ambient doses and effective doses show rather good agreement with the fluence-to-dose conversion factor given by ICRP 74. This detector will be useful as a wide-energy range neutron monitor.

  2. An attempt to monitor liquid water content in seasonal snow using capacitance probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avanzi, Francesco; Caruso, Marco; Jommi, Cristina; De Michele, Carlo; Ghezzi, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Liquid water dynamics in snow are a key factor in wet snow avalanche triggering, in ruling snowmelt runoff timing and amounts, and in remote sensing interpretation. It follows that a continuous-time monitoring of this variable would be very desirable. Nevertheless, such an operation is nowadays hampered by the difficulty in obtaining direct, precise and continuous-time measurements of this quantity without perturbing the snowpack itself. As a result, only a few localized examples exist of continuous-time measurements of this variable. In this framework, we tried to get undisturbed measurements of liquid water content using capacitance probes. These instruments were originally designed to obtain liquid water content data in soils. After being installed on a support and driven in the snow, they include part of the medium under investigation in a LC circuit. The resonant frequency of the circuit depends on liquid water content, hence its measurement. To test these sensors, we designed two different field surveys (in April 2013 and April 2014) at a medium elevation site (around 1980 m a.s.l.). In both the cases, a profile of sensors was inserted in the snowpack, and undisturbed measurements of liquid water content were obtained using time-domain-reflectometry based devices. To assist in the interpretation of the readings from these sensors, some laboratory tests were run, and a FEM model of a sensor was implemented. Results show that sensors are sensitive to increasing liquid water content in snow. Nonetheless, long-term tests in snow cause the systematic development of an air gap between the instrument and the surrounding snow, that hampers the interpretation. Perspectives on future investigation are discussed to bring the proposed procedure towards long-term applications in snowpacks.

  3. Elimination of liquid discharge to the environment from the TA-50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, D.; Williams, N.; Hall, D.; Hargis, K.; Saladen, M.; Sanders, M.; Voit, S.; Worland, P.; Yarbro, S.

    1998-06-01

    Alternatives were evaluated for management of treated radioactive liquid waste from the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The alternatives included continued discharge into Mortandad Canyon, diversion to the sanitary wastewater treatment facility and discharge of its effluent to Sandia Canyon or Canada del Buey, and zero liquid discharge. Implementation of a zero liquid discharge system is recommended in addition to two phases of upgrades currently under way. Three additional phases of upgrades to the present radioactive liquid waste system are proposed to accomplish zero liquid discharge. The first phase involves minimization of liquid waste generation, along with improved characterization and monitoring of the remaining liquid waste. The second phase removes dissolved salts from the reverse osmosis concentrate stream to yield a higher effluent quality. In the final phase, the high-quality effluent is reused for industrial purposes within the Laboratory or evaporated. Completion of these three phases will result in zero discharge of treated radioactive liquid wastewater from the RLWTF.

  4. Acoustic Monitor for Liquid-Solid Slurries Measurements at Low Weight Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Tavlarides, Lawrence L.

    2005-06-01

    Our effort in this project is to develop an acoustic monitor for accurate, real-time characterization of the size and weight fractions of solids in slurries for process monitoring and to determine the optimal timing for slurry transfers. This capability will be valuable in the Savannah River Site accelerated clean-up program. Our scientific work during the first research period developed a theory, supported by experiments, to describe sound attenuation of solids in suspensions in the presence of bubbles, which permits us to determine the solid-liquid weight percent. Engineering developments during the second research period led to the design, construction, and demonstration, in our laboratories, of the Syracuse Acoustic Monitor (SAM) system that measures weight percent solids accurately in slurries of 0.5 to 8.0 weight percent on-line and in real-time. Also, we had shown the potential for these measurements in solid-gas-liquid slurries by removing the interference due to the presence of gas bubbles.

  5. Monitoring the solid-liquid interface in tanks using profiling sonar and 3D visualization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Nitin; Zhang, Jinsong; Roelant, David; Srivastava, Rajiv

    2005-03-01

    Visualization of the interface between settled solids and the optically opaque liquid above is necessary to facilitate efficient retrieval of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from underground storage tanks. A profiling sonar was used to generate 2-D slices across the settled solids at the bottom of the tank. By incrementally rotating the sonar about its centerline, slices of the solid-liquid interface can be imaged and a 3-D image of the settled solids interface generated. To demonstrate the efficacy of the sonar in real-time solid-liquid interface monitoring systems inside HLW tanks, two sets of experiments were performed. First, various solid objects and kaolin clay (10 μm dia) were successfully imaged while agitating with 30% solids (by weight) entrained in the liquid. Second, a solid with a density similar to that of the immersed fluid density was successfully imaged. Two dimensional (2-D) sonar images and the accuracy and limitations of the in-tank imaging will be presented for these two experiments. In addition, a brief review of how to utilize a 2-D sonar image to generate a 3-D surface of the settled layer within a tank will be discussed.

  6. Design and performance characterization of a fibre optical sensor for liquid level monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J. Z.; Zhao, Y. L.; Jiang, Z. D.

    2005-01-01

    In order to continuously monitor liquid level in petroleum and chemical industries, a fibre optical sensor based on a microbend effect was designed and manufactured. The sensor is composed of a sensing diaphragm with a hard center, a microbend modulator (a pair of tooth plates), sensing and reference fibres, adjusting bolts, a stainless steel housing, emitting/detecting devices and signal processing circuits. To reduce the effect of temperature, the diaphragm is directly machined instead of welded onto the housing. To eliminate the fluctuation of light source, a reference fibre configured in parallel with the sensing fibre is introduced. Also, the cost was lowered by using standard communication optical fibres. Test results show that this sensor is suited for applications of liquid level measurement especially in fields where electrical isolation and/or electro magnetic interference (EMI) resistance are strictly required.

  7. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 1981 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Auyong, M.; Griggs, K.S.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1982-03-11

    This report gives methods and results of the 1981 radiation monitoring program at LLL for both radioactive and non-radioactive contamination from gaseous and liquid effluents. Off-site monitoring includes various radionuclides but especially tritium in the ecosystems. (PSB)

  8. Evaluation of ELISA kits followed by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry for the determination of organic pollutants in industrial effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, M.; Oubina, A.; Barcelo, D.

    1998-07-15

    Contaminated industrial effluents often contain a variety of organic pollutants which are difficult to analyze by standard GC-MS methods since they often miss the more polar or nonvolatile of these organic compounds. The identification of highly polar analytes by chemical or rapid biological techniques is needed for characterization of the effluents. The present work evaluates the use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) kits for determining pentachlorophenol, carcinogenic PAHs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-, m-, and p-xylene) among the organic analytes present in various industrial effluents from Europe. The analytical protocol applied for the evaluation of the kits was based on the use of ELISA followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the preconcentration of a variety of organic pollutants such as pentachlorophenol, phthalates, and nonylphenol and final determination with LC-MS characterization using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface in the positive and negative ionization modes. The developed protocol permitted the unequivocal identification of target analytes such as pentachlorophenol, nonylphenol, dibutylphthalate, dimethylphthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 2-methylbenzenesulfonamide, and 2,2-dimethylbenzene-sulfonamide present in industrial effluents. The advantages and limitations of the three RaPID-magnetic particle-based ELISA kits applied to the characterization of industrial effluents are also reported.

  9. Liquid balance monitoring inside conventional, Retrofit, and bio-reactor landfill cells

    SciTech Connect

    Abichou, Tarek; Barlaz, Morton A.; Green, Roger; Hater, Gary

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells received 48, 14, and 213 L Mg{sup −1} (liters of liquids per metric ton of waste). • The leachate collection system yielded 60, 57 and 198 L Mg{sup −1} from the Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells. • The head on liner in all cells was below regulatory limits. • Measured moisture content of the waste samples was consistent with that calculated from accumulated liquid by balance. • The in-place saturated hydraulic conductivity of the MSW was calculated to be in the range of 10{sup −8} to 10{sup −7} m s{sup −1}. - Abstract: The Outer Loop landfill bioreactor (OLLB) in Louisville, KY, USA has been the site of a study to evaluate long-term bioreactor performance at a full-scale operational landfill. Three types of landfill units were studied including a conventional landfill (Control cell), a new landfill area that had an air addition and recirculation piping network installed as waste was being placed (As-Built cell), and a conventional landfill that was modified to allow for liquids recirculation (Retrofit cell). During the monitoring period, the Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells received 48, 14, and 213 L Mg{sup −1} (liters of liquids per metric ton of waste), respectively. The leachate collection system yielded 60, 57 and 198 L Mg{sup −1} from the Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells, respectively. The head on liner in all cells was below regulatory limits. In the Control and As-Built cells, leachate head on liner decreased once waste placement stopped. The measured moisture content of the waste samples was consistent with that calculated from the estimate of accumulated liquid by the liquid balance. Additionally, measurements on excavated solid waste samples revealed large spatial variability in waste moisture content. The degree of saturation in the Control cells decreased from 85% to 75%. The degree of saturation increased from 82% to 83% due to liquids addition in the Retrofit

  10. Integrated system of test data management and monitoring for the ground test of liquid rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue; Zhang, Zhenpeng; Zhang, Jun

    2008-10-01

    An integrated system of test data management and monitoring (ISTDMM) for liquid rocket engine (LRE) ground test is designed to meet the demand of the LRE test station and development unit according to the LRE test information and test process. It is an opening, distributing and highly integrating application platform, mainly includes the test data management systems, the real-time fault detection systems and data display and playback system. It can manage and analyze the test data and simulation data of the LRE, can monitor the LRE test condition in real-time and the test process in long-distance by network, and can playback the engine test process and simulate the engine work process, and can test and evaluate the fault detection algorithms and systems of LRE. It is well advanced, reliable, and practical.