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Sample records for liquid lithium environment

  1. Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng; Kesanli, Banu; Neal, John S.

    2012-05-15

    The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

  2. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz,John; Newman, John

    2005-09-29

    We have investigated possible anticipated advantages of ionic-liquid electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities and phase behavior were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazoliumTFSI systems, pyrrolidiniumTFSI, BMIMPF{sub 6}, BMIMBF{sub 4}, and BMIMTf. Thermal stabilities were measured for neat ionic liquids and for BMIMBF{sub 4}-LiBF{sub 4}, BMIMTf-LiTf, BMIMTFSI-LiTFSI mixtures. Conductivities have been measured for various ionic-liquid lithium-salt systems. We show the development of interfacial impedance in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell and we report results from cycling experiments for a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + 1 mol/kg LIBF{sub 4}|C cell. The interfacial resistance increases with time and the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode. As expected, imidazolium-based ionic liquids react with lithium electrodes. We seek new ionic liquids that have better chemical stabilities.

  3. Convective Stirring in Liquid Lithium (LTX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassin, Margaret; Kearns, Eugene; Majeski, Richard

    2011-10-01

    LTX is a spherical tokamak with R=0.4 m, a=0.26 m, and elongation=1.5. LTX has a heated (300 - 400 C) liner, designed to be coated with lithium. During experiments in 2010, oxidation of the lithium surface was observed when the liner was heated to 300 C, above the melting point of lithium (182 C). A pumping system is being installed to absorb and pump background gasses which react with lithium, similar to a getter pump, using liquid and solid lithium. Lithium will be loaded into a yttria crucible heated from below by a small, HeatWave model TB175 300W cartridge heater to produce convective currents in order to maintain a clean lithium surface and decrease the time for oxide formation. This system was tested in an argon glove box using a copper heat concentrator - instead of the HeatWave vacuum-compatible unit. Infrared thermometry and thermocouples were used to monitor the surface temperature of the molten lithium, and convective flow patterns. A 200 FPS high speed camera was also employed to monitor flows, using the motion of residual oxide patches. Results from the measurements will be presented. Supported by US DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  4. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; and others

    2015-05-15

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  5. Thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamic (TEMHD) stirring of liquid lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, M. A.; Xu, Wenyu; Kim, Jason; Lee, Matt; Neumann, Martin; Surla, Vijay; Ruzic, David

    2009-11-01

    The Solid/Liquid Lithium Divertor Experiment (SLiDE) was constructed to examine passive flows in liquid lithium under an applied heat load and external magnetic field. The offered explanation for the results of the CDX-U experiment, where liquid lithium was capable of transporting >50[MW/m^2] of incident heat flux without rapid evaporation, was thermocapillary (Marangonic) driven flows. The SLiDE apparatus utilizes a line-stripe heat source and external magnetic fields to mimic a divertor scenario to test the thermocapillary hypothesis. Instead of thermocapillary induced flows, TEMHD flows are observed on the order of 10 [cm/s]. The thermoelectric effect was confirmed through a series of qualitative experiments in the apparatus which will be described. A quantitative scaling matching the measured target temperatures and heat fluxes is compared to the measured velocities. A novel plasma facing component based on porous material TEMHD is also presented.

  6. Lithium-Air and ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Kellar, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The final portion of this project was accomplished at Sandia National Labs, Livermore, with the overall goal being to optimize lithium-air cells with an ionic liquid electrolyte. Both of these are potential future routes for lithium-ion technology. Lithiumair presents the advantage of higher gravimetric energy density, and ionic liquids present the advantage of greater hydrophobicity and much lower volatility, along with a larger window of electrochemical stability. Ionic liquids however have several drawbacks for the battery industry. Currently they are not as cost effective as many organic solvents. Additionally, because of the added viscosity of ionic interactions compared to the typical dipole interactions of a solvent, the ionic conductivity is lower than for common organic solvents.

  7. Lithium electronic environments in rechargeable battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hightower, Adrian

    This work investigates the electronic environments of lithium in the electrodes of rechargeable batteries. The use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a novel approach, which when coupled with conventional electrochemical experiments, yield a thorough picture of the electrode interior. Relatively few EELS experiments have been preformed on lithium compounds owing to their reactivity. Experimental techniques were established to minimize sample contamination and control electron beam damage to studied compounds. Lithium hydroxide was found to be the most common product of beam damaged lithium alloys. Under an intense electron beam, halogen atoms desorbed by radiolysis in lithium halides. EELS spectra from a number of standard lithium compounds were obtained in order to identify the variety of spectra encountered in lithium rechargeable battery electrodes. Lithium alloys all displayed characteristically broad Li K-edge spectra, consistent with transitions to continuum states. Transitions to bound states were observed in the Li K and oxygen K-edge spectra of lithium oxides. Lithium halides were distinguished by their systematic chemical shift proportional to the anion electronegativity. Good agreement was found with measured lithium halide spectra and electron structure calculations using a self-consistant multiscattering code. The specific electrode environments of LiC6, LiCoO2, and Li-SnO were investigated. Contrary to published XPS predictions, lithium in intercalated graphite was determined to be in more metallic than ionic. We present the first experimental evidence of charge compensation by oxygen ions in deintercalated LiCoO2. Mossbauer studies on cycled Li-SnO reveal severely defective structures on an atomic scale. Metal hydride systems are presented in the appendices of this thesis. The mechanical alloying of immiscible Fe and Mg powders resulted in single-phase bcc alloys of less than 20

  8. Lithium dope and undope reactions for tin in an ionic liquid electrolyte with some glymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Yasushi; Miyashita, Sodai; Miura, Takashi

    Lithium doped and undoped reactions for tin have been investigated in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (BMPTFSA) containing 0.1 M LiTFSA with some glymes. Lithium doped and undoped for tin were found to be possible in the ionic liquid electrolyte in both absence and presence of glymes. The interfacial resistance for lithium doped and undoped reactions in the ionic liquid electrolyte was decreased by addition of 0.2 M glymes probably due to the coordination of the glymes to Li +. It was suggested that the interfacial resistance is strongly affected by the coordination environment of Li + in the ionic liquid electrolyte.

  9. High Performance Discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) with Liquid Lithium Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, John

    2014-10-01

    The possibility of a liquid metal first wall for a fusion reactor has been extensively discussed. Small-area liquid lithium limiters and divertor targets have been installed in tokamaks, but no confinement device has ever operated with a large-area liquid lithium wall. Here we report the first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (2 m2, or 40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the hot (300 C) wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10 × compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic confinement times exceeded ITER98P(y,2) scaling by up to a factor of four. LTX lacks auxiliary heating, so these confinement improvements represent changes in electron confinement. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges using the John Hopkins University transmission grating extreme ultraviolet spectrometer indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges run against liquid walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges operated against solid lithium walls. This differs strongly from earlier trials of molten lithium walls in LTX, which showed evidence for strong oxygen influx from walls operated at similar temperatures. At present, the Thomson scattering system is undergoing upgrades and realignment, after which confinement times obtained with magnetic diagnostics will be compared with kinetic measurements. A second electron beam will be installed to extend liquid lithium wall operation to 4 m2 coverage, or >80% of the total plasma surface area. Results with expanded liquid lithium wall area will be presented. Supported by US DOE Contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Advances in primary lithium liquid cathode batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomgren, George E.

    1989-05-01

    Recent work on cell development and various aspects of cell chemistry and cell development of lithium/thionyl chloride liquid cathode batteries is reviewed. As a result of safety studies, a number of cell sizes can now be considered satisfactory for many applications and the energy densities of these cells is higher than any other developed battery system. Primary batteries operate with low to moderate currents and the anode delay effect appears to be under reasonable control. Reserve cells are in the design stage and operate at high to very high power densities as well as very high energy densities. The nature of the anode film and the operation of the lithium anode has been studied with substantial success and understanding has grown accordingly. Also, studies of the structure of the electrolyte and the effects on the electrolyte of impurities and additives have led to improved understanding in this area as well. Work in progress on new electrolytes is reviewed. The state of the art of mathematical modeling is also discussed and it is expected that this work will continue to develop.

  11. Testing of Liquid Lithium Limiters in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect

    R. Majeski; R. Kaita; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; T. Gray; B. Jones; D. Hoffman; H. Kugel; J. Menard; T. Munsat; A. Post-Zwicker; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; R. Maingi; M. Maiorano; S. Smith; D. Rodgers

    2004-07-30

    Part of the development of liquid metals as a first wall or divertor for reactor applications must involve the investigation of plasma-liquid metal interactions in a functioning tokamak. Most of the interest in liquid-metal walls has focused on lithium. Experiments with lithium limiters have now been conducted in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) device at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Initial experiments used a liquid-lithium rail limiter (L3) built by the University of California at San Diego. Spectroscopic measurements showed some reduction of impurities in CDX-U plasmas with the L3, compared to discharges with a boron carbide limiter. While no reduction in recycling was observed with the L3, which had a plasma-wet area of approximately 40 cm2, subsequent experiments with a larger area fully toroidal lithium limiter demonstrated significant reductions in both recycling and in impurity levels. Two series of experiments with the toroidal limiter have now be en performed. In each series, the area of exposed, clean lithium was increased, until in the latest experiments the liquid-lithium plasma-facing area was increased to 2000 cm2. Under these conditions, the reduction in recycling required a factor of eight increase in gas fueling in order to maintain the plasma density. The loop voltage required to sustain the plasma current was reduced from 2 V to 0.5 V. This paper summarizes the technical preparations for lithium experiments and the conditioning required to prepare the lithium surface for plasma operations. The mechanical response of the liquid metal to induced currents, especially through contact with the plasma, is discussed. The effect of the lithium-filled toroidal limiter on plasma performance is also briefly described.

  12. Diagnostics for liquid lithium experiments in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect

    Kaita, R.; Efthimion, P.; Hoffman, D.; Jones, B.; Kugel, H.; Majeski, R.; Munsat, T.; Raftopoulos, S.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.

    2001-01-01

    A flowing liquid lithium first wall or divertor target could virtually eliminate the concerns with power density and erosion, tritium retention, and cooling associated with solid walls in fusion reactors. To investigate the interaction of a spherical torus plasma with liquid lithium limiters, large area divertor targets, and walls, discharges will be established in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) where the plasma--wall interactions are dominated by liquid lithium surfaces. Among the unique CDX-U lithium diagnostics is a multilayer mirror (MLM) array, which will monitor the 13.5 nm LiIII line for core lithium concentrations. Additional spectroscopic diagnostics include a grazing incidence extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectrometer (STRS) and a filterscope system to monitor D{sub {alpha}} and various impurity lines local to the lithium limiter. Profile data will be obtained with a multichannel tangential bolometer and a multipoint Thomson scattering system configured to give enhanced edge resolution. Coupons on the inner wall of the CDX-U vacuum vessel will be used for surface analysis. A 10000 frame per second fast visible camera and an IR camera will also be available.

  13. Diagnostics for liquid lithium experiments in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect

    R. Kaita; P. Efthimion; D. Hoffman; B. Jones; H. Kugel; R. Majeski; T. Munsat; S. Raftopoulos; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; V. Soukhanovskii; D. Stutman; M. Iovea; M. Finkenthal; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; R. Causey

    2000-06-21

    A flowing liquid lithium first wall or diverter target could virtually eliminate the concerns with power density and erosion, tritium retention, and cooling associated with solid walls in fusion reactors. To investigate the interaction of a spherical torus plasma with liquid lithium limiters, large area diverter targets, and walls, discharges will be established in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) where the plasma-wall interactions are dominated by liquid lithium surfaces. Among the unique CDX-U lithium diagnostics is a multi-layer mirror (MLM) array, which will monitor the 135 {angstrom} LiIII line for core lithium concentrations. Additional spectroscopic diagnostics include a grazing incidence XUV spectrometer (STRS) and a filterscope system to monitor D{sub {alpha}} and various impurity lines local to the lithium limiter. Profile data will be obtained with a multichannel tangential bolometer and a multipoint Thomson scattering system configured to give enhanced edge resolution. Coupons on th e inner wall of the CDX-U vacuum vessel will be used for surface analysis. A 10,000 frame per second fast visible camera and an IR camera will also be available.

  14. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A

    2014-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium, sodium and aluminium metal-based batteries are among the most versatile platforms for high-energy, cost-effective electrochemical energy storage. Non-uniform metal deposition and dendrite formation on the negative electrode during repeated cycles of charge and discharge are major hurdles to commercialization of energy-storage devices based on each of these chemistries. A long-held view is that unstable electrodeposition is a consequence of inherent characteristics of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid electrolytes reinforced with halogenated salt blends exhibit stable long-term cycling at room temperature, often with no signs of deposition instabilities over hundreds of cycles of charge and discharge and thousands of operating hours. We rationalize these observations with the help of surface energy data for the electrolyte/lithium interface and impedance analysis of the interface during different stages of cell operation. Our findings provide support for an important recent theoretical prediction that the surface mobility of lithium is significantly enhanced in the presence of lithium halide salts. Our results also show that a high electrolyte modulus is unnecessary for stable electrodeposition of lithium. PMID:25108613

  15. Analysis of lithium driven electron density peaking in FTU liquid lithium limiter experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szepesi, G.; Romanelli, M.; Militello, F.; Peeters, A. G.; Camenen, Y.; Casson, F. J.; Hornsby, W. A.; Snodin, A. P.; Wágner, D.; the FTU Team

    2013-03-01

    The impact of lithium impurities on the microstability and turbulent transport characteristics in the core of a typical FTU liquid lithium limiter (LLL) (Mazzitelli et al 2011 Nucl. Fusion 51 073006) discharge during the density ramp-up phase is studied. A non-linear gyrokinetic analysis performed with GKW (Peeters et al 2009 Comput. Phys. Commun. 180 2650) accompanied by a quasi-linear fluid analysis is presented. We show that a centrally peaked, high concentration lithium profile contributes to the electron peaking by reducing the outward electron flux, and that it leads to inward turbulent deuterium transport through ion flux separation.

  16. MHD Activity in FTU Discharges With a Liquid Lithium Limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botrugno, A.; Apicella, M. L.; Buratti, P.; Mazzitelli, G.; Smeulders, P.

    2008-03-01

    Experiments on plasma configurations with Liquid Lithium Limiter (LLL) have been performed on FTU to investigate liquid lithium facing the plasma. The liquid lithium surface with capillary porous system (CPS) has been inserted in the scrape off layer (SOL) of the FTU vacuum chamber in various plasma discharges. MHD activity in discharges with and without LLL has been investigated and compared. The main MHD effect observed with LLL is a reduction of the amplitude of tearing modes with poloidal (toroidal) number m = 2 (n = l). The magnetic activities in FTU are analysed by means of a set of poloidal field pick-up coils. A total of 57 coils are installed at various toroidal and poloidal positions. In this paper we will describe in details the diagnostic apparatus and experimental results.

  17. Collective microdynamics of liquid lithium: An inelastic neutron scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoveshchenskiĭ, N. M.; Novikov, A. G.; Savostin, V. V.

    2010-05-01

    A portion of the dispersion curve for collective modes in liquid lithium has been constructed from experimental data on inelastic scattering of slow neutrons obtained on the DIN-2PI neutron spectrometer (IBR-2 reactor, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia). Measurements have been performed at a temperature of 500 K ( T m (Li) = 453.7 K). The coherent scattering component has been separated from the experimental spectra and analyzed. Information on the characteristics of collective excitations in liquid lithium has been derived.

  18. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhan; Liang, Chengdu

    2014-11-11

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and the electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.

  19. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lin, Zhan; Liang, Chengdu

    2014-11-11

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and themore » electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.« less

  20. Modeling of Spherical Torus Plasmas for Liquid Lithium Wall Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    R. Kaita; S. Jardin; B. Jones; C. Kessel; R. Majeski; J. Spaleta; R. Woolley; L. Zakharo; B. Nelson; M. Ulrickson

    2002-01-29

    Liquid metal walls have the potential to solve first-wall problems for fusion reactors, such as heat load and erosion of dry walls, neutron damage and activation, and tritium inventory and breeding. In the near term, such walls can serve as the basis for schemes to stabilize magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. Furthermore, the low recycling characteristics of lithium walls can be used for particle control. Liquid lithium experiments have already begun in the Current Drive eXperiment-Upgrade (CDX-U). Plasmas limited with a toroidally localized limiter have been investigated, and experiments with a fully toroidal lithium limiter are in progress. A liquid surface module (LSM) has been proposed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). In this larger ST, plasma currents are in excess of 1 MA and a typical discharge radius is about 68 cm. The primary motivation for the LSM is particle control, and options for mounting it on the horizontal midplane or in the divertor region are under consideration. A key consideration is the magnitude of the eddy currents at the location of a liquid lithium surface. During plasma start up and disruptions, the force due to such currents and the magnetic field can force a conducting liquid off of the surface behind it. The Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) has been used to estimate the magnitude of this effect. This program is a two dimensional, time dependent, free boundary simulation code that solves the MHD equations for an axisymmetric toroidal plasma. From calculations that match actual ST equilibria, the eddy current densities can be determined at the locations of the liquid lithium. Initial results have shown that the effects could be significant, and ways of explicitly treating toroidally local structures are under investigation.

  1. Electrical detection of liquid lithium leaks from pipe joints

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J. A. Jaworski, M. A.; Mehl, J.; Kaita, R.; Mozulay, R.

    2014-11-15

    A test stand for flowing liquid lithium is under construction at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. As liquid lithium reacts with atmospheric gases and water, an electrical interlock system for detecting leaks and safely shutting down the apparatus has been constructed. A defense in depth strategy is taken to minimize the risk and impact of potential leaks. Each demountable joint is diagnosed with a cylindrical copper shell electrically isolated from the loop. By monitoring the electrical resistance between the pipe and the copper shell, a leak of (conductive) liquid lithium can be detected. Any resistance of less than 2 kΩ trips a relay, shutting off power to the heaters and pump. The system has been successfully tested with liquid gallium as a surrogate liquid metal. The circuit features an extensible number of channels to allow for future expansion of the loop. To ease diagnosis of faults, the status of each channel is shown with an analog front panel LED, and monitored and logged digitally by LabVIEW.

  2. Electrical detection of liquid lithium leaks from pipe jointsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, J. A.; Jaworski, M. A.; Mehl, J.; Kaita, R.; Mozulay, R.

    2014-11-01

    A test stand for flowing liquid lithium is under construction at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. As liquid lithium reacts with atmospheric gases and water, an electrical interlock system for detecting leaks and safely shutting down the apparatus has been constructed. A defense in depth strategy is taken to minimize the risk and impact of potential leaks. Each demountable joint is diagnosed with a cylindrical copper shell electrically isolated from the loop. By monitoring the electrical resistance between the pipe and the copper shell, a leak of (conductive) liquid lithium can be detected. Any resistance of less than 2 kΩ trips a relay, shutting off power to the heaters and pump. The system has been successfully tested with liquid gallium as a surrogate liquid metal. The circuit features an extensible number of channels to allow for future expansion of the loop. To ease diagnosis of faults, the status of each channel is shown with an analog front panel LED, and monitored and logged digitally by LabVIEW.

  3. Comparison of H-Mode Plasmas Diverted to Solid and Liquid Lithium Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    R. Kaita, et. al.

    2012-07-20

    Experiments were conducted with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) in NSTX. Among the goals was to use lithium recoating to sustain deuterium (D) retention by a static liquid lithium surface, approximating the ability of flowing liquid lithium to maintain chemical reactivity. Lithium evaporators were used to deposit lithium on the LLD surface. Improvements in plasma edge conditions were similar to those with lithiated graphite plasma-facing components (PFCs), including an increase in confinement over discharges without lithiumcoated PFCs and ELM reduction during H-modes. With the outer strike point on the LLD, the D retention in the LLD was about the same as that for solid lithium coatings on graphite, or about two times that achieved without lithium PFC coatings. There were also indications of contamination of the LLD surface, possibly due erosion and redeposition of carbon from PFCs. Flowing lithium may thus be needed for chemically active PFCs during long-pulse operation.

  4. Status of National Spherical Torus Experiment Liquid Lithium Divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugel, H. W.; Viola, M.; Ellis, R.; Bell, M.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D.; Roquemore, A. L.; Schneider, H.; Timberlake, J.; Zakharov, L.; Nygren, R. E.; Allain, J. P.; Maingi, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2009-11-01

    Recent NSTX high power divertor experiments have shown significant and recurring benefits of solid lithium coatings on plasma facing components to the performance of divertor plasmas in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. The next step in this work is the 2009 installation of a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD). The 20 cm wide LLD located on the lower outer divertor, consists of four, 80 degree sections; each section is separated by a row of graphite diagnostic tiles. The temperature controlled LLD structure consists of a 0.01cm layer of vacuum flame-sprayed, 50 percent porous molybdenum, on top of 0.02 cm, 316-SS brazed to a 1.9 cm Cu base. The physics design of the LLD encompasses the desired plasma requirements, the experimental capabilities and conditions, power handling, radial location, pumping capability, operating temperature, lithium filling, MHD forces, and diagnostics for control and characterization.

  5. Effect of Energetic Plasma Flux on Flowing Liquid Lithium Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Jung, Soonwook; Christenson, Michael; Fiflis, Peter; Xu, Wenyu; Szott, Mathew; Ruzic, David

    2014-10-01

    An operational liquid lithium system with steady state flow driven by thermo-electric magneto-hydrodynamic force and capable of constantly refreshing the plasma exposed surface have been demonstrated at U of I. To evaluate the system performance in reactor relevant conditions, specifically to understand the effect of disruptive plasma events on the performance of the liquid metal PFCs, the setup was integrated to a pulsed plasma generator. A coaxial plasma generator drives the plasma towards a theta pinch which preferentially heats the ions, simulating ELM like flux, and the plasma is further guided towards the target chamber which houses the flowing lithium system. The effect of the incident flux is examined using diagnostic tools including triple Langmuir probe, calorimeter, rogowski coils, Ion energy analyzers, and fast frame spectral image acquisition with specific optical filters. The plasma have been well characterized and a density of ~1021 m-3, with electron temperature ~10 - 20 eV is measured, and final plasma velocities of 34 - 74 kms-1 have been observed. Calorimetric measurements using planar molybdenum targets indicate a maximum plasma energy (with 6 kV plasma gun and 20 kV theta pinch) of 0.08 MJm-2 with plasma divergence effects resulting in marginal reduction of 40 +/- 23 J in plasma energy. Further results from the other diagnostic tools, using the flowing lithium targets and the planar targets coated with lithium will be presented. DOE DE-SC0008587.

  6. Solvation of lithium salts in protic ionic liquids: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Carrete, Jesús; Cabeza, Óscar; Russina, Olga; Triolo, Alessandro; Gallego, Luis J; Varela, Luis M

    2014-01-23

    The structure of solutions of lithium nitrate in a protic ionic liquid with a common anion, ethylammonium nitrate, at room temperature is investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Several structural properties, such as density, radial distribution functions, hydrogen bonds, spatial distribution functions, and coordination numbers, are analyzed in order to get a picture of the solvation of lithium cations in this hydrogen-bonded, amphiphilically nanostructured environment. The results reveal that the ionic liquid mainly retains its structure upon salt addition, the interaction between the ammonium group of the cation and the nitrate anion being only slightly perturbed by the addition of the salt. Lithium cations are solvated by embedding them in the polar nanodomains of the solution formed by the anions, where they coordinate with the latter in a solid-like fashion reminiscent of a pseudolattice structure. Furthermore, it is shown that the average coordination number of [Li](+) with the anions is 4, nitrate coordinating [Li](+) in both monodentate and bidentate ways, and that in the second coordination layer both ethylammonium cations and other lithiums are also found. Additionally, the rattling motion of lithium ions inside the cages formed by their neighboring anions, indicative of the so-called caging effect, is confirmed by the analysis of the [Li](+) velocity autocorrelation functions. The overall picture indicates that the solvation of [Li](+) cations in this amphiphilically nanostructured environment takes place by means of a sort of inhomogeneous nanostructural solvation, which we could refer to as nanostructured solvation, and which could be a universal solvation mechanism in ionic liquids. PMID:24405468

  7. Susceptibility of 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel to liquid metal induced embrittlement by lithium-lead solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhard, B.A.; Edwards, G.R.

    1984-08-01

    An investigation has been conducted on the liquid metal induced embrittlement susceptibility of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel exposed to lithium and 1a/o lead-lithium at temperatures between 190/sup 0/C and 525/sup 0/C. This research was part of an ongoing effort to evaluate the compatibility of liquid lithium solutions with potential fusion reactor containment materials. Of particular interest was the microstructure present in a weld heat-affected zone, a microstructure known to be highly susceptible to corrosive attack by liquid lead-lithium solutions. Embrittlement susceptibility was determined by conducting tension tests on 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel exposed to an inert environment as well as to a lead-lithium liquid and observing the change in tensile behavior. The 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel was also given a base plate heat treatment to observe its embrittlement susceptibility to 1a/o lead-lithium. The base plate microstructure was severely embrittled at temperatures less than 500/sup 0/C. Tempering the base plate was effective in restoring adequate ductility to the steel.

  8. Structural properties of lithium atom under weakly coupled plasma environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, S.; Saha, J. K.; Chandra, R.; Mukherjee, T. K.

    2016-04-01

    The Rayleigh-Ritz variational technique with a Hylleraas basis set is being tested for the first time to estimate the structural modifications of a lithium atom embedded in a weakly coupled plasma environment. The Debye-Huckel potential is used to mimic the weakly coupled plasma environment. The wave functions for both the helium-like lithium ion and the lithium atom are expanded in the explicitly correlated Hylleraas type basis set which fully takes care of the electron-electron correlation effect. Due to the continuum lowering under plasma environment, the ionization potential of the system gradually decreases leading to the destabilization of the atom. The excited states destabilize at a lower value of the plasma density. The estimated ionization potential agrees fairly well with the few available theoretical estimates. The variation of one and two particle moments, dielectric susceptibility and magnetic shielding constant, with respect to plasma density is also been discussed in detail.

  9. Ionic liquid based lithium battery electrolytes: charge carriers and interactions derived by density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Angenendt, Knut; Johansson, Patrik

    2011-06-23

    The solvation of lithium salts in ionic liquids (ILs) leads to the creation of a lithium ion carrying species quite different from those found in traditional nonaqueous lithium battery electrolytes. The most striking differences are that these species are composed only of ions and in general negatively charged. In many IL-based electrolytes, the dominant species are triplets, and the charge, stability, and size of the triplets have a large impact on the total ion conductivity, the lithium ion mobility, and also the lithium ion delivery at the electrode. As an inherent advantage, the triplets can be altered by selecting lithium salts and ionic liquids with different anions. Thus, within certain limits, the lithium ion carrying species can even be tailored toward distinct important properties for battery application. Here, we show by DFT calculations that the resulting charge carrying species from combinations of ionic liquids and lithium salts and also some resulting electrolyte properties can be predicted. PMID:21591707

  10. Liquid Metal Walls, Lithium, And Low Recycling Boundary Conditions In Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeski, R.

    2010-05-01

    At present, the only solid material believed to be a viable option for plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a fusion reactor is tungsten. Operated at the lower temperatures typical of present-day fusion experiments, tungsten is known to suffer from surface degradation during long-term exposure to helium-containing plasmas, leading to reduced thermal conduction to the bulk, and enhanced erosion. Existing alloys are also quite brittle at temperatures under 700°C. However, at a sufficiently high operating temperature (700 - 1000 °C), tungsten is self-annealing and it is expected that surface damage will be reduced to the point where tungsten PFCs will have an acceptable lifetime in a reactor environment. The existence of only one potentially viable option for solid PFCs, though, constitutes one of the most significant restrictions on design space for DEMO and follow-on fusion reactors. In contrast, there are several candidates for liquid metal-based PFCs, including gallium, tin, lithium, and tin-lithium eutectics. We will discuss options for liquid metal walls in tokamaks, looking at both high and low recycling materials. We will then focus in particular on one of the candidate liquids, lithium. Lithium is known to have a high chemical affinity for hydrogen, and has been shown in test stands and fusion experiments to produce a low recycling surface, especially when liquid. Because it is also low-Z and is usable in a tokamak over a reasonable temperature range (200 - 400 °C), it has been now been used as a PFC in several confinement experiments (TFTR, T11-M, CDX-U, NSTX, FTU, and TJ-II), with favorable results. The consequences of substituting low recycling walls for the traditional high recycling variety on tokamak equilibria are very extensive. We will discuss some of the expected modifications, briefly reviewing experimental results, and comparing the results to expectations.

  11. Liquid Metal Walls, Lithium, And Low Recycling Boundary Conditions In Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    R. Majeski

    2010-01-15

    At present, the only solid material believed to be a viable option for plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a fusion reactor is tungsten. Operated at the lower temperatures typical of present-day fusion experiments, tungsten is known to suffer from surface degradation during long-term exposure to helium-containing plasmas, leading to reduced thermal conduction to the bulk, and enhanced erosion. Existing alloys are also quite brittle at temperatures under 700oC. However, at a sufficiently high operating temperature (700 - 1000 oC), tungsten is selfannealing and it is expected that surface damage will be reduced to the point where tungsten PFCs will have an acceptable lifetime in a reactor environment. The existence of only one potentially viable option for solid PFCs, though, constitutes one of the most significant restrictions on design space for DEMO and follow-on fusion reactors. In contrast, there are several candidates for liquid metal-based PFCs, including gallium, tin, lithium, and tin-lithium eutectics. We will discuss options for liquid metal walls in tokamaks, looking at both high and low recycling materials. We will then focus in particular on one of the candidate liquids, lithium. Lithium is known to have a high chemical affinity for hydrogen, and has been shown in test stands1 and fusion experiments2,3 to produce a low recycling surface, especially when liquid. Because it is also low-Z and is usable in a tokamak over a reasonable temperature range (200 - 400 oC), it has been now been used as a PFC in several confinement experiments (TFTR, T11- M, CDX-U, NSTX, FTU, and TJ-II), with favorable results. The consequences of substituting low recycling walls for the traditional high recycling variety on tokamak equilibria are very extensive. We will discuss some of the expected modifications, briefly reviewing experimental results, and comparing the results to expectations.

  12. Liquid Metal Walls, Lithium, And Low Recycling Boundary Conditions In Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Majeski, R.

    2010-05-20

    At present, the only solid material believed to be a viable option for plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a fusion reactor is tungsten. Operated at the lower temperatures typical of present-day fusion experiments, tungsten is known to suffer from surface degradation during long-term exposure to helium-containing plasmas, leading to reduced thermal conduction to the bulk, and enhanced erosion. Existing alloys are also quite brittle at temperatures under 700 deg. C. However, at a sufficiently high operating temperature (700 - 1000 deg. C), tungsten is self-annealing and it is expected that surface damage will be reduced to the point where tungsten PFCs will have an acceptable lifetime in a reactor environment.The existence of only one potentially viable option for solid PFCs, though, constitutes one of the most significant restrictions on design space for DEMO and follow-on fusion reactors. In contrast, there are several candidates for liquid metal-based PFCs, including gallium, tin, lithium, and tin-lithium eutectics. We will discuss options for liquid metal walls in tokamaks, looking at both high and low recycling materials. We will then focus in particular on one of the candidate liquids, lithium.Lithium is known to have a high chemical affinity for hydrogen, and has been shown in test stands and fusion experiments to produce a low recycling surface, especially when liquid. Because it is also low-Z and is usable in a tokamak over a reasonable temperature range (200 - 400 deg. C), it has been now been used as a PFC in several confinement experiments (TFTR, T11-M, CDX-U, NSTX, FTU, and TJ-II), with favorable results. The consequences of substituting low recycling walls for the traditional high recycling variety on tokamak equilibria are very extensive. We will discuss some of the expected modifications, briefly reviewing experimental results, and comparing the results to expectations.

  13. Investigation of parameters of interaction of hydrogen isotopes with liquid lithium and lithium capillary-porous system under reactor irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazhibayeva, I. L.; Kulsartov, T. V.; Gordienko, Yu. N.; Zaurbekova, Zh. A.; Ponkratov, Yu. V.; Barsukov, N. I.; Tulubayev, Ye. Yu.; Baklanov, V. V.; Gnyrya, V. S.; Kenzhin, Ye. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the effect of reactor irradiation on the processes of interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium and a lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) is considered. The experiments are carried out by the gas-absorption method with use of a specially designed ampoule device. The results of investigation of the interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium and a lithium CPS under conditions of reactor irradiation are described; namely, these are the temperature dependences of the rate constant for the interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium at different reactor powers, the activation energies of the processes, and the pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius dependence. The effect of increasing absorption of hydrogen by the samples under investigation as a result of the reactor irradiation is fixed. The effect can be explained by increasing mobility of hydrogen in liquid lithium due to hot spots in lithium bulk and the interaction of helium and tritium ions (formed as a result of the nuclear reaction of 6Li with neutron) with a surface hydride film.

  14. Investigation of parameters of interaction of hydrogen isotopes with liquid lithium and lithium capillary-porous system under reactor irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tazhibayeva, I. L. Kulsartov, T. V.; Gordienko, Yu. N.; Zaurbekova, Zh. A.; Ponkratov, Yu. V.; Barsukov, N. I.; Tulubayev, Ye. Yu.; Baklanov, V. V.; Gnyrya, V. S.; Kenzhin, Ye. A.

    2015-12-15

    In this study, the effect of reactor irradiation on the processes of interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium and a lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) is considered. The experiments are carried out by the gas-absorption method with use of a specially designed ampoule device. The results of investigation of the interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium and a lithium CPS under conditions of reactor irradiation are described; namely, these are the temperature dependences of the rate constant for the interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium at different reactor powers, the activation energies of the processes, and the pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius dependence. The effect of increasing absorption of hydrogen by the samples under investigation as a result of the reactor irradiation is fixed. The effect can be explained by increasing mobility of hydrogen in liquid lithium due to hot spots in lithium bulk and the interaction of helium and tritium ions (formed as a result of the nuclear reaction of {sup 6}Li with neutron) with a surface hydride film.

  15. Response of NSTX Liquid Lithium divertor to High Heat Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, Tyler; Kallman, J; Kaitaa, R; Foley, E L; Grayd, T K; Kugel, H; Levinton, F; McLean, A G; Skinner, C H

    2012-07-18

    Samples of the NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) with and without an evaporative Li coating were directly exposed to a neutral beam ex-situ at a power of ~1.5 MW/m2 for 1-3 seconds. Measurements of front face and bulk sample temperature were obtained. Predictions of temperature evolution were derived from a 1D heat flux model. No macroscopic damage occurred when the "bare" sample was exposed to the beam but microscopic changes to the surface were observed. The Li-coated sample developed a lithium hydroxide (LiOH) coating, which did not change even when the front face temperature exceeded the pure Li melting point. These results are consistent with the lack of damage to the LLD surface and imply that heating alone may not expose pure liquid Li if the melting point of surface impurities is not exceeded. This suggests that flow and heat are needed for future PFCs requiring a liquid Li surface. __________________________________________________

  16. Environment assisted degradation mechanisms in aluminum-lithium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Section 1 of this report records the progress achieved on NASA-LaRC Grant NAG-1-745 (Environment Assisted Degradation Mechanisms in Al-Li Alloys), and is based on research conducted during the period April 1 to November 30, 1987. A discussion of work proposed for the project's second year is included. Section 2 provides an overview of the need for research on the mechanisms of environmental-mechanical degradation of advanced aerospace alloys based on aluminum and lithium. This research is to provide NASA with the basis necessary to permit metallurgical optimization of alloy performance and engineering design with respect to damage tolerance, long term durability and reliability. Section 3 reports on damage localization mechanisms in aqueous chloride corrosion fatigue of aluminum-lithium alloys. Section 4 reports on progress made on measurements and mechanisms of localized aqueous corrosion in aluminum-lithium alloys. Section 5 provides a detailed technical proposal for research on environmental degradation of Al-Li alloys, and the effect of hydrogen in this.

  17. Studies of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems

    SciTech Connect

    Salminen, Justin; Prausnitz, John M.; Newman, John

    2006-06-01

    In this work, thermal and electrochemical properties of neat and mixed ionic liquid - lithium salt systems have been studied. The presence of a lithium salt causes both thermal and phase-behavior changes. Differential scanning calorimeter DSC and thermal gravimetric analysis TGA were used for thermal analysis for several imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, trifluoromethansulfonate, BF{sub 4}, and PF{sub 6} systems. Conductivities and diffusion coefficient have been measured for some selected systems. Chemical reactions in electrode - ionic liquid electrolyte interfaces were studied by interfacial impedance measurements. Lithium-lithium and lithium-carbon cells were studied at open circuit and a charged system. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazolium systems that are already known to be electrochemically unstable in the presence of lithium metal. In this work the development of interfacial resistance is shown in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell as well as results from some cycling experiments. As the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode the interfacial resistance increases. The results show the magnitude of reactivity due to reduction of the ionic liquid electrolyte that eventually has a detrimental effect on battery performance.

  18. Influence of Lithium Solutes on Double-Layer Structure of Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alexander M; Perkin, Susan

    2015-12-01

    The ionic liquid-electrode interface has attracted much recent interest owing to its importance for development of energy storage devices; however, the important step of adding electro-active ions is not yet well understood at the molecular level. Using direct force measurements across confined electrolyte films, we study the effect of added lithium-ion solute on the double-layer structure of an ionic liquid electrolyte with molecular resolution. We find anionic clusters involving lithium can persist adjacent to the surfaces, and in many cases, this inhibits direct adsorption of lithium ions to the negative surface. Two apparently similar ionic liquid solvents show diverging properties, with one facilitating and the other preventing direct Li-ion adsorption onto the negative surface. The results have implications for the selection of ionic liquids as electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26580815

  19. Development of a liquid lithium thin film for use as a heavy ion beam stripper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momozaki, Y.; Nolen, J.; Reed, C.; Novick, V.; Specht, J.

    2009-04-01

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate the feasibility of a liquid lithium thin film for a charge stripper in a high-power heavy ion linac. Various preliminary experiments using simulants were first conducted to determine the film formation scheme, to investigate the film stability, and to obtain the design parameters for a liquid lithium thin film system. Based on the results from these preliminary studies, a prototypical, high pressure liquid lithium system was constructed to demonstrate liquid lithium thin film formation. This system was capable of driving liquid lithium at lesssim300 °C and up to 13.9 MPa (2000 psig) through a nozzle opening as large as 1 mm (40 mil) in diameter. This drive pressure corresponds to a Li velocity of >200 m/s. A thin lithium film of 9 mm in width at velocity of ~58 m/s was produced. Its thickness was estimated to be roughly lesssim13 μm. High vacuum was maintained in the area of the film. This type of liquid metal thin film may also be used in other high power beam applications such as for intense X-ray or neutron sources.

  20. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1 kt (1,100 st) of contained lithium, a 23-percent decrease from 2009. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium. It remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2010, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 21 kt (22,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 12-percent increase from 2009.

  1. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1.2 kt (1,300 st) of contained lithium, a 40-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium, and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2009, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 18.7 kt (20,600 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds.

  2. Development of a lithium liquid metal ion source for MeV ion beam analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Read, P.M.; Maskrey, J.T.; Alton, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Lithium liquid metal ion sources are an attractive complement to the existing gaseous ion sources that are extensively used for ion beam analysis. This is due in part to the high brightness of the liquid metal ion source and in part to the availability of a lithium ion beam. High brightness is of particular importance to MeV ion microprobes which are now approaching current density limitations on targets determined by the ion source. The availability of a lithium beam provides increased capabilities for hydrogen profiling and high resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. This paper describes the design and performance of a lithium liquid metal ion source suitable for use on a 5MV Laddertron accelerator. Operational experience with the source and some of its uses for ion beam analysis are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Liquid Cooling of Tractive Lithium Ion Batteries Pack with Nanofluids Coolant.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xie, Huaqing; Yu, Wei; Li, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The heat generated from tractive lithium ion batteries during discharge-charge process has great impacts on the performances of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. How to solve the thermal abuse in tractive lithium ion batteries pack becomes more and more urgent and important for future development of electrical vehicles. In this work, TiO2, ZnO and diamond nanofluids are prepared and utilized as coolants in indirect liquid cooling of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. The results show that nanofluids present superior cooling performance to that of pure fluids and the diamond nanofluid presents relatively excellent cooling abilities than that of TiO2 and ZnO nanofluids. During discharge process, the temperature distribution of batteries in batteries pack is uniform and stable, due to steady heat dissipation by indirect liquid cooling. It is expected that nanofluids could be considered as a potential alternative for indirect liquid cooling in electrical vehicles. PMID:26353564

  4. Safety and diagnostic systems on the Liquid Lithium Test Stand (LLTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, J. A.; Jaworski, M. A.; Ellis, R.; Kaita, R.; Mozulay, R.

    2013-10-01

    The Liquid Lithium Test Stand (LLTS) is a test bed for development of flowing liquid lithium systems for plasma-facing components at PPPL. LLTS is designed to test operation of liquid lithium under vacuum, including flowing, solidifying (such as would be the case at the end of plasma operations), and re-melting. Constructed of stainless steel, LLTS is a closed loop of pipe with two reservoirs and a pump, as well as diagnostics for temperature, flow rate, and pressure. Since liquid lithium is a highly reactive material, special care must be taken when designing such a system. These include a permanent-magnet MHD pump and MHD flow meter that have no mechanical components in direct contact with the liquid lithium. The LLTS also includes an expandable 24-channel leak-detector interlock system which cuts power to heaters and the pump if any lithium leaks from a pipe joint. Design for the interlock systems and flow meter are presented. This work is supported by US DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  5. A physical model of an ejection suppressed CPS liquid lithium divertor target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Wei; Zheng, X. J.; Gou, F. J.; Deng, B. Q.; Peng, L. L.; Cao, X.; Zhang, W. W.; Xue, X. Y.

    2015-04-01

    A physical model has been developed which includes high temperature liquid lithium evaporation, the expanding motion of the liquid lithium vapour cloud, the shielding effects of the vapour cloud on incident plasma particle bombardments, ejection suppressed analysis and a perpendicular field proposal, and photon radiation, heat flux and transport in the lithium vapour cloud plasma. The engineering outline design scheme and the relevant parameters for the liquid lithium surface divertor target plate configured by discrete tiny capillary arrays have been established. Splashing can be suppressed by utilizing discrete and electrical insulating capillary porous systems (CPSs), since the conductivity among the capillary cells has been cut off by adopting a special kind of ceramic composite material made of a non-conducting and unbreakable composite which is able to withstand high temperatures. The formula to describe the temperature-dependent evaporation power has been derived. The maximum temperature increases of the discrete plasma-facing liquid lithium surface divertor target plate have been compared under the high energy flux deposition of 10 MJ m-2 during a 1 ms time duration with or without evaporation power. The results show that a high surface heat load can be withstood by the designed discrete plasma-facing liquid lithium surface divertor target plate due to violent evaporation. The energy deposition of incident energetic particles and weakly relativistic electrons from the scrape-off layer have been calculated. A laboratory experimental facility to simulate liquid lithium surface interactions with plasma has been set up. Research on lithium evaporation, re-deposition and ejection suppressed experiments under high density linear plasma dumping is ongoing.

  6. The thermoelectrochemistry of lithium-glyme solvate ionic liquids: towards waste heat harvesting.

    PubMed

    Black, Jeffrey J; Murphy, Thomas; Atkin, Rob; Dolan, Andrew; Aldous, Leigh

    2016-07-27

    Thermoelectrochemistry offers a simple, scalable technique for direct conversion of waste heat into useful electricity. Here the thermoelectrochemical properties of lithium-glyme solvate ionic liquids, as well as their dilute electrolyte analogues, have been investigated using mixtures of tetraglyme (G4, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether) and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Li[NTf2]). The thermoelectrochemical process is entropically-driven by release of the glyme from the lithium-glyme complex cation, due to electrodeposition of lithium metal at the hotter lithium electrode with concomitant electrodissolution at the cooler lithium electrode. The optimum ratio for thermochemical electricity generation is not the solvate ionic liquid (equimolar mixture of Li[NTf2] and glyme), but rather one Li[NTf2] to four G4, due to the mixtures relatively high ionic conductivity and good apparent Seebeck coefficient (+1.4 mV K(-1)). Determination of the lithium-glyme mixture thermal conductivity enabled full assessment of the Figure of Merit (ZT), and the efficiency relative to the Carnot efficiency to be determined. As the lithium electrodeposits are porous, alternating the temperature gradient results in a system that actually improves with repeated use. PMID:27412130

  7. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  8. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

  9. Lithium ion conductive behavior of TiO2 nanotube/ionic liquid matrices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A series of TiO2 nanotube (TNT)/ionic liquid matrices were prepared, and their lithium ion conductive properties were studied. SEM images implied that ionic liquid was dispersed on the whole surface of TNT. Addition of TNT to ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (BMImTFSA)) resulted in significant increase of ionic conductivity. Furthermore, lithium transference number was also largely enhanced due to the interaction of anion with TNT. Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann parameter showed higher carrier ion number for TNT/BMImTFSA in comparison with BMImTFSA. PMID:25313300

  10. Simplified thermochemistry of oxygen in lithium and sodium for liquid metal cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, L. K.

    1972-01-01

    Plots of oxygen chemical potential against composition of lithium-oxygen solutions and sodium-oxygen solutions for a range of temperature were constructed. For each liquid metal two such plots were prepared. For one plot ideal solution behavior was assumed. For the other plot, existing solubility limit data for oxygen in the liquid metal were used to determine a first-order term for departure from ideality. The use of the plots in evaluating the oxygen gettering capability of refractory metals in liquid metal cooling systems is illustrated by a simple example involving lithium, oxygen, and hafnium.

  11. Liquid surface skimmer apparatus for molten lithium and method

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Samuel C.; Pollard, Roy E.; Thompson, William F.; Stark, Marshall W.; Currin, Jr., Robert T.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus for separating two fluids having different specific gravities. The invention also relates to a method for using the separating apparatus of the present invention. This invention particularly relates to the skimming of molten lithium metal from the surface of a fused salt electrolyte in the electrolytic production of lithium metal from a mixed fused salt.

  12. A high power beam-on-target test of liquid lithium target for RIA.

    SciTech Connect

    Nolen, J.; Reed, C.; Novick, V.; Specht, J.; Plotkin, P.; Momozaki,Y.; Gomes, I.

    2005-08-29

    Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the stable operation of a windowless liquid lithium target under extreme thermal loads that are equivalent to uranium beams from the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The engineering and safety issues accompanying liquid lithium systems are first discussed. The liquid metal technology knowledge base generated primarily for fast reactors, and liquid metal cooled fusion reactors, was applied to the development of these systems in a nuclear physics laboratory setting. The use of a high energy electron beam for simulating a high power uranium beam produced by the RIA driver linac is also described. Calculations were performed to obtain energy deposition profiles produced by electron beams at up to a few MeV to compare with expected uranium beam energy deposition profiles. It was concluded that an experimental simulation using a 1-MeV electron beam would be a valuable tool to assess beam-jet interaction. In the experiments, the cross section of the windowless liquid lithium target was 5 mm x 10 mm, which is a 1/3rd scale prototype target, and the velocity of the liquid lithium was varied up to 6 m/s. Thermal loads up to 20 kW within a beam spot diameter of 1mm were applied on the windowless liquid lithium target by the 1-MeV electron beam. The calculations showed that the maximum power density and total power deposited within the target, from the electron beam, was equivalent to that of a 200-kW, 400-MeV/u uranium beam. It was demonstrated that the windowless liquid lithium target flowing at velocities as low as 1.8 m/s stably operated under beam powers up to 20 kW without disruption or excessive vaporization.

  13. Experiments with Liquid Metal Walls: Status of the Lithium Tokamak Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaita, Robert; Boyle, Dennis; Gray, Timothy; Granstedt, Erik; Hammett, Gregory; Jacobson, Craig M; Jones, Andrew; Kozub, Thomas; Kugel, Henry; Leblanc, Benoit; Logan, Nicholas; Lucia, Matthew; Lundberg, Daniel; Majeski, Richard; Mansfield, Dennis; Menard, Jonathan; Spaleta, Jeffrey; Strickler, Trevor; Timberlak, John

    2010-02-16

    Liquid metal walls have been proposed to address the first wall challenge for fusion reactors. The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is the first magnetic confinement device to have liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFC's) that encloses virtually the entire plasma. In the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U), a predecessor to LTX at PPPL, the highest improvement in energy confinement ever observed in Ohmically-heated tokamak plasmas was achieved with a toroidal liquid lithium limiter. The LTX extends this liquid lithium PFC by using a conducting conformal shell that almost completely surrounds the plasma. By heating the shell, a lithium coating on the plasma-facing side can be kept liquefied. A consequence of the low-recycling conditions from liquid lithium walls is the need for efficient plasma fueling. For this purpose, a molecular cluster injector is being developed. Future plans include the installation of a neutral beam for core plasma fueling, and also ion temperature measurements using charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy. Low edge recycling is also predicted to reduce temperature gradients that drive drift wave turbulence. Gyrokinetic simulations are in progress to calculate fluctuation levels and transport for LTX plasmas, and new fluctuation diagnostics are under development to test these predictions. __________________________________________________

  14. Stabilizing lithium metal using ionic liquids for long-lived batteries.

    PubMed

    Basile, A; Bhatt, A I; O'Mullane, A P

    2016-01-01

    Suppressing dendrite formation at lithium metal anodes during cycling is critical for the implementation of future lithium metal-based battery technology. Here we report that it can be achieved via the facile process of immersing the electrodes in ionic liquid electrolytes for a period of time before battery assembly. This creates a durable and lithium ion-permeable solid-electrolyte interphase that allows safe charge-discharge cycling of commercially applicable Li|electrolyte|LiFePO4 batteries for 1,000 cycles with Coulombic efficiencies >99.5%. The tailored solid-electrolyte interphase is prepared using a variety of electrolytes based on the N-propyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide room temperature ionic liquid containing lithium salts. The formation is both time- and lithium salt-dependant, showing dynamic morphology changes, which when optimized prevent dendrite formation and consumption of electrolyte during cycling. This work illustrates that a simple, effective and industrially applicable lithium metal pretreatment process results in a commercially viable cycle life for a lithium metal battery. PMID:27292652

  15. Stabilizing lithium metal using ionic liquids for long-lived batteries

    PubMed Central

    Basile, A.; Bhatt, A. I.; O'Mullane, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Suppressing dendrite formation at lithium metal anodes during cycling is critical for the implementation of future lithium metal-based battery technology. Here we report that it can be achieved via the facile process of immersing the electrodes in ionic liquid electrolytes for a period of time before battery assembly. This creates a durable and lithium ion-permeable solid–electrolyte interphase that allows safe charge–discharge cycling of commercially applicable Li|electrolyte|LiFePO4 batteries for 1,000 cycles with Coulombic efficiencies >99.5%. The tailored solid–electrolyte interphase is prepared using a variety of electrolytes based on the N-propyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide room temperature ionic liquid containing lithium salts. The formation is both time- and lithium salt-dependant, showing dynamic morphology changes, which when optimized prevent dendrite formation and consumption of electrolyte during cycling. This work illustrates that a simple, effective and industrially applicable lithium metal pretreatment process results in a commercially viable cycle life for a lithium metal battery. PMID:27292652

  16. Equilibrium distribution of lanthanum, neodymium, and thorium between lithium chloride melt and liquid bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagnit'ko, A. V.; Ignat'ev, V. V.

    2013-04-01

    The distribution of lanthanum, neodymium, and thorium between a lithium chloride melt and liquid bismuth with additions of lithium as a reducing agent are investigated at 650°C. Equilibrium values of their distribution constants are measured. It is shown that in contrast to neodymium and lanthanum, thorium cannot be extracted from bismuth into lithium chloride. This allows us to propose an efficient scheme for separating lanthanides and thorium in a system for the extraction of fuel salts in molten-salt nuclear reactors.

  17. High-flux neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target

    SciTech Connect

    Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G.; Paul, M.; Arenshtam, A.; Berkovits, D.; Kijel, D.; Nagler, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Silverman, I.

    2013-04-19

    A prototype compact Liquid Lithium Target (LiLiT), able to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source, was built. The neutron source is intended for nuclear astrophysical research, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in hospitals and material studies for fusion reactors. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear research Center (SNRC). The lithium target will produce neutrons through the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated by a high-intensity proton beam, necessary for intense neutron flux for the above applications. The liquid-lithium loop of LiLiT is designed to generate a stable lithium jet at high velocity on a concave supporting wall with free surface toward the incident proton beam (up to 10 kW). During off-line tests, liquid lithium was flown through the loop and generated a stable jet at velocity higher than 5 m/s on the concave supporting wall. The target is now under extensive test program using a high-power electron-gun. Up to 2 kW electron beam was applied on the lithium flow at velocity of 4 m/s without any flow instabilities or excessive evaporation. High-intensity proton beam irradiation will take place at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator currently in commissioning at SNRC.

  18. High-flux neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G.; Paul, M.; Arenshtam, A.; Berkovits, D.; Kijel, D.; Nagler, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Silverman, I.

    2013-04-01

    A prototype compact Liquid Lithium Target (LiLiT), able to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source, was built. The neutron source is intended for nuclear astrophysical research, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in hospitals and material studies for fusion reactors. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear research Center (SNRC). The lithium target will produce neutrons through the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated by a high-intensity proton beam, necessary for intense neutron flux for the above applications. The liquid-lithium loop of LiLiT is designed to generate a stable lithium jet at high velocity on a concave supporting wall with free surface toward the incident proton beam (up to 10 kW). During off-line tests, liquid lithium was flown through the loop and generated a stable jet at velocity higher than 5 m/s on the concave supporting wall. The target is now under extensive test program using a high-power electron-gun. Up to 2 kW electron beam was applied on the lithium flow at velocity of 4 m/s without any flow instabilities or excessive evaporation. High-intensity proton beam irradiation will take place at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator currently in commissioning at SNRC.

  19. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.

    1998-01-01

    The lithium industry can be divided into two sectors: ore concentrate producers and chemical producers. Ore concentrate producers mine lithium minerals. They beneficiate the ores to produce material for use in ceramics and glass manufacturing.

  20. Liquid lithium divertor characteristics and plasma-material interactions in NSTX high-performance plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, M. A.; Abrams, T.; Allain, J. P.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gray, T. K.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; McLean, A. G.; Menard, J.; Nygren, R.; Ono, M.; Podesta, M.; Roquemore, A. L.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Scotti, F.; Skinner, C. H.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Stotler, D. P.; the NSTX Team

    2013-08-01

    Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) have been proposed as a means of solving several problems facing the creation of economically viable fusion power reactors. To date, few demonstrations exist of this approach in a diverted tokamak and we here provide an overview of such work on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) was installed and operated for the 2010 run campaign using evaporated coatings as the filling method. The LLD consisted of a copper-backed structure with a porous molybdenum front face. Nominal Li filling levels by the end of the run campaign exceeded the porosity void fraction by 150%. Despite a nominal liquid level exceeding the capillary structure and peak current densities into the PFCs exceeding 100 kA m-2, no macroscopic ejection events were observed. In addition, no substrate line emission was observed after achieving lithium-melt temperatures indicating the lithium wicks and provides a protective coating on the molybdenum porous layer. Impurity emission from the divertor suggests that the plasma is interacting with oxygen-contaminated lithium whether diverted on the LLD or not. A database of LLD discharges is analysed to consider whether there is a net effect on the discharges over the range of total deposited lithium in the machine. Examination of H-97L indicates that performance was constant throughout the run, consistent with the hypothesis that it is the quality of the surface layers of the lithium that impact performance. The accumulation of impurities suggests a fully flowing liquid lithium system to obtain a steady-state PFC on timescales relevant to NSTX.

  1. Lithium-air batteries using hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuboki, Takashi; Okuyama, Tetsuo; Ohsaki, Takahisa; Takami, Norio

    Lithium-air batteries using hydrophobic ionic liquid consisting of 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium cation and perfluoroalkylsulfonyl imide anion were investigated. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, which has high conductivity and prevents hydrolysis of the lithium anode, showed the best electrolyte performance. The cell worked for 56 days in air, and the cathode carbon materials showed high discharge capacity of 5360 mAh g -1. In addition to hydrophobic ionic liquids for use as electrolytes, various carbon materials for use as high-capacity cathodes were investigated.

  2. Scoping studies: behavior and control of lithium and lithium aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D W

    1982-01-01

    The HEDL scoping studies examining the behavior of lithium and lithium aerosols have been conducted to determine and examine potential safety and environmental issues for postulated accident conditions associated with the use of lithium as a fusion reactor blanket and/or coolant. Liquid lithium reactions with air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and concretes have been characterized. The effectiveness of various powder extinguishing agents and methods of application were determined for lithium-air reactions. The effectiveness of various lithium aerosol collection methods were determined and the volatilization and transport of radioactive metals potentially associated with lithium-air reactions were evaluated. Liquid lithium atmosphere reactions can be safely controlled under postulated accident conditions, but special handling practices must be provided. Lithium-concrete reactions should be avoided because of the potential production of high temperatures, corrosive environment and hydrogen. Carbon microspheres are effective in extinguishing well established lithium-air reactions for the lithium quantities tested (up to 10 kg). Large mass loading of lithium aerosols can be efficiently collected with conventional air cleaning systems. Potentially radioactive species (cobalt, iron and manganese) will be volatilized in a lithium-air reaction in contact with neutron activated stainless steel.

  3. Recent Advances in Applicability of TEMHD Driven Liquid Lithium as a Fusion Relevant PFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szott, Matthew; Fiflis, Peter; Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Ruzic, David N.

    2015-11-01

    Liquid lithium displays increasing promise as a replacement to solid plasma facing components (PFC) in fusion device applications. Liquid PFCs reduce erosion and thermal stress damage, prolonging device lifetime, while lithium has been shown to decrease edge recycling, reduce impurities, and enhance plasma performance. The Liquid Metal Infused Trench (LiMIT) concept developed at UIUC successfully demonstrates horizontal and vertical thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamic (TEMHD) flow of liquid lithium through metal trenches for use as a PFC. Installed in the HT-7 tokamak and at the Magnum-PSI linear plasma device, the system performed effectively in fusion relevant conditions. In high heat flux tests, trench dry-out was observed, which exposes solid trench material due to higher TEMHD force on the area with the highest heat flux. A 3D free surface fluid model of dry-out and experimental tests conducted to mitigate the detrimental effect are described. The final designs for the upcoming test of LiMIT as a limiter for the EAST tokamak are discussed, along with velocity characteristics of steady-state TEMHD driven flow through the LiMIT system inclined up to 180 degrees from horizontal, which is necessary for broad applicability of a liquid lithium PFC system.

  4. High-power liquid-lithium target prototype for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Bisyakoev, M; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Hazenshprung, N; Kijel, D; Nagler, A; Silverman, I

    2011-12-01

    A prototype of a compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT), which will possibly constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals, was built. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The liquid-lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated using a high-intensity proton beam (>10 kW), necessary for sufficient neutron flux. In off-line circulation tests, the liquid-lithium loop generated a stable lithium jet at high velocity, on a concave supporting wall; the concept will first be tested using a high-power electron beam impinging on the lithium jet. High intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 2-4 mA) will take place at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) superconducting linear accelerator currently in construction at SNRC. Radiological risks due to the (7)Be produced in the reaction were studied and will be handled through a proper design, including a cold trap and appropriate shielding. A moderator/reflector assembly is planned according to a Monte Carlo simulation, to create a neutron spectrum and intensity maximally effective to the treatment and to reduce prompt gamma radiation dose risks. PMID:21459008

  5. Polymer electrolytes containing guanidinium-based polymeric ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingtao; Yang, Li; Fang, Shaohua; Dong, Siming; Hirano, Shin-ichi; Tachibana, Kazuhiro

    2011-10-01

    The electrochemical properties of solvent-free, quaternary polymer electrolytes based on a novel polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) as polymer host and incorporating 1g13TFSI ionic liquid, LiTFSI salt and nano-scale silica are reported. The PIL-LiTFSI-1g13TFSI-SiO2 electrolyte membranes are found to be chemically stable even at 80 °C in contact with lithium anode and thermally stable up to 320 °C. Particularly, the quaternary polymer electrolytes exhibit high lithium ion conductivity at high temperature, wide electrochemical stability window, time-stable interfacial resistance values and good lithium stripping/plating performance. Batteries assembled with the quaternary polymer electrolyte at 80 °C are capable to deliver 140 mAh g-1 at 0.1C rates with very good capacity retention.

  6. High-power liquid-lithium jet target for neutron production.

    PubMed

    Halfon, S; Arenshtam, A; Kijel, D; Paul, M; Berkovits, D; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Friedman, M; Hazenshprung, N; Mardor, I; Nagler, A; Shimel, G; Tessler, M; Silverman, I

    2013-12-01

    A compact liquid-lithium target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at the Soreq Nuclear Research Center. The lithium target, to be bombarded by the high-intensity proton beam of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), will constitute an intense source of neutrons produced by the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction for nuclear astrophysics research and as a pilot setup for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The liquid-lithium jet target acts both as neutron-producing target and beam dump by removing the beam thermal power (>5 kW, >1 MW/cm(3)) with fast transport. The target was designed based on a thermal model, accompanied by a detailed calculation of the (7)Li(p,n) neutron yield, energy distribution, and angular distribution. Liquid lithium is circulated through the target loop at ~200 °C and generates a stable 1.5 mm-thick film flowing at a velocity up to 7 m/s onto a concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power areal densities of >4 kW/cm(2) and volume power density of ~2 MW/cm(3) at a lithium flow of ~4 m/s while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. The LiLiT setup is presently in online commissioning stage for high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 1-2 mA) at SARAF. PMID:24387433

  7. High-power liquid-lithium jet target for neutron production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfon, S.; Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D.; Paul, M.; Berkovits, D.; Eliyahu, I.; Feinberg, G.; Friedman, M.; Hazenshprung, N.; Mardor, I.; Nagler, A.; Shimel, G.; Tessler, M.; Silverman, I.

    2013-12-01

    A compact liquid-lithium target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at the Soreq Nuclear Research Center. The lithium target, to be bombarded by the high-intensity proton beam of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), will constitute an intense source of neutrons produced by the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction for nuclear astrophysics research and as a pilot setup for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The liquid-lithium jet target acts both as neutron-producing target and beam dump by removing the beam thermal power (>5 kW, >1 MW/cm3) with fast transport. The target was designed based on a thermal model, accompanied by a detailed calculation of the 7Li(p,n) neutron yield, energy distribution, and angular distribution. Liquid lithium is circulated through the target loop at ˜200 °C and generates a stable 1.5 mm-thick film flowing at a velocity up to 7 m/s onto a concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power areal densities of >4 kW/cm2 and volume power density of ˜2 MW/cm3 at a lithium flow of ˜4 m/s while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. The LiLiT setup is presently in online commissioning stage for high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 1-2 mA) at SARAF.

  8. High-power liquid-lithium jet target for neutron production

    SciTech Connect

    Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G.; Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D.; Berkovits, D.; Eliyahu, I.; Hazenshprung, N.; Mardor, I.; Nagler, A.; Shimel, G.; Silverman, I.; Paul, M.; Friedman, M.; Tessler, M.

    2013-12-15

    A compact liquid-lithium target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at the Soreq Nuclear Research Center. The lithium target, to be bombarded by the high-intensity proton beam of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), will constitute an intense source of neutrons produced by the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction for nuclear astrophysics research and as a pilot setup for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The liquid-lithium jet target acts both as neutron-producing target and beam dump by removing the beam thermal power (>5 kW, >1 MW/cm{sup 3}) with fast transport. The target was designed based on a thermal model, accompanied by a detailed calculation of the {sup 7}Li(p,n) neutron yield, energy distribution, and angular distribution. Liquid lithium is circulated through the target loop at ∼200 °C and generates a stable 1.5 mm-thick film flowing at a velocity up to 7 m/s onto a concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power areal densities of >4 kW/cm{sup 2} and volume power density of ∼2 MW/cm{sup 3} at a lithium flow of ∼4 m/s while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. The LiLiT setup is presently in online commissioning stage for high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91–2.5 MeV, 1–2 mA) at SARAF.

  9. Ether-functionalized ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamoto, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Yushi; Shiotsuki, Taishi; Mizuno, Fuminori; Higashi, Shougo; Takechi, Kensuke; Asaoka, Takahiko; Nishikoori, Hidetaka; Iba, Hideki

    2013-12-01

    Ionic liquids composed of N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium (DEME), N-methyl-N-methoxyethylpiperidinium (PP1.1o2) cations functionalized with ethers, N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium (PP13), and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium (P14) cations and the bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (TFSA) anion are investigated for application as electrolytes in non-aqueous lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. The PP13-TFSA, P14-TFSA and DEME-TFSA ionic liquids have high oxygen radical stability. A comparison of the lithium supply capacity measured using pulse-gradient spin-echo NMR for 7Li nuclei and the oxygen supply capacity measured using electrochemical methods indicates that the oxygen supply is the rate-limiting step for the generation of lithium-oxygen compounds (LiOx) in these ionic liquids with supporting electrolytes. The DEME-TFSA system has the highest LiOx generation activity among the ionic liquid systems examined. We demonstrate the improved performance (output power, discharge-charge capacity and coulombic efficiency) of a Li-O2 battery using the DEME-TFSA system compared with that using the PP13-TFSA system. The improvements observed for the DEME-TFSA system are attributed to the high LiOx generation properties and lithium ion supply.

  10. Ionic liquid decorated mesoporous silica nanoparticles: a new high-performance hybrid electrolyte for lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wong, Ka-Wai; Ng, Ka-Ming

    2016-03-10

    We report a novel hybrid electrolyte based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles decorated with an ionic liquid, which exhibits a superior lithium ion transference number of >0.8, and an excellent electrochemical window of >5 V with attractive ionic conductivity. The insights obtained pave a new way for the preparation of high-performance electrolytes with mesoporous structures. PMID:26926805

  11. Ionic liquid-based electrolyte with binary lithium salts for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feng; Zhu, Qizhen; Chen, Renjie; Chen, Nan; Chen, Yan; Ye, Yusheng; Qian, Ji; Li, Li

    2015-11-01

    Rechargeable Li-S batteries have suffered several technical obstacles, such as rapid capacity fading and low coulombic efficiency. To overcome these problems, we design new electrolytes containing N-methoxyethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-imide (Pyr1,2O1TFSI) and tri(ethylene glycol)dimethyl ether (TEGDME) in mass ratio of 7:3. Moreover, Lithium difluoro(oxalate)borate (LiODFB) is introduced for the modification. Although the addition of LiODFB as additive lead to extremely high viscosity of electrolyte and inferior performance of the cells, the electrolyte containing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI, 0.84 nm) and LiODFB (0.60 nm) mixture with a total molar concentration of 0.4 mol kg-1 as binary lithium salt shows excellent electrochemical performance. The Pyr1,2O1TFSI/TEGDME electrolyte with LiTFSI/LiODFB binary lithium salts in mole ratio of 6:4 is obtained after optimizing ratio. The Li-S cells containing this electrolyte system show excellent capacity and cycle performance, whose initial discharge capacity is 1264.4 mAh g-1, and retains 911.4 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles with the coulombic efficiency more than 95%. It can be attributed the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI)-forming ability of LiODFB which protect Li anode from suffering lithium dendrites and prevent the shuttle phenomenon. The novel electrolytes provide good cycling stability and high coulombic efficiency for the Li-S batteries, which is suggested as a promising electrolyte for Li-S batteries.

  12. Functional binders for reversible lithium intercalation into graphite in propylene carbonate and ionic liquid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komaba, Shinichi; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Ozeki, Tomoaki; Okushi, Koji; Yui, Hiroharu; Konno, Kozo; Katayama, Yasushi; Miura, Takashi

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA), and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), which have oxygen species as functional groups, were utilized as a binder for graphite electrodes, and the electrochemical reversibility of lithium intercalation was examined in PC medium and ionic liquid electrolyte, lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide dissolved in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (BMP-TFSA). Columbic efficiency of 75-80% with more than 300 mAh g -1 was achieved upon first reduction/oxidation cycle in both electrolytes using these binding polymers, which were significantly improved in comparison to a conventional PVdF binder (less than 45% of columbic efficiency for the first cycle). For the graphite-PVdF electrode, co-intercalation and/or decomposition of PC molecules solvating to Li ions were observed by the electrochemical reduction, resulting in the cracking of graphite particles. In contrast, the co-intercalation and decomposition of PC molecules and BMP cations for the first reduction process were completely suppressed for the graphite electrodes prepared with the polymers containing oxygen atoms. It was proposed that the selective permeability of lithium ions was attained by the uniform coating of the graphite particles with PAA, PMA, and PVA polymers, because the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged lithium ions and negatively charged oxygen atom in the polymer should modulate the desolvation process of lithium ions during the lithium intercalation into graphite, showing the similar functions like artificial solid-electrolyte interphase.

  13. Use of Ionic Liquids in Rod-Coil Block Copolyimides for Improved Lithium Ion Conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Tigelaar, Dean M.; Chapin, Kara; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Solvent-free, solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) have the potential to improve safety, increase design flexibility and enhance performance of rechargeable lithium batteries. Solution based electrolytes are flammable and typically incompatible with lithium metal anodes, limiting energy density. We have previously demonstrated use of polyimide rod coil block copolymers doped with lithium salts as electrolytes for lithium polymer batteries. The polyimide rod blocks provide dimensional stability while the polyethylene oxide (PEO) coil portions conduct ions. Phase separation of the rods and coils in these highly branched polymers provide channels with an order of magnitude improvement in lithium conduction over polyethylene oxide itself at room temperature. In addition, the polymers have been demonstrated in coin cells to be compatible with lithium metal. For practical use at room temperature and below, however, at least an order of magnitude improvement in ion conduction is still required. The addition of nonvolatile, room temperature ionic liquids has been shown to improve the ionic conductivity of high molecular weight PEO. Herein we describe use of these molten salts to improve ionic conductivity in the rod-coil block copolymers.

  14. Lithium

    MedlinePlus

    ... bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Lithium ... Lithium is also sometimes used to treat depression, schizophrenia (a mental ... emotions), disorders of impulse control (inability to resist the urge ...

  15. Single-Ion Block Copoly(ionic liquid)s as Electrolytes for All-Solid State Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Porcarelli, Luca; Shaplov, Alexander S; Salsamendi, Maitane; Nair, Jijeesh R; Vygodskii, Yakov S; Mecerreyes, David; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2016-04-27

    Polymer electrolytes have been proposed as replacement for conventional liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their intrinsic enhanced safety. Nevertheless, the power delivery of these materials is limited by the concentration gradient of the lithium salt. Single-ion conducting polyelectrolytes represent the ideal solution since their nature prevents polarization phenomena. Herein, the preparation of a new family of single-ion conducting block copolymer polyelectrolytes via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization technique is reported. These copolymers comprise poly(lithium 1-[3-(methacryloyloxy)propylsulfonyl]-1-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate blocks. The obtained polyelectrolytes show low Tg values in the range of -61 to 0.6 °C, comparatively high ionic conductivity (up to 2.3 × 10(-6) and 1.2 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 25 and 55 °C, respectively), wide electrochemical stability (up to 4.5 V versus Li(+)/Li), and a lithium-ion transference number close to unity (0.83). Owing to the combination of all mentioned properties, the prepared polymer materials were used as solid polyelectrolytes and as binders in the elaboration of lithium-metal battery prototypes with high charge/discharge efficiency and excellent specific capacity (up to 130 mAh g(-1)) at C/15 rate. PMID:27043201

  16. Safe lithium-ion battery with ionic liquid-based electrolyte for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damen, Libero; Lazzari, Mariachiara; Mastragostino, Marina

    2011-10-01

    A lithium-ion battery featuring graphite anode, LiFePO4-C cathode and an innovative, safe, ionic liquid-based electrolyte, was assembled and characterized in terms of specific energy and power after the USABC-DOE protocol for power-assist hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) application. The test results show that the battery surpasses the energy and power goals stated by USABC-DOE and, hence, this safe lithium-ion battery should be suitable for application in the evolving HEV market.

  17. Characterization of Liquid Lithium Wetting and Thermoelectric Properties for Nuclear Fusion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiflis, Peter; Xu, Wenyu; Christenson, Michael; Andruczyk, Daniel; Curreli, Davide; Ruzic, David

    2013-10-01

    Critical to the implementation of flowing liquid lithium plasma facing components is understanding the interactions of liquid lithium with various surfaces. Presented here are experiments investigating the material compatibility, wetting characteristics, and relative thermopower of liquid lithium with a variety of potential substrate candidates for the LiMIT concept. Wetting experiments with lithium used the contact angle as a metric. Among those materials investigated are 316 SS, Mo, Ta, and W. The contact angle, as well as its dependence on temperature was measured. For example, at 200 C, tungsten registers a contact angle of 130°, whereas above its wetting temperature of 350 C, the contact angle is less than 80°. Several methods were found to decrease the critical wetting temperature of various materials and are presented here. The thermopower of W, Mo, Ta, Li, Ga, Wood's metal and Sn has been measured relative to stainless steel, and the Seebeck coefficient of has then been calculated. For molybdenum the Seebeck coefficient has a linear rise with temperature from SMo = 3.9 μVK-1 at 30 °C to 7.5 μVK-1 at 275 °C. On Assignment at PPPL

  18. Effects of solutes on thermodynamic activity of tritium in liquid lithium blanket of fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lyublinski, I.E.; Evtikhin, V.A.; Krassine, V.P.

    1995-10-01

    The study of tritium dissolved in liquid lithium systems containing metallic impurities is of technological interest for tritium removal processes and suppression of the tritium leakages from the blanket in a fusion reactor. The interaction parameter formalism and coordination cluster theory have been used to calculate the tritium activity coefficients in Li-T-Al, Li-T-Mg, Li-T-Si, Li-T-Y and Li-T-La systems. Calculations performed demonstrated that silicon, aluminum and magnesium have no influence on the tritium activity coefficients in dilute lithium solutions within the temperature range 400-800{degree}C, but yttrium and lanthanum may be used to effectively decrease this coefficient in lithium melts. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. New Polymer and Liquid Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.; Lee, H. S.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, X.

    1999-03-29

    All non-aqueous lithium battery electrolytes are Lewis bases that interact with cations. Unlike water, they don't interact with anions. The result is a high degree of ion pairing and the formation of triplets and higher aggregates. This decreases the conductivity and the lithium ion transference and results in polarization losses in batteries. Approaches that have been used to increase ion dissociation in PEO based electrolytes are the use of salts with low lattice energy, the addition of polar plasticizers to the polymer, and the addition of cation completing agents such as crown ethers or cryptands. Complexing of the anions is a more promising approach since it should increase both ion dissociation and the lithium transference. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) we have synthesized two new families of neutral anion completing agents, each based on Lewis acid centers. One is based on electron deficient nitrogen sites on substituted aza-ethers, wherein the hydrogen on the nitrogen is replaced by electron withdrawing groups such as CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3{sup -}}. The other is based on electron deficient boron sites on borane or borate compounds with various fluorinated aryl or alkyl groups. Some of the borane based anion receptors can promote the dissolution of LiF in several solvents. Several of these compounds, when added in equivalent amounts, produce 1.2M LiF solutions in DME, an increase in volubility of LiF by six orders of magnitude. Some of these LiF electrolytes have conductivities as high as 6 x 10{sup -3} Scm{sup -1}. The LiF electrolytes with borane anion acceptors in PC:EC:DEC solvents have excellent electrochemical stability. This has been demonstrated in small Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells.

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of chromium solubility data in liquid lithium containing nitrogen: Comparison between experimental data and computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasin, Valery P.; Soyustova, Svetlana I.

    2015-10-01

    The mathematical formalism for description of solute interactions in dilute solution of chromium and nitrogen in liquid lithium have been applied for calculating of the temperature dependence of the solubility of chromium in liquid lithium with the various nitrogen contents. It is shown that the derived equations are useful to provide understanding of a relationship between thermodynamic properties and local ordering in the Li-Cr-N melt. Comparison between theory and data reported in the literature for solubility of chromium in nitrogen-contaminated liquid lithium, was allowed to explain the reasons of the deviation of the experimental semi-logarithmic plot of chromium content in liquid lithium as a function of the reciprocal temperature from a straight line.

  1. A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, J.; Zuo, G. Z.; Hu, J. S.; Sun, Z.; Yang, Q. X.; Li, J. G.; Xie, H.; Chen, Z. X.; Zakharov, L. E.

    2015-02-15

    A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a “first,” or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak—both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST.

  2. A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Ren, J; Zuo, G Z; Hu, J S; Sun, Z; Yang, Q X; Li, J G; Zakharov, L E; Xie, H; Chen, Z X

    2015-02-01

    A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a "first," or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak-both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST. PMID:25725839

  3. A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, J.; Zuo, G. Z.; Hu, J. S.; Sun, Z.; Yang, Q. X.; Li, J. G.; Zakharov, L. E.; Xie, H.; Chen, Z. X.

    2015-02-01

    A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a "first," or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak—both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST.

  4. Ferrous alloy metallurgy - liquid lithium corrosion and welding. Progress report, January 1-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D. L.; Matlock, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth has been used to evaluate the interaction between liquid lithium and an imposed stress. Fatigue crack growth data on type 304L stainless steel at 700C and 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel between 500 and 700C show that for all imposed test conditions (i.e. frequency, temperature, and nitrogen content in the lithium) the interaction of lithium with the strain at the crack tip results in enhanced crack growth rates. The enhanced growth rates result from the effects of either enhanced grain boundary penetration or a change in crack propagation mechanism due to liquid metal embrittlement. Auger spectroscopy of grain boundary penetrated specimen shows that a lithium-oxygen compound forms at the grain boundary. Moessbauer evaluations of the ferrite layer of corroded type 304 stainless steel are being used to develop a model for weight loss in liquid lithium. The welding research in progress is directed to characterize the influence of variations of the austenitic weld metal composition on the microstructural and mechanical properties of dissimilar metal weldments. Weldments of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel to 316 stainless steel have been investigated for fusion microstructure, thermal expansion impact strength and characterization of specific long time in-service failures. Modification of weld metal microstructures by microalloy additions is being investigated as a concept to improve weld metal properties. The behavior of a strip electrode in a gas metal arc is being investigated to determine the feasibility of gas metal arc weld strip overlay cladding.

  5. Retention/Diffusivity Studies in Free-Surface Flowing Liquid Lithium

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Stubbers; G.H. Miley; M. Nieto; W. Olczak; D.N. Ruzic; A. Hassanein

    2004-12-14

    FLIRE was designed to measure the hydrogen and helium retention and diffusivity in a flowing stream of liquid lithium, and it has accomplished these goals. Retention coefficients for helium in the flowing liquid stream were 0.1-2% for flow speeds of 44 cm/s and implantation energies between 500 and 2000 eV. The energy dependence of retention is linear for the energy range considered, as expected, and the dependence of retention on flow velocity fits the expected square-root of flow speed dependence. Estimates of the helium diffusion coefficient in the flowing lithium stream were {approx} 4 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/s, and are independent of implantation energy. This value is much lower than expected, which could be due to several factors, such as mixing, bubble formation or surface film formation. In the case of hydrogen, long term retention and release mechanisms are of greatest importance, since this relates to tritium inventory in flowing lithium PFCs for fusion applications. The amount of hydride formation was measured for flowing lithium exposed to neutral deuterium gas. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements indicate that the hydride concentration was between 0.1 and 0.2% over a wide range of pressures (6.5 x 10{sup -5} to 1 Torr). This result implies that the deuterium absorption rate is limited by the surface dissociation rate, since deuterium (hydrogen/tritium) is absorbed in its atomic form, not its molecular form.

  6. Experiments on FTU with an actively water cooled liquid lithium limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzitelli, G.; Apicella, M. L.; Apruzzese, G.; Crescenzi, F.; Iannone, F.; Maddaluno, G.; Pericoli-Ridolfini, V.; Roccella, S.; Reale, M.; Viola, B.; Lyublinski, I.; Vertkov, A.

    2015-08-01

    In order to prevent the overheating of the liquid Li surface and the consequent Li evaporation for T > 500 °C, an advanced version of the liquid lithium limiter has been realized and installed on FTU. This new system, named Cooled Lithium Limiter (CLL), has been optimized to demonstrate the lithium limiter capability to sustain thermal loads as high as 10 MW/m2 with up to 5 s of plasma pulse duration. The CLL operates with an actively cooled system with water circulation at the temperature of about 200 °C, for heating lithium up to the melting point and for the heat removal during the plasma discharges. To characterize CLL during discharges, a fast infrared camera and the spectroscopic signals from Li and D atom emission have been used. The experiments analyzed so far and simulated by ANSYS code, point out that heat loads as high as 2 MW/m2 for 1.5 s have been withstood without problems.

  7. A Spectroscopic Measurement of Recycling on the Surface of a Liquid Lithium Limiter in CDX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marfuta, P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Maingi, R.

    2003-10-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of lithium plasma-facing surfaces should give a quantitative assessment of the local recycling in CDX-U. We will use both a 1-D CCD camera with an interference filter and a pair of fiber-optic filterscopes focused on different parts of a fully-toroidal liquid lithium limiter tray. Additional filterscope data will be taken along a sightline immediately above the tray, so that the edge plasma emission can be subtracted from the direct views of the lithium surface. The diagnostics will measure the H-alpha line both with and without lithium in the limiter tray to assess the reduction of neutral hydrogen recycling, as well as the Li-I emission to observe the level of lithium introduced into the plasma, and the C-III and O-II lines to measure the effect of the lithium on plasma impurities.

  8. Properties of a new liquid desiccant solution - Lithium chloride and calcium chloride mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Ertas, A.; Anderson, E.E.; Kiris, I. )

    1992-09-01

    Desiccants, broadly classified as solid and liquid desiccants, have the property of extracting and retaining moisture from air brought into contact with them. By using either type, moisture in the air is removed and the resulting dry air can be used for air-conditioning or drying purposes. Because of its properties, lithium chloride is the most stable liquid desiccant and has a large dehydration concentration (30% to 45%), but its cost is relatively high ($9.00-13.00 per kg). It is expected that lithium chloride will reduce the relative humidity to as low as 15%. Calcium chloride is the cheapest (45 cents per kg) and most readily available desiccant, but it has the disadvantage of being unstable depending on the air inlet conditions and the concentration of the desiccant in the solution. To stabilize calcium chloride and to decrease the high cost of lithium chloride, the two can be mixed in different weight combinations. The main objective of this research is to measure the physical properties of different combinations of this mixture such as density, viscosity, and vapor pressure which are necessary for analysis of heat and mass transfer in a packed tower desiccant-air contact system. The solubility of this new liquid desiccant under certain temperature-concentrations will also be studied.

  9. Ionic-liquid-nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes: applications in lithium metal batteries.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingying; Korf, Kevin; Kambe, Yu; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A

    2014-01-01

    Development of rechargeable lithium metal battery (LMB) remains a challenge because of uneven lithium deposition during repeated cycles of charge and discharge. Ionic liquids have received intensive scientific interest as electrolytes because of their exceptional thermal and electrochemical stabilities. Ionic liquid and ionic-liquid-nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes based on 1-methy-3-propylimidazolium (IM) and 1-methy-3-propylpiperidinium (PP) have been synthesized and their ionic conductivity, electrochemical stability, mechanical properties, and ability to promote stable Li electrodeposition investigated. PP-based electrolytes were found to be more conductive and substantially more efficient in suppressing dendrite formation on cycled lithium anodes; as little as 11 wt % PP-IL in a PC-LiTFSI host produces more than a ten-fold increase in cell lifetime. Both PP- and IM-based nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes provide up to 10 000-fold improvements in cell lifetime than anticipated based on their mechanical modulus alone. Galvanostatic cycling measurements in Li/Li4 Ti5 O12 half cells using IL-nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes reveal more than 500 cycles of trouble-free operation and enhanced rate capability. PMID:24282090

  10. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  11. Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries: Ionic Liquids in APTES Crosslinked Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigelaar, Dean M.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Solvent free polymer electrolytes were made consisting of Li(+) and pyrrolidinium salts of trifluoromethanesulfonimide added to a series of hyperbranched poly(ethylene oxide)s (PEO). The polymers were connected by triazine linkages and crosslinked by a sol-gel process to provide mechanical strength. The connecting PEO groups were varied to help understand the effects of polymer structure on electrolyte conductivity in the presence of ionic liquids. Polymers were also made that contain poly(dimethylsiloxane) groups, which provide increased flexibility without interacting with lithium ions. When large amounts of ionic liquid are added, there is little dependence of conductivity on the polymer structure. However, when smaller amounts of ionic liquid are added, the inherent conductivity of the polymer becomes a factor. These electrolytes are more conductive than those made with high molecular weight PEO imbibed with ionic liquids at ambient temperatures, due to the amorphous nature of the polymer.

  12. Lithium

    MedlinePlus

    ... mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood) in people with bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Lithium is in a ... antimanic agents. It works by decreasing abnormal activity in the brain.

  13. MHD considerations for a self-cooled liquid lithium blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sze, D. K.; Mattas, R. F.; Hull, A. B.; Picologlou, B. F.; Smith, D. L.

    1992-03-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects can present a feasibility issue for a self-cooled liquid metal blanket of magnetically confined fusion reactors, especially the inboard regime of a tokamak. This pressure drop can be significantly reduced by using an insulated wall structure. A self-healing insulating coating has been identified, which will reduce the pressure drop by more than a factor of 10. The future research direction to further quantify the performance of this coating is also outlined.

  14. Synergistic effects of mixing sulfone and ionic liquid as safe electrolytes for lithium sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chen; Guo, Bingkun; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    A strategy of mixing both an ionic liquid and sulfone is reported to give synergistic effects of reducing viscosity, increasing ionic conductivity, reducing polysulfide dissolution, and improving safety. The mixtures of ionic liquids and sulfones also show distinctly different physicochemical properties, including thermal properties and crystallization behavior. By using these electrolytes, lithium sulfur batteries assembled with lithium and mesoporous carbon composites show a reversible specific capacity of 1265 mAh g(-1) (second cycle) by using 40 % 1.0 M lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide with 60 % 1.0 M LiTFSI in methylisopropylsulfone in the first cycle. This capacity is slightly lower than that obtained in pure 1.0 M LiTFSI as the sulfone electrolyte; however, it exhibits excellent cycling stability and remains as high as 655 mAh g(-1) even after 50 cycles. This strategy provides a method to alleviate polysulfide dissolution and redox shuttle phenomena, at the same time, with improved ionic conductivity. PMID:25427945

  15. Development and performance of aluminum nitride insulating coatings for application in a lithium environment

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C.B.; Rink, D.L.; Haglund, R.C.

    1997-10-01

    The blanket system is one of the most important components in a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. Based on the requirement that an electrically insulating coating on the first-wall structural material must minimize the magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop that occurs during the flow of liquid metal in a magnetic field, aluminum nitride (AlN) is considered a candidate coating material for the lithium self-cooled blanket concept. Detailed investigations were conducted on the fabrication, metallurgical microstructure, compatibility in liquid Li, and electrical characteristics of AlN as a coating material. A nonindentation technique was used to evaluate the hardness of the coated samples in as-coated condition, after a hardening treatment, and after exposure to Li. Lithium compatibility studies were conducted in static systems by exposure of AlN-coated specimens for several time periods, at various temperatures, and in various lithium chemistries. Electrical resistance of the specimens was measured at room temperature before and after exposure to liquid Li. This paper discusses the results from ongoing activities on the development of AlN coatings.

  16. An advanced lithium-air battery exploiting an ionic liquid-based electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Elia, G A; Hassoun, J; Kwak, W-J; Sun, Y-K; Scrosati, B; Mueller, F; Bresser, D; Passerini, S; Oberhumer, P; Tsiouvaras, N; Reiter, J

    2014-11-12

    A novel lithium-oxygen battery exploiting PYR14TFSI-LiTFSI as ionic liquid-based electrolyte medium is reported. The Li/PYR14TFSI-LiTFSI/O2 battery was fully characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, capacity-limited cycling, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results of this extensive study demonstrate that this new Li/O2 cell is characterized by a stable electrode-electrolyte interface and a highly reversible charge-discharge cycling behavior. Most remarkably, the charge process (oxygen oxidation reaction) is characterized by a very low overvoltage, enhancing the energy efficiency to 82%, thus, addressing one of the most critical issues preventing the practical application of lithium-oxygen batteries. PMID:25329836

  17. Strong tendency of homeotropic alignment and anisotropic lithium ion conductivity of sulfonate functionalized zwitterionic imidazolium ionic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Rondla, Rohini; Lin, Joseph C Y; Yang, C T; Lin, Ivan J B

    2013-09-17

    Here, we report the first attempt to investigate the liquid crystal (LC) behavior of SO3(-) functionalized imidazolium zwitterionic (SO3(-)ImZI) salts, which display homeotropic alignment on a glass slide without the aid of any aligning approach. Doping lithium salt to ImZI salts lowers the melting temperatures and raises the clearing temperatures substantially to form room temperature ImZILCs. Excellent anisotropic lithium ion conductivity is achieved; which is strengthened by their tendency for homeotropic alignment. PMID:24010889

  18. Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Li–Air Batteries: Lithium Metal Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Lorenzo; Paillard, Elie; Kim, Guk-Tae; Monaco, Simone; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the electrochemical stability and lithium plating/stripping performance of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI) are reported, by investigating the behavior of Li metal electrodes in symmetrical Li/electrolyte/Li cells. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements and galvanostatic cycling at different temperatures are performed to analyze the influence of temperature on the stabilization of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), showing that TFSI-based ionic liquids (ILs) rank among the best candidates for long-lasting Li–air cells. PMID:24815072

  19. Research proposal for development of an electron stripper using a thin liquid lithium film for rare isotope accelerator.

    SciTech Connect

    Momozaki, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-03-06

    Hydrodynamic instability phenomena in a thin liquid lithium film, which has been proposed for the first stripper in the driver linac of Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), were discussed. Since it was considered that film instability could significantly impair the feasibility of the liquid lithium film stripper concept, potential issues and research tasks in the RIA project due to these instability phenomena were raised. In order to investigate these instability phenomena, a research proposal plan was developed. In the theoretical part of this research proposal, a use of the linear stability theory was suggested. In the experimental part, it was pointed out that the concept of Reynolds number and Weber number scaling may allow conducting a preliminary experiment using inert simulants, hence reducing technical difficulty, complexity, and cost of the experiments. After confirming the thin film formation in the preliminary experiment using simulants, demonstration experiments using liquid lithium were proposed.

  20. Electrochemical Stability Window of Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids as Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kazemiabnavi, Saeed; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Thornton, Katsuyo; Banerjee, Soumik

    2016-06-30

    This paper presents the computational assessment of the electrochemical stability of a series of alkyl methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids for their use as lithium battery electrolytes. The oxidation and reduction potentials of the constituent cation and anion of each ionic liquid with respect to a Li(+)/Li reference electrode were calculated using density functional theory following the method of thermodynamic cycles, and the electrochemical stability windows (ESW)s of these ionic liquids were obtained. The effect of varying the length of alkyl side chains of the methylimidazolium-based cations on the redox potentials and ESWs was investigated. The results show that the limits of the ESWs of these methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids are defined by the oxidation potential of the anions and the reduction potential of alkyl-methylimidazolium cations. Moreover, ionic liquids with [PF6](-) anion have a wider ESW. In addition to characterizing structure-function relationships, the accuracy of the computational approach was assessed through comparisons of the data against experimental measurements of ESWs. The potentials calculated by the thermodynamic cycle method are in good agreement with the experimental data while the HOMO/LUMO method overestimates the redox potentials. This work demonstrates that these approaches can provide guidance in selecting ionic liquid electrolytes when designing high-voltage rechargeable batteries. PMID:27266487

  1. Physics Design Requirements for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Liquid Lithium Divertor

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, W.; Bell, M.; Berzak,L.; Brooks, A.; Ellis, R.; Gerhardt, S.; Harjes, H.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D.; Menard, J.; Nygren,R. E.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stotler, D.; Wakeland, P.; Zakharov L. E.

    2008-09-26

    Recent NSTX high power divertor experiments have shown significant and recurring benefits of solid lithium coatings on PFC's to the performance of divertor plasmas in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. The next step in this work is installation of a liquid lithium divertor (LLD) to achieve density control for inductionless current drive capability (e.g., about a 15-25% ne decrease from present highest non-inductionless fraction discharges which often evolve toward the density limit, ne/nGW~1), to enable ne scan capability (x2) in the H-mode, to test the ability to operate at significantly lower density for future ST-CTF reactor designs (e.g., ne/nGW = 0.25), and eventually to investigate high heat-flux power handling (10 MW/m2) with longpulse discharges (>1.5s). The first step (LLD-1) physics design encompasses the desired plasma requirements, the experimental capabilities and conditions, power handling, radial location, pumping capability, operating temperature, lithium filling, MHD forces, and diagnostics for control and characterization.

  2. Polymeric ionic liquid-plastic crystal composite electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhengxi; Li, Sijian; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2016-03-01

    In this work, composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs), that is, 80%[(1-x)PIL-(x)SN]-20%LiTFSI, are successfully prepared by using a pyrrolidinium-based polymeric ionic liquid (P(DADMA)TFSI) as a polymer host, succinonitrile (SN) as a plastic crystal, and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) as a lithium salt. XRD and DSC measurements confirm that the as-obtained CPEs have amorphous structures. The 80%[50%PIL-50%SN]-20%LiTFSI (50% SN) electrolyte reveals a high room temperature ionic conductivity of 5.74 × 10-4 S cm-1, a wide electrochemical window of 5.5 V, as well as good mechanical strength with a Young's modulus of 4.9 MPa. Li/LiFePO4 cells assembled with the 50% SN electrolyte at 0.1C rate can deliver a discharge capacity of about 150 mAh g-1 at 25 °C, with excellent capacity retention. Furthermore, such cells are able to achieve stable discharge capacities of 131.8 and 121.2 mAh g-1 at 0.5C and 1.0C rate, respectively. The impressive findings demonstrate that the electrolyte system prepared in this work has great potential for application in lithium ion batteries.

  3. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Chen, Honghao; Meduri, Praveen; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-05-16

    Li-S battery is a complicated system with many challenges existing before its final market penetration. While most of the reported work for Li-S batteries is focused on the cathode design, we demonstrate in this work that the anode consumption accelerated by corrosive polysulfide solution also critically determines the Li-S cell performance. To validate this hypothesis, ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Py14TFSI) has been employed to modify the properties of SEI layer formed on Li metal surface in Li-S batteries. It is found that the IL-enhanced passivation film on the lithium anode surface exhibits much different morphology and chemical compositions, effectively protecting lithium metal from continuous attack by soluble polysulfides. Therefore, both cell impedance and the irreversible consumption of polysulfides on lithium metal are reduced. As a result, the Coulombic efficiency and the cycling stability of Li-S batteries have been greatly improved. After 120 cycles, Li-S battery cycled in the electrolyte containing IL demonstrates a high capacity retention of 94.3% at 0.1 C rate. These results unveil another important failure mechanism for Li-S batteries and shin the light on the new approaches to improve Li-S battery performances.

  4. Development of liquid-lithium film jet-flow for the target of (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reactions for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tooru; Miura, Kuniaki; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Aritomi, Masanori

    2014-06-01

    A feasibility study on liquid lithium target in the form of a flowing film was performed to evaluate its potential use as a neutron generation target of (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction in BNCT. The target is a windowless-type flowing film on a concave wall. Its configuration was adapted for a proton beam which is 30mm in diameter and with energy and current of up to 3MeV and 20mA, respectively. The flowing film of liquid lithium was 0.6mm in thickness, 50mm in width and 50mm in length. The shapes of the nozzle and concave back wall, which create a stable flowing film jet, were decided based on water experiments. A lithium hydrodynamic experiment was performed to observe the stability of liquid lithium flow behavior. The flowing film of liquid lithium was found to be feasible at temperatures below the liquid lithium boiling saturation of 342°C at the surface pressure of 1×10(-3)Pa. Using a proto-type liquid lithium-circulating loop for BNCT, the stability of the film flow was confirmed for velocities up to 30m/s at 220°C and 250°C in vacuum at a pressure lower than 10(-3) Pa. It is expected that for practical use, a flowing liquid lithium target of a windowless type can solve the problem of radiation damage and target cooling. PMID:24412425

  5. Rock-salt structure lithium deuteride formation in liquid lithium with high-concentrations of deuterium: a first-principles molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mohan; Abrams, T.; Jaworski, M. A.; Carter, Emily A.

    2016-01-01

    Because of lithium’s possible use as a first wall material in a fusion reactor, a fundamental understanding of the interactions between liquid lithium (Li) and deuterium (D) is important. We predict structural and dynamical properties of liquid Li samples with high concentrations of D, as derived from first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. Liquid Li samples with four concentrations of inserted D atoms (LiDβ , β =0.25 , 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00) are studied at temperatures ranging from 470 to 1143 K. Densities, diffusivities, pair distribution functions, bond angle distribution functions, geometries, and charge transfer between Li and D atoms are calculated and analyzed. The analysis suggests liquid-solid phase transitions can occur at some concentrations and temperatures, forming rock-salt LiD within liquid Li. We also observe formation of some D2 molecules at high D concentrations.

  6. Ionomer-Liquid Electrolyte Hybrid Ionic Conductor for High Cycling Stability of Lithium Metal Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jongchan; Lee, Hongkyung; Choo, Min-Ju; Park, Jung-Ki; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2015-09-01

    The inhomogeneous Li electrodeposition of lithium metal electrode has been a major impediment to the realization of rechargeable lithium metal batteries. Although single ion conducting ionomers can induce more homogeneous Li electrodeposition by preventing Li+ depletion at Li surface, currently available materials do not allow room-temperature operation due to their low room temperature conductivities. In the paper, we report that a highly conductive ionomer/liquid electrolyte hybrid layer tightly laminated on Li metal electrode can realize stable Li electrodeposition at high current densities up to 10 mA cm-2 and permit room-temperature operation of corresponding Li metal batteries with low polarizations. The hybrid layer is fabricated by laminating few micron-thick Nafion layer on Li metal electrode followed by soaking 1 M LiPF6 EC/DEC (1/1) electrolyte. The Li/Li symmetric cell with the hybrid layer stably operates at a high current density of 10 mA cm-2 for more than 2000 h, which corresponds to more than five-fold enhancement compared with bare Li metal electrode. Also, the prototype Li/LiCoO2 battery with the hybrid layer offers cycling stability more than 350 cycles. These results demonstrate that the hybrid strategy successfully combines the advantages of bi-ionic liquid electrolyte (fast Li+ transport) and single ionic ionomer (prevention of Li+ depletion).

  7. Ionic liquids in lithium battery electrolytes: Composition versus safety and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilken, Susanne; Xiong, Shizhao; Scheers, Johan; Jacobsson, Per; Johansson, Patrik

    2015-02-01

    Ionic liquids have been highlighted as non-flammable, environmentally friendly, and suggested as possible solvents in lithium ion battery electrolytes. Here, the application of two ionic liquids from the EMIm-family in a state-of-the-art carbonate solvent based electrolyte is studied with a focus on safety improvement. The impact of the composition on physical and safety related properties is investigated for IL concentrations of additive (∼5 wt%) up to co-solvent concentrations (∼60 wt%). Furthermore, the role of the lithium salt concentration is separately addressed by studying a set of electrolytes at 0.5 M, 1 M, and 2 M LiPF6 concentrations. A large impact on the electrolyte properties is found for the electrolytes containing EMImTFSI and high salt concentrations. The composition 2 M LiPF6 EC:DEC:IL (1:1:3 wt%) is found non-flammable for both choices of ILs added. The macroscopic observations are complemented by a Raman spectroscopy analysis whereby a change in the Li+ solvation is detected for IL concentrations >4.5 mol%.

  8. Ionomer-Liquid Electrolyte Hybrid Ionic Conductor for High Cycling Stability of Lithium Metal Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jongchan; Lee, Hongkyung; Choo, Min-Ju; Park, Jung-Ki; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2015-01-01

    The inhomogeneous Li electrodeposition of lithium metal electrode has been a major impediment to the realization of rechargeable lithium metal batteries. Although single ion conducting ionomers can induce more homogeneous Li electrodeposition by preventing Li+ depletion at Li surface, currently available materials do not allow room-temperature operation due to their low room temperature conductivities. In the paper, we report that a highly conductive ionomer/liquid electrolyte hybrid layer tightly laminated on Li metal electrode can realize stable Li electrodeposition at high current densities up to 10 mA cm−2 and permit room-temperature operation of corresponding Li metal batteries with low polarizations. The hybrid layer is fabricated by laminating few micron-thick Nafion layer on Li metal electrode followed by soaking 1 M LiPF6 EC/DEC (1/1) electrolyte. The Li/Li symmetric cell with the hybrid layer stably operates at a high current density of 10 mA cm−2 for more than 2000 h, which corresponds to more than five-fold enhancement compared with bare Li metal electrode. Also, the prototype Li/LiCoO2 battery with the hybrid layer offers cycling stability more than 350 cycles. These results demonstrate that the hybrid strategy successfully combines the advantages of bi-ionic liquid electrolyte (fast Li+ transport) and single ionic ionomer (prevention of Li+ depletion). PMID:26411701

  9. Ionomer-Liquid Electrolyte Hybrid Ionic Conductor for High Cycling Stability of Lithium Metal Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Song, Jongchan; Lee, Hongkyung; Choo, Min-Ju; Park, Jung-Ki; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2015-01-01

    The inhomogeneous Li electrodeposition of lithium metal electrode has been a major impediment to the realization of rechargeable lithium metal batteries. Although single ion conducting ionomers can induce more homogeneous Li electrodeposition by preventing Li(+) depletion at Li surface, currently available materials do not allow room-temperature operation due to their low room temperature conductivities. In the paper, we report that a highly conductive ionomer/liquid electrolyte hybrid layer tightly laminated on Li metal electrode can realize stable Li electrodeposition at high current densities up to 10 mA cm(-2) and permit room-temperature operation of corresponding Li metal batteries with low polarizations. The hybrid layer is fabricated by laminating few micron-thick Nafion layer on Li metal electrode followed by soaking 1 M LiPF6 EC/DEC (1/1) electrolyte. The Li/Li symmetric cell with the hybrid layer stably operates at a high current density of 10 mA cm(-2) for more than 2000 h, which corresponds to more than five-fold enhancement compared with bare Li metal electrode. Also, the prototype Li/LiCoO2 battery with the hybrid layer offers cycling stability more than 350 cycles. These results demonstrate that the hybrid strategy successfully combines the advantages of bi-ionic liquid electrolyte (fast Li(+) transport) and single ionic ionomer (prevention of Li(+) depletion). PMID:26411701

  10. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J.; Boysen, Dane A.; Bradwell, David J.; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2014-10-01

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this finding

  11. Experimental Characterization of Thermo-electric Driven Liquid Lithium Flow in Narrow Trenches for Magnetic Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenyu; Christenson, Michael; Fiflis, Peter; Curreli, Davide; Andruczyk, Daniel; Ruzic, David

    2013-10-01

    The application of liquid metal, especially liquid lithium has become an important topic for plasma facing component (PFC) design. A liquid PFC can effectively eliminate the erosion and thermal stress problems compared to the solid PFC while transferring heat and prolong the lifetime limit of the PFCs. A liquid lithium surface can also suppress the hydrogen isotopes recycling and getter the impurities in fusion reactors. The Lithium/metal infused trench (LiMIT) concept successfully proved that the thermoelectric effect can be utilized to drive liquid lithium flow within horizontally placed metallic open trenches in transverse magnetic field. A limiter based on this concept was tested in HT-7 and gave out positive results. However a broader application of this concept may require the trench be tilted or even placed vertically, for which strong capillary force caused by narrow trenches may be the solution. A new LiMIT design with very narrow trenches have been manufactured and tested in University of Illinois and related results will be presented. Based on this idea new limiters are designed for EAST and LTX and scheduled experiments on both devices will be discussed. This project is supported by DOE/ALPS contract: DEFG02- 99ER54515.

  12. Measurement of hydrogen solubility and desorption rate in V-4Cr-4Ti and liquid lithium-calcium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Erck, R.; Park, E.T.

    1997-04-01

    Hydrogen solubility in V-4Cr-4Ti and liquid lithium-calcium was measured at a hydrogen pressure of 9.09 x 10{sup {minus}4} torr at temperatures between 250 and 700{degrees}C. Hydrogen solubility in V-4Cr-4Ti and liquid lithium decreased with temperature. The measured desorption rate of hydrogen in V-4Cr-4Ti is a thermally activated process; the activation energy is 0.067 eV. Oxygen-charged V-4Cr-4Ti specimens were also investigated to determine the effect of oxygen impurity on hydrogen solubility and desorption in the alloy. Oxygen in V-4Cr-4Ti increases hydrogen solubility and desorption kinetics. To determine the effect of a calcium oxide insulator coating on V-4Cr-4Ti, hydrogen solubility in lithium-calcium alloys that contained 0-8.0 percent calcium was also measured. The distribution ratio R of hydrogen between liquid lithium or lithium-calcium and V-4Cr-4Ti increased as temperature decreased (R {approx} 10 and 100 at 700 and 250{degrees}C, respectively). However at <267{degrees}C, solubility data could not be obtained by this method because of the slow kinetics of hydrogen permeation through the vanadium alloy.

  13. Nanostructure of mixtures of protic ionic liquids and lithium salts: effect of alkyl chain length.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Carrete, Jesús; Rodríguez, Julio R; Cabeza, Óscar; Gallego, Luis J; Russina, Olga; Varela, Luis M

    2015-02-21

    The bulk structure of mixtures of two protic ionic liquids, propylammonium nitrate and butylammonium nitrate, with a salt with a common anion, is analyzed at room temperature by means of small angle X-ray scattering and classical molecular dynamics simulations. The study of several structural properties, such as density, radial distribution functions, spatial distribution functions, hydrogen bonds, coordination numbers and velocity autocorrelation functions, demonstrates that increasing the alkyl chain length of the alkylammonium cation results in more segregated, better defined polar and apolar domains, the latter having a larger size. This increase, ascribed to the erosion of the H-bond network in the ionic liquid polar regions as salt is added, is confirmed by means of small angle X-ray scattering measurements, which show a clear linear increase of the characteristic spatial sizes of the studied protic ionic liquids with salt concentration, similar to that previously reported for ethylammonium nitrate (J. Phys. Chem. B, 2014, 118, 761-770). In addition, larger ionic liquid cations lead to a lower degree of hydrogen bonding and to more sparsely packed three-dimensional structures, which are more easily perturbed by the addition of lithium salts. PMID:25609558

  14. Bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids as potential electrolytes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Shao, Nan; Bell, Jason R; Guo, Bingkun; Luo, Huimin; Jiang, Deen; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    A bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-2,3-trimethyleneimidazolium bis(tri fluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([ETMIm][TFSI]), and reference imidazolium compounds, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][TFSI]) and 1, 2-dimethyl-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([DMBIm][TFSI]), were synthesized and investigated as solvents for lithium ion batteries. Although the alkylation at the C-2 position of the imidazolium ring does not affect the thermal stability of the ionic liquids, with or without the presence of 0.5 molar lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), the stereochemical structure of the molecules has shown profound influences on the electrochemical properties of the corresponding ionic liquids. [ETMIm][TFSI] shows better reduction stability than do [EMIm][TFSI] and [DMBIm][TFSI], as confirmed by both linear sweep voltammery (LSV) and theoretical calculation. The Li||Li cell impedance of 0.5M LiTFSI/[ETMIm][TFSI] is stabilized, whereas that of 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] is still fluctuating after 20 hours, indicating a relatively stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed in the former. Furthermore, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[BTMIm][TFSI] exhibits reversible capacity of 250mAh g-1 and 70mAh g-1 at 25 C, which increases to 330 mAh g-1 and 250 mAh g-1 at 50 C, under the current rate of C/20 and C/10, respectively. For comparison, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] exhibits poor capacity retention under the same current rate at both temperatures.

  15. Laboratory experiments of uptake and release of hydrogen isotopes in liquid lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyarzabal, E.; Martin-Rojo, A. B.; Tabarés, F. L.

    2015-08-01

    Laboratory studies of hydrogen and deuterium retention/desorption and hydride formation in liquid lithium samples exposed to those gases at 200 °C and 400 °C are reported in the present work. Two distinct absorption phases with different kinetics are observed and discussed. The calculated absorption rate constants show a preferential absorption of D2 over H2 in clean lithium and a faster absorption of H2 for predeuterated samples. First dynamic experiments on Li samples preimplanted with H2 and D2 show no evidence of isotope exchange at least up to 500 °C. TDS of Li samples exposed to H/D and of Li/LiH powder mixtures present desorption peaks at ∼500 °C, well below the observed decomposition temperature for LiH powder and no precipitated LiH is detected after the complete evaporation of Li (∼700 °C). Also, preferential release of H2 retained in the solution with respect to the formation of LiH is deduced from the desorption spectra.

  16. Observation of electrodeposited lithium by optical microscope in room temperature ionic liquid-based electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, H.; Sakaebe, H.; Matsumoto, H.

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) were applied to a lithium (Li) metal battery system, and the behavior of Li electrodeposition on nickel electrodes in RTILs was investigated using in situ optical microscopy with/without an organic additive, vinylene carbonate (VC), in the RTILs. Two RTILs, PP13[TFSA] (N-methyl- N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide) and EMI[FSA] (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide), were chosen as the base electrolytes. Dendritic particles were obtained in the case of EMI[FSA] with and without VC, and PP13[TFSA] without VC, while non-dendritic fine particles were obtained in the case of PP13[TFSA] with VC.

  17. Liquid lithium target as a high intensity, high energy neutron source

    DOEpatents

    Parkin, Don M.; Dudey, Norman D.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a target jet for charged particles. In one embodiment the charged particles are high energy deuterons that bombard the target jet to produce high intensity, high energy neutrons. To this end, deuterons in a vacuum container bombard an endlessly circulating, free-falling, sheet-shaped, copiously flowing, liquid lithium jet that gushes by gravity from a rectangular cross-section vent on the inside of the container means to form a moving web in contact with the inside wall of the vacuum container. The neutrons are produced via break-up of the beam in the target by stripping, spallation and compound nuclear reactions in which the projectiles (deuterons) interact with the target (Li) to produce excited nuclei, which then "boil off" or evaporate a neutron.

  18. Safety Analysis of the US Dual Coolant Liquid Lead-Lithium ITER Test Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, Brad; Reyes, Susana; Sawan, Mohamed; Wong, Clement

    2006-07-01

    The US is proposing a prototype of a dual coolant liquid lead-lithium (DCLL) DEMO blanket concept for testing in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) as an ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM). Because safety considerations are an integral part of the design process to ensure that this TBM does not adversely impact the safety of ITER, a safety assessment has been conducted for this TBM and its ancillary systems as requested by the ITER project. Four events were selected by the ITER International Team (IT) to address specific reactor safety concerns, such as VV pressurization, confinement building pressure build-up, TBM decay heat removal capability, tritium and activation products release from the TBM system, and hydrogen and heat production from chemical reactions. This paper summarizes the results of this safety assessment conducted with the MELCOR computer code.

  19. Electrochemical co-deposition of magnesium with lithium from quaternary ammonium-based ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Osamu; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Matsumoto, Mami; Egashia, Minato; Morita, Masayuki

    Electrochemical deposition of magnesium (Mg) has been successfully achieved from an ionic liquid (IL) solution based on quaternary ammonium salt containing lithium (Li) salt. Irreversible electrochemical behavior was generally observed in the IL-based electrolytes containing simple Mg salt. In the IL-based electrolyte dissolving both Mg and Li salts, electrochemical reduction and oxidation of magnesium cation (Mg 2+) have become detectable. Such reversible processes correspond respectively to cathodic deposition and anodic dissolution of metallic Mg, which are accompanied by the co-deposition/co-dissolution of Li. Potentiostatic electrolysis of IL dissolving binary Mg and Li salts gave metallic deposit consisting of both elements with total current efficiency of ca. 52%.

  20. Liquid-lithium cooling for 100-kW ISOL and fragmentation targets.

    SciTech Connect

    Nolen, J. A.; Reed, C. B.,Hassanein, A.,Gomes, I. C.

    2000-11-10

    Advanced exotic beam facilities that are currently being developed will use powerful driver accelerator for the production of short-lived rare isotopes. Multi-beam-drivers capable of producing high power beams from very light to very heavy ions are now technically feasible. A challenge for such facilities is the development of production targets to be used for a variety of reaction mechanisms with beam powers of about 100 kilowatts. This paper presents engineering concepts that have been developed recently for using liquid lithium coolant for two types of targets, one for use with light-ion beams on high atomic number (Z) targets and the other for heavy-ion beams on low-Z targets.

  1. Lithium-sulphur battery with activated carbon cloth-sulphur cathode and ionic liquid as electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiderska-Mocek, Agnieszka; Rudnicka, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    In this study a binder-free activated carbon cloth-sulphur (ACC-S) composite cathode is presented. Such a cathode was obtained using the impregnating technique of microporous activated carbon cloth with elemental melted sulphur. The surface morphology of an activated carbon cloth-sulphur electrode was studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), which was equipped with an EDX spectroscopy attachment. Electrochemical properties of the ACC-S composite cathode was tested in an ionic liquid electrolyte consisting of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl)imide (EtMeImNTf2) and bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl)imide (LiNTf2). The ACC-sulphur cathode working together with lithium anode was tested with the use of cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The capacity and cyclic stability of the ACC-S composite cathode were much better than those for the sulphur cathode (a mixture of sulphur from graphene nanoplatelets and carbon black) tested in the same ionic liquid electrolyte. The ACC-sulphur cathode showed good cyclability and coulombic efficiency (99%) with the ionic liquid electrolyte. The reversible capacity of the ACC-S|electrolyte|Li cell was ca. 830 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles.

  2. Lithium-Ion-Conducting Electrolytes: From an Ionic Liquid to the Polymer Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Fernicola, A.; Weise, F. C.; Greenbaum, S. G.; Kagimoto, J.; Scrosati, B.; Soleto, A.

    2009-01-01

    This work concerns the design, the synthesis, and the characterization of the N-butyl-N-ethylpiperidinium N,N-bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (PP24TFSI) ionic liquid (IL). To impart Li-ion transport, a suitable amount of lithium N,N-bis-(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI) is added to the IL. The Li–IL mixture displays ionic conductivity values on the order of 10−4 S cm−1 and an electrochemical stability window in the range of 1.8–4.5 V vs Li+/Li. The voltammetric analysis demonstrates that the cathodic decomposition gives rise to a passivating layer on the surface of the working electrode, which kinetically extends the stability of the Li/IL interface as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The LiTFSI–PP24TFSI mixture is incorporated in a poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) matrix to form various electrolyte membranes with different LiTFSI–PP24TFSI contents. The ionic conductivity of all the membranes resembles that of the LiTFSI–IL mixture, suggesting an ionic transport mechanism similar to that of the liquid component. NMR measurements demonstrate a reduction in the mobility of all ions following the addition of LiTFSI to the PP24TFSI IL and when incorporating the mixture into the membrane. Finally, an unexpected but potentially significant enhancement in Li transference number is observed in passing from the liquid to the membrane electrolyte system. PMID:20354582

  3. Three-dimensional modeling of the thermoelectric MHD problem of the LIMIT liquid lithium divertor for fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curreli, Davide; Xu, Wenyu; Lindquist, Kyle; Andruczyk, Daniel; Ruzic, David N.

    2012-10-01

    Flowing liquid lithium is a promising technique for the continuous heat removal from plasma-facing components in fusion devices. In ITER-like conditions, the divertor has to handle stationary fluxes of the order 10 MW/m^2; heat fluxes even bigger occur during H-mode-related instabilities and disruptions. The Lithium-Metal Infused Trenches (LIMIT) concept, proposed at University of Illinois, offers a viable and self-adaptive solution, thanks to the use of a thermoelectric MHD drive of liquid lithium inside elongated metal trenches. We present a 3D finite-element-based model for the solution of the TEMHD. The continuity of mass, momentum, energy and current are solved together with the generalized constitutive laws of thermoelectricity. The numerical results show that TE currents are generated at the interface between the two metals; under the action of the toroidal magnetic field, the resulting JxB force pushes the liquid lithium along the channels. The force acts mainly at the interface, where the Hartmann and the fluid boundary layers are present, developing early turbulence and fluid bi-shaped macrostructures on the velocity field. The stability of the method is discussed, together with further developments toward turbulent average of the convective noise.

  4. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J; Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R

    2014-10-16

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this

  5. Gas-Liquid Separation Strategies in Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Reiss, Donald A.; Lehman, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Bubble entrainment in liquids represents a serious problem in the microgravity environment. Whenever bubbles are entrained in a liquid,they tend to remain stationary in the liquid bulk in the absence of any external forcing. This is due to the reduction or complete absence of the buoyancy force in the microgravity environment, Thus the buoyancy force can not the be exploited to place the bubbles at the top of the liquid volume as in Ig(sub o) conditions. This situation represents a serious drawback in many space based engineering and scientific applications. We have demonstrated in a series of low gravity experiments conducted during parabolic flight on board aircraft that bubbles can be controlled in such a manner as to increase,the probability of their expulsion from a liquid bulk. In these tests the liquid'bulk was made either to be contained within, or to flow through specially designed containers using capillary force alone. Such containers appear to facilitate bubble removal, from the liquid bulk. Different successful liquid flow configurations will be discussed and the efficacy of the resulting bubble expulsion mechanisms will be demonstrated.

  6. Effect of lithium salts addition on the ionic liquid based extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Sha-Sha; Jie-Xing; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an ionic liquids (ILs) based extraction approach has been successfully applied to the extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos, and the effect of lithium chloride was also investigated. The results indicated that the oil yields can be increased by the ILs, and the extraction time can be reduced significantly (from 4h to 2h), compared with the conventional water distillation. The addition of lithium chloride showed different effect according to the structures of ILs, and the oil yields may be related with the structure of cation, while the chemical compositions of essential oil may be related with the anion. The reduction of extraction time and remarkable higher efficiency (5.41-62.17% improved) by combination of lithium salt and proper ILs supports the suitability of the proposed approach. PMID:25459951

  7. Utilization of Low Gravity Environment for Measuring Liquid Viscosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The method of drop coalescence is used for determining the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids. Low gravity environment is necessary in order to allow for examining large volumes affording much higher accuracy for the viscosity calculations than possible for smaller volumes available under 1 - g conditions. The drop coalescence method is preferred over the drop oscillation technique since the latter method can only be applied for liquids with vanishingly small viscosities. The technique developed relies on both the highly accurate solution of the Navier-Stokes equations as well as on data from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment. Results are presented for method validation experiments recently performed on board the NASA/KC-135 aircraft. While the numerical solution was produced using the Boundary Element Method. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, glycerine at room temperature, was determined using the liquid coalescence method. The results from these experiments will be discussed.

  8. Liquid Lithium Divertor and Scrape-Off-Layer Interactions on the National Spherical Torus Experiment: 2010 ? 2013 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-27

    The implementation of the liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) in NSTX presented a unique opportunity in plasma-material interactions studies. A high density Langmuir Probe (HDLP) array utilizing a dense pack of triple Langmuir probes was built at PPPL and the electronics designed and built by UIUC. It was shown that the HDLP array could be used to characterize the modification of the EEDF during lithium experiments on NSTX as well as characterize the transient particle loads during lithium experiments as a means to study ELMs. With NSTX being upgraded and a new divertor being installed, the HDLP array will not be used in NSTX-U. However UIUC is currently helping to develop two new systems for depositing lithium into NSTX-U, a Liquid Lithium Pellet Dripper (LLPD) for use with the granular injector for ELM mitigation and control studies as well as an Upward-Facing Lithium Evaporator (U-LITER) based on a flash evaporation system using an electron beam. Currently UIUC has Daniel Andruczyk Stationed at PPPL and is developing these systems as well as being involved in preparing the Materials Analysis Particle Probe (MAPP) for use in LTX and NSTX-U. To date the MAPP preparations have been completed. New sample holders were designed by UIUC?s Research Engineer at PPPL and manufactured at PPPL and installed. MAPP is currently being used on LTX to do calibration and initial studies. The LLPD has demonstrated that it can produce pellets. There is still some adjustments needed to control the frequency and particle size. Equipment for the U-LITER has arrived and initial test are being made of the electron beam and design of the U-LITER in progress. It is expected to have these ready for the first run campaign of NSTX-U.

  9. Stable silicon-ionic liquid interface for next-generation lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, Daniela Molina; Evans, Tyler; Leung, Kevin; Watkins, Tylan; Olson, Jarred; Kim, Seul Cham; Han, Sang Sub; Bhat, Vinay; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Buttry, Daniel A.; Lee, Se-Hee

    2015-02-01

    We are currently in the midst of a race to discover and develop new battery materials capable of providing high energy-density at low cost. By combining a high-performance Si electrode architecture with a room temperature ionic liquid electrolyte, here we demonstrate a highly energy-dense lithium-ion cell with an impressively long cycling life, maintaining over 75% capacity after 500 cycles. Such high performance is enabled by a stable half-cell coulombic efficiency of 99.97%, averaged over the first 200 cycles. Equally as significant, our detailed characterization elucidates the previously convoluted mechanisms of the solid-electrolyte interphase on Si electrodes. We provide a theoretical simulation to model the interface and microstructural-compositional analyses that confirm our theoretical predictions and allow us to visualize the precise location and constitution of various interfacial components. This work provides new science related to the interfacial stability of Si-based materials while granting positive exposure to ionic liquid electrochemistry.

  10. Controlled environment vitrification system for preparation of liquids

    DOEpatents

    Bellare, J.R.; Davis, H.T.; Scriven, L.E. II; Talmon, Y.

    1988-06-28

    A system is described for preparing specimens in a controlled environment to insure that a liquid or partially liquid specimen is maintained in its original state while it is being prepared, and once prepared the specimen is vitrified or solidified with minimal alteration of its microstructure. The controlled environment is provided within a chamber where humidity and temperature can be controlled precisely while the specimen is prepared. The specimen is mounted on a plunger and a shutter controlled opening is opened substantially simultaneously with release of the plunger so the specimen is propelled through the shutter into an adjacent cryogenic bath. 7 figs.

  11. Controlled environment vitrification system for preparation of liquids

    DOEpatents

    Bellare, Jayesh R.; Davis, Howard T.; Scriven, II, L. Edward; Talmon, Yeshayahu

    1988-01-01

    A system for preparing specimens in a controlled environment to insure that a liquid or partially liquid specimen is maintained in its original state while it is being prepared, and once prepared the specimen is vitrified or solidified with minimal alteration of its microstructure. The controlled environment is provided within a chamber where humidity and temperature can be controlled precisely while the specimen is prepared. The specimen is mounted on a plunger and a shutter controlled opening is opened substantially simultaneously with release of the plunger so the specimen is propelled through the shutter into an adjacent cryogenic bath.

  12. Failure Mechanism of Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries in Liquid Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Lozano, Terence J.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Polzin, Bryant; Zhang, Jiguang; Engelhard, Mark H.; Saenz, Natalio T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, lithium anode has re-attracted broad interest because of the necessity of employing lithium metal in the next-generation battery technologies such as lithium sulfur (Li-S) and lithium oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. Fast capacity degradation and safety issue associated with rechargeable lithium metal batteries have been reported, although the fundamental understanding on the failure mechanism of lithium metal at high charge rate is still under debate due to the complicated interfacial chemistry between lithium metal and electrolyte. Herein, we demonstrate that, at high current density, the quick growth of porous solid electrolyte interphase towards bulk lithium, instead of towards the separator, dramatically builds up the cell impedance that directly leads to the cell failure. Understanding the lithium metal failure mechanism is very critical to gauge the various approaches used to address the stability and safety issues associated with lithium metal anode. Otherwise, all cells will fail quickly at high rates before the observation of any positive effects that might be brought from adopting the new strategies to protect lithium.

  13. Mesoporous silica/ionic liquid quasi-solid-state electrolytes and their application in lithium metal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhengxi; Yin, Kun; Yang, Li; Tachibana, Kazuhiro; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the ordered mesoporous silica, SBA-15, is chosen as the matrix for the first time to prepare quasi-solid-state electrolytes (QSSEs) with an ionic liquid, LiTFSI salt and PVdF-HFP. The as-obtained QSSEs are evaluated by electrochemical methods. Lithium metal batteries containing these QSSEs exhibit high discharge capacity and good cycle performance at room temperature, indicating successful battery operation.

  14. Mobile Robot for Exploring Cold Liquid/Solid Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergh, Charles; Zimmerman, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    The Planetary Autonomous Amphibious Robotic Vehicle (PAARV), now at the prototype stage of development, was originally intended for use in acquiring and analyzing samples of solid, liquid, and gaseous materials in cold environments on the shores and surfaces, and at shallow depths below the surfaces, of lakes and oceans on remote planets. The PAARV also could be adapted for use on Earth in similar exploration of cold environments in and near Arctic and Antarctic oceans and glacial and sub-glacial lakes.

  15. Recent progress in the NSTX/NSTX-U lithium programme and prospects for reactor-relevant liquid-lithium based divertor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, M.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; Ahn, J.-W.; Allain, J. P.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Clayton, D. J.; Canik, J. M.; Ding, S.; Gerhardt, S.; Gray, T. K.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hirooka, Y.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; Kumar, D.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; McLean, A.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nygren, R.; Paul, S.; Podesta, M.; Raman, R.; Ren, Y.; Sabbagh, S.; Scotti, F.; Skinner, C. H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Surla, V.; Taylor, C. N.; Timberlake, J.; Zakharov, L. E.; the NSTX Research Team

    2013-11-01

    Developing a reactor-compatible divertor has been identified as a particularly challenging technology problem for magnetic confinement fusion. Application of lithium (Li) in NSTX resulted in improved H-mode confinement, H-mode power threshold reduction, and other plasma performance benefits. During the 2010 NSTX campaign, application of a relatively modest amount of Li (300 mg prior to the discharge) resulted in a ˜50% reduction in heat load on the liquid lithium divertor (LLD) attributable to enhanced divertor bolometric radiation. These promising Li results in NSTX and related modelling calculations motivated the radiative LLD concept proposed here. Li is evaporated from the liquid lithium (LL) coated divertor strike-point surface due to the intense heat flux. The evaporated Li is readily ionized by the plasma due to its low ionization energy, and the poor Li particle confinement near the divertor plate enables ionized Li ions to radiate strongly, resulting in a significant reduction in the divertor heat flux. This radiative process has the desired effect of spreading the localized divertor heat load to the rest of the divertor chamber wall surfaces, facilitating the divertor heat removal. The LL coating of divertor surfaces can also provide a ‘sacrificial’ protective layer to protect the substrate solid material from transient high heat flux such as the ones caused by the edge localized modes. By operating at lower temperature than the first wall, the LL covered large divertor chamber wall surfaces can serve as an effective particle pump for the entire reactor chamber, as impurities generally migrate towards lower temperature LL divertor surfaces. To maintain the LL purity, a closed LL loop system with a modest circulating capacity (e.g., ˜1 l s-1 for ˜1% level ‘impurities’) is envisioned for a steady-state 1 GW-electric class fusion power plant.

  16. CaO insulator coatings on a vanadium-base alloy in liquid 2 at.% calcium-lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Kassner, T.F.

    1996-10-01

    The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V-4%Cr-4%Ti and V-15%Cr-5%Ti by exposure of the alloy (round bottom samples 6-in. long by 0.25-in. dia.) to liquid lithium that contained 2 at.% dissolved calcium was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 300-464{degrees}C. The solute element, calcium in liquid lithium, reacted with the alloy substrate at these temperatures for 17 h to produce a calcium coating {approx}7-8 {mu}m thick. The calcium-coated vanadium alloy was oxidized to form a CaO coating. Resistance of the coating layer on V-15Cr-5Ti, measured in-situ in liquid lithium that contained 2 at.% calcium, was 1.0 x 10{sup 10} {Omega}-cm{sup 2} at 300{degrees}C and 400 h, and 0.9 x 10{sup 10} {Omega}-cm{sup 2} at 464{degrees}C and 300 h. Thermal cycling between 300 and 464{degrees}C changed the resistance of the coating layer, which followed insulator behavior. Examination of the specimen after cooling to room temperature revealed no cracks in the CaO coating. The coatings were evaluated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray analysis. Adhesion between CaO and vanadium alloys was enhanced as exposure time increased.

  17. Recent Progress in the NSTX/NSTX-U Lithium Program and Prospects for Reactor-Relevant Liquid-Lithium Based Divertor Development

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ono, et al.

    2012-10-27

    Developing a reactor compatible divertor has been identified as a particularly challenging technology problem for magnetic confinement fusion. While tungsten has been identified as the most attractive solid divertor material, the NSTX/NSTX-U lithium (Li) program is investigating the viability of liquid lithium (LL) as a potential reactor compatible divertor plasma facing component (PFC) . In the near term, operation in NSTX-U is projected to provide reactor-like divertor heat loads < 40 MW/m^2 for 5 s. During the most recent NSTX campaign, ~ 0.85 kg of Li was evaporated onto the NSTX PFCs where a ~50% reduction in heat load on the Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) was observed, attributable to enhanced divertor bolometric radiation. This reduced divertor heat flux through radiation observed in the NSTX LLD experiment is consistent with the results from other lithium experiments and calculations. These results motivate an LL-based closed radiative divertor concept proposed here for NSTX-U and fusion reactors. With an LL coating, the Li is evaporated from the divertor strike point surface due to the intense heat. The evaporated Li is readily ionized by the plasma due to its low ionization energies, and the ionized Li ions can radiate strongly, resulting in a significant reduction in the divertor heat flux. Due to the rapid plasma transport in divertor plasma, the radiation values can be significantly enhanced up to ~ 11 MJ/cc of LL. This radiative process has the desired function of spreading the focused divertor heat load to the entire divertor chamber facilitating the divertor heat removal. The LL divertor surface can also provide a "sacrificial" surface to protect the substrate solid material from transient high heat flux such as the ones caused by the ELMs. The closed radiative LLD concept has the advantages of providing some degree of partition in terms of plasma disruption forces on the LL, Li particle divertor retention, and strong divertor pumping action from the

  18. Lithium-sulfur batteries based on nitrogen-doped carbon and ionic liquid electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Xiqing; Mayes, Richard T; Dai, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (NC) and sulfur were used to prepare an NC/S composite cathode, which was evaluated in an ionic liquid electrolyte of 0.5 M lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (MPPY.TFSI) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cycle testing. To facilitate the comparison, a C/S composite based on activated carbon (AC) without nitrogen doping was also fabricated under the same conditions as those for the NC/S composite. Compared with the AC/S composite, the NC/S composite showed enhanced activity toward sulfur reduction, as evidenced by the early onset sulfur reduction potential, higher redox current density in the CV test, and faster charge transfer kinetics as indicated by EIS measurement. At room temperature under a current density of 84 mA g-1 (C/20), the battery based on the NC/S composite exhibited higher discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1420 mAh g-1 whereas that based on the AC/S composite showed lower discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1120 mAh g-1. Both batteries showed similar capacity fading with cycling due to the intrinsic polysulfide solubility and the polysulfide shuttle mechanism; the capacity fading can be improved by further modification of the cathode.

  19. Two-Dimensional Optical Measurement of Waves on Liquid Lithium Jet Simulating IFMIF Target Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kazuhiro Itoh; Hiroyuki Koterazawa; Taro Itoh; Yutaka Kukita; Hiroo Kondo; Nobuo Yamaoka; Hiroshi Horiike; Mizuho Ida; Hideo Nakamura; Hiroo Nakamura; Takeo Muroga

    2006-07-01

    Waves on a liquid-lithium jet flow, simulating a proposed high-energy beam target design, have been measured using an optical technique based on specular reflection of a single laser beam on the jet surface. The stream-wise and spanwise fluctuations of the local free-surface slope were least-square fitted with a sinusoidal curve to makeup the signals lost due to the constriction in the optical arrangement. The waveform was estimated with an assumption that wave phase speed can be calculated using the dispersion relation for linear capillary-gravity waves. The direction of propagation on the jet surface was also evaluated so that the wave amplitudes, calculated by integral of slope angle signal, agree consistently in stream-wise and spanwise direction. These measurements and analyses show that the waves at the measurement location for a jet velocity of 1.2 m/s can best be represented by oblique waves with an inclination of 1.23 rad, a wavelength of 3.8 mm and a wave amplitude of about 0.05 mm. (authors)

  20. How does lithium oxalyldifluoroborate enable the compatibility of ionic liquids and carbon-based capacitors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Renjie; Chen, Yan; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Rong; He, Zhouying; Wu, Feng; Li, Li

    2015-02-01

    Lithium oxalyldifluoroborate (LiODFB) has several unique characteristics, such as high ionic conductivity over a wide temperature range and the ability to form and stabilize solid electrolyte interface films on graphite surfaces. A series of binary, room-temperature, molten electrolytes composed of LiODFB and organic compounds with acylamino groups (acetamide, oxazolidinone or OZO) have been synthesized. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicates that Cdbnd O and N-H functional groups undergo blue or red shifts upon addition of LiODFB. The electrolytes have excellent thermal stabilities and electrochemical characteristics that allow them to be promising electrolytes for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Here, we examine 1:5 molar ratio LiODFB and acetamide/OZO ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes in EDLCs. IL compatibility with two types of carbon-based electrodes is investigated theoretically and experimentally. We simulate possible structures and ion diameters for the ILs, which must be compatible with pore sizes of the carbon electrodes. Mesoporous activated carbon AC2, with a pore size similar to the ionic diameter of LiODFB-acetamide, has a specific capacitance of 154.2 Fg-1 at 20 m Ag-1. Additionally, typical capacitive and reversibility behaviors can be seen in the charge-discharge curves over 0-2 V. Finally, the EDLCs exhibit good charging/discharging performances.

  1. Fractionalization beyond Luttinger Liquid in the spectroscopy of Lithium Purple Bronze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natalia, Lera; Jose, Alvarez

    We offer an interpretation for the departures of ARPES and STS spectroscopies experiments in quasi-one-dimensional Lithium Purple Bronze (LiPB) from single-band Luttinger Liquid (LL) theory. We base our calculation on a phenomenological description of the published data proposed in the original experiments and consider two bands crossing the Fermi level. We discuss the breakdown of the LL scaling relation η = α - 1 , the separation of the spinon edge and the holon peak, the phenomenological TL fit to the Energy Distribution Curves (EDC) and the survival of power-like density of states down to 4K. We consider non-critical fluctuations in one of the separated modes in which the electron fractionalize, and discuss under which conditions could be related with the upturn in the resistivity at 20-30K. We discuss the possibility of a gap in such separated mode and its role on the robust one-dimensional behavior. The connection with the proposed triplet superconductivity is at T = 1 . 4 K is also studied. We acknowledge financial support from MINECO FIS2012-37549-C05-03.

  2. Lithium-sulfur batteries based on nitrogen-doped carbon and an ionic-liquid electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Xiqing; Mayes, Richard T; Dai, Sheng

    2012-10-01

    Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (NC) and sulfur were used to prepare an NC/S composite cathode, which was evaluated in an ionic-liquid electrolyte of 0.5 M lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([MPPY][TFSI]) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cycle testing. To facilitate the comparison, a C/S composite based on activated carbon (AC) without nitrogen doping was also fabricated under the same conditions. Compared with the AC/S composite, the NC/S composite showed enhanced activity toward sulfur reduction, as evidenced by the lower onset sulfur reduction potential, higher redox current density in the CV test, and faster charge-transfer kinetics, as indicated by EIS measurements. At room temperature under a current density of 84 mA g(-1) (C/20), the battery based on the NC/S composite exhibited a higher discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1420 mAh g(-1), whereas the battery based on the AC/S composite showed a lower discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1120 mAh g(-1). Both batteries showed similar capacity fading with cycling due to the intrinsic polysulfide solubility and the polysulfide shuttle mechanism; capacity fading can be improved by further cathode modification. PMID:22847977

  3. Ether and siloxane functionalized ionic liquids and their mixtures as electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Santosh N; Tiwari, Aarti; Nagaiah, Tharamani C; Mandal, Debaprasad

    2016-06-28

    The present study deals with an investigation of two novel imidazolium ionic liquids bearing ether-ether (1O2O2-Im-2O1) or ether-siloxane (1O2O2-Im-1SiOSi) functionalities with TFSI anion and their mixtures with propylene carbonate as electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. The electrochemical stability and conductivity of these novel ILs were analyzed by electrochemical studies, such as cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and impedance measurements. The applicability of these ILs as electrolytes in Li-ion batteries was studied in the presence of a high concentration of LiTFSI (1 mol kg(-1) electrolyte) and the ether-ether IL was shown to possess a high electrochemical stability window (ESW) of 5.9 V and good conductivity of 2.2 mS cm(-1). The electrochemical stability and conductivity were further complimented by self-diffusion of different ions using pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) NMR, viscosity and thermal properties like TGA and DSC analysis. More importantly, we explored the effect of temperature on the electrochemical stability and conductivity of these ILs by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. PMID:27004982

  4. Study on hydrogen isotopes permeation in fluidized state of liquid lithium-lead

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, S.; Yoshimura, R.; Okada, M.; Fukada, S.; Edao, Y.

    2015-03-15

    Lithium-lead (Li-Pb) is one of the most promising candidate materials for the liquid blanket of fusion reactors. Hydrogen transfer under a fluidized condition of Li-Pb is investigated experimentally to design a Li-Pb blanket system. Li-Pb eutectic alloy flows inside a Ni tube in the experimental system, where H{sub 2} permeates into and out of the forced Li-Pb flow. The overall H{sub 2} permeation rate is analyzed using a mass balance model. Hydrogen atoms diffuse in Ni and Li-Pb. The steady-state H{sub 2} permeation rate obtained by this experiment is smaller than the result of the calculation model. A resistance factor is introduced to the present analysis in order to evaluate the influence of other H{sub 2} transfer mechanisms, such as diffusion in Li-Pb and dissolution reaction between Ni and Li-Pb. The contribution of the resistance to the overall H{sub 2} permeation rate becomes large when the flow rate of Li-Pb is low. This is because the boundary layer thickness between Ni and Li-Pb affects the overall H{sub 2} permeation rate. When the flow velocity of Li-Pb increases, the thickness of the boundary layer becomes thin, and the driving force of H{sub 2} permeation through the Ni wall becomes bigger. (authors)

  5. Liquid propellant reorientation in a low-gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, I. E.

    1978-01-01

    An existing empirical analysis relating to the reorientation of liquids in cylindrical tanks due to propulsive settling in a low gravity environment was extended to include the effects of geyser formation in the Weber number range from 4 to 10. Estimates of the minimum velocity increment required to be imposed on the propellant tank to achieve liquid reorientation were made. The resulting Bond numbers, based on tank radius, were found to be in the range from 3 to 5, depending upon the initial liquid fill level, with higher Bond number required for high initial fill levels. The resulting Weber numbers, based on tank radius and the velocity of the liquid leading edge, were calculated to be in the range from 6.5 to 8.5 for cylindrical tanks having a fineness ratio of 2.0, with Weber numbers of somewhat greater values for longer cylindrical tanks. It, therefore, appeared to be advantageous to allow small geysers to form and then dissipate into the surface of the collected liquid in order to achieve the minimum velocity increment. The Bond numbers which defined the separation between regions in which geyser formation did and did not occur due to propulsive settling in a spherical tank configuration ranged from 2 to 9 depending upon the liquid fill level.

  6. The Effects of Temperature and Oxidation on Deuterium Retention in Solid and Liquid Lithium Films on Molybdenum Plasma-Facing Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capece, Angela

    2014-10-01

    Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) enable in-situ renewal of the surface, thereby offering a solution to neutron damage, erosion, and thermal fatigue experienced by solid PFCs. Lithium in particular has a high chemical affinity for hydrogen, which has resulted in reduced recycling and enhanced plasma performance on many fusion devices including TFTR, T11-M, FTU, CDX-U, LTX, TJ-II, and NSTX. A key component to the improvement in plasma performance is deuterium retention in Li; however, this process is not well understood in the complex tokamak environment. Recent surface science experiments conducted at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory have used electron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption to understand the mechanisms for D retention in Li coatings on Mo substrates. The experiments were designed to give monolayer-control of Li films and were conducted in ultrahigh vacuum under controlled environments. An electron cyclotron resonance plasma source was used to deliver a beam of deuterium ions to the surface over a range of ion energies. Our work shows that D is retained as LiD in metallic Li films. However, when oxygen is present in the film, either by diffusion from the subsurface at high temperature or as a contaminant during the deposition process, Li oxides are formed that retain D as LiOD. Experiments indicate that LiD is more thermally stable than LiOD, which decomposes to liberate D2 gas and D2O at temperatures 100 K lower than the LiD decomposition temperature. Other experiments show how D retention varies with substrate temperature to provide insight into the differences between solid and liquid lithium films. This work was supported by DOE Contract No. DE AC02-09CH11466.

  7. Electron Solvation in Liquid Ammonia: Lithium, Sodium, Magnesium, and Calcium as Electron Sources.

    PubMed

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2016-03-10

    A free electron in solution, known as a solvated electron, is the smallest possible anion. Alkali and alkaline earth atoms serve as electron donors in solvents that mediate outer-sphere electron transfer. We report herein ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of lithium, sodium, magnesium, and calcium in liquid ammonia at 250 K. By analyzing the electronic properties and the ionic and solvation structures and dynamics, we systematically characterize these metals as electron donors and ammonia molecules as electron acceptors. We show that the solvated metal strongly modifies the properties of its solvation shells and that the observed effect is metal-specific. Specifically, the radius and charge exhibit major impacts. The single solvated electron present in the alkali metal systems is distributed more uniformly among the solvent molecules of each metal's two solvation shells. In contrast, alkaline earth metals favor a less uniform distribution of the electron density. Alkali and alkaline earth atoms are coordinated by four and six NH3 molecules, respectively. The smaller atoms, Li and Mg, are stronger electron donors than Na and Ca. This result is surprising, as smaller atoms in a column of the periodic table have higher ionization potentials. However, it can be explained by stronger electron donor-acceptor interactions between the smaller atoms and the solvent molecules. The structure of the first solvation shell is sharpest for Mg, which has a large charge and a small radius. Solvation is weakest for Na, which has a small charge and a large radius. Weak solvation leads to rapid dynamics, as reflected in the diffusion coefficients of NH3 molecules of the first two solvation shells and the Na atom. The properties of the solvated electrons established in the present study are important for radiation chemistry, synthetic chemistry, condensed-matter charge transfer, and energy sources. PMID:26886153

  8. Lithium purification technique

    DOEpatents

    Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

    1984-01-10

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  9. Lithium purification technique

    DOEpatents

    Keough, Robert F.; Meadows, George E.

    1985-01-01

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  10. Effect of hydrophobic environments on the hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point of water.

    PubMed

    Strekalova, Elena G; Corradini, Dario; Mazza, Marco G; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Gallo, Paola; Franzese, Giancarlo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The complex behavior of liquid water, along with its anomalies and their crucial role in the existence of life, continue to attract the attention of researchers. The anomalous behavior of water is more pronounced at subfreezing temperatures and numerous theoretical and experimental studies are directed towards developing a coherent thermodynamic and dynamic framework for understanding supercooled water. The existence of a liquid-liquid critical point in the deep supercooled region has been related to the anomalous behavior of water. However, the experimental study of supercooled water at very low temperatures is hampered by the homogeneous nucleation of the crystal. Recently, water confined in nanoscopic structures or in solutions has attracted interest because nucleation can be delayed. These systems have a tremendous relevance also for current biological advances; e.g., supercooled water is often confined in cell membranes and acts as a solvent for biological molecules. In particular, considerable attention has been recently devoted to understanding hydrophobic interactions or the behavior of water in the presence of apolar interfaces due to their fundamental role in self-assembly of micelles, membrane formation and protein folding. This article reviews and compares two very recent computational works aimed at elucidating the changes in the thermodynamic behavior in the supercooled region and the liquid-liquid critical point phenomenon for water in contact with hydrophobic environments. The results are also compared to previous reports for water in hydrophobic environments. PMID:23277673

  11. Liquid-phase plasma synthesis of silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix for lithium battery anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ying; Yu, Hang; Li, Haitao; Ming, Hai; Pan, Keming; Huang, Hui; Liu, Yang; Kang, Zhenhui

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) were fabricated. • SiQDs/C exhibits excellent battery performance as anode materials with high specific capacity. • The good performance was attributed to the marriage of small sized SiQDs and carbon. - Abstract: Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) nanocomposites were prepared by a novel liquid-phase plasma assisted synthetic process. The SiQDs/C nanocomposites were demonstrated to show high specific capacity, good cycling life and high coulmbic efficiency as anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

  12. A Long-Life Lithium Ion Battery with Enhanced Electrode/Electrolyte Interface by Using an Ionic Liquid Solution.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Ulissi, Ulderico; Mueller, Franziska; Reiter, Jakub; Tsiouvaras, Nikolaos; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2016-05-10

    In this paper, we report an advanced long-life lithium ion battery, employing a Pyr14 TFSI-LiTFSI non-flammable ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte, a nanostructured tin carbon (Sn-C) nanocomposite anode, and a layered LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 (NMC) cathode. The IL-based electrolyte is characterized in terms of conductivity and viscosity at various temperatures, revealing a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) trend. Lithium half-cells employing the Sn-C anode and NMC cathode in the Pyr14 TFSI-LiTFSI electrolyte are investigated by galvanostatic cycling at various temperatures, demonstrating the full compatibility of the electrolyte with the selected electrode materials. The NMC and Sn-C electrodes are combined into a cathode-limited full cell, which is subjected to prolonged cycling at 40 °C, revealing a very stable capacity of about 140 mAh g(-1) and retention above 99 % over 400 cycles. The electrode/electrolyte interface is further characterized through a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations upon cell cycling. The remarkable performances reported here definitively indicate that IL-based lithium ion cells are suitable batteries for application in electric vehicles. PMID:26990320

  13. Composite seals for liquid hydrogen and nuclear radiation environments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Auken, R. L.; Chase, V. A.

    1971-01-01

    Description of plastic composite seals for service in a liquid-hydrogen and nuclear-radiation environment. The radiation-resistant aromatic heterocyclic class of polymers, including polyimide, polybenzimidazole, and polyquinoxaline, were evaluated for this application. The seal developed is based on a design involving a resin-starved laminate consisting of alternating layers of woven glass fabric and polymer film. This design imparts a mechanical spring characteristic to the seal, resulting in essentially complete elastic recovery when unloaded, and eliminates cold flow. Encapsulating techniques employing the polyquinoxaline polymer were developed which rendered the seal impervious to liquid hydrogen. The seals were tested before and after gamma irradiation up to 10 to the 10th ergs/g. Load/deflection and leakage tests were performed over a temperature range from -423 through +500 F.

  14. A membrane-free lithium/polysulfide semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yuan; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale energy storage represents a key challenge for renewable energy and new systems with low cost, high energy density and long cycle life are desired. In this article, we develop a new lithium/polysulfide (Li/PS) semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage, with lithium polysulfide (Li{sub 2}S{sub 8}) in ether solvent as a catholyte and metallic lithium as an anode. Unlike previous work on Li/S batteries with discharge products such as solid state Li{sub 2}S{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}S, the catholyte is designed to cycle only in the range between sulfur and Li{sub 2}S{sub 4}. Consequently all detrimental effects due to the formation and volume expansion of solid Li{sub 2}S{sub 2}/Li{sub 2}S are avoided. This novel strategy results in excellent cycle life and compatibility with flow battery design. The proof-of-concept Li/PS battery could reach a high energy density of 170 W h kg{sup -1} and 190 W h L{sup -1} for large scale storage at the solubility limit, while keeping the advantages of hybrid flow batteries. We demonstrated that, with a 5 M Li{sub 2}S{sub 8} catholyte, energy densities of 97 W h kg{sup -1} and 108 W h L{sup -1} can be achieved. As the lithium surface is well passivated by LiNO{sub 3} additive in ether solvent, internal shuttle effect is largely eliminated and thus excellent performance over 2000 cycles is achieved with a constant capacity of 200 mA h g{sup -1}. This new system can operate without the expensive ion-selective membrane, and it is attractive for large-scale energy storage.

  15. Determination of ginsenoside compound K in human plasma by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry of lithium adducts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunhui; Lu, Youming; Yang, Yong; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Liang; Zhong, Dafang

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside compound K (GCK), the main metabolite of protopanaxadiol constituents of Panax ginseng, easily produces alkali metal adduct ions during mass spectrometry particularly with lithium. Accordingly, we have developed a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric method for analysis of GCK in human plasma based on formation of a lithium adduct. The analyte and paclitaxel (internal standard) were extracted from 50 µL human plasma using methyl tert-butyl ether. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column (50 mm×2.0 mm; 5 μm) using stepwise gradient elution with acetonitrile–water and 0.2 mmol/L lithium carbonate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Detection was performed in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions at m/z 629→449 for the GCK-lithium adduct and m/z 860→292 for the adduct of paclitaxel. The assay was linear in the concentration range 1.00–1000 ng/mL (r2>0.9988) with intra- and inter-day precision of ±8.4% and accuracy in the range of −4.8% to 6.5%. Recovery, stability and matrix effects were all satisfactory. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study involving administration of a single GCK 50 mg tablet to healthy Chinese volunteers. PMID:26579476

  16. Enhanced low-temperature lithium storage performance of multilayer graphene made through an improved ionic liquid-assisted synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raccichini, Rinaldo; Varzi, Alberto; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Kübel, Christian; Balducci, Andrea; Passerini, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    The electrochemical properties of graphene are strongly depending on its synthesis. Between the different methods proposed so far, liquid phase exfoliation turns out to be a promising method for the production of graphene. Unfortunately, the low yield of this technique, in term of solid material obtained, still limit its use to small scale applications. In this article we propose a low cost and environmentally friendly method for producing multilayer crystalline graphene with high yield. Such innovative approach, involving an improved ionic liquid assisted, microwave exfoliation of expanded graphite, allows the production of graphene with advanced lithium ion storage performance, for the first time, at low temperatures (<0 °C), as low as -30 °C, with respect to commercially available graphite.

  17. Bis(fluoromalonato)borate (BFMB) Anion Based Ionic Liquid As an Additive for Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liao, Chen; Baggetto, Loic; Guo, Bingkun; Unocic, Raymond R; Veith, Gabriel M; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Propylene carbonate (PC) is a good solvent for lithium ion battery applications due to its low melting point and high dielectric constant. However, PC is easily intercalated into graphite causing it to exfoliate, killing its electrochemical performance. Here we report on the synthesis of a new ionic liquid electrolyte based on partially fluorinated borate anion, 1-butyl-1,2-dimethylimidazolium bis(fluoromalonato)borate (BDMIm.BFMB), which can be used as an additive in 1 M LiPF6/PC electrolyte to suppress graphite exfoliation and improve cycling performance. In addition, both PC and BDMIm.BFMB can be used synergistically as additive to 1.0M LiPF6/methyl isopropyl sulfone (MIPS) to dramatically improve its cycling performance. It is also found that the chemistry nature of the ionic liquids has dramatic effect on their role as additive in PC based electrolyte.

  18. Synthesis and Compatibility of Ionic Liquid Containing Rod-Coil Polyimide Gel Electrolytes with Lithium Metal Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigelaar, Dean M.; Palker, Allyson E.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Bennett, William R.

    2008-01-01

    A highly cross-linked polyimide-polyethylene oxide copolymer has been synthesized that is capable of holding large volumes of liquid component, simultaneously maintaining good dimensional stability. An amine end capped oligomer was made that was imidized in solution, followed by reaction with a triisocyanate in the presence of desired additives at ambient temperature. Polymer films are able to hold over 4 times their weight in room temperature ionic liquid RTIL or carbonate solvent. Electrolytes were studied that contained varying amounts of RTIL, lithium trifluoromethanesulfonimide LiTFSi, and alumina nanoparticles. Electrochemical stability of these electrolytes with lithium metal electrodes was studied by galvanic cycling and impedance spectroscopy. Improved cycling stability and decreased interfacial resistance were observed when increasing amounts of RTIL and LiTFSi were added. The addition of small amounts of alumina further decreased interfacial resistance by nearly an order of magnitude. During the course of the study, cycling stability increased from less than 3 to greater than 1000 h at 60 C and 0.25 mA/cm2 current density.

  19. Rapid and simple pretreatment of human body fluids using electromembrane extraction across supported liquid membrane for capillary electrophoretic determination of lithium.

    PubMed

    Strieglerová, Lenka; Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2011-05-01

    Electromembrane extraction was used for simultaneous sample cleanup and preconcentration of lithium from untreated human body fluids. The sample of a body fluid was diluted 100 times with 0.5 mM Tris solution and lithium was extracted by electromigration through a supported liquid membrane composed of 1-octanol into 100 mM acetic acid acceptor solution. Matrix compounds, such as proteins, red blood cells, and other high-molecular-weight compounds were efficiently retained on the supported liquid membrane. The liquid membrane was anchored in pores of a short segment of a polypropylene hollow fiber, which represented a low cost, single use, disposable extraction unit and was discarded after each use. Acceptor solutions were analyzed using capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C(4) D) and baseline separation of lithium was achieved in a background electrolyte solution consisting of 18 mM L-histidine and 40 mM acetic acid at pH 4.6. Repeatability of the electromembrane extraction-CE-C(4) D method was evaluated for the determination of lithium in standard solutions and real samples and was better than 0.6 and 8.2% for migration times and peak areas, respectively. The concentration limit of detection of 9 nM was achieved. The developed method was applied to the determination of lithium in urine, blood serum, blood plasma, and whole blood at both endogenous and therapeutic concentration levels. PMID:21500213

  20. Preliminary assessment of interactions between the FMIT deuteron beam and liquid-lithium target

    SciTech Connect

    Hassberger, J A

    1983-03-01

    Scoping calculations were performed to assess the limit of response of the FMIT lithium target to the deuteron-beam interactions. Results indicate that most response modes have acceptably minor impacts on the lithium-target behavior. Individual modes of response were studied separately to assess sensitivity of the target to various phenomena and to identify those needing detailed evaluation. A few responses are of sufficient magnitude to warrant further investigation. Potential for several different responses combining additively is identified as the major area requiring further consideration.

  1. Liquid Water, the ``Most Complex'' Liquid: New Results in Bulk, Nanoconfined, and Biological Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-03-01

    We will introduce some of the 63 anomalies of the most complex of liquids, water. We will demonstrate some recent progress in understanding these anomalies by combining information provided by recent experiments and simulations on water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. We will interpret evidence from recent experiments designed to test the hypothesis that liquid water may display ``polymorphism'' in that it can exist in two different phases---and discuss recent work on water's transport anomalies [1] as well as the unusual behavior of water in biological environments [2]. Finally, we will discuss how the general concept of liquid polymorphism [3] is proving useful in understanding anomalies in other liquids, such as silicon, silica, and carbon, as well as metallic glasses, which have in common that they are characterized by two characteristic length scales in their interactions. This work was supported by NSF Chemistry Division, and carried out in collaboration with a number of colleagues, chief among whom are C. A. Angell, M. C. Barbosa, M. C. Bellissent, L. Bosio, F. Bruni, S. V. Buldyrev, M. Canpolat, S. -H. Chen, P. G. Debenedetti, U. Essmann,G. Franzese, A. Geiger, N. Giovambattista, S. Han, P. Kumar, E. La Nave,G. Malescio, F. Mallamace, M. G. Mazza, O. Mishima, P. Netz, P. H. Poole, P. J. Rossky, R. Sadr,S. Sastry, A. Scala, F. Sciortino, A. Skibinsky, F. W. Starr, K. C. Stokely J. Teixeira, L. Xu, and Z. Yan.[4pt] [1] L. Xu, F. Mallamace, Z. Yan, F. W. Starr, S. V. Buldyrev, and H. E. Stanley, ``Appearance of a Fractional Stokes-Einstein Relation in Water and a Structural Interpretation of Its Onset,'' Nature Physics 5, 565--569 (2009). [0pt] [2] P. Kumar, Z. Yan, L. Xu, M. G. Mazza, S. V. Buldyrev, S. -H. Chen. S. Sastry, and H. E. Stanley, ``Glass Transition in Biomolecules and the Liquid-Liquid Critical Point of Water,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177802 (2006). [0pt] [3] H. E. Stanley, ed. , Liquid Polymorphism [Advances in Chemical Physics

  2. Brillouin Scattering Study of Liquid Glass Transition in Lithium Borate Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ike, Yuji; Matsuda, Yu; Kojima, Seiji; Kodama, Masao

    2006-05-01

    Elastic properties of different compositions of lithium borate glasses xLi2O\\cdot(1-x)B2O3 (x=0.06--0.28) were investigated in the temperature range from 25 to 600 °C by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. The composition dependence of the lithium borate glass system shows a stiffening tendency and a higher onset temperature of softening with increasing mole fraction of Li2O. We successfully observed the change in longitudinal elastic modulus in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature (Tg). The elastic moduli show a marked temperature dependence above the glass transition temperature Tg, while they show little change below Tg. These results strongly relate to the structural conversion of cross-linking borate units from triangular BO3 to tetrahedral BO4 units by the addition of Li2O. The increase in lithium oxide enhances the glass network integrity in the composition range of this study. A significant decrease in the elastic modulus above Tg can be attributed to the association of boroxol ring deformation and a change in the coordination number of boron atoms. These elastic properties were discussed in comparison with lithium silicate glass.

  3. Method of forming single crystals of beta silicon carbide using liquid lithium as a solvent

    DOEpatents

    Lundberg, Lynn B.

    1982-01-01

    A method of growing single crystals of beta SiC from solution using molten lithium as a solvent for polycrystalline SiC feed material. Reasonable growth rates are accomplished at temperatures in the range of about 1330.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C.

  4. Effect of ion structure on conductivity in lithium-doped ionic liquid electrolytes: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongjun; Maginn, Edward

    2013-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to examine the role cation and anion structure have on the performance of ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes for lithium conduction over the temperature range of 320-450 K. Two model ionic liquids were studied: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([bmim][Tf2N]) and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium pyrrolide ([bmpyr][pyl]) doped with Li[Tf2N] and Li[pyl], respectively. The results have demonstrated that the Li+ doped IL containing the planar [bmpyr] cation paired with the planar [pyl] anion significantly outperformed the [bmim][Tf2N] IL. The different coordination of Li+ with the [Tf2N]- or [pyl]- anions produces a remarkable change in IL structure with a concomitant effect on the transport of all ions. For the doped [bmim][Tf2N], each Li+ is coordinated by four oxygen atoms from [Tf2N]- anions. Formation of a rigid structure between Li+ and [Tf2N]- induces a decrease in the mobility of all ions. In contrast, for the doped [bmpyr][pyl], each Li+ is coordinated by two nitrogen atoms from [pyl]- anions. The original alternating structure cation|anion|cation in the neat [bmpyr][pyl] is replaced by another alternating structure cation|anion|Li+|anion|cation in the doped [bmpyr][pyl]. Increases of Li+ mole fraction in doped [bmpyr][pyl] affects the dynamics to a much lesser extent compared with [bmim][Tf2N] and leads to reduced diffusivities of cations and anions, but little change in the dynamics of Li+. More importantly, the calculations predict that the Li+ ion conductivity of doped [bmpyr][pyl] is comparable to that observed in organic liquid electrolytes and is about an order of magnitude higher than that of doped [bmim][Tf2N]. Such Li+ conductivity improvement suggests that this and related ILs may be promising candidates for use as electrolytes in lithium ion batteries and capacitors.

  5. Sulfonic Acid- and Lithium Sulfonate-Grafted Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Electrospun Mats As Ionic Liquid Host for Electrochromic Device and Lithium-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Liu, Wanshuang; Leong, Yew Wei; Xu, Jianwei; Lu, Xuehong

    2015-08-01

    Electrospun polymer nanofibrous mats loaded with ionic liquids (ILs) are promising nonvolatile electrolytes with high ionic conductivity. The large cations of ILs are, however, difficult to diffuse into solid electrodes, making them unappealing for application in some electrochemical devices. To address this issue, a new strategy is used to introduce proton conduction into an IL-based electrolyte. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) copolymer is functionalized with sulfonic acid through covalent attachment of taurine. The sulfonic acid-grafted P(VDF-HFP) electrospun mats consist of interconnected nanofibers, leading to remarkable improvement in dimensional stability of the mats. IL-based polymer electrolytes are prepared by immersing the modified mats in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM(+)BF4(-)). It is found that the SO3(-) groups can have Lewis acid-base interactions with the cations (BMIM(+)) of IL to promote the dissociation of ILs, and provide additional proton conduction, resulting in significantly improved ionic conductivity. Using this novel electrolyte, polyaniline-based electrochromic devices show higher transmittance contrast and faster switching behavior. Furthermore, the sulfonic acid-grafted P(VDF-HFP) electrospun mats can also be lithiated, giving additional lithium ion conduction for the IL-based electrolyte, with which Li/LiCoO2 batteries display enhanced C-rate performance. PMID:26167794

  6. Shape relaxation of liquid drops in a microgravity environment.

    PubMed

    Sadhal, S S; Rednikov, A; Ohsaka, K

    2004-11-01

    We investigated shape relaxation of liquid drops in a microgravity environment that was created by letting the drops fall freely. The drops were initially levitated in air by an acoustic/electrostatic hybrid levitator. The levitated drops were deformed due to the force balance among the levitating force, surface tension, and gravity. During the free fall, the deformed drops underwent shape relaxation driven by the surface tension to restore a spherical shape. The progress of the shape relaxation was characterized by measuring the aspect ratio as a function of time, and was compared to a simple linear relaxation model (in which only the fundamental mode was considered) for perfectly conductive drops. The results show that the model quite adequately describes the shape relaxation of uncharged/charged drops released from an acoustically levitated state. However, the model is less successful in describing the relaxation of drops that were levitated electrostatically before the free fall. This may be due to finite electrical conductivities of liquids, which somehow affects the initial stage of the shape relaxation process. PMID:15644374

  7. Lithium-system corrosion/erosion studies for the FMIT project

    SciTech Connect

    Bazinet, G D

    1983-04-01

    The corrosion behavior of selected materials in a liquid lithium environment has been studied in support of system and component designs for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. The liquid lithium test resources and the capabilities of several laboratories were used to study specific concerns associated with the overall objective. Testing conditions ranged from approx. 3700 hours to approx. 6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230/sup 0/C to 270/sup 0/C and static lithium at temperatures from 200/sup 0/C to 500/sup 0/C. Principal areas of investigation included lithium corrosion/erosion effects of FMIT lithium system materials (largely Type 304 and Type 304L austenitic stainless steels) and candidate materials for major system components.

  8. Note: Proton irradiation at kilowatt-power and neutron production from a free-surface liquid-lithium target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfon, S.; Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D.; Paul, M.; Weissman, L.; Aviv, O.; Berkovits, D.; Dudovitch, O.; Eisen, Y.; Eliyahu, I.; Feinberg, G.; Haquin, G.; Hazenshprung, N.; Kreisel, A.; Mardor, I.; Shimel, G.; Shor, A.; Silverman, I.; Tessler, M.; Yungrais, Z.

    2014-05-01

    The free-surface Liquid-Lithium Target, recently developed at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), was successfully used with a 1.9 MeV, 1.2 mA (2.3 kW) continuous-wave proton beam. Neutrons (˜2 × 1010 n/s having a peak energy of ˜27 keV) from the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction were detected with a fission-chamber detector and by gold activation targets positioned in the forward direction. The setup is being used for nuclear astrophysics experiments to study neutron-induced reactions at stellar energies and to demonstrate the feasibility of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

  9. Note: Proton irradiation at kilowatt-power and neutron production from a free-surface liquid-lithium target

    SciTech Connect

    Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G.; Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D.; Weissman, L.; Aviv, O.; Berkovits, D.; Dudovitch, O.; Eisen, Y.; Eliyahu, I.; Haquin, G.; Hazenshprung, N.; Kreisel, A.; Mardor, I.; Shimel, G.; Shor, A.; Silverman, I.; Yungrais, Z.; Paul, M. Tessler, M.

    2014-05-15

    The free-surface Liquid-Lithium Target, recently developed at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), was successfully used with a 1.9 MeV, 1.2 mA (2.3 kW) continuous-wave proton beam. Neutrons (∼2 × 10{sup 10} n/s having a peak energy of ∼27 keV) from the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction were detected with a fission-chamber detector and by gold activation targets positioned in the forward direction. The setup is being used for nuclear astrophysics experiments to study neutron-induced reactions at stellar energies and to demonstrate the feasibility of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

  10. Optimum Reflector Configurations for Minimizing Fission Power Peaking in a Lithium-Cooled, Liquid-Metal Reactor with Sliding Reflectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fensin, Michael L.; Poston, David I.

    2005-02-06

    Many design constraints limit the development of a space fission power system optimized for fuel performance, system reliability, and mission cost. These design constraints include fuel mass provisions to meet cycle-length requirements, fuel centerline and clad temperatures, and clad creep from fission gas generation. Decreasing the fission power peaking of the reactor system enhances all of the mentioned parameters. This design study identifies the cause, determines the reflector configurations for reactor criticality, and generates worth curves for minimized fission-power-peaking configuration in a lithium-cooled liquid-metal reactor that uses sliding reflectors. Because of the characteristics of the core axial power distribution and axial power distortions inherent to the sliding reflector design, minimizing the power peaking of the reactor involves placing the reflectors in a position that least distorts the axial power distribution. The views expressed in this document are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect agreement by the Government.

  11. Strontium/lithium ratios in shells of Cerastoderma edule - A potential temperature proxy for brackish environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füllenbach, Christoph S.; Schöne, Bernd R.; Mertz-Kraus, Regina

    2015-04-01

    Bivalve shells provide high-resolution records of climate variability. However, the number of suitable proxies to quantify environmental variables is still limited. The most frequently used and well-accepted tool for environmental reconstructions from shell carbonate, δ18Oshell, is a dual proxy that simultaneously informs about water temperature and the oxygen isotope signature of the water. Reconstruction of water temperature requires knowledge of δ18Owater and reconstruction of the latter requires knowledge of salinity. Element-to-calcium ratios that are frequently used in other biological carbonates as tools for temperature reconstructions such as Sr/Cashell or Mg/Cashell are strongly biologically controlled in bivalves and show only a weak correlation to temperature. Here, we present Sr/Lishell ratios as a new temperature proxy that can complement δ18Oshell-based environmental reconstructions. In seawater, strontium and lithium have long residence times of 1.5Ma and 2Ma, respectively. Furthermore, salinity changes do not appear to affect the incorporation of Sr2+ and Li+ into the shells. Sr and Li concentrations were determined via LA-ICP-MS (line-scan method) in aragonitic shells of four Cerastoderma edule specimens collected alive from the intertidal zone of the North Sea. Geochemical data from the ontogenetic year three (growing season: April - September) were placed in precise temporal context by using tidal growth patterns and then compared to instrumental water temperature and water chemistry data. Sr/Lishell values (15 to 287 mmol/mmol) are significantly above Sr/Liwater (1.9 to 3.3 mmol/mmol) suggesting the presence of vital effects. However, all shells revealed similar Sr/Lishell patterns that are strongly negatively correlated to water temperature (r2 = 0.65 to 0.74; p < 0.01; T = -0.056 (±0.005) * (Sr/Lishell) [mmol/mmol] + 23.188 (±0.92)). To test the robustness of the presented proxy, we applied the new paleothermometry equation (Sr/Lishell vs

  12. Corrosion resistance of lithium/iodine batteries fabricated in an extremely dry environment

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.R.; Holmes, C.F.; Stinebring, R.C.

    1981-10-01

    Early lithium/iodine pacemaker batteries employed considerable amounts of inert plastic materials to encase the active ingredients inside the stainless steel case. Several years ago the Wilson Greatbatch Ltd. (WGL) Model 755 cell was introduced and represented a significant change in lithium/iodine battery construction. In this design (1) the iodinepolyvinylpyridine (PVP) depolarizer material was placed in direct contact with the 304L stainless steel case and much of the inert material was eliminated. This change resulted in obtaining substantially more depolarizer in the battery thereby greatly increasing the electrical capacity for the same cell volume. A study was instituted to evaluate possible corrosion effects between the iodine in the depolarizer and the stainless steel case.

  13. Liquid oxygen LOX compatibility evaluations of aluminum lithium (Al-Li) alloys: Investigation of the Alcoa 2090 and MMC weldalite 049 alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diwan, Ravinder M.

    1989-01-01

    The behavior of liquid oxygen (LOX) compatibility of aluminum lithium (Al-Li) alloys is investigated. Alloy systems of Alcoa 2090, vintages 1 to 3, and of Martin Marietta Corporation (MMC) Weldalite 049 were evaluated for their behavior related to the LOX compatibility employing liquid oxygen impact test conditions under ambient pressures and up to 1000 psi. The developments of these aluminum lithium alloys are of critical and significant interest because of their lower densities and higher specific strengths and improved mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. Of the different LOX impact tests carried out at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), it is seen that in certain test conditions at higher pressures, not all Al-Li alloys are LOX compatible. In case of any reactivity, it appears that lithium makes the material more sensitive at grain boundaries due to microstructural inhomogeneities and associated precipitate free zones (PFZ). The objectives were to identify and rationalize the microstructural mechanisms that could be relaxed to LOX compatibility behavior of the alloy system in consideration. The LOX compatibility behavior of Al-Li 2090 and Weldalite 049 is analyzed in detail using microstructural characterization techniques with light optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis, and surface studies using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), electron spectroscopy in chemical analysis (ESCA) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Differences in the behavior of these aluminum lithium alloys are assessed and related to their chemistry, heat treatment conditions, and microstructural effects.

  14. Method and apparatus to produce and maintain a thick, flowing, liquid lithium first wall for toroidal magnetic confinement DT fusion reactors

    DOEpatents

    Woolley, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    A system for forming a thick flowing liquid metal, in this case lithium, layer on the inside wall of a toroid containing the plasma of a deuterium-tritium fusion reactor. The presence of the liquid metal layer or first wall serves to prevent neutron damage to the walls of the toroid. A poloidal current in the liquid metal layer is oriented so that it flows in the same direction as the current in a series of external magnets used to confine the plasma. This current alignment results in the liquid metal being forced against the wall of the toroid. After the liquid metal exits the toroid it is pumped to a heat extraction and power conversion device prior to being reentering the toroid.

  15. Addition of a thin-film inorganic solid electrolyte (Lipon) as a protective film in lithium batteries with a liquid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudney, Nancy J.

    Three rechargeable lithium cells have been fabricated using thin films of Li and sputter-deposited Li xMn 2- yO 4 as the electrodes, and a LiPF 6 organic liquid electrolyte. Cells were cycled up to 18 times between 4.5 and 2.5 V at 25°C both with and without the addition of the thin-film lithium phosphorus oxynitride solid electrolyte, known as Lipon. Of the cells tested, the Lipon film was most effective in maximizing the capacity and cycling efficiency when deposited in direct contact with the cathode; however, a significant improvement over the Lipon-free cell was also observed with Lipon sandwiched between layers of the liquid electrolyte. In the latter case, the Lipon was deposited onto a microporous polypropylene separator membrane.

  16. Ionic liquid based lithium battery electrolytes: fundamental benefits of utilising both TFSI and FSI anions?

    PubMed

    Kerner, M; Plylahan, N; Scheers, J; Johansson, P

    2015-07-15

    Several IL based electrolytes with an imidazolium cation (EMI) have been investigated trying to elucidate a possible beneficial effect of mixing FSI and TFSI anions in terms of physico-chemical properties and especially Li(+) solvation. All electrolytes were evaluated in terms of phase transitions, densities and viscosities, thermal stabilities, ionic conductivities and local structure, i.e. charge carriers. The electrolytes with up to 20% of Li-salts showed to be promising for high temperature lithium ion battery application (ca. 100 °C) and a synergetic effect of having mixed anions is discernible with the LiTFSI0.2EMIFSI0.8 electrolyte giving the best overall performance. The determination of the charge carriers revealed the SN to be ca. 2 for all analysed electrolytes, and proved the analysis of the mixed anion electrolytes to be challenging and inherently leads to an ambiguous picture of the Li(+) solvation. PMID:26147418

  17. Suppressive effect of lithium phosphorous oxynitride at carbon anode on solvent decomposition in liquid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Kwang-il; Park, Jong-Guen; Kim, Woo-Seong; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choi, Yong-Kook

    The irreversible capacity during the first cycle is investigated at a carbon electrode in a Li-ion battery in 1 M LiPF 6/EC:DEC (ethylene carbonate:1,2 diethyl carbonate; 1:1 volume ratio). Solvent decomposition is one of main causes of the initial irreversible capacity. A lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) thin-film, which is a solid ionic conductor, is deposited on the surface of the carbon electrode by means of a radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. The effect of the LiPON layer is examined with chronopotentiometry and cyclic voltammetry, as well as with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The deposition of LiPON on the surface of the carbon electrode results in a decrease in the initial irreversible capacity due to the suppression of solvent decomposition on the electrode surface.

  18. Quantum-dot lithium in zero magnetic field: Electronic properties, thermodynamics, and Fermi liquid-Wigner solid crossover in the ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, S. A.

    2002-03-01

    Energy spectra, electron densities, pair-correlation functions, and heat capacity of quantum-dot lithium in zero external magnetic field (a system of three interacting two-dimensional electrons in a parabolic confinement potential) are studied using the exact diagonalization approach. Particular attention is given to a Fermi liquid-Wigner solid crossover in the ground state of the dot, induced by intradot Coulomb interaction.

  19. Demonstration of a high-intensity neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target for Accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    PubMed

    Halfon, S; Arenshtam, A; Kijel, D; Paul, M; Weissman, L; Berkovits, D; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Kreisel, A; Mardor, I; Shimel, G; Shor, A; Silverman, I; Tessler, M

    2015-12-01

    A free surface liquid-lithium jet target is operating routinely at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), bombarded with a ~1.91 MeV, ~1.2 mA continuous-wave narrow proton beam. The experiments demonstrate the liquid lithium target (LiLiT) capability to constitute an intense source of epithermal neutrons, for Accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The target dissipates extremely high ion beam power densities (>3 kW/cm(2), >0.5 MW/cm(3)) for long periods of time, while maintaining stable conditions and localized residual activity. LiLiT generates ~3×10(10) n/s, which is more than one order of magnitude larger than conventional (7)Li(p,n)-based near threshold neutron sources. A shield and moderator assembly for BNCT, with LiLiT irradiated with protons at 1.91 MeV, was designed based on Monte Carlo (MCNP) simulations of BNCT-doses produced in a phantom. According to these simulations it was found that a ~15 mA near threshold proton current will apply the therapeutic doses in ~1h treatment duration. According to our present results, such high current beams can be dissipated in a liquid-lithium target, hence the target design is readily applicable for accelerator-based BNCT. PMID:26300076

  20. Structures and Electronic Properties of Lithium Chelate-Based Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Si, Dawei; Chen, Kexian; Yao, Jia; Li, Haoran

    2016-04-28

    The conformations, electronic properties, and interaction energies of four chelate-based ionic liquids [Li(EA)][Tf2N], [Li(HDA)][Tf2N], [Li(DEA)][Tf2N], and [Li(DOBA)][Tf2N] have been theoretically explored. The reliability of the located conformers has been confirmed via the comparison between the simulated and experimental infrared spectra. Our results show that the N-Li and O-Li coordinate bonds in cation are elongated as the numbers of coordinate heteroatoms of alkanolamine ligands to Li(+) increased. Also the binding energies between Li(+) and ligands are increased and the interaction energies between cations and Tf2N anion are decreased. The cation-anion interaction energies follow the order of [Li(DOBA)][Tf2N] < [Li(HDA)][Tf2N] < [Li(DEA)][Tf2N] < [Li(EA)][Tf2N], which fall within the energetic ranges of conventional ionic liquids. Interestingly, the strongest stabilization orbital interactions in these ionic liquids and their cations revealed by the natural bond orbital analysis lie in the interaction between the lone pair (LP) of the coordinate heteroatoms in ligands or anion as donors and the vacant valence shell nonbonding orbital (LP*) of Li(+) as acceptors, which are very different from that of conventional ionic liquids. Moreover, the charges transferred from cations to anion are quite similar, and the charge of Li(+) is proposed for possibly predicting the order of the interaction energies of ionic liquids in series. The present study allows for the deeper understanding the differences between chelate-based ionic liquids and conventional ionic liquids. PMID:27070194

  1. Initial instability of round liquid jet at subcritical and supercritical environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumaran, C. K.; Vaidyanathan, Aravind

    2016-07-01

    In the present experimental work, the behavior of laminar liquid jet in its own vapor as well as supercritical fluid environment is conducted. Also the study of liquid jet injection into nitrogen (N2) environment is carried out at supercritical conditions. It is expected that the injected liquid jet would undergo thermodynamic transition to the chamber condition and this would alter the behavior of the injected jet. Moreover at such conditions there is a strong dependence between thermodynamic and fluid dynamic processes. Thus the thermodynamic transition has its effect on the initial instability as well as the breakup nature of the injected liquid jet. In the present study, the interfacial disturbance wavelength, breakup characteristics, and mixing behavior are analysed for the fluoroketone liquid jet that is injected into N2 environment as well as into its own vapor at subcritical to supercritical conditions. It is observed that at subcritical chamber conditions, the injected liquid jet exhibits classical liquid jet characteristics with Rayleigh breakup at lower Weber number and Taylor breakup at higher Weber number for both N2 and its own environment. At supercritical chamber conditions with its own environment, the injected liquid jet undergoes sudden thermodynamic transition to chamber conditions and single phase mixing characteristics is observed. However, the supercritical chamber conditions with N2 as ambient fluid does not have significant effect on the thermodynamic transition of the injected liquid jet.

  2. Ionic liquid enabled FeS2 for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tyler; Piper, Daniela Molina; Kim, Seul Cham; Han, Sang Sub; Bhat, Vinay; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Lee, Se-Hee

    2014-11-19

    High-energy-density FeS2 cathodes en-abled by a bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI-) anion-based room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolyte are demonstrated. A TFSI-based ionic liquid (IL) significantly mitigates polysulfide dissolution, and therefore the parasitic redox shuttle mechanism, that plagues sulfur-based electrode chemistries. FeS2 stabilization with a TFSI(-) -based IL results in one of the highest energy density cathodes, 542 W h kg(-1) (normalized to cathode composite mass), reported to date. PMID:25236752

  3. Lithium(I) in liquid ammonia: A quantum mechanical charge field (QMCF) molecular dynamics simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, Niko; Canaval, Lorenz R.; Wijaya, Karna; Armunanto, Ria

    2015-01-01

    The solvation of Li(I) in liquid ammonia has been investigated by an ab initio quantum mechanical charge-field molecular dynamics (QMCF-MD) simulation. Being the first simulation of a metal cation in liquid ammonia employing this methodology, the work yields a wide range of accurate structural and dynamical data. Li(I) is tetrahedrally coordinated by four ammonia molecules in the first solvation shell at a distance of 2.075 Å. Two ligand exchange attempts have been observed within 12 ps of simulation time. The second solvation shell shows a more labile structure with numerous successful exchanges. The results are in excellent agreement with experiments.

  4. Innovative application of ionic liquid to separate Al and cathode materials from spent high-power lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2014-04-30

    Because of the increasing number of electric vehicles, there is an urgent need for effective recycling technologies to recapture the significant amount of valuable metals contained in spent lithium-ion batteries (LiBs). Previous studies have indicated, however, that Al and cathode materials were quite difficult to separate due to the strong binding force supplied by the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which was employed to bind cathode materials and Al foil. This research devoted to seek a new method of melting the PVDF binder with heated ionic liquid (IL) to separate Al foil and cathode materials from the spent high-power LiBs. Theoretical analysis based on Fourier's law was adopted to determine the heat transfer mechanism of cathode material and to examine the relationship between heating temperature and retention time. All the experimental and theoretic results show that peel-off rate of cathode materials from Al foil could reach 99% when major process parameters were controlled at 180°C heating temperature, 300 rpm agitator rotation, and 25 min retention time. The results further imply that the application of IL for recycling Al foil and cathode materials from spent high-power LiBs is highly efficient, regardless of the application source of the LiBs or the types of cathode material. This study endeavors to make a contribution to an environmentally sound and economically viable solution to the challenge of spent LiB recycling. PMID:24607415

  5. Novel polymer electrolytes based on thermoplastic polyurethane and ionic liquid/lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide/propylene carbonate salt system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavall, R. L.; Ferrari, S.; Tomasi, C.; Marzantowicz, M.; Quartarone, E.; Magistris, A.; Mustarelli, P.; Lazzaroni, S.; Fagnoni, M.

    Polymer electrolytes were prepared from thermoplastic polyurethane with addition of mixture of ionic liquid N-ethyl(methylether)-N-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonimmide (PYRA 12O1TFSI), lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfoneimide) salt and propylene carbonate. The electrolytes characterization was performed by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties were investigated in detail by impedance spectroscopy with the aid of equivalent circuit fitting of the impedance spectra. A model describing temperature evolution of ionic conductivity and the properties of electrolyte/blocking electrode interface was developed. The electrochemical stability of the electrolytes was studied by linear voltammetry. Our results indicate that the studied electrolytes have good self-standing characteristics, and also a sufficient level of thermal stability and a fairly good electrochemical window. The ionic conductivity increases with increasing amount of mixture, and the character of temperature dependence of conductivity indicates decoupling of ion transport from polymer matrix. For studied system, the highest value of ionic conductivity measured at room temperature was 10 -4 S cm -1.

  6. Elimination of liquid discharge to the environment from the TA-50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, D.; Williams, N.; Hall, D.; Hargis, K.; Saladen, M.; Sanders, M.; Voit, S.; Worland, P.; Yarbro, S.

    1998-06-01

    Alternatives were evaluated for management of treated radioactive liquid waste from the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The alternatives included continued discharge into Mortandad Canyon, diversion to the sanitary wastewater treatment facility and discharge of its effluent to Sandia Canyon or Canada del Buey, and zero liquid discharge. Implementation of a zero liquid discharge system is recommended in addition to two phases of upgrades currently under way. Three additional phases of upgrades to the present radioactive liquid waste system are proposed to accomplish zero liquid discharge. The first phase involves minimization of liquid waste generation, along with improved characterization and monitoring of the remaining liquid waste. The second phase removes dissolved salts from the reverse osmosis concentrate stream to yield a higher effluent quality. In the final phase, the high-quality effluent is reused for industrial purposes within the Laboratory or evaporated. Completion of these three phases will result in zero discharge of treated radioactive liquid wastewater from the RLWTF.

  7. An approach of ionic liquids/lithium salts based microwave irradiation pretreatment followed by ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction for two coumarins preparation from Cortex fraxini.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zaizhi; Gu, Huiyan; Yang, Lei

    2015-10-23

    Ionic liquids/lithium salts solvent system was successfully introduced into the separation technique for the preparation of two coumarins (aesculin and aesculetin) from Cortex fraxini. Ionic liquids/lithium salts based microwave irradiation pretreatment followed by ultrasound-microwave synergy extraction (ILSMP-UMSE) procedure was developed and optimized for the sufficient extraction of these two analytes. Several variables which can potentially influence the extraction yields, including pretreatment time and temperature, [C4mim]Br concentration, LiAc content, ultrasound-microwave synergy extraction (UMSE) time, liquid-solid ratio, and UMSE power were optimized by Plackett-Burman design. Among seven variables, UMSE time, liquid-solid ratio, and UMSE power were the statistically significant variables and these three factors were further optimized by Box-Behnken design to predict optimal extraction conditions and find out operability ranges with maximum extraction yields. Under optimum operating conditions, ILSMP-UMSE showed higher extraction yields of two target compounds than those obtained by reference extraction solvents. Method validation studies also evidenced that ILSMP-UMSE is credible for the preparation of two coumarins from Cortex fraxini. This study is indicative of the proposed procedure that has huge application prospects for the preparation of natural products from plant materials. PMID:26411478

  8. Electrochemical investigations of ionic liquids with vinylene carbonate for applications in rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Ionic liquids based on methylpropylpyrrolidinium (MPPY) and methylpropylpiperidinium (MPPI) cations and bis(trifluoromethanesulfionyl)imide (TFSI) anion have been synthesized and characterized by thermal analysis, cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy as well as gavanostatic charge/discharge tests. 10 wt% of vinylene carbonate (VC) was added to the electrolytes of 0.5 M LiTFSI/MPPY.TFSI and 0.5 M LiTFSI/MPPI.TFSI, which were evaluated in Li || natural graphite (NG) half cells at 25 oC and 50 oC under different current densities. At 25 oC, due to their intrinsic high viscosities, the charge/discharge capacities under the current density of 80 A cm-2 were much lower than those under the current density of 40 A cm-2. At 50 oC, with reduced viscosities, the charge/discharge capacities under both current densities were almost indistinguishable, which were also close to the typical values obtained using conventional carbonate electrolytes. In addition, the discharge capacities of the half cells were very stable with cycling, due to the effective formation of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the graphite electrode. On the contrary, the charge/discharge capacities of the Li || LiCoO2 cells using both ionic liquid electrolytes under the current density of 40 A cm-2 decreased continually with cycling, which were primarily due to the low oxidative stability of VC on the surface of LiCoO2.

  9. Intermittent contact mode piezoresponse force microscopy in a liquid environment

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Brian; Jesse, Stephen; Habelitz, S.; Proksch, Roger; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2009-01-01

    Probing electromechanical coupling in biological systems and electroactive molecules requires high resolution functional imaging. Here, we investigate the feasibility of intermittent contact mode piezoresponse force microscopy based on simultaneous mechanical and electrical probe modulation. It is shown that imaging at frequencies corresponding to the first contact resonance in liquid allows contrast consistent with the electromechanical signal to be obtained for model ferroelectric systems and piezoelectric tooth dentin

  10. Intermittent-contact mode piezoresponse force microscopy in liquid environment

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Brian J; Jesse, Stephen; Habelitz, S.; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2009-01-01

    Probing electromechanical coupling in biological systems and electroactive molecules requires high-resolution imaging. Here, we investigate the feasibility of intermittent contact mode piezoresponse force microscopy based on simultaneous mechanical and electrical probe modulation. It is shown that the combination of (a) imaging at frequencies corresponding to the first contact resonance in (b) liquid allows contrast consistent with electromechanical signal to be obtained on model ferroelectric perovskites and tooth dentin.

  11. Crosslinked polymer gel electrolytes based on polyethylene glycol methacrylate and ionic liquid for lithium battery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized by copolymerization polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate with polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of a room temperature ionic liquid, methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MPPY TFSI). The physical properties of gel polymer electrolytes were characterized by thermal analysis, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical tests. The ionic conductivities of the gel polymer electrolytes increased linearly with the amount of MPPY TFSI and were mainly attributed to the increased ion mobility as evidenced by the decreased glass transition temperatures. Li||LiFePO4 cells were assembled using the gel polymer electrolytes containing 80 wt% MPPY TFSI via an in situ polymerization method. A reversible cell capacity of 90 mAh g 1 was maintained under the current density of C/10 at room temperature, which was increased to 130 mAh g 1 by using a thinner membrane and cycling at 50 C.

  12. Bacterial transport of colloids in liquid crystalline environments.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Rishi R; Maeda, Rina; Abbott, Nicholas L; Spagnolie, Saverio E; Weibel, Douglas B

    2015-11-21

    We describe the controlled transport and delivery of non-motile eukaryotic cells and polymer microparticles by swimming bacteria suspended in nematic liquid crystals. The bacteria push reversibly attached cargo in a stable, unidirectional path (or along a complex patterned director field) over exceptionally long distances. Numerical simulations and analytical predictions for swimming speeds provide a mechanistic insight into the hydrodynamics of the system. This study lays the foundation for using cargo-carrying bacteria in engineering applications and for understanding interspecies interactions in polymicrobial communities. PMID:26382153

  13. Natural Abundance 17O Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Computational Modeling Studies of Lithium Based Liquid Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xuchu; Hu, Mary Y.; Wei, Xiaoliang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Jun; Hu, Jian Z.

    2015-07-01

    Natural abundance 17O NMR measurements were conducted on electrolyte solutions consisting of Li[CF3SO2NSO2CF3] (LiTFSI) dissolved in the solvents of ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), and their mixtures at various concentrations. It was observed that 17O chemical shifts of solvent molecules change with the concentration of LiTFSI. The chemical shift displacements of carbonyl oxygen are evidently greater than those of ethereal oxygen, strongly indicating that Li+ ion is coordinated with carbonyl oxygen rather than ethereal oxygen. To understand the detailed molecular interaction, computational modeling of 17O chemical shifts was carried out on proposed solvation structures. By comparing the predicted chemical shifts with the experimental values, it is found that a Li+ ion is coordinated with four double bond oxygen atoms from EC, PC, EMC and TFSI- anion. In the case of excessive amount of solvents of EC, PC and EMC the Li+ coordinated solvent molecules are undergoing quick exchange with bulk solvent molecules, resulting in average 17O chemical shifts. Several kinds of solvation structures are identified, where the proportion of each structure in the liquid electrolytes investigated depends on the concentration of LiTFSI.

  14. Failure Mechanism for Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries with Liquid Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, DP; Shao, YY; Lozano, T; Bennett, WD; Graff, GL; Polzin, B; Zhang, JG; Engelhard, MH; Saenz, NT; Henderson, WA; Bhattacharya, P; Liu, J; Xiao, J

    2014-09-11

    In recent years, the Li metal anode has regained a position of paramount research interest because of the necessity for employing Li metal in next-generation battery technologies such as Li-S and Li-O-2. Severely limiting this utilization, however, are the rapid capacity degradation and safety issues associated with rechargeable Li metal anodes. A fundamental understanding of the failure mechanism of Li metal at high charge rates has remained elusive due to the complicated interfacial chemistry that occurs between Li metal and liquid electrolytes. Here, it is demonstrated that at high current density the quick formation of a highly resistive solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) entangled with Li metal, which grows towards the bulk Li, dramatically increases up the cell impedance and this is the actual origin of the onset of cell degradation and failure. This is instead of dendritic or mossy Li growing outwards from the metal surface towards/through the separator and/or the consumption of the Li and electrolyte through side reactions. Interphase, in this context, refers to a substantive layer rather than a thin interfacial layer. Discerning the mechanisms and consequences for this interphase formation is crucial for resolving the stability and safety issues associated with Li metal anodes.

  15. Natural abundance 17O nuclear magnetic resonance and computational modeling studies of lithium based liquid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xuchu; Hu, Mary Y.; Wei, Xiaoliang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Jun; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2015-07-01

    Natural abundance 17O NMR measurements were conducted on electrolyte solutions consisting of Li[CF3SO2NSO2CF3] (LiTFSI) dissolved in the solvents of ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), and their mixtures at various concentrations. It was observed that 17O chemical shifts of solvent molecules change with the concentration of LiTFSI. The chemical shift displacements of carbonyl oxygen are evidently greater than those of ethereal oxygen, strongly indicating that Li+ ion is coordinated with carbonyl oxygen rather than ethereal oxygen. To understand the detailed molecular interaction, computational modeling of 17O chemical shifts was carried out on proposed solvation structures. By comparing the predicted chemical shifts with the experimental values, it is found that a Li+ ion is coordinated with four double bond oxygen atoms from EC, PC, EMC and TFSI- anion. In the case of excessive amount of solvents of EC, PC and EMC the Li+ coordinated solvent molecules are undergoing quick exchange with bulk solvent molecules, resulting in average 17O chemical shifts. Several kinds of solvation structures are identified, where the proportion of each structure in the liquid electrolytes investigated depends on the concentration of LiTFSI.

  16. Variation of lithium isotope composition in the marine environment: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Luiheung; Edmond, J.M. )

    1988-06-01

    The Li isotopic compositions of ocean waters, lake water, hydrothermal solutions, altered and unaltered basalts have been determined using the technique of thermal ionization mass spectrometry of lithium tetraborate. Seawater appears to be homogeneous in Li isotopic composition. The mean {delta}{sup 6}Li value is {minus}32.3 {plus minus} 0.5{per thousand}, relative to an isotopic standard. Three lakes studied (Lake Tanganyika, Caspian Sea and Dead Sea) yield {delta}{sup 6}Li similar to the seawater isotopic composition. A fresh basalt glass from 21{degree}N, East Pacific Rise displays a {delta}{sup 6}Li value of {minus}4.7{per thousand}. A hydrothermal solution from a 21{degree}N vent field has {delta}{sup 6}Li of {minus}10{per thousand}, indicating incomplete extraction of Li from the igneous minerals or partial retention in secondary phases. The alteration margin of a basalt from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge has {delta}{sup 6}Li of {minus}8.4{per thousand}. The isotope data of submarine basalts suggest preferential removal of {sup 6}Li from seawater into alteration minerals during low temperature weathering. The {delta}{sup 6}Li values of two hydrothermal solutions from Guaymas Basin were found to be {minus}5{per thousand} and {minus}10{per thousand}. The results can be interpreted as the net effect of Li addition from basalt and sediments and incorporation in hydrothermal precipitates as the hydrothermal fluids interact with basin sediments. The observed enrichment of {sup 7}Li in seawater relative to submarine hydrothermal solutions, its principal Li input, is tentatively attributed to isotopic fractionation associated with low temperature alteration of sea floor basalt and incorporation in authigenic sediments. It appears that the Li isotope system may have characteristics that can resolve the mass balance of Li in the ocean.

  17. Janus Solid-Liquid Interface Enabling Ultrahigh Charging and Discharging Rate for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiaxin; Hou, Yuyang; Duan, Yandong; Song, Xiaohe; Wei, Yi; Liu, Tongchao; Hu, Jiangtao; Guo, Hua; Zhuo, Zengqing; Liu, Lili; Chang, Zheng; Wang, Xiaowei; Zherebetskyy, Danylo; Fang, Yanyan; Lin, Yuan; Xu, Kang; Wang, Lin-Wang; Wu, Yuping; Pan, Feng

    2015-09-01

    LiFePO4 has long been held as one of the most promising battery cathode for its high energy storage capacity. Meanwhile, although extensive studies have been conducted on the interfacial chemistries in Li-ion batteries,1-3 little is known on the atomic level about the solid-liquid interface of LiFePO4/electrolyte. Here, we report battery cathode consisted with nanosized LiFePO4 particles in aqueous electrolyte with an high charging and discharging rate of 600 C (3600/600 = 6 s charge time, 1 C = 170 mAh g(-1)) reaching 72 mAh g(-1) energy storage (42% of the theoretical capacity). By contrast, the accessible capacity sharply decreases to 20 mAh g(-1) at 200 C in organic electrolyte. After a comprehensive electrochemistry tests and ab initio calculations of the LiFePO4-H2O and LiFePO4-EC (ethylene carbonate) systems, we identified the transient formation of a Janus hydrated interface in the LiFePO4-H2O system, where the truncated symmetry of solid LiFePO4 surface is compensated by the chemisorbed H2O molecules, forming a half-solid (LiFePO4) and half-liquid (H2O) amphiphilic coordination environment that eases the Li desolvation process near the surface, which makes a fast Li-ion transport across the solid/liquid interfaces possible. PMID:26305572

  18. Smectic liquid crystals in an anisotropic random environment

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Dennis; Leheny, Robert L.

    2007-03-15

    We report a high-resolution x-ray scattering study of the smectic liquid crystal octylcyanobiphenyl (8CB) confined to aligned colloidal aerosil gels. The aligned gels introduce orientational fields that promote long-range nematic order while imposing positional random fields that couple to the smectic density wave and disrupt the formation of an ordered smectic phase. At low densities of aerosil, the low-temperature scattering intensity is consistent with the presence of a topologically ordered XY Bragg glass phase that is predicted to form in response to such anisotropic quenched disorder. The observed features of the phase include an algebraic decay of the smectic correlations, which is truncated at large length scales due to the imperfect nematic order, and a power-law exponent that agrees closely with the universal value predicted for the XY Bragg glass. At higher aerosil densities, deviations from the XY Bragg glass form are apparent. At high temperature, the scattering intensity displays pretransitional dynamic fluctuations associated with the destroyed nematic to smectic-A transition. The fluctuations obey quasicritical behavior over an extended range of reduced temperature. The effective critical exponents for the correlation lengths and smectic susceptibility differ systematically from those of pure 8CB, indicating that coupling of the nematic order to the gel suppresses its role in the smectic critical behavior.

  19. Lithium-based surfaces controlling fusion plasma behavior at the plasma-material interface

    SciTech Connect

    Allain, Jean Paul; Taylor, Chase N.

    2012-05-15

    The plasma-material interface and its impact on the performance of magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas are considered to be one of the key scientific gaps in the realization of nuclear fusion power. At this interface, high particle and heat flux from the fusion plasma can limit the material's lifetime and reliability and therefore hinder operation of the fusion device. Lithium-based surfaces are now being used in major magnetic confinement fusion devices and have observed profound effects on plasma performance including enhanced confinement, suppression and control of edge localized modes (ELM), lower hydrogen recycling and impurity suppression. The critical spatial scale length of deuterium and helium particle interactions in lithium ranges between 5-100 nm depending on the incident particle energies at the edge and magnetic configuration. Lithium-based surfaces also range from liquid state to solid lithium coatings on a variety of substrates (e.g., graphite, stainless steel, refractory metal W/Mo/etc., or porous metal structures). Temperature-dependent effects from lithium-based surfaces as plasma facing components (PFC) include magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability issues related to liquid lithium, surface impurity, and deuterium retention issues, and anomalous physical sputtering increase at temperatures above lithium's melting point. The paper discusses the viability of lithium-based surfaces in future burning-plasma environments such as those found in ITER and DEMO-like fusion reactor devices.

  20. Lithium Redistribution in Lithium-Metal Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrese, A; Albertus, P; Christensen, J; Newman, J

    2012-01-01

    A model of a lithium-metal battery with a CoO2 positive electrode has been modeled in order to predict the movement of lithium in the negative electrode along the negative electrode/separator interface during cell cycling. A finite-element approach was used to incorporate an intercalation positive electrode using superposition, electrode tabbing, transport using concentrated solution theory, as well as the net movement of the lithium electrode during cycling. From this model, it has been found that movement of lithium along the negative electrode/separator interface does occur during cycling and is affected by three factors: the cell geometry, the slope of the open-circuit-potential function of the positive electrode, and concentration gradients in both the solid and liquid phases in the cell. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.027210jes] All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  2. Ionic liquids-lithium salts pretreatment followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction of vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside and vitexin from Phyllostachys edulis leaves.

    PubMed

    Hou, Kexin; Chen, Fengli; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei

    2016-01-29

    An efficient method for the extraction of vitexin, vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, and vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside from Phyllostachys edulis leaves comprises heat treatment using an ionic liquid-lithium salt mixture (using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as the solvent and lithium chloride as the additive), followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction. To obtain higher extraction yields, the effects of the relevant experimental parameters (including heat treatment temperature and time, relative amounts of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and lithium chloride, power and time of the ultrasound irradiation, and the liquid-solid ratio) are evaluated and response surface methodology is used to optimize the significant factors. The morphologies of the treated and untreated P. edulis leaves are studied by scanning electron microscopy. The improved extraction method proposed provides high extraction yield, good repeatability and precision, and has wide potential applications in the analysis of plant samples. PMID:26763300

  3. Intrinsic fatigue crack propagation in aluminum-lithium alloys - The effect of gaseous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    Gaseous environmental effects on intrinsic fatigue crack growth are significant for the Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090, peak aged. For both moderate Delta K-low R and low Delta K-high R regimes, crack growth rates decrease according to the environment order: purified water vapor, moist air, helium and oxygen. Gaseous environmental effects are pronounced near threshold and are not closure dominated. Here, embrittlement by low levels of H2O (ppm) supports hydrogen embrittlement and suggests that molecular transport controlled cracking, established for high Delta K-low R, is modified near threshold. Localized crack tip reaction sites or high R crack opening shape may enable the strong, environmental effect at low levels of Delta K. Similar crack growth in He and O2 eliminates the contribution of surface films to fatigue damage in alloy 2090. While 2090 and 7075 exhibit similar environmental trends, the Al-Li-Cu alloy is more resistant to intrinsic corrosion fatigue crack growth.

  4. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  5. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  6. High-power electron beam tests of a liquid-lithium target and characterization study of (7)Li(p,n) near-threshold neutrons for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Cohen, D; Eliyahu, I; Kijel, D; Mardor, I; Silverman, I

    2014-06-01

    A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The target is intended to demonstrate liquid-lithium target capabilities to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals. The lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power >5kW generated by high-intensity proton beams, necessary for sufficient therapeutic neutron flux. In preliminary experiments liquid lithium was flown through the target loop and generated a stable jet on the concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power densities of more than 4kW/cm(2) and volumetric power density around 2MW/cm(3) at a lithium flow of ~4m/s, while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. These power densities correspond to a narrow (σ=~2mm) 1.91MeV, 3mA proton beam. A high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5MeV, 2mA) is being commissioned at the SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator. In order to determine the conditions of LiLiT proton irradiation for BNCT and to tailor the neutron energy spectrum, a characterization of near threshold (~1.91MeV) (7)Li(p,n) neutrons is in progress based on Monte-Carlo (MCNP and Geant4) simulation and on low-intensity experiments with solid LiF targets. In-phantom dosimetry measurements are performed using special designed dosimeters based on CR-39 track detectors. PMID:24387907

  7. Suppression effect of liquid composition on defiltration of nanofluids in lyophobic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, A.; Qiao, Y.

    2007-06-01

    Understanding nanofluidic behaviours in energetically unfavourable confining environments is essential for the development of high-performance nanoporous energy absorption systems. In the current study, the effect of liquid composition on defiltration in a hydrophobic nanoporous silica gel is investigated experimentally using two types of admixtures: carbamide of a relatively small molecular size and sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate of a relatively large molecular size. By adding carbamide in the liquid phase, while the change in the solid-liquid interfacial tension is secondary, the defiltration volume can be lowered significantly, which can be related to the difficulties in gas phase formation and growth in nanopores. The factor of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate comes in mostly by affecting the liquid motions in relatively small nanopores.

  8. Non-contact opto-fluidics-based liquid level sensor for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riza, Nabeel A.; Reza, Syed Azer

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a non-intrusive, non-contact liquid level sensor. The proposed sensor is a free-space-based optical sensor that uses opto-fluidic technology-based agile optics to direct light from a laser source to the Liquid Under Test (LUT). The presented design makes the proposed sensor ideal for use in environments where levels have to be determined for caustic or toxic liquids having a small window interface on the containers carrying them. The proposed design uses very low optical power levels (< 100 μW) making it useful for measuring levels of combustible liquids (e.g., jet fuels) which have a danger of being ignited at higher power levels. The proposed sensor can find potential applications in transportation, chemical and aerospace industries.

  9. Stress-corrosion behavior of aluminum-lithium alloys in aqueous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzo, P. P.; Galvin, R. P.; Nelson, H. G.

    1983-01-01

    The stress corrosion susceptibility of two powder metallurgy (P/M) alloys, Al-Li-Cu and Al-Li-Cu-Mg two mechanically attrited (M/A) alloys, Al-Li-Cu and Al-Li-Mg; and two wrought, ingot alloys, X-2020 and AA7475, are compared. Time-dependent fracture in an aqueous sodium chloride environment under alternate immersion condition was found to vary significantly between alloys. The stress corrosion behavior of the two powder metallurgy processed alloys was studied in detail under conditions of crack initiation, static crack growth, and fatigue crack growth. A variety of stress corrosion tests were performed including smooth surface, time-to-failure tests; potentiostatic tests on smooth surfaces exposed to constant applied strain rates; and fracture mechanics-type tests under static and cyclic loads. Both alloys show surface pitting and subsequent intergranular corrosion. Pitting is more severe in the magnesium-bearing alloy and is associated with stringer particles strung along the extrusion direction as a result of P/M processing.

  10. Stress-corrosion behavior of aluminum-lithium alloys in aqueous salt environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzo, P. P.; Galvin, R. P.; Nelson, H. G.

    1984-01-01

    The stress corrosion susceptibility of two powder metallurgy (P/M) alloys, Al-Li-Cu and Al-Li-Cu-Mg; two mechanically attrited (M/A) alloys, Al-Li-Cu and Al-Li-Mg; and two wrought, ingot alloys, X-2020 and AA7475, are compared. Time-dependent fracture in an aqueous sodium chloride environment under alternate immersion condition was found to vary significantly between alloys. The stress corrosion behavior of the two powder metallurgy processed alloys was studied in detail under conditions of crack initiation, static crack growth, and fatigue crack growth. A variety of stress corrosion tests were performed including smooth surface, time-to-failure tests; potentiostatic tests on smooth surfaces exposed to constant applied strain rates; and fracture mechanics-type tests under static and cyclic loads. Both alloys show surface pitting and subsequent intergranular corrosion. Pitting is more severe in the magnesium-bearing alloy and is associated with stringer particles strung along the extrusion direction as a result of P/M processing.

  11. Optical Mass Gauging System for Measuring Liquid Levels in a Reduced Gravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullenberger, Ryan M.; Munoz, Wesley M.; Lyon, Matt P.; Vogel, Kenny; Yalin, Azer P.; Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    A compact and rugged fiber-coupled liquid volume sensor designed for flight on a sounding rocket platform is presented. The sensor consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer capable of measuring the amount of liquid contained in a tank under any gravitational conditions, including a microgravity environment, by detecting small changes in the index of refraction of the gas contained within a sensing region. By monitoring changes in the interference fringe pattern as the system undergoes a small compression provided by a piston, the ullage volume of a tank can be directly measured allowing for a determination of the liquid volume. To demonstrate the technique, data are acquired using two tanks containing different volumes of liquid, which are representative of the levels of liquid in a tank at different time periods during a mission. The two tanks are independently exposed to the measurement apparatus, allowing for a determination of the liquid level in each. In a controlled, laboratory test of the unit, the system demonstrated a capability of measuring a liquid level in an individual tank of 10.53 mL with a 2% error. The overall random uncertainty for the flight system is higher than that one test, at +/- 1.5 mL.

  12. Chemical feasibility of lithium as a matrix for structural composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swann, R. T.; Esterling, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical compatibility of lithium with tows of carbon and aramid fibers and silicon carbide and boron monofilaments was investigated by encapsulating the fibers in liquid lithium and also by sintering. The lithium did not readily wet the various fibers. In particular, very little lithium infiltration into the carbon and aramid tows was achieved and the strength of the tows was seriously degraded. The strength of the boron and silicon carbide monofilaments, however, was not affected by the liquid lithium. Therefore lithium is not feasible as a matrix for carbon and aramid fibers, but a composite containing boron or silicon carbide fibers in a lithium matrix may be feasible for specialized applications.

  13. PELS (Planetary Environmental Liquid Simulator): a new type of simulation facility to study extraterrestrial aqueous environments.

    PubMed

    Martin, Derek; Cockell, Charles S

    2015-02-01

    Investigations of other planetary bodies, including Mars and icy moons such as Enceladus and Europa, show that they may have hosted aqueous environments in the past and may do so even today. Therefore, a major challenge in astrobiology is to build facilities that will allow us to study the geochemistry and habitability of these extraterrestrial environments. Here, we describe a simulation facility (PELS: Planetary Environmental Liquid Simulator) with the capability for liquid input and output that allows for the study of such environments. The facility, containing six separate sample vessels, allows for statistical replication of samples. Control of pressure, gas composition, UV irradiation conditions, and temperature allows for the precise replication of aqueous conditions, including subzero brines under martian atmospheric conditions. A sample acquisition system allows for the collection of both liquid and solid samples from within the chamber without breaking the atmospheric conditions, enabling detailed studies of the geochemical evolution and habitability of past and present extraterrestrial environments. The facility we describe represents a new frontier in planetary simulation-continuous flow-through simulation of extraterrestrial aqueous environments. PMID:25651097

  14. Mixing characteristics and liquid circulation in a new multi-environment bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Yerushalmi, Laleh; Alimahmoodi, Mahmood; Behzadian, Farnaz; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2013-10-01

    The theoretical and experimental aspects of the hydrodynamics and mixing in a new multi-environment bioreactor that uses the air-lift design were investigated. This study focused on the mixing characteristics, residence time distribution, liquid circulation between three zones of aerobic, microaerophilic and anoxic, and liquid displacement in the bioreactor at influent flow rates of 720-1,450 L/day and air flow rates of 15-45 L/min. The theoretical analysis of liquid displacement led to the estimation of the specific rate of liquid discharge from the bioreactor at any given influent flow rate, and the number of liquid circulations between various bioreactor zones before the discharge of a given quantity of wastewater. The ratio of mean residence time to the overall hydraulic retention time (t m/HRT) decreased with the increase of air flow rate at any given influent flow rate, and approached unity at higher air flow rates. Mixing was characterized in terms of the axial dispersion coefficient and Bodenstein number, demonstrating a linear relationship with the superficial gas velocity. A correlation was developed between the Bodenstein number and the Froude number. The study of liquid circulation between the zones showed that less than 1.5 % of the circulating liquid escapes circulation at each cycle and flows towards the outer clarifier, while the percentage of escaped liquid decreases with increasing air flow rate at a given influent flow rate. The specific rate of liquid discharge from the bioreactor increased from 0.19 to 0.69 h⁻¹ with the increase of air and influent flow rates from 15 to 45 L/min and 500 to 1,450 L/day, respectively. Under the examined operating conditions, mixed liquor circulates between 364 and 1,698 times between the aerobic, microaerophilic and anoxic zones before 99 % of its original volume is replaced by the influent wastewater. PMID:23086548

  15. Improvements in fundamental performance of liquid-environment atomic force microscopy with true atomic resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kazuki; Miyazawa, Keisuke; Akrami, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Fukuma, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    Recently, there have been significant advancements in liquid-environment atomic force microscopy (AFM) with true atomic resolution. The technical advancements are followed by a rapid expansion of its application area. Examples include subnanometer-scale imaging of biological systems and three-dimensional measurements of water distributions (i.e., hydration structures) and fluctuating surface structures. However, to continue this progress, we should improve the fundamental performance of liquid-environment dynamic-mode AFM. The present AFM technique does not allow real-time imaging of atomic-scale dynamic phenomena at a solid-liquid interface. This has hindered atomic-level understanding of crystal growth and dissolution, catalytic reactions and metal corrosion processes. Improvement in force sensitivity is required not only for such a high-speed imaging but also for various surface property measurements using a high-resolution AFM technique. In this review, we summarize recent works on the improvements in the force sensitivity and operation speed of atomic-resolution dynamic-mode AFM for liquid-environment applications.

  16. Compatibility of poly(bisAEA4)-LiTFSI-MPPipTFSI ionic liquid gel polymer electrolyte with Li4Ti5O12 lithium ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepniak, Izabela

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the use of Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) as anode with ionic liquid gel polymer electrolyte (IL-GPE) for application in lithium ion batteries. IL-GPE was obtained by in situ photopolymerization method of a mixture of ethoxylated bisphenol A diacrylate (bis(AEA4) and 0.4 M solution of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MPPipTFSI). The surface morphology of the IL-GPE was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stable, porous and flexible gel polymer electrolyte characterized high ionic conductivity (0.64 mS cm-1 at 25 °C) and a wide electrochemical stability window (ESW) (4.8 V). The performances of LTO/IL-GPE/Li cell were tested by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and galvanostatic charge/discharge. Good charge/discharge capacities and low capacity loss at medium C rates preliminary cycling was obtained.

  17. Liquid-propellant droplet vaporization and combustion in high pressure environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Vigor

    1991-01-01

    In order to correct the deficiencies of existing models for high-pressure droplet vaporization and combustion, a fundamental investigation into this matter is essential. The objective of this research are: (1) to acquire basic understanding of physical and chemical mechanisms involved in the vaporization and combustion of isolated liquid-propellant droplets in both stagnant and forced-convective environments; (2) to establish droplet vaporization and combustion correlations for the study of liquid-propellant spray combustion and two-phase flowfields in rocket motors; and (3) to investigate the dynamic responses of multicomponent droplet vaporization and combustion to ambient flow oscillations.

  18. Normal Impingement of a Circular Liquid Jet onto a Screen in a Weightless Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Symons, E. P.

    1976-01-01

    The normal impingement of a circular liquid jet onto a fine-mesh screen in a weightless environment was investigated. Equations were developed to predict the velocity of the emerging jet on the downstream side of the screen as a function of screen and liquid parameters and of the velocity of the impinging jet. Additionally, the stability of the emerging jet was found to be Weber number dependent. In general, excepting at high velocities, the screen behaved much as a baffle, deflecting the major portion of the impinging flow.

  19. Conductor of high electrical current at high temperature in oxygen and liquid metal environment

    DOEpatents

    Powell, IV, Adam Clayton; Pati, Soobhankar; Derezinski, Stephen Joseph; Lau, Garrett; Pal, Uday B.; Guan, Xiaofei; Gopalan, Srikanth

    2016-01-12

    In one aspect, the present invention is directed to apparatuses for and methods of conducting electrical current in an oxygen and liquid metal environment. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for production of metals from their oxides comprising providing a cathode in electrical contact with a molten electrolyte, providing a liquid metal anode separated from the cathode and the molten electrolyte by a solid oxygen ion conducting membrane, providing a current collector at the anode, and establishing a potential between the cathode and the anode.

  20. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses. PMID:25168309

  1. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M

    2014-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses. PMID:25168309

  2. Simulation of the neutron spectrum from the 7Li(p,n) reaction with a liquid-lithium target at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, M.; Cohen, D.; Paul, M.; Berkovits, D.; Eisen, Y.; Feinberg, G.; Giorginis, G.; Halfon, S.; Krása, A.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Shor, A.

    2013-01-01

    The 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction has been used for the last 25 years to produce quasi-Maxwellian neutrons in order to measure Maxwellian-Averaged Cross-Sections in the relevant temperatures for stellar nucleosynthesis. A liquid-lithium target at the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility is expected to allow us to perform such measurements at higher neutron intensities. Here we describe a Monte Carlo tool, SimLiT, developed to evaluate neutron spectra, intensities and angular distributions resulting from this reaction. We also demonstrate the feasibility to couple SimLiT with an advanced transport code, resulting in a powerful tool for planning and analysis of experiments using the 7Li(p,n) reaction as a neutron source.

  3. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of niobium oxides by solid/liquid state oxygen source and lithium assisted metal-halide chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellekamp, M. Brooks; Greenlee, Jordan D.; Shank, Joshua C.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2015-09-01

    In order to consistently grow high quality niobium oxides and lithium niobium oxides, a novel solid/liquid state oxygen source, LiClO4, has been implemented in a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system. LiClO4 is shown to decompose into both molecular and atomic oxygen upon heating. This allows oxidation rates similar to that of molecular oxygen but at a reduced overall beam flux, quantified by in situ Auger analysis. LiClO4 operation is decomposition limited to less than 400 °C, and other material limitations are identified. The design of a custom near-ambient NbCl5 effusion cell is presented, which improves both short and long term stability. Films of Nb oxidation state +2, +3, and +5 are grown using these new tools, including the multi-functional sub-oxide LiNbO2.

  4. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-08-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses.

  5. Lithium ion conducting PVdF-HFP composite gel electrolytes based on N-methoxyethyl- N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-imide ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, S.; Quartarone, E.; Mustarelli, P.; Magistris, A.; Fagnoni, M.; Protti, S.; Gerbaldi, C.; Spinella, A.

    Blends of PVdF-HFP and ionic liquids (ILs) are interesting for application as electrolytes in plastic Li batteries. They combine the advantages of the gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) swollen by conventional organic liquid electrolytes with the nonflammability, and high thermal and electrochemical stability of ILs. In this work we prepared and characterized PVdF-HFP composite membranes swollen with a solution of LiTFSI in ether-functionalized pyrrolidinium-imide ionic liquid (PYRA 12O1TFSI). The membranes were filled in with two different types of silica: (i) mesoporous SiO 2 (SBA-15) and (ii) a commercial nano-size one (HiSil™ T700). The ionic conductivity and the electrochemical properties of the gel electrolytes were studied in terms of the nature of the filler. The thermal and the transport properties of the composite membranes are similar. In particular, room temperature ionic conductivities higher than 0.25 mS cm -1 are easily obtained at defined filler contents. However, the mesoporous filler guarantees higher lithium transference numbers, a more stable electrochemical interface and better cycling performances. Contrary to the HiSil™-based membrane, the Li/LiFePO 4 cells with PVdF-HFP/PYRA 12O1TFSI-LiTFSI films containing 10 wt% of SBA-15 show good charge/discharge capacity, columbic efficiency close to unity, and low capacity losses at medium C-rates during 180 cycles.

  6. Lithium-sulfur hexafluoride magnetohydrodynamic power system

    SciTech Connect

    Dobran, F.

    1987-02-24

    A method is described to operate a two-phase flow magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation system with liquid lithium and gaseous sulfur-hexafluoride flowing through a diverging channel, with side electrodes to remove the electric current generated in the flowing liquid lithium, across the applied magnetic field that is perpendicular to both the flow velocity and electrodes. Sulfur-hexafluoride is dispersed in the form of small bubbles and reacts with liquid lithium that forms a continuous phase to conduct the current between the electrodes so as to produce a near isothermal two-phase flow mixture and provides for an expansion of lithium across the magnetic field in the generator.

  7. Ultrasonic liquid-level detector for varying temperature and pressure environments

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R.L.; Miller, G.N.

    1981-10-26

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use in varying temperature and pressure environments, such as a pressurized water nuclear reactor vessel, is provided. The detector employs ultrasonic extensional and torsional waves launched in a multiplexed alternating sequence into a common sensor. The sensor is a rectangular cross section stainless steel rod which extends into the liquid medium whose level is to be detected. The sensor temperature derived from the extensional wave velocity measurements is used to compensate for the temperature dependence of the torsional wave velocity measurements which are also level dependent. The torsional wave velocity measurements of a multiple reflection sensor then provide a measurement of liquid level over a range of several meters with a small uncertainty over a temperature range of 20 to 250/sup 0/C and pressures up to 15 MPa.

  8. Thermionic emission and a novel electron collector in a liquid helium environment.

    PubMed

    Fang, J; Dementyev, Anatoly E; Tempere, Jacques; Silvera, Isaac F

    2009-04-01

    We study two techniques to create electrons in a liquid helium environment. One is thermionic emission of tungsten filaments in a low temperature cell in the vapor phase with a superfluid helium film covering all surfaces; the other is operating a glowing filament immersed in bulk liquid helium. We present both the steady state and rapid sweep I-V curves and the electron current yield. These curves, having a negative dynamic resistance region, differ remarkably from those of a vacuum tube filament. A novel low temperature vapor-phase electron collector for which the insulating helium film on the collector surface can be removed is used to measure emission current. We also discuss our achievement of producing multielectron bubbles in liquid helium by a new method. PMID:19405669

  9. Characterizing droplet combustion of pure and multi-component liquid fuels in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Gregory S.; Avedisian, C. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    The importance of understanding the effects of fuel composition, length scales, and other parameters on the combustion of liquid fuels has motivated the examination of simple flames which have easily characterized flow fields and hence, the potential of being modeled accurately. One such flame for liquid fuel combustion is the spherically symmetric droplet flame which can be achieved in an environment with sufficiently low gravity (i.e., low buoyancy). To examine fundamental characteristics of spherically symmetric droplet combustion, a drop tower facility has been employed to provide a microgravity environment to study droplet combustion. This paper gives a brief review of results obtained over the past three years under NASA sponsorship (grant NAG3-987).

  10. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  11. Ionic Liquid-Organic Carbonate Electrolyte Blends To Stabilize Silicon Electrodes for Extending Lithium Ion Battery Operability to 100 °C.

    PubMed

    Ababtain, Khalid; Babu, Ganguli; Lin, Xinrong; Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Grinstaff, Mark W; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy

    2016-06-22

    Fabrication of lithium-ion batteries that operate from room temperature to elevated temperatures entails development and subsequent identification of electrolytes and electrodes. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) can address the thermal stability issues, but their poor ionic conductivity at room temperature and compatibility with traditional graphite anodes limit their practical application. To address these challenges, we evaluated novel high energy density three-dimensional nano-silicon electrodes paired with 1-methyl-1-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pip) ionic liquid/propylene carbonate (PC)/LiTFSI electrolytes. We observed that addition of PC had no detrimental effects on the thermal stability and flammability of the reported electrolytes, while largely improving the transport properties at lower temperatures. Detailed investigation of the electrochemical properties of silicon half-cells as a function of PC content, temperature, and current rates reveal that capacity increases with PC content and temperature and decreases with increased current rates. For example, addition of 20% PC led to a drastic improvement in capacity as observed for the Si electrodes at 25 °C, with stability over 100 charge/discharge cycles. At 100 °C, the capacity further increases by 3-4 times to 0.52 mA h cm(-2) (2230 mA h g(-1)) with minimal loss during cycling. PMID:27237138

  12. Nonadiabatic hybrid quantum and molecular mechanic simulations of azobenzene photoswitching in bulk liquid environment.

    PubMed

    Böckmann, Marcus; Doltsinis, Nikos L; Marx, Dominik

    2010-01-21

    A nonadiabatic hybrid quantum and molecular mechanical (na-QM/MM) molecular dynamics scheme has been implemented recently combining the nonadiabatic Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics method by Doltsinis and Marx [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2002, 88, 166402] with the QM/MM coupling approach by Laio et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 2002, 116, 6941]. Here an extensive validation of the underlying, density functional theory based, electronic structure methods by comparison to CASPT2 ab initio data is presented for the case of azobenzene. The "on the fly" na-QM/MM method is then applied to study Z-->E and E-->Z photoisomerization of azobenzene in a bulk liquid environment. The isomerization mechanism is found to be a pedal motion of the central CN horizontal lineNC group in both cases. While the Z-->E reaction is barely affected by the environment, E-->Z photoisomerization is slowed down considerably in the liquid compared to the gas phase. This effect is due to the fact that reorientation of the phenyl rings is significantly hindered in the liquid by steric nearest neighbor interactions. Nonradiative decay is found to be substantially faster for Z-AB (subpicosecond regime) than for E-AB (picosecond regime). The main molecular motions responsible for nonadiabatic coupling have been identified as the oscillations in the NN and CN bond lengths, the CNN bond angles, and the CNNC dihedral angle. PMID:19928885

  13. Effect of spherical Au nanoparticles on nanofriction and wear reduction in dry and liquid environments

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Summary Nano-object additives are used in tribological applications as well as in various applications in liquids requiring controlled manipulation and targeting. On the macroscale, nanoparticles in solids and liquids have been shown to reduce friction and wear. On the nanoscale, atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies have been performed in single- and multiple-nanoparticle contact, in dry environments, to characterize friction forces and wear. However, limited studies in submerged liquid environments have been performed and further studies are needed. In this paper, spherical Au nanoparticles were studied for their effect on friction and wear under dry conditions and submerged in water. In single-nanoparticle contact, individual nanoparticles, deposited on silicon, were manipulated with a sharp tip and the friction force was determined. Multiple-nanoparticle contact sliding experiments were performed on nanoparticle-coated silicon with a glass sphere. Wear tests were performed on the nanoscale with AFM as well as on the macroscale by using a ball-on-flat tribometer to relate friction and wear reduction on the nanoscale and macroscale. Results indicate that the addition of Au nanoparticles reduces friction and wear. PMID:23213639

  14. Analysis of secondary cells with lithium anodes and immobilized fused-salt electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, E. J.; Rogers, G. L.; Shimotake, H.

    1969-01-01

    Secondary cells with liquid lithium anodes, liquid bismuth or tellurium cathodes, and fused lithium halide electrolytes immobilized as rigid pastes operate between 380 and 485 degrees. Applications include power sources in space, military vehicle propulsion and special commercial vehicle propulsion.

  15. Fabrication and performance testing of CaO insulator coatings on V-5%Cr-5%Ti in liquid lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Dragel, G.

    1995-04-01

    Corrosion resistance of structural materials, and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force and its influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion, are major concerns in the design of liquid-metal blankets for magnetic fusion reactors (MFRs). The objective of this study is to develop in-situ stable coatings at the liquid-metal/structural-material interface, with emphasis on coatings that can be converted to an electrically insulating film to prevent adverse currents that are generated by the MHD force from passing through the structural walls. The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V-5Cr-5Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5 - 8.5 wt.% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degree}C. The solute element, Ca in liquid Li, reacted with the alloy substrate at 400-420{degree}C to produce a CaO coating.

  16. Fabrication of Laser-reduced Graphene Oxide in Liquid Nitrogen Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Y. C.; Fang, Y. W.; Lim, G. C.; Zheng, H. Y.; Hong, M. H.

    2016-06-01

    Porous structure of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) plays an important role in developing flexible graphene-based devices. In this work, we report a novel methodology for reduction of freestanding graphite oxide (GO) sheet by picosecond pulse laser direct writing in liquid nitrogen. Non-agglomerate and porous structure of rGO is fabricated successfully due to frozen effect during laser processing. Compared with laser-irradiated rGO developed in N2 gas at ambient environment, the frozen rGO developed in liquid N2 shows better ordered structure with less defects, crack-free morphology as well as better electron supercapacitor performance including 50–60 Ω/sq in sheet electrical resistance. Mechanism of cryotemperature photoreduction GO is also discussed.

  17. Fabrication of Laser-reduced Graphene Oxide in Liquid Nitrogen Environment.

    PubMed

    Guan, Y C; Fang, Y W; Lim, G C; Zheng, H Y; Hong, M H

    2016-01-01

    Porous structure of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) plays an important role in developing flexible graphene-based devices. In this work, we report a novel methodology for reduction of freestanding graphite oxide (GO) sheet by picosecond pulse laser direct writing in liquid nitrogen. Non-agglomerate and porous structure of rGO is fabricated successfully due to frozen effect during laser processing. Compared with laser-irradiated rGO developed in N2 gas at ambient environment, the frozen rGO developed in liquid N2 shows better ordered structure with less defects, crack-free morphology as well as better electron supercapacitor performance including 50-60 Ω/sq in sheet electrical resistance. Mechanism of cryotemperature photoreduction GO is also discussed. PMID:27345474

  18. Fabrication of Laser-reduced Graphene Oxide in Liquid Nitrogen Environment

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Y. C.; Fang, Y. W.; Lim, G. C.; Zheng, H. Y.; Hong, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Porous structure of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) plays an important role in developing flexible graphene-based devices. In this work, we report a novel methodology for reduction of freestanding graphite oxide (GO) sheet by picosecond pulse laser direct writing in liquid nitrogen. Non-agglomerate and porous structure of rGO is fabricated successfully due to frozen effect during laser processing. Compared with laser-irradiated rGO developed in N2 gas at ambient environment, the frozen rGO developed in liquid N2 shows better ordered structure with less defects, crack-free morphology as well as better electron supercapacitor performance including 50–60 Ω/sq in sheet electrical resistance. Mechanism of cryotemperature photoreduction GO is also discussed. PMID:27345474

  19. Community structure and antibiotic production of Streptomyces nodosus bioreactors cultured in liquid environments

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Tanya; Nikodinovic, Jasmina; Nakazono, Chojin; Dennis, Gary R.; Barrow, Kevin D.; Chuck, Jo‐Anne

    2008-01-01

    Summary Immobilized bacteria are being assessed by industry for drug delivery, novel fermentation systems and the protection of organisms in harsh environments. Alginate bioreactors containing Streptomyces nodosus were examined for community structure, cell viability and amphotericin production under different growth conditions. When cell proliferation was encouraged, substrate hyphae were found inside the alginate matrix and within multicellular projections on the surface of the capsule. The periphery of these projections had erect and branched hyphae, morphologically identical to aerial hyphae. Antibiotic production from immobilized organisms was assessed using conditioned culture medium to eliminate the emergence of a free‐dwelling population. These organisms sporulated with reduced antibiotic production compared with free‐dwelling cultures. The commitment to sporulate was independent of a surface but dependent on community size and nutritional status. This is the first report of the sporulation of S. nodosus in liquid cultures and description of the multicellular community the organism adopts at a solid–liquid interface. PMID:21261857

  20. CaO insulator coatings and self-healing of defects on V-Cr-Ti alloys in liquid lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Kassner, T.F.

    1996-02-01

    Electrically insulating and corrosion-resistant coatings are required at the liquid metal/structural interface in fusion first-wall/blanket applications. The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V-5%Cr-5%Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5--85 wt.% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degrees}C. The solute element, Ca in liquid Li, reacted with the alloy substrate at 400--420{degrees}C to produce a CaO coating. Resistance of the coating layer measured in-situ in liquid Li was {approx}10{sup 6} {Omega} at 400{degrees}C. Thermal cycling between 300 and 700{degrees}C changed the coating layer resistance. which followed insulator behavior. These results suggest that thin homogeneous coatings can be produced on variously shaped surfaces by controlling the exposure time, temperature, and composition of the liquid metal. The technique can be applied to various shapes(e.g., inside/outside of tubes, complex geometrical shapes) because the coating is formed by liquid-phase reaction. Examination of the specimens after cooling to room temperature revealed no spallation, but homogeneous crazing cracks were present in the CaO coating. Additional tests to investigate the in-situ self-healing behavior of the cracks indicated that rapid healing occurred at {ge}360{degrees}C.

  1. Ultrafast and scalable laser liquid synthesis of tin oxide nanotubes and its application in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhikun; Cao, Zeyuan; Deng, Biwei; Wang, Yuefeng; Shao, Jiayi; Kumar, Prashant; Liu, C. Richard; Wei, Bingqing; Cheng, Gary J.

    2014-05-01

    Laser-induced photo-chemical synthesis of SnO2 nanotubes has been demonstrated by employing a nanoporous polycarbonate membrane as a template. The SnO2 nanotube diameter can be controlled by the nanoporous template while the nanotube length can be tuned by laser parameters and reaction duration. The microstructure characterization of the nanotubes indicates that they consist of mesoporous structures with sub 5 nm size nanocrystals connected by the twinning structure. The application of SnO2 nanotubes as an anode material in lithium ion batteries has also been explored, and they exhibited high capacity and excellent cyclic stability. The laser based emerging technique for scalable production of crystalline metal oxide nanotubes in a matter of seconds is remarkable. The compliance of the laser based technique with the existing technologies would lead to mass production of novel nanomaterials that would be suitable for several emerging applications.Laser-induced photo-chemical synthesis of SnO2 nanotubes has been demonstrated by employing a nanoporous polycarbonate membrane as a template. The SnO2 nanotube diameter can be controlled by the nanoporous template while the nanotube length can be tuned by laser parameters and reaction duration. The microstructure characterization of the nanotubes indicates that they consist of mesoporous structures with sub 5 nm size nanocrystals connected by the twinning structure. The application of SnO2 nanotubes as an anode material in lithium ion batteries has also been explored, and they exhibited high capacity and excellent cyclic stability. The laser based emerging technique for scalable production of crystalline metal oxide nanotubes in a matter of seconds is remarkable. The compliance of the laser based technique with the existing technologies would lead to mass production of novel nanomaterials that would be suitable for several emerging applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr

  2. Effect of a Surrounding Liquid Environment on the Electrical Disruption of Pendant Droplets.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A Said; Lopez-Herrera, Jose M; Herrada, Miguel A; Modesto-Lopez, Luis B; Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M

    2016-07-12

    The effect of a surrounding, dielectric, liquid environment on the dynamics of a suddenly electrified liquid drop is investigated both numerically and experimentally. The onset of stability of the droplet is naturally dictated by a threshold value of the applied electric field. While below that threshold the droplet retains its integrity, reaching to a new equilibrium state through damped oscillations (subcritical regime), above it electrical disruption takes place (supercritical regime). In contrast to the oscillation regime, the dynamics of the electric droplet disruption in the supercritical regime reveals a variety of modes. Depending on the operating parameters and fluid properties, a drop in the supercritical regime may result in the well-known tip streaming mode (with and without whipping instability), in droplet splitting (splitting mode), or in the development of a steep shoulder at the elongating front of the droplet that expands radially in a sort of "splashing" (splashing mode). In both splitting and splashing modes, the sizes of the progeny droplets, generated after the breakup of the mother droplet, are comparable to that of the mother droplet. Furthermore, the development in the emission process of the shoulder leading to the splashing mode is described as a parametrical bifurcation, and the parameter governing that bifurcation has been identified. Physical analysis confirms the unexpected experimental finding that the viscosity of the dynamically active environment is absent in the governing parameter. However, the appearance of the splitting mode is determined by the viscosity of the outer environment, when that viscosity overcomes a certain large value. These facts point to the highly nonlinear character of the drop fission process as a function of the droplet volume, inner and outer liquid viscosities, and applied electric field. These observations may have direct implications in systems where precise control of the droplet size is critical, such

  3. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of brass in a dry and liquid-confined environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Shazia; Vaheed, Hamza; Mahmood, Khaliq

    2013-02-01

    The effect of ambient environment (dry or wet) and overlapping laser pulses on the laser ablation performance of brass has been investigated. For this purpose, a Q-switched, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser with a wavelength of 532 nm, pulse energy of 150 mJ, pulse width of 6 ns and repetition rate of 10 Hz is employed. In order to explore the effect of ambient environments, brass targets have been exposed in deionized water, methanol and air. The targets are exposed for 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 succeeding pulses in each atmosphere. The surface morphology and chemical composition of ablated targets have been characterized by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) techniques. In case of liquid environment, various features like nano- and micro-scale laser-induced periodic surface structures with periodicity 500 nm-1 μm, cavities of size few micrometers with multiple ablative layers and phenomenon of thermal stress cracking are observed. These features are originated by various chemical and thermal phenomena induced by laser heating at the liquid-solid interfaces. The convective bubble motion, explosive boiling, pressure gradients, cluster and colloid formation due to confinement effects of liquids are possible cause for such kind of features. The metal oxides and alcohol formed on irradiated surface are also playing the significant role for the formation of these kinds of structure. In case of air one huge crater is formed along with the redeposition of sputtered material and is ascribed to laser-induced evaporation and oxide formation.

  4. CaO insulator and Be intermetallic coatings on V-base alloys for liquid-lithium fusion blanket applications

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Kassner, T.F.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this study is to develop (a) stable CaO insulator coatings at the Liquid-Li/structural-material interface, with emphasis on electrically insulating coating that prevent adverse MHD-generated currents from passing through the V-alloy wall, and (b) stable Be-V intermetallic coating for first-wall components that face the plasma. Electrically insulating and corrosion-resistant coatings are required at the liquid-Li/structural interface in fusion first-wall/blanket application. The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on oxygen-enriched surface layers of V-5%Cr-5%Ti by exposing the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5-85 wt% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degrees}C. Crack-free Be{sub 2}V intermetallic coatings were also produced by exposing V-alloys to liquid Li that contained Be as a solute. These techniques can be applied to various shapes (e.g., inside/outside of tubes, complex geometrical shapes) because the coatings are formed by liquid-phase reactions.

  5. Biological membrane modeling with a liquid/liquid interface. Probing mobility and environment with total internal reflection excited fluorescence.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, L E; Weber, G

    1987-01-01

    Total internal reflection of exciting light, in combination with fluorescence intensity and polarization measurements, was used to selectively study fluorescent compounds adsorbed to the interface region between two immiscible liquids. A fluorometer was constructed which provided excitation at variable angles of incidence and allowed sensitive detection of polarized fluorescence emitted from the interface. The compound 4,4'-bis-1-phenylamino-8-naphthalenesulfonate (bis-ANS) was examined at a decalin/water interface and was found to possess remarkable affinity for the interface region with the bulk of the adsorbed molecule residing in the decalin phase. The adsorbed fluorophore displayed an apparent hindered rotation in the plane of the interface with a rotational diffusion coefficient 3- to 12-fold lower than that expected for bis-ANS in solution. While other dyes examined were not found to be significantly surface active, the addition of cationic surfactant sufficed to induce adsorption of the anionic fluorophore 1-aminonaphthalene-3,6,8-trisulfonic acid. This fluoropore was found to reside in an aqueous environment when bound to the interface, and it also exhibited hindered rotation in the plane of the interface. As the concentrations of the dyes were increased, both adsorbed dyes exhibited polarization reductions consistent with excitation energy transfer. Adsorption of bis-ANS was reversed by addition of bovine serum albumin. The membrane protein cytochrome b5 was found not to bind at the decalin/water interface, indicating that interaction with lipid is required for its adherence to biological membranes. PMID:3651556

  6. High Resolution Electromechanical Imaging of Ferroelectric Materials in a Liquid Environment by Piezoresponse Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Brian J; Jesse, Stephen; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution imaging of ferroelectric materials using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is demonstrated in an aqueous environment. The elimination of both long-range electrostatic forces and capillary interactions results in a localization of the ac field to the tip-surface junction and allows the tip-surface contact area to be controlled. This approach results in spatial resolutions approaching the limit of the intrinsic domain-wall width. Imaging at frequencies corresponding to high-order cantilever resonances minimizes the viscous damping and added mass effects on cantilever dynamics and allows sensitivities comparable to ambient conditions. PFM in liquids will provide novel opportunities for high-resolution studies of ferroelectric materials, imaging of soft polymer materials, and imaging of biological systems in physiological environments on, ultimately, the molecular level.

  7. Differential dynamic behaviors of undulatory nematodes in liquid vs. soft gel environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Sung; Shin, Jennifer H.

    2015-03-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is an undulatory nematode which exhibits two distinct locomotion types of swimming and crawling. Although in its natural habitat C. elegans lives in complex fluidic environment, our current understanding has been limited to the behavior of C. elegans in a simple Newtonian fluid. Here, we present some experimental results on the penetrating behavior of C. elegans at the interface from liquid to solid environment. Once C. elegans, which otherwise swims freely in a liquid, makes a contact to the solid gel boundary, it begins to penetrate vertically to the surface by changing its stroke motion characterized by a stiffer body shape and a slow stroke frequency. The particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis reveals the flow streamlines produced by the stroke of worm. For the worm that crawls on a solid surface, we utilize a technique of traction force microscopy (TFM) to find that the crawling nematode forms localized force islands along the body where makes direct contacts to the gel surface. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) Grant 2013R1A1A2012420 and 2010-0016886.

  8. In situ SEM observation of the Si negative electrode reaction in an ionic-liquid-based lithium-ion secondary battery.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Tetsuya; Kanetsuku, Tsukasa; Sano, Teruki; Oshima, Yoshifumi; Ui, Koichi; Yamagata, Masaki; Ishikawa, Masashi; Kuwabata, Susumu

    2015-06-01

    By exploiting characteristics such as negligible vapour pressure and ion-conductive nature of an ionic liquid (IL), we established an in situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) method to observe the electrode reaction in the IL-based Li-ion secondary battery (LIB). When 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide ([C2mim][FSA]) with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (Li[TFSA]) was used as the electrolyte, the Si negative electrode exhibited a clear morphology change during the charge process, without any solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formation, while in the discharge process, the appearance was slightly changed, suggesting that a morphology change is irreversible in the charge-discharge process. On the other hand, the use of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([C2mim][TFSA]) with Li[TFSA] did not induce a change in the Si negative electrode. It is interesting to note this distinct contrast, which could be attributed to SEI layer formation from the electrochemical breakdown of [C2mim](+) at the Si negative electrode|separator interface in the [C2mim][TFSA]-based LIB. This in situ SEM observation technique could reveal the effect of the IL species electron-microscopically on the Si negative electrode reaction. PMID:25688094

  9. Effects of compatibility of polymer binders with solvate ionic liquid electrolytes on discharge and charge reactions of lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Toshitada; Ikoma, Ai; Kido, Ryosuke; Ueno, Kazuhide; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2016-03-01

    Electrochemical reactions in Li-S cells with a solvate ionic liquid (SIL) electrolyte composed of tetraglyme (G4) and Li[TFSA] (TFSA: bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide) are studied. The sulfur cathode (S cathode) comprises sulfur, carbon powder, and a polymer binder. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA-x) with different degrees of saponification (x%) are used as binders to prepare the composite cathodes. For the Li-S cell containing PEO binder, lithium polysulfides (Li2Sm, 2 ≤ m ≤ 8), reaction intermediates of the S cathode, dissolve into the electrolyte, and Li2Sm acts as a redox shuttle in the Li-S cell. In contrast, in the Li-S cell with PVA-x binder, the dissolution of Li2Sm is suppressed, leading to high columbic efficiencies during charge-discharge cycles. The compatibility of the PVA-x binder with the SIL electrolyte changes depending on the degree of saponification. Decreasing the degree of saponification leads to increased electrolyte uptake by the PVA-x binder, increasing the charge and discharge capacities of Li-S cell. The rate capability of Li-S cell is also enhanced by the partial swelling of the PVA-x binder. The enhanced performance of Li-S cell containing PVA-x is attributed to the lowering of resistance of Li+ ion transport in the composite cathode.

  10. One-pot synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite in ionic liquid-based solution and its application for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Changdong Zhang, Heng; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite. • Synthesis performed in a choline chloride-based ionic liquid. • The composite shows an enhanced cycling stability as anode for Li-ion batteries. • 4 nm SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. - Abstract: A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite which involves an ultrasonic-assistant oxidation–reduction reaction between Sn{sup 2+} and graphene oxide in a choline chloride–ethylene glycol based ionic liquid under ambient conditions. The reaction solution is non-corrosive and environmental-friendly. Moreover, the proposed technique does not require complicated infrastructures and heat treatment. The SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite consists of about 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with cassiterite structure mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. As anode for lithium-ion batteries, the SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite shows a satisfying cycling stability (535 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles @100 mA g{sup −1}), which is significantly prior to the bare 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanocrsytals. The graphene sheets in the hybrid nanostructure could provide a segmentation effect to alleviate the volume expansion of the SnO{sub 2} and restrain the small and active Sn-based particles aggregating into larger and inactive clusters during cycling.