Pressure Driven Liquid-Vapor Phase Transitions
Tianshi Lu; Roman Samulyak; James Glimm
2006-01-01
Liquid-vapor phase transitions driven by pressure waves have been studied analytically and numerically. The Stefan problem has been extended to incorporate the compressibility of the vapor phase. Both internal heat conduction and external heat deposition (such as from electrons in tokamak fusion reactors) have been considered. The steady state and the transient waves in the phase transitions have been investigated.
Phase transitions in superconductor liquid crystals
Daniel G. Barci; Eduardo Fradkin
2011-03-02
We study properties of phase transitions of 2D superconductor liquid crystal phases, and analyze the competition between the recently proposed Pair Density Wave (PDW) and nematic $4e$ superconductor ($4e$SC). Nematic fluctuations enhance the $4e$SC and suppress the PDW phase. In the absence of lattice effects, the PDW state exists only at T=0 and the low temperature phase is a nematic $4e$SC with short ranged PDW order. A geometric description of the $4e$ SC is presented.
MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF LIQUID-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION
Faccanoni, Gloria
Rods G. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION 2 / 23 #12;Model Numerical Method Numerical. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION 2 / 23 #12;Model Numerical Method Numerical Tests Conclusion Numerical Method 3 Numerical Tests 4 Conclusion G. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION 4 / 23
Spin liquids, exotic phases and phase transitions
Ran, Ying
2007-01-01
Spin liquid, or featureless Mott-Insulator, is a theoretical state of matter firstly motivated from study on High-Tc superconductor. The most striking property of spin liquids is that they do not break any physical symmetry, ...
Theory of Banana Liquid Crystal Phases and Phase Transitions
Tom Lubensky; Leo Radzihovsky
2002-05-08
We study phases and phase transitions that can take place in the newly discovered banana (bow-shaped or bent-core) liquid crystal molecules. We show that to completely characterize phases exhibited by such bent-core molecules a third-rank tensor $T^{ijk}$ order parameter is necessary in addition to the vector and the nematic (second-rank) tensor order parameters. We present an exhaustive list of possible liquid phases, characterizing them by their space-symmetry group and order parameters, and catalog the universality classes of the corresponding phase transitions that we expect to take place in such bent-core molecular liquid crystals. In addition to the conventional liquid-crystal phases such as the nematic phase, we predict the existence of novel liquid phases, including the spontaneously chiral nematic $(N_T + 2)^*$ and chiral polar $(V_T + 2)^*$ phases, the orientationally-ordered but optically isotropic tetrahedratic $T$ phase, and a novel nematic $N_T$ phase with $D_{2d}$ symmetry that is neither uniaxial nor biaxial. Interestingly, the Isotropic-Tetrahedratic transition is {\\em continuous} in mean-field theory, but is likely driven first-order by thermal fluctuations. We conclude with a discussion of smectic analogs of these phases and their experimental signatures.
Nonextensive Nuclear Liquid-Gas Phase Transition
A. Lavagno; D. Pigato
2013-07-07
We study an effective relativistic mean-field model of nuclear matter with arbitrary proton fraction at finite temperature in the framework of nonextensive statistical mechanics, characterized by power-law quantum distributions. We investigate the presence of thermodynamic instability in a warm and asymmetric nuclear medium and study the consequent nuclear liquid-gas phase transition by requiring the Gibbs conditions on the global conservation of baryon number and electric charge fraction. We show that nonextensive statistical effects play a crucial role in the equation of state and in the formation of mixed phase also for small deviations from the standard Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics.
Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition and Glass Transition in a Monoatomic Model System
Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Stanley, H. Eugene
2010-01-01
We review our recent study on the polyamorphism of the liquid and glass states in a monatomic system, a two-scale spherical-symmetric Jagla model with both attractive and repulsive interactions. This potential with a parametrization for which crystallization can be avoided and both the glass transition and the liquid-liquid phase transition are clearly separated, displays water-like anomalies as well as polyamorphism in both liquid and glassy states, providing a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the liquid-liquid phase transition and the glass transition. Our study on a simple model may be useful in understanding recent studies of polyamorphism in metallic glasses. PMID:21614201
Liquid-liquid phase transition and glass transition in a monoatomic model system.
Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Stanley, H Eugene
2010-01-01
We review our recent study on the polyamorphism of the liquid and glass states in a monatomic system, a two-scale spherical-symmetric Jagla model with both attractive and repulsive interactions. This potential with a parametrization for which crystallization can be avoided and both the glass transition and the liquid-liquid phase transition are clearly separated, displays water-like anomalies as well as polyamorphism in both liquid and glassy states, providing a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the liquid-liquid phase transition and the glass transition. Our study on a simple model may be useful in understanding recent studies of polyamorphism in metallic glasses. PMID:21614201
MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF LIQUID-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION
Faccanoni, Gloria
Rods G. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION 2 / 23 #12;Model Numerical Method Numerical://www.spaceflight.esa.int/users/fluids/TT_boiling.htm G. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION 3 / 23 #12;Model Numerical Method Numerical Tests Conclusion OUTLINE 1 Model 2 Numerical Method 3 Numerical Tests 4 Conclusion G. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE
Phase transition in liquid drop fragmentation.
Moukarzel, Cristian F; Fernández-Sabido, Silvia F; Ruiz-Suárez, J C
2007-06-01
A liquid droplet is fragmented by a sudden pressurized-gas blow, and the resulting droplets, adhered to the window of a flatbed scanner, are counted and sized by computerized means. The use of a scanner plus image recognition software enables us to automatically count and size up to tens of thousands of tiny droplets with a smallest detectable volume of approximately 0.02 nl . Upon varying the gas pressure, a critical value is found where the size distribution becomes a pure power law, a fact that is indicative of a phase transition. Away from this transition, the resulting size distributions are well described by Fisher's model at coexistence. It is found that the sign of the surface correction term changes sign, and the apparent power-law exponent tau has a steep minimum, at criticality, as previously reported in nuclear multifragmentation studies. We argue that the observed transition is not percolative, and introduce the concept of dominance in order to characterize it. The dominance probability is found to go to zero sharply at the transition. Simple arguments suggest that the correlation length exponent is nu=1/2 . The sizes of the largest and average fragments, on the other hand, do not go to zero abruptly but behave in a way that appears to be consistent with recent predictions of Ashurst and Holian. PMID:17677240
Phase transition in liquid drop fragmentation
Moukarzel, Cristian F.; Fernandez-Sabido, Silvia F.; Ruiz-Suarez, J. C.
2007-06-15
A liquid droplet is fragmented by a sudden pressurized-gas blow, and the resulting droplets, adhered to the window of a flatbed scanner, are counted and sized by computerized means. The use of a scanner plus image recognition software enables us to automatically count and size up to tens of thousands of tiny droplets with a smallest detectable volume of approximately 0.02 nl. Upon varying the gas pressure, a critical value is found where the size distribution becomes a pure power law, a fact that is indicative of a phase transition. Away from this transition, the resulting size distributions are well described by Fisher's model at coexistence. It is found that the sign of the surface correction term changes sign, and the apparent power-law exponent {tau} has a steep minimum, at criticality, as previously reported in nuclear multifragmentation studies. We argue that the observed transition is not percolative, and introduce the concept of dominance in order to characterize it. The dominance probability is found to go to zero sharply at the transition. Simple arguments suggest that the correlation length exponent is {nu}=1/2. The sizes of the largest and average fragments, on the other hand, do not go to zero abruptly but behave in a way that appears to be consistent with recent predictions of Ashurst and Holian.
Fission and Nuclear Liquid-Gas Phase Transition
E. A. Cherepanov; V. A. Karnaukhov
2007-03-30
The temperature dependence of the liquid-drop fission barrier is considered, the critical temperature for the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter being a parameter. Experimental and calculated data on the fission probability are compared for highly excited $^{188}$Os. The calculations have been made in the framework of the statistical model. It is concluded that the critical temperature for the nuclear liquid--gas phase transition is higher than 16 MeV.
MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF LIQUID-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION
Helluy, Philippe
and the phase change are implicit (; S) coherence with classical thermodynamics [H. Callen] G. Faccanoni DNS enthalpy (Gibbs potential). G. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION 7 / 20 #12;Model Numerical =T s > 0 pressure, g def = +P -T s free enthalpy (Gibbs potential). G. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE
Polymorphism in glassy silicon: Inherited from liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled liquid
Zhang, Shiliang; Wang, Li-Min; Zhang, Xinyu; Qi, Li; Zhang, Suhong; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping
2015-01-01
Combining molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and Voronoi polyhedral analyses, we discussed the microstructure evolution in liquid and glassy silicon during cooling by focusing on the fraction of various clusters. Liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) is detected in supercooled liquid silicon However, freezing the high-density liquid (HDL) to the glassy state is not achieved as the quenching rate goes up to 1014?K/s. The polyamorphism in glassy silicon is found to be mainly associated with low-density liquid (LDL). PMID:25716054
Polymorphism in glassy silicon: Inherited from liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shiliang; Wang, Li-Min; Zhang, Xinyu; Qi, Li; Zhang, Suhong; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping
2015-02-01
Combining molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and Voronoi polyhedral analyses, we discussed the microstructure evolution in liquid and glassy silicon during cooling by focusing on the fraction of various clusters. Liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) is detected in supercooled liquid silicon However, freezing the high-density liquid (HDL) to the glassy state is not achieved as the quenching rate goes up to 1014 K/s. The polyamorphism in glassy silicon is found to be mainly associated with low-density liquid (LDL).
Polymorphism in glassy silicon: inherited from liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled liquid.
Zhang, Shiliang; Wang, Li-Min; Zhang, Xinyu; Qi, Li; Zhang, Suhong; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping
2015-01-01
Combining molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and Voronoi polyhedral analyses, we discussed the microstructure evolution in liquid and glassy silicon during cooling by focusing on the fraction of various clusters. Liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) is detected in supercooled liquid silicon However, freezing the high-density liquid (HDL) to the glassy state is not achieved as the quenching rate goes up to 10(14) K/s. The polyamorphism in glassy silicon is found to be mainly associated with low-density liquid (LDL). PMID:25716054
The liquid to vapor phase transition in excited nuclei
Elliott, J.B.; Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Korteling, R.G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lefort, T.; Pienkowski, L.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V.E.; Yennello, S.J.
2001-05-08
For many years it has been speculated that excited nuclei would undergo a liquid to vapor phase transition. For even longer, it has been known that clusterization in a vapor carries direct information on the liquid-vapor equilibrium according to Fisher's droplet model. Now the thermal component of the 8 GeV/c pion + 197 Au multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration is shown to follow the scaling predicted by Fisher's model, thus providing the strongest evidence yet of the liquid to vapor phase transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schirò, Giorgio; Fomina, Margarita; Cupane, Antonio
2013-09-01
In this work, we compare experimental data on myoglobin hydrated powders from elastic neutron scattering, broadband dielectric spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Our aim is to obtain new insights on the connection between the protein dynamical transition, a fundamental phenomenon observed in proteins whose physical origin is highly debated, and the liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) possibly occurring in protein hydration water and related to the existence of a low temperature critical point in supercooled water. Our results provide a consistent thermodynamic/dynamic description which gives experimental support to the LLPT hypothesis and further reveals how fundamental properties of water and proteins are tightly related.
Interpenetration as a mechanism for liquid-liquid phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Chia Wei; Starr, Francis W.
2009-04-01
We study simple lattice systems to demonstrate the influence of interpenetrating bond networks on phase behavior. We promote interpenetration by using a Hamiltonian with a weakly repulsive interaction with nearest neighbors and an attractive interaction with second-nearest neighbors. In this way, bond networks will form between second-nearest neighbors, allowing for two (locally) distinct networks to form. We obtain the phase behavior from analytic solution in the mean-field approximation and exact solution on the Bethe lattice. We compare these results with exact numerical results for the phase behavior from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations on square, cubic, and tetrahedral lattices. All results show that these simple systems exhibit rich phase diagrams with two fluid-fluid critical points and three thermodynamically distinct phases. We also consider including third-nearest-neighbor interactions, which give rise to a phase diagram with four critical points and five thermodynamically distinct phases. Thus the interpenetration mechanism provides a simple route to generate multiple liquid phases in single-component systems, such as hypothesized in water and observed in several model and experimental systems. Additionally, interpenetration of many such networks appears plausible in a recently considered material made from nanoparticles functionalized by single-strands of DNA.
Synthesis and Liquid Crystal Phase Transitions of Zirconium Phosphate Disks
Shuai, Min
2013-05-07
-shaped nanoparticles, and use it for the study of self-assembly and discotic liquid crystal phase transitions of discotic particles. The work was introduced by the control over the size and polydispersity of zirconium phosphate (ZrP) disks through synthesis...
Phase transition in liquid drop fragmentation
Cristian F. Moukarzel; Silvia F. Fernandez-Sabido; J. C. Ruiz-Suarez
2007-01-01
A liquid droplet is fragmented by a sudden pressurized-gas blow, and the resulting droplets, adhered to the window of a flatbed scanner, are counted and sized by computerized means. The use of a scanner plus image recognition software enables us to automatically count and size up to tens of thousands of tiny droplets with a smallest detectable volume of approximately
Liquid-liquid phase transitions and water-like anomalies in liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lascaris, Erik
In this thesis we employ computer simulations and statistical physics to understand the origin of liquid-liquid phase transitions and their relationship with anomalies typical of liquid water. Compared with other liquids, water has many anomalies. For example the density anomaly: when water is cooled below 4 °C the density decreases rather than increases. This and other anomalies have also been found to occur in a few other one-component liquids, sometimes in conjunction with the existence of a liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) between a low-density liquid (LDL) and a high-density liquid (HDL). Using simple models we explain how these anomalies arise from the presence of two competing length scales. As a specific example we investigate the cut ramp potential, where we show the importance of "competition" in this context, and how one length scale can sometimes be zero. When there is a clear energetic preference for either LDL or HDL for all pressures and temperatures, then there is insufficient competition between the two liquid structures and no anomalies occur. From the simple models it also follows that anomalies can occur without the presence of a LLPT and vice versa. It remains therefore unclear if water has a LLPT that ends in a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP), a hypothesis that was first proposed based on simulations of the ST2 water model. We confirm the existence of a LLCP in this model using finite size scaling and the Challa-Landau-Binder parameter, and show that the LLPT is not a liquid-crystal transition, as has recently been suggested. Previous research has indicated the possible existence of a LLCP in liquid silica. We perform a detailed analysis of two different silica models (WAC and BKS) at temperatures much lower than was previously simulated. Within the accessible temperature range we find no LLCP in either model, although in the case of WAC potential it is closely approached. We compare our results with those obtained for other tetrahedral liquids and conclude that insufficient "stiffness" in the Si-O-Si bond angle might be responsible for the absence of a LLCP.
Ferroelectric phase transitions near ionic liquid/vacuum interfaces.
Tsekov, Roumen
2007-05-21
A simple theoretical model is developed describing ionic liquids as regular solutions. The separation of these ionic mixtures is studied on the base of the Cahn-Hilliard theory coupled with electrostatics. It is shown that the ionic liquids decompose to thin layers of oppositely charged liquids at low temperatures. At larger temperatures the separation occurs only near the ionic liquid/vacuum surface, thus explaining the oscillatory-decaying structure of the electric double layer observed via computer simulations. In contrast to noncharged liquids the ionic ones exhibit two critical temperatures, where the temperature coefficients of all characteristic lengths possess singularities. These second order ferroelectric phase transitions are possible explanations of the experimentally measured via light scattering peculiar temperature dependence of the interfacial dipole moment density on several ionic liquid/vacuum interfaces. PMID:17523790
Phase transition in liquid drop fragmentation
Cristian F. Moukarzel; Silvia F. Fernandez-Sabido; J. C. Ruiz-Suarez
2007-01-01
A liquid droplet is fragmented by a sudden pressurized-gas blow, and the\\u000aresulting droplets, adhered to the window of a flatbed scanner, are counted and\\u000asized by computerized means. The use of a scanner plus image recognition\\u000asoftware enables us to automatically count and size up to tens of thousands of\\u000atiny droplets with a smallest detectable volume of approximately
Effect of dimensionality on vapor-liquid phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Sudhir Kumar
2014-04-01
Dimensionality play significant role on `phase transitions'. Fluids in macroscopic confinement (bulk or 3-Dimensional, 3D) do not show significant changes in their phase transition properties with extent of confinement, since the number of molecules away from the surrounding surfaces is astronomically higher than the number of molecules in close proximity of the confining surfaces. In microscopic confinement (quasi 3D to quasi-2D), however, the number of molecules away from the close proximity of the surface is not as high as is the case with macroscopic (3D) confinement. Hence, under the same thermodynamic conditions `phase transition' properties at microscopic confinement may not remain the same as the macroscopic or 3D values. Phase transitions at extremely small scale become very sensitive to the dimensions as well as the surface characteristics of the system. In this work our investigations reveal the effect of dimensionality on the phase transition from 3D to quasi-2D to 2D behavior. We have used grand canonical transition matrix Monte Carlo simulation to understand the vapor-liquid phase transitions from 3D to quasi-2D behavior. Such studies can be helpful in understanding and controlling the fluid film behaviour confined between solid surfaces of few molecular diameters, for example, in lubrication applications.
Effect of dimensionality on vapor-liquid phase transition
Singh, Sudhir Kumar
2014-04-24
Dimensionality play significant role on ‘phase transitions’. Fluids in macroscopic confinement (bulk or 3-Dimensional, 3D) do not show significant changes in their phase transition properties with extent of confinement, since the number of molecules away from the surrounding surfaces is astronomically higher than the number of molecules in close proximity of the confining surfaces. In microscopic confinement (quasi 3D to quasi-2D), however, the number of molecules away from the close proximity of the surface is not as high as is the case with macroscopic (3D) confinement. Hence, under the same thermodynamic conditions ‘phase transition’ properties at microscopic confinement may not remain the same as the macroscopic or 3D values. Phase transitions at extremely small scale become very sensitive to the dimensions as well as the surface characteristics of the system. In this work our investigations reveal the effect of dimensionality on the phase transition from 3D to quasi-2D to 2D behavior. We have used grand canonical transition matrix Monte Carlo simulation to understand the vapor–liquid phase transitions from 3D to quasi-2D behavior. Such studies can be helpful in understanding and controlling the fluid film behaviour confined between solid surfaces of few molecular diameters, for example, in lubrication applications.
Phase transitions and separations in a distorted liquid crystalline mixture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasch, Nicholas; Dierking, Ingo
2015-08-01
A theoretical method is proposed for modelling phase transitions and phase ranges in a multi-component liquid crystalline mixture where the liquid crystal structure is distorted and defects are formed. This method employs the Maier-Saupe and Kobayashi-McMillan theories of liquid crystalline ordering and the Flory-Huggins theory of mixtures. It builds on previous work on mixed systems that can form smectic-A and nematic phases by incorporating "distortion factors" into the expression for the local free energy of the mixture, which account for the effects of a deviation of the liquid crystal structure from the uniform nematic and smectic-A states. The method allows a simple description of chiral defect phases such as the blue phase and the twist grain boundary phase. In a previous work, it was shown that a model of the blue phase along these lines could effectively explain the observed effect whereby an added guest compound can stabilize the phase by separating into the high energy defect regions of the structure. It is shown here that with the correct choice of guest material a similar effect could be observed for the twist grain boundary phase.
Phase transitions and separations in a distorted liquid crystalline mixture.
Kasch, Nicholas; Dierking, Ingo
2015-08-14
A theoretical method is proposed for modelling phase transitions and phase ranges in a multi-component liquid crystalline mixture where the liquid crystal structure is distorted and defects are formed. This method employs the Maier-Saupe and Kobayashi-McMillan theories of liquid crystalline ordering and the Flory-Huggins theory of mixtures. It builds on previous work on mixed systems that can form smectic-A and nematic phases by incorporating "distortion factors" into the expression for the local free energy of the mixture, which account for the effects of a deviation of the liquid crystal structure from the uniform nematic and smectic-A states. The method allows a simple description of chiral defect phases such as the blue phase and the twist grain boundary phase. In a previous work, it was shown that a model of the blue phase along these lines could effectively explain the observed effect whereby an added guest compound can stabilize the phase by separating into the high energy defect regions of the structure. It is shown here that with the correct choice of guest material a similar effect could be observed for the twist grain boundary phase. PMID:26277166
Quantum phase transitions in semilocal quantum liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iqbal, Nabil; Liu, Hong; Mezei, Márk
2015-01-01
We consider several types of quantum critical phenomena from finite-density gauge-gravity duality which to different degrees lie outside the Landau-Ginsburg-Wilson paradigm. These include: (i) a "bifurcating" critical point, for which the order parameter remains gapped at the critical point, and thus is not driven by soft order parameter fluctuations. Rather it appears to be driven by "confinement" which arises when two fixed points annihilate and lose conformality. On the condensed side, there is an infinite tower of condensed states and the nonlinear response of the tower exhibits an infinite spiral structure; (ii) a "hybridized" critical point which can be described by a standard Landau-Ginsburg sector of order parameter fluctuations hybridized with a strongly coupled sector; (iii) a "marginal" critical point which is obtained by tuning the above two critical points to occur together and whose bosonic fluctuation spectrum coincides with that postulated to underly the "Marginal Fermi Liquid" description of the optimally doped cuprates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavrylyak, M. S.; Maksimyak, P. P.
2014-09-01
This paper represents the investigation results of spatial chaotization of optical field scattered by liquid crystals during phase transition liquid - liquid crystal under electric field. Two stochastic parameters of the field, namely, Lyapunov's maximal index and correlation exponent was chosen for this study. It has been established that maximum variances of phase inhomogeneities of the nematic liquid crystal corresponds to maximum fluctuations of order parameter under temperature of phase transition liquid - liquid crystal. Was found that analysis of the radiation field scattered during the phase transition process the liquid-liquid crystal allows to accurately determine the phase transition temperature and voltage of forming Williams's domains.
Liquid crystalline phase transitions in virus and virus/polymer suspensions A Dissertation
Fraden, Seth
Liquid crystalline phase transitions in virus and virus/polymer suspensions A Dissertation 2000 #12;ABSTRACT Liquid crystalline phase transitions in virus and virus/polymer suspensions colloid. We are able to engineer complex attractive and repul- sive intermolecular interactions
Interplay of the Glass Transition and the Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition in Water
Giovambattista, Nicolas; Loerting, Thomas; Lukanov, Boris R.; Starr, Francis W.
2012-01-01
Water has multiple glassy states, often called amorphous ices. Low-density (LDA) and high-density (HDA) amorphous ice are separated by a dramatic, first-order like phase transition. It has been argued that the LDA-HDA transformation connects to a first-order liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) above the glass transition temperature Tg. Direct experimental evidence of the LLPT is challenging to obtain, since the LLPT occurs at conditions where water rapidly crystallizes. In this work, we explore the implications of a LLPT on the pressure dependence of Tg(P) for LDA and HDA by performing computer simulations of two water models – one with a LLPT, and one without. In the absence of a LLPT, Tg(P) for all glasses nearly coincide. When there is a LLPT, different glasses exhibit dramatically different Tg(P) which are directly linked with the LLPT. Available experimental data for Tg(P) are only consistent with the scenario including a LLPT. PMID:22550566
Interplay of the Glass Transition and the Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition in Water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giovambattista, Nicolas
2013-03-01
Most liquids can form a single glass or amorphous state when cooled sufficiently fast (in order to prevent crystallization). However, there are a few substances that are relevant to scientific and technological applications which can exist in at least two different amorphous states, a property known as polyamorphism. Examples include silicon, silica, and in particular, water. In the case of water, experiments show the existence of a low-density (LDA) and high-density (HDA) amorphous ice that are separated by a dramatic, first-order like phase transition. It has been argued that the LDA-HDA transformation evolves into a first-order liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) at temperatures above the glass transition temperature Tg. However, obtaining direct experimental evidence of the LLPT has been challenging since the LLPT occurs at conditions where water rapidly crystallizes. In this talk, I will (i) discuss the general phenomenology of polyamorphism in water and its implications, and (ii) explore the effects of a LLPT on the pressure dependence of Tg(P) for LDA and HDA. Our study is based on computer simulations of two water models - one with a LLPT (ST2 model), and one without (SPC/E model). In the absence of a LLPT, Tg(P) for all glasses nearly coincide. Instead, when there is a LLPT, different glasses exhibit dramatically different Tg(P) loci which are directly linked with the LLPT. Available experimental data for Tg(P) are only consistent with the scenario that includes a LLPT (ST2 model) and hence, our results support the view that a LLPT may exist for the case of water.
Detection of First-Order Liquid\\/Liquid Phase Transitions in Yttrium Oxide Aluminum Oxide Melts
G. N. Greaves; M. C. Wilding; S. Fearn; D. Langstaff; F. Kargl; S. Cox; Q. Vu Van; O. Majérus; C. J. Benmore; R. Weber; C. M. Martin; L. Hennet
2008-01-01
We combine small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) with aerodynamic levitation techniques to study in situ phase transitions in the liquid state under contactless conditions. At very high temperatures, yttria-alumina melts show a first-order transition, previously inferred from phase separation in quenched glasses. We show how the transition coincides with a narrow and reversible maximum in SAXS
Liquid-Liquid Phase Transitions in Tetrahedrally Coordinated Fluids via Wertheim Theory.
Smallenburg, Frank; Filion, Laura; Sciortino, Francesco
2015-07-23
Network interpenetration has been proposed as a mechanism for generating liquid-liquid phase transitions in one component systems. We introduce a model of four coordinated particles, which explicitly treats the system as a mixture of two interacting interpenetrating networks that can freely exchange particles. This model can be solved within Wertheim's theory for associating fluids and shows liquid-liquid phase separations (in addition to the gas-liquid) for a wide range of model parameters. We find that originating a liquid-liquid transition requires a small degree of interpenetrability and a preference for intranetwork bonding. Physically, these requirements can be seen as controlling the softness of the particle-particle interaction and the bond flexibility, in full agreement with recent findings [Smallenburg, F.; Filion, L.; Sciortino, F. Nat. Phys. 2014, 10, 653]. PMID:25384011
Benedek, George B.
Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition of Protein Aqueous Solutions Isothermally Induced by Protein Cross-Linking in solution. Specifically, using glutaraldehyde for protein cross-linking, we observed the formation evolved into cross-linked protein microspheres. If the aqueous solutions of the protein monomer do
Nature of the first-order liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, G.; Yu, Y. J.; Tan, X. M.
2015-08-01
The first-order liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled Si is revisited by long-time first-principle molecular dynamics simulations. As the focus of the present paper, its nature is revealed by analyzing the inherent structures of low-density liquid (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL). Our results show that it is a transition between a sp3-hybridization LDL and a white-tin-like HDL. This uncovers the origin of the semimetal-metal transition accompanying it and also proves that HDL is the metastable extension of high temperature equilibrium liquid into the supercooled regime. The pressure-temperature diagram of supercooled Si thus can be regarded in some respects as shifted reflection of its crystalline phase diagram.
Nature of the first-order liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled silicon.
Zhao, G; Yu, Y J; Tan, X M
2015-08-01
The first-order liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled Si is revisited by long-time first-principle molecular dynamics simulations. As the focus of the present paper, its nature is revealed by analyzing the inherent structures of low-density liquid (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL). Our results show that it is a transition between a sp(3)-hybridization LDL and a white-tin-like HDL. This uncovers the origin of the semimetal-metal transition accompanying it and also proves that HDL is the metastable extension of high temperature equilibrium liquid into the supercooled regime. The pressure-temperature diagram of supercooled Si thus can be regarded in some respects as shifted reflection of its crystalline phase diagram. PMID:26254662
Non-equilibrium phase transitions in a liquid crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dan, K.; Roy, M.; Datta, A.
2015-09-01
The present manuscript describes kinetic behaviour of the glass transition and non-equilibrium features of the "Nematic-Isotropic" (N-I) phase transition of a well known liquid crystalline material N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline from the effects of heating rate and initial temperature on the transitions, through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy. Around the vicinity of the glass transition temperature (Tg), while only a change in the baseline of the ?Cp vs T curve is observed for heating rate (?) > 5 K min-1, consistent with a glass transition, a clear peak for ? ? 5 K min-1 and the rapid reduction in the ?Cp value from the former to the latter rate correspond to an order-disorder transition and a transition from ergodic to non-ergodic behaviour. The ln ? vs 1000/T curve for the glass transition shows convex Arrhenius behaviour that can be explained very well by a purely entropic activation barrier [Dan et al., Eur. Phys. Lett. 108, 36007 (2014)]. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates sudden freezing of the out-of-plane distortion vibrations of the benzene rings around the glass transition temperature and a considerable red shift indicating enhanced coplanarity of the benzene rings and, consequently, enhancement in the molecular ordering compared to room temperature. We further provide a direct experimental evidence of the non-equilibrium nature of the N-I transition through the dependence of this transition temperature (TNI) and associated enthalpy change (?H) on the initial temperature (at fixed ?-values) for the DSC scans. A plausible qualitative explanation based on Mesquita's extension of Landau-deGennes theory [O. N. de Mesquita, Braz. J. Phys. 28, 257 (1998)] has been put forward. The change in the molecular ordering from nematic to isotropic phase has been investigated through fluorescence anisotropy measurements where the order parameter, quantified by the anisotropy, goes to zero from nematic to isotropic phase. To a point below the transition temperature, the order parameter is constant but decreases linearly with increase in temperature below that indicating the dependence of nematic ordering on the initial temperature during heating consistent with the non-equilibrium nature of nematic-isotropic phase transition.
Non-equilibrium phase transitions in a liquid crystal.
Dan, K; Roy, M; Datta, A
2015-09-01
The present manuscript describes kinetic behaviour of the glass transition and non-equilibrium features of the "Nematic-Isotropic" (N-I) phase transition of a well known liquid crystalline material N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline from the effects of heating rate and initial temperature on the transitions, through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy. Around the vicinity of the glass transition temperature (Tg), while only a change in the baseline of the ?Cp vs T curve is observed for heating rate (?) > 5 K min(-1), consistent with a glass transition, a clear peak for ? ? 5 K min(-1) and the rapid reduction in the ?Cp value from the former to the latter rate correspond to an order-disorder transition and a transition from ergodic to non-ergodic behaviour. The ln?? vs 1000/T curve for the glass transition shows convex Arrhenius behaviour that can be explained very well by a purely entropic activation barrier [Dan et al., Eur. Phys. Lett. 108, 36007 (2014)]. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates sudden freezing of the out-of-plane distortion vibrations of the benzene rings around the glass transition temperature and a considerable red shift indicating enhanced coplanarity of the benzene rings and, consequently, enhancement in the molecular ordering compared to room temperature. We further provide a direct experimental evidence of the non-equilibrium nature of the N-I transition through the dependence of this transition temperature (TNI) and associated enthalpy change (?H) on the initial temperature (at fixed ?-values) for the DSC scans. A plausible qualitative explanation based on Mesquita's extension of Landau-deGennes theory [O. N. de Mesquita, Braz. J. Phys. 28, 257 (1998)] has been put forward. The change in the molecular ordering from nematic to isotropic phase has been investigated through fluorescence anisotropy measurements where the order parameter, quantified by the anisotropy, goes to zero from nematic to isotropic phase. To a point below the transition temperature, the order parameter is constant but decreases linearly with increase in temperature below that indicating the dependence of nematic ordering on the initial temperature during heating consistent with the non-equilibrium nature of nematic-isotropic phase transition. PMID:26342371
Liquid-liquid phase transition and structure inheritance in carbon films
He, Yezeng; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yanyan; Li, Xiongying; Bian, Xiufang
2014-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the cooling process of quasi-2D liquid carbon. Our results show an obvious liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) from the twofold coordinated liquid to the threefold coordinated liquid with the decrease of temperature, followed by a liquid-solid phase transition (LSPT). The LLPT can be regarded as the preparation stage of LSPT. During the cooling process, the chain structures firstly self-assemble into some ring structures and then aggregate into some stable islands which can further connect together to form a complete polycrystalline film. The threefold coordinated structures play an important role in the formation of atomic rings. The inheritance of the threefold coordinated structures provides essential condition to form rings and islands. PMID:24407276
Volume phase transitions of cholesteric liquid crystalline gels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuyama, Akihiko
2015-05-01
We present a mean field theory to describe anisotropic deformations of a cholesteric elastomer without solvent molecules and a cholesteric liquid crystalline gel immersed in isotropic solvents at a thermal equilibrium state. Based on the neoclassical rubber theory of nematic elastomers, we derive an elastic energy and a twist distortion energy, which are important to determine the shape of a cholesteric elastomer (or gel). We demonstrate that when the elastic energy dominates in the free energy, the cholesteric elastomer causes a spontaneous compression in the pitch axis and elongates along the director on the plane perpendicular to the pitch axis. Our theory can qualitatively describe the experimental results of a cholesteric elastomer. We also predict the first-order volume phase transitions and anisotropic deformations of a gel at the cholesteric-isotropic phase transition temperature. Depending on a chirality of a gel, we find a prolate or oblate shape of cholesteric gels.
Ultrafast dynamics of the laser-induced solid-to-liquid phase transition in aluminum
Mazur, Eric
Ultrafast dynamics of the laser-induced solid-to-liquid phase transition in aluminum A thesis dynamics of the laser-induced solid-to-liquid phase transition in aluminum Eric Mazur Maria Kandyla Abstract This dissertation reports the ultrafast dynamics of aluminum during the solid-to- liquid phase
Sasaki, Y; Le, K V; Aya, S; Isobe, M; Yao, H; Huang, C C; Takezoe, H; Ema, K
2012-12-01
We carried out an improved characterization of phase transitions among chiral smectic-C subphases observed for various antiferroelectric liquid crystals by precise heat capacity measurements. It was found that the phase transitions are intrinsically first order exhibiting a remarkable heat anomaly which involves little pretransitional thermal fluctuation and a finite thermal hysteresis. On the other hand, we also noticed that the critical point of the smectic-C(?)(*)-smectic-C* transition is induced by the destabilization of the smectic-C(?)(*) phase which couples with the fluctuation associated with the smectic-A-smectic-C(?)(*) phase transition. PMID:23367966
Microgravity Studies of Liquid-Liquid Phase Transitions in Alumina-Yttria Melts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guynes, Buddy (Technical Monitor); Weber, Richard; Nordine, Paul
2004-01-01
The scientific objective of this research is to increase the fundamental knowledge base for liquid- phase processing of technologically important oxide materials. The experimental objective is to define conditions and hardware requirements for microgravity flight experiments to test and expand the experimental hypotheses that: 1. Liquid phase transitions can occur in undercooled melts by a diffusionless process. 2. Onset of the liquid phase transition is accompanied by a large change in the temperature dependence of melt viscosity. Experiments on undercooled YAG (Y3A15012)- and rare earth oxide aluminate composition liquids demonstrated a large departure from an Arrhenian temperature dependence of viscosity. Liquid YAG is nearly inviscid at its 2240 K melting point. Glass fibers were pulled from melts undercooled by ca. 600 K indicating that the viscosity is on the order of 100 Pans (1000 Poise) at 1600 K. This value of viscosity is 500 times greater than that obtained by extrapolation of data for temperatures above the melting point of YAG. These results show that the liquids are extremely fragile and that the onset of the highly non-Arrhenian viscosity-temperature relationship occurs at a temperature considerably below the equilibrium melting point of the solid phases. Further results on undercooled alumina-yttria melts containing 23-42 mole % yttrium oxide indicate that a congruent liquid-liquid phase transition occurs in the undercooled liquids. The rates of transition are inconsistent with a diffusion-limited process. This research is directed to investigation of the scientifically interesting phenomena of polyamorphism and fragility in undercooled rare earth oxide aluminum oxide liquids. The results bear on the technologically important problem of producing high value rare earth-based optical materials.
Evidence of a liquid–liquid phase transition in hot dense hydrogen
Dzyabura, Vasily; Zaghoo, Mohamed; Silvera, Isaac F.
2013-01-01
We use pulsed-laser heating of hydrogen at static pressures in the megabar pressure region to search for the plasma phase transition to liquid atomic metallic hydrogen. We heat our samples substantially above the melting line and observe a plateau in a temperature vs. laser power curve that otherwise increases with power. This anomaly in the heating curve appears correlated with theoretical predictions for the plasma phase transition. PMID:23630287
Relationship between the liquid liquid phase transition and dynamic behaviour in the Jagla model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Limei; Ehrenberg, Isaac; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Stanley, H. Eugene
2006-09-01
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study a spherically symmetric 'two-scale' Jagla potential with both repulsive and attractive ramps. This potential displays a liquid-liquid phase transition with a positively sloped coexistence line ending at a critical point well above the equilibrium melting line. We study the dynamic behaviour in the vicinity of this liquid-liquid critical point. Below the critical point, we find that the dynamics in the more ordered high density liquid (HDL) are much slower then the dynamics in the less ordered low density liquid (LDL). Moreover, the behaviour of the diffusion constant and relaxation time in the HDL phase follows approximately an Arrhenius law, while in the LDL phase the slope of the Arrhenius fit increases upon cooling. Above the critical pressure, as we cool the system at constant pressure, the behaviour of the dynamics smoothly changes with temperature. It resembles the behaviour of the LDL at high temperatures and resembles the behaviour of the HDL at low temperatures. This dynamic crossover happens in the vicinity of the Widom line (the extension of the coexistence line into the one-phase region) which also has a positive slope. Our work suggests a possible general relation between a liquid-liquid phase transition and the change in dynamics.
Structure, Hydrodynamics, and Phase Transition of Freely Suspended Liquid Crystals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clark, Noel A.
2000-01-01
Smectic liquid crystals are phases of rod shaped molecules organized into one dimensionally (1D) periodic arrays of layers, each layer being between one and two molecular lengths thick. In the least ordered smectic phases, the smectics A and C, each layer is a two dimensional (2D) liquid. Additionally there are a variety of more ordered smectic phases having hexatic short range translational order or 2D crystalline quasi long range translational order within the layers. The inherent fluid-layer structure and low vapor pressure of smectic liquid crystals enable the long term stabilization of freely suspended, single component, layered fluid films as thin as 30A, a single molecular layer. The layering forces the films to be an integral number of smectic layers thick, quantizing their thickness in layer units and forcing a film of a particular number of layers to be physically homogeneous with respect to its layer structure over its entire area. Optical reflectivity enables the precise determination of the number of layers. These ultrathin freely suspended liquid crystal films are structures of fundamental interest in condensed matter and fluid physics. They are the thinnest known stable condensed phase fluid structures and have the largest surface-to-volume ratio of any stable fluid preparation, making them ideal for the study of the effects of reduced dimensionality on phase behavior and on fluctuation and interface phenomena. Their low vapor pressure and quantized thickness enable the effective use of microgravity to extend the study of basic capillary phenomena to ultrathin fluid films. Freely suspended films have been a wellspring of new liquid crystal physics. They have been used to provide unique experimental conditions for the study of condensed phase transitions in two dimensions. They are the only system in which the hexatic has been unambiguously identified as a phase of matter, and the only physical system in which fluctuations of a 2D XY system and Kosterlitz Thouless phase transition has been observed and 2D XY quasi long range order verified. Smectic films have enabled the precise determination of smectic layer electron density and positional fluctuation profile and have been used to show that the interlayer interactions in anti-ferroelectric tilted smectics do not extend significantly beyond nearest neighbors. The interactions which are operative in liquid crystals are generally weak in comparison to those in crystalline phases, leading to the facile manipulation of the order in liquid crystals by external agents such as applied fields and surfaces. Effects arising from weak ordering are significantly enhanced in ultrathin free films and filaments wherein the intermolecular coupling is effectively reduced by loss of neighbors. Over the past four years this research, which we now detail, has produced a host of exciting new discoveries and unexpected results, maintaining the position of the study of freely suspended liquid crystal structures as one of most exciting and fruitful areas of complex fluid physics. In addition, several potentially interesting microgravity free film experiments have been identified.
Liquid-liquid phase transition in an atomistic model glass former
Thomas Speck; C. Patrick Royall; Stephen R. Williams
2014-09-16
Whether the glass transition is caused by an underlying singularity or is a purely kinetic phenomenon is a significant outstanding question. Studying an atomistic glass former, we introduce a sampling method to access temperatures corresponding to dynamical regimes usually hard to reach with computer simulation. We find a peak in the specific heat, which we interpret as a drop in the density of states. We further present evidence of a liquid-liquid transition to a state rich in locally favoured structures related to a recently discovered dynamical phase transition.
A basic principles description of liquid vapor phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1993-07-01
The research effort of Slemrod has been directed to developing a discrete velocity kinetic theory model for liquid-vapor phase transitions. The aim of the research is to develop a 'basic principles' description of liquid-vapor phase transitions (such as those occurring in an internal combustion engine) which is not a priori biased by ad hoc equations of state (constitutive relations). The modelling is almost completely finished, numerical simulations are being run, and a first draft of the results is being written. The model is of the following form: We consider a gas of clusters in three dimensional space made up monomers, dimers, trimers, etc. which can move with seven fixed momenta: the six unit vectors + or - i, + or - j, + or - k plus the 0 vector. The clusters can collide elastically and inelastically. The elastic collisions conserve mass, momentum, and energy. The inelastic collisions occur when clusters coagulate or fragment and conserve mass and momentum. In an inelastic collisions kinetic energy is lost.
Isotropic to smectic-C phase transition in liquid-crystalline elastomers.
Mukherjee, Prabir K
2012-04-14
A phenomenological model is developed to describe the isotropic-smectic-C phase transition in liquid-crystalline side-chain elastomers. We analyze the influence of external mechanical stress on the isotropic-smectic-C phase transition. While this phase transition is first order in low-molecular-weight materials, we show here that the order of this transition does not change in liquid-crystalline elastomers. The temperature dependence of the heat capacity and the nonlinear dielectric effect in the isotropic phase above the isotropic-smectic-C phase transition in liquid crystalline elastomers are calculated. The theoretical results are found to be in good agreement with experiment. PMID:22502545
Liquid-solid phase transitions in a deformable Pavel Krejci, Elisabetta Rocca, and Jurgen Sprekels
Rocca, Elisabetta
Liquid-solid phase transitions in a deformable container Pavel Krejc´i, Elisabetta Rocca, and J differences in the specific volume, specific heat and speed of sound in the solid and liquid phases and of the liquid phase, assuming first that the speed of sound and the specific heat are the same in solid
Intramolecular coupling as a mechanism for a liquid-liquid phase transition Giancarlo Franzese,1,2,
Franzese, Giancarlo
, the high- density liquid HDL and the low-density liquid LDL . In this scenario the HDL-LDL phase transition MC simulation. Our results show that a nonzero intramolecular interaction gives rise to a HDL-LDL for a finite intramolecular interaction the HDL-LDL phase transition is predicted. Gen- eral considerations
Polyamorphism and liquid liquid phase transitions: challenges for experiment and theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMillan, Paul F.; Wilson, Mark; Wilding, Martin C.; Daisenberger, Dominik; Mezouar, Mohamed; Neville Greaves, G.
2007-10-01
Phase transitions in the liquid state can be related to pressure-driven fluctuations developed in the density (i.e., the inverse of the molar volume; ? = 1/V) or the entropy (S(T)) rather than by gradients in the chemical potential (?(X), where X is the chemical composition). Experiments and liquid simulation studies now show that such transitions are likely to exist within systems with a wide range of chemical bonding types. The observations permit us to complete the trilogy of expected liquid state responses to changes in P and T as well as ?(X), as is the case among crystalline solids. Large structure-property changes occurring within non-ergodic amorphous solids as a function of P and T are also observed, that are generally termed 'polyamorphism'. The polyamorphic changes can map on to underlying density- or entropy-driven L-L transitions. Studying these phenomena poses challenges to experimental studies and liquid simulations. Experiments must be carried out over a wide P-T range for in situ structure-property determinations, often in a highly metastable regime. It is expected that L-L transitions often occur below the melting line, so that studies encounter competing crystallization phenomena. Simulation studies of liquid state polyamorphism must involve large system sizes, and examine system behaviour at low T into the deeply supercooled regime, with distance and timescales long enough to sample characteristic density/entropy fluctuations. These conditions must be achieved for systems with different bonding environments, that can change abruptly across the polyamorphic transitions. Here we discuss opportunities for future work using simulations combined with neutron and x-ray amorphous scattering techniques, with special reference to the behaviour of two polyamorphic systems: amorphous Si and supercooled Y2O3-Al2O3 liquids. This paper is presented as a contribution to the conference on 'Current Challenges in Liquid and Glass Science' held in Abingdon, UK, January 10-12, 2007 in honour of Spencer Howells.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berry, Joel; Weber, Stephanie C.; Vaidya, Nilesh; Zhu, Lian; Haataja, Mikko; Brangwynne, Clifford P.
2015-03-01
Nonmembrane-bound organelles are functional, dynamic assemblies of RNA and/or protein that can self-assemble and disassemble within the cytoplasm or nucleoplasm. The possibility that underlying intracellular phase transitions may drive and mediate the morphological evolution of some membrane-less organelles has been supported by several recent studies. In this talk, results from a collaborative experimental-theoretical study of the growth and dissolution kinetics of nucleoli and extranucleolar droplets (ENDs) in C. elegans embryos will be presented. We have employed Flory-Huggins solution theory, reaction-diffusion kinetics, and quantitative statistical dynamic scaling analysis to characterize the specific growth mechanisms at work. Our findings indicate that both in vivo and in vitro droplet scaling and growth kinetics are consistent with those resulting from an equilibrium liquid-liquid phase transition mediated by passive nonequilibrium growth mechanisms - simultaneous Brownian coalescence and Ostwald ripening. This supports a view in which cells can employ phase transitions to drive structural organization, while utilizing active processes, such as local transcriptional activity, to fine tune the kinetics of these phase transitions in response to given conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonelli, Alex; Cajahuaringa, Samuel; de Koning, Maurice
2013-03-01
Liquid-liquid phase transitions (LLPT) have been proposed in order to explain the thermodynamic anomalies exhibited by some liquids. Recently, it was found, through molecular dynamics simulations, that liquid elemental gallium, described by a modified embedded-atom model, exhibits a LLPT between a high-density liquid (HDL) and a low-density liquid (LDL), about 60 K below the melting temperature. In this work, we studied the dynamics of supercooled liquid gallium close to the LLPT. Our results show a large increase in the plateau of the self-intermediate scattering function (?-relaxation process) and in the non-Gaussian parameter, indicating a pronounced dynamical heterogeneity upon the onset of the LLPT. The dynamical heterogeneity of the LDL is closely correlated to its structural heterogeneity, since the fast diffusing atoms belong to high-density domains of predominantly 9-fold coordinated atoms, whereas the slow diffusing ones are mostly in low-density domains of 8-fold coordinated atoms. The energetics suggests that the reason for the sluggish dynamics of LDL is due to its larger cohesive energy as compared to that of the HDL. Liquid-liquid phase transitions (LLPT) have been proposed in order to explain the thermodynamic anomalies exhibited by some liquids. Recently, it was found, through molecular dynamics simulations, that liquid elemental gallium, described by a modified embedded-atom model, exhibits a LLPT between a high-density liquid (HDL) and a low-density liquid (LDL), about 60 K below the melting temperature. In this work, we studied the dynamics of supercooled liquid gallium close to the LLPT. Our results show a large increase in the plateau of the self-intermediate scattering function (?-relaxation process) and in the non-Gaussian parameter, indicating a pronounced dynamical heterogeneity upon the onset of the LLPT. The dynamical heterogeneity of the LDL is closely correlated to its structural heterogeneity, since the fast diffusing atoms belong to high-density domains of predominantly 9-fold coordinated atoms, whereas the slow diffusing ones are mostly in low-density domains of 8-fold coordinated atoms. The energetics suggests that the reason for the sluggish dynamics of LDL is due to its larger cohesive energy as compared to that of the HDL. Work supported by FAPESP, CNPq, CAPES, and FAEPEX/UNICAMP
Paraelectric-antiferroelectric phase transition in achiral liquid crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pociecha, Damian; Gorecka, Ewa; ?epi?, Mojca; Vaupoti?, Nataša; Gomola, Kinga; Mieczkowski, Jozef
2005-12-01
Critical freezing of molecular rotation in an achiral smectic phase, which leads to polar ordering through the second order paraelectric-antiferroelectric (Sm-A?Sm-APA) phase transition is studied theoretically and experimentally. Strong softening of the polar mode in the Sm-A phase and highly intensive dielectric mode in the Sm-APA phase are observed due to weak antiferroelectric interactions in the system. In the Sm-APA phase the dielectric response behaves critically upon biasing by a dc electric field. Such a behavior is found general for the antiferroelectric smectic phase with significant quadrupolar interlayer coupling.
Cajahuaringa, Samuel; Koning, Maurice de Antonelli, Alex
2013-12-14
Using molecular dynamics simulations we analyze the dynamics of two atomic liquids that display a liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT): Si described by the Stillinger-Weber potential and Ga as modeled by the modified embedded-atom model. In particular, our objective is to investigate the extent to which the presence of a dip in the self-intermediate scattering function is a manifestation of an excess of vibrational states at low frequencies and may be associated with a fragile-to-strong transition (FTST) across the LLPT, as suggested recently. Our results suggest a somewhat different picture. First, in the case of Ga we observe the appearance of an excess of vibrational states at low frequencies, even in the absence of the appearance of a dip in the self-intermediate scattering function across the LLPT. Second, studying the behavior of the shear viscosities traversing the LLPTs we find that both substances are fragile in character above and below their respective LLPT temperatures. Instead of a FTST in an absolute sense these findings are more in line with a view in which the LLPTs are accompanied by a transition from a more fragile to a less fragile liquid. Furthermore, we do not find this transition to correlate with the presence of a dip in the intermediate scattering function.
Possible links between the liquid-gas and deconfinement-hadronization phase transitions
I. N. Mishustin
2006-09-19
It is commonly accepted that strongly interacting matter has several phase transitions in different domains of temperature and baryon density. In this contribution I discuss two most popular phase transitions which in principle can be accessed in nuclear collisions. One of them, the liquid-gas phase transition, is well established theoretically and studied experimentally in nuclear multifragmentation reactions at intermediate energies. The other one, the deconfinement-hadronization phase transition, is at the focus of present and future experimental studies with relativistic heavy-ion beams at SPS, RHIC and LHC. Pssible links between these two phase transitions are identified from the viewpoint of their manifestation in violent nuclear collisions.
Nuclear symmetry energy effects on liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter
Bharat K. Sharma; Subrata Pal
2010-01-14
The liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter is investigated within relativistic mean-field model using the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy constrained from the measured neutron skin thickness of finite nuclei. We find symmetry energy has a significant influence on several features of liquid-gas phase transition. The boundary and area of the liquid-gas coexistence region, the maximal isospin asymmetry and the critical values of pressure and isospin asymmetry all of which systematically increase with increasing softness in the density dependence of symmetry energy. The critical temperature below which the liquid-gas mixed phase exists is found higher for a softer symmetry energy.
Buldyrev, Sergey
transitions, one ending in a gaslow-density-liquid LDL critical point, and the other in a gashigh-density-liquidMetastable liquid-liquid phase transition in a single-component system with only one crystal phase and no density anomaly G. Franzese,1,2, * G. Malescio,3 A. Skibinsky,1 S. V. Buldyrev,1 and H. E. Stanley1 1
Quasi-liquid layer theory based on the bulk first-order phase transition
Ryzhkin, I. A. Petrenko, V. F.
2009-01-15
The theory of the superionic phase transition (bulk first-order transition) proposed in [1] is used to explain the existence of a quasi-liquid layer at an ice surface below its melting point. An analytical expression is derived for the quasi-liquid layer thickness. Numerical estimates are made and compared with experiment. Distinction is made between the present model and other quasi-liquid layer theories.
Modified phase-field-crystal model for solid-liquid phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Can; Wang, Jincheng; Wang, Zhijun; Li, Junjie; Guo, Yaolin; Tang, Sai
2015-07-01
A modified phase-field-crystal (PFC) model is proposed to describe solid-liquid phase transitions by reconstructing the correlation function. The effects of fitting parameters of our modified PFC model on the bcc-liquid phase diagram, numerical stability, and solid-liquid interface properties during planar interface growth are examined carefully. The results indicate that the increase of the correlation function peak width at k =km will enhance the stability of the ordered phase, while the increase of peak height at k =0 will narrow the two-phase coexistence region. The third-order term in the free-energy function and the short wave-length of the correlation function have significant influences on the numerical stability of the PFC model. During planar interface growth, the increase of peak width at k =km will decrease the interface width and the velocity coefficient C , but increase the anisotropy of C and the interface free energy. Finally, the feasibility of the modified phase-field-crystal model is demonstrated with a numerical example of three-dimensional dendritic growth of a body-centered-cubic structure.
Exotic continuous quantum phase transition between Z2 topological spin liquid and Néel order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moon, Eun-Gook; Xu, Cenke
2012-12-01
Recent numerical simulations with different techniques have all suggested the existence of a continuous quantum phase transition between the Z2 topological spin-liquid phase and a conventional Néel order. Motivated by this numerical progress, we propose a candidate theory for such Z2-Néel transition. We first argue on general grounds that, for a SU(2)-invariant system, this transition can not be interpreted as the condensation of spinons in the Z2 spin-liquid phase. Then, we propose that such Z2-Néel transition is driven by proliferating the bound state of the bosonic spinon and vison excitation of the Z2 spin liquid, i.e., the so-called (e,m)-type excitation. Universal critical exponents associated with this exotic transition are computed using 1/N expansion. This theory predicts that at the Z2-Néel transition, there is an emergent quasi-long-range power-law correlation of columnar valence bond solid order parameter.
Wang, Zhe; Ito, Kanae; Leão, Juscelino B; Harriger, Leland; Liu, Yun; Chen, Sow-Hsin
2015-06-01
Using neutron diffraction technique, we measure the average density of the heavy water confined in a nanoporous silica matrix, MCM-41, over the pressure-temperature plane. The result suggests the existence of a line of liquid-liquid phase transition with its end point at 1.29 ± 0.34 kbar and 213 ± 3 K in a fully hydrated sample. This point would be the liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) according to the "liquid-liquid critical point" scenario. The phase diagram of the deeply cooled confined heavy water is then discussed. Moreover, in a partially hydrated sample, the phase transition completely disappears. This result shows that it is the free water part, rather than the bound water part, of the confined water that undergoes a liquid-liquid transition. PMID:26266493
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishida, Norihiro; Takanishi, Yoichi; Yamamoto, Jun; Yoshizawa, Atsushi
2011-02-01
We prepared an amphiphilic liquid crystal composed of a semiperfluorinated alkyl chain and a 2,3-difluoro-1,4-diphenylbenzene core, and investigated its physical properties using polarized optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The compound was found to exhibit the smectic A to smectic C phase transition without layer contraction. The compound doped with a ferroelectric liquid crystal exhibited a fast electro-optical switching with a response time of 10 µs in the chiral smectic A phase in spite of the absence of a chiral smectic C phase. The phase transition behavior is interpreted using the de Vries cone model.
Field-induced phase transitions in antiferroelectric liquid crystals Tiezheng Qian and P. L. Taylor
Taylor, Philip L.
Field-induced phase transitions in antiferroelectric liquid crystals Tiezheng Qian and P. L. Taylor a field-induced transition to ferroelectric alignment. We find that for cells of moderate thickness in these systems. S1063-651X 99 01609-8 PACS number s : 61.30.Cz, 64.70.Md I. INTRODUCTION The electric-field-induced
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, T. Arun; Mohiddon, M. A.; Dutta, N.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.; Dhara, Surajit
2015-02-01
We report studies on the whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonance of liquid crystal (LC) droplets across the smectic-A (SmA) to nematic phase transition. The quality factor (Q) in the SmA phase decreases rapidly with a characteristic slope change at the SmA-N transition. In the SmA phase, Q-factor is linearly proportional to the birefringence (?n). We discuss the effect of topological defect transformation on the WGM resonance. The study of WGM resonance is expected to be very useful for detecting subtle phase transitions among LC mesophases.
Vink, Richard L C
2014-12-01
Liquid crystals in two dimensions do not support long-range nematic order, but a quasinematic phase where the orientational correlations decay algebraically is possible. The transition from the isotropic to the quasinematic phase can be continuous and of the Kosterlitz-Thouless type, or it can be first order. We report here on a liquid-crystal model where the nature of the isotropic to quasinematic transition can be tuned via a single parameter p in the pair potential. For p
transition is of the Kosterlitz-Thouless type, while for p>p(t), it is first order. Precisely at p=p(t), there is a tricritical point where, in addition to the orientational correlations, also the positional correlations decay algebraically. The tricritical behavior is analyzed in detail, including an accurate estimate of p(t). The results follow from extensive Monte Carlo simulations combined with a finite-size scaling analysis. Paramount in the analysis is a scheme to facilitate the extrapolation of simulation data in parameters that are not necessarily field variables (in this case, the parameter p), the details of which are also provided. This scheme provides a simple and powerful alternative for situations where standard histogram reweighting cannot be applied. PMID:25615069
On the existence of vapor-liquid phase transition in dusty plasmas
Kundu, M.; Sen, A.; Ganesh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India); Avinash, K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)
2014-10-15
The phenomenon of phase transition in a dusty-plasma system (DPS) has attracted some attention in the past. Earlier Farouki and Hamaguchi [J. Chem. Phys. 101, 9876 (1994)] have demonstrated the existence of a liquid to solid transition in DPS where the dust particles interact through a Yukawa potential. However, the question of the existence of a vapor-liquid (VL) transition in such a system remains unanswered and relatively unexplored so far. We have investigated this problem by performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations which show that the VL transition does not have a critical curve in the pressure versus volume diagram for a large range of the Yukawa screening parameter ? and the Coulomb coupling parameter ?. Thus, the VL phase transition is found to be super-critical, meaning that this transition is continuous in the dusty plasma model given by Farouki and Hamaguchi. We provide an approximate analytic explanation of this finding by means of a simple model calculation.
Probing the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition
Pochodzalla, J.; Moehlenkamp, T.; Rubehn, T.; Schuettauf, A.; Woerner, A.; Zude, E.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Blaich, T.; Emling, H.; Ferrero, A.; Gross, C.; Imme, G.; Iori, I.; Kunde, G.J.; Kunze, W.D.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lynen, U.; Moroni, A.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Ocker, B.; Raciti, G.; Sann, H.; Schwarz, C.; Seidel, W.; Serfling, V.; Stroth, J.; Trautmann, W.; Trzcinski, A.; Tucholski, A.; Verde, G.; Zwieglinski, B.
1995-08-07
Fragment distributions resulting from Au+Au collisions at an incident energy of {ital E}/{ital A}=600 MeV are studied. From the measured fragment and neutron distributions the mass and the excitation energy of the decaying prefragments were determined. A temperature scale was derived from observed yield ratios of He and Li isotopes. The relation between this isotope temperature and the excitation energy of the system exhibits a behavior which is expected for a phase transition. The nuclear vapor regime takes over at an excitation energy of 10 MeV per nucleon, a temperature of 5 MeV, and may be characterized by a density of 0.15--0.3 normal nuclear density.
Fraden, Seth
of the cholesteric phase with concentration as a func- tion of solution ionic strength and particle surface charge for teaching me about their research projects, helping me with mine, and in general making the lab an enjoyable and M13. In solution, these particles undergo entropically driven liquid crystal phase transitions from
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
li, R.; li, L.; Rivers, M. L.; Liu, H.
2013-12-01
There are three crystalline structures for a solid state under ambient condition for gallium. Local structures in melts trend to show short range ordering within a few tenths of a nanometer, which are often considered to be correlated with the atomic arrangements of their solid counterparts. For non-crystalline samples, such as amorphous materials and melts, Due to their lack of periodicity, diffraction patterns from amorphous and liquid phases are very broad; therefore, it is challenging to obtain density information under high-pressure conditions. On the other hand, x-ray microtomography can provide density and geometry information on samples regardless of their crystallinity. Synchrotron x-ray microtomography enables us to carry out in situ density measurements on liquids at high pressures. Thus, we can address whether there are liquid-liquid phase transitions of gallium and better understand the physical processes of phase transitions.
P. O. Fedichev; L. I. Menshikov
2008-01-01
We develop a series of approximations to calculate free energy of a polar liquid. We show that long range nature of dipole interactions between the molecules leads to para-electric state instability at low temperatures and to a second-order phase transition. We establish the transition temperature, T_{c}, both within mean field and ring diagrams approximation and show that the ferro-electric transition
2011-01-01
PHYSICAL REVIEW E 83, 041504 (2011) Phase-field model of solid-liquid phase transition with density a phase-field model of solid-liquid transitions with inhomogeneous temperature in one-component systems there appears a velocity field in liquid and an elastic field in solid. We present simulation results in two
Third-Order Gas-Liquid Phase Transition and the Nature of Andrews Critical Point
Tian Ma; Shouhong Wang
2010-07-13
The main objective of this article is to study the nature of the Andrews critical point in the gas-liquid transition in a physical-vapor transport (PVT) system. A dynamical model, consistent with the van der Waals equation near the Andrews critical point, is derived. With this model, we deduce two physical parameters, which interact exactly at the Andrews critical point, and which dictate the dynamic transition behavior near the Andrews critical point. In particular, it is shown that 1) the Andrews critical point is a switching point where the phase transition changes from the first order to the third order, 2) the gas-liquid co-existence curve can be extended beyond the Andrews critical point, and 3) the liquid-gas phase transition going beyond Andrews point is of the third order. This clearly explains why it is hard to observe the gas-liquid phase transition beyond the Andrews critical point. Furthermore, the analysis leads naturally the introduction of a general asymmetry principle of fluctuations and the preferred transition mechanism for a thermodynamic system.
Continuous phase transition between Néel and spin liquid states with topological order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Yang; Gu, Zhengcheng
2013-03-01
It is well known that on square lattice Néel and valence bond solid states are connected by a continuous phase transition, and the critical theory consists fractionalized spinons and an emergent U(1) gauge field. Motivated by recent numerical works revealing Néel and gapped spin liquid states in J1-J2 model on square lattice, we study other phases that can be obtained after destroying the Néel order. We show that by condensing fields that carry both electric charge and magnetic flux of the emergent gauge field, one can obtain spin liquid phases with topological order and no lattice symmetry breaking.
Liquid-liquid phase transition in aqueous solutions of n-hydrocarbons and amphiphiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirgorod, Yu. A.
2010-10-01
Phase transitions in ensembles of water clusters in aqueous solutions of C11-C28 n-hydrocarbons and C2-C12 amphiphiles have been studied as dependent on the concentration and size of dissolved molecules. A critical size (approximately corresponding to the volume of undecane molecule) for water clusters is determined, which triggers the phase transition that leads to the formation of bistable amphiphile micelles.
Lu, Qing; Kim, Jaegil; Farrell, James D.; Wales, David J.; Straub, John E.
2014-10-09
the plates [7, 11, 12]. Bilayer water can form various crystal, quasicrystals, and amorphous structures, including hexagonal ice, pure pentagonal ice, mixed hexagonal and pentagonal ice, and dodecagonal quasicrystals [8]. The transitions from liquid... to various crystal and quasicrystal states were shown to be first-order, based on the sharp drop in the potential energy and discontinuity in the diffusion coefficient. First-order phase transitions have a unique feature in the statistical temperature...
Finite element simulation of solid-liquid phase transitions with a free melt surface
Schmidt, Alfred
Finite element simulation of solid-liquid phase transitions with a free melt surface Alfred Schmidt Research Centre 747 "Micro cold forming" stud- ies aspects of the production of micro components. Motivated by the engineering application of melting the end of thin wires by laser heating in order to accumulate material
Liquid-gas phase transition in the canonical ensemble of asymmetric nuclear matter
Liquid-gas phase transition in the canonical ensemble of asymmetric nuclear matter K. Miyazaki E for the canonical ensemble of asymmetric nuclear matter. In contrast to the familiar geometrical construction relativistic mean-...eld model of nuclear matter, the section of binodal surface has no critical point
Kerr-AdS analogue of triple point and solid/liquid/gas phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altamirano, Natacha; Kubiz?ák, David; Mann, Robert B.; Sherkatghanad, Zeinab
2014-02-01
We study the thermodynamic behavior of multi-spinning d = 6 Kerr-anti de Sitter black holes in the canonical ensemble of fixed angular momenta J1 and J2. We find, dependent on the ratio q = J2/J1, qualitatively different interesting phenomena known from the ‘every day thermodynamics’ of simple substances. For q = 0 the system exhibits recently observed reentrant large/small/large black hole phase transitions, but for 0 < q ? 1 we find an analogue of a ‘solid/liquid’ phase transition. Furthermore, for q ? (0.00905, 0.0985) the system displays the presence of a large/intermediate/small black hole phase transition with two critical and one triple (or tricritical) points. This behavior is reminiscent of the solid/liquid/gas phase transition except that the coexistence line of small and intermediate black holes does not continue for an arbitrary value of pressure (similar to the solid/liquid coexistence line) but rather terminates at one of the critical points. Finally, for q > 0.0985 we observe the ‘standard liquid/gas behavior’ of the Van der Waals fluid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yanilkin, Alexey; Migdal, Kirill; Pokatashkin, Pavel; Sergeev, Oleg
2015-06-01
The application of molecular dynamics allows us to take into account the influence of thermal properties on thermodynamic properties and phase transitions. In this work different uranium phases are investigated at finite temperatures by means quantum and classical molecular dynamics. In order to verify simulations the lattice constants, elastic modulus, isotherms, Gruniesen coefficient and heat expansion are calculated for ?, ? and liquid phases. The results are in good agreement with experimental data. The stability of high temperature ? phase is discussed. The diffusion coefficient is calculated for liquid phase at different densities and pressure. The boundaries of phase stability are estimated based on QMD results. Furthermore hugoniot calculated is in a good agreement with other calculations and experimental data up to 2TPa. In order to investigate phase transitions EAM interatomic potentials are derived by force-matching method. Different parameterizations are used for different part of phase diagram to improve the reproduction of QMD data. The coexistence and transition rates of two phases are investigated based on Z- and two phase methods.
Fedichev, P O; Bordonskiy, G S; Orlov, A O
2011-01-01
We studied dielectric properties of nano-sized liquid water samples confined in polymerized silicates MCM-41 characterized by the porous sizes \\sim 3-10nm. We report the direct measurements of the dielectric constant by the dielectric spectroscopy method at frequencies 25Hz-1MHz and demonstrate clear signatures of the second-order phase transition of ferroelectric nature at temperatures next to the \\lambda- point in the bulk supercooled water. The presented results support the previously developed polar liquid phenomenology and hence establish its applicability to model actual phenomena in liquid water.
Experimental evidence of the ferroelectric phase transition near the $?-$point in liquid water
P. O. Fedichev; L. I. Menshikov; G. S. Bordonskiy; A. O. Orlov
2011-04-07
We studied dielectric properties of nano-sized liquid water samples confined in polymerized silicates MCM-41 characterized by the porous sizes \\sim 3-10nm. We report the direct measurements of the dielectric constant by the dielectric spectroscopy method at frequencies 25Hz-1MHz and demonstrate clear signatures of the second-order phase transition of ferroelectric nature at temperatures next to the \\lambda- point in the bulk supercooled water. The presented results support the previously developed polar liquid phenomenology and hence establish its applicability to model actual phenomena in liquid water.
Liquid expanded-liquid condensed phase transition in Langmuir films of discotic molecules
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
-water interface. These disc-like molecules are composed of six aliphatic chains attached to the central benzene nucleus by six ester bonds. The hydrophilic ester groups act as pinning points and hold the benzene, it was demonstrated for the first time that disc-like molecules which possess columnar liquid-crystalline phases
Roland, C M; Bogoslovov, R B; Casalini, R; Ellis, A R; Bair, S; Rzoska, S J; Czuprynski, K; Urban, S
2008-06-14
The longitudinal relaxation time tau of a series of alkyl-isothiocyanato-biphenyls (nBT) liquid crystals in the smectic E phase was measured as a function of temperature T and pressure P using dielectric spectroscopy. This relaxation time was found to become essentially constant, independent of T and P, at both the clearing point and the lower temperature crystalline transition. tau(T,P) could also be superposed as a function of the product TV(gamma), where V is the specific volume and gamma is a material constant. It then follows from the invariance of the relaxation time at the transition that the exponent gamma superposing tau(T,V) can be identified with the thermodynamic ratio Gamma=- partial differential log(T(c)) partial differential log(V(c)), where the subscript c denotes the value at the phase transition. Analysis of literature data on other liquid crystals shows that they likewise exhibit a constant tau at their phase transitions. Thus, there is a surprising relationship between the thermodynamic conditions defining the stability limits of a liquid crystalline phase and the dynamic properties reflected in the magnitude of the longitudinal relaxation time. PMID:18554028
Quantum phase transitions in semi-local quantum liquids
Nabil Iqbal; Hong Liu; Márk Mezei
2014-10-23
We consider several types of quantum critical phenomena from finite-density gauge-gravity duality which to different degrees lie outside the Landau-Ginsburg-Wilson paradigm. These include: (1) a "bifurcating" critical point, for which the order parameter remains gapped at the critical point, and thus is not driven by soft order parameter fluctuations. Rather it appears to be driven by "confinement" which arises when two fixed points annihilate and lose conformality. On the condensed side, there is an infinite tower of condensed states and the nonlinear response of the tower exhibits an infinite spiral structure; (2) a "hybridized" critical point which can be described by a standard Landau-Ginsburg sector of order parameter fluctuations hybridized with a strongly coupled sector; (3) a "marginal" critical point which is obtained by tuning the above two critical points to occur together and whose bosonic fluctuation spectrum coincides with that postulated to underly the "Marginal Fermi Liquid" description of the optimally doped cuprates.
Lu, Qing; Kim, Jaegil; Straub, John E.; Farrell, James D.; Wales, David J.
2014-11-14
The generalized Replica Exchange Method (gREM) was applied to study a solid-liquid phase transition in a nanoconfined bilayer water system using the monatomic water (mW) model. Exploiting optimally designed non-Boltzmann sampling weights with replica exchanges, gREM enables an effective sampling of configurations that are metastable or unstable in the canonical ensemble via successive unimodal energy distributions across phase transition regions, often characterized by S-loop or backbending in the statistical temperature. Extensive gREM simulations combined with Statistical Temperature Weighted Histogram Analysis Method (ST-WHAM) for nanoconfined mW water at various densities provide a comprehensive characterization of diverse thermodynamic and structural properties intrinsic to phase transitions. Graph representation of minimized structures of bilayer water systems determined by the basin-hopping global optimization revealed heterogeneous ice structures composed of pentagons, hexagons, and heptagons, consistent with an increasingly ordered solid phase with decreasing density. Apparent crossover from a first-order solid-liquid transition to a continuous one in nanoconfined mW water with increasing density of the system was observed in terms of a diminishing S-loop in the statistical temperature, smooth variation of internal energies and heat capacities, and a characteristic variation of lateral radial distribution functions, and transverse density profiles across transition regions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianco, Valentino; Vilanova, Oriol; Franzese, Giancarlo
2014-03-01
Water is an anomalous liquid because its properties are different from those of the majority of liquids. Here, we first review what is anomalous about water. Then we study a many-body model for a water monolayer confined between hydrophobic plates in order to answer fundamental questions related to the origin of its anomalies and to predict new testable futures. In particular, we study by Monte Carlo simulations the low temperature phase diagram of the model. By finite size scaling, we find a liquid-liquid first order phase transition ending in a critical point (LLCP) in the region in which bulk water would be supercooled. We show that the LLCP belongs to the universality class of the two-dimensional (2D) Ising model in the limit of infinite walls. Next, we study the limit of stability of the liquid phase with respect to the crystal phases. To this goal we modify the model in order to characterize the crystal formation and find that the model has a crystal-crystal phase transition and that the LLCP is stable with respect to the liquid-crystal phase transition depending on the relative strength of the three-body interaction with respect to the rest of many-body interactions.
The quark-gluon-plasma phase transition diagram, Hagedorn matter and quark-gluon liquid
Ismail Zakout; Carsten Greiner
2010-11-29
In order to study the nuclear matter in the relativistic heavy ion collisions and the compact stars, we need the hadronic density of states for the entire ($\\mu_B-T$) phase transition diagram. We present a model for the continuous high-lying mass (and volume) spectrum density of states that fits the Hagedorn mass spectrum. This model explains the origin of the tri-critical point besides various phenomena such as the quarkyonic matter and the quark-gluon liquid. The Hagedorn mass spectrum is derived for the color-singlet quark-gluon bag with various internal structures such as the unimodular unitary, orthogonal and color-flavor locked symplectic symmetry groups. The continuous high-lying hadronic mass spectrum is populated at first by the unitary Hagedorn states. Then the spectrum turns to be dominated by the colorless orthogonal states as the dilute system is heated up. Subsequently, the liquid/gas of orthogonal Hagedorn states undergoes higher order deconfinement phase transition to quark-gluon plasma. Under the deconfinement phase transition process, the color-singlet states is broken badly to form the colored $SU(N_c)$ symmetry group. On the other hand, when the hadronic matter is compressed to larger $\\mu_{B}$ and heated up, the colorless unitary states undergoes first order phase transition to explosive quark-gluon plasma. The tri-critical point emerges as a change in the characteristic behaviour of the matter and as an intersection among various phases with different internal symmetries. When the saturated hadronic matter is cooled down and compressed to higher density, it turns to be dominated by the colorless symplectic states. This matter exhibits the first order phase transition to quark-gluon plasma when it is heated up to higher temperature. The role of chiral phase transition is also discussed.
DYNAMIC MODELING STRATEGY FOR FLOW REGIME TRANSITION IN GAS-LIQUID TWO-PHASE FLOWS
X. Wang; X. Sun; H. Zhao
2011-09-01
In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regime has been used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are often flow regime dependent. Currently, the determination of the flow regimes is primarily based on flow regime maps or transition criteria, which are developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows and widely applied in nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5. As two-phase flows are observed to be dynamic in nature (fully-developed two-phase flows generally do not exist in real applications), it is of importance to model the flow regime transition dynamically for more accurate predictions of two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy for determining flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through the introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs) within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation and destruction of the interfacial area, such as the fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet) disintegration, boiling and evaporation; and fluid particle coalescence and condensation, respectively. For the flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shape (which are correlated), namely small bubbles and large bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identifying the flow regimes is provided, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration of small bubble and large bubble groups. This method is expected to be applied to computer codes to improve their predictive capabilities of gas-liquid two-phase flows, in particular for the applications in which flow regime transition occurs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gitterman, Moshe
2014-09-01
In discussing phase transitions, the first thing that we have to do is to define a phase. This is a concept from thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, where a phase is defined as a homogeneous system. As a simple example, let us consider instant coffee. This consists of coffee powder dissolved in water, and after stirring it we have a homogeneous mixture, i.e., a single phase. If we add to a cup of coffee a spoonful of sugar and stir it well, we still have a single phase -- sweet coffee. However, if we add ten spoonfuls of sugar, then the contents of the cup will no longer be homogeneous, but rather a mixture of two homogeneous systems or phases, sweet liquid coffee on top and coffee-flavored wet sugar at the bottom...
Third-order gas-liquid phase transition and the nature of Andrews critical point
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Tian; Wang, Shouhong
2011-12-01
The main objective of this article is to study the nature of the Andrews critical point in the gas-liquid transition in a physical-vapor transport (PVT) system. A dynamical model, consistent with the van der Waals equation near the Andrews critical point, is derived. With this model, we deduce two physical parameters, which interact exactly at the Andrews critical point, and which dictate the dynamic transition behavior near the Andrews critical point. In particular, it is shown that 1) the gas-liquid co-existence curve can be extended beyond the Andrews critical point, and 2) the transition is first order before the critical point, second-order at the critical point, and third order beyond the Andrews critical point. This clearly explains why it is hard to observe the gas-liquid phase transition beyond the Andrews critical point. Furthermore, the analysis leads naturally the introduction of a general asymmetry principle of fluctuations and the preferred transition mechanism for a thermodynamic system. The theoretical results derived in this article are in agreement with the experimental results obtained in (K. Nishikawa and T. Morita, Fluid behavior at supercritical states studied by small-angle X-ray scattering, Journal of Supercritical Fluid, 13 (1998), pp. 143-148). Also, the derived second-order transition at the critical point is consistent with the result obtained in (M. Fisher, Specific heat of a gas near the critical point, Physical Review, 136:6A (1964), pp. A1599-A1604).
Two-channel pseudogap Kondo and Anderson models: Quantum phase transitions and non-Fermi liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneider, Imke; Fritz, Lars; Anders, Frithjof B.; Benlagra, Adel; Vojta, Matthias
2011-09-01
We discuss the two-channel Kondo problem with a pseudogap density of states ?(?)?|?|r of the bath fermions. Combining both analytical and numerical renormalization group techniques, we characterize the impurity phases and quantum phase transitions of the relevant Kondo and Anderson models. The line of stable points, corresponding to the overscreened non-Fermi-liquid behavior of the metallic r=0 case, is replaced by a stable particle-hole-symmetric intermediate-coupling fixed point for 0
Disappearance of Widom Line for Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition with Horizontal Coexistence Line
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Jiayuan; Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey; Angell, Austen; Stanley, Gene
2012-02-01
The study of spherically symmetric two-scale Jagla model with both repulsive and attractive ramps has been very successful in demonstrating the anomalous behavior of liquids (especially water) and its relation with respect to the existence of a liquid-liquid (LL) critical point. However, the co-existence line of Jagla model shows a positive slope, which is opposite to what has been found in the simulations of water. To more convincingly link the result of the study on Jagla model with that of water, we applied discrete molecular dynamics to Gibson and Wilding's modified Jagla model and found that by shrinking both the attractive and repulsive ramps, the slope of the coexistence line can be reduced to zero. However, at these values of the parameters, the LL critical point becomes completely unstable with respect to crystal and glass. We further studied the Widom line, defined as extreme of response functions and also continuation of the coexistence line into one phase region, and found Widom line disappeared in the case of zero slope of the coexistence line, due to the equal enthalpy of low-density liquid (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL).
P. O. Fedichev; L. I. Menshikov
2009-12-20
We develop a series of approximations to calculate free energy of a polar liquid. We show that long range nature of dipole interactions between the molecules leads to para-electric state instability at low temperatures and to a second-order phase transition. We establish the transition temperature, T_{c}, both within mean field and ring diagrams approximation and show that the ferro-electric transition may play an important role explaining a number of peculiar properties of supercooled water, such as weak singularity of dielectric constant as well as to a large extent anomalous density behavior. Finally we discuss the role of fluctuations, shorter range forces and establish connections with phenomenological models of polar liquids.
Isotropic-to-nematic phase transition of liquid crystals confined in nanoemulsion droplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bono, S.; Takanishi, Y.; Yamamoto, J.
2015-01-01
We fabricated liquid crystalline nanoemulsions (LCNEs) by introducing low molecular weight liquid crystals (LMWLCs) into the core of nanoemulsions, and investigated the phase transition behavior of LMWLCs in the core part with the various weight ratios of LMWLCs to surfactants. The polarized dynamic light scattering measurement was performed to estimate the radii of LCNEs, and it is found that their radii can be controlled by the weight ratio of LMLCs to surfactant polymers. In the depolarized light scattering, it was revealed that the order of the isotropic-nematic phase transition behavior changes from the first order to biased second order with decreasing radius of LCNEs because of the three-dimensional confinement effect surrounded by an anchoring surface.
Katira, Shachi; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Smit, Berend; Chandler, David
2015-01-01
We characterize the order-disorder transition in a model lipid bilayer using molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the ordered phase is hexatic. In particular, in-plane structures possess a finite concentration of 5-7 disclination pairs that diffuse throughout the plane of the bilayer, and further, in-plane structures exhibit long-range orientational order and short-range translational order. In contrast, the disordered phase is liquid. The transition between the two phases is first order. Specifically, it exhibits hysteresis, and coexistence exhibits an interface with capillary scaling. The location of the interface and its spatial fluctuations are analyzed with a spatial field constructed from a rotational-invariant for local 6-fold orientational order. As a result of finite interfacial tension, there necessarily exist associated forces of assembly between membrane-bound solutes that pre-melt the ordered phase.
Structure and phase transitions into ionic adsorption layers on liquid interfaces
R. Tsekov
2014-10-25
The structure of ionic adsorption layers is studied via a proper thermodynamic treatment of the electrostatic and non-electrostatic interactions between the surfactant ions as well as of the effect of thermodynamic non-locality. The analysis is also applied to phase transitions into the ionic adsorption layer, which interfere further with the oscillatory-diffusive structure of the electric double layer and hydrodynamic stability of squeezing waves in thin liquid films.
Field-induced transitions between multilayer phases of polar smectic liquid crystals.
Dolganov, P V; Zhilin, V M; Dolganov, V K; Kats, E I
2012-08-01
Recently Wang et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 027801 (2010)] reported the discovery of a novel multilayer phase in polar liquid crystals. The phase was unambiguously assigned to a six-layer antiferroelectric structure (Sm-C(d6)(*)) by resonant x-ray diffraction. This discovery lead to essential progress in understanding the nature of polar phases. However, more recently, Chandani et al. [Liq. Cryst. 38, 663 (2011)] in the same material clearly identified the novel phase as a ferrielectric five-layer structure (Sm-C(d5)(*)) by the electric-field-induced birefringence. This contradiction seemed to be a mystery. In this paper we show that the two experiments are in agreement. Phenomenological Landau theory of the phase transitions shows that both phases (Sm-C(d6)(*) and Sm-C(d5)(*)) exist and transform into each other in a relatively low electric field. PMID:23005711
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shadkhoo, Shahriar; Bruinsma, Robijn
2014-03-01
A quantum mechanical impurity coupled to an ohmic charged liquid near the crystallization phase transition, can stabilize a local cluster in the liquid. A nonlinear free energy functional is borrowed from Landau-Brazovskii (LB) model; the theory of weak crystallization, where in Gaussian approximation and near the thermal freezing point, the correlation of fluctuations with a characteristic wave vector q0 diverges, hence a crystal with unit cells of the size q0-1 forms. Adding nonlinearities to the free energy, however, opens up a gap in density field (order parameter) across the transition, implying a first order phase transition. We apply the instanton technique to study the first order local phase transition of the charged field from liquid to crystalline phase, induced by the impurity. We demonstrate that the particle, can stabilize the metastable minimum of the free energy slightly above the actual transition point, and facilitate the local transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagoe, Atsushi; Iwaki, Shinji; Oguni, Masaharu; Tôzaki, Ken-ichi
2014-09-01
Phase transition behaviors of confined pure water and confined water doped with a small amount of hydroxylamine (HA) with a mole fraction of xHA = 0.03 were examined by high-pressure differential thermal analyses at 0.1, 50, 100, and 150 MPa; the average diameters of silica pores used were 2.0 and 2.5 nm. A liquid–liquid phase transition (LLPT) of the confined HA-doped water was clearly observed and its pressurization effect could be evaluated, unlike in the experiments on undoped water. It was found that pressurization causes the transition temperature (Ttrs) to linearly decrease, indicating that the low-temperature phase has a lower density than the high-temperature one. Transition enthalpy (?trsH) decreased steeply with increasing pressure. Considering the linear decrease in Ttrs with increasing pressure, the steep decrease in ?trsH indicates that the LLPT effect of the HA-doped water attenuates with pressure. We present a new scenario of the phase behavior concerning the LLPT of pure water based on the analogy from the behavior of slightly HA-doped water, where a liquid–liquid critical point (LLCP) and a coexistence line are located in a negative-pressure regime but not in a positive-pressure one. It is reasonably understood that doping a small amount of HA into water results in negative chemical pressurization and causes the LLPT to occur even at ambient pressure.
Quantum phase transition and Fermi liquid behavior in Pd1 -xNix nanoalloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swain, P.; Srivastava, Suneel K.; Srivastava, Sanjeev K.
2015-01-01
The Pd1 -xNix alloy system is an established ideal transition-metal system possessing a composition-induced paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic quantum phase transition (QPT) at the critical concentration xc˜0.026 in bulk. A low-temperature non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior around xc usually indicates the presence of quantum criticality (QC) in this system. In this work, we explore the existence of such a QPT in nanoparticles of this alloy system. We synthesized single-phase, polydispersed and 40-50 nm mean diameter crystalline nanoparticles of Pd1 -xNix alloys, with x near xc and beyond, by a chemical reflux method. In addition to the determination of the size, composition, phase, and crystallinity of the alloys by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, the existence of a possible QPT was explored by resistivity and dc magnetization measurements. A dip in the value of the exponent n near xc, and a concomitant peak in the constant A of the A Tn dependence of the low-temperature (T ) resistivity indicate the presence of a quantum-like phase transition in the system. The minimum value of n , however, remains within the Fermi liquid regime (n >2 ). The dc magnetization results suggest an anticipatory presence of a superparamagnetic-to-ferromagnetic QPT in the mean-sized nanoparticles. The observation of a possible quantum critical NFL behavior (n <2 ) through resistivity is argued to be inhibited by the electron-magnon scatterings present in the smaller nanoparticles.
Surface Specularity as an Indicator of Shock-Induced Solid-Liquid Phase Transitions
Gerald Stevens, Stephen Lutz, William Turley, Lynn Veeser
2007-06-29
When highly polished metal surfaces melt upon release after shock loading, they exhibit a number of features that suggest that significant surface changes accompany the phase transition. The reflection of light from such surfaces changes from specular (pre-shock) to diffuse upon melting. A familiar manifestation of this phenomenon is the loss of signal light in velocimetric measurements typically observed above pressures high enough to melt the free-surface. Unlike many other potential material phase-sensitive diagnostics (e.g., reflectometery, conductivity), changes in the specularity of reflection provide a dramatic, sensitive indicator of the solid-liquid phase transition. Data will be presented from multiple diagnostics that support the hypothesis that specularity changes indicate melt. These diagnostics include shadowgraphy, infrared imagery, high-magnification surface images, interferometric velocimetry, and most recently scattering angle measurements.
A Liquid-to-Solid Phase Transition of the ALS Protein FUS Accelerated by Disease Mutation.
Patel, Avinash; Lee, Hyun O; Jawerth, Louise; Maharana, Shovamayee; Jahnel, Marcus; Hein, Marco Y; Stoynov, Stoyno; Mahamid, Julia; Saha, Shambaditya; Franzmann, Titus M; Pozniakovski, Andrej; Poser, Ina; Maghelli, Nicola; Royer, Loic A; Weigert, Martin; Myers, Eugene W; Grill, Stephan; Drechsel, David; Hyman, Anthony A; Alberti, Simon
2015-08-27
Many proteins contain disordered regions of low-sequence complexity, which cause aging-associated diseases because they are prone to aggregate. Here, we study FUS, a prion-like protein containing intrinsically disordered domains associated with the neurodegenerative disease ALS. We show that, in cells, FUS forms liquid compartments at sites of DNA damage and in the cytoplasm upon stress. We confirm this by reconstituting liquid FUS compartments in vitro. Using an in vitro "aging" experiment, we demonstrate that liquid droplets of FUS protein convert with time from a liquid to an aggregated state, and this conversion is accelerated by patient-derived mutations. We conclude that the physiological role of FUS requires forming dynamic liquid-like compartments. We propose that liquid-like compartments carry the trade-off between functionality and risk of aggregation and that aberrant phase transitions within liquid-like compartments lie at the heart of ALS and, presumably, other age-related diseases. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:26317470
Dynamical phase transitions in supercooled liquids: Interpreting measurements of dynamical activity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fullerton, Christopher J.; Jack, Robert L.
2013-06-01
We study dynamical phase transitions in a model supercooled liquid. These transitions occur in ensembles of trajectories that are biased towards low (or high) dynamical activity. We compare two different measures of activity that were introduced in recent papers and we find that they are anti-correlated with each other. To interpret this result, we show that the two measures couple to motion on different length and time scales. We find that "inactive" states with very slow structural relaxation nevertheless have increased molecular motion on very short scales. We discuss these results in terms of the potential energy landscape of the system and in terms of the liquid structure in active/inactive states.
Liquid–solid phase transition of hydrogen and deuterium in silica aerogel
Van Cleve, E.; Worsley, M. A.; Kucheyev, S. O.
2014-10-28
Behavior of hydrogen isotopes confined in disordered low-density nanoporous solids remains essentially unknown. Here, we use relaxation calorimetry to study freezing and melting of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} in an ?85%-porous base-catalyzed silica aerogel. We find that liquid–solid transition temperatures of both isotopes inside the aerogel are depressed. The phase transition takes place over a wide temperature range of ?4?K and non-trivially depends on the liquid filling fraction, reflecting the broad pore size distribution in the aerogel. Undercooling is observed for both H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} confined inside the aerogel monolith. Results for H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} are extrapolated to tritium-containing hydrogens with the quantum law of corresponding states.
Gutierrez-Cuevas, Karla G; Wang, Ling; Xue, Chenming; Singh, Gautam; Kumar, Satyendra; Urbas, Augustine; Li, Quan
2015-06-18
Light-driven phase transition in liquid crystals is a fascinating endeavour from both scientific and technological points of view. Here we demonstrate the proof-of-principle that the photothermal effect of organo-soluble plasmonic gold nanorods can introduce the phase transition of thermotropic liquid crystals upon near infrared laser irradiation. Interestingly, the reverse process occurs when the laser is switched off. PMID:25989830
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dreyer, Wolfgang; Hantke, Maren; Warnecke, Gerald
2014-07-01
We study averaging methods for the derivation of mixture equations for disperse vapor bubbles in liquids. The carrier liquid is modeled as a continuum, whereas simplified assumptions are made for the disperse bubble phase. An approach due to Petrov and Voinov is extended to derive mixture equations for the case that there is a phase transition between the carrier liquid and the vapor bubbles in water. We end up with a system of balance laws for a multi-phase mixture, which is completely in divergence form. Additional non-differential source terms describe the exchange of mass, momentum and energy between the phases. The sources depend explicitly on evolution laws for the total mass, the radius and the temperature of single bubbles. These evolution laws are derived in a prior article (Dreyer et al. in Cont Mech Thermodyn. doi:10.1007/s00161-0225-6, 2011) and are used to close the system. Finally, numerical examples are presented.
Liquid-Solid Phase Transition Alloy as Reversible and Rapid Molding Bone Cement
Yi, Liting; Liu, Jing
2013-01-01
Bone cement has been demonstrated as an essential restorative material in the orthopedic surgery. However current materials often imply unavoidable drawbacks, such as tissue-cement reaction induced thermal injuries and troublesome revision procedure. Here we proposed an injectable alloy cement to address such problems through its liquid-solid phase transition mechanism. The cement is made of a unique alloy BiInSnZn with a specifically designed low melting point 57.5{\\deg}C. This property enables its rapid molding into various shapes with high plasticity. Some fundamental characteristics including mechanical strength behaviors and phase transition-induced thermal features have been measured to demonstrate the competence of alloy as unconventional cement with favorable merits. Further biocompatible tests showed that this material could be safely employed in vivo. In addition, experiments also found the alloy cement capability as an excellent contrast agent for radiation imaging. Particularly, the proposed alloy...
Influence of spin polarizability on liquid gas phase transition in the nuclear matter
Rezaei, Z; Bordbar, G H
2015-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the liquid gas phase transition for the spin polarized nuclear matter. Applying the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method, and using two microscopic potentials, $AV_{18}$ and $UV_{14}$+TNI, we calculate the free energy, equation of state, order parameter, entropy, heat capacity and compressibility to derive the critical properties of spin polarized nuclear matter. Our results indicate that for the spin polarized nuclear matter, the second order phase transition takes place at lower temperatures with respect to the unpolarized one. It is also shown that the critical temperature of our spin polarized nuclear matter with a specific value of spin polarization parameter is in good agreement with the experimental result.
V. A. Karnaukhov; H. Oeschler; A. Budzanowski; S. P. Avdeyev; A. S. Botvina; E. A. Cherepanov; W. Karcz; V. V. Kirakosyan; P. A. Rukoyatkin; I. Skwirczynska; E. Norbeck
2008-01-29
Critical temperature Tc for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition is stimated both from the multifragmentation and fission data. In the first case,the critical temperature is obtained by analysis of the IMF yields in p(8.1 GeV)+Au collisions within the statistical model of multifragmentation (SMM). In the second case, the experimental fission probability for excited 188Os is compared with the calculated one with Tc as a free parameter. It is concluded for both cases that the critical temperature is higher than 16 MeV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Prabir K.
2010-01-01
We present a mean-field description of the phase transitions, which are obtained when cooling from the isotropic liquid to the first liquid crystalline phase in compounds composed of achiral banana-shaped molecules. We put special emphasis on the isotropic to antiferroelectric B2 phase transition. The free energy is written in terms of the coupled order parameters including the antiferroelectric polarization. We present a detailed analysis of the different phases that can occur and analyze the question under which conditions a direct isotropic to antiferroelectric B2 phase transition is possible when compared with other phase transitions. The theoretical results are found to be in qualitative agreement with all published experimental results.
Song, Hongzan; Niu, Yanhua; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Jun
2011-04-11
Liquid crystalline (LC) phase transition and gel-sol transition in the solutions of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, EMIMAc) have been investigated through a combination of polarized optical microscope (POM) observation and rheological measurements. Molecular LC phase forms at the 10 wt % cellulose concentration, as observed by POM, whereas the critical gel point is 12.5 wt % by rheological measurements according to the Winter and Chambon theory, for which the loss tangent, tan ?, shows frequency independence. Dramatic decreases of G' and G'' in the phase transition temperature range during temperature sweep are observed due to disassembling of the LC domain junctions. The phase diagram describing the LC phase and gel-sol transitions is obtained and the associated mechanisms are elucidated. A significant feature shown in the phase diagram is the presence of a narrow lyotropic LC solution region, which potentially has a great importance for the cellulose fiber wet spinning. PMID:21361275
Dynamic Modeling Strategy for Flow Regime Transition in Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flows
Xia Wang; Xiaodong Sun; Benjamin Doup; Haihua Zhao
2012-12-01
In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regimes has been widely used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are flow regime dependent. Current nuclear reactor safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5, classify flow regimes using flow regime maps or transition criteria that were developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows. As twophase flows are dynamic in nature, it is important to model the flow regime transitions dynamically to more accurately predict the two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy to determine flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs) within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation of the interfacial area, fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet) disintegration, boiling and evaporation, and the destruction of the interfacial area, fluid particle coalescence and condensation. For flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shapes, namely group-1 and group-2 bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identify the flow regimes is discussed, in which discriminator s are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration. The flow regime predicted with this method shows good agreement with the experimental observations.
Phase transitions in nuclear physics
Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.
1997-08-01
A critical overview of the low energy phase transitions in nuclei is presented with particular attention to the 2nd (1st) order pairing phase transitions, and to the 1st order liquid-vapor phase transition. The role of fluctuations in washing out these transitions is discussed and illustrated with examples. A robust indicator of phase coexistence in multifragmentation is presented.
Method and apparatus for acoustic plate mode liquid-solid phase transition detection
Blair, Dianna S. (Albuquerque, NM); Freye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM); Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM)
1993-01-01
A method and apparatus for sensing a liquid-solid phase transition event is provided which comprises an acoustic plate mode detecting element placed in contact with a liquid or solid material which generates a high-frequency acoustic wave that is attenuated to an extent based on the physical state of the material is contact with the detecting element. The attenuation caused by the material in contact with the acoustic plate mode detecting element is used to determine the physical state of the material being detected. The method and device are particularly suited for detecting conditions such as the icing and deicing of wings of an aircraft. In another aspect of the present invention, a method is provided wherein the adhesion of a solid material to the detecting element can be measured using the apparatus of the invention.
Klein, Jacob
Simple liquids confined to molecularly thin layers. I. Confinement-induced liquid-to-solid phase in the vicinity of solid surfaces, both for bulk liquids and particu- larly when they are confined to thin films, to behaving like solids when confined to films only a monolayer or two in thickness.1,57 For bulk liquids
Liquid-solid phase transition alloy as reversible and rapid molding bone cement.
Yi, Liting; Jin, Chao; Wang, Lei; Liu, Jing
2014-12-01
Acrylic bone cement has been an essential non-metallic implant used as fixing agent in the cemented total joint arthroplasty (THA). However, the currently available materials based mainly on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) still encounter certain limitations, such as time-consuming polymerization, thermal and chemical necrosis and troublesome revision procedure. Here from an alternative way, we proposed for the first time to adopt the injectable alloy cement to address such tough issues through introducing its unique liquid-solid phase transition mechanism. A typical cement along this way is thus made of an alloy Bi/In/Sn/Zn with a specifically designed low melting point 57.5 °C, which enables its rapid molding into various desired shapes with high plasticity and ultimate metallic behaviors. The fundamental characteristics including the mechanical strength, biocompatibility and phase transition-induced thermal effects have been clarified to demonstrate the importance of such alloy as unconventional cement with favorable merits. In addition, we also disclosed its advantage as an excellent contrast agent for radiation imaging on the bone interior structure which is highly beneficial for guiding the surgery and monitoring the therapeutic effects. Particularly, the proposed alloy cement with reversible phase transition feature significantly simplifies the revision of the cement and prosthesis. This study opens the way for employing the injectable alloy materials as reversible bone cement to fulfill diverse clinical needs in the coming time. PMID:25239039
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Syed, Ishtiaque M.; Percec, Virgil; Petschek, Rolfe G.; Rosenblatt, Charles
2003-01-01
The cyclic liquid crystalline trimer TPB-(c)9(3) was investigated by optical retardation and Fréedericksz techniques within a few tens of millikelvins of the superheating limit of the nearly second-order nematic-isotropic phase transition. Both the optical retardation and the Fréedericksz bend threshold voltage are in good agreement with tricritical behavior for the transition.
Dynamics of isothermal phase transition of liquid crystal with zero anchoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Jinxin; Nayani, Karthik; Park, Jung Ok; Srinivasarao, Mohan
2015-03-01
Liquid crystal (LC) is an ideal system to mimic the cosmological symmetry breaking in the laboratory. The formation of LC string defects in film and bubble has been shown to be analogous to the formation of cosmic strings previously. Here we study the dynamics of LC isothermal transition from isotropic to nematic phase in a three-dimensionally isotropic environment, which enables us to observe the simultaneous symmetry breaking of matter without any external heat transfer or anchoring boundary condition. The isothermal phase transition is realized by the photochemical conversion of the trans-form to the cis-form of an Azobenzene compound that is added into liquid crystal E7. And a medium composed of carbopol and SDS surfactant provides the zero anchoring. The dynamics of the nucleation of LC and defects are studied under microscope with high-speed camera. This work was supported a grant from the U.S. Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Department of Energy; Grant No. DE-SC0001412
Elenius, Måns; Oppelstrup, Tomas; Dzugutov, Mikhail
2010-11-01
Under cooling, a liquid can undergo a transition to the glassy state either as a result of a continuous slowing down or by a first-order polyamorphous phase transition. The second scenario has so far always been observed in a metastable liquid domain below the melting point where crystalline nucleation interfered with the glass formation. We report the first observation of the liquid-glass transition by a first-order polyamorphous phase transition from the equilibrium stable liquid phase. The observation was made in a molecular dynamics simulation of a one-component system with a model metallic pair potential. In this way, the model, demonstrating the thermodynamic glass transition from a stable liquid phase, may be regarded as a candidate for a simple monatomic ideal glass former. This observation is of conceptual importance in the context of continuing attempts to resolve the long-standing Kauzmann paradox. The possibility of a thermodynamic glass transition from an equilibrium melt in a metallic system also indicates a new strategy for the development of bulk metallic glass-forming alloys. PMID:21054046
Hasegawa, Shuji
Atomic scale observation of a two-dimensional liquid-solid phase transition on the Si,,111...- 3Ã 3 liquid-solid phase transition was investigated using a model system of a Cs overlayer adsorbed on a Si images show the overlayer at a liquid state, a solid state, and a state in-between that is identified
Rapid heating of a strongly coupled plasma at the solid-liquid phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jensen, M. J.; Hasegawa, T.; Bollinger, J. J.; Dubin, D. H. E.
2004-11-01
Between 10^4 and 10^6 ^9Be^+ ions are trapped in a 4.5 Tesla Penning trap and laser-cooled to ˜1 mK, where the ions form a crystalline plasma with an interparticle spacing of ˜20 ?m. This system is a realization of a strongly coupled one-component plasma. Using Doppler laser spectroscopy on a single-photon transition, we measured the temperature and heating rate of this plasma when not being laser-cooled. We measured a slow heating rate of ? 100 mK/s due to residual gas collisions for the first 100-200 ms after turning off the cooling laser. This slow heating is followed by a rapid heating to 1-2 K in 100 ms as the plasma undergoes the solid-liquid phase transition at T=10 mK (? ˜ 170). We will present evidence that this rapid heating is due to a sudden release of energy from weakly cooled degrees of freedom involving the cyclotron motion of trapped impurity ions. We will also discuss the prospects for observing the latent heat associated with the phase transition.
Annunziata, Onofrio
of protein-rich liquid droplets for bovine serum albumin and chicken egg lysozyme at 25 °C. These dropletsH, polyethylene glycol, and salt concentrations can be used to favor LLPS relative to aggregation. Although
Ming-Hung Wu; Chih-Chien Chu; Min-Chi Cheng; Vincent K. S. Hsiao
2012-01-01
We demonstrate the photoinduced phase transition and reversible switching of a cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) doped with a high concentration of azobenzene LC (azo-LC). The photoinduced isotropic (PHI) state (light “ON”) is created by the irradiation of a 405 nm laser, which generates cis-isomers that destabilize the cholesteric phase and make the LC transmissive. The response time is reduced by
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maksimochkin, G. I.; Pasechnik, S. V.; Lukin, A. V.
2015-07-01
The absorption of ultrasound (at a frequency of 2.7 MHz) and the depolarized light transmission and scattering (at a wavelength of 630 nm) in liquid crystal (LC) emulsions have been studied during the nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition in LC droplets with radii ranging from 150 to 2300 nm. The obtained acoustical and optical data are used to determine the influence of the droplet size on characteristics of the N-I phase transition. It is shown that the acoustical and optical characteristics of LC emulsions have good prospects to be used for the investigation of phase transitions in submicron samples.
On the phase transitions of 8CB/Sn2P2S6 liquid crystal nanocolloids.
Lin, Y; Douali, R; Dubois, F; Segovia-Mera, A; Daoudi, A
2015-09-01
Using differential scanning calorimetry measurements, the influence of Sn2P2S6 ferroelectric nanoparticles on the phase transition temperatures of the 8CB liquid crystal is studied. The spontaneous polarization, ionic and anchoring effects are discussed. For low concentration of dopant, the global effect leads to a decrease and an increase of the nematic-isotropic and the smectic A-nematic phase transition temperatures, respectively. For high concentrations, due to aggregates formation, the predominant anchoring effect induces a decrease of the both phase transition temperatures. PMID:26410848
Universality and criticality of a second-order granular solid-liquid-like phase transition.
Castillo, Gustavo; Mujica, Nicolás; Soto, Rodrigo
2015-01-01
We experimentally study the critical properties of the nonequilibrium solid-liquid-like transition that takes place in vibrated granular matter. The critical dynamics is characterized by the coupling of the density field with the bond-orientational order parameter Q(4), which measures the degree of local crystallization. Two setups are compared, which present the transition at different critical accelerations as a result of modifying the energy dissipation parameters. In both setups five independent critical exponents are measured, associated to different properties of Q(4): the correlation length, relaxation time, vanishing wavenumber limit (static susceptibility), the hydrodynamic regime of the pair correlation function, and the amplitude of the order parameter. The respective critical exponents agree in both setups and are given by ?(?)=1,?(?)=2,?=1,??0.6-0.67, and ?=1/2, whereas the dynamical critical exponent is z=?(?)/?(?)=2. The agreement on five exponents is an exigent test for the universality of the transition. Thus, while dissipation is strictly necessary to form the crystal, the path the system undergoes toward the phase separation is part of a well-defined universality class. In fact, the local order shows critical properties while density does not. Being the later conserved, the appropriate model that couples both is model C in the Hohenberg and Halperin classification. The measured exponents are in accord with the nonequilibrium extension to model C if we assume that ?, the exponent associated in equilibrium to the specific heat divergence but with no counterpart in this nonequilibrium experiment, vanishes. PMID:25679604
Rout, Alok; Binnemans, Koen
2014-02-28
The solvent extraction of trivalent rare-earth ions and their separation from divalent transition metal ions using molten salt hydrates as the feed phase and an undiluted fluorine-free ionic liquid as the extracting phase were investigated in detail. The extractant was tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate, [A336][NO3], and the hydrated melt was calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, Ca(NO3)2·4H2O. The extraction behavior of rare-earth ions was studied for solutions of individual elements, as well as for mixtures of rare earths in the hydrated melt. The influence of different extraction parameters was investigated: the initial metal loading in the feed phase, percentage of water in the feed solution, equilibration time, and the type of hydrated melt. The extraction of rare earths from Ca(NO3)2·4H2O was compared with extraction from CaCl2·4H2O by [A336][Cl] (Aliquat 336). The nitrate system was found to be the better one. The extraction and separation of rare earths from the transition metals nickel, cobalt and zinc were also investigated. Remarkably high separation factors of rare-earth ions over transition metal ions were observed for extraction from Ca(NO3)2·4H2O by the [A336][NO3] extracting phase. Furthermore, rare-earth ions could be separated efficiently from transition metal ions, even in melts with very high concentrations of transition metal ions. Rare-earth oxides could be directly dissolved in the Ca(NO3)2·4H2O phase in the presence of small amounts of Al(NO3)3·9H2O or concentrated nitric acid. The efficiency of extraction after dissolving the rare-earth oxides in the hydrated nitrate melt was identical to extraction from solutions with rare-earth nitrates dissolved in the molten phase. The stripping of the rare-earth ions from the loaded ionic liquid phase and the reuse of the recycled ionic liquid were also investigated in detail. PMID:24352299
Effective theories for liquid crystals and the Maier-Saupe phase transition
Sven Bachmann; François Genoud
2015-08-20
We discuss effective theories for thermotropic nematic liquid crystals. In the first part of this article, we rigorously carry out two physically different scaling limits as the number of particles $N\\to\\infty$, which we call the mean-field and the Gross-Pitaevskii limit. Each of them yields an effective `one-body' free energy functional. In the second part, we study the associated Euler-Lagrange equation, with a focus of phase transitions. We identify two critical points as the temperature is lowered, corresponding first to the appearance of an anisotropic distribution, and secondly to the loss of stability of the isotropic solution. As the temperature goes to zero we also prove, in the concrete case of the Maier-Saupe potential, that the system converges to perfect nematic order.
Guang-Hua Zhang; Wei-Zhou Jiang
2013-02-14
The liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter is studied within density-dependent relativistic mean-field models where the density dependence is introduced according to the Brown-Rho scaling and constrained by available data at low densities and empirical properties of nuclear matter. The critical temperature of the liquid-gas phase transition is obtained to be 15.7 MeV in symmetric nuclear matter falling on the lower edge of the small experimental error bars. In hot asymmetric matter, the boundary of the phase-coexistence region is found to be sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy. The critical pressure and the area of phase-coexistence region increases clearly with the softening of the symmetry energy. The critical temperature of hot asymmetric matter separating the gas phase from the LG coexistence phase is found to be higher for the softer symmetry energy.
Rasing, T.; Shen, Y.R.; Kim, M.W.; Grubb, S.; Bock, J.
1985-06-01
Insoluble molecular monolayers at gas-liquid interfaces provide an insight to the understanding of surfactants, wetting, microemulsions and membrane structures and offer a possibility to study the rich world of 2-dimensional phase transitions. In the interpretation of the observed properties of these systems various assumptions about the molecular orientation are often made, but so far few clear experimental data exist. In this paper we will show how optical second harmonic generation (SHG) can be used to measure the molecular orientation of monolayers of surfactant molecules at water-air interfaces. By simultaneously measuring the surface pressure versus surface molecular area we can show for the first time that the observed liquid condensed-liquid expanded transition is an orientational phase transition. 7 refs., 4 figs.
Degenerate Fermi and non-Fermi liquids near a quantum critical phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kambe, S.; Sakai, H.; Tokunaga, Y.; Lapertot, G.; Matsuda, T. D.; Knebel, G.; Flouquet, J.; Walstedt, R. E.
2014-11-01
Recently there is renewed interest in quantum critical phase transitions (QCPT) at T = 0 K in metallic strongly correlated electron systems. From early experimental results, the QCPT in the Kondo-lattice compound YbRh2Si2 is not a case of the ordinary spin density wave (SDW) instability observed in Ce-based Kondo lattices, but a candidate for a novel locally critical case. Here, we observe that coexisting, static Fermi liquid (FL) and non-Fermi liquid (NFL) states are a key feature of the QCPT in YbRh2Si2. By means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) measurements on a single-crystalline sample, we find that the FL and NFL states are invariant, whereas their ratio in a crossover is field dependent near the QCPT. Such a pair of states has remained hidden in Ce compounds, owing presumably to the short lifetimes of the two states. We derive a scaling law for the occupation ratio of the two states, which could be widely applicable to Kondo-lattice systems.
Freeze-out temperature and density in heavy-ion collisions at liquid-gas phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shlomo, Shalom
2010-08-01
The study of properties of hot nuclei and the search for liquid-gas phase transition in nuclei have been the subjects of many investigations in recent decades. We present a short and limited review of the theoretical and experimental status of determining the temperature and density of the disassembling nucleus from ratios of the yields of emitted fragments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gorti, Sridhar; Konnert, John; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.
2004-01-01
We measured the growth velocities of the (110) face of tetragonal lysozyme, V (centimeters per second), at four different concentrations, c (milligrams per milliliter), as the solution temperature, T (Centigrade), was reduced. For a broad range of T dependent on c, we find that the growth velocities increased as the solution temperature was reduced. The initial increase in V is well characterized by the 2D nucleation model for crystal growth, yielding the magnitude of an effective barrier for growth, gamma(sub s) = 1.2 plus or minus 0.1 x 10(exp -13) erg/molecule. Below certain temperatures, T(sub cr), dependent on c, however, a kinetic roughening hypothesis that considers the continuous addition of molecules anywhere on the crystal surface better describes the observed growth velocities. The application of the continuous growth model, up to the solution cloud-point temperatures, T(sub cl), enabled the determinations of the crossover concentration, c(sub r), from estimated values of T(sub cr). For all conditions presented, we find that the crossover from growth by 2D nucleation to continuous addition occurs at a supersaturation, sigma (sub c), = 2.0 plus or minus 0.1. Moreover, we find the energy barrier for the continuous addition, E(sub c), within the temperature range T(sub cl) less than T less than T less than T (sub cr), to be 6 plus or minus 1 x 10(exp -13) erg/molecule. Further reduction of T below approximately 2-3 C of T(sub cl), also revealed a rapid slowing of crystal growth velocities. From quasi-elastic light scattering investigations, we find that the rapid diminishment of crystal growth velocities can be accounted for by the phase behavior of lysozyme solutions. Namely, we find the reversible formation of dense fluid proto-droplets comprised of lysozyme molecules to occur below approximately 0.3 C of T(sub cl). Hence, the rapid slowing of growth velocities may occur as a result of the sudden depletion of "mobile" molecules within crystal growth solutions as dense fluid proto-droplets form.
Phase comparison technique for measuring liquid-liquid phase equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Z.; Daridon, J. L.; Lagourette, B.; Ye, S.
1999-04-01
In this article, a new method is demonstrated to measure the liquid-liquid phase equilibrium for binary systems. A phase comparison technique was employed to real-time display the phase-time curve in a "wave form (time) object" of Hewlett-Packard visual engineering environment. It was found that the phase-time curve showed a distorted wave form when liquid-liquid phase transition took place. The abnormal curve can therefore be used to detect liquid-liquid phase transitions. Measurements were performed in several binary systems such as nitromethane+1-hexanol, nitromethane+butanol, and nitroethane+n-hexane. The experimental results are in good agreement with those in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parrikar, Onkar; Cho, Gil Young; Leigh, Robert; Hughes, Taylor
2014-03-01
Motivated by recent progress in understanding the interplay between the lattice and electronic topological phases, we consider quantum-melting transitions of liquid crystalline order that coexists with electronic topological phases. In certain classes of Chern band insulators, it has been previously demonstrated that there are topological Chern-Simons terms for local lattice deformations such as a Hall viscosity term. The Chern-Simons terms can induce non-trivial statistics for the topological lattice defects and furthermore dress the defects with certain symmetry quantum numbers. On the other hand, the melting transitions of such liquid-crystalline orders are driven by the condensation of lattice defects. Based on these observations, we show how the topological terms can change the nature of the proximate phases of the quantum liquid crystalline phases. We derive and study the effective field theories for the quantum phase transitions, and demonstrate some concrete examples. The authors are supported by the ICMT postdoctoral fellowship at UIUC (GYC) and by the US Department of Energy under contracts DE-FG02-07ER46453 (TLH) and DE-SC0009932 (RGL).
The nuclear liquid-vapor phase transition: Equilibrium between phases or free decay in vacuum?
Phair, L.; Moretto, L.G.; Elliott, J.B.; Wozniak, G.J.
2002-11-14
Recent analyses of multifragmentation in terms of Fisher's model and the related construction of a phase diagram brings forth the problem of the true existence of the vapor phase and the meaning of its associated pressure. Our analysis shows that a thermal emission picture is equivalent to a Fisher-like equilibrium description which avoids the problem of the vapor and explains the recently observed Boltzmann-like distribution of the emission times. In this picture a simple Fermi gas thermometric relation is naturally justified. Low energy compound nucleus emission of intermediate mass fragments is shown to scale according to Fisher's formula and can be simultaneously fit with the much higher energy ISiS multifragmentation data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butlitsky, M. A.; Zelener, B. B.; Zelener, B. V.
2014-07-01
A two-component plasma model, which we called a "shelf Coulomb" model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The "shelf Coulomb" model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ? parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ? and ? = ?e2n1/3 (where ? = 1/kBT, n is the particle's density, kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ? and ? parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of \\varepsilon _{crit} ? 13( {T_{crit}^* ? 0.076} ),? _{crit} ? 1.8( {v_{crit}^* ? 0.17} ),P_{crit}^* ? 0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/?3 and reduced temperature T* = ?-1.
Butlitsky, M. A.; Zelener, B. V.
2014-07-14
A two-component plasma model, which we called a “shelf Coulomb” model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The “shelf Coulomb” model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ? parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ? and ? = ?e{sup 2}n{sup 1/3} (where ? = 1/k{sub B}T, n is the particle's density, k{sub B} is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ? and ? parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ?{sub crit}?13(T{sub crit}{sup *}?0.076),?{sub crit}?1.8(v{sub crit}{sup *}?0.17),P{sub crit}{sup *}?0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/?{sup 3} and reduced temperature T{sup *} = ?{sup ?1}.
Anomalous viscoelasticity near the isotropic-nematic phase transition in liquid crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jose, Prasanth P.; Bagchi, Biman
2004-10-01
Recent optical Kerr effect experiments have shown that orientational relaxation of nematogens shows a pronounced slow down of the response function at intermediate times and also a power law decay near the isotropic-nematic (I-N) transition. In many aspects, this behavior appears to be rather similar to the ones observed in the supercooled liquid near-glass transition [Cang et al., J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9303 (2003)]. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of model nematogens (Gay-Berne with aspect ratio 3) to explore the viscoelasticity near the I-N transition and also investigated the correlation of viscoelasticity (if any) with orientational relaxation. It is found that although the viscosity indeed undergoes a somewhat sharper than normal change near the I-N transition, it is not characterized by any divergencelike behavior (like the ones observed in the supercooled liquid). The rotational friction, on the other hand, shows a much sharper rise as the I-N transition is approached. Interestingly, the probability distribution of the amplitude of the three components of the stress tensor shows anisotropy near the I-N transition—similar anisotropy has also been seen in the deeply supercooled liquid [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 25504 (2002)]. Frequency dependence of viscosity shows several unusual behaviors: (a) There is a weak, power law dependence on frequency [?'(?)˜?-?] at low frequencies and (b) there is a rapid increase in the sharp peak observed in ?'(?) in the intermediate frequency on approach to the I-N transition density. These features can be explained from the stress-stress time correlation function. The angular velocity correlation function also exhibits a power law decay in time. The reason for this is discussed.
Iakhno, T A; Iakhno, V G; Sanin, A G; Shmelev, I I
2002-01-01
A method of studying multicomponent liquids is proposed, which is based on recording the dynamics of the acoustomechanical impedance of a drop that dries up on the surface of a quartz resonator oscillating with an ultrasound frequency. The magnitude of the acoustomechanical impedance is an integral characteristic of the physical properties of the drop such as viscosity, composition, surface tension, moistening, and inner structure. Using liquids of different types as an example, it was shown that each liquid possesses its individual "portrait", which is determined by the phase transitions. The method can be used for the screening identification of liquids (determining the degree of consistency with the standards) in solving a number of scientific and practical problems, as well as in medicine. PMID:12500575
Song, Jang-Kun; Fukuda, Atsuo; Vij, J K
2008-08-29
The temperature-induced phase transition between the chiral smectic phases, antiferroelectric (smectic-C(A)*) and ferroelectric (smectic-C*), is found to occur through solitary wave propagation. We measure the free energy, which shows a double well shape in the entire SmC(A)* temperature range and the global minimum is found to shift from the antiferroelectric order to the ferroelectric order at the transition temperature. However, any significant supercooling is not observed and the transition cannot be described by the first order Landau-de Gennes theory, where the double well potential exists only in a narrow range of temperatures. This implies that the SmC(A)*-SmC* transition can occur only nonhomogeneously through the solitary wave propagation which overcomes the high energy barrier between the two minima. PMID:18851661
Yu, Yang; Beichel, Witali; Dlubek, Günter; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard; Paluch, Marian; Pionteck, Jürgen; Pfefferkorn, Dirk; Bulut, Safak; Friedrich, Christian; Pogodina, Natalia; Krossing, Ingo
2012-04-01
Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) was used to study a series of ionic liquids (ILs) with the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation ([C(4)MIM](+)) but different anions [Cl](-), [BF(4)](-), [PF(6)](-), [OTf](-), [NTf(2)](-), and [B(hfip)(4)](-) with increasing anion volumes. Changes of the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime parameters with temperature were observed for crystalline and amorphous (glass, supercooled, and normal liquid) states. Evidence for distinct phase transitions, e.g. melting, crystallization and solid-solid transitions, was observed in several PALS experiments. The o-Ps mean lifetime ??(3)? showed smaller values in the crystalline phase due to dense packing of the material compared to the amorphous phase. The o-Ps lifetime intensity I(3) in the liquid state is clearly smaller than in the crystallized state. This behaviour can be attributed to a solvation of e(+) by the anions, which reduces the Ps formation probability in the normal and supercooled liquid. These phenomena were observed for the first time when applying the PALS technique to ionic liquids by us in one preliminary and in this work. Four of the ionic liquids investigated in this work ([BF(4)](-), [NTf(2)](-), [PF(6)](-) and [Cl](-) ILs) exhibit supercooled phases. The specific hole densities and occupied volumes of those ILs were obtained by comparing the local free volume with the specific volume from pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) experiments. From the o-Ps lifetime, the mean size ?v(h)? of free volume holes of the four samples was calculated and compared with that calculated according to Fürth's hole theory. The hole volumes from both methods agree well. From the Cohen-Turnbull fitting of viscosity and conductivity against PALS/PVT results, the influence of the free volume on molecular transport properties was investigated. PMID:22472912
Ren, Xiazhong; Svirskis, Darren; Alany, Raid G; Zargar-Shoshtari, Sara; Wu, Zimei
2012-07-15
This study is the first to investigate and demonstrate the potential of microemulsions (MEs) for sustained release parenteral drug delivery, due to phase transition behavior in aqueous environments. Phase diagrams were constructed with Miglyol 812N oil and a blend of (co)surfactants Solutol HS 15 and Span 80 with ethanol. Liquid crystal (LC) and coarse emulsion (CE) regions were found adjacent to the ME region in the water-rich corner of the phase diagram. Two formulations were selected, a LC-forming ME and a CE-forming ME and each were investigated with respect to their rheology, particle size, drug release profiles and particularly, the phase transition behavior. The spreadability in an aqueous environment was determined and release profiles from MEs were generated with gamma-scintigraphy. The CE-forming ME dispersed readily in an aqueous environment, whereas the LC-forming ME remained in a contracted region possibly due to the transition of ME to LC at the water/ME interface. Gamma-scintigraphy showed that the LC-forming ME had minimal spreadability and a slow release of (99m)Tc in the first-order manner, suggesting phase conversion at the interface. In conclusion, owing to the potential of phase transition, LC-forming MEs could be used as extravascular injectable drug delivery vehicles for prolonged drug release. PMID:22548845
California at San Diego, University of
the laser cooling and observed a rapid temperature increase as the plasma underwent the solid-liquid phase low. Laser- cooled trapped ions form a rigorous but convenient low- density, lowRapid Heating of a Strongly Coupled Plasma near the Solid-Liquid Phase Transition M. J. Jensen,1
Chen, Sow-Hsin; Wang, Zhe; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Kao-Hsiang
2013-01-01
It has been conjectured that a 1st order liquid-to-liquid (L-L) phase transition (LLPT) between high density liquid (HDL) and low density liquid (LDL) in supercooled water may exist, as a thermodynamic extension to the liquid phase of the 1st order transition established between the two bulk solid phases of amorphous ice, the high density amorphous ice (HDA) and the low density amorphous ice (LDA). In this paper, we first recall our previous attempts to establish the existence of the 1st order L-L phase transition through the use of two neutron scattering techniques: a constant Q elastic diffraction study of isobaric temperature scan of the D2O density, namely, the equation of state (EOS) measurements. A pronounced density hysteresis phenomenon in the temperature scan of the density above P = 1500 bar is observed which gives a plausible evidence of crossing the 1st order L-L phase transition line above this pressure; an incoherent quasi-elastic scattering measurements of temperature-dependence of the alpha-relaxation time of H2O at a series of pressures, namely, the study of the Fragile-to-Strong dynamic crossover (FSC) phenomenon as a function of pressure which we interpreted as the results of crossing the Widom line in the one-phase region. In this new experiment, we used incoherent inelastic neutron scattering (INS) to measure the density of states (DOS) of H atoms in H2O molecules in confined water as function of temperature and pressure, through which we may be able to follow the emergence of the LDL and HDL phases at supercooled temperature and high pressures. We here report for the first time the differences of librational and translational DOSs between the hypothetical HDL and LDL phases, which are similar to the corresponding differences between the well-established HDA and LDA ices. This is plausible evidence that the HDL and LDL phases are the thermodynamic extensions of the corresponding amorphous solid water HDA and LDA ices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Sow-Hsin; Wang, Zhe; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Kao-Hsiang
2013-02-01
It has been conjectured that a 1st order liquid-to-liquid (L-L) phase transition (LLPT) between high density liquid (HDL) and low density liquid (LDL) in supercooled water may exist, as a thermodynamic extension to the liquid phase of the 1st order transition established between the two bulk solid phases of amorphous ice, the high density amorphous ice (HDA) and the low density amorphous ice (LDA). In this paper, we first recall our previous attempts to establish the existence of the 1st order L-L phase transition through the use of two neutron scattering techniques: a constant Q elastic diffraction study of isobaric temperature scan of the D2O density, namely, the equation of state (EOS) measurements. A pronounced density hysteresis phenomenon in the temperature scan of the density above P = 1500 bar is observed which gives a plausible evidence of crossing the 1st order L-L phase transition line above this pressure; an incoherent quasi-elastic scattering measurements of temperature-dependence of the ?-relaxation time of H2O at a series of pressures, namely, the study of the Fragile-to-Strong dynamic crossover (FSC) phenomenon as a function of pressure which we interpreted as the results of crossing the Widom line in the one-phase region. In this new experiment, we used incoherent inelastic neutron scattering (INS) to measure the density of states (DOS) of H atoms in H2O molecules in confined water as function of temperature and pressure, through which we may be able to follow the emergence of the LDL and HDL phases at supercooled temperature and high pressures. We here report for the first time the differences of librational and translational DOSs between the hypothetical HDL and LDL phases, which are similar to the corresponding differences between the well-established HDA and LDA ices. This is plausible evidence that the HDL and LDL phases are the thermodynamic extensions of the corresponding amorphous solid water HDA and LDA ices.
Dimensional Phase Transition from an Array of 1D Luttinger Liquids to a 3D Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogler, Andreas; Labouvie, Ralf; Barontini, Giovanni; Eggert, Sebastian; Guarrera, Vera; Ott, Herwig
2014-11-01
We study the thermodynamic properties of a 2D array of coupled one-dimensional Bose gases. The system is realized with ultracold bosonic atoms loaded in the potential tubes of a two-dimensional optical lattice. For negligible coupling strength, each tube is an independent weakly interacting 1D Bose gas featuring Tomonaga Luttinger liquid behavior. By decreasing the lattice depth, we increase the coupling strength between the 1D gases and allow for the phase transition into a 3D condensate. We extract the phase diagram for such a system and compare our results with theoretical predictions. Because of the high effective mass across the periodic potential and the increased 1D interaction strength, the phase transition is shifted to large positive values of the chemical potential. Our results are prototypical to a variety of low-dimensional systems, where the coupling between the subsystems is realized in a higher spatial dimension such as coupled spin chains in magnetic insulators.
ICES REPORT 15-14 Liquid-Vapor Phase Transition: Thermomechanical
ICES
is designed, using functional entropy variables and a new temporal scheme employing a family of new quadrature a rotating propeller may drop below the boiling pressure, and vapor bubbles may generate near blades [40]. This is the phenomenon of cavitation and it is still a limiting factor for ship propeller design. Phase transitions
Phase transitions of capillary-held liquids in a slit-like pore.
Maeda, Nobuo
2006-12-28
Dynamics of capillary held liquids plays important roles in a wide range of systems including adhesion, printing of paints and inks, the behavior of wet granular materials, and the mass transfer through porous media. Recent study suggested the presence of two distinct modes for the disappearance of capillary-held liquids in a slit-like pore of adjustable slit width that depended on the slit-opening rates. In contrast to the first mode that is well-documented in terms of the Young-Laplace equation, a novel and unexpected mode was observed when the liquid bridge was held in the vicinity of the thermodynamic phase boundary (equilibrium Kelvin length). Here we extended the study to three new compounds that have a wide range of vapor pressures. An evaporating liquid bridge developed large refractive index gradients that extended over a few micrometers from the edge of the meniscus once the slit width was increased beyond the equilibrium Kelvin length. This interfacial region with depleted refractive index retreated inward as the meniscus shrank with time, and the refractive index of the entire bridge subsequently fell from that of the liquid once the interfacial regions from the opposite sides of the shrinking bridge met at the center. The refractive index recovered to that of the liquid when the slit width was closed to below the Kelvin length and the vapor was allowed to recondense. The time scale of the evaporation and condensation depended on the size of the surface gap, and, when the surfaces were placed at a separation very close to the Kelvin length, it was possible to detect a stage in which the system was in an apparent kinetic equilibrium between two physical states--with and without the liquid connecting the two surfaces. PMID:17181248
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diaz-Herrera, Enrique; Ramirez-Santiago, Guillermo; Moreno-Razo, J. Antonio
2006-03-01
We have carried out extensive equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to study the temperature versus density phase diagrams and the mixing-demixing transition line in fluid equimolar binary mixtures modeled by: (i) Lennard-Jones, (ii) Stock-Mayer, and (iii) Gay- Berne molecular interactions. These studies are performed as function of miscibility parameter, ?= ?AB/ ?AA, where ?AA= ?BB and ?AB stand for the parameters related to the attractive part of the intermolecular interactions for similar and dissimilar particles, respectively. When the miscibility of the Lennard-Jones mixture varies in the range 0 < ?< 1, a continuous critical line of consolute points Tcons(?), appears. This line intersects the liquid-vapor coexistence curve at different positions depending on the values of ?, yielding mainly three different topologies for the phase diagrams. These results are in qualitative agreement to those found previously for square well and hard-core Yukawa binary mixtures. We also carry out a detailed study of the liquid-liquid interfacial and liquid-vapor surface tensions, as function of temperature and miscibility as well as its relationship to the topologies of the phase diagrams. Similar studies and analysis are also performed for Stock-Mayer and Gay-Berne binary mixtures.
Effects of molecular elongation on liquid crystalline phase behaviour: isotropic-nematic transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Ram Chandra; Ram, Jokhan
2003-08-01
We present the density-functional approach to study the isotropic-nematic transitions and calculate the values of freezing parameters of the Gay-Berne liquid crystal model, concentrating on the effects of varying the molecular elongation, x0. For this, we have solved the Percus-Yevick integral equation theory to calculate the pair-correlation functions of a fluid the molecules of which interact via a Gay-Berne pair potential. These results have been used in the density-functional theory as an input to locate the isotropic-nematic transition and calculate freezing parameters for a range of length-to-width parameters 3.0? x0?4.0 at reduced temperatures 0.95 and 1.25. We observed that as x0 is increased, the isotropic-nematic transition is seen to move to lower density at a given temperature. We find that the density-functional theory is good to study the freezing transitions in such fluids. We have also compared our results with computer simulation results wherever they are available.
Paoloni, S; Mercuri, F; Marinelli, M; Pizzoferrato, R; Zammit, U; Kosa, T; Sukhomlinova, L; Taheri, B
2015-10-01
We have studied the specific heat and the thermal conductivity in a 4-(n-octyl)-4'-cyanobiphenyl liquid crystal (LC)-photochromic molecules mixture, before, during, and after the photo-activation of the dispersed photochromic molecules, over both the smectic A-nematic and the nematic-isotropic phase transitions. The evaluation of the specific heat has enabled the determination of the changes of the phase transition characteristics induced by the photochromic molecules photoisomerization, while that of the thermal conductivity could be used to monitor the modifications induced in the average LC molecular orientation. The polarization microscopy imaging of the sample texture constituted a valuable support for the interpretation of the obtained thermal conductivity results. PMID:26450328
Li, Xiaowei; Li, Bao; Chen, Long; Hu, Jinchuan; Wen, Chengdanyang; Zheng, Qingdong; Wu, Lixin; Zeng, Huaqiang; Gong, Bing; Yuan, Lihua
2015-09-14
Producing macrocyclic mesogens that are responsive to guest encapsulation presents a significant challenge. Cyclo[6]aramides, a type of macrocycle with a hydrogen-bond-constrained backbone, exhibit thermotropic lamellar, discotic nematic, hexagonal, and rectangular columnar mesophases over a considerably wide temperature range, including at room temperature. Additionally, cyclo[6]aramides show unusual mesophase transitions from lamellar to hexagonal columnar phase mediated by macrocyclic host-guest (H-G) interactions between the macrocycles and alkylammonium salts. The phase transition, triggered by an organic guest engaging in H-G interactions with a macrocyclic cavity, provides a novel strategy for manipulating the properties of liquid-crystalline materials. The crystal structure of a homologous cyclo[6]aramide reveals a disk-shaped, near-planar molecular backbone that facilitates intermolecular ?-? stacking and leads to columnar assembly. PMID:26352024
Mateyawa, Sainimili; Xie, David Fengwei; Truss, Rowan W; Halley, Peter J; Nicholson, Timothy M; Shamshina, Julia L; Rogers, Robin D; Boehm, Michael W; McNally, Tony
2013-04-15
This work revealed that the interactions between starch, the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim][OAc]), and water might contribute to the phase transition (gelatinization, dissolution, or both) of native starch at reduced temperature. Using mixtures of water and [Emim][OAc] at certain ratios (7.2/1 and 10.8/1 mol/mol), both the gelatinization and dissolution of the starch occur competitively, but also in a synergistic manner. At lower [Emim][OAc] concentration (water/[Emim][OAc] molar ratio?25.0/1), mainly gelatinization occurs which is slightly impeded by the strong interaction between water and [Emim][OAc]; while at higher [Emim][OAc] concentration (water/[Emim][OAc] molar ratio?2.8/1), the dissolution of starch is the major form of phase transition, possibly restricted by the difficulty of [Emim][OAc] to interact with starch. PMID:23544570
The low-density/high-density liquid phase transition for model globular proteins
Grosfils, Patrick
2010-01-01
The effect of molecule size (excluded volume) and the range of interaction on the surface tension, phase diagram and nucleation properties of a model globular protein is investigated using a combinations of Monte Carlo simulations and finite temperature classical Density Functional Theory calculations. We use a parametrized potential that can vary smoothly from the standard Lennard-Jones interaction characteristic of simple fluids, to the ten Wolde-Frenkel model for the effective interaction of globular proteins in solution. We find that the large excluded volume characteristic of large macromolecules such as proteins is the dominant effect in determining the liquid-vapor surface tension and nucleation properties. The variation of the range of the potential only appears important in the case of small excluded volumes such as for simple fluids. The DFT calculations are then used to study homogeneous nucleation of the high-density phase from the low-density phase including the nucleation barriers, nucleation pa...
Young-Ki Kim; Sergij V. Shiyanovskii; Oleg D. Lavrentovich
2013-03-25
We explore the structure of nuclei and topological defects in the first-order phase transition between the nematic (N) and isotropic (I) phases in lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs). The LCLCs are formed by self-assembled molecular aggregates of various lengths and show a broad biphasic region. The defects emerge as a result of two mechanisms. 1) Surface anisotropy mechanism that endows each N nucleus (tactoid) with topological defects thanks to preferential (tangential) orientation of the director at the closed I-N interface, and 2) Kibble mechanism with defects forming when differently oriented N tactoids merge with each other. Different scenarios of phase transition involve positive (N-in-I) and negative (I-in-N) tactoids with non-trivial topology of the director field and also multiply connected tactoids-in-tactoids configurations. The closed I-N interface limiting a tactoid shows a certain number of cusps; the lips of the interface on the opposite sides of the cusp make an angle different from pi. The N side of each cusp contains a point defect-boojum. The number of cusps shows how many times the director becomes perpendicular to the I-N interface when one circumnavigates the closed boundary of the tactoid. We derive conservation laws that connect the number of cusps c to the topological strength m of defects in the N part of the simply-connected and multiply-connected tactoids. We demonstrate how the elastic anisotropy of the N phase results in non-circular shape of the disclination cores. A generalized Wulff construction is used to derive the shape of I and N tactoids as the function of I-N interfacial tension anisotropy in the frozen director field of various topological charges m. The complex shapes and structures of tactoids and topological defects demonstrate an important role of surface anisotropy in morphogenesis of phase transitions in liquid crystals.
Raman study of the molecular motions of pivalic acid: the liquid—plastic phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balevi?ius, V.; Orel, B.; Hadži, D.
Raman spectra of pivalic acid in the plastic and liquid phase have been measured. The reorientational correlation times have been evaluated from the ? asCH, ?C?O and ?C?C bands as a function of temperature. The reorientational correlation time corresponding to ? as CH and ?C?C bands is ? < 10 -11 s whilst for the ?C?O band ? = 4ps ( T = 20°C). The calculated activation energy is 26 KJ mol -1. The reorientation of the carboxylic groups which may be assisted by the proton transfer along the hydrogen bonds in dimers is discussed.
A nonequilibrium synchrotron X-ray study of a liquid crystal phase transition under shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safinva, C. R.; Sirota, E. B.; Plano, R.; Bruinsma, R. F.
1990-12-01
The authors report on synchrotron X-ray studies of the nematic (N) and the smectic-A (SMA) phases under nonequilibrium 'steady state' shear flow conditions. Under shear, the presence of SMA fluctuations leads to a novel flow-induced fluctuation force on the nematic director n which alters its equation of motion. This leads to rich behaviour where the nematic phase exhibits a sequence of regimes in which the orientational phase space (OPS) explored by n evolves as the N-SMA transition is approached. They directly observe the critical slowing down of the SMA order parameter fluctuations through the X-ray profiles which give the intensity map of the time- and space-averaged OPS traversed by n. The data are consistent with the classical Ericksen-Leslie-Parodi theory of nematodynamics away from the immediate vicinity of the N-SMA transition temperature. Closer in, however, fluctuation effects dominate and a model of critical nematodynamics has to be considered. The experiments demonstrate that synchrotron scattering techniques may be used as effective structural probes of dynamical systems.
Vortex-Loop Phase Transitions in Liquid Helium, Cosmic Strings, and High- Tc Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Gary A.
1999-02-01
The distribution of thermally excited vortex loops near a superfluid phase transition is calculated from a renormalized theory. The number density of loops with a given perimeter is found to change from an exponential decay with increasing perimeter to an algebraic decay as Tc is approached, in agreement with recent simulations of both cosmic strings and high- Tc superconductors. Predictions of the value of the exponent of the algebraic decay at Tc and of the critical behavior in the vortex density are confirmed by the simulations, giving strong support to the vortex-folding model proposed by Shenoy.
Vortex Loop Phase Transitions in Liquid Helium, Cosmic Strings, and High-T_c Superconductors
Gary A. Williams
1999-01-18
The distribution of thermally excited vortex loops near a superfluid phase transition is calculated from a renormalized theory. The number density of loops with a given perimeter is found to change from exponential decay with increasing perimeter to algebraic decay as T_c is approached, in agreement with recent simulations of both cosmic strings and high-T_c superconductors. Predictions of the value of the exponent of the algebraic decay at T_c and of critical behavior in the vortex density are confirmed by the simulations, giving strong support to the vortex-folding model proposed by Shenoy.
Precise Measurements of the Density and Critical Phenomena Near Phase Transitions in Liquid Helium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeh, Nai-Chang
1997-01-01
The first-year progress for the project of precise measurements of the density and critical phenomena of helium near phase transitions is summarized below: (1) completion of a cryogenic sample probe for the proposed measurements, and the rehabilitation of a designated laboratory at Caltech for this project; (2) construction and testing of a superconducting niobium cavity; (3) acquisition of one phase-locked-loop system for high-resolution frequency control and read- out; (4) setting up high-resolution thermometry (HRT) for temperature readout and control; (5) developing new approaches for calibrating the coefficient between the resonant frequency shift (delta f) and the helium density (rho), as well as for measuring the effect of gravity on T(sub lambda) to a much better precision; (6) programming of the interface control of all instruments for automatic data acquisition; and (7) improving data analyses and fitting procedures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Canhua; Yamazaki, Shiro; Hobara, Rei; Matsuda, Iwao; Hasegawa, Shuji
2005-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) liquid-solid phase transition was investigated using a model system of a Cs overlayer adsorbed on a Si(111)-3×3-Ag surface by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Depending on the Cs coverage, the STM images show the overlayer at a liquid state, a solid state, and a state in-between that is identified to be a two-phase coexisting region. Thus, the 2D freezing transition from liquid to solid is pictured on an atomic scale as a nucleation process. The polygon construction of the two-phase coexisting region reveals clearly that the 2D melting transition from solid to liquid proceeds by the mechanism of geometrical defect condensation.
The low-density/high-density liquid phase transition for model globular proteins
Patrick Grosfils; James F. Lutsko
2010-03-30
The effect of molecule size (excluded volume) and the range of interaction on the surface tension, phase diagram and nucleation properties of a model globular protein is investigated using a combinations of Monte Carlo simulations and finite temperature classical Density Functional Theory calculations. We use a parametrized potential that can vary smoothly from the standard Lennard-Jones interaction characteristic of simple fluids, to the ten Wolde-Frenkel model for the effective interaction of globular proteins in solution. We find that the large excluded volume characteristic of large macromolecules such as proteins is the dominant effect in determining the liquid-vapor surface tension and nucleation properties. The variation of the range of the potential only appears important in the case of small excluded volumes such as for simple fluids. The DFT calculations are then used to study homogeneous nucleation of the high-density phase from the low-density phase including the nucleation barriers, nucleation pathways and the rate. It is found that the nucleation barriers are typically only a few $k_{B}T$ and that the nucleation rates substantially higher than would be predicted by Classical Nucleation Theory.
Experimental research of phase transition's kinetics in a liquid melt of high-purity aluminum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorontsov, V. B.; Zhuravlev, D. V.; Cherepanov, A. S.
2015-08-01
This scientific work is devoted to the studying of the genetic connection structures of solid and liquid phases. Fourier analysis of signals of acoustic emission (AE) accompanying melting high purity aluminum from the melting point up to t = 860°C was performed. Based on the results of previous studies cluster formations in the melt - the micro-regions, those retain crystallinity (areas with short-range order of symmetry) were considered as the source of AE. The experimental data allowed to follow the dynamics of disorder zones range order in the melt with increasing melt temperature up to their complete destruction. The presented results of spectral analysis of the signals were analyzed from the standpoint of the theory of cluster melting metals.
Li, Qintang; Wang, Xudong; Yue, Xiu; Chen, Xiao
2014-02-18
The aggregation behaviors of a Gemini surfactant [C12H25(CH3)2N(+)(CH2)2N(+)(CH3)2C12H25]Br2(-) (12-2-12) in two protic ionic liquids (PILs), propylammonium nitrate (PAN) and butylammonium nitrate (BAN), were investigated by means of several experimental techniques including small and wide-angle X-ray scattering, the polarized optical microscopy and the rheological measurement. Compared to those in ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), the minor structural changes with only one or two methylene units (-CH2-) increase in cationic chain length of PIL, result in a dramatic phase transition of formed aggregates. The critical micellization concentration was increased in PAN, while no micelle formation was detected in BAN. A normal hexagonal phase was observed in the 12-2-12/PAN system, while the normal hexagonal, bicontinuous cubic, and lamellar phases were mapped in the 12-2-12/BAN system. Such aggregation behavior changes can be ascribed to the weaker solvophobic interactions of 12-2-12 in PAN and BAN. The unique molecular structure of 12-2-12 is also an important factor to highlight such a dramatic phase transition due to the PIL structure change. PMID:24455981
R. P. Kurta; B. I. Ostrovskii; A. Singer; O. Y. Gorobtsov; A. Shabalin; D. Dzhigaev; O. M. Yefanov; A. V. Zozulya; M. Sprung; I. A. Vartanyants
2013-08-14
We present an x-ray study of liquid crystal membranes in the vicinity of hexatic-smectic phase transition by means of angular x-ray cross-correlation analysis (XCCA). By applying two-point angular intensity cross-correlation functions to the measured series of diffraction patterns the parameters of bond-orientational (BO) order in hexatic phase were directly determined. The temperature dependence of the positional correlation lengths was analyzed as well. The obtained correlation lengths show larger values for the higher-order Fourier components of BO order. These findings indicate a strong coupling between BO and positional order that has not been studied in detail up to now.
Chinchalikar, A J; Aswal, V K; Kohlbrecher, J; Wagh, A G
2013-06-01
The liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) in aqueous salt solutions of lysozyme protein has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering. Measurements have been carried out on fixed protein concentration with varying salt concentration approaching LLPT. The data are fitted considering protein interaction by the two Yukawa (2Y) potential which combines short-range attraction and long-range repulsion. We show that LLPT arises because of enhancement of non-DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek) short-range attraction without any conformational structural change of the protein. The salt concentration required for LLPT as well as corresponding short-range attraction decreases significantly with increase in protein concentration. PMID:23848716
Dimensional phase transition from an array of 1D Luttinger liquids to a 3D Bose-Einstein condensate.
Vogler, Andreas; Labouvie, Ralf; Barontini, Giovanni; Eggert, Sebastian; Guarrera, Vera; Ott, Herwig
2014-11-21
We study the thermodynamic properties of a 2D array of coupled one-dimensional Bose gases. The system is realized with ultracold bosonic atoms loaded in the potential tubes of a two-dimensional optical lattice. For negligible coupling strength, each tube is an independent weakly interacting 1D Bose gas featuring Tomonaga Luttinger liquid behavior. By decreasing the lattice depth, we increase the coupling strength between the 1D gases and allow for the phase transition into a 3D condensate. We extract the phase diagram for such a system and compare our results with theoretical predictions. Because of the high effective mass across the periodic potential and the increased 1D interaction strength, the phase transition is shifted to large positive values of the chemical potential. Our results are prototypical to a variety of low-dimensional systems, where the coupling between the subsystems is realized in a higher spatial dimension such as coupled spin chains in magnetic insulators. PMID:25479499
Entropy-driven liquid-liquid transitions in supercooled water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anisimov, Mikhail
2013-03-01
Twenty years ago it was suggested that the anomalous properties of supercooled water may be caused by a critical point that terminates a line of metastable liquid-liquid separation of lower-density and higher-density water. I describe a phenomenological model in which liquid water at low temperatures is viewed as an athermal solution of two hydrogen-bond network structures with different entropies and densities. Alternatively to the lattice-gas/regular solution model, in which fluid phase separation is driven by energy, the phase transition in the athermal two-state water is driven by entropy upon increasing the pressure, while the critical temperature is defined by the reaction equilibrium constant. The order parameter is associated with the entropy, while the ordering field is a combination of temperature and pressure. The model predicts the location of density maxima at the locus of a near-constant fraction of the lower-density structure. Another example of entropy-driven liquid polyamorphism is the transition between the structurally ordered ``Blue Phase III'' and disordered liquid in some chiral materials; this transition is experimentally accessible. I also discuss the application of the two-state model to binary solutions of supercooled water in which liquid-liquid transition may also become accessible to direct observation. Some atomistic ``water-like'' models such as mW, do not show liquid-liquid separation in the metastable liquid domain. However, even without actual liquid-liquid separation, the anomalies observed in MD simulations of mW can be accurately described by the entropy-driven nonideality of two molecular configurations, the same physics that presumably drives the liquid-liquid transition in real water. Twenty years ago it was suggested that the anomalous properties of supercooled water may be caused by a critical point that terminates a line of metastable liquid-liquid separation of lower-density and higher-density water. I describe a phenomenological model in which liquid water at low temperatures is viewed as an athermal solution of two hydrogen-bond network structures with different entropies and densities. Alternatively to the lattice-gas/regular solution model, in which fluid phase separation is driven by energy, the phase transition in the athermal two-state water is driven by entropy upon increasing the pressure, while the critical temperature is defined by the reaction equilibrium constant. The order parameter is associated with the entropy, while the ordering field is a combination of temperature and pressure. The model predicts the location of density maxima at the locus of a near-constant fraction of the lower-density structure. Another example of entropy-driven liquid polyamorphism is the transition between the structurally ordered ``Blue Phase III'' and disordered liquid in some chiral materials; this transition is experimentally accessible. I also discuss the application of the two-state model to binary solutions of supercooled water in which liquid-liquid transition may also become accessible to direct observation. Some atomistic ``water-like'' models such as mW, do not show liquid-liquid separation in the metastable liquid domain. However, even without actual liquid-liquid separation, the anomalies observed in MD simulations of mW can be accurately described by the entropy-driven nonideality of two molecular configurations, the same physics that presumably drives the liquid-liquid transition in real water. This research is supported by NSF grant no. CHE-1012052.
Nonnenmacher, Dorothee; Jagiella, Stefan; Song, Qingxiang; Lemieux, Robert P; Giesselmann, Frank
2013-09-16
On the basis of thorough analysis of 2D X-ray diffraction patterns from smectic monodomains, we examine the influence of orientational fluctuations on the weakly first-order smectic A (SmA) to smectic C (SmC) transitions in two nonchiral organosiloxane "de Vries"-type liquid crystals. We find that these materials exhibit very large molecular tilt fluctuations with magnitudes of up to 35°--thus larger than the average tilt itself. This is essential to understand the underlying molecular mechanism behind the practical absence of smectic layer contraction in these materials: in the SmA phase, the nematic order parameter is very low (molecular fluctuations correspondingly high), and the expected layer shrinkage at the SmA to SmC transition is almost fully compensated by the increase in orientational order, as the fluctuations diminish with decreasing temperature. In addition to the general tilt fluctuations, we observe intrinsic soft-mode fluctuations. They have a ?-shaped temperature dependence that peaks at the SmA-SmC transition with a maximum amplitude of about 2°. PMID:23877994
Hidden non-Fermi liquid behavior caused by magnetic phase transition in Ni-doped Ba-122 pnictides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Seokbae; Choi, Ki-Young; Jung, Eilho; Rho, Seulki; Shin, Soohyeon; Park, Tuson; Hwang, Jungseek
2015-07-01
We studied two BaFe2?xNixAs2 (Ni-doped Ba-122) single crystals at two different doping levels (underdoped and optimally doped) using an optical spectroscopic technique. The underdoped sample shows a magnetic phase transition around 80?K. We analyze the data with a Drude-Lorentz model with two Drude components (D1 and D2). It is known that the narrow D1 component originates from electron carriers in the electron-pockets and the broad D2 mode is from hole carriers in the hole-pockets. While the plasma frequencies of both Drude components and the static scattering rate of the broad D2 component show negligible temperature dependencies, the static scattering rate of the D1 mode shows strong temperature dependence for the both samples. We observed a hidden quasi-linear temperature dependence in the scattering rate of the D1 mode above and below the magnetic transition temperature while in the optimally doped sample the scattering rate shows a more quadratic temperature dependence. The hidden non-Fermi liquid behavior in the underdoped sample seems to be related to the magnetic phase of the material.
LIGHT NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS
Nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLS) are hydrocarbons that exist as a separate, immiscible phase when in contact with water and/or air. ifferences in the physical and chemical properties of water and NAPL result in the formation of a physical interface between the liquids which preve...
A Novel Liquid-Liquid Transition in Undercooled Ti-Zr-Ni Liquids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, G. W.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Kelton, K. F.; Bradshaw, R. C.; Hyers, R. W.; Rathz, T. J.; Rogers, J. R.
2004-01-01
If crystallization can be avoided, liquids enter a metastable (undercooled) state below their equilibrium liquidus temperatures, T(sub l), finally 'freezing' into a glass below a characteristic temperature called the glass transition temperature, T(sub g). In rare cases, the undercooled liquid may undergo a liquid-liquid phase transition (liquid polymorphism) before entering the glassy state. This has been suggested from experimental studies of H2O and Si. Such phase transitions have been predicted in some stable liquids, ie. above T(sub l) at atmospheric pressure, for SiO2 and BeF2, but these have not been verified experimentally. They have been observed in liquids of P, Si and C, but only under high pressure. In this letter we present the first experimental evidence for a phase transition in a low viscosity metallic liquid that is driven by an approach to a constant entropy configuration state and correlated with a growing icosahedral order in the liquid. A maximum in the specific heat at constant pressure, similar to what is normally observed near T(sub g), is reported for undercooled liquids of quasicrystal-forming Ti-Zr-Ni alloys. A two-state excitation model that includes cooperativity by incorporating a temperature-dependent excitation energy, fits the specific heat data well, signaling a phase transition. An inflection in the liquid density with decreasing temperature instead of a discontinuity indicates that this is not a typical first order phase transition; it could be a weakly first order or higher order transition. While showing many similarities to a glass transition, this liquid-liquid phase transition occurs in a mobile liquid, making it novel.
Tailored Phase Transitions via Mixed-Mesogen Liquid Crystalline Polymers with Silicon-Based Spacers
Mather, Patrick T.
by a coupling between liquid crys- talline order and rubber elasticity resulting from the underlying cross elasticity when exposed to specific stimuli.4,5 Here, a thermally stimulated actua- tion behavior, shrinking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Lian; Weber, Stephanie; Berry, Joel; Vaidya, Nilesh; Haataja, Mikko; Brangwynne, Clifford
2015-03-01
The nucleolus is a liquid-like membrane-less nuclear body which plays an important role in cell growth and size control. By modulating nucleolar component concentration through RNAi conditions that change C. elegans cell size, we find that nucleoli only assemble above a threshold concentration; moreover, the ripening dynamics of nucleated droplets are consistent with the hypothesis that the assembly of the nucleolus represents an intracellular liquid-liquid phase transition. A key question is how this phase-transition is linked to the primary function of the nucleolus, in transcribing and processing ribosomal RNA. To address this, we characterize the localization of RNA Polymerase I, a key transcriptional enzyme, into nucleolar foci as a function of nucleolar component concentration. Our results suggest that there are a small number of key disordered phosphoproteins that may serve as a link between transcription and assembly. Finally, we present preliminary results using a reduced model system consisting of purified nucleolar proteins to assess the ability of nucleolar proteins to drive liquid-liquid phase separation in vitro. These results lay the foundation for a quantitative understanding of intracellular phase transitions and their impact on biomedically-critical RNA-processing steps.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yalcin, Fatma Aggul
2012-01-01
The aim of this study was to explore pre-service primary teachers' understandings of the effect of temperature and pressure on the solid-liquid phase transition of water. In the study a survey approach was used, and the sample consisted of one-hundred and three, third year pre-service primary science teachers. As a tool for data collection, a test…
Stanley, H. Eugene
using the TIP4P potential. Amorphous solid water displays two distinct phases, low density amorphous ice (LDA) and high density amorphous ice (HDA) that transform into each other via a first order phase as hydrophobic14 and metal15 surfaces. In some of these systems the freezing of water seems inhibited,14,16 thus
BNL-65424-AB LIQUID TO LIQUID AND CRITICAL NUCLEUS TO CRITICAL NUCLEUS PHASE
BNL-65424-AB LIQUID TO LIQUID AND CRITICAL NUCLEUS TO CRITICAL NUCLEUS PHASE TRANSITIONS IN SUPER AND CRITICAL NUCLEUS TO CRITICAL NUCLEUS PHASE TRANSITIONS IN SUPER-COOLED DROPLETS Dan Imre, Robert Mc 11973 Key words: Ammonium sulfate; single particle; phase transitions; critical nucleus I. LIQUID
Theoretical approaches and experimental evidence for liquid-vapor phase transitions in nuclei
Moretto, L.G.; Elliott, J.B.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.; Mader, C.M.; Chappars, A.
2001-01-01
The leptodermous approximation is applied to nuclear systems for T > 0. The introduction of surface corrections leads to anomalous caloric curves and to negative heat capacities in the liquid-gas coexistence region. Clusterization in the vapor is described by associating surface energy to clusters according to Fisher's formula. The three-dimensional Ising model, a leptodermous system par excellence, does obey rigorously Fisher's scaling up to the critical point. Multifragmentation data from several experiments including the ISiS and EOS Collaborations, as well as compound nucleus fragment emission at much lower energy follow the same scaling, thus providing the strongest evidence yet of liquid-vapor coexistence.
Wang, Qinggang; He, Brian Lingfeng; Zhang, Jin; Huang, Yande; Kleintop, Brent; Raglione, Thomas
2015-07-10
Drug degradation that occurs in HPLC analysis, during either sample preparation or chromatographic separation, can greatly impact method robustness and result accuracy. In this work, we report a case study of drug dimerization in HPLC analysis where proximate causes were attributed to either the LC columns or the HPLC instrument. Solution stress studies indicated that the same pseudo-dimeric degradants could also be formed rapidly when the compound was exposed to certain oxidative transition metal ions, such as Cu(II) and Fe(III). Two pseudo-dimeric degradants were isolated from transition metal stressed samples and their structures were elucidated. A degradation pathway was proposed, whereby the degradation was initiated through transition metal-induced single electron transfer oxidation. Further studies confirmed that the dimerization was induced by trace transition metals in the HPLC flow path, which could arise from either the stainless steel frits in the LC column or stainless steel tubing in the HPLC instrument. Various procedures to prevent transition metal-induced drug degradation were explored, and a general strategy to mitigate such risks is briefly discussed. PMID:25916912
Is there evidence for a liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter?
Hirsch, A.S.; EOS Collaboration
1994-09-01
The multifragmentation of gold nuclei at 1 GeV/nucleon has been studied using reverse kinematics. The moments of the resulting charged fragment distribution have been analyzed using methods borrowed from percolation theory. These moments provide clear evidence for critical behavior occurring in a system of about 200 nucleons. The critical exponents extracted from the data are close to those of liquid-gas systems.
Transitions Between Chiral Spin Liquids and Z2 Spin Liquids
Barkeshli, Maissam
2013-01-01
The Kalmeyer-Laughlin chiral spin liquids (CSL) and the Z2 spin liquids are two of the simplest topologically ordered states. Here I develop a theory of a direct quantum phase transition between them. Each CSL is characterized by an integer n and is topologically equivalent to the 1/2n Laughlin fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state. Depending on the parity of n, the transition from the CSL is either to a "twisted" version of the Z2 spin liquid, the "doubled semion" model, or the conventional Z_2 spin liquid ("toric code"). In the presence of SU(2) spin symmetry, the triplet gap remains open through the transition and only singlet operators acquire algebraic correlations. An essential observation is that the CSL/Laughlin FQH states can be understood in terms of bosonic integer quantum Hall (BIQH) states of Schwinger bosons or vortices, respectively. I propose several novel many-body wave functions that can interpolate through the transition.
Andrzej B?k; Krystyna Ch??dowska; Piotr Inglot
2014-12-22
In this paper we present results of dielectric measurements of the liquid crystal (LC) 5*CB arranged in the porous matrices with a pore diameter of 100 and 20nm. We analyze the effect of surface interactions on the dynamics of molecules. The results were compared with the results of the bulk 5*CB. The most important result is the blocking of phase transition of 5*CB into the solid phase in a matrix of 20 nm.
Leo Radzihovsky
1996-11-11
I consider the effects of polymers on the smectic phase of a host liquid crystal matrix. Focusing on the regime in which the polymers are predominately confined between the smectic layers, I find that the presence of the polymers can lead to a reentrant phase diagram with the smectic-C sandwiching the smectic-A phase from both the high and low temperature sides. Simple entropy-energy arguments predict the shape of the reentrant phase boundary.
Smectic-A and smectic-C phases and phase transitions in 8? S5 liquid-crystal-aerosil gels
Garland, Carl W.
High-resolution x-ray scattering studies of the nonpolar thermotropic liquid crystal 4-n-pentylphenylthiol-4?-n-octyloxybenzoate (8? S5) in aerosil gel nanonetworks reveal that the aerosil-induced disorder significantly ...
Benjamin C.-Y. Lu; Paul Yu; David P. L. Poon
1970-01-01
THE phase behaviour of the nitrogen-methane-ethane system in the vicinity of -255° F has been reported in an earlier communication1. The system has subsequently been studied at lower temperatures by lowering the freezing point of the isopentane bath liquid with propane gas. It was found that a liquid phase inversion took place between the temperatures -255° F and -263.3° F,
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kambe, S.; Sakai, H.; Tokunaga, Y.; Lapertot, G.; Matsuda, T. D.; Knebel, G.; Flouquet, J.; Walstedt, R. E.
2015-04-01
Based on 29Si nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) data on a single crystal of YbRh2Si2 , the coexisting Fermi liquid and non-Fermi liquid states around the quantum critical phase transition have been found to be sensitive to the direction of the applied magnetic field. Augmented scaling analysis shows that the anisotropic characteristic temperature and field are roughly ten times larger for H ?c than for H ?a , consistent with a previously obtained anisotropic phase diagram.
The liquid-glass and liquid-liquid transitions of TPP at elevated pressure.
Mierzwa, Micha?; Paluch, Marian; Rzoska, Sylwester J; Zio?o, Jerzy
2008-08-28
We studied the polyamorphism of the liquid triphenyl phosphite by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy at ambient and elevated (p=500 MPa) pressures. The effect of pressure on fragility, liquid-liquid phase transition, and its kinetics is discussed in relation to the two-order-parameter model proposed by Tanaka. The experimental evidence in support of this model is presented. PMID:18671360
Kinetics and Control of Liquid-Liquid Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Hajime; Kurita, Rei; Murata, Ken-ichiro
2008-02-01
Recently it was revealed that even a single-component liquid can have more than two liquid states. The transition between these liquid states is called "liquid-liquid transition". This phenomenon has attracted a considerable attention because of its counter-intuitive character and the fundamental importance for our understanding of the liquid state of matter. The connection between the liquid-liquid transition and polyamorphism is also an interesting issue. In many cases, liquid-liquid transitions exist in a region which is difficult to access experimentally. Because of this experimental difficulty, the physical nature and kinetics of the transition remains elusive. However, a recent finding of liquid-liquid transition in molecular liquids opens up a possibility to study the kinetics in detail. Here we report the first detailed comparison between experiments and a phenomenological theory for the liquid-liquid transition of a molecular liquid, triphenyl phosphite. Both nucleation-growth-type and spinodal-decomposition-type liquid-liquid transformation are remarkably well reproduced by a two-order-parameter model of liquid that regards the liquid-liquid transition as the cooperative formation of locally favored structures. This may shed new light on the nature and the dynamics of the liquid-liquid transition. We also show evidence that this second order parameter controls the fragility of the liquid. We also discuss a possibility of controlling liquid-liquid transition by spatial confinement. Remaining open questions on the nature of the transition are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malik, A.; Choudhary, A.; Silotia, P.; Biradar, A. M.
2011-09-01
ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), synthesized in an alcoholic medium at room temperature, were added to electroclinic liquid crystal (ELC) materials. The addition of ZnO NPs in ELCs, caused a remarkable shift in SmC*-SmA* phase transition which was investigated from the dielectric and electro-optical measurements. The anchoring of ELC molecules around ZnO NPs creates orientational distortions near the surface, which may give additional ordering to the ELC molecular arrangement. After analyzing collective dielectric relaxation processes of ZnO NP doped ELCs, three distinct loss peaks were observed. The different behavior of ZnO NP doped ELC from pure ELC has been explained by determining the dielectric strength, the distribution parameter and the corresponding relaxation frequency, and so on, and then these results have been compared with the data calculated by using the theoretical model. The effect of ZnO NPs addition on physical parameters, such as spontaneous polarization (Ps) and rotational viscosity (?) has also been observed.
A Liquid-Liquid Transition in an Undercooled Ti-Zr-Ni Liquid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, G. W.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Kelton, K. F.; Hyers, R. W.; Rathz, T. J.; Rogers, J. R.
2003-01-01
If crystallization can be avoided, liquids enter a metastable (undercooled) state below their equilibrium liquidus temperatures, TI, finally freezing into a glass below a characteristic temperature called the glass transition temperature, T,. In rare cases, the undercooled liquid may undergo a liquid-liquid phase transition (liquid polymorphism) before entering the glassy state. This has been suggested from experimental studies of HzO and Si4. Such phase transitions have been predicted in some stable liquids, i.e. above TI at atmospheric pressure, for Si02 and BeF;, but these have not been verified experimentally. They have been observed in liquids of P7, Sis and C9, but only under high pressure. All of these transitions are driven by an anomalous density change, i.e. change in local structure, with temperature or pressure. In this letter we present the first experimental evidence for a phase transition in a low viscosity liquid that is not driven by an anomalous density change, but by an approach to a constant configuration state. A maximum in the specific heat at constant pressure, similar to what is normally observed near T,, is reported here for undercooled low viscosity liquids of quasicrystal- forming Ti-Zr-Ni alloys. that includes cooperativity, by incorporating a temperature dependent excitation energy fits the data well, signaling a phase transition.
Liquid-liquid transition in a strong bulk metallic glass-forming liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Shuai; Yang, Fan; Bednarcik, Jozef; Kaban, Ivan; Shuleshova, Olga; Meyer, Andreas; Busch, Ralf
2013-07-01
Polymorphic phase transitions are common in crystalline solids. Recent studies suggest that phase transitions may also exist between two liquid forms with different entropy and structure. Such a liquid-liquid transition has been investigated in various substances including water, Al2O3-Y2O3 and network glass formers. However, the nature of liquid-liquid transition is debated due to experimental difficulties in avoiding crystallization and/or measuring at high temperatures/pressures. Here we report the thermodynamic and structural evidence of a temperature-induced weak first-order liquid-liquid transition in a bulk metallic glass-forming system Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 characterized by non- (or weak) directional bonds. Our experimental results suggest that the local structural changes during the transition induce the drastic viscosity changes without a detectable density anomaly. These changes are correlated with a heat capacity maximum in the liquid. Our findings support the hypothesis that the ‘strong’ kinetics (low fragility) of a liquid may arise from an underlying lambda transition above its glass transition.
Liquid-liquid transition in a strong bulk metallic glass-forming liquid.
Wei, Shuai; Yang, Fan; Bednarcik, Jozef; Kaban, Ivan; Shuleshova, Olga; Meyer, Andreas; Busch, Ralf
2013-01-01
Polymorphic phase transitions are common in crystalline solids. Recent studies suggest that phase transitions may also exist between two liquid forms with different entropy and structure. Such a liquid-liquid transition has been investigated in various substances including water, Al2O3-Y2O3 and network glass formers. However, the nature of liquid-liquid transition is debated due to experimental difficulties in avoiding crystallization and/or measuring at high temperatures/pressures. Here we report the thermodynamic and structural evidence of a temperature-induced weak first-order liquid-liquid transition in a bulk metallic glass-forming system Zr(41.2)Ti(13.8)Cu(12.5)Ni10Be(22.5) characterized by non- (or weak) directional bonds. Our experimental results suggest that the local structural changes during the transition induce the drastic viscosity changes without a detectable density anomaly. These changes are correlated with a heat capacity maximum in the liquid. Our findings support the hypothesis that the 'strong' kinetics (low fragility) of a liquid may arise from an underlying lambda transition above its glass transition. PMID:23817404
Compound nuclear decay and the liquid-vapor phase transition: A physical picture
Moretto, L.G.; Elliott, J.B.; Phair, L. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2005-12-15
Analyses of multifragmentation in terms of the Fisher droplet model (FDM) and the associated construction of a nuclear phase diagram bring forth the problem of the actual existence of the nuclear vapor phase and the meaning of its associated pressure. We present here a physical picture of fragment production from excited nuclei that solves this problem and establishes the relationship between the FDM and the standard compound nucleus decay rate for rare particles emitted in first-chance decay. The compound thermal emission picture is formally equivalent to an FDM-like equilibrium description and avoids the problem of the vapor while also explaining the observation of Boltzmann-like distribution of emission times. In this picture, a simple Fermi gas thermometric relation is naturally justified and verified in the fragment yields and time scales. Low-energy compound nucleus fragment yields scale according to the FDM and lead to an estimate of the infinite symmetric nuclear matter critical temperature between 18 and 27 MeV depending on the choice of the surface energy coefficient of nuclear matter.
Subir Sachdev; Matthew P. A. Fisher
2001-01-01
Quantum Phase Transitions details the fundamental changes that can occur in the macroscopic nature of matter at zero temperature due to small variations in a given external parameter. The author develops the theory of quantum phase transitions in the simplest possible class of nondisordered, interacting systems--the quantum Ising and rotor models. He pays particular attention to their non-zero temperature dynamic
Thomas Vojta
2003-01-01
In recent years, quantum phase transitions have attracted the interest of\\u000aboth theorists and experimentalists in condensed matter physics. These\\u000atransitions, which are accessed at zero temperature by variation of a\\u000anon-thermal control parameter, can influence the behavior of electronic systems\\u000aover a wide range of the phase diagram. Quantum phase transitions occur as a\\u000aresult of competing ground state
Critical Phenomena and Phase Transitions Chemistry 646
Ronis, David M.
a renormalization group calculation. FIG. 1. Phase Diagram of Water.1 FIG. 2. Liquid-Vapor P-V phase diagram case, the nature of the transition is clearly quite different (from the point of view and volume, all of the freezing and sublimation, and most of the liquid-vapor line would be classified
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omena, Lidiane; de Melo, Pedro B.; Pereira, Maria S. S.; de Oliveira, Italo N.
2014-05-01
The present work is devoted to the study of the thermo-optical properties of liquid crystals doped with traces of fullerene C60 at the vicinity of the nematic-smectic-A phase transition. By using the time-resolved Z-scan technique, we measure the temperature dependence of the thermo-optical coefficient and the thermal diffusivity. Our results reveal that the critical behavior of the thermal diffusivity is strongly affected by the fullerene addition. We provide a detailed discussion under the light of the distinct mechanisms behind the thermal transport in liquid-crystal samples.
Omena, Lidiane; de Melo, Pedro B; Pereira, Maria S S; de Oliveira, Italo N
2014-05-01
The present work is devoted to the study of the thermo-optical properties of liquid crystals doped with traces of fullerene C(60) at the vicinity of the nematic-smectic-A phase transition. By using the time-resolved Z-scan technique, we measure the temperature dependence of the thermo-optical coefficient and the thermal diffusivity. Our results reveal that the critical behavior of the thermal diffusivity is strongly affected by the fullerene addition. We provide a detailed discussion under the light of the distinct mechanisms behind the thermal transport in liquid-crystal samples. PMID:25353819
CosmoTransitions: Cosmological Phase Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wainwright, Carroll L.
2015-04-01
CosmoTransitions analyzes early-Universe finite-temperature phase transitions with multiple scalar fields. The code enables analysis of the phase structure of an input theory, determines the amount of supercooling at each phase transition, and finds the bubble-wall profiles of the nucleated bubbles that drive the transitions.
Yu, Tang-Qing Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Chen, Pei-Yang; Chen, Ming; Samanta, Amit; Tuckerman, Mark
2014-06-07
The problem of predicting polymorphism in atomic and molecular crystals constitutes a significant challenge both experimentally and theoretically. From the theoretical viewpoint, polymorphism prediction falls into the general class of problems characterized by an underlying rough energy landscape, and consequently, free energy based enhanced sampling approaches can be brought to bear on the problem. In this paper, we build on a scheme previously introduced by two of the authors in which the lengths and angles of the supercell are targeted for enhanced sampling via temperature accelerated adiabatic free energy dynamics [T. Q. Yu and M. E. Tuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 015701 (2011)]. Here, that framework is expanded to include general order parameters that distinguish different crystalline arrangements as target collective variables for enhanced sampling. The resulting free energy surface, being of quite high dimension, is nontrivial to reconstruct, and we discuss one particular strategy for performing the free energy analysis. The method is applied to the study of polymorphism in xenon crystals at high pressure and temperature using the Steinhardt order parameters without and with the supercell included in the set of collective variables. The expected fcc and bcc structures are obtained, and when the supercell parameters are included as collective variables, we also find several new structures, including fcc states with hcp stacking faults. We also apply the new method to the solid-liquid phase transition in copper at 1300 K using the same Steinhardt order parameters. Our method is able to melt and refreeze the system repeatedly, and the free energy profile can be obtained with high efficiency.
Yu, Tang-Qing; Chen, Pei-Yang; Chen, Ming; Samanta, Amit; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Tuckerman, Mark
2014-01-01
The problem of predicting polymorphism in atomic and molecular crystals constitutes a significant challenge both experimentally and theoretically. From the theoretical viewpoint, polymorphism prediction falls into the general class of problems characterized by an underlying rough energy landscape, and consequently, free energy based enhanced sampling approaches can be brought to bear on the problem. In this paper, we build on a scheme previously introduced by two of the authors in which the lengths and angles of the supercell are targeted for enhanced sampling via temperature accelerated adiabatic free energy dynamics [T. Q. Yu and M. E. Tuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 015701 (2011)]. Here, that framework is expanded to include general order parameters that distinguish different crystalline arrangements as target collective variables for enhanced sampling. The resulting free energy surface, being of quite high dimension, is nontrivial to reconstruct, and we discuss one particular strategy for performing the free energy analysis. The method is applied to the study of polymorphism in xenon crystals at high pressure and temperature using the Steinhardt order parameters without and with the supercell included in the set of collective variables. The expected fcc and bcc structures are obtained, and when the supercell parameters are included as collective variables, we also find several new structures, including fcc states with hcp stacking faults. We also apply the new method to the solid-liquid phase transition in copper at 1300 K using the same Steinhardt order parameters. Our method is able to melt and refreeze the system repeatedly, and the free energy profile can be obtained with high efficiency. PMID:24907992
Benedek, George B.
Comparison between Protein-Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Interactions and the Effect of PEG on Protein-ProteinVember 18, 2006 Phase transitions of protein aqueous solutions are important for protein crystallization and biomaterials science in general. One source of thermodynamic complexity in protein solutions and their phase
Control of fluidity and miscibility of a binary liquid mixture by the liquid-liquid transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurita, Rei; Murata, Ken-Ichiro; Tanaka, Hajime
2008-08-01
Matter in its liquid state is convenient for processing and controlling chemical reactions, owing to its fluidity. Recently much evidence has been accumulated for the existence of a liquid-liquid transition (LLT) in single-component liquids. Here, we report that we can control, by the LLT of a molecular liquid, triphenyl phosphite (TPP), the fluidity and miscibility of its mixture with another molecular liquid. For a mixture of TPP with toluene or aniline, we find that both liquid I and II mix well and liquid II remains in a `liquid' state, in contrast to pure TPP, where liquid II is a non-ergodic amorphous state. This is the first example of a `true' LLT in a molecular liquid. Furthermore, we find demixing induced by the LLT for a mixture of TPP with diethyl ether or ethanol. These findings will open a new phase of research towards various applications of the LLT.
Zhou, Yuanyuan; Tang, Hui; Wu, Peiyi
2015-09-23
Thermo-dynamic volume phase transition mechanisms of poly[oligo(ethylene glycol)methacrylate] (POEGMA) based microgels with poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) cross-linking moieties are investigated in detail on the basis of temperature-dependent Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The original FTIR data are further analysed by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2Dcos) with the perturbation correlation moving window (PCMW) technique. It is observed that the content of hydrophilic PIL cross-linking structure strongly affects the temperature induced volume phase transition mechanism of microgels in which the less cross-linked microgel exhibits a sharp volume phase transition process while the highly cross-linked microgel presents a broad transition behavior. Peculiarly, the dehydration of C-H groups acts as the driving force for the whole phase transition process within the less cross-linked microgel network and cooperative response of chemical groups is identified. It is deduced that the hydrophilic PIL moieties develop polymer-water-polymer interactions with C[double bond, length as m-dash]O groups as C[double bond, length as m-dash]OD2O-PIL hydrogen bonds emerge in the less cross-linked system. As regards the highly cross-linked microgel system, the phase transition process is driven by the disruption of hydrogen bonds between C[double bond, length as m-dash]O groups and water molecules while the response of C-H groups becomes insensitive. PIL moieties passively dehydrate following the dehydration of C-H groups on oligo(ethylene glycol) side chains and no hydrogen bond between C[double bond, length as m-dash]O group and IL-D2O association appears during the phase transition process. PMID:26366718
Thanassoulas, Angelos; Karatairi, Eva; Cordoyiannis, George; Kutnjak, Zdravko; Tzitzios, Vassilios; Lelidis, Ioannis; Nounesis, George
2013-09-01
Spherical CdSe nanoparticles, surface-treated with oleylamine and tri-octylphosphine, dispersed in ferroelectric liquid crystals, can efficiently target disclination lines, substantially altering the macroscopic properties of the host compound. Here we present an ac calorimetry and x-ray diffraction study demonstrating that for a large range of nanoparticle concentrations the smectic-A layer thickness increases monotonically. This provides evidence for enhanced accumulation of nanoparticles at the smectic layers. Our results for the Smectic-A (SmA) to chiral smectic-C (SmC) phase transition of the liquid crystal S-(+)4-(2'-methylbutyl)phenyl-4'-n-octylbiphenyl-4-carboxylate (CE8) reveal that the character of the transition is profoundly changed as a function of the nanoparticle concentration. Large transition temperature shifts are recorded. Moreover, the heat-capacity peaks exhibit a crossover trend to a step-like anomaly. This behavior may be linked to the weakening of the SmA and SmC order parameter coupling responsible for the observed near-tricritical, mean-field character of the transition in bulk CE8. At lower temperatures, the presence of nanoparticles disrupts the phase sequence involving the tilted hexatic phases most likely by obstructing the establishment of long-range bond-orientational order. PMID:24125282
M. Lavagna
2001-01-01
We give a general introduction to quantum phase transitions in strongly correlated electron systems. These transitions, which occur at zero temperature when a non-thermal parameter g such as the pressure, chemical concentration or magnetic field is tuned to a critical value, are characterized by a dynamic exponent z related to the energy and length scales Delta and xi. We show
Impurity quantum phase transitions
Matthias Vojta
2006-01-01
Recent work is reviewed on continuous quantum phase transitions in impurity models, both with fermionic and bosonic baths - these transitions are interesting realizations of boundary critical phenomena at zero temperature. The models with fermion bath are generalizations of the standard Kondo model, with the common feature that Kondo screening of the localized spin can be suppressed due to competing
M. Lavagna
2001-01-01
We give a general introduction to quantum phase transitions in strongly correlated electron systems. These transitions, which occur at zero temperature when a non-thermal parameter g such as the pressure, chemical concentration or magnetic field is tuned to a critical value, are characterized by a dynamie exponent z related to the energy and length scales ? and ?. We show
Quantum Phase Transitions Subir Sachdev
USA October 4, 2004 1 Introduction We all observe phase transitions in our daily lives, with hardly of this article, quantum phase transitions. Such transitions occur only at the absolute zero of temperature, T = 0
Quantum Phase Transitions Subir Sachdev
Haven, CT 06520-8120, USA February 6, 2004 1 Introduction We all observe phase transitions in our daily turn to the central topic of this article, quantum phase transitions. Such transitions occur only
Metastable liquid-liquid transition in a molecular model of water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palmer, Jeremy C.; Martelli, Fausto; Liu, Yang; Car, Roberto; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.
2014-06-01
Liquid water's isothermal compressibility and isobaric heat capacity, and the magnitude of its thermal expansion coefficient, increase sharply on cooling below the equilibrium freezing point. Many experimental, theoretical and computational studies have sought to understand the molecular origin and implications of this anomalous behaviour. Of the different theoretical scenarios put forward, one posits the existence of a first-order phase transition that involves two forms of liquid water and terminates at a critical point located at deeply supercooled conditions. Some experimental evidence is consistent with this hypothesis, but no definitive proof of a liquid-liquid transition in water has been obtained to date: rapid ice crystallization has so far prevented decisive measurements on deeply supercooled water, although this challenge has been overcome recently. Computer simulations are therefore crucial for exploring water's structure and behaviour in this regime, and have shown that some water models exhibit liquid-liquid transitions and others do not. However, recent work has argued that the liquid-liquid transition has been mistakenly interpreted, and is in fact a liquid-crystal transition in all atomistic models of water. Here we show, by studying the liquid-liquid transition in the ST2 model of water with the use of six advanced sampling methods to compute the free-energy surface, that two metastable liquid phases and a stable crystal phase exist at the same deeply supercooled thermodynamic condition, and that the transition between the two liquids satisfies the thermodynamic criteria of a first-order transition. We follow the rearrangement of water's coordination shell and topological ring structure along a thermodynamically reversible path from the low-density liquid to cubic ice. We also show that the system fluctuates freely between the two liquid phases rather than crystallizing. These findings provide unambiguous evidence for a liquid-liquid transition in the ST2 model of water, and point to the separation of time scales between crystallization and relaxation as being crucial for enabling it.
Metastable liquid-liquid transition in a molecular model of water.
Palmer, Jeremy C; Martelli, Fausto; Liu, Yang; Car, Roberto; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z; Debenedetti, Pablo G
2014-06-19
Liquid water's isothermal compressibility and isobaric heat capacity, and the magnitude of its thermal expansion coefficient, increase sharply on cooling below the equilibrium freezing point. Many experimental, theoretical and computational studies have sought to understand the molecular origin and implications of this anomalous behaviour. Of the different theoretical scenarios put forward, one posits the existence of a first-order phase transition that involves two forms of liquid water and terminates at a critical point located at deeply supercooled conditions. Some experimental evidence is consistent with this hypothesis, but no definitive proof of a liquid-liquid transition in water has been obtained to date: rapid ice crystallization has so far prevented decisive measurements on deeply supercooled water, although this challenge has been overcome recently. Computer simulations are therefore crucial for exploring water's structure and behaviour in this regime, and have shown that some water models exhibit liquid-liquid transitions and others do not. However, recent work has argued that the liquid-liquid transition has been mistakenly interpreted, and is in fact a liquid-crystal transition in all atomistic models of water. Here we show, by studying the liquid-liquid transition in the ST2 model of water with the use of six advanced sampling methods to compute the free-energy surface, that two metastable liquid phases and a stable crystal phase exist at the same deeply supercooled thermodynamic condition, and that the transition between the two liquids satisfies the thermodynamic criteria of a first-order transition. We follow the rearrangement of water's coordination shell and topological ring structure along a thermodynamically reversible path from the low-density liquid to cubic ice. We also show that the system fluctuates freely between the two liquid phases rather than crystallizing. These findings provide unambiguous evidence for a liquid-liquid transition in the ST2 model of water, and point to the separation of time scales between crystallization and relaxation as being crucial for enabling it. PMID:24943954
Anderson, G.W.
1991-09-16
An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.
Anderson, G.W.
1991-09-16
An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.
String mediated phase transitions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Copeland, ED; Haws, D.; Rivers, R.; Holbraad, S.
1988-01-01
It is demonstrated from first principles how the existence of string-like structures can cause a system to undergo a phase transition. In particular, the role of topologically stable cosmic string in the restoration of spontaneously broken symmetries is emphasized. How the thermodynamic properties of strings alter when stiffness and nearest neighbor string-string interactions are included is discussed.
Yagisawa, K; Naito, M; Gondaira, K I; Kambara, T
1993-01-01
To clarify the mechanism of self-sustained oscillation of the electric potential between the two solutions divided by a lipid bilayer membrane, a microscopic model of the membrane system is presented. It is assumed, on the basis of the observed results (Yoshikawa, K., T. Omachi, T. Ishii, Y. Kuroda, and K. liyama. 1985. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 133:740-744; Ishii, T., Y. Kuroda, T. Omochi, and K. Yoshikawa. 1986. Langmuir. 2:319-321; Toko, K., N. Nagashima, S. liyama, K. Yamafuji, and T. Kunitake. Chem. Lett. 1986:1375-1378), that the gel-liquid crystal phase transition of the membrane drives the potential oscillation. It is studied, by using the model, how and under what condition the repetitive phase transition may occur and induce the potential oscillation. The transitions are driven by the repetitive adsorption and desorption of proton by the membrane surface, actions that are induced the periodic reversal of the direction of protonic current. The essential conditions for the periodic reversal are (a) at least one kind of cations such as Na+ or K+ are included in the system except for proton, and the variation of their permeability across the membrane due to the phase transition is noticeably larger than that of proton permeability; and (b) the phase transition has a hysteresis. When these conditions are fulfilled, the self-sustained potential oscillation may be brought about by adjusting temperature, pH, and the cation concentration in the solutions on both sides of the membrane. Application of electric current across the membrane also induces or modifies the potential oscillation. Periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic oscillations appear especially, depending on the value of frequency of the applied alternating current. PMID:8324183
Late-time Phase transition and the Galactic halo as a Bose Liquid: (II) the Effect of Visible Matter
S. U. Ji; S. J. Sin
1994-09-10
In the previous work, we investigated the rotation curves of galaxies assuming that the dark matter consists of ultra light boson appearing in $'$late time phase transition' theory. Generalizing this work, we consider the effect of visible matter and classify the types of rotation curves as we vary the fraction of the mass and extention of visible matter. We show that visible matter, in galaxies with flat rotation curves, has mass fraction $ 2\\% \\sim 10\\% $ and it is confined within the distance fraction $ 10\\% \\sim 20\\%$.
Mathematical Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Liquid-Solid and Solid-Liquid Phase Change
Joy, Aaron
2013-08-31
This thesis presents numerical simulations of liquid-solid and solid-liquid phase change processes using mathematical models in Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions. The mathematical models are derived by assuming a smooth interface (or transition...
Emergence and Phase Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sikkema, Arnold
2006-05-01
Phase transitions are well defined in physics through concepts such as spontaneous symmetry breaking, order parameter, entropy, and critical exponents. But emergence --- also exhibiting whole-part relations (such as top-down influence), unpredictability, and insensitivity to microscopic detail --- is a loosely-defined concept being used in many disciplines, particularly in psychology, biology, philosophy, as well as in physics[1,2]. I will review the concepts of emergence as used in the various fields and consider the extent to which the methods of phase transitions can clarify the usefulness of the concept of emergence both within the discipline of physics and beyond.1. Robert B. Laughlin, A Different Universe: Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Down (New York: Basic Books, 2005). 2. George F.R. Ellis, ``Physics and the Real World'', Physics Today, vol. 58, no. 7 (July 2005) pp. 49-54.
Robert Felix Tournier
2015-02-23
An undercooled liquid is unstable. The driving force of the glass transition at Tg is a change of the undercooled-liquid Gibbs free energy. The classical Gibbs free energy change for a crystal formation is completed including an enthalpy saving. The crystal growth critical nucleus is used as a probe to observe the Laplace pressure change Dp accompanying the enthalpy change -Vm *Dp at Tg where Vm is the molar volume. A stable glass-liquid transition model predicts the specific heat jump of fragile liquids at temperatures smaller than Tg, the Kauzmann temperature TK where the liquid entropy excess with regard to crystal goes to zero, the equilibrium enthalpy between TK and Tg, the maximum nucleation rate at TK of superclusters containing magic atom numbers, and the equilibrium latent heats at Tg and TK. Strong-to-fragile and strong-to-strong liquid transitions at Tg are also described and all their thermodynamic parameters are determined from their specific heat jumps. The existence of fragile liquids quenched in the amorphous state, which do not undergo liquid-liquid transition during heating preceding their crystallization, is predicted. Long ageing times leading to the formation at TK of a stable glass composed of superclusters containing up to 147 atoms, touching and interpenetrating, are evaluated from nucleation rates. A fragile-to-fragile liquid transition occurs at Tg without stable-glass formation while a strong glass is stable after transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tournier, Robert F.
2014-12-01
An undercooled liquid is unstable. The driving force of the glass transition at Tg is a change of the undercooled-liquid Gibbs free energy. The classical Gibbs free energy change for a crystal formation is completed including an enthalpy saving. The crystal growth critical nucleus is used as a probe to observe the Laplace pressure change ?p accompanying the enthalpy change -Vm×?p at Tg where Vm is the molar volume. A stable glass-liquid transition model predicts the specific heat jump of fragile liquids at T?Tg, the Kauzmann temperature TK where the liquid entropy excess with regard to crystal goes to zero, the equilibrium enthalpy between TK and Tg, the maximum nucleation rate at TK of superclusters containing magic atom numbers, and the equilibrium latent heats at Tg and TK. Strong-to-fragile and strong-to-strong liquid transitions at Tg are also described and all their thermodynamic parameters are determined from their specific heat jumps. The existence of fragile liquids quenched in the amorphous state, which do not undergo liquid-liquid transition during heating preceding their crystallization, is predicted. Long ageing times leading to the formation at TK of a stable glass composed of superclusters containing up to 147 atom, touching and interpenetrating, are evaluated from nucleation rates. A fragile-to-fragile liquid transition occurs at Tg without stable-glass formation while a strong glass is stable after transition.
Tanaka, Hajime
2012-10-01
There are at least three fundamental states of matter, depending upon temperature and pressure: gas, liquid, and solid (crystal). These states are separated by first-order phase transitions between them. In both gas and liquid phases a complete translational and rotational symmetry exist, whereas in a solid phase both symmetries are broken. In intermediate phases between liquid and solid, which include liquid crystal and plastic crystal phases, only one of the two symmetries is preserved. Among the fundamental states of matter, the liquid state is the most poorly understood. We argue that it is crucial for a better understanding of liquids to recognize that a liquid generally has the tendency to have a local structural order and its presence is intrinsic and universal to any liquid. Such structural ordering is a consequence of many-body correlations, more specifically, bond angle correlations, which we believe are crucial for the description of the liquid state. We show that this physical picture may naturally explain difficult unsolved problems associated with the liquid state, such as anomalies of water-type liquids (water, Si, Ge, ...), liquid-liquid transition, liquid-glass transition, crystallization and quasicrystal formation, in a unified manner. In other words, we need a new order parameter representing a low local free-energy configuration, which is a bond orientational order parameter in many cases, in addition to a density order parameter for the physical description of these phenomena. Here we review our two-order-parameter model of liquid and consider how transient local structural ordering is linked to all of the above-mentioned phenomena. The relationship between these phenomena is also discussed. PMID:23104614
Phase transition thermodynamics of bisphenols.
Costa, José C S; Dávalos, Juan Z; Santos, Luís M N B F
2014-10-16
Herein we have studied, presented, and analyzed the phase equilibria thermodynamics of a bisphenols (BP-A, BP-E, BP-F, BP-AP, and BP-S) series. In particular, the heat capacities, melting temperatures, and vapor pressures at different temperatures as well as the standard enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs energies of phase transition (fusion and sublimation) were experimentally determined. Also, we have presented the phase diagrams of each bisphenol derivative and investigated the key parameters related to the thermodynamic stability of the condensed phases. When all the bisphenol derivatives are compared at the same conditions, solids BP-AP and BP-S present lower volatilities (higher Gibbs energy of sublimation) and high melting temperatures due to the higher stability of their solid phases. Solids BP-A and BP-F present similar stabilities, whereas BP-E is more volatile. The introduction of -CH3 groups in BP-F (giving BP-E and BP-A) leads an entropic differentiation in the solid phase, whereas in the isotropic liquids the enthalpic and entropic differentiations are negligible. PMID:25244127
Tanaka, Hajime
2013-01-01
There are at least three fundamental states of matter, depending upon temperature and pressure: gas, liquid, and solid (crystal). These states are separated by first-order phase transitions between them. In both gas and liquid phases the complete translational and rotational symmetry exist, whereas in a solid phase both symmetries are broken. In intermediate phases between liquid and solid, which include liquid crystal and plastic crystal phases, only one of the two symmetries is preserved. Among the fundamental states of matter, the liquid state is most poorly understood. We argue that it is crucial for a better understanding of liquid to recognize that a liquid generally has a tendency to have local structural order and its presence is intrinsic and universal to any liquid. Such structural ordering is a consequence of many body correlations, more specifically, bond angle correlations, which we believe are crucial for the description of the liquid state. We show that this physical picture may naturally expla...
Evidence of liquid-liquid transition in glass-forming La50Al35Ni15 melt above liquidus temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Wei; Sandor, Magdalena T.; Yu, Yao; Ke, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Hua-Ping; Li, Mao-Zhi; Wang, Wei-Hua; Liu, Lin; Wu, Yue
2015-07-01
Liquid-liquid transition, a phase transition of one liquid phase to another with the same composition, provides a key opportunity for investigating the relationship between liquid structures and dynamics. Here we report experimental evidences of a liquid-liquid transition in glass-forming La50Al35Ni15 melt above its liquidus temperature by 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance including the temperature dependence of cage volume fluctuations and atomic diffusion. The observed dependence of the incubation time on the degree of undercooling is consistent with a first-order phase transition. Simulation results indicate that such transition is accompanied by the change of bond-orientational order without noticeable change in density. The temperature dependence of atomic diffusion revealed by simulations is also in agreement with experiments. These observations indicate the need of two-order parameters in describing phase transitions of liquids.
Evidence of liquid-liquid transition in glass-forming La50Al35Ni15 melt above liquidus temperature.
Xu, Wei; Sandor, Magdalena T; Yu, Yao; Ke, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Hua-Ping; Li, Mao-Zhi; Wang, Wei-Hua; Liu, Lin; Wu, Yue
2015-01-01
Liquid-liquid transition, a phase transition of one liquid phase to another with the same composition, provides a key opportunity for investigating the relationship between liquid structures and dynamics. Here we report experimental evidences of a liquid-liquid transition in glass-forming La50Al35Ni15 melt above its liquidus temperature by (27)Al nuclear magnetic resonance including the temperature dependence of cage volume fluctuations and atomic diffusion. The observed dependence of the incubation time on the degree of undercooling is consistent with a first-order phase transition. Simulation results indicate that such transition is accompanied by the change of bond-orientational order without noticeable change in density. The temperature dependence of atomic diffusion revealed by simulations is also in agreement with experiments. These observations indicate the need of two-order parameters in describing phase transitions of liquids. PMID:26165855
Evidence of liquid–liquid transition in glass-forming La50Al35Ni15 melt above liquidus temperature
Xu, Wei; Sandor, Magdalena T.; Yu, Yao; Ke, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Hua-Ping; Li, Mao-Zhi; Wang, Wei-Hua; Liu, Lin; Wu, Yue
2015-01-01
Liquid–liquid transition, a phase transition of one liquid phase to another with the same composition, provides a key opportunity for investigating the relationship between liquid structures and dynamics. Here we report experimental evidences of a liquid–liquid transition in glass-forming La50Al35Ni15 melt above its liquidus temperature by 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance including the temperature dependence of cage volume fluctuations and atomic diffusion. The observed dependence of the incubation time on the degree of undercooling is consistent with a first-order phase transition. Simulation results indicate that such transition is accompanied by the change of bond-orientational order without noticeable change in density. The temperature dependence of atomic diffusion revealed by simulations is also in agreement with experiments. These observations indicate the need of two-order parameters in describing phase transitions of liquids. PMID:26165855
Zhao, Jinggang; Tatani, Kenji; Ozaki, Yukihiro
2005-05-01
Infrared (IR) spectra of FLC-154 (FLC: ferroelectric liquid crystal) with monotropic phase transition under a nonalignment state with a sample layer thickness of 24.5 microm were measured for heating process from 55 to 90 degrees C and a cooling process from 90 to 55 degrees C in increments of 1 degrees C. The thermal dynamics of FLC-154 were investigated by use of IR spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and sample-sample two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy. During the cooling, the FLC-154 molecule passes through the monotropic smectic-C* (Sm-C*) phase, which is transformed from the Sm-A phase. The results from PCA suggest that during the heating process, the thermal dynamics of the alkyl chains, core moiety, and C=O groups are similar to each other. Furthermore, PCA and sample-sample 2D correlation spectroscopy indicate that the alkyl chains and C=O groups in the chiral and core moieties are responsible for the emergence of the Sm-C* phase. This conclusion is very important because the IR data have given more evident cause for the emergence of the Sm-C* phase than the theoretical models such as the molecular-statistical theory of ferroelectric ordering and the indigenous polarization theory. Moreover, it has been found that some of the trans conformations of the alkyl chains of FLC-154 change partly to the gauche conformation when the phase transition from the crystalline phase to the Sm-A phase occurs. It has also been found that the intermolecular interactions of the C=O group in the core moiety in the Sm-A phase are weaker than those in the crystalline phase and that the conformational change occurs on the C-O-C bonds in the core moiety upon going from the crystalline to the Sm-A phase. PMID:15969807
Pruess, K.
2011-05-15
Storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers is intended to be at supercritical pressure and temperature conditions, but CO{sub 2} leaking from a geologic storage reservoir and migrating toward the land surface (through faults, fractures, or improperly abandoned wells) would reach subcritical conditions at depths shallower than 500-750 m. At these and shallower depths, subcritical CO{sub 2} can form two-phase mixtures of liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}, with significant latent heat effects during boiling and condensation. Additional strongly non-isothermal effects can arise from decompression of gas-like subcritical CO{sub 2}, the so-called Joule-Thomson effect. Integrated modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage requires the ability to model non-isothermal flows of brine and CO{sub 2} at conditions that range from supercritical to subcritical, including three-phase flow of aqueous phase, and both liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate comprehensive simulation capabilities that can cope with all possible phase conditions in brine-CO{sub 2} systems. Our model formulation includes: (1) an accurate description of thermophysical properties of aqueous and CO{sub 2}-rich phases as functions of temperature, pressure, salinity and CO{sub 2} content, including the mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; (2) transitions between super- and subcritical conditions, including phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}; (3) one-, two-, and three-phase flow of brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including heat flow; (4) non-isothermal effects associated with phase change, mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and water, and (de-) compression effects; and (5) the effects of dissolved NaCl, and the possibility of precipitating solid halite, with associated porosity and permeability change. Applications to specific leakage scenarios demonstrate that the peculiar thermophysical properties of CO{sub 2} provide a potential for positive as well as negative feedbacks on leakage rates, with a combination of self-enhancing and self-limiting effects. Lower viscosity and density of CO{sub 2} as compared to aqueous fluids provides a potential for self-enhancing effects during leakage, while strong cooling effects from liquid CO{sub 2} boiling into gas, and from expansion of gas rising towards the land surface, act to self-limit discharges. Strong interference between fluid phases under three-phase conditions (aqueous - liquid CO{sub 2} - gaseous CO{sub 2}) also tends to reduce CO{sub 2} fluxes. Feedback on different space and time scales can induce non-monotonic behavior of CO{sub 2} flow rates.
Quantum phase transitions in disordered magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nozadze, David
We study the effects of quenched weak disorder on quantum phase transitions in disordered magnets. The presence of disorder in the system can lead to a variety of exotic phenomena, e.g., the smearing of transitions or quantum Griffiths singularities. Phase transitions are smeared if individual spatial regions can order independently of the bulk system. In paper I, we study smeared quantum phase transitions in binary alloys A1-xBx that are tuned by changing the composition x. We show that in this case the ordered phase is extended over all compositions x < 1. We also study the composition dependence of observables. In paper II, we investigate the influence of spatial disorder correlations on smeared phase transitions. As an experimental example, we demonstrate in paper III, that the composition-driven ferromagnetic-toparamagnetic quantum phase transition in Sr1-xCaxRuO3 is smeared. When individual spatial regions cannot order but fluctuate slowly, the phase transition is characterized by strong singularities in the quantum Griffiths phase. In paper IV, we develop a theory of the quantum Griffiths phases in disordered ferromagnetic metals. We show that the quantum Griffiths singularities are stronger than the usual power-law quantum Griffiths singularities in insulating magnets. In paper V, we present an efficient numerical method for studying quantum phase transitions in disordered systems with O(N) order parameter symmetry in the large-N limit. Our algorithm solves iteratively the large-N self-consistent equations for the renormalized distances from criticality. Paper VI is devoted to the study of transport properties in the quantum Griffiths phase associated with the antiferromagnetic quantum phase transition in a metal. We find unusual behavior of transport properties which is in contrast to the normal Fermi-liquid behavior.
Nonstationary two-phase gas-liquid duct flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolesnikov, Pavel Mikheevich; Karpov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich
Nonstationary two-phase gas-liquid flows (e.g., liquid-gas bubbles, gas-liquid droplets, and liquid-solid particles) are investigated under conditions of thermodynamic inequilibrium in the presence of phase transitions and relaxation processes. The kinetic and hydrogasdynamic methods used to describe and analyze such thermodynamic systems are presented, as are various mathematical models of gas-liquid systems. The scattering characteristics of two-phase flows are determined theoretically and experimentally, Nonstationary hydrodynamic and thermal processes occurring in two-phase flows in ducts, capillaries, and nozzles under different conditions are discussed.
Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron
2006-03-01
Work is being performed to develop a new shipping system for frozen environmental samples (or other materials) that uses an optimal phase change liquid (PCL) formulation and an insulated shipping container with an on-board digital temperature data logger to provide a history of the temperature profile within the container during shipment. In previous work, several PCL formulations with temperatures of fusion ranging from approximately -14 to -20 C were prepared and evaluated. Both temperature of fusion and heat of fusion of the formulations were measured, and an optimal PCL formulation was selected. The PCL was frozen in plastic bags and tested for its temperature profile in a cooler using a digital temperature data logger. This testing showed that the PCL formulation can maintain freezer temperatures (< -7 to -20 C) for an extended period, such as the time for shipping samples by overnight courier. The results of the experiments described in this report provide significant information for use in developing an integrated freezer system that uses a PCL formulation to maintain freezer temperatures in coolers for shipping environmental samples to the laboratory. Experimental results show the importance of the type of cooler used in the system and that use of an insulating material within the cooler improves the performance of the freezer system. A new optimal PCL formulation for use in the system has been determined. The new formulation has been shown to maintain temperatures at < -7 to -20 C for 47 hours in an insulated cooler system containing soil samples. These results are very promising for developing the new technology.
Phase transitions in layered crystals
Yuri Mnyukh
2011-05-22
It is demonstrated by analyzing real examples that phase transitions in layered crystals occur like all other solid-state phase transitions by nucleation and crystal growth, but have a specific morphology. There the nucleation is epitaxial, resulting in the rigorous orientation relationship between the polymorphs, such that the direction of molecular layers are preserved. The detailed molecular mechanism of these phase transitions and formation of the laminar domain structures are described and related to the nature of ferroelectrics.
Phase transitions in layered crystals
Mnyukh, Yuri
2011-01-01
It is demonstrated by analyzing real examples that phase transitions in layered crystals occur like all other solid-state phase transitions by nucleation and crystal growth, but have a specific morphology. There the nucleation is epitaxial, resulting in the rigorous orientation relationship between the polymorphs, such that the direction of molecular layers are preserved. The detailed molecular mechanism of these phase transitions and formation of the laminar domain structures are described and related to the nature of ferroelectrics.
Diffusion phase transitions in alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ustinovshchikov, Yu I.
2014-07-01
We present a critical analysis of research on the thermodynamics, kinetics, and morphology of diffusion phase transitions in alloys. We show that diffusion phase transitions are mainly driven by the chemical potential difference due to a change in the sign of the chemical interaction among the component atoms. We explain how the sign of the chemical interaction energy can be obtained from experimental measurements. Examples are given to illustrate the kinetics and morphology of the ordering-separation phase transition in Ni- and Co-based alloys. We show how introducing the concept of the ordering-separation phase transition may affect our thinking in this area.
Quantum phase transition in space
Damski, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zurek, Wojciech H [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
A quantum phase transition between the symmetric (polar) phase and the phase with broken symmetry can be induced in a ferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate in space (rather than in time). We consider such a phase transition and show that the transition region in the vicinity of the critical point exhibits scalings that reflect a compromise between the rate at which the transition is imposed (i.e., the gradient of the control parameter) and the scaling of the divergent healing length in the critical region. Our results suggest a method for the direct measurement of the scaling exponent {nu}.
The putative liquid-liquid transition is a liquid-solid transition in atomistic models of water. II
Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David
2013-06-07
This paper extends our earlier studies of free energy functions of density and crystalline order parameters for models of supercooled water, which allows us to examine the possibility of two distinct metastable liquid phases [D. T. Limmer and D. Chandler, J. Chem. Phys.135, 134503 (2011) and preprint http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1107.0337 (2011)]. Low-temperature reversible free energy surfaces of several different atomistic models are computed: mW water, TIP4P/2005 water, Stillinger-Weber silicon, and ST2 water, the last of these comparing three different treatments of long-ranged forces. In each case, we show that there is one stable or metastable liquid phase, and there is an ice-like crystal phase. The time scales for crystallization in these systems far exceed those of structural relaxation in the supercooled metastable liquid. We show how this wide separation in time scales produces an illusion of a low-temperature liquid-liquid transition. The phenomenon suggesting metastability of two distinct liquid phases is actually coarsening of the ordered ice-like phase, which we elucidate using both analytical theory and computer simulation. For the latter, we describe robust methods for computing reversible free energy surfaces, and we consider effects of electrostatic boundary conditions. We show that sensible alterations of models and boundary conditions produce no qualitative changes in low-temperature phase behaviors of these systems, only marginal changes in equations of state. On the other hand, we show that altering sampling time scales can produce large and qualitative non-equilibrium effects. Recent reports of evidence of a liquid-liquid critical point in computer simulations of supercooled water are considered in this light.
Liquid-liquid transition in ST2 water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang; Palmer, Jeremy C.; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.
2012-12-01
We use the weighted histogram analysis method [S. Kumar, D. Bouzida, R. H. Swendsen, P. A. Kollman, and J. M. Rosenberg, J. Comput. Chem. 13, 1011 (1992), 10.1002/jcc.540130812] to calculate the free energy surface of the ST2 model of water as a function of density and bond-orientational order. We perform our calculations at deeply supercooled conditions (T = 228.6 K, P = 2.2 kbar; T = 235 K, P = 2.2 kbar) and focus our attention on the region of bond-orientational order that is relevant to disordered phases. We find a first-order transition between a low-density liquid (LDL, ? ? 0.9 g/cc) and a high-density liquid (HDL, ? ? 1.15 g/cc), confirming our earlier sampling of the free energy surface of this model as a function of density [Y. Liu, A. Z. Panagiotopoulos, and P. G. Debenedetti, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 104508 (2009), 10.1063/1.3229892]. We demonstrate the disappearance of the LDL basin at high pressure and of the HDL basin at low pressure, in agreement with independent simulations of the system's equation of state. Consistency between directly computed and reweighted free energies, as well as between free energy surfaces computed using different thermodynamic starting conditions, confirms proper equilibrium sampling. Diffusion and structural relaxation calculations demonstrate that equilibration of the LDL phase, which exhibits slow dynamics, is attained in the course of the simulations. Repeated flipping between the LDL and HDL phases in the course of long molecular dynamics runs provides further evidence of a phase transition. We use the Ewald summation with vacuum boundary conditions to calculate long-ranged Coulombic interactions and show that conducting boundary conditions lead to unphysical behavior at low temperatures.
C. Austen Angell; Li-Min Wang
2003-01-01
In this paper we consider the extension of the recent quantitative studies of hyperquenched glassformers to include (1) systems that exhibit first order liquid–liquid phase transitions, and (2) systems that contain molecules, which, during normal cooling, undergo internal structural changes above the glass temperature. The general aim of these studies is to trap-in a high enthalpy, high entropy, state of
Barkeshli, Maissam
One of the most successful theories of a non-Fermi-liquid metallic state is the composite Fermi-liquid (CFL) theory of the half-filled Landau level. In this paper, we study continuous quantum phase transitions out of the ...
Electroweak phase transition in technicolor
Jarvinen, Matti
2010-01-01
Several phenomenologically viable walking technicolor models have been proposed recently. I demonstrate that these models can have first order electroweak phase transitions, which are sufficiently strong for electroweak baryogenesis. Strong dynamics can also lead to several separate transitions at the electroweak scale, with the possibility of a temporary restoration and an extra breaking of the electroweak symmetry. First order phase transitions will produce gravitational waves, which may be detectable at future experiments.
Electroweak phase transition in technicolor
Matti Jarvinen
2010-10-01
Several phenomenologically viable walking technicolor models have been proposed recently. I demonstrate that these models can have first order electroweak phase transitions, which are sufficiently strong for electroweak baryogenesis. Strong dynamics can also lead to several separate transitions at the electroweak scale, with the possibility of a temporary restoration and an extra breaking of the electroweak symmetry. First order phase transitions will produce gravitational waves, which may be detectable at future experiments.
Evidence for liquid water during the high-density to low-density amorphous ice transition
Gruner, Sol M.
Evidence for liquid water during the high-density to low-density amorphous ice transition Chae Un-pressure cryocooling is a genuine glassy form of high-density liquid. liquidliquid hypothesis supercooled water water phases high-density liquid Supercooled water shows anomalous thermodynamic behav- ior (13). Theories
Multiobjective Optimization and Phase Transitions
Seoane, Luís F
2015-01-01
Many complex systems obey to optimality conditions that are usually not simple. Conflicting traits often interact making a Multi Objective Optimization (MOO) approach necessary. Recent MOO research on complex systems report about the Pareto front (optimal designs implementing the best trade-off) in a qualitative manner. Meanwhile, research on traditional Simple Objective Optimization (SOO) often finds phase transitions and critical points. We summarize a robust framework that accounts for phase transitions located through SOO techniques and indicates what MOO features resolutely lead to phase transitions. These appear determined by the shape of the Pareto front, which at the same time is deeply related to the thermodynamic Gibbs surface. Indeed, thermodynamics can be written as an MOO from where its phase transitions can be parsimoniously derived; suggesting that the similarities between transitions in MOO-SOO and Statistical Mechanics go beyond mere coincidence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, R. C.; Chang, Y. A.
1980-03-01
An associated solution model is applied to describe the thermodyanmic properties of the liquid Ni-S phase. This model assumes the existence of ‘NiS’ (l) species in the liquid in addition to Ni(l) and S(l). With two solution parameters for the binaries Ni-‘NiS’ and ‘NiS’-S, this model is able to describe the thermodynamic behavior of the liquid phase over a wide range of temperature and composition. Using this model for the liquid phase, a statistical thermodynamic model for the monosulfide phase and empirical thermodynamic equations for ?1-Ni3S2 and ?2-Ni4S3, the Ni-S phase diagram is calculated. The calculated diagram is in excellent agreement with the available experimental data with the exception that the eutectic composition for the equilibrium L1 + ? + ? and those of the two liquids for the equilibrium L 1 + L 2 + ? differ from the experimental data by more than 2 at. pct S.
using the primitive model, consisting of explicit hard-sphere colloids and point counterions. In our model, the colloids are modeled as hard spheres with diameter and point charge Qq at the center to a gas-solid phase separation at colloid charges Q 20 times the counterion charge. Approximate free
Spacetime Approach to Phase Transitions
Wolfhard Janke; Adriaan M. J. Schakel
2007-05-08
In these notes, the application of Feynman's sum-over-paths approach to thermal phase transitions is discussed. The paradigm of such a spacetime approach to critical phenomena is provided by the high-temperature expansion of spin models. This expansion, known as the hopping expansion in the context of lattice field theory, yields a geometric description of the phase transition in these models, with the thermal critical exponents being determined by the fractal structure of the high-temperature graphs. The graphs percolate at the thermal critical point and can be studied using purely geometrical observables known from percolation theory. Besides the phase transition in spin models and in the closely related $\\phi^4$ theory, other transitions discussed from this perspective include Bose-Einstein condensation, and the transitions in the Higgs model and the pure U(1) gauge theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eremin, Alexey; Floegel, Martin; Kornek, Ulrike; Stern, Stephan; Stannarius, Ralf; Nádasi, Hajnalka; Weissflog, Wolfgang; Zhu, Chenhui; Shen, Yongqiang; Park, Cheol Soo; Maclennan, Joseph; Clark, Noel
2012-11-01
We report on the contrasting phase behavior of a bent-core liquid crystal with a large opening angle between the mesogenic units in the bulk and in freely suspended films. Second-harmonic generation experiments and direct observation of director inversion walls in films in an applied electric field reveal that the nonpolar smectic C phase observed in bulk samples becomes a ferroelectric “banana” phase in films, showing that a mesogen with a small steric moment can give a phase with polar order in freely suspended films even when the corresponding bulk phase is paraelectric.
Eremin, Alexey; Floegel, Martin; Kornek, Ulrike; Stern, Stephan; Stannarius, Ralf; Nádasi, Hajnalka; Weissflog, Wolfgang; Zhu, Chenhui; Shen, Yongqiang; Park, Cheol Soo; Maclennan, Joseph; Clark, Noel
2012-11-01
We report on the contrasting phase behavior of a bent-core liquid crystal with a large opening angle between the mesogenic units in the bulk and in freely suspended films. Second-harmonic generation experiments and direct observation of director inversion walls in films in an applied electric field reveal that the nonpolar smectic C phase observed in bulk samples becomes a ferroelectric "banana" phase in films, showing that a mesogen with a small steric moment can give a phase with polar order in freely suspended films even when the corresponding bulk phase is paraelectric. PMID:23214799
Natural selection: a phase transition?
Eigen
2000-07-15
Information has two aspects: a quantity to be called 'extent' and a quality which may be termed 'content' since it deals with meaning. The latter originates via selective self-organization, which can be described also in quantitative physical terms. A prerequisite is the reproducibility of the informational substrate forming the basis of selection. This paper focuses on selection being the analogue of a physical phase transition. In Section 1 the criteria for phase transitions are formulated. Section 2 introduces the concept of information space and describes information as selected points or regions in this space. In Section 3 selection is analyzed in terms of the criteria for phase transitions, and in Section 4 the concept is confronted with experimental data. The conclusion is reached that information content is generated via selection, which can be described as a phase transition in information space. PMID:10961500
Distinct Metallization and Atomization Transitions in Dense Liquid Hydrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazzola, Guglielmo; Sorella, Sandro
2015-03-01
We perform molecular dynamics simulations driven by accurate quantum Monte Carlo forces on dense liquid hydrogen. There is a recent report of a complete atomization transition between a mixed molecular-atomic liquid and a completely dissociated fluid in an almost unaccessible pressure range [Nat. Commun. 5, 3487 (2014)]. Here, instead, we identify a different transition between the fully molecular liquid and the mixed-atomic fluid at ˜400 GPa , i.e., in a much more interesting pressure range. We provide numerical evidence supporting the metallic behavior of this intermediate phase. Therefore, we predict that the metallization at finite temperature occurs in this partially dissociated molecular fluid, well before the complete atomization of the liquid. At high temperature this first-order transition becomes a crossover, in very good agreement with the experimental observation. Several systematic tests supporting the quality of our large scale calculations are also reported.
Liquid-Phase Adsorption Fundamentals.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cooney, David O.
1987-01-01
Describes an experiment developed and used in the unit operations laboratory course at the University of Wyoming. Involves the liquid-phase adsorption of an organic compound from aqueous solution on activated carbon, and is relevant to adsorption processes in general. (TW)
Noise-induced transitions vs. noise-induced phase transitions
Toral, Raúl
Noise-induced transitions vs. noise-induced phase transitions Raul Toral IFISC (Instituto de Física the field of noise-induced phase transitions, emphasizing the main differences with the phase-induced transitions and showing that they appear in different systems. I will show that a noise-induced transition can
Multiple ordering transitions in a chiral liquid
Pierre Ronceray; Peter Harrowell
2013-08-26
We present here a numerical study of a lattice model of a chiral liquid. The low symmetry of the favoured local structure depresses the freezing point to reveal an exotic liquid-liquid transition characterised by the appearance of an extended chirality,prior to freezing. What mechanisms impede crystallisation in liquids with low molecular symmetry ? The ordered liquid can be readily supercooled to zero temperature, as the combination of critical slowing down and competing crystal polymorphs results in a dramatically slow crystallisation process.
Holographic approach to phase transitions
Franco, Sebastian; Garcia-Garcia, Antonio M.; Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego [KITP, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA93106-4030 (United States); CFIF, IST, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal) and Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2010-02-15
We provide a description of phase transitions at finite temperature in strongly coupled field theories using holography. For this purpose, we introduce a general class of gravity duals to superconducting theories that exhibit various types of phase transitions (first or second order with both mean and non-mean field behavior) as parameters in their Lagrangian are changed. Moreover the size and strength of the conductivity coherence peak can also be controlled. Our results suggest that certain parameters in the gravitational dual control the interactions responsible for binding the condensate and the magnitude of its fluctuations close to the transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cordoyiannis, George; Tripathi, Chandra Shekhar Pati; Glorieux, Christ; Thoen, Jan
2010-09-01
A detailed study has been performed for mixtures of octyloxycyanobiphenyl (8OCB) and nonyloxycyanobiphenyl (9OCB) liquid crystals and nine of their mixtures by means of high-resolution adiabatic scanning calorimetry. The isotropic to nematic transitions are weakly first order with latent heat values in the range usually encountered for this transition in other liquid crystals. With the exception of pure 8OCB, for which only an upper limit of 1.8Jkg-1 for the latent heat could be established, finite latent heats have been obtained for the nematic to smectic- A transition of all the mixtures and of pure 9OCB. The concentration dependence of their latent heats could be well fitted with a crossover function consistent with a mean-field free-energy expression that has a nonzero cubic term induced by the Halperin-Lubensky-Ma (HLM) coupling between the smectic- A order parameter and the orientational director fluctuations. Clearly first-order transitions with measurable latent heats are found for mole fractions of 9OCB in the mixtures where the effective critical exponent for the specific-heat capacity has substantially lower values than the tricritical one (0.5). This is qualitatively different from what has been observed so far in other liquid-crystal systems and yields strong experimental evidence from a calorimetric experiment for the HLM coupling between the smectic- A order parameter and the director orientation fluctuations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakse, N.; Pasturel, A.
2007-11-01
We report results of first principles molecular dynamics simulations that confirm early speculations on the presence of liquid-liquid phase transition in undercooled silicon. However, we find that structural and electronic properties of both low-density liquid (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL) phases are quite different from those obtained by empirical calculations, the difference being more pronounced for the HDL phase. The discrepancy between quantum and classical simulations is attributed to the inability of empirical potentials to describe changes in chemical bonds induced by density and temperature variations.
Solid liquid phase changes with different densities
Fremond, Michel
2008-01-01
In this paper we present a new thermodynamically consistent phase transition model describing the evolution of a liquid substance, e.g., water, in a rigid container $\\Omega$ when we freeze the container. Since the density $\\varrho_{2}$ of ice with volume fraction $\\beta_{2}$, is lower than the density $\\varrho_{1}$ of water with volume fraction $\\beta_{1}$, experiments - for instance the freezing of a glass bottle filled with water - show that the water pressure increases up to the rupture of the bottle. When the container is not impermeable, freezing may produce a non-homogeneous material, for instance water ice or sorbet. Here we describe a general class of phase transition processes including this example as particular case. Moreover, we study the resulting nonlinear and singular PDE system from the analytical viewpoint recovering existence of a global (in time) weak solution and also uniqueness for some particular choices of the nonlinear functions involved.
Solid liquid phase changes with different densities
Michel Fremond; Elisabetta Rocca
2008-06-18
In this paper we present a new thermodynamically consistent phase transition model describing the evolution of a liquid substance, e.g., water, in a rigid container $\\Omega$ when we freeze the container. Since the density $\\varrho_{2}$ of ice with volume fraction $\\beta_{2}$, is lower than the density $\\varrho_{1}$ of water with volume fraction $\\beta_{1}$, experiments - for instance the freezing of a glass bottle filled with water - show that the water pressure increases up to the rupture of the bottle. When the container is not impermeable, freezing may produce a non-homogeneous material, for instance water ice or sorbet. Here we describe a general class of phase transition processes including this example as particular case. Moreover, we study the resulting nonlinear and singular PDE system from the analytical viewpoint recovering existence of a global (in time) weak solution and also uniqueness for some particular choices of the nonlinear functions involved.
PUBLISHED ONLINE: 4 JULY 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1708 Phase transitions in confined water nanofilms
Stanley, H. Eugene
: solid, liquid and vapour. In addition to undergoing a phase transition (of the first order) between them transition line between solid and liquid is believed to persist indefinitely without terminating-order and continuous transition lines meet3,4 . It is widely believed that a solidliquid phase transition line does
Dynamical signature of two ``ideal glass transitions'' in nematic liquid crystals
Fayer, Michael D.
Dynamical signature of two ``ideal glass transitions'' in nematic liquid crystals Hu Cang, Jie Li heterodyne detected optical Kerr effect data for four liquid crystals. The data cover a range of times from 1G theory for the isotropic phase of liquid crystals. However, it is also found that the liquid crystal data
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Michael R.
2006-01-01
In most general chemistry and introductory physical chemistry classes, critical point is defined as that temperature-pressure point on a phase diagram where the liquid-gas interface disappears, a phenomenon that generally occurs at relatively high temperatures or high pressures. Two examples are: water, with a critical point at 647 K (critical…
Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations
You, Yuan; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Hanna, Sarah; Hiranuma, Naruki; Kamal, Saeid; Smith, Mackenzie L.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney; Shilling, John E.; Dabdub, Donald; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.
2012-07-30
A large fraction of submicron atmospheric particles contains both organic material and inorganic salts. As the relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere, these mixed particles can undergo a range of phase transitions, possibly including liquid-liquid phase separation. If liquid-liquid phase separation occurs, the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds, the scattering and absorption of solar radiation, and the uptake of reactive gas species on atmospheric particles will be affected, with important implications for climate predictions. The actual occurrence of these types of phase transitions within individual atmospheric particles has been considered uncertain, in large part because of the absence of observations for real-world samples. Here, using optical and fluorescence microscopy, we observe the coexistence of two non-crystalline phases in particles generated from real-world samples collected on multiple days in Atlanta, Georgia, and in particles generated in the laboratory using atmospheric conditions. These results reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations. Using a box model, we show that liquid-liquid phase separation can result in increased concentrations of gas-phase NO3 and N2O5 in the Atlanta region, due to decreased particle uptake of N2O5.
Two Phase Flow Mapping and Transition Under Microgravity Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parang, Masood; Chao, David F.
1998-01-01
In this paper, recent microgravity two-phase flow data for air-water, air-water-glycerin, and air- water-Zonyl FSP mixtures are analyzed for transition from bubbly to slug and from slug to annular flow. It is found that Weber number-based maps are inadequate to predict flow-pattern transition, especially over a wide range of liquid flow rates. It is further shown that slug to annular flow transition is dependent on liquid phase Reynolds number at high liquid flow rate. This effect may be attributed to growing importance of liquid phase inertia in the dynamics of the phase flow and distribution. As a result a new form of scaling is introduced to present data using liquid Weber number based on vapor and liquid superficial velocities and Reynolds number based on liquid superficial velocity. This new combination of the dimensionless parameters seem to be more appropriate for the presentation of the microgravity data and provides a better flow pattern prediction and should be considered for evaluation with data obtained in the future. Similarly, the analysis of bubble to slug flow transition indicates a strong dependence on both liquid inertia and turbulence fluctuations which seem to play a significant role on this transition at high values of liquid velocity. A revised mapping of data using a new group of dimensionless parameters show a better and more consistent description of flow transition over a wide range of liquid flow rates. Further evaluation of the proposed flow transition mapping will have to be made after a wider range of microgravity data become available.
Liquid-phase chromatography detector
Voigtman, E.G.; Winefordner, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.
1983-11-08
A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprises a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focusing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof. 5 figs.
Liquid-phase chromatography detector
Voigtman, Edward G. (Gainesville, FL); Winefordner, James D. (Gainesville, FL); Jurgensen, Arthur R. (Gainesville, FL)
1983-01-01
A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprising a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focussing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof.
Phase Transition in Evolutionary Games
Zhen Cao; Rudolph C. Hwa
1995-09-28
The evolution of cooperative behaviour is studied in the deterministic version of the Prisoners' Dilemma on a two-dimensional lattice. The payoff parameter is set at the critical region $1.8 < b < 2.0$ , where clusters of cooperators are formed in all spatial sizes. Using the factorial moments developed in particle and nuclear physics for the study of phase transition, the distribution of cooperators is studied as a function of the bin size covering varying numbers of lattice cells. From the scaling behaviour of the moments a scaling exponent is determined and is found to lie in the range where phase transitions are known to take place in physical systems. It is therefore inferred that when the payoff parameter is increased through the critical region the biological system of cooperators undergoes a phase transition to defectors. The universality of the critical behaviour is thus extended to include also this particular model of evolution dynamics.
Exploring the nature of the liquid-liquid transition in silicon: a non-activated transformation.
Lü, Y J; Zhang, X X; Chen, M; Jiang, Jian-Zhong
2015-10-01
In contrast to other glass formers, silicon exhibits a thermodynamic discontinuity between its liquid and amorphous solid states. Some researchers have conjectured that a first-order phase transition occurs between two forms of liquid silicon: the high-density liquid (HDL) and the low-density liquid (LDL). Despite the fact that several computer simulations have supported a liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) in silicon, recent work based on surface free energy calculations contradicts its existence and the authors of this work have argued that the proposed LLPT has been mistakenly interpreted [J. Chem. Phys., 2013, 138, 214504]. A similar controversy has also arisen in the case of water because of discrepancies in the calculation of its free energy surface [Nature, 2014, 510, 385; J. Chem. Phys., 2013, 138, 214504]. Current evidence supporting or not supporting the LLPT is mostly derived from the thermodynamic stability of the LDL phase. Provided that the HDL-LDL transition is a first-order transition, the formation of LDL silicon should be an activated process. Following this idea, the nature of the LLPT should be clarified by tracing the kinetic path toward LDL silicon. In this work, we focus on the transformation process from HDL to LDL phases and use the mean first passage time (MFPT) method to examine thermodynamic and dynamic trajectories. The MFPT results show that the presumed HDL-LDL transition is not characterized by a thermodynamic activated process but by a continuous dynamic transformation. LDL silicon is actually a mixture of the high-density liquid and a low-density tetrahedral network. We show that the five-membered Si-Si rings in the LDL network play a critical role in stabilizing the low-density network and suppressing the crystallization. PMID:26415631
Mixed Stationary Liquid Phases for Gas-Liquid Chromatography.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F.
1979-01-01
Describes a laboratory technique for use in an undergraduate instrumental analysis course that, using the interpretation of window diagrams, prepares a mixed liquid phase column for gas-liquid chromatography. A detailed procedure is provided. (BT)
Wang, Fang; Wenslow, Robert M; Dowling, Thomas M; Mueller, Karl T; Santos, Ivan; Wyvratt, Jean M
2003-11-01
A thermally induced irreversible conformational transition of amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (i.e., Chiralpak AD) chiral stationary phase (CSP) in the enantioseparation of dihydropyrimidinone (DHP) acid racemate was studied for the first time by quasi-equilibrated liquid chromatography with cyclic van't Hoff and step temperature programs and solid-state ((13)C CPMAS and (19)F MAS) NMR using ethanol and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)-modified n-hexane as the mobile phase. The conformational transition was controlled by a single kinetically driven process, as evidenced by the chromatographic studies. Solid-state NMR was used to study the effect of the temperature on the conformational change of the solvated phase (with or without the DHP acid enantiomers and TFA) and provided some viable structural information about the CSP and the enantiomers. PMID:14588029
Entropy Calculations for a Supercooled Liquid Crystalline Blue Phase
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Singh, U.
2007-01-01
We observed, using polarized light microscopy, the supercooling of the blue phase (BPI) of cholesteryl proprionate and measured the corresponding liquid crystalline phase transition temperatures. From these temperatures and additional published data we have provided, for the benefit of undergraduate physics students, a nontraditional example…
Bakai, A S
2006-08-14
The model of heterophase fluctuations is developed accounting frustration of the mesoscopic solidlike fluctuons. Within the framework of this model, the glass transition and polyamorphous transformations are considered. It is shown that the frustration increases the temperature range in which the heterophase liquid state exists. the upper and lower boundaries of this temperature range are determined. These boundaries separate different phase states-amorphous solid, heterophase liquid, and fluid phases. Polyamorphous liquid-liquid transitions in the liquid are investigated. Frustration can call forth continuous fluid-solid phase transformation avoiding the first- or second-order phase transition. Conditions under which the first-order phase transition fraction takes place are formulated. Two scenarios of the first-order liquid-liquid polyamorphous transformation are described. As an example the glacial phase formation and the first-order liquid-liquid phase transition in triphenyl phosphate are considered and discussed. Impact of frustration on the liquid crystallization and crystallinity of the glassy state is studied. PMID:16942294
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakai, A. S.
2006-08-01
The model of heterophase fluctuations is developed accounting frustration of the mesoscopic solidlike fluctuons. Within the framework of this model, the glass transition and polyamorphous transformations are considered. It is shown that the frustration increases the temperature range in which the heterophase liquid state exists. the upper and lower boundaries of this temperature range are determined. These boundaries separate different phase states—amorphous solid, heterophase liquid, and fluid phases. Polyamorphous liquid-liquid transitions in the liquid are investigated. Frustration can call forth continuous fluid-solid phase transformation avoiding the first- or second-order phase transition. Conditions under which the first-order phase transition fraction takes place are formulated. Two scenarios of the first-order liquid-liquid polyamorphous transformation are described. As an example the glacial phase formation and the first-order liquid-liquid phase transition in triphenyl phosphate are considered and discussed. Impact of frustration on the liquid crystallization and crystallinity of the glassy state is studied.
Goldwire, H.C. Jr.; Rodean, H.C.; Cederwall, R.T.; Kansa, E.J.; Koopman, R.P.; McClure, J.W.; McRae, T.G.; Morris, L.K.; Kamppinen, L.; Kiefer, R.D.
1983-10-01
The Coyote series of liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill experiments was performed at the Naval Weapons Center (NWC), China Lake, California, during the summer and fall of 1981. These tests were a joint effort of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the NWC and were sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Gas Research Institute. There were ten Coyote experiments, five primarily for the study of vapor dispersion and burning vapor clouds, and five for investigating the occurrence of rapid-phase-transition (RPT) explosions. Each of the last four of the five RPT tests consisted of a series of three spills. Seven experiments were with LNG, two were with liquid methane (LCH/sub 4/), and one was with liquid nitrogen (LN/sub 2/). Three arrays of instrumentation were deployed. An array of RPT diagnostic instruments was concentrated at the spill pond and was operated during all of the tests, vapor burn as well as RPT. The wind-field array was operated during the last nine experiments to define the wind direction and speed in the area upwind and downwind of the spill pond. The gas-dispersion array was deployed mostly downwind of the spill pond to measure gas concentration, humidity, temperature, ground heat flux, infrared (IR) radiation, and flame-front passage during three of the vapor dispersion and burn experiments (Coyotes 3, 5, and 6). High-speed color motion pictures were taken during every test, and IR imagery (side and overhead) was obtained during some vapor-burn experiments. Data was obtained by radiometers during Coyotes 3, 6, and 7. This report presents a comprehensive selection of the data obtained. It does not include any data analysis except that required to determine the test conditions and the reliability of the data. Data analysis is to be reported in other publications. 19 references, 76 figures, 13 tables.
Exothermic Supercooled Liquid—Liquid Transition in Amorphous Sulfur
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Dou-Dou; Liu, Xiu-Ru; Hong, Shi-Ming; Li, Liang-Bin; Cui, Kun-Peng; Shao, Chun-Guang; He, Zhu; Xu, Ji-An
2014-06-01
Amorphous sulfur (a-S) is prepared by rapidly compressing molten sulfur to high pressure. From differential scanning calorimeter measurements, a large exothermic peak has been observed around 396 K. Online wide-angled x-ray scattering spectra indicate that no crystallization occurs in the temperature range 295-453 K, suggesting that the exothermal process corresponds to an amorphous-to-amorphous transition. The transition from amorphous sulfur to liquid sulfur is further verified by the direct observation of sulfur melt at the temperature of the associated transition. This is the first time of reporting that a-S transforms to liquid sulfur directly, which has avoided a crystallization process. What is more, the transition is an exothermic and a volume expansion process.
Interplay between micelle formation and waterlike phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinzelmann, G.; Figueiredo, W.; Girardi, M.
2010-02-01
A lattice model for amphiphilic aggregation in the presence of a structured waterlike solvent is studied through Monte Carlo simulations. We investigate the interplay between the micelle formation and the solvent phase transition in two different regions of temperature-density phase diagram of pure water. A second order phase transition between the gaseous (G) and high density liquid (HDL) phases that occurs at very high temperatures, and a first order phase transition between the low density liquid (LDL) and (HDL) phases that takes place at lower temperatures. In both cases, we find the aggregate size distribution curve and the critical micellar concentration as a function of the solvent density across the transitions. We show that micelle formation drives the LDL-HDL first order phase transition to lower solvent densities, while the transition G-HDL is driven to higher densities, which can be explained by the markedly different degrees of micellization in both cases. The diffusion coefficient of surfactants was also calculated in the LDL and HDL phases, changing abruptly its behavior due to the restructuring of waterlike solvent when we cross the first order LDL-HDL phase transition. To understand such behavior, we calculate the solvent density and the number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule close to micelles. The curves of the interfacial solvent density and the number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule in the first hydration signal a local phase change of the interfacial water, clarifying the diffusion mechanism of free surfactants in the solvent.
Phase transitions in nuclear matter
Glendenning, N.K.
1984-11-01
The rather general circumstances under which a phase transition in hadronic matter at finite temperature to an abnormal phase in which baryon effective masses become small and in which copious baryon-antibaryon pairs appear is emphasized. A preview is also given of a soliton model of dense matter, in which at a density of about seven times nuclear density, matter ceases to be a color insulator and becomes increasingly color conducting. 22 references.
Effect of polyethylene glycol on the liquidliquid phase transition in aqueous protein solutions
Benedek, George B.
Effect of polyethylene glycol on the liquidliquid phase transition in aqueous protein solutions, 2002 We have studied the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the liquidliquid phase separation. PEG ternary mixtures solubility partitioning Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a hydrophilic nonionic
Low Frequency Acoustic Resonance Studies of the Liquid-Vapor Transition in Silica Aerogel
Tobias Herman; John Beamish
2005-06-30
Fluid phase transitions in porous media are a powerful probe of the effect of confinement and disorder on phase transitions. Aerogel may provide a model system in which to study the effect of dilute impurities on a variety of phase transitions. In this paper we present a series of low frequency acoustic experiments on the effect of aerogel on the liquid-vapor phase transition. Acoustic resonators were used to study the liquid-vapor transition in two fluids (helium and neon) and in two different porosity aerogels (95% and 98%). While effective coexistence curves could be mapped out, the transition was sometimes difficult to pinpoint, leading to doubt as to whether this transition can be treated as an equilibrium macroscopic phase transition at all.
Phase transition in ceria alumina
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beg, Saba; Haneef, Sadaf
2010-12-01
Al-doped CeO2 samples were prepared by conventional solid state reaction. The electrical conductivity of CeO2 doped with Al2O3 has been studied at different temperatures for various molar ratios. The isothermal conductivity increases with dopant concentration due to the vacancy migration phenomenon induced by doping. It has been found that the conductivity increases and shows a jump from 450 to 520°C due to the phase transition of ceria from cubic to orthorhombic type. A slight deflection is seen for 0.5 and 0.6 moles of alumina at about 250°C due to its phase transition from ? to ? type. AC impedance measurements proved that the oxide ion conductivity predominantly arises from the grain and grain boundary contribution as two well defined semi-circles are clearly seen. The sample characterization and the study of phase transition changes were done by using X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectral and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. On increasing the concentration of dopant, the transition temperature shifts towards lower side which is confirmed by DSC as well as conductivity measurements.
Transient liquid phase ceramic bonding
Glaeser, Andreas M. (Berkeley, CA)
1994-01-01
Ceramics are joined to themselves or to metals using a transient liquid phase method employing three layers, one of which is a refractory metal, ceramic or alloy. The refractory layer is placed between two metal layers, each of which has a lower melting point than the refractory layer. The three layers are pressed between the two articles to be bonded to form an assembly. The assembly is heated to a bonding temperature at which the refractory layer remains solid, but the two metal layers melt to form a liquid. The refractory layer reacts with the surrounding liquid and a single solid bonding layer is eventually formed. The layers may be designed to react completely with each other and form refractory intermetallic bonding layers. Impurities incorporated into the refractory metal may react with the metal layers to form refractory compounds. Another method for joining ceramic articles employs a ceramic interlayer sandwiched between two metal layers. In alternative embodiments, the metal layers may include sublayers. A method is also provided for joining two ceramic articles using a single interlayer. An alternate bonding method provides a refractory-metal oxide interlayer placed adjacent to a strong oxide former. Aluminum or aluminum alloys are joined together using metal interlayers.
Phase transition theory of sprite halo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiraki, Yasutaka
2010-04-01
We present the phase transition theory for sprite halo using measurable lightning parameters (charge moment and discharge time) on the basis of steady state thermodynamics. A halo is located at the upper part of the tree-like structure of a sprite and is produced through electron impact excitation of neutral species under the lightning-induced electric field. We proposed in our previous studies that the occurrence criteria for halos and sprites are characterized by the above lightning parameters, and additionally, the intensity of a halo weakens rapidly with an increase in the discharge time T. We assume that this phenomenon is quite similar to the phase transition between the vapor and the liquid states of water; here the analogy is between the accelerated electrons and the water molecules. We demonstrate analytically a phase transition for a simply modeled halo based on the quasistatic theory of lightning-induced electric field. Choosing the luminosity of a halo as an order parameter, we show that it has a dependence of T-0.25 - Tc-0.25 near the critical point Tc, which is characteristic of the phase transition. Furthermore, the critical time scale Tc ? 5.5 ms is provided naturally from our modeling and is somewhat larger than the typical time scale of the halo luminosity in observations. We consider that this kind of formalism is useful in understanding the detailed relationship between lightning activity and occurrence of halos. We discuss this point for future observations along with the possibilities of the transition model of column and carrot structures.
Liquid-like phases of ?^+?^- matter
D. V. Anchishkin; A. V. Nazarenko
2006-11-11
To give a common theoretical description of liquid phases of the charged pion matter in a wide temperature interval, the relativistic quantum $\\phi^6$ type model is considered. The liquid states of pion condensate and hot pion matter are investigated.
Bimodality: a robust signature of a nuclear matter phase transition
Tamain, B.; Pichon, M.; Bougault, R.; Lopez, O. [LPC-ENSICaen, 14050 Caen cedex (France)
2007-02-12
Bimodality is observed on the size of the heaviest released fragment for semi-peripheral heavy ion induced reactions in the intermediate energy domain. From lattice-gas calculations, this signal can sign a phase transition even if the system has not reached a complete equilibrium. It is shown from the data that it is correlated with other possible phase transition signals. The two bimodality solutions correspond to different excitation energies and to similar temperatures as expected if bimodality is due to a liquid-gas phase transition.
Topological Phase Transition in Antimony
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Man-Hong; Bian, Guang; Xu, Caizhi; Miller, Thomas; Chiang, Tai-Chang
2014-03-01
Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is believed to cause the parity exchange that drives normal band insulators into the topological regime. Changing the strength of the effective SOC can also induce quantum phase transitions in materials. We performed a first-principles calculation to elucidate the quantum phase transition from a topologically trivial to nontrivial system in a 15-bilayer Sb film. We increased the k-space sampling relative to previous studies and varied the effective SOC in order to observe the changes in the bulk band gap and topological surface states. A transition from a metal to a semimetal is observed as the SOC is tuned from 0% to 100%. At a SOC value near 300%, a transition from a nontrivial topological semimetal to a topological insulator occurs. Varying the effective SOC strength can be realized experimentally by alloy substitution with elements in the same column in the periodic table. Increasing the effective SOC of the Sb film to values above 100% is a model of the Bi1-xSbx alloy, the first three-dimensional topological insulator. Further studies using this method on different systems may lead to the discovery of new topological insulators. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46383 for T-CC).
Ferromagnetic state and phase transitions
Yuri Mnyukh
2011-06-20
Evidence is summarized attesting that the standard exchange field theory of ferromagnetism by Heisenberg has not been successful. It is replaced by the crystal field and a simple assumption that spin orientation is inexorably associated with the orientation of its carrier. It follows at once that both ferromagnetic phase transitions and magnetization must involve a structural rearrangement. The mechanism of structural rearrangements in solids is nucleation and interface propagation. The new approach accounts coherently for ferromagnetic state and its manifestations.
Polarized gravitational waves from cosmological phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kisslinger, Leonard; Kahniashvili, Tina
2015-08-01
We estimate the degree of circular polarization for the gravitational waves generated during the electroweak and QCD phase transitions from the kinetic and magnetic helicity generated by bubble collisions during those cosmological phase transitions.
Liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide
Cutler, R.A.; Virkar, A.V.; Hurford, A.C.
1989-05-09
Liquid phase sintering is used to densify silicon carbide based ceramics using a compound comprising a rare earth oxide and aluminum oxide to form liquids at temperatures in excess of 1,600 C. The resulting sintered ceramic body has a density greater than 95% of its theoretical density and hardness in excess of 23 GPa. Boron and carbon are not needed to promote densification and silicon carbide powder with an average particle size of greater than one micron can be densified via the liquid phase process. The sintered ceramic bodies made by the present invention are fine grained and have secondary phases resulting from the liquid phase. 4 figs.
Liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide
Cutler, Raymond A. (Bountiful, UT); Virkar, Anil V. (Salt Lake City, UT); Hurford, Andrew C. (Salt Lake City, UT)
1989-01-01
Liquid phase sintering is used to densify silicon carbide based ceramics using a compound comprising a rare earth oxide and aluminum oxide to form liquids at temperatures in excess of 1600.degree. C. The resulting sintered ceramic body has a density greater than 95% of its theoretical density and hardness in excess of 23 GPa. Boron and carbon are not needed to promote densification and silicon carbide powder with an average particle size of greater than one micron can be densified via the liquid phase process. The sintered ceramic bodies made by the present invention are fine grained and have secondary phases resulting from the liquid phase.
Phase transition dynamics and gravitational waves
Megevand, Ariel [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Dean Funes 3350 (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2009-04-20
During a first-order phase transition, gravitational radiation is generated either by bubble collisions or by turbulence. For phase transitions which took place at the electroweak scale and beyond, the signal is expected to be within the sensitivity range of planned interferometers such as LISA or BBO. We review the generation of gravitational waves in a first-order phase transition and discuss the dependence of the spectrum on the dynamics of the phase transition.
Liquid phase chromatography on microchips.
Kutter, Jörg P
2012-01-20
Over the past twenty years, the field of microfluidics has emerged providing one of the main enabling technologies to realize miniaturized chemical analysis systems, often referred to as micro-Total Analysis Systems (uTAS), or, more generally, Lab-on-a-Chip Systems (LOC) [1,2]. While microfluidics was driven forward a lot from the engineering side, especially with respect to ink jet and dispensing technology, the initial push and interest from the analytical chemistry community was through the desire to develop miniaturized sensors, detectors, and, very early on, separation systems. The initial almost explosive development of, in particular, chromatographic separation systems on microchips, has, however, slowed down in recent years. This review takes a closer, critical look at how liquid phase chromatography has been implemented in miniaturized formats over the past several years, what is important to keep in mind when developing or working with separations in a miniaturized format, and what challenges and pitfalls remain. PMID:22071425
Porous Liquid Phases for Indented Colloids with Depletion Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashton, Douglas J.; Jack, Robert L.; Wilding, Nigel B.
2015-06-01
We study indented spherical colloids, interacting via depletion forces. These systems exhibit liquid-vapor phase transitions whose properties are determined by a combination of strong "lock-and-key" bonds and weaker nonspecific interactions. As the propensity for lock-and-key binding increases, the critical point moves to significantly lower density, and the coexisting phases change their structure. In particular, the liquid phase is porous, exhibiting large percolating voids. The properties of this system depend strongly on the topological structure of an underlying bond network: we comment on the implications of this fact for the assembly of equilibrium states with controlled porous structures.
Quantum phase transitions in bilayer SU(N) antiferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaul, Ribhu K.
2012-05-01
We present a detailed study of the destruction of SU(N) magnetic order in square lattice bilayer antiferromagnets using unbiased quantum Monte Carlo numerical simulations and field theoretic techniques. We study phase transitions from an SU(N) Néel state into two distinct quantum disordered “valence-bond” phases: a valence-bond liquid (VBL) with no broken symmetries and a lattice-symmetry-breaking valence-bond solid (VBS) state. For finite interlayer coupling, the cancellation of Berry phases between the layers has dramatic consequences on the two phase transitions: the Néel-VBS transition is first order for all N?5 accesible in our model, whereas the Néel-VBL transition is continuous for N=2 and first order for N?4; for N=3 the Néel-VBL transition show no signs of first-order behavior.
Morozov, Y.D.; Privalov, A.N.; Prisnyakov, V.F.; Belogurov, S.A.
1988-11-01
Results are presented from an experimental study of the stability of drop boiling in forced flow in channels. It is shown that the transition from one- to two-phase flow for the steady-state regime consists of the generation of vapor bubbles with the occurrence of plug flow. It was hypothesized and confirmed experimentally that a heat-transfer crisis of the second type may develop in a once-through steam boiler, along with a crisis of the first type. {copyright} 1989 Plenum Publishing Corporation
Phase separation of gas–liquid and liquid–liquid microflows in microchips
Arata Aota; Kazuma Mawatari; Susumu Takahashi; Teruki Matsumoto; Kazuteru Kanda; Ryo Anraku; Akihide Hibara; Manabu Tokeshi; Takehiko Kitamori
2009-01-01
Phase separation of gas–liquid and liquid–liquid microflows in microchannels were examined and characterized by interfacial\\u000a pressure balance. We considered the conditions of the phase separation, where the phase separation requires a single phase\\u000a flow in each output of the microchannel. As the interfacial pressure, we considered the pressure difference between the two\\u000a phases due to pressure loss in each phase
Simulation of quantum phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Troyer, Matthias
2001-06-01
The accurate simulation of phase transitions in quantum systems has become possible with the development of cluster Monte Carlo algorithms for quantum systems. The first such algorithm, the loop algorithm [H.G. Evertz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 875 (1993)], turned out to be as efficient as its classical counterpart, the Swendsen-Wang algorithm, but suffered from an exponential slow down in an external magnetic field. This problems was solved by the worm algorithm [N.V. Prokof'ev et al., Phys. Lett. A 238, 253 (1998)], which was recently combined with the stochastic series expansion (SSE) algorithm [A.W. Sandvik, Phys. Rev. B 59, R14157 (1999)]. I will review applications of these new algorithms to quantum magnets and bosonic systems and show that they allow high precision simulations of large quantum systems. Examples will include the low-temperature asymptotic scaling behavior of two-dimensional quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets, the critical behavior at quantum phase transitions in these systems, and quantitatve modeling of antiferromagnetic materials. In bosonic systems I will address some long standing problems, such as the existence of supersolids, and the melting of stripe phases. These examples show that today we can simulate quantum statistical systems with the same accuracy as classical systems, which enables the investigation of new universal behavior that has never been observed in classical systems.
Brain Performance versus Phase Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres, Joaquín J.; Marro, J.
2015-07-01
We here illustrate how a well-founded study of the brain may originate in assuming analogies with phase-transition phenomena. Analyzing to what extent a weak signal endures in noisy environments, we identify the underlying mechanisms, and it results a description of how the excitability associated to (non-equilibrium) phase changes and criticality optimizes the processing of the signal. Our setting is a network of integrate-and-fire nodes in which connections are heterogeneous with rapid time-varying intensities mimicking fatigue and potentiation. Emergence then becomes quite robust against wiring topology modification—in fact, we considered from a fully connected network to the Homo sapiens connectome—showing the essential role of synaptic flickering on computations. We also suggest how to experimentally disclose significant changes during actual brain operation.
Brain Performance versus Phase Transitions
Torres, Joaquín J.; Marro, J.
2015-01-01
We here illustrate how a well-founded study of the brain may originate in assuming analogies with phase-transition phenomena. Analyzing to what extent a weak signal endures in noisy environments, we identify the underlying mechanisms, and it results a description of how the excitability associated to (non-equilibrium) phase changes and criticality optimizes the processing of the signal. Our setting is a network of integrate-and-fire nodes in which connections are heterogeneous with rapid time-varying intensities mimicking fatigue and potentiation. Emergence then becomes quite robust against wiring topology modification—in fact, we considered from a fully connected network to the Homo sapiens connectome—showing the essential role of synaptic flickering on computations. We also suggest how to experimentally disclose significant changes during actual brain operation. PMID:26193453
Phase transitions in the assembly of multivalent signalling proteins
Li, Pilong; Banjade, Sudeep; Cheng, Hui-Chun; Kim, Soyeon; Chen, Baoyu; Guo, Liang; Llaguno, Marc; Hollingsworth, Javoris V.; King, David S.; Banani, Salman F.; Russo, Paul S.; Jiang, Qiu-Xing; Nixon, B. Tracy; Rosen, Michael K.
2013-04-08
Cells are organized on length scales ranging from angstrom to micrometers. However, the mechanisms by which angstrom-scale molecular properties are translated to micrometer-scale macroscopic properties are not well understood. Here we show that interactions between diverse synthetic, multivalent macromolecules (including multi-domain proteins and RNA) produce sharp liquid-liquid-demixing phase separations, generating micrometer-sized liquid droplets in aqueous solution. This macroscopic transition corresponds to a molecular transition between small complexes and large, dynamic supramolecular polymers. The concentrations needed for phase transition are directly related to the valency of the interacting species. In the case of the actin-regulatory protein called neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) interacting with its established biological partners NCK and phosphorylated nephrin1, the phase transition corresponds to a sharp increase in activity towards an actin nucleation factor, the Arp2/3 complex. The transition is governed by the degree of phosphorylation of nephrin, explaining how this property of the system can be controlled to regulatory effect by kinases. The widespread occurrence of multivalent systems suggests that phase transitions may be used to spatially organize and biochemically regulate information throughout biology.
Collings, Peter
crystal phase forms at room temperature when the concentration is only about 6 wt%, a value lower than of liquid-crystal-forming molecules and undergo phase transitions in response to temperature changesAggregation Behavior and Chromonic Liquid Crystal Phase of a Dye Derived from Naphthalenecarboxylic
Phase Transition to Exact Susy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clavelli, L.
2007-04-01
The anthropic principle is based on the observation that, within narrow bounds, the laws of physics are such as to have allowed the evolution of life. The string theoretic approach to understanding this observation is based on the expectation that the effective potential has an enormous number of local minima with different particle masses and perhaps totally different fundamental couplings and space time topology. The vast majority of these alternative universes are totally inhospitable to life, having, for example, vacuum energies near the natural (Planck) scale. The statistics, however, are assumed to be such that a few of these local minima (and not more) have a low enough vacuum energy and suitable other properties to support life. In the inflationary era, the "multiverse" made successive transitions between the available minima until arriving at our current state of low vacuum energy. String theory, however, also suggests that the absolute minimum of the effective potential is exactly supersymmetric. Questions then arise as to why the inflationary era did not end by a transition to one of these, when will the universe make the phase transition to the exactly supersymmetric ground state, and what will be the properties of this final state.
Phase behavior and dynamics of a cholesteric liquid crystal
Roy, D.; Fragiadakis, D.; Roland, C. M.; Dabrowski, R.; Dziaduszek, J.; Urban, S.
2014-02-21
The synthesis, equation of state, phase diagram, and dielectric relaxation properties are reported for a new liquid crystal, 4{sup ?}-butyl-4-(2-methylbutoxy)azoxybenzene (4ABO5*), which exhibits a cholesteric phase at ambient temperature. The steepness of the intermolecular potential was characterized from the thermodynamic potential parameter, ? = 4.3 ± 0.1 and the dynamic scaling exponent, ? = 3.5 ± 0.2. The difference between them is similar to that seen previously for nematic and smectic liquid crystals, with the near equivalence of ? and ? consistent with the near constancy of the relaxation time of 4ABO5* at the cholesteric to isotropic phase transition (i.e., the clearing line). Thus, chirality does not cause deviations from the general relationship between thermodynamics and dynamics in the ordered phase of liquid crystals. The ionic conductivity of 4ABO5* shows strong coupling to the reorientational dynamics.
Understanding crumpling lipid vesicles at the gel phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirst, Linda; Ossowski, Adam; Fraser, Matthew
2011-03-01
Wrinkling and crumpling transitions in different membrane types have been studied extensively in recent years both theoretically and computationally. There has also been very interesting recent work on defects in liquid crystalline shells. Lipid bilayer vesicles, widely used in biophysical research can be considered as a single layer smectic shell in the liquid crystalline phase. On cooling the lipid vesicle a transition to the gel phase may take place in which the lipid chains tilt and assume a more ordered packing arrangement. We observe large scale morphological changes in vesicles close to this transition point using fluorescence microscopy and investigate the possible mechanisms for this transition. Confocal microscopy is used to map 3D vesicle shape and crumpling length-scales. We also employ the molecular tilt sensitive dye, Laurdan to investigate the role of tilt domain formation on macroscopic structure. Funded by NSF CAREER award (DMR - BMAT #0852791).
Dynamics of a Quantum Phase Transition
Zurek, Wojciech H. [Theory Division, LANL, MS-B213, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Dorner, Uwe [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Zoller, Peter [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, and Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)
2005-09-02
We present two approaches to the dynamics of a quench-induced phase transition in the quantum Ising model. One follows the standard treatment of thermodynamic second order phase transitions but applies it to the quantum phase transitions. The other approach is quantum, and uses Landau-Zener formula for transition probabilities in avoided level crossings. We show that predictions of the two approaches of how the density of defects scales with the quench rate are compatible, and discuss the ensuing insights into the dynamics of quantum phase transitions.
Definition of Thermodynamic Phases and Phase Transitions AIM workshop on Phase Transitions
Radin, Charles
potential µ (assuming for simplicity that the material is composed of one pure substance, not a mixture at a fixed temperature. The figures also illustrate an intrinsic difference between vapor and liquid "phases
Randomized Grain Boundary Liquid Crystal Phase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, D.; Wang, H.; Li, M.; Glaser, M.; Maclennan, J.; Clark, N.
2012-02-01
The formation of macroscopic, chiral domains, in the B4 and dark conglomerate phases, for example, is a feature of bent-core liquid crystals resulting from the interplay of chirality, molecular bend and molecular tilt. We report a new, chiral phase observed in a hockey stick-like liquid crystal molecule. This phase appears below a smectic A phase and cools to a crystal phase. TEM images of the free surface of the chiral phase show hundreds of randomly oriented smectic blocks several hundred nanometers in size, similar to those seen in the twist grain boundary (TGB) phase. However, in contrast to the TGB phase, these blocks are randomly oriented. The characteristic defects in this phase are revealed by freeze-fracture TEM images. We will show how these defects mediate the randomized orientation and discuss the intrinsic mechanism driving the formation of this phase. This work is supported by NSF MRSEC Grant DMR0820579 and NSF Grant DMR0606528.
Manifestations de la transition solide-liquide dans les agrégats
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calvo, F.
The thermodynamics of clusters is a subject of increasing interest, both from the theoretical and experimental points of view. We present a set of theoretical and numerical methods for studying phase transitions, especially the solid-liquid transition, in atomic or molecular clusters. Several means of characterization (thermodynamical, geometrical and dynamical) are introduced, and the differences between the finite-size behaviour and the bulk behaviour are described. The phenomenon of "dynamical coexistence", which can be seen as the cluster spontaneously going back and forth between the solid and liquid states across the time, is illustrated. Its thermodynamical consequences are also emphasized. Finally, we present some typical thermodynamical phenomena due to the finite-size character, and strongly dependent on the physical chemistry of the matter at the microscopic level. We study these phenomena with Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations: surface melting observed on rare gas clusters, multistage melting observed on ionic clusters, the special behaviours of molecular clusters, and the more intricate problem of free or solvated metallic clusters. La thermodynamique des agrégats est un sujet en développement croissant, tant sur le plan théorique qu'expérimental. Nous présentons un ensemble de méthodes théoriques et numériques destinées à l'étude des transitions de phase, en particulier de la transition solide-liquide, dans les agrégats atomiques et moléculaires. Divers moyens de caractérisation (thermodynamiques, géométriques et dynamiques) sont introduits, et les différences entre les comportements à taille finie et à taille macroscopique sont précisées. Le phénomène de "coexistence dynamique", qui voit l'agrégat passer spontanément de l'état solide à l'état liquide (et réciproquement) au cours du temps, est illustré, et ses conséquences thermodynamiques sont soulignées. Enfin, nous présentons un certain nombre de phénomènes thermodynamiques liés à la taille finie, et dépendant fortement de la nature physico-chimique de la matière à ces échelles. Ces phénomènes sont étudiés à l'aide de simulations Monte Carlo ou de dynamique moléculaire, et sont, successivement: la fusion de surface observée sur des agrégats de gaz rares, la transition solide-liquide par étapes successives observée sur des agrégats ioniques, les spécificités de cette transition pour des agrégats moléculaires, et enfin le problème plus complexe des agrégats métalliques libres ou solvatés.
Phase behavior of ionic liquid crystals
S. Kondrat; M. Bier; L. Harnau
2010-04-15
Bulk properties of ionic liquid crystals are investigated using density functional theory. The liquid crystal molecules are represented by ellipsoidal particles with charges located in their center or at their tails. Attractive interactions are taken into account in terms of the Gay-Berne pair potential. Rich phase diagrams involving vapor, isotropic and nematic liquid, as well as smectic phases are found. The dependence of the phase behavior on various parameters such as the length of the particles and the location of charges on the particles is studied.
Efimov-driven phase transitions of the unitary Bose gas.
Piatecki, Swann; Krauth, Werner
2014-01-01
Initially predicted in nuclear physics, Efimov trimers are bound configurations of three quantum particles that fall apart when any one of them is removed. They open a window into a rich quantum world that has become the focus of intense experimental and theoretical research, as the region of 'unitary' interactions, where Efimov trimers form, is now accessible in cold-atom experiments. Here we use a path-integral Monte Carlo algorithm backed up by theoretical arguments to show that unitary bosons undergo a first-order phase transition from a normal gas to a superfluid Efimov liquid, bound by the same effects as Efimov trimers. A triple point separates these two phases and another superfluid phase, the conventional Bose-Einstein condensate, whose coexistence line with the Efimov liquid ends in a critical point. We discuss the prospects of observing the proposed phase transitions in cold-atom systems. PMID:24651389
R. C. Sharma; Y. A. Chang
1979-01-01
An associated solution model is applied to describe the thermodynamic behavior of Fe-S liquid. This model assumes the existence\\u000a of ‘FeS’ species in addition to Fe and S in the liquid. With two solution parameters for each of the binaries Fe-‘FeS’ and\\u000a ‘FeS’-S, this model accounts for the compositional dependence of the thermodynamic properties of Fe-S liquid from pure Fe
Phase transitions and quantum effects in adsorbed monolayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielaba, P.
1996-01-01
Phase transitions in absorbed (two-dimensional) fluids and in absorbed layers of linear molecules are studied with a combination of path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC), Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo (GEMC), and finite size scaling techniques. For a classical (nonadditive) hard-disk fluid the “critical” nonadditivities, where the entropy-driven phase separations set in, are presented. For a fluid with internal quantum states the gas-liquid coexistence region, tricritical, and triple points can be determined, and a comparison with density functional (DFT) results shows good agreement for the freezing densities. Linear N 2 molecules adsorbed on graphite (in the ?3 × ?3 structure) show a transition from a high-temperature phase to a low-temperature phase with herringbone ordering of the orientational degrees of freedom. The order of the transition is determined in the anisotropic planar rotor model as a weak first-order transition. The effect of quantum fluctuations on the herringbone transition is quantified by PIMC and classical simulational methods. The values of the order parameter at low temperatures and the transition temperature are both lowered by roughly 10% due to quantum effects. Rounding effects of the phase transition in adsorbed layers of (N2) x (CO)1, for × < 7% are analyzed by Monte Carlo ( MC) methods, and the ground state ordering for the transition in the adsorbed pure CO system is discussed, from ab initio potentials.
Kinetic model of multiple phase transitions in ice
Vladimir Tchijov; Gloria Cruz León; Suemi Rodríguez Romo
2001-01-01
Experiments indicate that water ice subjected to shock-wave loading undergoes multiple non-equilibrium phase transitions (Larson D.B., J. Glaciology, 30:235, 1984.) Kinetic model of multiple phase changes in ice (Tchijov V. et al., J. Phys. Chem., 101:6215, 1997) is based on the complete set of P-V-T equations of state of ices Ih, III, V, VI, VII and liquid water in the
Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Beaudry, B.J. )
1991-01-01
The melting and transformation of a neodymium sample is reported on transformation temperatures of a neodymium sample. It was found that by changing their processing technique the observed transformation temperature was slightly raised from 856 {plus minus} 3 to 858 {plus minus} 2{degrees} C, and the melting point was raised significantly from 979 {plus minus} 3.5 to 1018 {plus minus} 1{degree} C. In this paper the authors attribute this difference to oxygen contamination of their initial sample, which was eliminated or reduced by modifying their process. It is difficult to see how the authors came to this conclusion, since no oxygen analysis of their samples either before or after the DTA runs. Indeed, an examination of the available phase diagram information on the rare earth-oxygen systems and liquid zoning studies would suggest just the opposite conclusion. The authors discuss this and several other points raised and the authors also suggest two other possibilities to explain their observation, only one of which seems plausible. Since the transformation temperature did not change (considering their error limits) by the revised processing procedure. The authors shall limit their discussion to the melting point of neodymium.
Surface Premelting Coupled with Bulk Phase Transitions in Colloidal Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Bo; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Di; Cao, Xin; Peng, Yi; Ni, Ran; Liao, Maijia; Han, Yilong
2015-03-01
Colloids have been used as outstanding model systems for the studies of various phase transitions in bulk, but not at interface yet. Here we obtained equilibrium crystal-vapor interfaces using tunable attractive colloidal spheres and studied the surface premelting at the single-particle level by video microscopy. We found that monolayer crystals exhibit a bulk isostructural solid-solid transition which triggers the surface premelting. The premelting is incomplete due to the interruption of a mechanical-instability-induced bulk melting. By contrast, two- or multilayer crystals do not have the solid-solid transition and the mechanical instability, hence they exhibit complete premelting with divergent surface-liquid thickness. These novel interplays between bulk and surface phase transitions cast new lights for both types of transitions.
Using Peltier Cells to Study Solid-Liquid-Vapour Transitions and Supercooling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Torzo, Giacomo; Soletta, Isabella; Branca, Mario
2007-01-01
We propose an apparatus for teaching experimental thermodynamics in undergraduate introductory courses, using thermoelectric modules and a real-time data acquisition system. The device may be made at low cost, still providing an easy approach to the investigation of liquid-solid and liquid-vapour phase transitions and of metastable states…
Vapor-liquid phase separator studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuan, S. W. K.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, Y. I.; Hepler, W. A.; Frederking, T. H. K.
1983-01-01
Porous plugs serve as both entropy rejection devices and phase separation components separating the vapor phase on the downstream side from liquid Helium 2 upstream. The liquid upstream is the cryo-reservoir fluid needed for equipment cooling by means of Helium 2, i.e Helium-4 below its lambda temperature in near-saturated states. The topics outlined are characteristic lengths, transport equations and plug results.
Extra Electroweak Phase Transitions from Strong Dynamics
Jarvinen, Matti; Sannino, Francesco
2009-01-01
We show that models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking can possess an extremely rich finite temperature phase diagram. We suggest that early-universe extra electroweak phase transitions can appear in these models.
Extra Electroweak Phase Transitions from Strong Dynamics
Matti Jarvinen; Thomas A. Ryttov; Francesco Sannino
2009-09-08
We show that models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking can possess an extremely rich finite temperature phase diagram. We suggest that early-universe extra electroweak phase transitions can appear in these models.
Phase-separation of miscible liquids in a centrifuge
Yoav Tsori; Ludwik Leibler
2007-12-18
We show that a liquid mixture in the thermodynamically stable homogeneous phase can undergo a phase-separation transition when rotated at sufficiently high frequency $\\omega$. This phase-transition is different from the usual case where two liquids are immiscible or where the slow sedimentation process of one component (e.g. a polymer) is accelerated due to centrifugation. For a binary mixture, the main coupling is due to a term $\\propto \\Delta\\rho(\\omega r)^2$, where $\\Delta\\rho$ is the difference between the two liquid densities and $r$ the distance from the rotation axis. Below the critical temperature there is a critical rotation frequency $\\omega_c$, below which smooth density gradients occur. When $\\omega>\\omega_c$, we find a sharp interface between the low density liquid close to the center of the centrifuge and a high density liquid far from the center. These findings may be relevant to various separation processes and to the control of chemical reactions, in particular their kinetics.
Topological phase transitions in the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model
C. Adam; C. Naya; T. Romanczukiewicz; J. Sanchez-Guillen; A. Wereszczynski
2015-01-15
We demonstrate that the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model with a double vacuum potential allows for phase transitions from a non-solitonic to a solitonic phase, where the latter corresponds to a ferromagnetic liquid. Such a transition can be generated by increasing the external pressure $P$ or by turning on an external magnetic field $H$. As a consequence, the topological phase where gauged BPS baby skyrmions exist, is a higher density phase. For smaller densities, obtained for smaller values of $P$ and $H$, a phase without solitons is reached. We find the critical line in the $P,H$ parameter space. Furthermore, in the soliton phase, we find the equation of state for the baby skyrmion matter $V=V(P,H)$ at zero temperature, where $V$ is the "volume", i.e., area of the solitons.
El Khoury, Elsy D; Patra, Digambara
2013-08-22
The hydrolysis of curcumin in alkaline and neutral buffer conditions is of interest because of the therapeutic applicability of curcumin. We show that hydrolysis of curcumin can be remarkably suppressed in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) liposomes. The fluorescence of curcumin sensitively detects the phase transition temperature of liposomes. However, at greater concentrations, curcumin affects the phase transition temperature, encouraging fusion of two membrane phases. The interaction of curcumin with DMPC is found to be strong, with a partition coefficient value of Kp = 2.78 × 10(5) in the solid gel phase, which dramatically increases in the liquid crystalline phase to Kp = 1.15 × 10(6). The importance of ionic liquids as green solvents has drawn interest because of their toxicological effect on human health; however, the impact of ionic liquids (ILs) on liposomes is not yet understood. The present study establishes that ILs such as 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium chloride (moic) affect the permeability and fluidity of liposomes and thus influence parition of curcumin into DMPC liposomes, helping in the solid gel phase but diminishing in the liquid crystalline phase. The Kp value of curcumin does not change appreciably with moic concentration in the solid gel state but decreases with moic concentration in the liquid crystalline phase. Curcumin, a rotor sensitive to detect phase transition temperature, is applied to investigate the influence of ionic liquids such as 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium chloride, 1-buytl-3-methyl imadazolium tetrafluoroborate, and 1-benzyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate on DMPC liposome properties. 1-Methyl-3-octylimidazolium chloride lowers the phase transition temperature, but 1-buytl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate and 1-benzyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate do not perceptibly modify the phase transition temperature; rather, they broaden the phase transition. PMID:23895644
Game Theory and Topological Phase Transition
Tieyan Si
2008-03-29
Phase transition is a war game. It widely exists in different kinds of complex system beyond physics. Where there is revolution, there is phase transition. The renormalization group transformation, which was proved to be a powerful tool to study the critical phenomena, is actually a game process. The phase boundary between the old phase and new phase is the outcome of many rounds of negotiation between the old force and new force. The order of phase transition is determined by the cutoff of renormalization group transformation. This definition unified Ehrenfest's definition of phase transition in thermodynamic physics. If the strategy manifold has nontrivial topology, the topological relation would put a constrain on the surviving strategies, the transition occurred under this constrain may be called a topological one. If the strategy manifold is open and noncompact, phase transition is simply a game process, there is no table for topology. An universal phase coexistence equation is found, it sits at the Nash equilibrium point. Inspired by the fractal space structure demonstrated by renormalization group theory, a conjecture is proposed that the universal scaling law of a general phase transition in a complex system comes from the coexistence equation around Nash equilibrium point. Game theory also provide us new understanding to pairing mechanism and entanglement in many body physics.
Quantum Phase Transition in a Random-Tiling Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sunko, Denis K.
The analogue of a Mott-Hubbard transition is discussed, which appears at an incommensurate filling in a model of a two-dimensional plane, randomly tiled with CuO4 `molecules', simulating the copper-oxide planes of high-Tc superconductors. It is shown to be a quantum phase transition, which can be crossed either in doping, at a fixed hopping overlap t, or in t, when the doping is fixed in a certain range below half-filling. It is first-order, closely analogous to a liquid-gas transition.
Liquid-liquid phase separation in mixed organic/inorganic single aqueous aerosol droplets.
Stewart, D J; Cai, C; Nayler, J; Preston, T C; Reid, J P; Krieger, U K; Marcolli, C; Zhang, Y H
2015-05-01
Direct measurements of the phase separation relative humidity (RH) and morphology of aerosol particles consisting of liquid organic and aqueous inorganic domains are presented. Single droplets of mixed phase composition are captured in a gradient force optical trap, and the evolving size, refractive index (RI), and morphology are characterized by cavity-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Starting at a RH above the phase separation RH, the trapped particle is dried to lower RH and the transition to a phase-separated structure is inferred from distinct changes in the spectroscopic fingerprint. In particular, the phase separation RHs of droplets composed of aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG-400)/ammonium sulfate and a mixture of C6-diacids/ammonium sulfate are probed, inferring the RH from the RI of the droplet immediately prior to phase separation. The observed phase separation RHs occur at RH marginally higher (at most 4%) than reported in previous measurements made from studies of particles deposited on hydrophobic surfaces by brightfield imaging. Clear evidence for the formation of phase-separated droplets of core-shell morphology is observed, although partially engulfed structures can also be inferred to form. Transitions between the different spectroscopic signatures of phase separation suggest that fluctuations in morphology can occur. For droplets that are repeatedly cycled through the phase separation RH, the water activity at phase separation is found to be remarkably reproducible (within ±0.0013) and is the same for the 1-phase to 2-phase transition and the 2-phase to 1-phase transition. By contrast, larger variation between the water activities at phase separation is observed for different droplets (typically ±0.02). PMID:25879138
Phase transitions in human IgG solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Latypov, Ramil F.; Laubach, Jacob P.; Hideshima, Teru; Richardson, Paul G.; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Benedek, George B.
2013-09-01
Protein condensations, such as crystallization, liquid-liquid phase separation, aggregation, and gelation, have been observed in concentrated antibody solutions under various solution conditions. While most IgG antibodies are quite soluble, a few outliers can undergo condensation under physiological conditions. Condensation of IgGs can cause serious consequences in some human diseases and in biopharmaceutical formulations. The phase transitions underlying protein condensations in concentrated IgG solutions is also of fundamental interest for the understanding of the phase behavior of non-spherical protein molecules. Due to the high solubility of generic IgGs, the phase behavior of IgG solutions has not yet been well studied. In this work, we present an experimental approach to study IgG solutions in which the phase transitions are hidden below the freezing point of the solution. Using this method, we have investigated liquid-liquid phase separation of six human myeloma IgGs and two recombinant pharmaceutical human IgGs. We have also studied the relation between crystallization and liquid-liquid phase separation of two human cryoglobulin IgGs. Our experimental results reveal several important features of the generic phase behavior of IgG solutions: (1) the shape of the coexistence curve is similar for all IgGs but quite different from that of quasi-spherical proteins; (2) all IgGs have critical points located at roughly the same protein concentration at ˜100 mg/ml while their critical temperatures vary significantly; and (3) the liquid-liquid phase separation in IgG solutions is metastable with respect to crystallization. These features of phase behavior of IgG solutions reflect the fact that all IgGs have nearly identical molecular geometry but quite diverse net inter-protein interaction energies. This work provides a foundation for further experimental and theoretical studies of the phase behavior of generic IgGs as well as outliers with large propensity to condense. The investigation of the phase diagram of IgG solutions is of great importance for the understanding of immunoglobulin deposition diseases as well as for the understanding of the colloidal stability of IgG pharmaceutical formulations.
Phase transitions in human IgG solutions.
Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Latypov, Ramil F; Laubach, Jacob P; Hideshima, Teru; Richardson, Paul G; Munshi, Nikhil C; Anderson, Kenneth C; Benedek, George B
2013-09-28
Protein condensations, such as crystallization, liquid-liquid phase separation, aggregation, and gelation, have been observed in concentrated antibody solutions under various solution conditions. While most IgG antibodies are quite soluble, a few outliers can undergo condensation under physiological conditions. Condensation of IgGs can cause serious consequences in some human diseases and in biopharmaceutical formulations. The phase transitions underlying protein condensations in concentrated IgG solutions is also of fundamental interest for the understanding of the phase behavior of non-spherical protein molecules. Due to the high solubility of generic IgGs, the phase behavior of IgG solutions has not yet been well studied. In this work, we present an experimental approach to study IgG solutions in which the phase transitions are hidden below the freezing point of the solution. Using this method, we have investigated liquid-liquid phase separation of six human myeloma IgGs and two recombinant pharmaceutical human IgGs. We have also studied the relation between crystallization and liquid-liquid phase separation of two human cryoglobulin IgGs. Our experimental results reveal several important features of the generic phase behavior of IgG solutions: (1) the shape of the coexistence curve is similar for all IgGs but quite different from that of quasi-spherical proteins; (2) all IgGs have critical points located at roughly the same protein concentration at ~100 mg/ml while their critical temperatures vary significantly; and (3) the liquid-liquid phase separation in IgG solutions is metastable with respect to crystallization. These features of phase behavior of IgG solutions reflect the fact that all IgGs have nearly identical molecular geometry but quite diverse net inter-protein interaction energies. This work provides a foundation for further experimental and theoretical studies of the phase behavior of generic IgGs as well as outliers with large propensity to condense. The investigation of the phase diagram of IgG solutions is of great importance for the understanding of immunoglobulin deposition diseases as well as for the understanding of the colloidal stability of IgG pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:24089716
Liquid-Vapor Transitions in Mercury and Sodium Gas-Controlled Heat-Pipes
A. Merlon; P. Marcarino; R. Dematteis; E. Renaot; M. Elgourdou; G. Bonnier
2003-01-01
The liquid-vapor transitions have been studied of pure mercury between 240 °C and 400 °C and of pure sodium between 660 °C and 960 °C. The phase transitions are realized at IMGC by means of gas controlled heat-pipes, all connected to the same, very accurate, pressure control system. This control uses an SPRT as the sensor and allows the study
Quantum Phase Transitions in a Finite System
A. Leviatan
2006-12-05
A general procedure for studying finite-N effects in quantum phase transitions of finite systems is presented and applied to the critical-point dynamics of nuclei undergoing a shape-phase transition of second-order (continuous), and of first-order with an arbitrary barrier.
Geometric Phase and Quantum Phase Transition : Two-Band Model
H. T. Cui; Jie Yi
2008-08-02
The connection between the geometric phase and quantum phase transition has been discussed extensively in the two-band model. By introducing the twist operator, the geometric phase can be defined by calculating its ground-state expectation value. In contrast to the previous numerical examinations, our discussion presents an exact calculation for the determination of the geometric phase. Through two representative examples, our calculation shows the intimate connection between the geometric phase and phase transition: different behaviors of the geometric phase can be identified in this paper, which are directly related to the energy gap above the ground state.
Liquid-phase compositions from vapor-phase analyses
Davis, W. Jr. (Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, TN (USA)); Cochran, H.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))
1990-02-01
Arsenic normally is not considered to be a contaminant. However, because arsenic was found in many cylinders of UF{sub 6}, including in corrosion products, a study was performed of the distribution of the two arsenic fluorides, AsF{sub 3} and AsF{sub 5}, between liquid and vapor phases. The results of the study pertain to condensation or vaporization of liquid UF{sub 6}. This study includes use of various experimental data plus many extrapolations necessitated by the meagerness of the experimental data. The results of this study provide additional support for the vapor-liquid equilibrium model of J.M. Prausnitz and his coworkers as a means of describing the distribution of various impurities between vapor and liquid phases of UF{sub 6}. Thus, it is concluded that AsF{sub 3} will tend to concentrate in the liquid phase but that the concentration of AsF{sub 5} in the vapor phase will exceed its liquid-phase concentration by a factor of about 7.5, which is in agreement with experimental data. Because the weight of the liquid phase in a condensation operation may be in the range of thousands of times that of the vapor phase, most of any AsF{sub 5} will be in the liquid phase in spite of this separation factor of 7.5. It may also be concluded that any arsenic fluorides fed into a uranium isotope separation plant will either travel with other low-molecular-weight gases or react with materials present in the plant. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.
Analysis of Nuclear Quantum Phase Transitions
Li, Z. P.; Meng, J.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P.
2009-08-26
A microscopic analysis, based on nuclear energy density functionals, is presented for shape phase transitions in Nd isotopes. Low-lying excitation spectra and transition probabilities are calculated starting from a five-dimensional Hamiltonian, with parameters determined by constrained relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. The results reproduce available data, and show that there is an abrupt change of structure at N = 90, that corresponds to a first-order quantum phase transition between spherical and axially deformed shapes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smallenburg, Frank; Sciortino, Francesco
2015-07-01
We propose a simple extension of the well known ST2 model for water [F. H. Stillinger and A. Rahman, J. Chem. Phys. 60, 1545 (1974)] that allows for a continuous modification of the hydrogen-bond angular flexibility. We show that the bond flexibility affects the relative thermodynamic stability of the liquid and of the hexagonal (or cubic) ice. On increasing the flexibility, the liquid-liquid critical point, which in the original ST2 model is located in the no-man's land (i.e., the region where ice is the thermodynamically stable phase) progressively moves to a temperature where the liquid is more stable than ice. Our study definitively proves that the liquid-liquid transition in the ST2 model is a genuine phenomenon, of high relevance in all tetrahedral network-forming liquids, including water.
Binary Solid-Liquid Phase Equilibria
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ellison, Herbert R.
1978-01-01
Indicates some of the information that may be obtained from a binary solid-liquid phase equilibria experiment and a method to write a computer program that will plot an ideal phase diagram to which the experimental results may be compared. (Author/CP)
Molecular-scale remnants of the liquid-gas transition in supercritical polar fluids
Sokhan, V P; Cipcigan, F S; Crain, J; Martyna, G J
2015-01-01
An electronically coarse-grained model for water reveals a persistent vestige of the liquid-gas transition deep into the supercritical region. A crossover in the density dependence of the molecular dipole arises from the onset of non-percolating hydrogen bonds. The crossover points coincide with the Widom line in the scaling region but extend further, tracking the heat capacity maxima, offering evidence for liquid- and gas-like state points in a "one-phase" fluid. The effect is present even in dipole-limit models suggesting that it is common for all molecular liquids exhibiting dipole enhancement in the liquid phase.
Microscopic Description of Nuclear Quantum Phase Transitions
Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P.
2007-08-31
The relativistic mean-field framework, extended to include correlations related to restoration of broken symmetries and to fluctuations of the quadrupole deformation, is applied to a study of shape transitions in Nd isotopes. It is demonstrated that the microscopic self-consistent approach, based on global effective interactions, can describe not only general features of transitions between spherical and deformed nuclei, but also the singular properties of excitation spectra and transition rates at the critical point of quantum shape phase transition.
Synthetic gauge fields stabilize a chiral spin liquid phase
Gang Chen; Kaden R. A. Hazzard; Ana Maria Rey; Michael Hermele
2015-01-16
We calculate the phase diagram of the SU($N$) Hubbard model describing fermionic alkaline earth atoms in a square optical lattice with on-average one atom per site, using a slave-rotor mean-field approximation. We find that the chiral spin liquid predicted for $N\\ge5$ and large interactions passes through a fractionalized state with a spinon Fermi surface as interactions are decreased before transitioning to a weakly interacting metal. We also show that by adding an artificial uniform magnetic field with flux per plaquette $2\\pi/N$, the chiral spin liquid becomes the ground state for all $N\\ge 3$ at large interactions, persists to weaker interactions, and its spin gap increases, suggesting that the spin liquid physics will persist to higher temperatures. We discuss potential methods to realize the artificial gauge fields and detect the predicted phases.
Stability of the Liquid Phase in Colloidal Electrolytes
José B. Caballero; Antonio M. Puertas
2005-11-28
The equilibrium phase diagram of a 1:1 symmetrical mixture composed of oppositely charged colloids is calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. We model the system by the DLVO effective interaction potential. The phase diagram is similar to that of its atomic analog (the ionic fluid), where a liquid-gas first order transition emerges in the low $T-\\rho$ regions being stable with respect to crystallization. As in the ionic fluids, we have found two different crystals: at high $T$ the fluid crystallizes in a FCC lattice, whereas at low $T$, the liquid coexists with a BCC crystal. The region of gas-liquid stability is observed to be narrower as the interaction range is diminished.
A thermodynamically consistent Ginzburg-Landau model for superfluid transition in liquid helium
Alessia Berti; Valeria Berti
2012-11-15
In this paper we propose a thermodynamically consistent model for superfluid-normal phase transition in liquid helium, accounting for variations of temperature and density. The phase transition is described by means of an order parameter, according to the Ginzburg-Landau theory, emphasizing the analogies between superfluidity and superconductivity. The normal component of the velocity is assumed to be compressible and the usual phase diagram of liquid helium is recovered. Moreover, the continuity equation leads to a dependence between density and temperature in agreement with the experimental data.
Astrophysical Implications of the QCD Phase Transition
Schaffner-Bielich, J. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Heidelberg, Germany; Sagert, I. [Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany; Hempel, M. [Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany; Pagliara, G. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Heidelberg, Germany; Fischer, T. [University of Basel; Mezzacappa, Anthony [ORNL; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl W. [Universitat Basel, Switzerland; Liebendoerfer, Matthias [Universitat Basel, Switzerland
2009-01-01
The possible role of a first order QCD phase transition at nonvanishing quark chemical potential and temperature for cold neutron stars and for supernovae is delineated. For cold neutron stars, we use the NJL model with a nonvanishing color superconducting pairing gap, which describes the phase transition to the 2SC and the CFL quark matter phases at high baryon densities. We demonstrate that these two phase transitions can both be present in the core of neutron stars and that they lead to the appearance of a third family of solution for compact stars. In particular, a core of CFL quark matter can be present in stable compact star configurations when slightly adjusting the vacuum pressure to the onset of the chiral phase transition from the hadronic model to the NJL model. We show that a strong first order phase transition can have a strong impact on the dynamics of core collapse supernovae. If the QCD phase transition sets in shortly after the first bounce, a second outgoing shock wave can be generated which leads to an explosion. The presence of the QCD phase transition can be read off from the neutrino and antineutrino signal of the supernova.
Notes on Black Hole Phase Transitions
G. J. Stephens; B. L. Hu
2001-02-12
In these notes we present a summary of existing ideas about phase transitions of black hole spacetimes in semiclassical gravity and offer some thoughts on three possible scenarios by which these transitions could take place. Our first theme is ilustrated by a quantum atomic black hole system, generalizing to finite-temperature a model originally offered by Bekenstein. In this equilibrium atomic model, the black hole phase transition is realized as the abrupt excitation of a high energy state, suggesting analogies with the study of two-level atoms. Our second theme argues that the black hole system shares similarities with the defect-mediated Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in condensed matter. These similarities suggest that the black hole phase transition may be more fully understood by focusing upon the dynamics of black holes and white holes, the spacetime analogy of vortex and anti-vortex topological defects. Finally we compare the black hole phase transition to another transition driven by an exponentially increasing density of states, the Hagedorn transition first found in hadron physics in the context of dual models or the old string theory. In modern string theory, the Hagedorn transition is linked by the Maldacena conjecture to the Hawking-Page black hole phase transition in Anti-deSitter space, as observed by Witten. Understanding the dynamics of the Hagedorn transition may thus yield insight into the dynamics of the black hole phase transition. We argue that characteristics of the Hagedorn transition are already contained within classical string systems where a nonperturbative and dynamical analysis is possible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pacaud, F.; Micoulaut, M.
2015-08-01
The thermodynamic, dynamic, structural, and rigidity properties of densified liquid germania (GeO2) have been investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulation. We construct from a thermodynamic framework an analytical equation of state for the liquid allowing the possible detection of thermodynamic precursors (extrema of the derivatives of the free energy), which usually indicate the possibility of a liquid-liquid transition. It is found that for the present germania system, such precursors and the possible underlying liquid-liquid transition are hidden by the slowing down of the dynamics with decreasing temperature. In this respect, germania behaves quite differently when compared to parent tetrahedral systems such as silica or water. We then detect a diffusivity anomaly (a maximum of diffusion with changing density/volume) that is strongly correlated with changes in coordinated species, and the softening of bond-bending (BB) topological constraints that decrease the liquid rigidity and enhance transport. The diffusivity anomaly is finally substantiated from a Rosenfeld-type scaling law linked to the pair correlation entropy, and to structural relaxation.
The Influence of Disorder on Thermotropic Nematic Liquid Crystals Phase Behavior
Popa-Nita, Vlad; Gerli?, Ivan; Kralj, Samo
2009-01-01
We review the theoretical research on the influence of disorder on structure and phase behavior of condensed matter system exhibiting continuous symmetry breaking focusing on liquid crystal phase transitions. We discuss the main properties of liquid crystals as adequate systems in which several open questions with respect to the impact of disorder on universal phase and structural behavior could be explored. Main advantages of liquid crystalline materials and different experimental realizations of random field-type disorder imposed on liquid crystal phases are described. PMID:19865529
Electroweak phase transition in ultraminimal technicolor
Jaervinen, Matti; Sannino, Francesco; Ryttov, Thomas A.
2009-05-01
We unveil the temperature-dependent electroweak phase transition in new extensions of the standard model in which the electroweak symmetry is spontaneously broken via strongly coupled, nearly conformal dynamics achieved by the means of multiple matter representations. In particular, we focus on the low energy effective theory introduced to describe ultra minimal walking technicolor at the phase transition. Using the one-loop effective potential with ring improvement, we identify regions of parameter space, which yield a strong first-order transition. A striking feature of the model is the existence of a second phase transition associated to the electroweak-singlet sector. The interplay between these two transitions leads to an extremely rich phase diagram.
Phase transitions among the rotator phases of the normal alkanes: A review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Prabir K.
2015-08-01
Although the rotator phases of the normal alkanes have been studied for the greater part of the century, it is only in the last two decades that the experimental and theoretical investigations of the structures and phase transitions of these systems have been advanced. This review article presents a comprehensive overview until this date of the theoretical developments and experimental studies in this subject. This article discusses the unified picture of the symmetry, structure and types of rotator phases of normal alkanes. This is followed by a discussion of the order parameters involved in the phase transitions. The application of the various theories to the description of the rotator phase transitions are reviewed comprehensively. The basic ideas of Landau theory and renormalization group theory and its applications to study these transitions are discussed. The current status of the study of the rotator phase transitions in the binary mixtures of alkanes including the nanoparticles and liquid crystal is outlined. A survey is given of existing computer simulation studies of the rotator phase transitions of the normal alkanes. A critical assessment of the experimental and theoretical investigations concerning the elastic properties of the rotator phases is made.
Fidelity analysis of topological quantum phase transitions
Damian F. Abasto; Alioscia Hamma; Paolo Zanardi
2008-05-12
We apply the fidelity metric approach to analyze two recently introduced models that exhibit a quantum phase transition to a topologically ordered phase. These quantum models have a known connection to classical statistical mechanical models; we exploit this mapping to obtain the scaling of the fidelity metric tensor near criticality. The topological phase transitions manifest themselves in divergences of the fidelity metric across the phase boundaries. These results provide evidence that the fidelity approach is a valuable tool to investigate novel phases lacking a clear characterization in terms of local order parameters.
Phase transitions in the early universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wainwright, Carroll L.
I explore the theory and computation of early-Universe finite-temperature phase transitions involving scalar fields. I focus primarily on the electroweak phase transition, but some of the methods I develop are applicable to any scalar-field cosmological phase transition (such as the computation of the lifetime of zero-temperature metastable vacua). I begin by examining phase transition thermodynamics with many extra coupled degrees of freedom, finding that such transitions have the potential to produce large amounts of entropy and can significantly dilute the concentration of thermal relic species (e.g., dark matter). I then detail a novel algorithm for calculating instanton solutions with multiple dynamic scalar fields, and present a computational package which implements the algorithm and computes the finite-temperature phase structure. Next, I discuss theoretical and practical problems of gauge dependence in finite-temperature effective potentials, using the Abelian Higgs and Abelian Higgs plus singlet models to show the severity of the problem. Finally, I apply the aforementioned algorithm to the electroweak phase transition in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM). My collaborators and I find viable regions of the NMSSM which contain a strongly first-order phase transition and large enough CP violation to support electroweak baryogenesis, evade electric dipole moment constraints, and provide a dark matter candidate which could produce the observed 130 GeV gamma-ray line observed in the galactic center by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.
Phase Transition in Small Systems
Chomaz, Ph. [GANIL, DSM-CEA/IN2P3-CNRS, BP 5027, F-14076 CAEN cedex 5 (France); Gulminelli, F. [LPC Caen, IN2P3-CNRS et Universite F-14050 CAEN cedex (France)
2005-07-08
Everybody knows that when a liquid is heated, its temperature increases until the moment when it starts to boil. The increase in temperature then stops, all heat being used to transform the liquid into vapor. What is the microscopic origin of such a strange behavior? Does a liquid drop containing only few molecules behave the same? Recent experimental and theoretical developments seem to indicate that at the elementary level of very small systems, this anomaly appears in an even more astonishing way: during the change of state -- for example from liquid to gas -- the system cools whereas it is heated, i.e. its temperature decreases while its energy increases. This paper presents a review of our understanding of the negative specific heat phenomenon.
Quantum fluctuation driven first-order phase transition in weak ferromagnetic metals
Jason A. Jackiewicz; Kevin S. Bedell
2005-01-01
In a local Fermi liquid (LFL), we show that there is a line of weak first-order phase transitions between the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases due to purely quantum fluctuations. We predict that an instability towards superconductivity is only possible in the ferromagnetic state. At T ?=?0 we find a point on the phase diagram where all three phases meet and
Diffusionless ??? phase transition in polycrystalline and single-crystal cerium.
Decremps, F; Belhadi, L; Farber, D L; Moore, K T; Occelli, F; Gauthier, M; Polian, A; Antonangeli, D; Aracne-Ruddle, C M; Amadon, B
2011-02-11
The cerium ??? transition was investigated using high-pressure, high-temperature angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements on both poly- and single-crystalline samples, explicitly addressing symmetry change and transformation paths. The isomorphic hypothesis of the transition is confirmed, with a transition line ending at a solid-solid critical point. The critical exponent is determined, showing a universal behavior that can be pictured as a liquid-gas transition. We further report an isomorphic transition between two single crystals (with more than 14% of volume difference), an unparalleled observation in solid-state matter interpreted in terms of dislocation-induced diffusionless first-order phase transformation. PMID:21405478
Isotropic-nematic phase transition in aqueous sepiolite suspensions.
Woolston, Phillip; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen S
2015-01-01
Aqueous suspensions of sepiolite clay rods in water tend to form gels on increase of concentration. Here it is shown how addition of a small amount (0.1% of the clay mass) of a common stabiliser for clay suspensions, sodium polyacrylate, can allow the observation of an isotropic-nematic liquid crystal phase transition. This transition was found to move to higher clay concentrations upon adding NaCl, with samples containing 10(-3) M salt or above only displaying a gel phase. Even samples that initially formed liquid crystals had a tendency to form gels after several weeks, possibly due to Mg(2+) ions leaching from the clay mineral. PMID:25313468
SIMMER-II analysis of transition-phase experiments
Wehner, T.R.; Bell, C.R.
1985-01-01
Analyses of Los Alamos transition-phase experiments with the SIMMER-II computer code are reported. These transient boilup experiments simulated the recriticality-induced transient motion of a boiling pool of molten fuel, molten steel and steel vapor, within a subassembly duct in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor during the transition phase of a core-disruptive accident. The two purposes of these experiments were to explore and reach a better understanding of fast reactor safety issues, and to provide data for SIMMER-II verification. Experimental data, consisting of four pressure traces and a high-speed movie, were recorded for four sets of initial conditions. For three of the four cases, SIMMER-II-calculated pressures compared reasonably well with the experimental pressures. After a modification to SIMMER-II's liquid-vapor drag correlation, the comparison for the fourth case was reasonable also. 12 refs., 4 figs.
Phenomena of solid state grain boundaries phase transition in technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minaev, Y. A.
2015-03-01
The results of study the phenomenon, discovered by author (1971), of the phase transition of grain boundary by the formation of two-dimensional liquid or quasi-liquid films have been done. The described phenomena of the first order phase transition (two-dimensional melting) at temperatures 0.6 - 0.9 TS0 (of the solid state melting point) is a fundamental property of solid crystalline materials, which has allowed to revise radically scientific representations about a solid state of substance. Using the mathematical tools of the film thermodynamics it has been obtained the generalized equation of Clausius - Clapeyron type for two-dimensional phase transition. The generalized equation has been used for calculating grain boundary phase transition temperature TSf of any metal, which value lies in the range of (0.55…0.86) TS0. Based on these works conclusions the develop strategies for effective forming of coatings (by thermo-chemical processing) on surface layers of functional alloys and hard metals have been made. The short overview of the results of some graded alloys characterization has been done.
Cluster emission and phase transition behaviours in nuclear disassembly
Y. G. Ma
2002-03-22
The features of the emissions of light particles (LP), charged particles (CP), intermediate mass fragments (IMF) and the largest fragment (MAX) are investigated for $^{129}Xe$ as functions of temperature and 'freeze-out' density in the frameworks of the isospin-dependent lattice gas model and the classical molecular dynamics model. Definite turning points for the slopes of average multiplicity of LP, CP and IMF, and of the mean mass of the largest fragment ($A_{max}$) are shown around a liquid-gas phase transition temperature and while the largest variances of the distributions of LP, CP, IMF and MAX appear there. It indicates that the cluster emission rate can be taken as a probe of nuclear liquid--gas phase transition. Furthermore, the largest fluctuation is simultaneously accompanied at the point of the phase transition as can be noted by investigating both the variances of their cluster multiplicity or mass distributions and the Campi scatter plots within the lattice gas model and the molecular dynamics model, which is consistent with the result of the traditional thermodynamical theory when a phase transition occurs.
The phase diagram of molybdenum at extreme conditions and the role of local liquid structures
Ross, M
2008-08-15
Recent DAC measurements made of the Mo melting curve by the x-ray diffraction studies confirms that, up to at least 110 GPa (3300K) melting is directly from bcc to liquid, evidence that there is no basis for a speculated bcc-hcp or fcc transition. An examination of the Poisson Ratio, obtained from shock sound speed measurements, provides evidence that the 210 GPa (4100K) transition detected from shock experiments is a continuation of the bcc-liquid melting, but is from a bcc-to a solid-like mixed phase rather than to liquid. Calculations, modeled to include the free energy of liquid local structures, predict that the transition from the liquid to the mixed phase is near 150 GPa(3500K). The presence of local structures provides the simplest and most direct explanation for the Mo phase diagram, and the low melting slopes.
Quantum phase transitions and the breakdown of classical general relativity
G. Chapline
2001-01-01
It is proposed that the infinite-red-shift surface of a black hole is a quantum phase transition of the vacuum of space-time analogous to the liquid-vapour critical point of a Bose fluid. The equations of classical general relativity remain valid arbitrarily close to the horizon yet fail there through the divergence of a characteristic coherence length xi. The integrity of global
Quantum phase transitions and the breakdown of classical general relativity
G. Chapline; E. Hohlfeld; R. B. Laughlin; D. I. Santiago
2001-01-01
It is proposed that the infinite-red-shift surface of a black hole is a quantum phase transition of the vacuum of space-time analogous to the liquid-vapour critical point of a Bose fluid. The equations of classical general relativity remain valid arbitrarily close to the horizon yet fail there through the divergence of a characteristic coherence length ?. The integrity of global
Critical behaviours of contact near phase transitions.
Chen, Y-Y; Jiang, Y-Z; Guan, X-W; Zhou, Qi
2014-01-01
A central quantity of importance for ultracold atoms is contact, which measures two-body correlations at short distances in dilute systems. It appears in universal relations among thermodynamic quantities, such as large momentum tails, energy and dynamic structure factors, through the renowned Tan relations. However, a conceptual question remains open as to whether or not contact can signify phase transitions that are insensitive to short-range physics. Here we show that, near a continuous classical or quantum phase transition, contact exhibits a variety of critical behaviours, including scaling laws and critical exponents that are uniquely determined by the universality class of the phase transition, and a constant contact per particle. We also use a prototypical exactly solvable model to demonstrate these critical behaviours in one-dimensional strongly interacting fermions. Our work establishes an intrinsic connection between the universality of dilute many-body systems and universal critical phenomena near a phase transition. PMID:25346226
Discrete Kinetic Models for Dynamical Phase Transitions
Tang, Shaoqiang
], and heat dif- fusion [10][24]. However, this approach is quite restrictive, as we do not know how and numerically. 1 Introduction Phase transitions occur in many physical systems, such as water-vapor mixture
Discrete Kinetic Models for Dynamical Phase Transitions
[25, 6], artificial viscosity in the mass equation [16], and heat dif fusion [13, 27]. However and numerically. 1 Introduction Phase transitions occur in many physical systems, such as watervapor mixture
Statistical Multifragmentation in Thermodynamical Limit: An Exact Solution for Phase Transitions
K. A. Bugaev; M. I. Gorenstein; I. N. Mishustin; W. Greiner
2001-03-28
An exact analytical solution of the statistical multifragmentation model is found in thermodynamic limit. Excluded volume effects are taken into account in the thermodynamically self-consistent way. The model exhibits a 1-st order phase transition of the liquid-gas type. An extension of the model including the Fisher's term is also studied. The possibility of the second order phase transition at or above the critical point is discussed. The mixed phase region of the phase diagram, where the gas of nuclear fragments coexists with the infinite liquid condensate, is unambiguously identified. The peculiar thermodynamic properties of the model near the boundary between the mixed phase and the pure gaseous phase are studied. The results for the caloric curve and specific heat are presented and a physical picture of the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition is clarified.
Consistent lattice Boltzmann equations for phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siebert, D. N.; Philippi, P. C.; Mattila, K. K.
2014-11-01
Unlike conventional computational fluid dynamics methods, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) describes the dynamic behavior of fluids in a mesoscopic scale based on discrete forms of kinetic equations. In this scale, complex macroscopic phenomena like the formation and collapse of interfaces can be naturally described as related to source terms incorporated into the kinetic equations. In this context, a novel athermal lattice Boltzmann scheme for the simulation of phase transition is proposed. The continuous kinetic model obtained from the Liouville equation using the mean-field interaction force approach is shown to be consistent with diffuse interface model using the Helmholtz free energy. Density profiles, interface thickness, and surface tension are analytically derived for a plane liquid-vapor interface. A discrete form of the kinetic equation is then obtained by applying the quadrature method based on prescribed abscissas together with a third-order scheme for the discretization of the streaming or advection term in the Boltzmann equation. Spatial derivatives in the source terms are approximated with high-order schemes. The numerical validation of the method is performed by measuring the speed of sound as well as by retrieving the coexistence curve and the interface density profiles. The appearance of spurious currents near the interface is investigated. The simulations are performed with the equations of state of Van der Waals, Redlich-Kwong, Redlich-Kwong-Soave, Peng-Robinson, and Carnahan-Starling.
Electrically driven phase transition in magnetite nanostructures.
Lee, Sungbae; Fursina, Alexandra; Mayo, John T; Yavuz, Cafer T; Colvin, Vicki L; Sofin, R G Sumesh; Shvets, Igor V; Natelson, Douglas
2008-02-01
Magnetite (Fe3O4), an archetypal transition-metal oxide, has been used for thousands of years, from lodestones in primitive compasses to a candidate material for magnetoelectronic devices. In 1939, Verwey found that bulk magnetite undergoes a transition at TV approximately 120 K from a high-temperature 'bad metal' conducting phase to a low-temperature insulating phase. He suggested that high-temperature conduction is through the fluctuating and correlated valences of the octahedral iron atoms, and that the transition is the onset of charge ordering on cooling. The Verwey transition mechanism and the question of charge ordering remain highly controversial. Here, we show that magnetite nanocrystals and single-crystal thin films exhibit an electrically driven phase transition below the Verwey temperature. The signature of this transition is the onset of sharp conductance switching in high electric fields, hysteretic in voltage. We demonstrate that this transition is not due to local heating, but instead is due to the breakdown of the correlated insulating state when driven out of equilibrium by electrical bias. We anticipate that further studies of this newly observed transition and its low-temperature conducting phase will shed light on how charge ordering and vibrational degrees of freedom determine the ground state of this important compound. PMID:18084295
Electrically driven phase transition in magnetite nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sungbae; Fursina, Alexandra; Mayo, John T.; Yavuz, Cafer T.; Colvin, Vicki L.; Sumesh Sofin, R. G.; Shvets, Igor V.; Natelson, Douglas
2008-02-01
Magnetite (Fe3O4), an archetypal transition-metal oxide, has been used for thousands of years, from lodestones in primitive compasses to a candidate material for magnetoelectronic devices. In 1939, Verwey found that bulk magnetite undergoes a transition at TV~120K from a high-temperature `bad metal' conducting phase to a low-temperature insulating phase. He suggested that high-temperature conduction is through the fluctuating and correlated valences of the octahedral iron atoms, and that the transition is the onset of charge ordering on cooling. The Verwey transition mechanism and the question of charge ordering remain highly controversial. Here, we show that magnetite nanocrystals and single-crystal thin films exhibit an electrically driven phase transition below the Verwey temperature. The signature of this transition is the onset of sharp conductance switching in high electric fields, hysteretic in voltage. We demonstrate that this transition is not due to local heating, but instead is due to the breakdown of the correlated insulating state when driven out of equilibrium by electrical bias. We anticipate that further studies of this newly observed transition and its low-temperature conducting phase will shed light on how charge ordering and vibrational degrees of freedom determine the ground state of this important compound.
Magnetic fields from the electroweak phase transition
Tornkvist, O.
1998-02-01
I review some of the mechanisms through which primordial magnetic fields may be created in the electroweak phase transition. I show that no magnetic fields are produced initially from two-bubble collisions in a first-order transition. The initial field produced in a three-bubble collision is computed. The evolution of fields at later times is discussed.
On hydrodynamic instabilities, chaos and phase transition
D. Y. Hsieh; S. Q. Tang; X. P. Wang
1996-01-01
Ellipticity as the underlying mechanism for instabilities of physical systems is highlighted in the study of model nonlinear\\u000a evolution equations with dissipation and the study of phase transition in Van der Waals fluid. Interesting results include\\u000a spiky solutions, chaotic behavior in the context of partial differential equations, as well as the nucleation process due\\u000a to ellipticity in phase transition.
Common non-Fermi liquid phases in quantum impurity physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Logan, David E.; Tucker, Adam P.; Galpin, Martin R.
2014-08-01
We study correlated quantum impurity models that undergo a local quantum phase transition (QPT) from a strong coupling, Fermi liquid phase to a non-Fermi liquid phase with a globally doubly degenerate ground state. Our aim is to establish what can be shown exactly about such "local moment" (LM) phases, of which the permanent (zero-field) local magnetization is a hallmark, and an order parameter for the QPT. A description of the zero-field LM phase is shown to require two distinct self-energies, which reflect the broken symmetry nature of the phase and together determine the single self-energy of standard field theory. Distinct Friedel sum rules for each phase are obtained, via a Luttinger theorem embodied in the vanishing of appropriate Luttinger integrals. By contrast, the standard Luttinger integral is nonzero in the LM phase but found to have universal magnitude. A range of spin susceptibilites are also considered, including that corresponding to the local order parameter, whose exact form is shown to be RPA-like, and to diverge as the QPT is approached. Particular attention is given to the pseudogap Anderson model, including the basic physical picture of the transition, the low-energy behavior of single-particle dynamics, the quantum critical point itself, and the rather subtle effect of an applied local field. A two-level impurity model that undergoes a QPT ("singlet-triplet") to an underscreened LM phase is also considered, for which we derive on general grounds some key results for the zero-bias conductance in both phases.
Phase transition induced hydrodynamic instability and Langmuir-Blodgett Deposition
Kok-Kiong Loh; Avadh Saxena; Turab Lookman; Atul N. Parikh
2001-11-27
We propose a model to understand periodic oscillations relevant to the origin of mesoscopic channels formed during a Langmuir-Blodgett deposition observed in recent experiments \\{M. Gleiche, L.F. Chi, and H. Fuchs, Nature {\\bf 403}, 173 (2000)\\}. We numerically study one-dimensional flow of a van der Waals fluid near its discontinuous liquid-gas transition and find that steady-state flow becomes unstable in the vicinity of the phase transition. Instabilities leading to complex periodic density-oscillations are demonstrated at some suitably chosen sets of parameters.
Higgs couplings and electroweak phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katz, Andrey; Perelstein, Maxim
2014-07-01
We argue that extensions of the Standard Model (SM) with a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition generically predict significant deviations of the Higgs couplings to gluons, photons, and Z bosons from their SM values. Precise experimental measurements of the Higgs couplings at the LHC and at the proposed next-generation facilities will allow for a robust test of the phase transition dynamics. To illustrate this point, in this paper we focus on the scenario in which loops of a new scalar field are responsible for the first-order phase transition, and study a selection of benchmark models with various SM gauge quantum numbers of the new scalar. We find that the current LHC measurement of the Higgs coupling to gluons already excludes the possibility of a first-order phase transition induced by a scalar in a sextet, or larger, representation of the SU(3) c . Future LHC experiments (including HL-LHC) will be able to definitively probe the case when the new scalar is a color triplet. If the new scalar is not colored, an electron-positron Higgs factory, such as the proposed ILC or TLEP, would be required to test the nature of the phase transition. The extremely precise measurement of the Higgsstrahlung cross section possible at such machines will allow for a comprehensive and definitive probe of the possibility of a first-order electroweak phase transition in all models we considered, including the case when the new scalar is a pure gauge singlet.
Physical model of the vapor-liquid (insulator-metal) transition in an exciton gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khomkin, A. L.; Shumikhin, A. S.
2015-04-01
We propose a simple physical model describing the transition of an exciton gas to a conducting exciton liquid. The transition occurs due to cohesive coupling of excitons in the vicinity of the critical point, which is associated with transformation of the exciton ground state to the conduction band and the emergence of conduction electrons. We calculate the cohesion binding energy for the exciton gas and, using it, derive the equations of state, critical parameters, and binodal. The computational method is analogous to that used by us earlier [5] for predicting the vapor-liquid (insulator-metal) phase transition in atomic (hypothetical, free of molecules) hydrogen and alkali metal vapors. The similarity of the methods used for hydrogen and excitons makes it possible to clarify the physical nature of the transition in the exciton gas and to predict more confidently the existence of a new phase transition in atomic hydrogen.
Improved Boat For Liquid-Phase Epitaxy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Connolly, John C.
1991-01-01
Liquid-phase epitaxial (LPE) growth boat redesigned. Still fabricated from ultra-high-purity graphite, but modified to permit easy disassembly and cleaning, along with improved wiping action for more complete removal of melt to reduce carry-over of gallium. Larger substrates and more uniform composition obtained.
Vapor-liquid phase separator permeability results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuan, S. W. K.; Frederking, T. H. K.
1981-01-01
Continued studies are described in the area of vapor-liquid phase separator work with emphasis on permeabilities of porous sintered plugs (stainless steel, nominal pore size 2 micrometer). The temperature dependence of the permeability has been evaluated in classical fluid using He-4 gas at atmospheric pressure and in He-2 on the basis of a modified, thermosmotic permeability of the normal fluid.
Vapor-liquid phase separator permeability results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, S. W. K.; Frederking, T. H. K.
1981-10-01
Continued studies are described in the area of vapor-liquid phase separator work with emphasis on permeabilities of porous sintered plugs (stainless steel, nominal pore size 2 micrometer). The temperature dependence of the permeability has been evaluated in classical fluid using He-4 gas at atmospheric pressure and in He-2 on the basis of a modified, thermosmotic permeability of the normal fluid.
The Putative Liquid-Liquid Transition is a Liquid-Solid Transition in Atomistic Models of Water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandler, David; Limmer, David
2013-03-01
Our detailed and controlled studies of free energy surfaces for models of water find no evidence for reversible polyamorphism, and a general theoretical analysis of the phase behavior of cold water in nano pores shows that measured behaviors of these systems reflect surface modulation and dynamics of ice, not a liquid-liquid critical point. A few workers reach different conclusions, reporting evidence of a liquid-liquid critical point in computer simulations of supercooled water. In some cases, it appears that these contrary results are based upon simulation algorithms that are inconsistent with principles of statistical mechanics, such as using barostats that do not reproduce the correct distribution of volume fluctuations. In other cases, the results appear to be associated with difficulty equilibrating the supercooled material and mistaking metastability for coarsening of the ordered ice phase. In this case, sufficient information is available for us to reproduce the contrary results and to establish that they are artifacts of finite time sampling. This finding leads us to the conclusion that two distinct, reversible liquid phases do not exist in models of supercooled water.
Spin dynamics and spin freezing at ferromagnetic quantum phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmakat, P.; Wagner, M.; Ritz, R.; Bauer, A.; Brando, M.; Deppe, M.; Duncan, W.; Duvinage, C.; Franz, C.; Geibel, C.; Grosche, F. M.; Hirschberger, M.; Hradil, K.; Meven, M.; Neubauer, A.; Schulz, M.; Senyshyn, A.; Süllow, S.; Pedersen, B.; Böni, P.; Pfleiderer, C.
2015-07-01
We report selected experimental results on the spin dynamics and spin freezing at ferromagnetic quantum phase transitions to illustrate some of the most prominent escape routes by which ferromagnetic quantum criticality is avoided in real materials. In the transition metal Heusler compound Fe2TiSn we observe evidence for incipient ferromagnetic quantum criticality. High pressure studies in MnSi reveal empirical evidence for a topological non-Fermi liquid state without quantum criticality. Single crystals of the hexagonal Laves phase compound Nb1- y Fe2+ y provide evidence of a ferromagnetic to spin density wave transition as a function of slight compositional changes. Last but not least, neutron depolarisation imaging in CePd1- x Rh x underscore evidence taken from the bulk properties of the formation of a Kondo cluster glass.
Time Resolved Electronic Phase Transitions in Manganites
Ward, Thomas Z; Shen, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Yin, Lifeng; Zhang, X. Q.; Liu, Ming; Snijders, Paul C; Jesse, Stephen; Plummer, E Ward; Cheng, Z. H.; Dagotto, Elbio R
2009-01-01
At the critical point of a first-order electronic phase transition, fluctuations between the competing phases are often a dominant phenomenon. The direct observation of these fluctuations in electronic phases is vital to revealing the microscopic details of the phase transition. This is especially true in strongly correlated transition metal oxides, in which a diversity of electronic phases coexist and are closely connected to several remarkable properties such as high-Tc superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance. Here we report a novel and generic approach that directly records the fluctuations of the electronic phases at the critical point of the metal-insulator transition, using a manganite system as example. In our approach, we reduce a single crystal thin film of La5/8-xPrxCa3/8MnO3 to the scale of its inherent electronic charge ordered insulating (COI) and ferromagnetic metal (FMM) phase domains and conduct high resolution resistance vs. time measurements within a critical regime of temperature and magnetic field at the metal insulator transition (MIT). Within this window, we are able to observe individual domains as they fluctuate between COI and FMM.
Contemporary Research of Dynamically Induced Phase Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hull, Lawrence
2015-06-01
Dynamically induced phase transitions in metals, within the present discussion, are those that take place within a time scale characteristic of the shock waves and any reflections or rarefactions involved in the loading structure along with associated plastic flow. Contemporary topics of interest include the influence of loading wave shape, the effect of shear produced by directionality of the loading relative to the sample dimensions and initial velocity field, and the loading duration (kinetic effects, hysteresis) on the appearance and longevity of a transformed phase. These topics often arise while considering the loading of parts of various shapes with high explosives, are typically two or three-dimensional, and are often selected because of the potential of the transformed phase to significantly modify the motion. In this paper, we look at current work on phase transitions in metals influenced by shear reported in the literature, and relate recent work conducted at Los Alamos on iron's epsilon phase transition that indicates a significant response to shear produced by reflected elastic waves. A brief discussion of criteria for the occurrence of stress induced phase transitions is provided. Closing remarks regard certain physical processes, such as fragmentation and jet formation, which may be strongly influenced by phase transitions. Supported by the DoD/DOE Joint Munitions Technology Development Program.
Cancer as a dynamical phase transition
2011-01-01
This paper discusses the properties of cancer cells from a new perspective based on an analogy with phase transitions in physical systems. Similarities in terms of instabilities and attractor states are outlined and differences discussed. While physical phase transitions typically occur at or near thermodynamic equilibrium, a normal-to-cancer (NTC) transition is a dynamical non-equilibrium phenomenon, which depends on both metabolic energy supply and local physiological conditions. A number of implications for preventative and therapeutic strategies are outlined. PMID:21867509
Monoclinic phases arising across thermal inter-ferroelectric phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Yijia; Xue, Fei; Lei, Shiming; Lummen, Tom T. A.; Wang, Jianjun; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Chen, Long-Qing
2014-07-01
Thermotropic phase boundaries (TPBs), as thermal analogs of morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs), are associated with the thermal inter-ferroelectric phase transitions. Similar to an MPB, a TPB exhibits a characteristically flattened energy profile which favors polarization rotation, thus giving rise to a structurally bridging low-symmetry phase. We report on the kinetic process of thermal inter-ferroelectric phase transitions in BaTiO3 and KNbO3 using the phase-field method. The domain structures are found to play key roles in stabilizing the monoclinic phase. In simple domain structures, the monoclinic phase is a transient phase and cannot be stabilized into its neighboring phase regimes. However, by introducing structural inhomogeneity (orthogonal in-plane domain twins), we found that the monoclinic phase can be stabilized over a range of over 100 K across the transition. As a result, the piezoelectric properties are enhanced due to the stabilized monoclinic phase. In addition to the emergence of new piezoelectric components with monoclinic symmetry, most of the original components present in the tetragonal symmetry also show substantial enhancement with the rotation of polarization.
Molecular-Scale Remnants of the Liquid-Gas Transition in Supercritical Polar Fluids.
Sokhan, V P; Jones, A; Cipcigan, F S; Crain, J; Martyna, G J
2015-09-11
An electronically coarse-grained model for water reveals a persistent vestige of the liquid-gas transition deep into the supercritical region. A crossover in the density dependence of the molecular dipole arises from the onset of nonpercolating hydrogen bonds. The crossover points coincide with the Widom line in the scaling region but extend farther, tracking the heat capacity maxima, offering evidence for liquidlike and gaslike state points in a "one-phase" fluid. The effect is present even in dipole-limit models, suggesting that it is common for all molecular liquids exhibiting dipole enhancement in the liquid phase. PMID:26406855
Experimental evidence of the ferroelectric nature of the ?-point transition in liquid water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedichev, P. O.; Menshikov, L. I.; Bordonskiy, G. S.; Orlov, A. O.
2011-11-01
We studied the dielectric properties of nano-sized liquid water samples confined in polymerized silicates MCM-41 characterized by pore sizes 3-10 nm. Freezing temperature suppression in nanopores helps keep the water samples in liquid form at temperatures well below 0°C and thus effectively study the properties of supercooled liquid water. We report the first direct measurements of the dielectric constant by the dielectric spectroscopy method and demonstrate very clear signatures of the second-order phase transition of ferroelectric nature at temperatures next to the ?-point in the supercooled bulk water in full agreement with the recently developed model of the polar liquid.
Fidelity at Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless quantum phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, G.; Kolezhuk, A. K.; Vekua, T.
2015-01-01
We clarify the long-standing controversy concerning the behavior of the ground-state fidelity in the vicinity of a quantum phase transition of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless type in one-dimensional systems. Contrary to the prediction based on the Gaussian approximation of the Luttinger-liquid approach, it is shown that the fidelity susceptibility does not diverge at the transition but has a cusplike peak ?c-? (? ) ˜?{| ?c-? | } , where ? is a parameter driving the transition and ?c is the peak value at the transition point ? =?c . Numerical claims of the logarithmic divergence of fidelity susceptibility with the system size (or temperature) are explained by logarithmic corrections due to marginal operators, which is supported by numerical calculations for large systems.
Yin, Leicheng; Wu, Yeping; Gao, Jiangang; Ma, Jiajun; Hu, Zhijia; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin
2015-08-14
A series of one-armed cholesterol-linked azobenzene molecules named CholXAzo with different spacers were synthesized, in which Chol6Azo was found to have induced blue phases (BPs) with a concentration of 4.0 wt%. Under irradiation of 385 nm UV light with a density of 15.0 mW cm(-2), photo-responsive behaviour of the 4.0 wt% Chol6Azo doped sample named B3 shows a sensitive temperature dependence, which means that at 38.0 °C a phase transition from BPs to the isotropic phase is induced; however, at 33.0 °C, this phase transition does not take place. Results from the research show that the optically binary phase transition behaviour of B3 is sensitive to the isomerization degree of Chol6Azo, which is closely related to the stability of the BP structure and there is a critical isomerization degree of 13.7% for the phase transition of the B3 liquid crystals. Further POM observation shows that the liquid crystal samples doped with different concentrations of Chol6Azo have an increasing transition temperature for photo-induced phase transition from the BP to the isotropic phase along with the increasing concentration of Chol6Azo, which are found to have the same changing tendency with phase transition temperature from the isotropic phase to BPs and a phase diagram is made to map the optically binary behaviour of Chol6Azo doped blue phase liquid crystals. At last, a simple pattern with the BP and the isotropic phase arranged at an interval was made in this optically binary liquid crystalline blue phase under a suitable photomask. PMID:26144839
Electroweak phase transition in nearly conformal technicolor
Cline, James M.; Jaervinen, Matti; Sannino, Francesco
2008-10-01
We examine the temperature-dependent electroweak phase transition in extensions of the standard model in which the electroweak symmetry is spontaneously broken via strongly coupled, nearly conformal dynamics. In particular, we focus on the low energy effective theory used to describe minimal walking technicolor at the phase transition. Using the one-loop effective potential with ring improvement, we identify significant regions of parameter space which yield a sufficiently strong first-order transition for electroweak baryogenesis. The composite particle spectrum corresponding to these regions can be produced and studied at the Large Hadron Collider experiment. We note the possible emergence of a second phase transition at lower temperatures. This occurs when the underlying technicolor theory possesses a nontrivial center symmetry.
Decoherence in a dynamical quantum phase transition
Mostame, Sarah [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik Komplexer Systeme, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Schaller, Gernot [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Schuetzhold, Ralf [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)
2010-03-15
Motivated by the similarity between adiabatic quantum algorithms and quantum phase transitions, we study the impact of decoherence on the sweep through a second-order quantum phase transition for the prototypical example of the Ising chain in a transverse field and compare it to the adiabatic version of Grover's search algorithm, which displays a first-order quantum phase transition. For site-independent and site-dependent coupling strengths as well as different operator couplings, the results show (in contrast to first-order transitions) that the impact of decoherence caused by a weak coupling to a rather general environment increases with system size (i.e., number of spins or qubits). This might limit the scalability of the corresponding adiabatic quantum algorithm.
Glass Transition in Biomolecules and the Liquid-Liquid Critical Point of Water Pradeep Kumar,1
Buldyrev, Sergey
(Received 29 May 2006; published 27 October 2006) Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the relation between the dynamic transitions of biomolecules (lysozyme and DNA) and the dynamicGlass Transition in Biomolecules and the Liquid-Liquid Critical Point of Water Pradeep Kumar,1 Z
Gravitational Role in Liquid Phase Sintering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Upadhyaya, Anish; Iacocca, Ronald G.; German, Randall M.
1998-01-01
To comprehensively understand the gravitational effects on the evolution of both the microstructure and the macrostructure during liquid phase sintering, W-Ni-Fe alloys with W content varying from 35 to 98 wt.% were sintered in microgravity. Compositions that slump during ground-based sintering also distort when sintered under microgravity. In ground-based sintering, low solid content alloys distort with a typical elephant-foot profile, while in microgravity, the compacts tend to spheroidize. This study shows that microstructural segregation occurs in both ground-based as well as microgravity sintering. In ground-based experiments, because of the density difference between the solid and the liquid phase, the solid content increases from top to the bottom of the sample. In microgravity, the solid content increases from periphery to the center of the samples. This study also shows that the pores during microgravity sintering act as a stable phase and attain anomalous shapes.
Polydispersity in Colloidal Phase Transitions
Fairhurst, David John
I have studied the effects of polydispersity on the phase behaviour of suspensions of PMMA colloidal spheres on their own and in the presence of non-adsorbed polymer. I systematically explored the volume fraction-polydispersity ...
Size dependence of phase transitions in aerosol nanoparticles.
Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Koop, Thomas; Mikhailov, Eugene; Pöschl, Ulrich
2015-01-01
Phase transitions of nanoparticles are of fundamental importance in atmospheric sciences, but current understanding is insufficient to explain observations at the nano-scale. In particular, discrepancies exist between observations and model predictions of deliquescence and efflorescence transitions and the hygroscopic growth of salt nanoparticles. Here we show that these discrepancies can be resolved by consideration of particle size effects with consistent thermodynamic data. We present a new method for the determination of water and solute activities and interfacial energies in highly supersaturated aqueous solution droplets (Differential Köhler Analysis). Our analysis reveals that particle size can strongly alter the characteristic concentration of phase separation in mixed systems, resembling the influence of temperature. Owing to similar effects, atmospheric secondary organic aerosol particles at room temperature are expected to be always liquid at diameters below ~20?nm. We thus propose and demonstrate that particle size should be included as an additional dimension in the equilibrium phase diagram of aerosol nanoparticles. PMID:25586967
Size dependence of phase transitions in aerosol nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Koop, Thomas; Mikhailov, Eugene; Pöschl, Ulrich
2015-01-01
Phase transitions of nanoparticles are of fundamental importance in atmospheric sciences, but current understanding is insufficient to explain observations at the nano-scale. In particular, discrepancies exist between observations and model predictions of deliquescence and efflorescence transitions and the hygroscopic growth of salt nanoparticles. Here we show that these discrepancies can be resolved by consideration of particle size effects with consistent thermodynamic data. We present a new method for the determination of water and solute activities and interfacial energies in highly supersaturated aqueous solution droplets (Differential Köhler Analysis). Our analysis reveals that particle size can strongly alter the characteristic concentration of phase separation in mixed systems, resembling the influence of temperature. Owing to similar effects, atmospheric secondary organic aerosol particles at room temperature are expected to be always liquid at diameters below ~20?nm. We thus propose and demonstrate that particle size should be included as an additional dimension in the equilibrium phase diagram of aerosol nanoparticles.
Phase transitions in soft matter systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Löwen, H.; Watzlawek, M.; Likos, C. N.; Schmidt, M.; Jusufi, A.; Graf, H.; Denton, A. R.; von Ferber, C.
2000-06-01
We review recent work on fluid-solid and solid-solid phase transitions in soft matter systems such as colloidal suspensions and star polymer solutions. Starting from a given interparticle pair potential we predict the corresponding phase diagrams using computer simulations, cell theory, and density functional theory. When possible, the results are compared with experimental data. In particular, we discuss the following aspects: a cascade of freezing transitions for confined colloids, stable one-component quasicrystals for charged colloids, reentrant melting and anisotropic solid phases for star polymer solutions and reentrant nematic ordering for suspensions of the tobacco-mosaic virus. .
Zigzag phase transition in quantum wires.
Mehta, Abhijit C; Umrigar, C J; Meyer, Julia S; Baranger, Harold U
2013-06-14
We study the quantum phase transition of interacting electrons in quantum wires from a one-dimensional (1D) linear configuration to a quasi-1D zigzag arrangement using quantum Monte Carlo methods. As the density increases from its lowest values, first, the electrons form a linear Wigner crystal, then, the symmetry about the axis of the wire is broken as the electrons order in a quasi-1D zigzag phase, and, finally, the electrons form a disordered liquidlike phase. We show that the linear to zigzag phase transition is not destroyed by the strong quantum fluctuations present in narrow wires; it has characteristics which are qualitatively different from the classical transition. PMID:25165952
Quantum trajectory phase transitions in the micromaser.
Garrahan, Juan P; Armour, Andrew D; Lesanovsky, Igor
2011-08-01
We study the dynamics of the single-atom maser, or micromaser, by means of the recently introduced method of thermodynamics of quantum jump trajectories. We find that the dynamics of the micromaser displays multiple space-time phase transitions, i.e., phase transitions in ensembles of quantum jump trajectories. This rich dynamical phase structure becomes apparent when trajectories are classified by dynamical observables that quantify dynamical activity, such as the number of atoms that have changed state while traversing the cavity. The space-time transitions can be either first order or continuous, and are controlled not just by standard parameters of the micromaser but also by nonequilibrium "counting" fields. We discuss how the dynamical phase behavior relates to the better known stationary-state properties of the micromaser. PMID:21928957
Phase Transition Induced Fission in Lipid Vesicles
C. Leirer; B. Wunderlich; V. M. Myles; M. F. Schneider
2010-05-24
In this work we demonstrate how the first order phase transition in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) can function as a trigger for membrane fission. When driven through their gel-fluid phase transition GUVs exhibit budding or pearl formation. These buds remain connected to the mother vesicle presumably by a small neck. Cooling these vesicles from the fluid phase (T>Tm) through the phase transition into the gel state (T
Phase Transition Induced Fission in Lipid Vesicles
Leirer, C; Myles, V M; Schneider, M F
2010-01-01
In this work we demonstrate how the first order phase transition in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) can function as a trigger for membrane fission. When driven through their gel-fluid phase transition GUVs exhibit budding or pearl formation. These buds remain connected to the mother vesicle presumably by a small neck. Cooling these vesicles from the fluid phase (T>Tm) through the phase transition into the gel state (T
Quantum trajectory phase transitions in the micromaser
Garrahan, Juan P; Armour, Andrew D
2011-01-01
We study the dynamics of the single atom maser, or micromaser, by means of the recently introduced method of thermodynamics of quantum jump trajectories. We find that the dynamics of the micromaser displays multiple space-time phase transitions, i.e., phase transitions in ensembles of quantum jump trajectories. This rich dynamical phase structure becomes apparent when trajectories are classified by dynamical observables that quantify dynamical activity, such as the number of atoms that have changed state while traversing the cavity. The space-time transitions can be either first-order or continuous, and are controlled not just by standard parameters of the micromaser but also by non-equilibrium "counting" fields. We discuss how the dynamical phase behavior relates to the better known stationary state properties of the micromaser.
Quantum trajectory phase transitions in the micromaser
Juan P. Garrahan; Andrew D. Armour; Igor Lesanovsky
2011-03-07
We study the dynamics of the single atom maser, or micromaser, by means of the recently introduced method of thermodynamics of quantum jump trajectories. We find that the dynamics of the micromaser displays multiple space-time phase transitions, i.e., phase transitions in ensembles of quantum jump trajectories. This rich dynamical phase structure becomes apparent when trajectories are classified by dynamical observables that quantify dynamical activity, such as the number of atoms that have changed state while traversing the cavity. The space-time transitions can be either first-order or continuous, and are controlled not just by standard parameters of the micromaser but also by non-equilibrium "counting" fields. We discuss how the dynamical phase behavior relates to the better known stationary state properties of the micromaser.
Ma?olepsza, Edyta; Kim, Jaegil; Keyes, Tom
2015-05-01
Metastable ? ice holds small guest molecules in stable gas hydrates, so its solid-liquid equilibrium is of interest. However, aqueous crystal-liquid transitions are very difficult to simulate. A new molecular dynamics algorithm generates trajectories in a generalized NPT ensemble and equilibrates states of coexisting phases with a selectable enthalpy. With replicas spanning the range between ? ice and liquid water, we find the statistical temperature from the enthalpy histograms and characterize the transition by the entropy, introducing a general computational procedure for first-order transitions. PMID:25978217
Phase transitions in ammonium perchlorate to 26 GPA and 700 K in a diamond anvil cell
Foltz, M.F.; Maienschein, J.L.
1995-07-10
Ammonium perchlorate (AP) showed previously unreported phase behavior when studied in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) at high temperature (to 693 K) and high pressure (to {approximately}26 GPa). Liquid droplets, observed above the known 513 K orthorhombic-to-cubic phase transition, are interpreted as the onset to melting. The melting point decreased with increasing pressure. Mid-infrared FTIR spectra of the residue showed only AP. The AP melt may contribute to shock insensitivity of AP-based propellants. Gas formation was seen at higher temperatures. A phase diagram was constructed using the appearance of liquid and gas as solid-liquid and liquid-gas transitions. Preliminary pressurized differential scanning calorimetry data showed a weak pressure dependence (to {approximately}6.9 MPa) for the orthorhombic-to-cubic phase transition.
Phase transitions in ammonium perchlorate to 26 GPA and 700 K in a diamond anvil cell
Foltz, M.F.; Maienschein, J.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-282, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)
1996-05-01
Ammonium perchlorate (AP) showed previously unreported phase behavior when studied in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) at high temperature (to 693 K) and high pressure (to {approximately}26 GPa). Liquid droplets, observed above the known 513 K orthorhombic-to-cubic phase transition, are interpreted as the onset to melting. The melting point decreased with increasing pressure. Mid-infrared FTIR spectra of the residue showed only AP. The AP melt may contribute to shock insensitivity of AP-based propellants. Gas formation was seen at higher temperatures. A phase diagram was constructed using the appearance of liquid and gas as solid-liquid and liquid-gas transitions. Preliminary pressurized differential scanning calorimetry data showed a weak pressure dependence (to {approximately}6.9MPa) for the orthorhombic-to-cubic phase transition. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Kobayashi, Mika; Shimizu, Ryotaro; Tanaka, Hajime
2015-09-01
There is experimental evidence suggesting the existence of a liquid-liquid transition (LLT) in a single-component liquid. However, none of this evidence is free from controversy, including the case of a molecular liquid, triphenyl phosphite, which we study here. Furthermore, the kinetics of LLT has been largely unexplored. Here we study the phase-transition dynamics of triphenyl phosphite in a supercooled liquid state by means of time-resolved polarized and depolarized small-angle light scattering to clarify whether the transition is a liquid-liquid transition (LLT) or merely nanocrystal formation. A part of this study was recently reported in another of our papers [Shimizu, R.; Kobayashi, M.; Tanaka, H. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2014, 112, 125702]. A detailed analysis of our experimental results of light scattering and the comparison with heat evolution during LLT have revealed the following facts. The polarized scattering from domains has a finite (nonzero) intensity in the low-wavenumber limit, and the time evolution of its average intensity is almost proportional to the square of the heat-releasing rate. The depolarized scattering intensity monotonically increases in the process of LLT during isothermal annealing above the spinodal temperature TSD but exhibits a peak below TSD. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the primary process is LLT, whose order parameter is of a nonconserved nature, but accompanies nanocrystal formation. In the NG-type LLT, the sharp interface between liquid II droplets and the liquid I matrix promotes nanocrystal formation there, whereas much less nanocrystal formation is induced in the SD-type LLT due to the lack of such sharp interfaces. PMID:26237030
Extended ensemble theory, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Ming-wen
2006-09-01
In this paper, as a personal review, we suppose a possible extension of Gibbs ensemble theory so that it can provide a reasonable description of phase transitions and spontaneous symmetry breaking. The extension is founded on three hypotheses, and can be regarded as a microscopic edition of the Landau phenomenological theory of phase transitions. Within its framework, the stable state of a system is determined by the evolution of order parameter with temperature according to such a principle that the entropy of the system will reach its minimum in this state. The evolution of order parameter can cause a change in representation of the system Hamiltonian; different phases will realize different representations, respectively; a phase transition amounts to a representation transformation. Physically, it turns out that phase transitions originate from the automatic interference among matter waves as the temperature is cooled down. Typical quantum many-body systems are studied with this extended ensemble theory. We regain the Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer solution for the weak-coupling superconductivity, and prove that it is stable. We find that negative-temperature and laser phases arise from the same mechanism as phase transitions, and that they are unstable. For the ideal Bose gas, we demonstrate that it will produce Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) in the thermodynamic limit, which confirms exactly Einstein's deep physical insight. In contrast, there is no BEC either within the phonon gas in a black body or within the ideal photon gas in a solid body. We prove that it is not admissible to quantize the Dirac field by using Bose Einstein statistics. We show that a structural phase transition belongs physically to the BEC happening in configuration space, and that a double-well anharmonic system will undergo a structural phase transition at a finite temperature. For the O(N)-symmetric vector model, we demonstrate that it will yield spontaneous symmetry breaking and produce Goldstone bosons; and if it is coupled with a gauge field, the gauge field will obtain a mass (Higgs mechanism). Also, we show that an interacting Bose gas is stable only if the interaction is repulsive. For the weak interaction case, we find that the BEC is a '?-transition' and its transition temperature can be lowered by the repulsive interaction. In connection with liquid 4He, it is found that the specific heat at constant pressure CP will show a T3 law at low temperatures, which is in agreement with the experiment. If the system is further cooled down, the theory predicts that CP will vanish linearly as T\\rightarrow 0 , which is anticipating experimental verifications.
Phase transition and properties of compact star
B. K. Sharma; P. K. Panda; S. K. Patra
2006-11-13
We investigate the phase transition to a deconfined phase and the consequences in the formation of neutron stars. We use the recently proposed effective field theory motivated relativistic mean field theory for hadron and the MIT Bag model and color-flavor locked (CFL) phase for the quark matter in order to get the appropriate equation of state. The properties of star are then calculated. The differences between unpaired and CFL quark matter are discussed.
Microgravity Two-Phase Flow Transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parang, M.; Chao, D.
1999-01-01
Two-phase flows under microgravity condition find a large number of important applications in fluid handling and storage, and spacecraft thermal management. Specifically, under microgravity condition heat transfer between heat exchanger surfaces and fluids depend critically on the distribution and interaction between different fluid phases which are often qualitatively different from the gravity-based systems. Heat transfer and flow analysis in two-phase flows under these conditions require a clear understanding of the flow pattern transition and development of appropriate dimensionless scales for its modeling and prediction. The physics of this flow is however very complex and remains poorly understood. This has led to various inadequacies in flow and heat transfer modeling and has made prediction of flow transition difficult in engineering design of efficient thermal and flow systems. In the present study the available published data for flow transition under microgravity condition are considered for mapping. The transition from slug to annular flow and from bubbly to slug flow are mapped using dimensionless variable combination developed in a previous study by the authors. The result indicate that the new maps describe the flow transitions reasonably well over the range of the data available. The transition maps are examined and the results are discussed in relation to the presumed balance of forces and flow dynamics. It is suggested that further evaluation of the proposed flow and transition mapping will require a wider range of microgravity data expected to be made available in future studies.
Phase Segregation at the Liquid-Air Interface Prior to Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium.
Bermúdez-Salguero, Carolina; Gracia-Fadrique, Jesús
2015-08-13
Binary systems with partial miscibility segregate into two liquid phases when their overall composition lies within the interval defined by the saturation points; out of this interval, there is one single phase, either solvent-rich or solute-rich. In most systems, in the one-phase regions, surface tension decreases with increasing solute concentration due to solute adsorption at the liquid-air interface. Therefore, the solute concentration at the surface is higher than in the bulk, leading to the hypothesis that phase segregation starts at the liquid-air interface with the formation of two surface phases, before the liquid-liquid equilibrium. This phenomenon is called surface segregation and is a step toward understanding liquid segregation at a molecular level and detailing the constitution of fluid interfaces. Surface segregation of aqueous binary systems of alkyl acetates with partial miscibility was theoretically demonstrated by means of a thermodynamic stability test based on energy minimization. Experimentally, the coexistence of two surface regions was verified through Brewster's angle microscopy. The observations were further interpreted with the aid of molecular dynamics simulations, which show the diffusion of the acetates from the bulk toward the liquid-air interface, where acetates aggregate into acetate-rich domains. PMID:26189700
Particle dynamics in colloidal suspensions above and below the glass-liquid re-entrance transition
Andrzej Latka; Yilong Han; Ahmed M. Alsayed; Andrew B. Schofield; A. G. Yodh; Piotr Habdas
2009-02-17
We study colloidal particle dynamics of a model glass system using confocal and fluorescence microscopy as the sample evolves from a hard-sphere glass to a liquid with attractive interparticle interactions. The transition from hard-sphere glass to attractive liquid is induced by short-range depletion forces. The development of liquid-like structure is indicated by particle dynamics. We identify particles which exhibit substantial motional events and characterize the transition using the properties of these motional events. As samples enter the attractive liquid region, particle speed during these motional events increases by about one order of magnitude, and the particles move more cooperatively. Interestingly, colloidal particles in the attractive liquid phase do not exhibit significantly larger displacements than particles in the hard-sphere glass.
The study of structural transitions in liquid crystal droplets doped with magnetic particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopanský, P.; Koneracká, M.; Timko, M.; Jadzyn, J.
2006-01-01
The magnetically active ferronematic droplets were prepared in solutions of nematic liquid crystal 6CHBT with fine magnetic particles, dissolved in phenyl isocyanate. The phase diagram of the transitions between isotropic, droplet and nematic phases in prepared sample was found. The structural transitions in 6CHBT-based ferronematic and in 6CHBT ferronematic droplets, exposed to external fields, were investigated. The possibility to use the observations of structural transitions for the determination of the type of anchoring of nematic molecules on magnetic particles surfaces was demonstrated.
Critical Behavior at the L-L Phase Transition of Lysozyme Protein Solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth; Laxson, Nicole; Pusey, Marc
2003-01-01
Recent efforts suggest the possibility that crystallization, and liquid-liquid (L-L) phase transitions and critical phenomena are characteristics universal to all macromolecular solutions. Of particular interest to protein crystallographers are the predictions of a critical slowing of crystal growth and subsequent formation of nascent crystals at the L-L phase boundary. Herein, the effects of the L-L phase transition on both crystal growth rates and microcrystal formation are experimentally determined. In general, it was determined that critical slowing down of protein crystal growth rates occurred, as predicted. The L-L phase transition, however, had a net negative influence in the formation of nascent protein crystals. Although crystal nucleation was not induced by the L-L phase transition, it is considered that the phase behavior of macromolecular solutions can be universally defined.
Phase Transition in Langmuir Films of Octadecylmalonic Acid.
Collins; Dhathathreyan; Ramasami
1998-07-15
The phase transitions observed in the surface pressure-molecular area (pi-A) isotherms of monolayers of the dicarboxylic compound octadecylmalonic acid (OMA) at the air/water interface were investigated using molecular dynamics simulation in the molecular area ranging from 20 to 50 A2/molecule in a triangular lattice. Potential energy, torsion angles, and hydration of the head groups under periodic boundary conditions have been used for the study. Hydration was done by a stacked array of water molecules relaxing under these boundary conditions. Twelve simulations were performed at T = 300 K to study the conformation of the packed molecular system. Bonded and nonbonded interaction potentials were taken from Biosym force fields. The transitions seen in the pi-A curves are explained from the breaks in the plots of potential energy at various concentrations, related to a liquid expanded-to-liquid condensed (LE/LC) transition, and classified under the first order type. Electron diffraction patterns of these films transferred onto transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids were studied by high-resolution imaging and showed a clear transition from the LE to the LC phase. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9705761
Exciton-driven quantum phase transitions in holography
E. Gubankova; M. Cubrovic; J. Zaanen
2014-12-12
We study phase transitions driven by fermionic double-trace deformations in gauge-gravity duality. Both the strength of the double trace deformation and the infrared conformal dimension/self-energy scaling of the quasiparticle can be used to decrease the critical temperature to zero, leading to a line of quantum critical points. The self-energy scaling is controlled indirectly through an applied magnetic field and the quantum phase transition naturally involves the condensation of a fermion bilinear which models the spin density wave in antiferromagnetic state. The nature of the quantum critical points depends on the parameters and we find either a BKT-type transition or one of two distinct second order transitions with non-mean field exponents. One of these is an anomalous branch where the order parameter of constituent non-Fermi liquid quasiparticles is enhanced by the magnetic field. Stabilization of ordered non-Fermi liquids by a strong magnetic field is observed in experiments with highly oriented pyrolitic graphite.
Magnetic fields produced by phase transition bubbles in the electroweak phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baym, Gordon; Bödeker, Dietrich; McLerran, Larry
1996-01-01
The electroweak phase transition, if proceeding through nucleation and growth of bubbles, should generate large scale turbulent flow, which in turn generates magnetic turbulence and hence magnetic fields on the scale of turbulence flow. We discuss the seeding of this turbulent field by the motion of the dipole charge layers in the phase transition bubble walls, and estimate the strength of the produced fields.
Liquid-liquid phase separation in aerosol particles: imaging at the nanometer scale.
O'Brien, Rachel E; Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T; Lundt, Nils; You, Yuan; Bertram, Allan K; Leone, Stephen R; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K
2015-04-21
Atmospheric aerosols can undergo phase transitions including liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) while responding to changes in the ambient relative humidity (RH). Here, we report results of chemical imaging experiments using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) to investigate the LLPS of micrometer-sized particles undergoing a full hydration-dehydration cycle. Internally mixed particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS) and either: limonene secondary organic carbon (LSOC), ?, 4-dihydroxy-3-methoxybenzeneaceticacid (HMMA), or polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) were studied. Events of LLPS were observed for all samples with both techniques. Chemical imaging with STXM showed that both LSOC/AS and HMMA/AS particles were never homogeneously mixed for all measured RH's above the deliquescence point and that the majority of the organic component was located in the outer phase. The outer phase composition was estimated as 65:35 organic: inorganic in LSOC/AS and as 50:50 organic: inorganic for HMMA/AS. PEG-400/AS particles showed fully homogeneous mixtures at high RH and phase separated below 89-92% RH with an estimated 70:30% organic to inorganic mix in the outer phase. These two chemical imaging techniques are well suited for in situ analysis of the hygroscopic behavior, phase separation, and surface composition of collected ambient aerosol particles. PMID:25850933
Sensitivity to perturbations and quantum phase transitions.
Wisniacki, D A; Roncaglia, A J
2013-05-01
The local density of states or its Fourier transform, usually called fidelity amplitude, are important measures of quantum irreversibility due to imperfect evolution. In this Rapid Communication we study both quantities in a paradigmatic many body system, the Dicke Hamiltonian, where a single-mode bosonic field interacts with an ensemble of N two-level atoms. This model exhibits a quantum phase transition in the thermodynamic limit, while for finite instances the system undergoes a transition from quasi-integrability to quantum chaotic. We show that the width of the local density of states clearly points out the imprints of the transition from integrability to chaos but no trace remains of the quantum phase transition. The connection with the decay of the fidelity amplitude is also established. PMID:23767477
RNA transcription modulates phase transition-driven nuclear body assembly.
Berry, Joel; Weber, Stephanie C; Vaidya, Nilesh; Haataja, Mikko; Brangwynne, Clifford P
2015-09-22
Nuclear bodies are RNA and protein-rich, membraneless organelles that play important roles in gene regulation. The largest and most well-known nuclear body is the nucleolus, an organelle whose primary function in ribosome biogenesis makes it key for cell growth and size homeostasis. The nucleolus and other nuclear bodies behave like liquid-phase droplets and appear to condense from the nucleoplasm by concentration-dependent phase separation. However, nucleoli actively consume chemical energy, and it is unclear how such nonequilibrium activity might impact classical liquid-liquid phase separation. Here, we combine in vivo and in vitro experiments with theory and simulation to characterize the assembly and disassembly dynamics of nucleoli in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. In addition to classical nucleoli that assemble at the transcriptionally active nucleolar organizing regions, we observe dozens of "extranucleolar droplets" (ENDs) that condense in the nucleoplasm in a transcription-independent manner. We show that growth of nucleoli and ENDs is consistent with a first-order phase transition in which late-stage coarsening dynamics are mediated by Brownian coalescence and, to a lesser degree, Ostwald ripening. By manipulating C. elegans cell size, we change nucleolar component concentration and confirm several key model predictions. Our results show that rRNA transcription and other nonequilibrium biological activity can modulate the effective thermodynamic parameters governing nucleolar and END assembly, but do not appear to fundamentally alter the passive phase separation mechanism. PMID:26351690
Microrheology close to an equilibrium phase transition
Reinhardt, J.; Scacchi, A.; Brader, J. M., E-mail: joseph.brader@unifr.ch [Department of Physics, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)
2014-04-14
We investigate the microstructural and microrheological response to a tracer particle of a two-dimensional colloidal suspension under thermodynamic conditions close to a liquid-gas phase boundary. On the liquid side of the binodal, increasing the velocity of the (repulsive) tracer leads to the development of a pronounced cavitation bubble, within which the concentration of colloidal particles is strongly depleted. The tendency of the liquid to cavitate is characterized by a dimensionless “colloidal cavitation” number. On the gas side of the binodal, a pulled (attractive) tracer leaves behind it an extended trail of colloidal liquid, arising from downstream advection of a wetting layer on its surface. For both situations the velocity dependent friction is calculated.
Liquid-phase compositions from vapor-phase analyses
Davis, W. Jr.; Cochran, H.D.; Leitnaker, J.M.
1989-09-01
In the safe handling and processing of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}), it is often desirable to calculate vapor composition and pressure from known liquid composition and temperature. Furthermore, the ability to use analyses of equilibrium vapor-phase samples to calculate liquid-phase compositions would be economically advantageous to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its international safeguards program and to uranium enrichment operators. The latter technique is projected to save the IAEA on the order of $1500 or more per sample. Either type of calculation could be performed with a multicomponent vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) model if this model were shown to apply to UF{sub 6} and its common impurities. This report is concerned with the distribution of four potential impurities in UF{sub 6} between liquid and vapor phases. The impurities are carbon dioxide, sulfur hexafluoride, chloryl fluoride, and Freon-114 (CClF{sub 2}CClF{sub 2}). There are no binary equilibrium data on the first three of these impurities; hence, the VLE calculations are based entirely on the thermodynamic properties of the pure components. There are two sets of binary equilibrium data for the system Freon-114-UF{sub 6} that are analyzed in terms of the model of Prausnitz et al. Calculations based on these data are compared with those based solely on the thermodynamic properties of pure Freon-114 and pure UF{sub 6}. 23 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.
On transit time instability in liquid jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grabitz, G.; Meier, G.
1982-01-01
A basic transit time instability in flows with disturbances of speed is found. It was shown that the mass distribution is established by and large by the described transit time effects. These transit time effects may also be involved for gas jets.
Soft matter in hard confinement: phase transition thermodynamics, structure, texture, diffusion and
Soft matter in hard confinement: phase transition thermodynamics, structure, texture, diffusion, normal alkanes and alcohols to liquid crystals, polymers, ionic liquids, proteins and water. Mostly matter are also discussed with regard to applications. A particular emphasis is put on texture formation
Plasma Crystal Melting: A Nonequilibrium Phase Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schweigert, V. A.; Schweigert, I. V.; Melzer, A.; Homann, A.; Piel, A.
1998-06-01
The plasma crystal is shown to exhibit a nonequilibrium two-step phase transition due to particle heating by ion streaming motion in the sheath. In a nonlinear model, the energy increase due to an ion induced instability is found to be separated from the melting transition. The plasma crystal melts at a much higher particle energy than expected from classical models. This behavior is explained by preferred destabilization of short-wavelength modes in the plasma crystal.
Friction forces on phase transition fronts
Mégevand, Ariel, E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar [IFIMAR (CONICET–UNMdP), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, Deán Funes 3350, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2013-07-01
In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling.
Holographic phase transitions with fundamental matter.
Mateos, David; Myers, Robert C; Thomson, Rowan M
2006-09-01
The holographic dual of a finite-temperature gauge theory with a small number of flavors typically contains D-brane probes in a black hole background. At low temperature, the branes sit outside the black hole and the meson spectrum is discrete and possesses a mass gap. As the temperature increases, the branes approach a critical solution. Eventually, they fall into the horizon and a phase transition occurs. In the new phase, the meson spectrum is continuous and gapless. At large Nc and large 't Hooft coupling, we show that this phase transition is always first order. In confining theories with heavy quarks, it occurs above the deconfinement transition for the glue. PMID:17026354
Late-time cosmological phase transitions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schramm, David N.
1991-01-01
It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z approx. greater than 5), structures existing on scales of 100 M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies ((Delta)T/T) (approx. less than 10(exp -5)) can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random Gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of approx. 100 M pc for large scale structure as well as approx. 1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition.
The ?–? phase transition in volcanic cristobalite
Damby, David E.; Llewellin, Edward W.; Horwell, Claire J.; Williamson, Ben J.; Najorka, Jens; Cressey, Gordon; Carpenter, Michael
2014-01-01
Cristobalite is a common mineral in volcanic ash produced from dome-forming eruptions. Assessment of the respiratory hazard posed by volcanic ash requires understanding the nature of the cristobalite it contains. Volcanic cristobalite contains coupled substitutions of Al3+ and Na+ for Si4+; similar co-substitutions in synthetic cristobalite are known to modify the crystal structure, affecting the stability of the ? and ? forms and the observed transition between them. Here, for the first time, the dynamics and energy changes associated with the ?–? phase transition in volcanic cristobalite are investigated using X-ray powder diffraction with simultaneous in situ heating and differential scanning calorimetry. At ambient temperature, volcanic cristobalite exists in the ? form and has a larger cell volume than synthetic ?-cristobalite; as a result, its diffraction pattern sits between ICDD ?- and ?-cristobalite library patterns, which could cause ambiguity in phase identification. On heating from ambient temperature, volcanic cristobalite exhibits a lower degree of thermal expansion than synthetic cristobalite, and it also has a lower ?–? transition temperature (?473?K) compared with synthetic cristobalite (upwards of 543?K); these observations are discussed in relation to the presence of Al3+ and Na+ defects. The transition shows a stable and reproducible hysteresis loop with ? and ? phases coexisting through the transition, suggesting that discrete crystals in the sample have different transition temperatures. PMID:25242910
Phase transitions in two-dimensional model systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schief, William R., Jr.
Lipid and protein monolayers at the air/water interface are well suited for the study of two-dimensional phase transitions as their thermodynamic parameters may be tightly controlled, and they are amendable to in situ, non-perturbative, surface-analytical techniques. In this dissertation, quantitative light microscopy techniques are developed and expanded to study transitions in lipid and protein monolayers at the air/water interface. In the simplest model system studied, pure phospholipid monolayers, the introduction of light scattering microscopy reveals previously undetected, nanoscale topographic transitions in a microscopic pattern throughout the condensed phase. The findings demonstrate that condensed phospholipid phases are not flat as conventionally thought, and indicate that a patterned distribution of packing defects is imprinted on the monolayer during the first order liquid-to-condensed transition. As the monolayer is compressed, the pattern of defects persists in the pure condensed phase, giving rise to first a corrugation transition and later a budding transition. Finally, the pattern of defects controls the morphology of the monolayer collapse phase transition. The findings show the high sensitivity of light scattering microscopy to surface deformations on the angstrom to nanoscale and demonstrate the promise of this technique for future discoveries in a range of systems at fluid interfaces. In binary mixed monolayers of phospholipids and dihydrocholesterol and highly complex natural lung surfactant monolayers, quantitative Brewster angle microscopy leads to the discovery of a first order, two- to three-dimensional phase transition from monolayer to monolayer plus overlying bilayer discs. This phase transition occurs within the lower end of the physiological range of surface pressure, so the discovery raises new questions concerning the structure/function relationship of pulmonary surfactant and specifically points to a powerful structural impact by the component cholesterol. To answer fundamental physical questions concerning two-dimensional protein crystallization, a phenomena with diverse biotechnological applications, quantitative Brewster angle microscopy is extended to measure protein surface density at the air/water interface. The two-dimensional crystallization of the protein streptavidin underneath functionalized lipid monolayers is analyzed with regard to the surface protein density.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindstrom, D. J.; Weill, D. F.
1978-01-01
Distribution coefficients have been found for the partitioning of Ni, Co, and Mn between calcium-rich clinopyroxenes and coexisting silicate liquids. Values are found for the 1110-1360 C temperature range. The breakdown of Henry's Law was not observed. The measured clinopyroxene/liquid distribution coefficients ranged from 1.5-14.0 for Ni, 0.5-2.0 for Co, and 0.3-1.2 for Mn. Analyses of pyroxenes grown from charges differing in the amounts of transition metals indicate that Ni and Co occupy the M1 site of diopside and that Mn occupies the M1 and M2 sites. Equilibrium constants were found in terms of the activities of the components in the liquid and solid phases. These activities are based on the mole fractions. An activity/concentration model was used for the liquid phase in order to explain the variations in the clinopyroxene/liquid coefficients due to bulk composition.
Shape phase transitions and critical points
Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Fisica Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Galileo Galilei and INFN, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)
2009-05-04
We investigate different aspects connected with shape phase transitions in nuclei and the possible occurrence of dynamical symmetries at the critical points. We discuss in particular the behaviour of the neighbour odd nuclei at the vicinity of the critical points in the even nuclei. We consider both the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the gamma-unstable deformation (characterized within the collective Bohr hamiltonian by the E(5) critical point symmetry) and the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the stable axial deformation (characterized by the X(5) symmetry). The odd particle is assumed to be moving in the three single particle orbitals j = 1/2,3/2,5/2, a set of orbitals that is known to lead to possible supersymmetric cases. The coupling of the odd particle to the Bohr hamiltonian does lead in fact in the former case at the critical point to the E(5/12) boson-fermion dynamical symmetry. An alternative approach to the two shape transitions is based on the Interacting Boson Fermion Model. In this case suitably parametrized boson-fermion hamiltonians can describe the evolution of the odd system along the shape transitions. At the critical points both energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions were found to display characteristic patterns similar to those displayed by the even nuclei at the corresponding critical point. The behaviour of the odd nuclei can therefore be seen as necessary complementary signatures of the occurrence of the phase transitions.
Dimension changing phase transitions in instanton crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaplunovsky, Vadim; Sonnenschein, Jacob
2014-04-01
We investigate lattices of instantons and the dimension-changing transitions between them. Our ultimate goal is the 3D ? 4D transition, which is holographically dual to the phase transition between the baryonic and the quarkyonic phases of cold nuclear matter. However, in this paper (just as in [1]) we focus on lower dimensions — the 1D lattice of instantons in a harmonic potential V ? , and the zigzag-shaped lattice as a first stage of the 1D ? 2D transition. We prove that in the low- and moderate-density regimes, interactions between the instantons are dominated by two-body forces. This drastically simplifies finding the ground state of the instantons' orientations, so we made a numeric scan of the whole orientation space instead of assuming any particular ansatz. We find that depending on the M 2 /M 3 /M 4 ratios, the ground state of instanton orientations can follow a wide variety of patterns. For the straight 1D lattices, we found orientations periodically running over elements of a , Klein, prismatic, or dihedral subgroup of the , as well as irrational but link-periodic patterns. For the zigzag-shaped lattices, we detected 4 distinct orientation phases — the anti-ferromagnet, another abelian phase, and two non-abelian phases. Allowing the zigzag amplitude to vary as a function of increasing compression force, we obtained the phase diagrams for the straight and zigzag-shaped lattices in the (force , M 3 /M 4), (chemical potential , M 3 /M 4), and (density , M 3 /M 4) planes. Some of the transitions between these phases are second-order while others are first-order. Our techniques can be applied to other types of non-abelian crystals.
Phase ordering in nematic liquid crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denniston, Colin; Orlandini, Enzo; Yeomans, J. M.
2001-08-01
We study the kinetics of the nematic-isotropic transition in a two-dimensional liquid crystal by using a lattice Boltzmann scheme that couples the tensor order parameter and the flow consistently. Unlike in previous studies, we find that the time dependences of the correlation function, energy density, and number of topological defects obey dynamic scaling laws with growth exponents that, within the numerical uncertainties, agree with the value 1/2 expected from simple dimensional analysis. We find that these values are not altered by the hydrodynamic flow. In addition, by examining shallow quenches, we find that the presence of orientational disorder can inhibit amplitude ordering.
Holographic endpoint of spatially modulated phase transition
Ooguri, Hirosi; Park, Chang-Soon [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States) and Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8586 (Japan)
2010-12-15
In a previous paper [S. Nakamura, H. Ooguri, and C. S. Park, Phys. Rev. D 81, 044018 (2010)], we showed that the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole in the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space coupled to the Maxwell theory with the Chern-Simons term is unstable when the Chern-Simons coupling is sufficiently large. In the dual conformal field theory, the instability suggests a spatially modulated phase transition. In this paper, we construct and analyze nonlinear solutions which describe the endpoint of this phase transition. In the limit where the Chern-Simons coupling is large, we find that the phase transition is of the second order with the mean field critical exponent. However, the dispersion relation with the Van Hove singularity enhances quantum corrections in the bulk, and we argue that this changes the order of the phase transition from the second to the first. We compute linear response functions in the nonlinear solution and find an infinite off-diagonal DC conductivity in the new phase.
Berry, R. Stephen
melting point, where the solid and liquid phases have equal chemical potentials. On contrary dependence of these parameters on cluster size, such as in the case of the cluster melting point. The reason in the vicinity of the `melting point', namely, the set of points at which the free energy of liquid and solid
Glass and liquid phase diagram of a polyamorphic monatomic system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reisman, Shaina; Giovambattista, Nicolas
2013-02-01
We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a monatomic system with Fermi-Jagla (FJ) pair potential interactions. This model system exhibits polyamorphism both in the liquid and glass state. The two liquids, low-density (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL), are accessible in equilibrium MD simulations and can form two glasses, low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous (HDA) solid, upon isobaric cooling. The FJ model exhibits many of the anomalous properties observed in water and other polyamorphic liquids and thus, it is an excellent model system to explore qualitatively the thermodynamic properties of such substances. The liquid phase behavior of the FJ model system has been previously characterized. In this work, we focus on the glass behavior of the FJ system. Specifically, we perform systematic isothermal compression and decompression simulations of LDA and HDA at different temperatures and determine "phase diagrams" for the glass state; these phase diagrams varying with the compression/decompression rate used. We obtain the LDA-to-HDA and HDA-to-LDA transition pressure loci, PLDA-HDA(T) and PHDA-LDA(T), respectively. In addition, the compression-induced amorphization line, at which the low-pressure crystal (LPC) transforms to HDA, PLPC-HDA(T), is determined. As originally proposed by Poole et al. [Phys. Rev. E 48, 4605 (1993)], 10.1103/PhysRevE.48.4605 simulations suggest that the PLDA-HDA(T) and PHDA-LDA(T) loci are extensions of the LDL-to-HDL and HDL-to-LDL spinodal lines into the glass domain. Interestingly, our simulations indicate that the PLPC-HDA(T) locus is an extension, into the glass domain, of the LPC metastability limit relative to the liquid. We discuss the effects of compression/decompression rates on the behavior of the PLDA-HDA(T), PHDA-LDA(T), PLPC-HDA(T) loci. The competition between glass polyamorphism and crystallization is also addressed. At our "fast rate," crystallization can be partially suppressed and the glass phase diagram can be related directly with the liquid phase diagram. However, at our "slow rate," crystallization cannot be prevented at intermediate temperatures, within the glass region. In these cases, multiple crystal-crystal transformations are found upon compression/decompression (polymorphism).
Glass and liquid phase diagram of a polyamorphic monatomic system.
Reisman, Shaina; Giovambattista, Nicolas
2013-02-14
We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a monatomic system with Fermi-Jagla (FJ) pair potential interactions. This model system exhibits polyamorphism both in the liquid and glass state. The two liquids, low-density (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL), are accessible in equilibrium MD simulations and can form two glasses, low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous (HDA) solid, upon isobaric cooling. The FJ model exhibits many of the anomalous properties observed in water and other polyamorphic liquids and thus, it is an excellent model system to explore qualitatively the thermodynamic properties of such substances. The liquid phase behavior of the FJ model system has been previously characterized. In this work, we focus on the glass behavior of the FJ system. Specifically, we perform systematic isothermal compression and decompression simulations of LDA and HDA at different temperatures and determine "phase diagrams" for the glass state; these phase diagrams varying with the compression/decompression rate used. We obtain the LDA-to-HDA and HDA-to-LDA transition pressure loci, P(LDA-HDA)(T) and P(HDA-LDA)(T), respectively. In addition, the compression-induced amorphization line, at which the low-pressure crystal (LPC) transforms to HDA, P(LPC-HDA)(T), is determined. As originally proposed by Poole et al. [Phys. Rev. E 48, 4605 (1993)] simulations suggest that the P(LDA-HDA)(T) and P(HDA-LDA)(T) loci are extensions of the LDL-to-HDL and HDL-to-LDL spinodal lines into the glass domain. Interestingly, our simulations indicate that the P(LPC-HDA)(T) locus is an extension, into the glass domain, of the LPC metastability limit relative to the liquid. We discuss the effects of compression/decompression rates on the behavior of the P(LDA-HDA)(T), P(HDA-LDA)(T), P(LPC-HDA)(T) loci. The competition between glass polyamorphism and crystallization is also addressed. At our "fast rate," crystallization can be partially suppressed and the glass phase diagram can be related directly with the liquid phase diagram. However, at our "slow rate," crystallization cannot be prevented at intermediate temperatures, within the glass region. In these cases, multiple crystal-crystal transformations are found upon compression/decompression (polymorphism). PMID:23425481
Holographic phase transitions at finite baryon density
Shinpei Kobayashi; David Mateos; Shunji Matsuura; Robert C. Myers; Rowan M. Thomson
2007-02-07
We use holographic techniques to study SU(Nc) super Yang-Mills theory coupled to Nf density. We focus on four dimensions, for which the dual description consists of Nf D7-branes in the background of Nc black D3-branes, but our results apply in other dimensions as well. A non-zero chemical potential mu or baryon number density n is introduced via a nonvanishing worldvolume gauge field on the D7-branes. Ref. [1] identified a first order phase transition at zero density associated with `melting' of the mesons. This extends to a line of phase transitions for small n, which terminates at a critical point at finite n. Investigation of the D7-branes' thermodynamics reveals that (d mu / dn)_T <0 in a small region of the phase diagram, indicating an instability. We comment on a possible new phase which may appear in this region.
On configurational weak phase transitions in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sfyris, Dimitris
2015-07-01
We report a study on configurational weak phase transitions for a freestanding monolayer graphene. Firstly, we characterize weak transformation neighborhoods by suitably bounding the metric components. Then, we distinguish between structural and configurational phase changes and elaborate on the second class of them. We evaluate the irreducible invariant subspaces corresponding to these phase changes and lay down symmetry-breaking as well as symmetry-preserving stretches. In the reduced bifurcation diagram, symmetry-preserving stretches are related to a turning point with a change of stability but not of symmetry. Symmetry-breaking stretches are related to a first-order weak phase transition. We evaluate symmetry-breaking stretches as well as their generating cosets. The reduced bifurcation diagram consists of three transcritical bifurcating curves which are all unstable but can be stabilized producing a subcritical bifurcation. We, also, shortly comment on the hysteretical behavior that might appear in this case.
Quantum phase transitions around the staggered valence-bond solid
Xu Cenke [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Balents, Leon [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)
2011-07-01
Motivated by recent numerical results, we study the quantum phase transitions between Z{sub 2} spin-liquid, Neel-ordered, and various valence-bond solid (VBS) states on the honeycomb and square lattices, with emphasis on the staggered VBS. In contrast to the well-understood columnar VBS order, the staggered VBS is not described by an XY-order parameter with Z{sub N} anisotropy close to these quantum phase transitions. Instead, we demonstrate that on the honeycomb lattice, the staggered VBS is more appropriately described as an O(3)- or CP(2)-order parameter with cubic anisotropy, while on the square lattice it is described by an O(4)- or CP(3)-order parameter.
Viscosity and thermal conductivity effects at first-order phase transitions in heavy-ion collisions
D. N. Voskresensky; V. V. Skokov
2010-12-22
Effects of viscosity and thermal conductivity on the dynamics of first-order phase transitions are studied. The nuclear gas-liquid and hadron-quark transitions in heavy-ion collisions are considered. We demonstrate that at non-zero thermal conductivity, $\\kappa \
Viscosity and thermal conductivity effects at first-order phase transitions in heavy-ion collisions
Voskresensky, D N
2010-01-01
Effects of viscosity and thermal conductivity on the dynamics of first-order phase transitions are studied. The nuclear gas-liquid and hadron-quark transitions in heavy-ion collisions are considered. We demonstrate that at non-zero thermal conductivity, $\\kappa \
Electronic Griffiths Phases and Quantum Criticality at Disordered Mott Transitions
Dobrosavljevic, Vladimir
Electronic Griffiths Phases and Quantum Criticality at Disordered Mott Transitions Vladimir 22, 2011 #12;Electronic Griffiths Phases and Quantum Criticality at Disordered Mott Transitions, September 22, 2011 #12;Quantum Griffiths phases and IRFP (1990s) · D. Fisher (1992): new
Phase transition into the metallic state in hypothetical (without molecules) dense atomic hydrogen
Khomkin, A. L. Shumikhin, A. S.
2013-10-15
A simple physical model of the metal-dielectric (vapor-liquid) phase transition in hypothetical (without molecules) atomic hydrogen is proposed. The reason for such a transition is the quantum collective cohesive energy occurring due to quantum electron-electron exchange similar to the cohesive energy in the liquid-metal phase of alkali metals. It is found that the critical parameters of the transition are P{sub c} ? 41000 atm, ?{sub c} ? 0.1 g/cm{sup 3}, and T{sub c} ? 9750 K.
Supersonic Deflagrations in Cosmological Phase Transitions
H. Kurki-Suonio; M. Laine
1995-01-05
The classification of the hydrodynamical growth mechanisms for the spherical bubbles of the low-temperature phase in cosmological phase transitions is completed by showing that the bubbles can grow as supersonic deflagrations. Such deflagrations consist of a Jouguet deflagration, followed by a rarefaction wave. Depending on the amount of supercooling, the maximal velocity of supersonic deflagrations varies between the sound and the light velocities. The solutions faster than supersonic deflagrations are weak detonations.
Phase structure and phase transitions in semicrystalline isotactic polystyrene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Hui
Semicrystalline polymers have been recognized as being in a non-equilibrium, metastable state. A single molecule can participate in several phase regimes. Thus, interpretation of the phase structure of semicrystalline polymers, and an understanding of their correspondent phase transitions are essential aspects in today's polymer physics research. The ultimate goal of this thesis is to provide general descriptions regarding understanding the metastable phase structure and correspondent phase transitions in semicrystalline polymers based on the study of simple homopolymer isotactic polystyrene. This thesis gives a detailed description about characterizing the phase structure of semicrystalline isotactic polystyrene. More importantly, this thesis investigates the most hotly debated issues regarding the phase transitions observed in semicrystalline polymers, i.e., formation (vitrification) and relaxation (devitrification) of the rigid amorphous fraction, reversible melting of crystals of semicrystalline polymer, and interpretation of multiple melting of semicrystalline polymer. In this thesis, semicrystalline isotactic polystyrene (iPS) is obtained using two different mechanisms---crystallization from the glassy state, or crystallization from dilute solution. The experimental techniques including thermal analysis, X-ray scattering and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, are used to characterize the phase structure and phase transitions for both semicrystalline WS systems. The main topics contained in this thesis are: (1) Phase structure of semicrystalline isotactic polystyrene. For the WS sample crystallized from the glassy state, the experimental evidence demonstrates that the phase structure can be interpreted by a three-phase stack model comprising mobile amorphous, rigid amorphous and crystalline fractions. The phase structure of WS samples crystallized from dilute solution can be interpreted by either a two-phase or a three-phase model depending upon the sample treatment. (2) Formation (vitrification) and relaxation (devitrification) of rigid amorphous fraction. The rigid amorphous fraction is suggested to be located at the interface between the mobile amorphous and crystalline fractions. The time development (kinetics) of phase formation shows that the rigid amorphous fraction in WS is established mostly during secondary crystallization. The real time quasi-isothermal crystallization measurements demonstrate that the rigid amorphous fraction forms at the crystallization temperature for a well crystallized WS sample. (3) Reversible melting and multiple melting of semicrystalline isotactic polystyrene. The melting behavior of cold crystallized, or solution grown crystals of PS is investigated by thermal analysis and X-ray scattering. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Måns Elenius; Tomas Oppelstrup; Mikhail Dzugutov
2010-04-15
A liquid can form under cooling a glassy state either as a result of a continuous slowing down or by a first order polyamorphous phase transition. The second scenario has so far always been observed below the melting point where it interfered with crystalline nucleation. We report the first observation of the liquid-glass transition by a first order phase transition above the melting point. The observation was made in a molecular dynamics simulation of a one-component system with a model metallic pair potential. This is also the first observation of a simple monatomic ideal glass former -- a liquid that avoids crystallization at any cooling rate. Besides its conceptual importance, this result indicates a possibility of existence of metallic ideal glass formers.
Chaos: Butterflies also Generate Phase Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leplaideur, Renaud
2015-10-01
We exhibit examples of mixing subshifts of finite type and of continuous potentials such that there are phase transitions but the pressure is always strictly convex. More surprisingly, we show that the pressure can be analytic on some interval although there exist several equilibrium states.
Chiral Phase Transitions around Black Holes
Antonino Flachi; Takahiro Tanaka
2011-06-20
In this paper we discuss the possibility that chiral phase transitions, analogous to those of QCD, occur in the vicinity of a black hole. If the black hole is surrounded by a gas of strongly interacting particles, an inhomogeneous condensate will form. We demonstrate this by explicitly constructing self-consistent solutions.
Caloric materials near ferroic phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moya, X.; Kar-Narayan, S.; Mathur, N. D.
2014-05-01
A magnetically, electrically or mechanically responsive material can undergo significant thermal changes near a ferroic phase transition when its order parameter is modified by the conjugate applied field. The resulting magnetocaloric, electrocaloric and mechanocaloric (elastocaloric or barocaloric) effects are compared here in terms of history, experimental method, performance and prospective cooling applications.
Polymorphic phase transition mechanism of compressed coesite.
Hu, Q Y; Shu, J-F; Cadien, A; Meng, Y; Yang, W G; Sheng, H W; Mao, H-K
2015-01-01
Silicon dioxide is one of the most abundant natural compounds. Polymorphs of SiO? and their phase transitions have long been a focus of great interest and intense theoretical and experimental pursuits. Here, compressing single-crystal coesite SiO? under hydrostatic pressures of 26-53?GPa at room temperature, we discover a new polymorphic phase transition mechanism of coesite to post-stishovite, by means of single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiment and first-principles computational modelling. The transition features the formation of multiple previously unknown triclinic phases of SiO? on the transition pathway as structural intermediates. Coexistence of the low-symmetry phases results in extensive splitting of the original coesite X-ray diffraction peaks that appear as dramatic peak broadening and weakening, resembling an amorphous material. This work sheds light on the long-debated pressure-induced amorphization phenomenon of SiO?, but also provides new insights into the densification mechanism of tetrahedrally bonded structures common in nature. PMID:25791830
Passive Supporters of Terrorism and Phase Transitions
August, Friedrich; Delitzscher, Sascha; Hiller, Gerald; Krueger, Tyll
2010-01-01
We discuss some social contagion processes to describe the formation and spread of radical opinions. The dynamics of opinion spread involves local threshold processes as well as mean field effects. We calculate and observe phase transitions in the dynamical variables resulting in a rapidly increasing number of passive supporters. This strongly indicates that military solutions are inappropriate.
General nature of liquid-liquid transition in aqueous organic solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murata, Ken-Ichiro; Tanaka, Hajime
2013-11-01
The presence or absence of a liquid-liquid transition in water is one of the hot topics in liquid science, and while a liquid-liquid transition in water/glycerol mixtures is known, its generality in aqueous solutions has remained elusive. Here we reveal that 14 aqueous solutions of sugar and polyol molecules, which have an ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecules, exhibit liquid-liquid transitions. We find evidence that both melting of ice and liquid-liquid transitions in all these aqueous solutions are controlled solely by water activity, which is related to the difference in the chemical potential between an aqueous solution and pure water at the same temperature and pressure. Our theory shows that water activity is determined by the degree of local tetrahedral ordering, indicating that both phenomena are driven by structural ordering towards ice-like local structures. This has a significant implication on our understanding of the low-temperature behaviour of water.
The underdoped cuprates as fractionalized Fermi liquids: transition to superconductivity
Moon and Subir Sachdev Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge MA 02138 (Dated: November in that paper. So we begin our discussion by describing the the structure of the FL* phase. The FL* phase and d electrons: such a heavy Fermi liquid phase has been observed in many `heavy fermion' rare
Polymerization transition in liquid AsS under pressure: An ab initio molecular dynamics study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohmura, Satoshi; Shimojo, Fuyuki
2011-12-01
We study the pressure dependence of the structural and electronic properties of liquid AsS by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We confirm that liquid AsS consists of As4S4 molecules at ambient pressure, as in the crystalline state. With increasing pressure, a structural transition from molecular to polymeric liquid occurs near 2 GPa, which is eventually followed by metallization. The pressure dependence of the density and diffusion coefficients changes qualitatively with this transition. We find that, during metallization in the polymeric phase at higher pressures, the remnants of covalent interactions between atoms play an important role in the dynamics, i.e., the As-S bond length becomes longer with increasing pressure and the diffusion coefficients have a local maximum near 5 GPa. When the pressure approaches about 15 GPa, the covalent nature of the liquid becomes quite weak. These results explain recent experiments on the pressure dependence of the viscosity.
Yurtseven, Hamit; Salihoglu, Selami; Karacali, Huseyin
2013-06-01
Phase-line equations for smectic-hexatic phase transitions in liquid crystals were derived using the Landau phenomenological theory. In particular, second-order transitions for the smectic-A-smectic-C (SmA-SmC) and hexatic-B-hexatic-F (or HexI) transitions were studied and the tricritical points for these transitions were located. The calculated phase-line equations were fitted (using experimental data for various liquid crystals) to construct a generalized T-X phase diagram. It was shown that the T-X phase diagram calculated from the free energy adequately describes the observed behavior of liquid crystals during smectic-hexatic transitions. PMID:23435517
Size dependence of phase transitions in aerosol nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Koop, Thomas; Mikhailov, Eugene; Pöschl, Ulrich
2015-04-01
Phase transitions of nanoparticles are of fundamental importance in atmospheric sciences. Current understanding is insufficient to explain observations at the nano-scale. In particular, discrepancies exist between observations and model predictions of deliquescence and efflorescence transitions and the hygroscopic growth of salt nanoparticles. Here we show that these discrepancies can be resolved by consideration of particle size effects with consistent thermodynamic data. We present a new method for the determination of water and solute activities and interfacial energies in highly supersaturated aqueous solution droplets. Our analysis reveals that particle size can strongly alter the characteristic concentration of phase separation in mixed systems, resembling the influence of temperature. Due to similar effects, atmospheric secondary organic aerosol particles at room temperature are expected to be always liquid at diameters below ~20 nm. We thus propose and demonstrate that particle size should be included as an additional dimension in the equilibrium phase diagram of aerosol nanoparticles. Reference: Cheng, Y. et al. Size dependence of phase transitions in aerosol nanoparticles. Nature Communications. 5:5923 doi: 10.1038/ncomms6850 (2015).
The comfortable driving model revisited: traffic phases and phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knorr, Florian; Schreckenberg, Michael
2013-07-01
We study the spatiotemporal patterns resulting from different boundary conditions for a microscopic traffic model and contrast them with empirical results. By evaluating the time series of local measurements, the local traffic states are assigned to the different traffic phases of Kerner’s three-phase traffic theory. For this classification we use the rule-based FOTO-method, which provides ‘hard’ rules for this assignment. Using this approach, our analysis shows that the model is indeed able to reproduce three qualitatively different traffic phases: free flow (F), synchronized traffic (S), and wide moving jams (J). In addition, we investigate the likelihood of transitions between the three traffic phases. We show that a transition from free flow to a wide moving jam often involves an intermediate transition: first from free flow to synchronized flow and then from synchronized flow to a wide moving jam. This is supported by the fact that the so-called F ? S transition (from free flow to synchronized traffic) is much more likely than a direct F ? J transition. The model under consideration has a functional relationship between traffic flow and traffic density. The fundamental hypothesis of the three-phase traffic theory, however, postulates that the steady states of synchronized flow occupy a two-dimensional region in the flow-density plane. Due to the obvious discrepancy between the model investigated here and the postulate of the three-phase traffic theory, the good agreement that we found could not be expected. For a more detailed analysis, we also studied vehicle dynamics at a microscopic level and provide a comparison of real detector data with simulated data of the identical highway segment.
Phase transitions in oscillatory neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagashino, Hirofumi; Kelso, J. A. S.
1992-07-01
We have constructed and analyzed a theoretical model of two coupled neural oscillator networks aimed at understanding the underlying basis of phase transitions in biological coordination of rhythmic activities. Each oscillator unit is composed of an excitatory and an inhibitory neuron. These two neurons are coupled to each other forming a negative feedback loop. The excitatory neuron has a self-excitatory connection forming a positive feedback loop. We assume that the change of the coupling strength of the oscillator units or the neurons in each oscillator effects a change in the frequency of the rhythm. We find two, coexisting stable phase-locked modes (in-phase and anti-phase) over a region of coefficients. However, at a critical coupling value, the anti-phase mode becomes unstable and a transition to the in-phase mode occurs. Poincare's method is employed to elucidate bifurcations of the oscillatory solutions, thus revealing the full phase portrait of the network dynamics. The influence of noise on the stability of mode-locked states is also analyzed and correspondence with experimental results is demonstrated.
Phase transitions in Pareto optimal complex networks
Seoane, Luís F
2015-01-01
The organization of interactions in complex systems can be described by networks connecting different units. These graphs are useful representations of the local and global complexity of the underlying systems. The origin of their topological structure can be diverse, resulting from different mechanisms including multiplicative processes and optimization. In spatial networks or in graphs where cost constraints are at work, as it occurs in a plethora of situations from power grids to the wiring of neurons in the brain, optimization plays an important part in shaping their organization. In this paper we study network designs resulting from a Pareto optimization process, where different simultaneous constraints are the targets of selection. We analyze three variations on a problem finding phase transitions of different kinds. Distinct phases are associated to different arrangements of the connections; but the need of drastic topological changes does not determine the presence, nor the nature of the phase transit...
Structural and phase transitions in nanocluster ethanol samples at low temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Efimov, V.; Izotov, A.; Mezhov-Deglin, L.; Nesvizhevskii, V.; Rybchenko, O.; Zimin, A.
2015-06-01
Results of neutron (SANS study) and x-ray diffraction experiments with nanocluster samples of deuteroethanol (C2D5OD) or ordinary pure ethanol (C2H5OH) are presented. A deuterated ethanol sample, formed via quick cooling of ethanol-helium mixture down to 1.6 K, had clusters with the size of d ˜ 20-30 nm at liquid helium temperatures. After warming up to liquid nitrogen temperatures the gel decays into an amorphous white powder. It was observed that these powder samples remained in the amorphous state even after keeping at T ? 90 K for a long time (a few months). The neutron studies were supported by further x-ray investigations of the structure and the phase transitions in the highly dispersed powder samples, which were created via the decay of the gel samples of ordinary ethanol at temperatures above liquid nitrogen up to 150 K at saturated nitrogen gas pressure. Annealing of the "gel" sample during half an hour at a temperature of T ˜ 110 K resulted in a phase transition to a monoclinic phase with the crystallite sizes ˜30-40 nm. For comparison we studied the structure and phase transitions in "bulk" samples, prepared via quick freezing of liquid ethanol down to liquid nitrogen temperature. The "bulk" sample had a similar transition at T ˜ 125 K, which is by 15 K higher than the temperature of the intensive phase transition in the "gel" sample. The mean grain size in the bulk material was d ? 60 nm.
Quantum phase transitions in semilocal quantum liquids
Iqbal, Nabil
We consider several types of quantum critical phenomena from finite-density gauge-gravity duality which to different degrees lie outside the Landau-Ginsburg-Wilson paradigm. These include: (i) a “bifurcating” critical ...
TheLiquidPhase: Countercurrent Chromatography
NSDL National Science Digital Library
TheLiquidPhase is a community portal, or wiki, dedicated to the proliferation of knowledge and good technique in countercurrent chromatography (CCC). It has been organized to help prospective users of CCC learn about its potential and to provide a virtual meeting place for discussions among experienced users of the technique. There are pages explaining CCC, how to get started, and describing a typical setup; sections devoted to solvent systems, modes of operation, and CCC chromatograms; an undergraduate chemistry lab experiment using CCC; lists of manufacturers and distributors; a bibliography, and an alphabetical index.
Pool boilup analysis using the TRANSIT-HYDRO code with improved vapor/liquid drag models. [LMFBR
Wigeland, R.A.; Graff, D.L.
1984-01-01
The TRANSIT-HYDRO computer code is being developed to provide a tool for assessing the consequences of transition phase events in a hypothetical core disruptive accident in an LMFBR. The TRANSIT-HYDRO code incorporates detailed geometric modeling on a subassembly-by-subassembly basis and detailed modeling of reactor material behavior and thermal and hydrodynamic phenomena. The purpose of this summary is to demonstrate the validity of the improved vapor/liquid momentum exchange models in the TRANSIT-HYDRO code for a prototypic experiment and describe some implications for transition phase scenarios.
Erythrocyte morphological states, phases, transitions and trajectories.
Rudenko, Sergey V
2010-09-01
Morphological response (MR) of red blood cells represents a triphasic sequence of spontaneously occurring shape transformation between different shape states upon transfer the cells into isotonic sucrose solution in the order: S(0) (initial discoid shape in physiological saline)-->S(1) (echinocytic shape at the beginning of MR, phase 1)-->S(2) (intermediate discoid shape, phase 2)-->S(3) (final stomatocytic shape, phase 3). In this paper, the dynamics of cell shape changes was investigated by non-invasive light fluctuation method and optical microscopy. Among 12 possible transitions between four main shape states, we experimentally demonstrate here an existence of nine transitions between neighbour or remote states in this sequence. Based on these findings and data from the literature, we may conclude that red blood cells are able to change their shape through direct transitions between four main states except transition S(1)-->S(0), which has not been identified yet. Some shape transitions and their temporal sequence are in accord with predictions of bilayer couple concept, whereas others for example transitions between remote states S(3)-->S(1), S(1)-->S(3) and S(3)-->S(0) are difficult to explain based solely on the difference in relative surface areas of both leaflets of membrane suggesting more complex mechanisms involved. Our data show that MR could represents a phenomenon in which the major role can play pH and chloride-sensitive sensor and switching mechanisms coupled with transmembrane signaling thus involving both cytoskeleton and membrane in coordinated shape response on changes in cell ionic environment. PMID:20538541
Two-step liquid-solid vortex transition with the field along the ab planes in YBa2Cu3O7 crystals
Grigera, Santiago
Two-step liquid-solid vortex transition with the field along the ab planes in YBa2Cu3O7 crystals S to the vortex-solid state is shown to be achieved in two steps, a continuous transition from a liquid but changes the behavior of the entire system.2,3 In- deed, the first-order solid-to-liquid phase transition
Surface-wetting effects on the liquid–liquid transition of a single-component molecular liquid
Murata, Ken-ichiro; Tanaka, Hajime
2010-01-01
Even a single-component liquid may have more than two liquid states. The transition between them is called a 'liquid–liquid transition' (LLT). Such LLTs have recently attracted considerable attention mainly because of the fundamental interest in the physical origin of this counter-intuitive phenomenon. In this study, we report the first observation of wetting effects on LLT for a molecular liquid, triphenyl phosphite. We find a transition from partial to complete wetting for nucleation-growth-type LLT when approaching the spinodal temperature of LLT. Some features unique to LLT are also revealed, reflecting for example the non-conserved nature of its order parameter. We also find that the wetting behaviour is not induced by dispersion forces, but by weak hydrogen bonding to a solid substrate, implying its important role in the LLT itself. Using wetting effects may open a new possibility to control kinetics and spatial patterns of nucleation-growth-type LLT. PMID:20975680
Thermochemical plumes and mantle phase transitions
Olson, P.; Yuen, D.A.
1982-05-10
Integral relations based on boundary layer theory are derived to study the motion of an isolated, two-dimensional thermal plume through a viscous mantle containing polymorphic phase changes. Analytical results are obtained which show that phase transitions alter average mangle convective velocities by less than 50%. In particular we find that the olivine-spinel transition, approximated as univariant, can enhance the circulation velocity of upper mantle convection by 30--40%, while it can enhance the overall amplitude of whole mantle convection by a few percent only. Our calculations demonstrate that a possible endothermic phase change located at 650 km will not prevent deep mantle convection by 30--40%, while it can enhance the overll amplitude of whole mantle convection by a few percent only. Our calculations demonstrate that a possible endothermic phase change located at 650 km will not prevent deep mantle convection unless the Clapeyron slope defining the transition exceeds -0.3 kbar//sup 0/K. This large value is more than one order of magnitude greater than what has been proposed for the 650-km discontinuity. We then extend the method to include compositional buoyancy and effects of the divariant nature of the olivine-spinel transition. Analysis of the motion of a compositionally buoyant plume (one having an anomalous Mg/Fe ratio relative to the ambient mantle) reveals that the chemical plume locally distorts the transition in a way which contributes buoyancy and enhances convective amplitudes by 10% or less. Finally, we combine thermal and compositional buoyancy to investigate the interaction between a thermochemical plume and a compositionally induced density interface.
Quantum spin liquids and the metal-insulator transition in doped semiconductors.
Potter, Andrew C; Barkeshli, Maissam; McGreevy, John; Senthil, T
2012-08-17
We describe a new possible route to the metal-insulator transition in doped semiconductors such as Si:P or Si:B. We explore the possibility that the loss of metallic transport occurs through Mott localization of electrons into a quantum spin liquid state with diffusive charge neutral "spinon" excitations. Such a quantum spin liquid state can appear as an intermediate phase between the metal and the Anderson-Mott insulator. An immediate testable consequence is the presence of metallic thermal conductivity at low temperature in the electrical insulator near the metal-insulator transition. Further, we show that though the transition is second order, the zero temperature residual electrical conductivity will jump as the transition is approached from the metallic side. However, the electrical conductivity will have a nonmonotonic temperature dependence that may complicate the extrapolation to zero temperature. Signatures in other experiments and some comparisons with existing data are made. PMID:23006401
News and views in discontinuous phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagler, Jan
2014-03-01
Recent progress in the theory of discontinuous percolation allow us to better understand the the sudden emergence of large-scale connectedness both in networked systems and on the lattice. We analytically study mechanisms for the amplification of critical fluctuations at the phase transition point, non-self-averaging and power law fluctuations. A single event analysis allow to establish criteria for discontinuous percolation transitions, even on the high-dimensional lattice. Some applications such as salad bowl percolation, and inverse fragmentation are discussed.
The Plastic and Liquid Phases of CCl$_3$Br Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Nirvana Caballero; Mariano Zuriaga; Marcelo Carignano; Pablo Serra
2013-07-12
We present a molecular dynamics study of the liquid and plastic crystalline phases of CCl$_3$Br. We investigated the short-range orientational order using a recently developed classification method and we found that both phases behave in a very similar way. The only differences occur at very short molecular separations, which are shown to be very rare. The rotational dynamics was explored using time correlation functions of the molecular bonds. We found that the relaxation dynamics corresponds to an isotropic diffusive mode for the liquid phase, but departs from this behavior as the temperature is decreased and the system transitions into the plastic phase.
The Plastic and Liquid Phases of CCl$_3$Br Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Caballero, Nirvana; Carignano, Marcelo; Serra, Pablo
2013-01-01
We present a molecular dynamics study of the liquid and plastic crystalline phases of CCl$_3$Br. We investigated the short-range orientational order using a recently developed classification method and we found that both phases behave in a very similar way. The only differences occur at very short molecular separations, which are shown to be very rare. The rotational dynamics was explored using time correlation functions of the molecular bonds. We found that the relaxation dynamics corresponds to an isotropic diffusive mode for the liquid phase, but departs from this behavior as the temperature is decreased and the system transitions into the plastic phase.
Characterization of topological phase transitions via topological properties of transition points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Linhu; Chen, Shu
2015-08-01
We study topological properties of phase transition points of topological quantum phase transitions by assigning a topological invariant defined on a closed circle or surface surrounding the phase transition point in the parameter space of momentum and transition driving parameter. By applying our scheme to the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model and Haldane model, we demonstrate that the topological phase transition can be well characterized by the defined topological invariant of the transition point, which reflects the change of topological invariants of topologically different phases across the phase transition point.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iida, Atsuo; Nishiyama, Isa; Takanishi, Yoichi
2014-03-01
The electric-field-induced phase transition of a chiral liquid crystal containing Br revealed a transition phase between the three-layer periodicity ferrielectric phase and the synclinic ferroelectric phase in the electric field versus temperature phase diagram. Resonant x-ray scattering from the transition phase showed a diffuse streak or spotty weak reflections, which were composed of strong m/3-order (where m = 1 and 2) reflections and other weak peaks. The spotty reflections were found to be related to a 12-layer periodicity phase with a weak contribution from the 15-layer periodicity. An x-ray intensity analysis based on the Ising model suggested that the 12-layer periodicity phase was composed of two three-layer ferrielectric blocks and six synclinic layers. This model indicated that, in the transition phase, the three-layer ferrielectric molecular configuration gradually changed to the synclinic configuration. The diffuse streak appearing around m/3-order reflections near the field-induced transition from the four-layer periodicity phase to the synclinic ferroelectric phase is also discussed.
A Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Phase Transitions: Thermodynamics and Transport Coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uno, Toshiaki; Sogo, Kiyoshi
2015-03-01
Molecular dynamics simulations are performed by using the Nosé-Poincaré thermostat for N = 103 particles system. A new finite range potential function with both attractive and repulsive forces is employed to investigate the phase transitions covering three phases of gas, liquid and solid. Besides the thermodynamic properties, transport coefficients such as diffusion constant, shear and bulk viscosities and thermal conductivity are computed from simulation data. A phase diagram is constructed by locating the phase boundaries from these quantities.
The Nematic Phases of Bent-Core Liquid Crystals
Gleeson, Helen F; Kaur, Sarabjot; Görtz, Verena; Belaissaoui, Abdel; Cowling, Stephen; Goodby, John W
2014-01-01
Over the last ten years, the nematic phases of liquid crystals formed from bent-core structures have provoked considerable research because of their remarkable properties. This Minireview summarises some recent measurements of the physical properties of these systems, as well as describing some new data. We concentrate on oxadiazole-based materials as exemplars of this class of nematogens, but also describe some other bent-core systems. The influence of molecular structure on the stability of the nematic phase is described, together with progress in reducing the nematic transition temperatures by modifications to the molecular structure. The physical properties of bent-core nematic materials have proven difficult to study, but patterns are emerging regarding their optical and dielectric properties. Recent breakthroughs in understanding the elastic and flexoelectric behaviour are summarised. Finally, some exemplars of unusual electric field behaviour are described. PMID:24700653
Ogawa, Ryoji; Miwa, Yohei; Kutsumizu, Shoichi
2015-08-01
Changes in intermolecular interactions and molecular geometry for two kinds of thermotropic cubic mesogenes, 4'-n-alkoxy-3'-nitrobiphenyl-4-carboxlic acid (denoted as ANBC-n, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the alkoxy group) and 1,2-bis(4'-n-alkoxybenzoyl)hydrazines (BABH-n), at liquid crystal (LC) phase transitions were revealed utilizing the frequency shifts in Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) bands as a guide. The ANBC-n and BABH-n form two kinds of bicontinuous cubic (Cubbi), Ia3d and Im3m types, and smectic LC phases depending on the length of the alkyl chain and temperature. In the present work, two kinds of phase transitions, i.e., smectic C ? Ia3d-Cubbi phase transition for the ANBC-16 and BABH-9 and Ia3d-Cubbi ? Im3m-Cubbi phase transition for the BABH-13 and BABH-16, were examined, and the experimental result was compared to the entropy changes predicted by the quasibinary picture model. In this model, it is postulated that the basic units in the BABH-n and ANBC-n, i.e., the "chain" and "core", would contribute to the phase transition entropy in different ways. A conclusion of the FT-IR result shows the adequacy of this model for the behavior of the alkyl chain. On the other hand, the FT-IR result suggested that entropy changes for the "core" predicted by this model are not directly related to changes in the intermolecular interactions between the aromatic cores of the LC molecules at the phase transitions. PMID:26168372
Liquid crystalline growth within a phase-field crystal model
Sai Tang; Simon Praetorius; Rainer Backofen; Axel Voigt; Yan-Mei Yu; Jincheng Wang
2015-01-09
By using a phase-field crystal (PFC) model, the liquid-crystal growth of the plastic triangular phase is simulated with emphasis on crystal shape and topological defect formation. The equilibrium shape of a plastic triangular crystal (PTC) grown from a isotropic phase is compared with that grown from a columnar/smectic A (CSA) phase. While the shape of a PTC nucleus in the isotropic phase is almost identical to that of a classical PFC model, the shape of a PTC nucleus in CSA is affected by the orientation of stripes in the CSA phase, and irregular hexagonal, elliptical, octagonal, and rectangular shapes are obtained. Concerning the dynamics of the growth process we analyse the topological structure of the nematic-order, which starts from nucleation of $+\\frac{1}{2}$ and $-\\frac{1}{2}$ disclination pairs at the PTC growth front and evolves into hexagonal cells consisting of $+1$ vortices surrounded by six satellite $-\\frac{1}{2}$ disclinations. It is found that the orientational and the positional order do not evolve simultaneously, the orientational order evolves behind the positional order, leading to a large transition zone, which can span over several lattice spacings.
Hysteresis and Kinetic Effects During Liquid-Solid Transitions
Streitz, F H; Chau, R
2009-02-17
We address the fundamental issue of phase transition kinetics in dynamically compressed materials. Focusing on solid bismuth (Bi) as a prototype material, we used a variety of time-resolved experiments including electrical conductivity and velocimetry to study the phase transition kinetics of the solid-solid phase transitions. Simple single shock experiments performed on several low-lying high pressure phases of Bi, revealed surprisingly complex behavior and slow dynamics. Strong hysteresis effects were observed in the transition behavior in experiments where the compressed Bi was allowed to release back across a phase line. These experiments represent the first reported simultaneous use of resistivity and velocimetry in a shock compression experiment, and the first observation of hysteresis effects occurring during dynamic compression and release.
Phase liquid turbulence as novel quantum approach
Sergey Kamenshchikov
2015-03-03
In this paper we consider a nonlinear stochastic approach to the description of quantum systems. It is shown that a possibility to derive quantum properties - spectrum quantization, zero point positive energy and uncertainty relations, exists in frame of Zaslavsky phase liquid. This liquid is considered as a projection of continuous turbulent medium into a Hilbert phase space.It has isotropic minimal diffusion defined by Planck constant.Areas of probability condensation may produce clustering centers: quasi stable particles-attractors which preserve boundaries and scale-free fractal transport properties.The stability of particles has been shown in frame of the first order perturbation theory. Quantum peculiarities of considered systems have been strictly derived from markovian Fokker-Planck equation. It turned out that the positive zero point energy has volumetric properties and grows for higher time resolutions. We have shown that a quasi stable attractor may be applied as a satisfactory model of an elementary quantum system. The conditions of attractor stability are defined on the basis of Nonlinear Prigogine Theorem. Finally the integrity of classical and quantum approaches is recovered: existence of particles is derived in terms of Zaslavsky quantum fluid.
Stanley, H. Eugene
, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 2 Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London]. In the case of water, several studies [28] are germane to the hypothesis [2] that in addition to the known the composition and structure of each phase, we separate molecules into two groups accord- ing to the number
Polarons and Mobile Impurities Near a Quantum Phase Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shadkhoo, Shahriar
This dissertation aims at improving the current understanding of the physics of mobile impurities in highly correlated liquid-like phases of matter. Impurity problems pose challenging and intricate questions in different realms of many-body physics. For instance, the problem of ''solvation'' of charged solutes in polar solvents, has been the subject of longstanding debates among chemical physicists. The significant role of quantum fluctuations of the solvent, as well as the break down of linear response theory, render the ordinary treatments intractable. Inspired by this complicated problem, we first attempt to understand the role of non-specific quantum fluctuations in the solvation process. To this end, we calculate the dynamic structure factor of a model polar liquid, using the classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. We verify the failure of linear response approximation in the vicinity of a hydrated electron, by comparing the outcomes of MD simulations with the predictions of linear response theory. This nonlinear behavior is associated with the pronounced peaks of the structure factor, which reflect the strong fluctuations of the local modes. A cavity picture is constructed based on heuristic arguments, which suggests that the electron, along with the surrounding polarization cloud, behave like a frozen sphere, for which the linear response theory is broken inside and valid outside. The inverse radius of the spherical region serves as a UV momentum cutoff for the linear response approximation to be applicable. The problem of mobile impurities in polar liquids can be also addressed in the framework of the ''polaron'' problem. Polaron is a quasiparticle that typically acquires an extended state at weak couplings, and crossovers to a self-trapped state at strong couplings. Using the analytical fits to the numerically obtained charge-charge structure factor, a phenomenological approach is proposed within the Leggett's influence functional formalism, which derives the effective Euclidean action from the classical equation of motion. We calculate the effective mass of the polaron in the model polar liquid at zero and finite temperatures. The self-trapping transition of this polaron turns out to be discontinuous in certain regions of the phase diagram. In order to systematically investigate the role of quantum fluctuations on the polaron properties, we adopt a quantum field theory which supports nearly-critical local modes: the quantum Landau-Brazovskii (QLB) model, which exhibits fluctuation-induced first order transition (weak crystallization). In the vicinity of the phase transition, the quantum fluctuations are strongly correlated; one can in principle tune the strength of these fluctuations, by adjusting the parameters close to or away from the transition point. Furthermore, sufficiently close to the transition, the theory accommodates "soliton'' solutions, signaling the nonlinear response of the system. Therefore, the model seems to be a promising candidate for studying the effects of strong quantum fluctuations and also failure of linear response theory, in the polaron problem. We observe that at zero temperature, and away from the Brazovskii transition where the linear response approximation is valid, the localization transition of the polaron is discontinuous. Upon enhancing fluctuations---of either thermal or quantum nature---the gap of the effective mass closes at distinct second-order critical points. Sufficiently close to the Brazovskii transition where the nonlinear contributions of the field are significantly large, a new state appears in addition to extended and self-trapped polarons: an impurity-induced soliton. We interpret this as the break-down of linear response, reminiscent of what we observe in a polar liquid. Quantum LB model has been proposed to be realizable in ultracold Bose gases in cavities. We thus discuss the experimental feasibility, and propose a setup which is believed to exhibit the aforementioned polaronic and solitonic states. We eventually generalize the polaron formalism t
Phase transition of tin under ramp compression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chong, Tao; Zhao, Jianheng; Tang, Zhiping; Tan, Fuli; CAEP Team
2015-06-01
In this paper, the phase transition experiments of tin were done under magnetically driven quasi-isentropic compression technology on the facility CQ-4,which is capable to deliver a current of peak of 4 MA within rise time of 470 ~ 600ns. As shown in Figure 1, the loading pressure P produced by large pulsed current J interaction with the self-inducing magnetic field B acts on the surfaces of electrodes of electrode panels. Simulation of one dimensional dynamic process with MEOS (multiphase equation of state) phase transition model is done. The simulation input is a stress loading history boundary of surfaces of electrode panels, and the stress is calculated by the plate/window interface velocity. Since the plate/window interface velocity doesn't have the information of the rarefaction wave reflection between the sample and window, the process can only simulate the loading stage now. CAEP
Dynamics and Phase Transitions in Multiferroic Helimagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katsura, Hosho; Onoda, Shigeki; Han, Jung Hoon; Nagaosa, Naoto
2008-03-01
The strong coupling between magnetism and ferroelectricity in multiferroics has recently been attracting much attention due to the fundamental physics involved and promising applications. The representative materials are helical magnets RMnO3 (R=Gd,Tb,Dy) and they have been extensively studied experimentally. We theoretically study the dynamics and phase transitions in cycloidal helical magnets showing the multiferroic behavior. Our approach reproduces several novel features such as the anomalous dielectric response revealed by recent experiments on RMnO3 [1,2]. We also study the nature of the phase transition from collinear to helical spin structure. [1]N. Kida, Y. Ikebe, Y. Takahashi, J. P. He, Y. Kaneko, Y. Yamasaki, R. Shimano, T. Arima, and Y. Tokura, [arXiv:0711.2733]. [2]A. Pimenov, A. Loidl, A. A. Mukhin, V. D. Travkin, V. Yu. Ivanov, and A. M. Balbashov, [arXiv:0707.3614].
Dynamical quantum phase transitions: scaling and universality
Markus Heyl
2015-05-10
Dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs) at critical times appear as non-analyticities during nonequilibrium quantum real-time evolution. Although there is evidence for a close relationship between DQPTs and equilibrium phase transitions, a major challenge is still to connect to fundamental concepts such as scaling and universality. In this work, renormalization group transformations in complex parameter space are formulated for quantum quenches in Ising models showing that the DQPTs are critical points associated with unstable fixed points of equilibrium Ising models. Therefore, these DQPTs obey scaling and universality. On the basis of numerical simulations, signatures of these DQPTs in the dynamical buildup of spin correlations are found with an associated power-law scaling determined solely by the fixed point's universality class. An outlook is given on how to explore this dynamical scaling experimentally in systems of trapped ions.
Topological phase transition in a discrete quasicrystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sagi, Eran; Eisenberg, Eli
2014-07-01
We investigate a two-dimensional tiling model. Even though the degrees of freedom in this model are discrete, it has a hidden continuous global symmetry in the infinite lattice limit, whose corresponding Goldstone modes are the quasicrystalline phasonic degrees of freedom. We show that due to this continuous symmetry and despite the apparent discrete nature of the model, a topological phase transition from a quasi-long-range ordered to a disordered phase occurs at a finite temperature, driven by vortex proliferation. We argue that some of the results are universal properties of two-dimensional systems whose ground state is a quasicrystalline state.
Topological phase transition in a discrete quasicrystal.
Sagi, Eran; Eisenberg, Eli
2014-07-01
We investigate a two-dimensional tiling model. Even though the degrees of freedom in this model are discrete, it has a hidden continuous global symmetry in the infinite lattice limit, whose corresponding Goldstone modes are the quasicrystalline phasonic degrees of freedom. We show that due to this continuous symmetry and despite the apparent discrete nature of the model, a topological phase transition from a quasi-long-range ordered to a disordered phase occurs at a finite temperature, driven by vortex proliferation. We argue that some of the results are universal properties of two-dimensional systems whose ground state is a quasicrystalline state. PMID:25122249
Ferroelectric phase transition in barium titanate nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sedykh, P.; Michel, D.
2009-04-01
Size-dependent changes were found in the B137a NMR spectra of ensembles of very small BaTiO3 particles. The NMR line shapes were studied at different Larmor frequencies over a broad temperature range. In the tetragonal phase, the NMR lines may be decomposed into a contribution typical for the line shape of bulk samples (“ordered” part) and a part in which the tetragonal symmetry is no longer visible (“disordered” part). Both contributions reveal typical changes when the temperature is varied in the range of the tetragonal phase, i.e., between approximately 400 and 300 K. The “ordered” part reveals a first-order phase transition at temperature Tf which decreases when the particle size becomes smaller. As is known, in the case of bulk material the quadrupole coupling constant CQ may be related to the order parameter (spontaneous polarization PS ). Therefore, for all samples the temperature dependence of the CQ in the “ordered” part was studied in the whole tetragonal phase. Its temperature dependence below Tf , with a jump at the first-order phase transition, can be described by an exponential law CQ?(Tf-T)?+const for T
Direct observation of an abrupt insulator-to-metal transition in dense liquid deuterium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knudson, Marcus; Desjarlais, Michael; Becker, Andeas; Lemke, Raymond; Cochrane, Kyle; Savage, Mark; Bliss, David; Mattsson, Thomas; Redmer, Ronald
2015-06-01
Recently a so-called shock-ramp platform has been developed on the Sandia Z Accelerator to access off-Hugoniot states in liquids. The accelerator delivers a two-step current pulse; the first accelerates the electrode to a reasonably constant velocity, which upon impact with the sample cell creates a well-defined shock, the subsequent current rise produces ramp compression from the initially shocked state. This technique generates relatively cool (~1-2 kK), high pressure (>300 GPa), high compression (~10-15 fold compression) states, allowing experimental access to the region of phase space where hydrogen is predicted to undergo a first-order phase transition from an insulating molecular-like liquid to a conducting atomic-like liquid. In this talk we will discuss the experimental platform, survey the various theoretical predictions for the liquid-liquid, insulator-to-metal transition in hydrogen, and present the results of experiments that clearly show an abrupt transition to a metallic state. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Quantum phase transitions, entanglement, and geometric phases of two qubits
Sangchul Oh
2008-07-29
The relation between quantum phase transitions, entanglement, and geometric phases is investigated with a system of two qubits with XY type interaction. A seam of level crossings of the system is a circle in parameter space of the anisotropic coupling and the transverse magnetic field, which is identical to the disorder line of an one-dimensional XY model. The entanglement of the ground state changes abruptly as the parameters vary across the circle except specific points crossing to the straight line of the zero magnetic field. At those points the entanglement does not change but the ground state changes suddenly. This is an counter example that the entanglement is not alway a good indicator to quantum phase transitions. The rotation of the circle about an axis of the parameter space produces the magnetic monopole sphere like a conducting sphere of electrical charges. The ground state evolving adiabatically outside the sphere acquires a geometric phase, whereas the ground state traveling inside the sphere gets no geometric phase. The system also has the Renner-Teller intersection which gives no geometric phases.
Phase transitions in algebraic cluster models
Yepez-Martinez, H.; Cseh, J.; Hess, P. O.
2006-08-15
We study the phase transitions of two algebraic cluster models, which have similar interactions, but differ from each other in their model spaces. The semimicroscopical model incorporates the Pauli exclusion principle, while the phenomenological one does not. The appearance of the quasidynamical SU(3) symmetry is also investigated in the presence of an explicitly symmetry-breaking interaction. Examples of binary cluster configurations with two, one, or zero closed-shell clusters are studied.
Capillary and winding transitions in a confined cholesteric liquid crystal
Daniel de las Heras; Enrique Velasco; Yuri Martínez-Ratón
2015-07-23
We consider a Lebwohl-Lasher model of chiral particles confined in a planar cell (slit pore) with different boundary conditions, and solve it using mean-field theory. The phase behaviour of the system with respect to temperature and pore width is studied. Two phenomena are observed: (i) an isotropic-cholesteric transition which exhibits an oscillatory structure with respect to pore width, and (ii) an infinite set of winding transitions caused by commensuration effects between cholesteric pitch and pore width. The latter transitions have been predicted and analysed by other authors for cholesterics confined in a fixed pore and subject to an external field promoting the uniaxial nematic phase; here we induce winding transitions solely from geometry by changing the pore width at zero external field (a setup recently explored in Atomic-Force Microscopy experiments). In contrast with previous studies, we obtain the phase diagrams in the temperature vs pore width plane, including the isotropic-cholesteric transition, the winding transitions and their complex relationship. In particular, the structure of winding transitions terminates at the capillary isotropic-cholesteric transition via triple points where the confined isotropic phase coexists with two cholesterics with different helix indices. For symmetric and asymmetric monostable plate anchorings the phase diagram are qualitatively similar.
Capillary and winding transitions in a confined cholesteric liquid crystal.
de Las Heras, Daniel; Velasco, Enrique; Martínez-Ratón, Yuri
2015-09-21
We consider a Lebwohl-Lasher model of chiral particles confined in a planar cell (slit pore) under different boundary conditions, and solve it using mean-field theory. The phase behaviour of the system with respect to temperature and pore width is studied. Two phenomena are observed: (i) an isotropic-cholesteric transition, which exhibits an oscillatory structure with respect to pore width, and (ii) an infinite set of winding transitions caused by commensuration effects between cholesteric pitch and pore width. The latter transitions have been predicted and analysed by other authors for cholesterics confined in a fixed pore and subjected to an external field promoting the uniaxial nematic phase; here we induce winding transitions solely from geometry by changing the pore width at zero external field (a setup recently explored in atomic-force microscopy experiments). In contrast with previous studies, we obtain the phase diagram in the temperature vs. pore width plane, including the isotropic-cholesteric transition, the winding transitions and their complex relationship. In particular, the structure of winding transitions terminates at the capillary isotropic-cholesteric transition via triple points where the confined isotropic phase coexists with two cholesterics with different helix indices. For symmetric and asymmetric monostable plate anchorings the phase diagrams are qualitatively similar. PMID:26246247
Quantum Liquid Crystal Phases in Strongly Correlated Fermionic Systems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sun, Kai
2009-01-01
This thesis is devoted to the investigation of the quantum liquid crystal phases in strongly correlated electronic systems. Such phases are characterized by their partially broken spatial symmetries and are observed in various strongly correlated systems as being summarized in Chapter 1. Although quantum liquid crystal phases often involve…
S. Hartland; J. D. Robinson
1971-01-01
Summary In a three phase system the shape of the draining film beneath a liquid drop of phase 1 approaching a deformable liquid-liquid\\u000a interface between phases 2 and 3 is not spherical when the densities of the phases differ. The drop dimensions have been predicted\\u000a theoretically by splitting the drop into a sessile part and a pendant part. These dimensions agree
Dynamics in supercooled liquids and in the isotropic phase of liquid crystals: A comparison
Fayer, Michael D.
Dynamics in supercooled liquids and in the isotropic phase of liquid crystals: A comparison Hu Cang liquid crystals that have been previously studied separately. Optical-heterodyne-detected optical Kerr the melting point down to Tc , the mode coupling theory critical temperature. For the liquid crystals
Gray, Erin M.; Díaz-Vázquez, Gladys; Veatch, Sarah L.
2015-01-01
Giant plasma membrane vesicle (GPMV) isolated from a flask of RBL-2H3 cells appear uniform at physiological temperatures and contain coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases at low temperatures. While a single GPMV transitions between these two states at a well-defined temperature, there is significant vesicle-to-vesicle heterogeneity in a single preparation of cells, and average transition temperatures can vary significantly between preparations. In this study, we explore how GPMV transition temperatures depend on growth conditions, and find that average transition temperatures are negatively correlated with average cell density over 15°C in transition temperature and nearly three orders of magnitude in average surface density. In addition, average transition temperatures are reduced by close to 10°C when GPMVs are isolated from cells starved of serum overnight, and elevated transition temperatures are restored when serum-starved cells are incubated in serum-containing media for 12h. We also investigated variation in transition temperature of GPMVs isolated from cells synchronized at the G1/S border through a double Thymidine block and find that average transition temperatures are systematically higher in GPMVs produced from G1 or M phase cells than in GPMVs prepared from S or G1 phase cells. Reduced miscibility transition temperatures are also observed in GPMVs prepared from cells treated with TRAIL to induce apoptosis or sphingomyelinase, and in some cases a gel phase is observed at temperatures above the miscibility transition in these vesicles. We conclude that at least some variability in GPMV transition temperature arises from variation in the local density of cells and asynchrony of the cell cycle. It is hypothesized that GPMV transition temperatures are a proxy for the magnitude of lipid-mediated membrane heterogeneity in intact cell plasma membranes at growth temperatures. If so, these results suggest that cells tune their plasma membrane composition in order to control the magnitude of membrane heterogeneity in response to different growth conditions. PMID:26368288
On liquid phases in cometary nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miles, Richard; Faillace, George A.
2012-06-01
In this paper we review the relevant literature and investigate conditions likely to lead to melting of H2O ice, methanol (CH3OH) ice, ethane (C2H6) ice and other volatile ices in cometary nuclei. On the basis of a heat balance model which takes account of volatiles loss, we predict the formation of occasional aqueous and hydrocarbon liquid phases in subsurface regions at heliocentric distances, rh of 1-3 AU, and 5-12 AU, respectively. Low triple-point temperatures and low vapour pressures of C2H6, C3H8, and some higher-order alkanes and alkenes, favour liquid phase formation in cometary bodies at high rh. Microporosity and the formation of a stabilization crust occluding the escape of volatiles facilitate liquid-phase formation. Characteristics of the near-surface which favour subsurface melting include; low effective surface emissivity (at low rh), high amorphous carbon content, average pore sizes of ˜10 ?m or less, presence of solutes (e.g. CH3OH), mixtures of C2-C6 hydrocarbons (for melting at high rh), diurnal thermal cycling, and slow rotation rate. Applying the principles of soil mechanics, capillary forces are shown to initiate pre-melting phenomena and subsequent melting, which is expected to impart considerable strength of ˜104 Pa in partially saturated layers, reducing porosity and permeability, enhancing thermal conductivity and heat transfer. Diurnal thermal cycling is expected to have a marked effect on the composition and distribution of H2O ice in the near-surface leading to frost heave-type phenomena even where little if any true melting occurs. Where melting does take place, capillary suction in the wetted zone has the potential to enhance heat transfer via capillary wetting in a low-gravity environment, and to modify surface topography creating relatively smooth flat-bottomed features, which have a tendency to be located within small depressions. An important aspect of the "wetted layer" model is the prediction that diurnal melt-freeze cycles alter the mixing ratio vs. depth of solutes present, or of other miscible components, largely through a process of fractional crystallization, but also potentially involving frost heave. Wetted layers are potentially durable and can involve significant mass transport of volatile materials in the near-surface, increasing in extent over many rotations of the nucleus prior to and just after perihelion passage, and causing stratification and trapping of the lowest-melting mixtures at depths of several metres. A possible mechanism for cometary outbursts is proposed involving a heat pulse reaching the liquid phase in the deepest wetted zone, leading to supersaturation and triggering the sudden release under pressure of dissolved gases, in particular CO2, CO, CH4 or N2, contained beneath a consolidated near-surface layer. This study indicates that liquid water can persist for long periods of time in the near-surface of some intermediate-sized bodies (102-103 km radius) within protoplanetary discs.
Wavelength dependence of twisted nematic liquid crystal phase modulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelly, Thu-Lan; Munch, Jesper
1998-11-01
Many twisted nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulators suffer from limited phase modulation capability and coupled amplitude modulation. In particular, a phase modulation capability of less than 2 ? radians is a severe limitation. Phase modulation is wavelength dependent. We examine the effect of changing the operating wavelength on the phase and amplitude modulation characteristics of a commercial liquid crystal spatial light modulator. Comparisons are made with a double pass configuration which can also increase the phase modulation capability.
An improved model for the transit entropy of monatomic liquids
Wallace, Duane C; Chisolm, Eric D; Bock, Nicolas
2009-01-01
In the original formulation of V-T theory for monatomic liquid dynamics, the transit contribution to entropy was taken to be a universal constant, calibrated to the constant-volume entropy of melting. This model suffers two deficiencies: (a) it does not account for experimental entropy differences of {+-}2% among elemental liquids, and (b) it implies a value of zero for the transit contribution to internal energy. The purpose of this paper is to correct these deficiencies. To this end, the V-T equation for entropy is fitted to an overall accuracy of {+-}0.1% to the available experimental high temperature entropy data for elemental liquids. The theory contains two nuclear motion contributions: (a) the dominant vibrational contribution S{sub vib}(T/{theta}{sub 0}), where T is temperature and {theta}{sub 0} is the vibrational characteristic temperature, and (b) the transit contribution S{sub tr}(T/{theta}{sub tr}), where {theta}{sub tr} is a scaling temperature for each liquid. The appearance of a common functional form of S{sub tr} for all the liquids studied is a property of the experimental data, when analyzed via the V-T formula. The resulting S{sub tr} implies the correct transit contribution to internal energy. The theoretical entropy of melting is derived, in a single formula applying to normal and anomalous melting alike. An ab initio calculation of {theta}{sub 0}, based on density functional theory, is reported for liquid Na and Cu. Comparison of these calculations with the above analysis of experimental entropy data provides verification of V-T theory. In view of the present results, techniques currently being applied in ab initio simulations of liquid properties can be employed to advantage in the further testing and development of V-T theory.
Liquid phase methanol and dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas
Sunggyu Lee; Abhay Sardesai
2005-01-01
The Liquid Phase Methanol Synthesis (LPMeOHTM) process has been investigated in our laboratories since 1982The reaction chemistry of liquid phase methanol synthesis over commercial Cu\\/ZnO\\/Al2O3 catalysts, established for diverse feed gas conditions including H2-rich, CO-rich, CO2-rich, and CO-free environments, is predominantly based on the CO2 hydrogenation reaction and the forward water-gas shift reactionImportant aspects of the liquid phase methanol synthesis