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Sample records for liquid phase transition

  1. Spin liquids, exotic phases and phase transitions

    E-print Network

    Ran, Ying

    2007-01-01

    Spin liquid, or featureless Mott-Insulator, is a theoretical state of matter firstly motivated from study on High-Tc superconductor. The most striking property of spin liquids is that they do not break any physical symmetry, ...

  2. Liquid-Liquid Phase Transitions in Tetrahedrally Coordinated Fluids via Wertheim Theory

    E-print Network

    Sciortino, Francesco

    Liquid-Liquid Phase Transitions in Tetrahedrally Coordinated Fluids via Wertheim Theory Frank has been proposed as a mechanism for generating liquid-liquid phase transitions in one component be solved within Wertheim's theory for associating fluids and shows liquid-liquid phase separations (in

  3. MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF LIQUID-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION

    E-print Network

    Faccanoni, Gloria

    . (,) P pressure law. G. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION 6 / 23 #12;Model Numerical Method. (,) P pressure law. G. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION 6 / 23 #12;Model Numerical Method Vapor = 0 x = 0 = 1Fictive fluid 0 pressure law

  4. Fission and Nuclear Liquid-Gas Phase Transition

    E-print Network

    E. A. Cherepanov; V. A. Karnaukhov

    2007-03-30

    The temperature dependence of the liquid-drop fission barrier is considered, the critical temperature for the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter being a parameter. Experimental and calculated data on the fission probability are compared for highly excited $^{188}$Os. The calculations have been made in the framework of the statistical model. It is concluded that the critical temperature for the nuclear liquid--gas phase transition is higher than 16 MeV.

  5. Liquid-liquid phase transitions for soft-core attractive potentials A. Skibinsky,1

    E-print Network

    Franzese, Giancarlo

    Liquid-liquid phase transitions for soft-core attractive potentials A. Skibinsky,1 S. V. Buldyrev,1. In the case of a narrow attractive well, it has been shown that this potential has two metastable gas-liquid the system has both a gas-liquid critical point C1 and a liquid-liquid critical point C2. For the liquid

  6. Polymorphism in glassy silicon: Inherited from liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiliang; Wang, Li-Min; Zhang, Xinyu; Qi, Li; Zhang, Suhong; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping

    2015-02-01

    Combining molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and Voronoi polyhedral analyses, we discussed the microstructure evolution in liquid and glassy silicon during cooling by focusing on the fraction of various clusters. Liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) is detected in supercooled liquid silicon However, freezing the high-density liquid (HDL) to the glassy state is not achieved as the quenching rate goes up to 1014 K/s. The polyamorphism in glassy silicon is found to be mainly associated with low-density liquid (LDL).

  7. Liquid-liquid phase transition for an attractive isotropic potential with wide repulsive range Gianpietro Malescio,1

    E-print Network

    Buldyrev, Sergey

    Liquid-liquid phase transition for an attractive isotropic potential with wide repulsive range investigate how the phase diagram of a repulsive soft-core attractive potential, with a liquid-liquid phase transition in addition to the standard gas-liquid phase transition, changes by varying the parameters

  8. The liquid to vapor phase transition in excited nuclei

    E-print Network

    J. B. Elliott; L. G. Moretto; L. Phair; G. J. Wozniak; T. Lefort; L. Beaulieu; K. Kwiatkowski; W. -C. Hsi; L. Pienkowski; H. Breuer; R. G. Korteling; R. Laforest; E. Martin; E. Ramakrishnan; D. Rowland; A. Ruangma; V. E. Viola; E. Winchester; S. J. Yennello

    2001-05-02

    For many years it has been speculated that excited nuclei would undergo a liquid to vapor phase transition. For even longer, it has been known that clusterization in a vapor carries direct information on the liquid- vapor equilibrium according to Fisher's droplet model. Now the thermal component of the 8 GeV/c pion + 197Au multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration is shown to follow the scaling predicted by Fisher's model, thus providing the strongest evidence yet of the liquid to vapor phase transition.

  9. The liquid to vapor phase transition in excited nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.B.; Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Korteling, R.G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lefort, T.; Pienkowski, L.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V.E.; Yennello, S.J.

    2001-05-08

    For many years it has been speculated that excited nuclei would undergo a liquid to vapor phase transition. For even longer, it has been known that clusterization in a vapor carries direct information on the liquid-vapor equilibrium according to Fisher's droplet model. Now the thermal component of the 8 GeV/c pion + 197 Au multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration is shown to follow the scaling predicted by Fisher's model, thus providing the strongest evidence yet of the liquid to vapor phase transition.

  10. Zipf's Law in the Liquid Gas Phase Transition of Nuclei

    E-print Network

    Y. G. Ma

    2000-11-03

    Zipf's law in the field of linguistics is tested in the nuclear disassembly within the framework of isospin dependent lattice gas model. It is found that the average cluster charge (or mass) of rank $n$ in the charge (or mass) list shows exactly inversely to its rank, i.e., there exists Zipf's law, at the phase transition temperature. This novel criterion shall be helpful to search the nuclear liquid gas phase transition experimentally and theoretically. In addition, the finite size scaling of the effective phase transition temperature at which the Zipf's law appears is studied for several systems with different mass and the critical exponents of $\

  11. Synthesis and Liquid Crystal Phase Transitions of Zirconium Phosphate Disks 

    E-print Network

    Shuai, Min

    2013-05-07

    -shaped nanoparticles, and use it for the study of self-assembly and discotic liquid crystal phase transitions of discotic particles. The work was introduced by the control over the size and polydispersity of zirconium phosphate (ZrP) disks through synthesis...

  12. A superconductor to superfluid phase transition in liquid metallic hydrogen

    E-print Network

    Egor Babaev; Asle Sudbo; N. W. Ashcroft

    2004-10-18

    Although hydrogen is the simplest of atoms, it does not form the simplest of solids or liquids. Quantum effects in these phases are considerable (a consequence of the light proton mass) and they have a demonstrable and often puzzling influence on many physical properties, including spatial order. To date, the structure of dense hydrogen remains experimentally elusive. Recent studies of the melting curve of hydrogen indicate that at high (but experimentally accessible) pressures, compressed hydrogen will adopt a liquid state, even at low temperatures. In reaching this phase, hydrogen is also projected to pass through an insulator-to-metal transition. This raises the possibility of new state of matter: a near ground-state liquid metal, and its ordered states in the quantum domain. Ordered quantum fluids are traditionally categorized as superconductors or superfluids; these respective systems feature dissipationless electrical currents or mass flow. Here we report an analysis based on topological arguments of the projected phase of liquid metallic hydrogen, finding that it may represent a new type of ordered quantum fluid. Specifically, we show that liquid metallic hydrogen cannot be categorized exclusively as a superconductor or superfluid. We predict that, in the presence of a magnetic field, liquid metallic hydrogen will exhibit several phase transitions to ordered states, ranging from superconductors to superfluids.

  13. Liquid-liquid phase transitions and water-like anomalies in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascaris, Erik

    In this thesis we employ computer simulations and statistical physics to understand the origin of liquid-liquid phase transitions and their relationship with anomalies typical of liquid water. Compared with other liquids, water has many anomalies. For example the density anomaly: when water is cooled below 4 °C the density decreases rather than increases. This and other anomalies have also been found to occur in a few other one-component liquids, sometimes in conjunction with the existence of a liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) between a low-density liquid (LDL) and a high-density liquid (HDL). Using simple models we explain how these anomalies arise from the presence of two competing length scales. As a specific example we investigate the cut ramp potential, where we show the importance of "competition" in this context, and how one length scale can sometimes be zero. When there is a clear energetic preference for either LDL or HDL for all pressures and temperatures, then there is insufficient competition between the two liquid structures and no anomalies occur. From the simple models it also follows that anomalies can occur without the presence of a LLPT and vice versa. It remains therefore unclear if water has a LLPT that ends in a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP), a hypothesis that was first proposed based on simulations of the ST2 water model. We confirm the existence of a LLCP in this model using finite size scaling and the Challa-Landau-Binder parameter, and show that the LLPT is not a liquid-crystal transition, as has recently been suggested. Previous research has indicated the possible existence of a LLCP in liquid silica. We perform a detailed analysis of two different silica models (WAC and BKS) at temperatures much lower than was previously simulated. Within the accessible temperature range we find no LLCP in either model, although in the case of WAC potential it is closely approached. We compare our results with those obtained for other tetrahedral liquids and conclude that insufficient "stiffness" in the Si-O-Si bond angle might be responsible for the absence of a LLCP.

  14. Effect of dimensionality on vapor-liquid phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2014-04-24

    Dimensionality play significant role on ‘phase transitions’. Fluids in macroscopic confinement (bulk or 3-Dimensional, 3D) do not show significant changes in their phase transition properties with extent of confinement, since the number of molecules away from the surrounding surfaces is astronomically higher than the number of molecules in close proximity of the confining surfaces. In microscopic confinement (quasi 3D to quasi-2D), however, the number of molecules away from the close proximity of the surface is not as high as is the case with macroscopic (3D) confinement. Hence, under the same thermodynamic conditions ‘phase transition’ properties at microscopic confinement may not remain the same as the macroscopic or 3D values. Phase transitions at extremely small scale become very sensitive to the dimensions as well as the surface characteristics of the system. In this work our investigations reveal the effect of dimensionality on the phase transition from 3D to quasi-2D to 2D behavior. We have used grand canonical transition matrix Monte Carlo simulation to understand the vapor–liquid phase transitions from 3D to quasi-2D behavior. Such studies can be helpful in understanding and controlling the fluid film behaviour confined between solid surfaces of few molecular diameters, for example, in lubrication applications.

  15. Phase transitions and separations in a distorted liquid crystalline mixture.

    PubMed

    Kasch, Nicholas; Dierking, Ingo

    2015-08-14

    A theoretical method is proposed for modelling phase transitions and phase ranges in a multi-component liquid crystalline mixture where the liquid crystal structure is distorted and defects are formed. This method employs the Maier-Saupe and Kobayashi-McMillan theories of liquid crystalline ordering and the Flory-Huggins theory of mixtures. It builds on previous work on mixed systems that can form smectic-A and nematic phases by incorporating "distortion factors" into the expression for the local free energy of the mixture, which account for the effects of a deviation of the liquid crystal structure from the uniform nematic and smectic-A states. The method allows a simple description of chiral defect phases such as the blue phase and the twist grain boundary phase. In a previous work, it was shown that a model of the blue phase along these lines could effectively explain the observed effect whereby an added guest compound can stabilize the phase by separating into the high energy defect regions of the structure. It is shown here that with the correct choice of guest material a similar effect could be observed for the twist grain boundary phase. PMID:26277166

  16. Phase transitions and separations in a distorted liquid crystalline mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasch, Nicholas; Dierking, Ingo

    2015-08-01

    A theoretical method is proposed for modelling phase transitions and phase ranges in a multi-component liquid crystalline mixture where the liquid crystal structure is distorted and defects are formed. This method employs the Maier-Saupe and Kobayashi-McMillan theories of liquid crystalline ordering and the Flory-Huggins theory of mixtures. It builds on previous work on mixed systems that can form smectic-A and nematic phases by incorporating "distortion factors" into the expression for the local free energy of the mixture, which account for the effects of a deviation of the liquid crystal structure from the uniform nematic and smectic-A states. The method allows a simple description of chiral defect phases such as the blue phase and the twist grain boundary phase. In a previous work, it was shown that a model of the blue phase along these lines could effectively explain the observed effect whereby an added guest compound can stabilize the phase by separating into the high energy defect regions of the structure. It is shown here that with the correct choice of guest material a similar effect could be observed for the twist grain boundary phase.

  17. Liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter including strangeness

    E-print Network

    P. Wang; D. B. Leinweber; A. W. Thomas; A. G. Williams

    2005-01-27

    We apply the chiral SU(3) quark mean field model to study the properties of strange hadronic matter at finite temperature. The liquid-gas phase transition is studied as a function of the strangeness fraction. The pressure of the system cannot remain constant during the phase transition, since there are two independent conserved charges (baryon and strangeness number). In a range of temperatures around 15 MeV (precise values depending on the model used) the equation of state exhibits multiple bifurcates. The difference in the strangeness fraction $f_s$ between the liquid and gas phases is small when they coexist. The critical temperature of strange matter turns out to be a non-trivial function of the strangeness fraction.

  18. The spatial stochastization of optical radiation scattered by liquid crystal in the process of phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrylyak, M. S.; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2014-09-01

    This paper represents the investigation results of spatial chaotization of optical field scattered by liquid crystals during phase transition liquid - liquid crystal under electric field. Two stochastic parameters of the field, namely, Lyapunov's maximal index and correlation exponent was chosen for this study. It has been established that maximum variances of phase inhomogeneities of the nematic liquid crystal corresponds to maximum fluctuations of order parameter under temperature of phase transition liquid - liquid crystal. Was found that analysis of the radiation field scattered during the phase transition process the liquid-liquid crystal allows to accurately determine the phase transition temperature and voltage of forming Williams's domains.

  19. Multifragmentation and nuclear phase transitions (liquid-fog and liquid-gas)

    E-print Network

    V. A. Karnaukhov; H. Oeschler; S. P. Avdeyev; V. K. Rodionov; A. V. Simomenko; V. V. Kirakosyan; A. Budzanowski; W. Karcz; I. Skwirczynska; E. A. Kuzmin; E. Norbeck; A. S. Botvina

    2003-10-10

    Thermal multifragmentation of hot nuclei is interpreted as the nuclear liquid-fog phase transition. The charge distributions of the intermediate mass fragments produced in p(3.6 GeV) + Au and p(8.1 GeV) + Au collisions are analyzed within the statistical multifragmentation model with the critical temperature for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition Tc as a free parameter. The analysis presented here provides strong support for a value of Tc > 15 MeV.

  20. Colloquium: Phase transitions in polymers and liquids in electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsori, Yoav

    2009-10-01

    The structure and thermodynamic state of a system changes under the influence of external electric fields. Neutral systems are characterized by their dielectric constant ? , while charged ones also by their charge distribution. In this Colloquium several phenomena occurring in soft-matter systems in spatially uniform and nonuniform fields are surveyed and the role of the conductivity ? and the linear or nonlinear dependency of ? on composition are identified. Uniform electric fields are responsible for elongation of droplets, for destabilization of interfaces between two liquids, and for mixing effects in liquid mixtures. Electric fields, when acting on phases with mesoscopic order, also give rise to block-copolymer orientation, to destabilization of polymer-polymer interfaces, and to order-order phase transitions. The role of linear and nonlinear dependences of ? on composition will be elucidated in these systems. In addition to the dielectric anisotropy, existence of a finite conductivity leads to appearance of large stresses when these systems are subject to external fields and usually to a reduction in the voltages required for the instabilities or phase transitions to occur. Finally, phase transitions which occur in nonuniform fields are described and emphasis on the importance of ? and ? is given.

  1. Non-equilibrium phase transitions in a liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Dan, K; Roy, M; Datta, A

    2015-09-01

    The present manuscript describes kinetic behaviour of the glass transition and non-equilibrium features of the "Nematic-Isotropic" (N-I) phase transition of a well known liquid crystalline material N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline from the effects of heating rate and initial temperature on the transitions, through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy. Around the vicinity of the glass transition temperature (Tg), while only a change in the baseline of the ?Cp vs T curve is observed for heating rate (?) > 5 K min(-1), consistent with a glass transition, a clear peak for ? ? 5 K min(-1) and the rapid reduction in the ?Cp value from the former to the latter rate correspond to an order-disorder transition and a transition from ergodic to non-ergodic behaviour. The ln?? vs 1000/T curve for the glass transition shows convex Arrhenius behaviour that can be explained very well by a purely entropic activation barrier [Dan et al., Eur. Phys. Lett. 108, 36007 (2014)]. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates sudden freezing of the out-of-plane distortion vibrations of the benzene rings around the glass transition temperature and a considerable red shift indicating enhanced coplanarity of the benzene rings and, consequently, enhancement in the molecular ordering compared to room temperature. We further provide a direct experimental evidence of the non-equilibrium nature of the N-I transition through the dependence of this transition temperature (TNI) and associated enthalpy change (?H) on the initial temperature (at fixed ?-values) for the DSC scans. A plausible qualitative explanation based on Mesquita's extension of Landau-deGennes theory [O. N. de Mesquita, Braz. J. Phys. 28, 257 (1998)] has been put forward. The change in the molecular ordering from nematic to isotropic phase has been investigated through fluorescence anisotropy measurements where the order parameter, quantified by the anisotropy, goes to zero from nematic to isotropic phase. To a point below the transition temperature, the order parameter is constant but decreases linearly with increase in temperature below that indicating the dependence of nematic ordering on the initial temperature during heating consistent with the non-equilibrium nature of nematic-isotropic phase transition. PMID:26342371

  2. Non-equilibrium phase transitions in a liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, K.; Roy, M.; Datta, A.

    2015-09-01

    The present manuscript describes kinetic behaviour of the glass transition and non-equilibrium features of the "Nematic-Isotropic" (N-I) phase transition of a well known liquid crystalline material N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline from the effects of heating rate and initial temperature on the transitions, through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy. Around the vicinity of the glass transition temperature (Tg), while only a change in the baseline of the ?Cp vs T curve is observed for heating rate (?) > 5 K min-1, consistent with a glass transition, a clear peak for ? ? 5 K min-1 and the rapid reduction in the ?Cp value from the former to the latter rate correspond to an order-disorder transition and a transition from ergodic to non-ergodic behaviour. The ln ? vs 1000/T curve for the glass transition shows convex Arrhenius behaviour that can be explained very well by a purely entropic activation barrier [Dan et al., Eur. Phys. Lett. 108, 36007 (2014)]. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates sudden freezing of the out-of-plane distortion vibrations of the benzene rings around the glass transition temperature and a considerable red shift indicating enhanced coplanarity of the benzene rings and, consequently, enhancement in the molecular ordering compared to room temperature. We further provide a direct experimental evidence of the non-equilibrium nature of the N-I transition through the dependence of this transition temperature (TNI) and associated enthalpy change (?H) on the initial temperature (at fixed ?-values) for the DSC scans. A plausible qualitative explanation based on Mesquita's extension of Landau-deGennes theory [O. N. de Mesquita, Braz. J. Phys. 28, 257 (1998)] has been put forward. The change in the molecular ordering from nematic to isotropic phase has been investigated through fluorescence anisotropy measurements where the order parameter, quantified by the anisotropy, goes to zero from nematic to isotropic phase. To a point below the transition temperature, the order parameter is constant but decreases linearly with increase in temperature below that indicating the dependence of nematic ordering on the initial temperature during heating consistent with the non-equilibrium nature of nematic-isotropic phase transition.

  3. Nature of the first-order liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G.; Yu, Y. J.; Tan, X. M.

    2015-08-01

    The first-order liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled Si is revisited by long-time first-principle molecular dynamics simulations. As the focus of the present paper, its nature is revealed by analyzing the inherent structures of low-density liquid (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL). Our results show that it is a transition between a sp3-hybridization LDL and a white-tin-like HDL. This uncovers the origin of the semimetal-metal transition accompanying it and also proves that HDL is the metastable extension of high temperature equilibrium liquid into the supercooled regime. The pressure-temperature diagram of supercooled Si thus can be regarded in some respects as shifted reflection of its crystalline phase diagram.

  4. Volume phase transitions of cholesteric liquid crystalline gels.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Akihiko

    2015-05-01

    We present a mean field theory to describe anisotropic deformations of a cholesteric elastomer without solvent molecules and a cholesteric liquid crystalline gel immersed in isotropic solvents at a thermal equilibrium state. Based on the neoclassical rubber theory of nematic elastomers, we derive an elastic energy and a twist distortion energy, which are important to determine the shape of a cholesteric elastomer (or gel). We demonstrate that when the elastic energy dominates in the free energy, the cholesteric elastomer causes a spontaneous compression in the pitch axis and elongates along the director on the plane perpendicular to the pitch axis. Our theory can qualitatively describe the experimental results of a cholesteric elastomer. We also predict the first-order volume phase transitions and anisotropic deformations of a gel at the cholesteric-isotropic phase transition temperature. Depending on a chirality of a gel, we find a prolate or oblate shape of cholesteric gels. PMID:25956120

  5. Volume phase transitions of cholesteric liquid crystalline gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Akihiko

    2015-05-01

    We present a mean field theory to describe anisotropic deformations of a cholesteric elastomer without solvent molecules and a cholesteric liquid crystalline gel immersed in isotropic solvents at a thermal equilibrium state. Based on the neoclassical rubber theory of nematic elastomers, we derive an elastic energy and a twist distortion energy, which are important to determine the shape of a cholesteric elastomer (or gel). We demonstrate that when the elastic energy dominates in the free energy, the cholesteric elastomer causes a spontaneous compression in the pitch axis and elongates along the director on the plane perpendicular to the pitch axis. Our theory can qualitatively describe the experimental results of a cholesteric elastomer. We also predict the first-order volume phase transitions and anisotropic deformations of a gel at the cholesteric-isotropic phase transition temperature. Depending on a chirality of a gel, we find a prolate or oblate shape of cholesteric gels.

  6. Volume phase transitions of cholesteric liquid crystalline gels

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuyama, Akihiko

    2015-05-07

    We present a mean field theory to describe anisotropic deformations of a cholesteric elastomer without solvent molecules and a cholesteric liquid crystalline gel immersed in isotropic solvents at a thermal equilibrium state. Based on the neoclassical rubber theory of nematic elastomers, we derive an elastic energy and a twist distortion energy, which are important to determine the shape of a cholesteric elastomer (or gel). We demonstrate that when the elastic energy dominates in the free energy, the cholesteric elastomer causes a spontaneous compression in the pitch axis and elongates along the director on the plane perpendicular to the pitch axis. Our theory can qualitatively describe the experimental results of a cholesteric elastomer. We also predict the first-order volume phase transitions and anisotropic deformations of a gel at the cholesteric-isotropic phase transition temperature. Depending on a chirality of a gel, we find a prolate or oblate shape of cholesteric gels.

  7. Ultrafast dynamics of the laser-induced solid-to-liquid phase transition in aluminum

    E-print Network

    Mazur, Eric

    Ultrafast dynamics of the laser-induced solid-to-liquid phase transition in aluminum A thesis dynamics of the laser-induced solid-to-liquid phase transition in aluminum Eric Mazur Maria Kandyla Abstract This dissertation reports the ultrafast dynamics of aluminum during the solid-to- liquid phase

  8. Microgravity Studies of Liquid-Liquid Phase Transitions in Alumina-Yttria Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynes, Buddy (Technical Monitor); Weber, Richard; Nordine, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The scientific objective of this research is to increase the fundamental knowledge base for liquid- phase processing of technologically important oxide materials. The experimental objective is to define conditions and hardware requirements for microgravity flight experiments to test and expand the experimental hypotheses that: 1. Liquid phase transitions can occur in undercooled melts by a diffusionless process. 2. Onset of the liquid phase transition is accompanied by a large change in the temperature dependence of melt viscosity. Experiments on undercooled YAG (Y3A15012)- and rare earth oxide aluminate composition liquids demonstrated a large departure from an Arrhenian temperature dependence of viscosity. Liquid YAG is nearly inviscid at its 2240 K melting point. Glass fibers were pulled from melts undercooled by ca. 600 K indicating that the viscosity is on the order of 100 Pans (1000 Poise) at 1600 K. This value of viscosity is 500 times greater than that obtained by extrapolation of data for temperatures above the melting point of YAG. These results show that the liquids are extremely fragile and that the onset of the highly non-Arrhenian viscosity-temperature relationship occurs at a temperature considerably below the equilibrium melting point of the solid phases. Further results on undercooled alumina-yttria melts containing 23-42 mole % yttrium oxide indicate that a congruent liquid-liquid phase transition occurs in the undercooled liquids. The rates of transition are inconsistent with a diffusion-limited process. This research is directed to investigation of the scientifically interesting phenomena of polyamorphism and fragility in undercooled rare earth oxide aluminum oxide liquids. The results bear on the technologically important problem of producing high value rare earth-based optical materials.

  9. Liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear multifragmentation

    E-print Network

    Das-Gupta, S; Tsang, M B

    2000-01-01

    The equation of state of nuclear matter suggests that at suitable beam energies the disassembling hot system formed in heavy ion collisions will pass through a liquid-gas coexistence region. Searching for the signatures of the phase transition has been a very important focal point of experimental endeavours in heavy ion collisions, in the last fifteen years. Simultaneously theoretical models have been developed to provide information about the equation of state and reaction mechanisms consistent with the experimental observables. This article is a review of this endeavour.

  10. Liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear multifragmentation

    E-print Network

    S. Das Gupta; A. Z. Mekjian; M. B. Tsang

    2000-10-23

    The equation of state of nuclear matter suggests that at suitable beam energies the disassembling hot system formed in heavy ion collisions will pass through a liquid-gas coexistence region. Searching for the signatures of the phase transition has been a very important focal point of experimental endeavours in heavy ion collisions, in the last fifteen years. Simultaneously theoretical models have been developed to provide information about the equation of state and reaction mechanisms consistent with the experimental observables. This article is a review of this endeavour.

  11. Evidence of a liquid–liquid phase transition in hot dense hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Dzyabura, Vasily; Zaghoo, Mohamed; Silvera, Isaac F.

    2013-01-01

    We use pulsed-laser heating of hydrogen at static pressures in the megabar pressure region to search for the plasma phase transition to liquid atomic metallic hydrogen. We heat our samples substantially above the melting line and observe a plateau in a temperature vs. laser power curve that otherwise increases with power. This anomaly in the heating curve appears correlated with theoretical predictions for the plasma phase transition. PMID:23630287

  12. Structure, Hydrodynamics, and Phase Transition of Freely Suspended Liquid Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Noel A.

    2000-01-01

    Smectic liquid crystals are phases of rod shaped molecules organized into one dimensionally (1D) periodic arrays of layers, each layer being between one and two molecular lengths thick. In the least ordered smectic phases, the smectics A and C, each layer is a two dimensional (2D) liquid. Additionally there are a variety of more ordered smectic phases having hexatic short range translational order or 2D crystalline quasi long range translational order within the layers. The inherent fluid-layer structure and low vapor pressure of smectic liquid crystals enable the long term stabilization of freely suspended, single component, layered fluid films as thin as 30A, a single molecular layer. The layering forces the films to be an integral number of smectic layers thick, quantizing their thickness in layer units and forcing a film of a particular number of layers to be physically homogeneous with respect to its layer structure over its entire area. Optical reflectivity enables the precise determination of the number of layers. These ultrathin freely suspended liquid crystal films are structures of fundamental interest in condensed matter and fluid physics. They are the thinnest known stable condensed phase fluid structures and have the largest surface-to-volume ratio of any stable fluid preparation, making them ideal for the study of the effects of reduced dimensionality on phase behavior and on fluctuation and interface phenomena. Their low vapor pressure and quantized thickness enable the effective use of microgravity to extend the study of basic capillary phenomena to ultrathin fluid films. Freely suspended films have been a wellspring of new liquid crystal physics. They have been used to provide unique experimental conditions for the study of condensed phase transitions in two dimensions. They are the only system in which the hexatic has been unambiguously identified as a phase of matter, and the only physical system in which fluctuations of a 2D XY system and Kosterlitz Thouless phase transition has been observed and 2D XY quasi long range order verified. Smectic films have enabled the precise determination of smectic layer electron density and positional fluctuation profile and have been used to show that the interlayer interactions in anti-ferroelectric tilted smectics do not extend significantly beyond nearest neighbors. The interactions which are operative in liquid crystals are generally weak in comparison to those in crystalline phases, leading to the facile manipulation of the order in liquid crystals by external agents such as applied fields and surfaces. Effects arising from weak ordering are significantly enhanced in ultrathin free films and filaments wherein the intermolecular coupling is effectively reduced by loss of neighbors. Over the past four years this research, which we now detail, has produced a host of exciting new discoveries and unexpected results, maintaining the position of the study of freely suspended liquid crystal structures as one of most exciting and fruitful areas of complex fluid physics. In addition, several potentially interesting microgravity free film experiments have been identified.

  13. Liquid–liquid phase transition in compressed hydrogen from first-principles simulations

    PubMed Central

    Scandolo, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The properties of compressed liquid hydrogen, the most abundant fluid in the universe, have been investigated by means of first-principles molecular dynamics at pressures between 75 and 175 GPa and temperatures closer to the freezing line than so far reported in shock-wave experiments. Evidence for a liquid–liquid transition between a molecular and a dissociated phase is provided. The transition is accompanied by a 6% increase in density and by metallization. This finding has important implications for our understanding of the interiors of giant planets and supports predictions of a quantum fluid state at low temperatures. PMID:12626753

  14. Phase diagrams of orientational transitions in absorbing nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolot'ko, A. S.; Ochkin, V. N.; Smayev, M. P.; Shvetsov, S. A.

    2015-05-01

    A theory of orientational transitions in nematic liquid crystals (NLCs), which employs the expansion of optical torques acting on the NLC director with respect to the rotation angle, has been developed for NLCs with additives of conformationally active compounds under the action of optical and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Phase diagrams of NLCs are constructed as a function of the intensity and polarization of the light field, the strength of low-frequency electric field, and a parameter that characterizes the feedback between the rotation of the NLC director and optical torque. Conditions for the occurrence of first- and second-order transitions are determined. The proposed theory agrees with available experimental data.

  15. Intramolecular coupling as a mechanism for a liquid-liquid phase transition Giancarlo Franzese,1,2,

    E-print Network

    Franzese, Giancarlo

    , the high- density liquid HDL and the low-density liquid LDL . In this scenario the HDL-LDL phase transition MC simulation. Our results show that a nonzero intramolecular interaction gives rise to a HDL for a finite intramolecular interaction the HDL-LDL phase transition is predicted. Gen- eral considerations

  16. Phase diagrams in the lattice restricted primitive model: From order-disorder to gas-liquid phase transition

    E-print Network

    Phase diagrams in the lattice restricted primitive model: From order-disorder to gas-liquid phase is very similar to that of the continuum RPM for high NN strength. Specifically, we have found both gas-liquid phase separation, with associated Ising critical point, and a first-order liquid-solid transition. We

  17. Growth Kinetics of Intracellular RNA/Protein Droplets: Signature of a Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Joel; Weber, Stephanie C.; Vaidya, Nilesh; Zhu, Lian; Haataja, Mikko; Brangwynne, Clifford P.

    2015-03-01

    Nonmembrane-bound organelles are functional, dynamic assemblies of RNA and/or protein that can self-assemble and disassemble within the cytoplasm or nucleoplasm. The possibility that underlying intracellular phase transitions may drive and mediate the morphological evolution of some membrane-less organelles has been supported by several recent studies. In this talk, results from a collaborative experimental-theoretical study of the growth and dissolution kinetics of nucleoli and extranucleolar droplets (ENDs) in C. elegans embryos will be presented. We have employed Flory-Huggins solution theory, reaction-diffusion kinetics, and quantitative statistical dynamic scaling analysis to characterize the specific growth mechanisms at work. Our findings indicate that both in vivo and in vitro droplet scaling and growth kinetics are consistent with those resulting from an equilibrium liquid-liquid phase transition mediated by passive nonequilibrium growth mechanisms - simultaneous Brownian coalescence and Ostwald ripening. This supports a view in which cells can employ phase transitions to drive structural organization, while utilizing active processes, such as local transcriptional activity, to fine tune the kinetics of these phase transitions in response to given conditions.

  18. Low electric field induced phase transition of the B1 bent-core liquid crystal phase to a switching phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, J.; Hirst, L. S.

    2008-03-01

    Liquid crystal materials that have ferroelectric and antiferroelectric phases are useful in applications due to their switching properties. The B1 bent-core liquid crystal phase is a columnar phase that does not exhibit switching. A transition from the B1 liquid crystal phase to a switching phase has been seen at an electric field of 10 V/?m, which is much lower than previously seen fields of greater than 25 V/?m [1]. This transition is irreversible upon reduction of the applied field and switching continues almost threshold-less down to an applied field of 40 mV/?m, which has not been previously reported. Any amount of a chiral rod-like dopant increases the field required to transition from the B1 to the switching phase, and the transition becomes reversible with the mixture relaxing back to the B1 phase after a decrease in the electric field. A small concentration of the rod-like dopant also induces a change from the B1 phase to a new liquid crystal phase. These effects were studied using polarized optical microscopy, calorimetry (DSC), and x-ray measurements. [1] J. Ortega et. al., Phys. Rev. E, 69, 011703 (2004)

  19. Dynamical and structural heterogeneities close to liquid-liquid phase transitions: The case of gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonelli, Alex; Cajahuaringa, Samuel; de Koning, Maurice

    2013-03-01

    Liquid-liquid phase transitions (LLPT) have been proposed in order to explain the thermodynamic anomalies exhibited by some liquids. Recently, it was found, through molecular dynamics simulations, that liquid elemental gallium, described by a modified embedded-atom model, exhibits a LLPT between a high-density liquid (HDL) and a low-density liquid (LDL), about 60 K below the melting temperature. In this work, we studied the dynamics of supercooled liquid gallium close to the LLPT. Our results show a large increase in the plateau of the self-intermediate scattering function (?-relaxation process) and in the non-Gaussian parameter, indicating a pronounced dynamical heterogeneity upon the onset of the LLPT. The dynamical heterogeneity of the LDL is closely correlated to its structural heterogeneity, since the fast diffusing atoms belong to high-density domains of predominantly 9-fold coordinated atoms, whereas the slow diffusing ones are mostly in low-density domains of 8-fold coordinated atoms. The energetics suggests that the reason for the sluggish dynamics of LDL is due to its larger cohesive energy as compared to that of the HDL. Work supported by FAPESP, CNPq, CAPES, and FAEPEX/UNICAMP

  20. Supercritical phenomenon of hydrogen beyond the liquid-liquid phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Renzhong; Chen, Ji; Li, Xinzheng; Wang, Enge; Xu, Limei

    2015-06-01

    Using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation, we investigate the supercritical phenomenon associated with the liquid-liquid phase transition of hydrogen by studying the isothermal response functions, such as electric conductivity, molecular dissociation coefficient and isothermal compressibility, with respect to pressure. We find that, along each isotherm in the supercritical region, each of these response functions shows a maximum, the location of which is different for different response functions. As temperature decreases, the loci of these maxima asymptotically converge to a line of zero ordering field, known as the Widom line along which the magnitude of the response function maxima becomes larger and larger until it diverges as the critical point is approached. Thus, our study provides a possible way to locate the liquid-liquid critical point of hydrogen from the supercritical region at lower pressures. It also indicates that the supercritical phonomenon near the critical point of hydrogen is a rather general feature of second-order phase transition, it is not only true for classical systems with weak interactions but also true for highly condensed system with strong inter-atomic interactions.

  1. Revisiting dynamics near a liquid-liquid phase transition in Si and Ga: The fragile-to-strong transition

    SciTech Connect

    Cajahuaringa, Samuel; Koning, Maurice de Antonelli, Alex

    2013-12-14

    Using molecular dynamics simulations we analyze the dynamics of two atomic liquids that display a liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT): Si described by the Stillinger-Weber potential and Ga as modeled by the modified embedded-atom model. In particular, our objective is to investigate the extent to which the presence of a dip in the self-intermediate scattering function is a manifestation of an excess of vibrational states at low frequencies and may be associated with a fragile-to-strong transition (FTST) across the LLPT, as suggested recently. Our results suggest a somewhat different picture. First, in the case of Ga we observe the appearance of an excess of vibrational states at low frequencies, even in the absence of the appearance of a dip in the self-intermediate scattering function across the LLPT. Second, studying the behavior of the shear viscosities traversing the LLPTs we find that both substances are fragile in character above and below their respective LLPT temperatures. Instead of a FTST in an absolute sense these findings are more in line with a view in which the LLPTs are accompanied by a transition from a more fragile to a less fragile liquid. Furthermore, we do not find this transition to correlate with the presence of a dip in the intermediate scattering function.

  2. Possible links between the liquid-gas and deconfinement-hadronization phase transitions

    E-print Network

    I. N. Mishustin

    2006-09-19

    It is commonly accepted that strongly interacting matter has several phase transitions in different domains of temperature and baryon density. In this contribution I discuss two most popular phase transitions which in principle can be accessed in nuclear collisions. One of them, the liquid-gas phase transition, is well established theoretically and studied experimentally in nuclear multifragmentation reactions at intermediate energies. The other one, the deconfinement-hadronization phase transition, is at the focus of present and future experimental studies with relativistic heavy-ion beams at SPS, RHIC and LHC. Pssible links between these two phase transitions are identified from the viewpoint of their manifestation in violent nuclear collisions.

  3. A liquid vapor phase transition in quantum statistical F. Baffioni, T. Kuna, I. Merola, and E. Presutti

    E-print Network

    A liquid vapor phase transition in quantum statistical mechanics F. Baffioni, T. Kuna, I. Merola, and E. Presutti Abstract. We prove a liquid vapor phase transition for a quantum system of particles the van der Waals theory of liquid vapor phase transitions, and indeed the limit 0, after

  4. Nuclear symmetry energy effects on liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    E-print Network

    Bharat K. Sharma; Subrata Pal

    2010-01-14

    The liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter is investigated within relativistic mean-field model using the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy constrained from the measured neutron skin thickness of finite nuclei. We find symmetry energy has a significant influence on several features of liquid-gas phase transition. The boundary and area of the liquid-gas coexistence region, the maximal isospin asymmetry and the critical values of pressure and isospin asymmetry all of which systematically increase with increasing softness in the density dependence of symmetry energy. The critical temperature below which the liquid-gas mixed phase exists is found higher for a softer symmetry energy.

  5. Tailored Phase Transitions via Mixed-Mesogen Liquid Crystalline Polymers with Silicon-Based Spacers

    E-print Network

    Mather, Patrick T.

    by a coupling between liquid crys- talline order and rubber elasticity resulting from the underlying crossTailored Phase Transitions via Mixed-Mesogen Liquid Crystalline Polymers with Silicon-Based Spacers-chain liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) is desired for a variety of applications, including soft actuation

  6. The statistical multifragmentation model for liquid-gas phase transition with a compressible nuclear liquid

    E-print Network

    V. V. Sagun; A. I. Ivanytskyi; K. A. Bugaev; I. N. Mishustin

    2013-06-10

    We propose a new formulation of the statistical multifragmentation model based on the analysis of the virial expansion for a system of the nuclear fragments of all sizes. The developed model not only enables us to account for short-range repulsion, but also to calculate the surface free energy which is induced by the interaction between the fragments. We propose a new parameterization for the liquid phase pressure which allows us to introduce a compressible nuclear liquid into the statistical multifragmentation model. The resulting model is exactly solvable and has no irregular behavior of the isotherms in the mixed phase region that is typical for mean-field models. The general conditions for the 1-st and 2-nd (or higher) order phase transitions are formulated. It is shown that all endpoints of the present model phase diagram are the tricritical points, if the Fisher exponent $\\tau$ is in the range $\\{3}{2} \\le \\tau \\le 2$. The treatment of nuclear liquid compressibility allows us to reduce the tricritical endpoint density of the statistical multifragmentation model to one third of the normal nuclear density. A specific attention is paid to of the fragment size distributions in the region of a negative surface tension at supercritical temperatures.

  7. Confinement effects on the liquid-liquid phase transition and anomalous properties of a monatomic water-like liquid.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gang; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Xu, Limei

    2015-12-28

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the effects of confinement on the phase behavior of a water-like monatomic liquid that exhibits a liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) and a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP). The liquid is confined between parallel walls and we focus on the effects of wall separation and surface chemistry (solvophobicity/solvophilicity) on the location of the LLCP, temperature of maximum density (TMD) line, and loci of compressibility maxima (CM). It is found that, independently of the surface solvophobicity/solvophilicity, the LLCP, TMD, and CM lines shift rapidly towards higher pressures and lower temperatures as the wall separation is reduced. It follows that the effects of confinement on the TMD and CM lines are indicative of the confinement effects on the LLCP/LLPT. Confinement effects are observable already when the liquid particles form ?15 layers between the walls. For the case of water, this corresponds to a separation of ?4-5 nm between the surfaces, larger than the confining dimension of the nanopores commonly used to study the hypothesized LLPT in confined water. Hence, our results suggest that such experiments should not be interpreted in terms of the phase diagrams proposed for bulk water. PMID:26723688

  8. Liquid Gas Phase Transition for Asymmetric Nuclear Matter in the Zimanyi Moszkowski Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu-Ming; Qian, Wei-Liang; Su, Ru-Keng

    2004-07-01

    By using the improved Zimanyi-Moszkowski (ZM) model including the freedom of nucleons, sigma mesons, omega mesons and rho mesons, we investigate the liquid-gas phase transition for asymmetric nuclear matter. It is found that the phase transition for asymmetric nuclear matter in the improved ZM model with the isospin vector rho meson degree of freedom is well defined. The binodal surface, which is essential in the study of the phase transition process, is addressed.

  9. Quasi-liquid layer theory based on the bulk first-order phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhkin, I. A. Petrenko, V. F.

    2009-01-15

    The theory of the superionic phase transition (bulk first-order transition) proposed in [1] is used to explain the existence of a quasi-liquid layer at an ice surface below its melting point. An analytical expression is derived for the quasi-liquid layer thickness. Numerical estimates are made and compared with experiment. Distinction is made between the present model and other quasi-liquid layer theories.

  10. Modified phase-field-crystal model for solid-liquid phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Can; Wang, Jincheng; Wang, Zhijun; Li, Junjie; Guo, Yaolin; Tang, Sai

    2015-07-01

    A modified phase-field-crystal (PFC) model is proposed to describe solid-liquid phase transitions by reconstructing the correlation function. The effects of fitting parameters of our modified PFC model on the bcc-liquid phase diagram, numerical stability, and solid-liquid interface properties during planar interface growth are examined carefully. The results indicate that the increase of the correlation function peak width at k=k(m) will enhance the stability of the ordered phase, while the increase of peak height at k=0 will narrow the two-phase coexistence region. The third-order term in the free-energy function and the short wave-length of the correlation function have significant influences on the numerical stability of the PFC model. During planar interface growth, the increase of peak width at k=k(m) will decrease the interface width and the velocity coefficient C, but increase the anisotropy of C and the interface free energy. Finally, the feasibility of the modified phase-field-crystal model is demonstrated with a numerical example of three-dimensional dendritic growth of a body-centered-cubic structure. PMID:26274309

  11. Quantum phase transition from an antiferromagnet to a spin liquid in a metal

    E-print Network

    Grover, Tarun

    We study quantum phase transitions from easy-plane antiferromagnetic metals to paramagnetic metals in Kondo-Heisenberg lattice systems. If the paramagnetic metal is a fractionalized Fermi liquid then the universal critical ...

  12. Unusual liquid-liquid phase transition in aqueous mixtures of a well-known dendrimer.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Viviana C P; Annunziata, Onofrio

    2015-10-28

    Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) has been extensively investigated for polymer and protein solutions due to its importance in mixture thermodynamics, separation science and self-assembly processes. However, to date, no experimental studies have been reported on LLPS of dendrimer solutions. Here, it is shown that LLPS of aqueous solutions containing a hydroxyl-functionalized poly(amido amine) dendrimer of fourth generation is induced in the presence of sodium sulfate. Both the LLPS temperature and salt-dendrimer partitioning between the two coexisting phases at constant temperature were measured. Interestingly, our experiments show that LLPS switches from being induced by cooling to being induced by heating as the salt concentration increases. The two coexisting phases also show opposite temperature response. Thus, this phase transition exhibits a simultaneous lower and upper critical solution temperature-type behavior. Dynamic light-scattering and dye-binding experiments indicate that no appreciable conformational change occurs as the salt concentration increases. To explain the observed phase behavior, a thermodynamic model based on two parameters was developed. The first parameter, which describes dendrimer-dendrimer interaction energy, was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. The second parameter describes the salt salting-out strength. By varying the salting-out parameter, it is shown that the model achieves agreement not only with the location of the experimental binodal at 25 °C but also with the slope of this curve around the critical point. The proposed model also predicts that the unusual temperature behavior of this phase transition can be described as the net result of two thermodynamic factors with opposite temperature responses: salt thermodynamic non-ideality and salting-out strength. PMID:26451401

  13. Isospin dependence of liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    E-print Network

    W. L. Qian; Ru-Keng Su; Ping Wang

    2000-08-30

    By using the Furnstahl, Serot and Tang's model, the effect of density dependence of the effective nucleon-nucleon-rho-meson (NN-rho) coupling on the liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter is investigated. A limit pressure p_lim has been found. We found that the liquid-gas phase transition cannot take place if p>p_lim. The binodal surface for density dependent NN-rho coupling situation is addressed.

  14. Mechanism of Phase Transition from Liquid to Gas Under Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiuying; Li, Sen; Gu, Fan

    2010-10-01

    Liquid gasification phenomenon was observable in liquid-solid dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) experiments. Starting from classical thermodynamics, this study aimed at finding the reason of liquid gasification in the DBD experiments. Fluid statics and electrohydrodynamics were adopted to analyze the mechanism of phase transition from liquid to gas. The Sumoto effect was also employed to visually explain the change in the pressure of fluid due to the electric field. It was concluded from both theoretical analysis and experiment that the change in liquid pressure was a key factor causing liquid to gasify in DBD conditions. Furthermore, it was stressed that the liquid pressure was affected by many parameters including liquid permittivity, voltage, electric intensity, size of the discharge space and uniformity of the electric field distribution, etc. All of them affected DBD liquid gasification. The related results would provide useful theoretical evidence for multi-phase DBD applications.

  15. Kerr-AdS analogue of triple point and solid/liquid/gas phase transition

    E-print Network

    Natacha Altamirano; David Kubiznak; Robert B. Mann; Zeinab Sherkatghanad

    2014-01-25

    We study the thermodynamic behavior of multi-spinning d=6 Kerr-anti de Sitter black holes in the canonical ensemble of fixed angular momenta J1 and J2. We find, dependent on the ratio q=J2/J1, qualitatively different interesting phenomena known from the `every day thermodynamics' of simple substances. For q=0 the system exhibits recently observed reentrant large/small/large black hole phase transitions, but for 0solid/liquid' phase transition. Furthermore, for 0.00905solid/liquid/gas phase transition except that the coexistence line of small and intermediate black holes does not continue for an arbitrary value of pressure (similar to the solid/liquid coexistence line) but rather terminates at one of the critical points. Finally, for q>0.0985 we observe the `standard liquid/gas behavior' of the Van der Waals fluid.

  16. Evidence of a Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition Hot Dense Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvera, Isaac; Dzyabura, Vasily; Zaghoo, Mohamed

    2013-03-01

    We use pulsed laser heating of hydrogen at static pressures in the megabar pressure region generated in a diamond anvil cell to search for the plasma phase transition (PPT) to liquid atomic metallic hydrogen. Heating the sample substantially above the melting line we observe a plateau in a temperature vs laser power curve that otherwise increases with power. This anomaly in the heating curve is closely correlated with theoretical predictions for the PPT, falling within the theoretically predicted range and having a negative slope with increasing pressure. Details will be presented. The NSF, grant DMR-0804378 and the DOE Stockpile Stewardship Academic Alliance program, grant DE-FG52-10NA29656 supported this research.

  17. Crossover from a Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition to a discontinuous phase transition in two-dimensional liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Vink, Richard L C

    2014-12-01

    Liquid crystals in two dimensions do not support long-range nematic order, but a quasinematic phase where the orientational correlations decay algebraically is possible. The transition from the isotropic to the quasinematic phase can be continuous and of the Kosterlitz-Thouless type, or it can be first order. We report here on a liquid-crystal model where the nature of the isotropic to quasinematic transition can be tuned via a single parameter p in the pair potential. For ptransition is of the Kosterlitz-Thouless type, while for p>p(t), it is first order. Precisely at p=p(t), there is a tricritical point where, in addition to the orientational correlations, also the positional correlations decay algebraically. The tricritical behavior is analyzed in detail, including an accurate estimate of p(t). The results follow from extensive Monte Carlo simulations combined with a finite-size scaling analysis. Paramount in the analysis is a scheme to facilitate the extrapolation of simulation data in parameters that are not necessarily field variables (in this case, the parameter p), the details of which are also provided. This scheme provides a simple and powerful alternative for situations where standard histogram reweighting cannot be applied. PMID:25615069

  18. Ultrasonic studies of structural transformations and phase transitions in liquid crystal emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimochkin, G. I.; Pasechnik, S. V.; Maksimochkin, A. G.

    2011-03-01

    The propagation velocity and absorption coefficient of ultrasound in the range of 0.6-150 MHz in a series of liquid crystal emulsions prepared on the basis of thermotropic liquid crystals and isotropic liquids were studied. The dispersity parameters of emulsions were controlled by polarization microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Features of the temperature dependences of the acoustic parameters of emulsions due to the structural transformations and nematic-isotropic liquid transition in disperse and dispersion phases of liquid crystal emulsions were established.

  19. On the existence of vapor-liquid phase transition in dusty plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, M.; Avinash, K.; Sen, A.; Ganesh, R.

    2014-10-01

    The phenomenon of phase transition in a dusty-plasma system (DPS) has attracted some attention in the past. Earlier Farouki and Hamaguchi [J. Chem. Phys. 101, 9876 (1994)] have demonstrated the existence of a liquid to solid transition in DPS where the dust particles interact through a Yukawa potential. However, the question of the existence of a vapor-liquid (VL) transition in such a system remains unanswered and relatively unexplored so far. We have investigated this problem by performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations which show that the VL transition does not have a critical curve in the pressure versus volume diagram for a large range of the Yukawa screening parameter ? and the Coulomb coupling parameter ?. Thus, the VL phase transition is found to be super-critical, meaning that this transition is continuous in the dusty plasma model given by Farouki and Hamaguchi. We provide an approximate analytic explanation of this finding by means of a simple model calculation.

  20. On the existence of vapor-liquid phase transition in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, M.; Sen, A.; Ganesh, R.; Avinash, K.

    2014-10-15

    The phenomenon of phase transition in a dusty-plasma system (DPS) has attracted some attention in the past. Earlier Farouki and Hamaguchi [J. Chem. Phys. 101, 9876 (1994)] have demonstrated the existence of a liquid to solid transition in DPS where the dust particles interact through a Yukawa potential. However, the question of the existence of a vapor-liquid (VL) transition in such a system remains unanswered and relatively unexplored so far. We have investigated this problem by performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations which show that the VL transition does not have a critical curve in the pressure versus volume diagram for a large range of the Yukawa screening parameter ? and the Coulomb coupling parameter ?. Thus, the VL phase transition is found to be super-critical, meaning that this transition is continuous in the dusty plasma model given by Farouki and Hamaguchi. We provide an approximate analytic explanation of this finding by means of a simple model calculation.

  1. Flow patterns and their transitions of vertically downward two-phase flow with high viscosity liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.Z.; Lin, Z.H.; Liang, Z.P.

    1996-12-31

    The flow patterns and their transitions of air-oil two-phase flows in a vertically downward pipe were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The pipe diameter was 39mm, and the oil and air superficial velocity were up to 4m/s and 20m/s respectively. The flow pattern identifications were carried out by means of the combination of visual observations and analysis for corresponding pressure drop pulsation signals. The investigations express that the flow patterns and their transitions of oil and gas two-phase flow somewhat differed from those of low viscous liquid and gas two-phase flows. On the basis of this study and other previous investigations, one available approach is presented to predict the flow patterns and their transitions in vertically downward two-phase flow with high-viscosity liquid.

  2. Third-Order Gas-Liquid Phase Transition and the Nature of Andrews Critical Point

    E-print Network

    Tian Ma; Shouhong Wang

    2010-07-13

    The main objective of this article is to study the nature of the Andrews critical point in the gas-liquid transition in a physical-vapor transport (PVT) system. A dynamical model, consistent with the van der Waals equation near the Andrews critical point, is derived. With this model, we deduce two physical parameters, which interact exactly at the Andrews critical point, and which dictate the dynamic transition behavior near the Andrews critical point. In particular, it is shown that 1) the Andrews critical point is a switching point where the phase transition changes from the first order to the third order, 2) the gas-liquid co-existence curve can be extended beyond the Andrews critical point, and 3) the liquid-gas phase transition going beyond Andrews point is of the third order. This clearly explains why it is hard to observe the gas-liquid phase transition beyond the Andrews critical point. Furthermore, the analysis leads naturally the introduction of a general asymmetry principle of fluctuations and the preferred transition mechanism for a thermodynamic system.

  3. Solid or Liquid ? - Kinetically induced phase transition of a confined liquid

    E-print Network

    Shivprasad Patil; George Matei; Ahmet Oral; Peter M. Hoffmann

    2005-12-23

    There has been long-standing debate about the physical state and possible phase transformations of confined liquids. In this report we show that a model confined liquid can behave both as a Newtonian liquid with very little change in its dynamics or as a pseudo-solid depending solely on the {\\it rate} of approach of the confining surfaces. Thus, the confined liquid does {\\it not} exhibit any confinement induced solidification in thermodynamic equilibrium. Instead, solidification is induced kinetically, when the two confining surfaces are approached with a minimum critical rate. This critical rate is surprisingly slow, of the order of 6 \\AA /s, explaining the frequent observation of confinement induced solidification.

  4. Liquid-liquid phase transition in aqueous solutions of n-hydrocarbons and amphiphiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirgorod, Yu. A.

    2010-10-01

    Phase transitions in ensembles of water clusters in aqueous solutions of C11-C28 n-hydrocarbons and C2-C12 amphiphiles have been studied as dependent on the concentration and size of dissolved molecules. A critical size (approximately corresponding to the volume of undecane molecule) for water clusters is determined, which triggers the phase transition that leads to the formation of bistable amphiphile micelles.

  5. The Boson peak in confined water: An experimental investigation of the liquid-liquid phase transition hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2015-10-01

    The Boson peak (BP) of deeply cooled confined water is studied by using inelastic neutron scattering (INS) in a large interval of the ( P, T) phase plane. By taking into account the different behavior of such a collective vibrational mode in both strong and fragile glasses as well as in glass-forming materials, we were able to determine the Widom line that characterizes supercooled bulk water within the frame of the liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) hypothesis. The peak frequency and width of the BP correlated with the water polymorphism of the LLPT scenario, allowing us to distinguish the "low-density liquid" (LDL) and "high-density liquid" (HDL) phases in deeply cooled bulk water.Moreover, the BP properties afford a further confirmation of theWidom line temperature T W as the ( P, T) locus in which the local structure of water transforms from a predominately LDL form to a predominately HDL form.

  6. Nuclear liquid-gas phase transition studied with antisymmetrized molecular dynamics

    E-print Network

    Takuya Furuta; Akira Ono

    2006-02-23

    The nuclear liquid-gas phase transition of the system in ideal thermal equilibrium is studied with antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. The time evolution of a many-nucleon system confined in a container is solved for a long time to get a microcanonical ensemble of a given energy and volume. The temperature and the pressure are extracted from this ensemble and the caloric curves are constructed. The present work is the first time that a microscopic dynamical model which describes nuclear multifragmentation reactions well is directly applied to get the nuclear caloric curve. The obtained constant pressure caloric curves clearly show the characteristic feature of the liquid-gas phase transition, namely negative heat capacity (backbending), which is expected for the phase transition in finite systems.

  7. On the isotropic-biaxial phase transition in nematic liquid crystals

    E-print Network

    Giuseppe Gaeta

    2015-11-29

    We apply a recently developed technique to determine adapted coordinates for the sixth degree Landau-deGennes potential, in which the potential is specially simple, to analyze the possibility of a direct transition between the fully symmetric state and a biaxial phase in nematic liquid crystals. {Our results confirm, with simpler computations, results by Allender and Longa.

  8. Influence of solid-state characteristics on critical parameters of vapor-liquid phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomkin, A. L.; Shumikhin, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    New method for calculation of critical point parameters and binodal of vapor-liquid (dielectric-metal) phase transition is suggested. Method is based on the hypothesis that cohesion, which determines the main properties of solid state, determines also the properties in vicinity of critical point. Comparison with known experimental data for rare gases and mercury shows satisfactory agreement with our calculations.

  9. On the isotropic-biaxial phase transition in nematic liquid crystals

    E-print Network

    Gaeta, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    We apply a recently developed technique to determine adapted coordinates for the sixth degree Landau-deGennes potential, in which the potential is specially simple, to analyze the possibility of a direct transition between the fully symmetric state and a biaxial phase in nematic liquid crystals. {Our results confirm, with simpler computations, results by Allender and Longa.

  10. Kerr-AdS analogue of triple point and solid/liquid/gas phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamirano, Natacha; Kubiz?ák, David; Mann, Robert B.; Sherkatghanad, Zeinab

    2014-02-01

    We study the thermodynamic behavior of multi-spinning d = 6 Kerr-anti de Sitter black holes in the canonical ensemble of fixed angular momenta J1 and J2. We find, dependent on the ratio q = J2/J1, qualitatively different interesting phenomena known from the ‘every day thermodynamics’ of simple substances. For q = 0 the system exhibits recently observed reentrant large/small/large black hole phase transitions, but for 0 < q ? 1 we find an analogue of a ‘solid/liquidphase transition. Furthermore, for q ? (0.00905, 0.0985) the system displays the presence of a large/intermediate/small black hole phase transition with two critical and one triple (or tricritical) points. This behavior is reminiscent of the solid/liquid/gas phase transition except that the coexistence line of small and intermediate black holes does not continue for an arbitrary value of pressure (similar to the solid/liquid coexistence line) but rather terminates at one of the critical points. Finally, for q > 0.0985 we observe the ‘standard liquid/gas behavior’ of the Van der Waals fluid.

  11. Fragmentation Phase Transition in Atomic Clusters IV -- Liquid-gas transition in finite metal clusters and in the bulk --

    E-print Network

    D. H. E. Gross; M. E. Madjet

    1997-07-25

    Within the micro-canonical ensemble phase transitions of first order can be identified without invoking the thermodynamic limit. We show for the liquid-gas transition of sodium, potassium, and iron at normal pressure that the transition temperature, the latent heat as well as the interface surface tension approach for some 1000 atoms the experimental bulk values. No excursion to the thermodynamic limit is neccessary. It is often easier to identify the transition in mesoscopic systems than in the infinite system. It is shown that the microcanonical T(E) contains important information about the transition which becomes suppressed in the canonical ensemble. The implications for our understanding of phase transitions in general are discussed. For these finite metallic systems it is essential to allow for a fragmentation of the system. Our result demonstrates further that microcanonical Metropolis Monte Carlo sampling (MMMC) is well suited to establish the link between the fragmentation phase transition in small systems like nuclei and atomic clusters and the liquid-gas transition of infinite matter.

  12. Liquid-liquid phase transition model incorporating evidence for ferroelectric state near the lambda-point anomaly in supercooled water

    E-print Network

    Peter O. Fedichev; Leonid I. Menshikov

    2012-01-30

    We propose a unified model combining the first-order liquid-liquid and the second-order ferroelectric phase transitions models and explaining various features of the $\\lambda$-point of liquid water within a single theoretical framework. It becomes clear within the proposed model that not only does the long-range dipole-dipole interaction of water molecules yield a large value of dielectric constant $\\epsilon$ at room temperatures, our analysis shows that the large dipole moment of the water molecules also leads to a ferroelectric phase transition at a temperature close to the lambda-point. Our more refined model suggests that the phase transition occurs only in the low density component of the liquid and is the origin of the singularity of the dielectric constant recently observed in experiments with supercooled liquid water at temperature T~233K. This combined model agrees well with nearly every available set of experiments and explains most of the well-known and even recently obtained results of MD simulations.

  13. Isospin and momentum dependence of liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    E-print Network

    Jun Xu; Lie-Wen Chen; Bao-An Li; Hong-Ru Ma

    2007-11-12

    The liquid-gas phase transition in hot neutron-rich nuclear matter is investigated within a self-consistent thermal model using different interactions with or without isospin and/or momentum dependence. The boundary of the phase-coexistence region is shown to be sensitive to the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy as well as the isospin and momentum dependence of the nuclear interaction.

  14. Shear viscosity of neutron-rich nucleonic matter near its liquid-gas phase transition

    E-print Network

    Jun Xu; Lie-Wen Chen; Che Ming Ko; Bao-An Li; Yu-Gang Ma

    2013-09-26

    Within a relaxation time approach using free nucleon-nucleon cross sections modified by the in-medium nucleon masses that are determined from an isospin- and momentum-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon interaction, we investigate the specific shear viscosity ($\\eta/s$) of neutron-rich nucleonic matter near its liquid-gas phase transition. It is found that as the nucleonic matter is heated at fixed pressure or compressed at fixed temperature, its specific shear viscosity shows a valley shape in the temperature or density dependence, with the minimum located at the boundary of the phase transition. Moreover, the value of $\\eta/s$ drops suddenly at the first-order liquid-gas phase transition temperature, reaching as low as $4\\sim5$ times the KSS bound of $\\hbar/4\\pi$. However, it varies smoothly for the second-order liquid-gas phase transition. Effects of the isospin degree of freedom and the nuclear symmetry energy on the value of $\\eta/s$ are also discussed.

  15. Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition of Protein Aqueous Solutions Isothermally Induced by Protein Cross-Linking

    E-print Network

    Benedek, George B.

    of protein-rich liquid droplets for bovine serum albumin and chicken egg lysozyme at 25 °C. These dropletsH, polyethylene glycol, and salt concentrations can be used to favor LLPS relative to aggregation. Although is quite common in industrial polymerization processes.8 The observed phase separa- tion is related

  16. Liquid-gas phase transition in strange hadronic matter with relativistic models

    E-print Network

    James R. Torres; Francesca Gulminelli; Débora P. Menezes

    2015-10-26

    Background: The advent of new dedicated experimental programs on hyperon physics is rapidly boosting the field, and the possibility of synthetizing multiple strange hypernuclei requires the addition of the strangeness degree of freedom to the models dedicated to nuclear structure and nuclear matter studies at low energy. Purpose: We want to settle the influence of strangeness on the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition. Because of the large uncertainties concerning the hyperon sector, we do not aim at a quantitative estimation of the phase diagram but rather at a qualitative description of the phenomenology, as model independent as possible. Method: We analyze the phase diagram of low density matter composed of neutrons, protons and $\\Lambda$ hyperons using a Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) model. We largely explore the parameter space to pin down generic features of the phase transition, and compare the results to ab-initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Results: We show that the liquid-gas phase transition is only slightly quenched by the addition of hyperons. Strangeness is seen to be an order parameter of the phase transition, meaning that dilute strange matter is expected to be unstable with respect to the formation of hyper-clusters. Conclusions: More quantitative results within the RMF model need improved functionals at low density, possibly fitted to ab-initio calculations of nuclear and $\\Lambda$ matter.

  17. Liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter from realistic many-body approaches

    E-print Network

    A. Rios; A. Polls; A. Ramos; H. Müther

    2008-10-20

    The existence of a liquid-gas phase transition for hot nuclear systems at subsaturation densities is a well established prediction of finite temperature nuclear many-body theory. In this paper, we discuss for the first time the properties of such phase transition for homogeneous nuclear matter within the Self-Consistent Green's Functions approach. We find a substantial decrease of the critical temperature with respect to the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. Even within the same approximation, the use of two different realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions gives rise to large differences in the properties of the critical point.

  18. Liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter from realistic many-body approaches

    E-print Network

    Rios, A; Ramos, A; Müther, H

    2008-01-01

    The existence of a liquid-gas phase transition for hot nuclear systems at subsaturation densities is a well established prediction of finite temperature nuclear many-body theory. In this paper, we discuss for the first time the properties of such phase transition for homogeneous nuclear matter within the Self-Consistent Green's Functions approach. We find a substantial decrease of the critical temperature with respect to the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. Even within the same approximation, the use of two different realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions gives rise to large differences in the properties of the critical point.

  19. In situ transmission electron microscopy of solid-liquid phase transition of silica encapsulated bismuth nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Hong, Yan; Muratore, Chris; Su, Ming; Voevodin, Andrey A

    2011-09-01

    The solid-liquid phase transition of silica encapsulated bismuth nanoparticles was studied by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanoparticles were prepared by a two-step chemical synthesis process involving thermal decomposition of organometallic precursors for nucleating bismuth and a sol-gel process for growing silica. The microstructural and chemical analyses of the nanoparticles were performed using high-resolution TEM, Z-contrast imaging, focused ion beam milling, and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. Solid-liquid-solid phase transitions of the nanoparticles were directly recorded by electron diffractions and TEM images. The silica encapsulation of the nanoparticles prevented agglomeration and allowed particles to preserve their original volume upon melting, which is desirable for applications of phase change nanoparticles with consistently repeatable thermal properties. PMID:21796304

  20. Phases and Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-09-01

    In discussing phase transitions, the first thing that we have to do is to define a phase. This is a concept from thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, where a phase is defined as a homogeneous system. As a simple example, let us consider instant coffee. This consists of coffee powder dissolved in water, and after stirring it we have a homogeneous mixture, i.e., a single phase. If we add to a cup of coffee a spoonful of sugar and stir it well, we still have a single phase -- sweet coffee. However, if we add ten spoonfuls of sugar, then the contents of the cup will no longer be homogeneous, but rather a mixture of two homogeneous systems or phases, sweet liquid coffee on top and coffee-flavored wet sugar at the bottom...

  1. Investigating the solid-liquid phase transition of water nanofilms using the generalized replica exchange method

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Qing; Kim, Jaegil; Straub, John E.; Farrell, James D.; Wales, David J.

    2014-11-14

    The generalized Replica Exchange Method (gREM) was applied to study a solid-liquid phase transition in a nanoconfined bilayer water system using the monatomic water (mW) model. Exploiting optimally designed non-Boltzmann sampling weights with replica exchanges, gREM enables an effective sampling of configurations that are metastable or unstable in the canonical ensemble via successive unimodal energy distributions across phase transition regions, often characterized by S-loop or backbending in the statistical temperature. Extensive gREM simulations combined with Statistical Temperature Weighted Histogram Analysis Method (ST-WHAM) for nanoconfined mW water at various densities provide a comprehensive characterization of diverse thermodynamic and structural properties intrinsic to phase transitions. Graph representation of minimized structures of bilayer water systems determined by the basin-hopping global optimization revealed heterogeneous ice structures composed of pentagons, hexagons, and heptagons, consistent with an increasingly ordered solid phase with decreasing density. Apparent crossover from a first-order solid-liquid transition to a continuous one in nanoconfined mW water with increasing density of the system was observed in terms of a diminishing S-loop in the statistical temperature, smooth variation of internal energies and heat capacities, and a characteristic variation of lateral radial distribution functions, and transverse density profiles across transition regions.

  2. The quark-gluon-plasma phase transition diagram, Hagedorn matter and quark-gluon liquid

    E-print Network

    Ismail Zakout; Carsten Greiner

    2010-11-29

    In order to study the nuclear matter in the relativistic heavy ion collisions and the compact stars, we need the hadronic density of states for the entire ($\\mu_B-T$) phase transition diagram. We present a model for the continuous high-lying mass (and volume) spectrum density of states that fits the Hagedorn mass spectrum. This model explains the origin of the tri-critical point besides various phenomena such as the quarkyonic matter and the quark-gluon liquid. The Hagedorn mass spectrum is derived for the color-singlet quark-gluon bag with various internal structures such as the unimodular unitary, orthogonal and color-flavor locked symplectic symmetry groups. The continuous high-lying hadronic mass spectrum is populated at first by the unitary Hagedorn states. Then the spectrum turns to be dominated by the colorless orthogonal states as the dilute system is heated up. Subsequently, the liquid/gas of orthogonal Hagedorn states undergoes higher order deconfinement phase transition to quark-gluon plasma. Under the deconfinement phase transition process, the color-singlet states is broken badly to form the colored $SU(N_c)$ symmetry group. On the other hand, when the hadronic matter is compressed to larger $\\mu_{B}$ and heated up, the colorless unitary states undergoes first order phase transition to explosive quark-gluon plasma. The tri-critical point emerges as a change in the characteristic behaviour of the matter and as an intersection among various phases with different internal symmetries. When the saturated hadronic matter is cooled down and compressed to higher density, it turns to be dominated by the colorless symplectic states. This matter exhibits the first order phase transition to quark-gluon plasma when it is heated up to higher temperature. The role of chiral phase transition is also discussed.

  3. DYNAMIC MODELING STRATEGY FOR FLOW REGIME TRANSITION IN GAS-LIQUID TWO-PHASE FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    X. Wang; X. Sun; H. Zhao

    2011-09-01

    In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regime has been used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are often flow regime dependent. Currently, the determination of the flow regimes is primarily based on flow regime maps or transition criteria, which are developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows and widely applied in nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5. As two-phase flows are observed to be dynamic in nature (fully-developed two-phase flows generally do not exist in real applications), it is of importance to model the flow regime transition dynamically for more accurate predictions of two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy for determining flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through the introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs) within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation and destruction of the interfacial area, such as the fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet) disintegration, boiling and evaporation; and fluid particle coalescence and condensation, respectively. For the flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shape (which are correlated), namely small bubbles and large bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identifying the flow regimes is provided, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration of small bubble and large bubble groups. This method is expected to be applied to computer codes to improve their predictive capabilities of gas-liquid two-phase flows, in particular for the applications in which flow regime transition occurs.

  4. Pinball liquid phase from Hund's coupling in frustrated transition-metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralko, Arnaud; Merino, Jaime; Fratini, Simone

    2015-04-01

    The interplay of nonlocal Coulomb repulsion and Hund's coupling in the d -orbital manifold in frustrated triangular lattices is analyzed by a multiband extended Hubbard model. We find a rich phase diagram with several competing phases, including a robust pinball liquid phase, which is an unconventional metal characterized by threefold charge order, bad metallic behavior, and the emergence of high-spin local moments. Our results naturally explain the anomalous charge-ordered metallic state observed in the triangular layered compound AgNiO2. The potential relevance to other triangular transition-metal oxides is discussed.

  5. Ferro-electric phase transition in a polar liquid and the nature of ?-transition in supercooled water

    E-print Network

    P. O. Fedichev; L. I. Menshikov

    2009-12-20

    We develop a series of approximations to calculate free energy of a polar liquid. We show that long range nature of dipole interactions between the molecules leads to para-electric state instability at low temperatures and to a second-order phase transition. We establish the transition temperature, T_{c}, both within mean field and ring diagrams approximation and show that the ferro-electric transition may play an important role explaining a number of peculiar properties of supercooled water, such as weak singularity of dielectric constant as well as to a large extent anomalous density behavior. Finally we discuss the role of fluctuations, shorter range forces and establish connections with phenomenological models of polar liquids.

  6. Disappearance of Widom Line for Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition with Horizontal Coexistence Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiayuan; Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey; Angell, Austen; Stanley, Gene

    2012-02-01

    The study of spherically symmetric two-scale Jagla model with both repulsive and attractive ramps has been very successful in demonstrating the anomalous behavior of liquids (especially water) and its relation with respect to the existence of a liquid-liquid (LL) critical point. However, the co-existence line of Jagla model shows a positive slope, which is opposite to what has been found in the simulations of water. To more convincingly link the result of the study on Jagla model with that of water, we applied discrete molecular dynamics to Gibson and Wilding's modified Jagla model and found that by shrinking both the attractive and repulsive ramps, the slope of the coexistence line can be reduced to zero. However, at these values of the parameters, the LL critical point becomes completely unstable with respect to crystal and glass. We further studied the Widom line, defined as extreme of response functions and also continuation of the coexistence line into one phase region, and found Widom line disappeared in the case of zero slope of the coexistence line, due to the equal enthalpy of low-density liquid (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL).

  7. Tactoids and Defects in Nematic-Isotropic Phase Transition in Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Ki; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2013-03-01

    We explore the structure of nuclei (tactoids) and topological defects (disclinations) in the first-order nematic-isotropic phase transition in self-assembled lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals. The shape of tactoids is determined by orientational elasticity of the liquid crystal, surface tension, and surface anchoring of the director. The positive tactoids (nuclei of the nematic phase) show two pointed ends (cusps). The negative tactoids (nuclei of the isotropic phase) show a variety of shapes, with one, two, or three cusps, depending on whether they nucleate at the core of disclinations of strength 1/2, in a homogeneous nematic, or at the core of a (-1/2) disclination, respectively. Zero-cusp and four-cusp formations are also possible at the core of stabilized disclinations of strength 1 and -1, respectively. The results demonstrate a profound role of surface tension and its anisotropy in the morphological dynamics of phase transitions in liquid crystals. The work was supported by NSF DMR 1104850 and 11212878.

  8. Quantum phase transition and Fermi liquid behavior in Pd1 -xNix nanoalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, P.; Srivastava, Suneel K.; Srivastava, Sanjeev K.

    2015-01-01

    The Pd1 -xNix alloy system is an established ideal transition-metal system possessing a composition-induced paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic quantum phase transition (QPT) at the critical concentration xc˜0.026 in bulk. A low-temperature non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior around xc usually indicates the presence of quantum criticality (QC) in this system. In this work, we explore the existence of such a QPT in nanoparticles of this alloy system. We synthesized single-phase, polydispersed and 40-50 nm mean diameter crystalline nanoparticles of Pd1 -xNix alloys, with x near xc and beyond, by a chemical reflux method. In addition to the determination of the size, composition, phase, and crystallinity of the alloys by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, the existence of a possible QPT was explored by resistivity and dc magnetization measurements. A dip in the value of the exponent n near xc, and a concomitant peak in the constant A of the A Tn dependence of the low-temperature (T ) resistivity indicate the presence of a quantum-like phase transition in the system. The minimum value of n , however, remains within the Fermi liquid regime (n >2 ). The dc magnetization results suggest an anticipatory presence of a superparamagnetic-to-ferromagnetic QPT in the mean-sized nanoparticles. The observation of a possible quantum critical NFL behavior (n <2 ) through resistivity is argued to be inhibited by the electron-magnon scatterings present in the smaller nanoparticles.

  9. Phase Transitions of Triflate-Based Ionic Liquids under High Pressure.

    PubMed

    Faria, Luiz F O; Ribeiro, Mauro C C

    2015-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been used to study phase transitions of ionic liquids based on the triflate anion, [TfO](-), as a function of pressure or temperature. Raman spectra of ionic liquids containing the cations 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium, [C4C1Im](+), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium, [C8C1Im](+), 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium, [C4C1C1Im](+), and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium, [C4C1Pyr](+), were compared. Vibrational frequencies and binding energy of ionic pairs were calculated by quantum chemistry methods. The ionic liquids [C4C1Im][TfO] and [C4C1Pyr][TfO] crystallize at 1.0 GPa when the pressure is increased in steps of ? 0.2 GPa from the atmospheric pressure, whereas [C8C1Im][TfO] and [C4C1C1Im][TfO] do not crystallize up to 2.3 GPa of applied pressure. The low-frequency range of the Raman spectrum of [C4C1Im][TfO] indicates that the system undergoes glass transition, rather than crystallization, when the pressure applied on the liquid has been increased above 2.0 GPa in a single step. Strong hysteresis of spectral features (frequency shift and bandwidth) of the high-pressure crystalline phase when the pressure was released stepwise back to the atmospheric pressure has been found . PMID:26457868

  10. Liquid–solid phase transition of hydrogen and deuterium in silica aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cleve, E.; Worsley, M. A.; Kucheyev, S. O.

    2014-10-28

    Behavior of hydrogen isotopes confined in disordered low-density nanoporous solids remains essentially unknown. Here, we use relaxation calorimetry to study freezing and melting of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} in an ?85%-porous base-catalyzed silica aerogel. We find that liquid–solid transition temperatures of both isotopes inside the aerogel are depressed. The phase transition takes place over a wide temperature range of ?4?K and non-trivially depends on the liquid filling fraction, reflecting the broad pore size distribution in the aerogel. Undercooling is observed for both H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} confined inside the aerogel monolith. Results for H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} are extrapolated to tritium-containing hydrogens with the quantum law of corresponding states.

  11. Study of near-critical states of liquid-vapor phase transition of magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelyanov, A. N.; Shakhray, D. V.; Golyshev, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Study of thermodynamic parameters of magnesium in the near-critical point region of the liquid-vapor phase transition and in the region of metal-nonmetal transition was carried out. Measurements of the electrical resistance of magnesium after shock compression and expansion into gas (helium) environment in the process of isobaric heating was carried out. Heating of the magnesium surface by heat transfer with hot helium was performed. The registered electrical resistance of expanded magnesium was about 104-105 times lower than the electrical resistance of the magnesium under normal condition at the density less than the density of the critical point. Thus, metal-nonmetal transition was found in magnesium.

  12. Influence of spin polarizability on liquid gas phase transition in the nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Z.; Bigdeli, M.; Bordbar, G. H.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the liquid gas phase transition for the spin polarized nuclear matter. Applying the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method, and using two microscopic potentials, AV18 and UV14+TNI, we calculate the free energy, equation of state (EOS), order parameter, entropy, heat capacity and compressibility to derive the critical properties of spin polarized nuclear matter. Our results indicate that for the spin polarized nuclear matter, the second-order phase transition takes place at lower temperatures with respect to the unpolarized one. It is also shown that the critical temperature of our spin polarized nuclear matter with a specific value of spin polarization parameter is in good agreement with the experimental result.

  13. Liquid-Solid Phase Transition Alloy as Reversible and Rapid Molding Bone Cement

    E-print Network

    Yi, Liting; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Bone cement has been demonstrated as an essential restorative material in the orthopedic surgery. However current materials often imply unavoidable drawbacks, such as tissue-cement reaction induced thermal injuries and troublesome revision procedure. Here we proposed an injectable alloy cement to address such problems through its liquid-solid phase transition mechanism. The cement is made of a unique alloy BiInSnZn with a specifically designed low melting point 57.5{\\deg}C. This property enables its rapid molding into various shapes with high plasticity. Some fundamental characteristics including mechanical strength behaviors and phase transition-induced thermal features have been measured to demonstrate the competence of alloy as unconventional cement with favorable merits. Further biocompatible tests showed that this material could be safely employed in vivo. In addition, experiments also found the alloy cement capability as an excellent contrast agent for radiation imaging. Particularly, the proposed alloy...

  14. Proton NMR relaxation study on the nematic-nematic phase transition in A131 liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Aluculesei, A; Vaca Chávez, F; Cruz, C; Sebastião, P J; Nagaveni, N G; Prasad, V; Dong, R Y

    2012-08-01

    A study of the proton NMR spin-lattice relaxation time, T(1), of the A131 liquid crystal compound as a function of temperature and Larmor frequency, using a combination of fast field-cycling and standard NMR techniques, is presented. The frequency dispersion in a wide range (from 10 kHz to 300 MHz) at different temperatures and the temperature variation of T(1), in several frequency conditions, were analyzed considering the contributions of the molecular movements generally detected in liquid crystals. In the case of nematic phases of calamitic liquid crystals, the nuclear spin relaxation is dominated by collective movements and local molecular reorientations. The experimental results clearly show a transition within the nematic range of this compound, previously identified as one from the uniaxial to the biaxial phase. This transition can be associated with a slowing down of the molecular rotations around the long molecular axis, where the preferred orientation defines the principal director as detected in the T(1) dispersion analysis. PMID:22775563

  15. Critical temperature for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition (from multifragmentation and fission)

    SciTech Connect

    Karnaukhov, V. A.; Oeschler, H.; Budzanowski, A.; Avdeyev, S. P.; Botvina, A. S.; Cherepanov, E. A.; Karcz, W.; Kirakosyan, V. V.; Rukoyatkin, P. A.; Skwirczynska, I.; Norbeck, E.

    2008-12-15

    Critical temperature T{sub c} for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition is estimated from both the multifragmentation and fission data. In the first case, the critical temperature is obtained by analysis of the intermediate-mass-fragment yields in p(8.1 GeV) + Au collisions within the statistical model of multifragmentation. In the second case, the experimental fission probability for excited {sup 188}Os is compared with the calculated one with T{sub c} as a free parameter. It is concluded for both cases that the critical temperature is higher than 15 MeV.

  16. Kerr-AdS analogue of tricritical point and solid/liquid/gas phase transition

    E-print Network

    Altamirano, Natacha; Mann, Robert B; Sherkatghanad, Zeinab

    2013-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic behavior of multi-spinning d=6 Kerr-anti de Sitter black holes in the canonical ensemble of fixed angular momenta J1 and J2. We find, dependent on the ratio q=J2/J1, qualitatively different interesting phenomena known from the `every day thermodynamics' of simple substances. For q=0 the system exhibits recently observed reentrant large/small/large black hole phase transitions, but for 00.0985 we observe the `standard liquid/gas behavior' of the Van der Waals fluid.

  17. Critical temperature for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition (from multifragmentation and fission)

    E-print Network

    V. A. Karnaukhov; H. Oeschler; A. Budzanowski; S. P. Avdeyev; A. S. Botvina; E. A. Cherepanov; W. Karcz; V. V. Kirakosyan; P. A. Rukoyatkin; I. Skwirczynska; E. Norbeck

    2008-01-29

    Critical temperature Tc for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition is stimated both from the multifragmentation and fission data. In the first case,the critical temperature is obtained by analysis of the IMF yields in p(8.1 GeV)+Au collisions within the statistical model of multifragmentation (SMM). In the second case, the experimental fission probability for excited 188Os is compared with the calculated one with Tc as a free parameter. It is concluded for both cases that the critical temperature is higher than 16 MeV.

  18. Liquid-gas phase transition and Coulomb instability of asymmetric nuclear systems

    E-print Network

    P. Wang; D. B. Leinweber; A. W. Thomas; A. G. Williams

    2005-01-27

    We use a chiral SU(3) quark mean field model to study the properties of nuclear systems at finite temperature. The liquid-gas phase transition of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter is discussed. For two formulations of the model the critical temperature, $T_c$, for symmetric nuclear matter is found to be 15.8 MeV and 17.9 MeV. These values are consistent with those derived from recent experiments. The limiting temperatures for finite nuclei are in good agreement with the experimental points.

  19. Molecular Evolution of Poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline) Aqueous Solution during the Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation and Phase Transition Process.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianjiao; Tang, Hui; Wu, Peiyi

    2015-06-23

    A detailed phase transition process of poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline) (PIPOZ) in aqueous solution was investigated by means of DSC, temperature-variable (1)H NMR, Raman, optical micrographs, and FT-IR spectroscopy measurements. Gradual phase separation accompanied by large dehydration degree and big conformational changes above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and facile reversibility were identified. Based on the two-dimensional correlation (2Dcos) and perturbation correlation moving window (PCMW) analyses, the sequence order of chemical group motions in phase transition process was elucidated. Additionally, a newly assigned CH3···O?C intermolecular hydrogen bond at 3008 cm(-1) in the PIPOZ system provides extra information on the interactions between C-H and C?O groups. The formation of cross-linking "bridging" hydrogen bonds C?O···D-O-D···O?C (1631 cm(-1)) is proposed as the key process to induce the liquid-liquid phase separation and polymer-rich phase formation of PIPOZ solution. With slow heating, more and more "bridging" hydrogen bonds were formed and D2O were expelled with an ordered and mostly all-trans conformation adopted in the PIPOZ chains. On the basis of these observations, a physical picture on the molecular evolution of PIPOZ solution during the phase transition process has been derived. PMID:26024150

  20. Method and apparatus for acoustic plate mode liquid-solid phase transition detection

    DOEpatents

    Blair, Dianna S. (Albuquerque, NM); Freye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM); Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing a liquid-solid phase transition event is provided which comprises an acoustic plate mode detecting element placed in contact with a liquid or solid material which generates a high-frequency acoustic wave that is attenuated to an extent based on the physical state of the material is contact with the detecting element. The attenuation caused by the material in contact with the acoustic plate mode detecting element is used to determine the physical state of the material being detected. The method and device are particularly suited for detecting conditions such as the icing and deicing of wings of an aircraft. In another aspect of the present invention, a method is provided wherein the adhesion of a solid material to the detecting element can be measured using the apparatus of the invention.

  1. Liquid-solid phase transition alloy as reversible and rapid molding bone cement.

    PubMed

    Yi, Liting; Jin, Chao; Wang, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-12-01

    Acrylic bone cement has been an essential non-metallic implant used as fixing agent in the cemented total joint arthroplasty (THA). However, the currently available materials based mainly on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) still encounter certain limitations, such as time-consuming polymerization, thermal and chemical necrosis and troublesome revision procedure. Here from an alternative way, we proposed for the first time to adopt the injectable alloy cement to address such tough issues through introducing its unique liquid-solid phase transition mechanism. A typical cement along this way is thus made of an alloy Bi/In/Sn/Zn with a specifically designed low melting point 57.5 °C, which enables its rapid molding into various desired shapes with high plasticity and ultimate metallic behaviors. The fundamental characteristics including the mechanical strength, biocompatibility and phase transition-induced thermal effects have been clarified to demonstrate the importance of such alloy as unconventional cement with favorable merits. In addition, we also disclosed its advantage as an excellent contrast agent for radiation imaging on the bone interior structure which is highly beneficial for guiding the surgery and monitoring the therapeutic effects. Particularly, the proposed alloy cement with reversible phase transition feature significantly simplifies the revision of the cement and prosthesis. This study opens the way for employing the injectable alloy materials as reversible bone cement to fulfill diverse clinical needs in the coming time. PMID:25239039

  2. Observing in space and time the ephemeral nucleation of liquid-to-crystal phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Byung-Kuk; Kwon, Oh-Hoon; Liu, Haihua; Tang, Jau; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2015-10-01

    The phase transition of crystalline ordering is a general phenomenon, but its evolution in space and time requires microscopic probes for visualization. Here we report direct imaging of the transformation of amorphous titanium dioxide nanofilm, from the liquid state, passing through the nucleation step and finally to the ordered crystal phase. Single-pulse transient diffraction profiles at different times provide the structural transformation and the specific degree of crystallinity (?) in the evolution process. It is found that the temporal behaviour of ? exhibits unique `two-step' dynamics, with a robust `plateau' that extends over a microsecond; the rate constants vary by two orders of magnitude. Such behaviour reflects the presence of intermediate structure(s) that are the precursor of the ordered crystal state. Theoretically, we extend the well-known Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov equation, which describes the isothermal process with a stretched-exponential function, but here over the range of times covering the melt-to-crystal transformation.

  3. Graphene oxide liquid crystals: synthesis, phase transition, rheological property, and applications in optoelectronics and display.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng; Tong, Xin; Wang, Yanan; Bao, Jiming; Wang, Zhiming M

    2015-12-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) liquid crystals (LCs) are macroscopically ordered GO flakes dispersed in water or polar organic solvents. Since the first report in 2011, GO LCs have attracted considerable attention for their basic properties and potential device applications. In this review, we summarize recent developments and present a comprehensive understanding of GO LCs via many aspects ranging from the exfoliation of GO flakes from graphite, to phases and phase transitions under various conditions, the orientational responses of GO under external magnetic and electric fields, and finally Kerr effect and display applications. The emphasis is placed on the unique and basic properties of GO and their ordered assembly. We will also discuss challenges and issues that need to be overcome in order to gain a more fundamental understanding and exploit full device potentials of GO LCs. PMID:26546325

  4. Graphene oxide liquid crystals: synthesis, phase transition, rheological property, and applications in optoelectronics and display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Feng; Tong, Xin; Wang, Yanan; Bao, Jiming; Wang, Zhiming M.

    2015-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) liquid crystals (LCs) are macroscopically ordered GO flakes dispersed in water or polar organic solvents. Since the first report in 2011, GO LCs have attracted considerable attention for their basic properties and potential device applications. In this review, we summarize recent developments and present a comprehensive understanding of GO LCs via many aspects ranging from the exfoliation of GO flakes from graphite, to phases and phase transitions under various conditions, the orientational responses of GO under external magnetic and electric fields, and finally Kerr effect and display applications. The emphasis is placed on the unique and basic properties of GO and their ordered assembly. We will also discuss challenges and issues that need to be overcome in order to gain a more fundamental understanding and exploit full device potentials of GO LCs.

  5. Rapid heating of a strongly coupled plasma at the solid-liquid phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, M. J.; Hasegawa, T.; Bollinger, J. J.; Dubin, D. H. E.

    2004-11-01

    Between 10^4 and 10^6 ^9Be^+ ions are trapped in a 4.5 Tesla Penning trap and laser-cooled to ˜1 mK, where the ions form a crystalline plasma with an interparticle spacing of ˜20 ?m. This system is a realization of a strongly coupled one-component plasma. Using Doppler laser spectroscopy on a single-photon transition, we measured the temperature and heating rate of this plasma when not being laser-cooled. We measured a slow heating rate of ? 100 mK/s due to residual gas collisions for the first 100-200 ms after turning off the cooling laser. This slow heating is followed by a rapid heating to 1-2 K in 100 ms as the plasma undergoes the solid-liquid phase transition at T=10 mK (? ˜ 170). We will present evidence that this rapid heating is due to a sudden release of energy from weakly cooled degrees of freedom involving the cyclotron motion of trapped impurity ions. We will also discuss the prospects for observing the latent heat associated with the phase transition.

  6. Investigation of the liquid crystalline phase transitions using the new modified Pople Karasz model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaz?c?, Mustafa; Özgan, ?ükrü; Keskin, Mustafa

    2005-09-01

    Thermodynamics of solid nematic and nematic isotropic liquid transitions are studied by using a new modified model that combines the modified theories of Chandrasekhar et al. with those Keskin and Özgan which are based on the Pople Karasz theory. The thermodynamic properties of the disordered system are evaluated relative to those of the perfectly ordered one within the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method which is identical to the mean-field approximation. The results are compared with the some available experimental data, the predictions of the original Pople Karasz (PK) theory and its previous modified theories. For nematic isotropic and s(nematic) at the transition temperatures, the agreement is very good and much better than the predictions of the PK theory and its previous modified theories. For the solid nematic transition, all theories give very nearly the same results, but the values are significantly lower than the observed data. Moreover, one of the theoretical phase diagrams is also qualitatively similar to the experimental phase diagram for p-azoxyphenetole (PAA).

  7. A sharp interface method for compressible liquid-vapor flow with phase transition and surface tension

    E-print Network

    Fechter, Stefan; Rohde, Christian; Zeiler, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The numerical approximation of non-isothermal liquid-vapor flow within the compressible regime is a difficult task because complex physical effects at the phase interfaces can govern the global flow behavior. We present a sharp interface approach which treats the interface as a shock-wave like discontinuity. Any mixing of fluid phases is avoided by using the flow solver in the bulk regions only, and a ghost-fluid approach close to the interface. The coupling states for the numerical solution in the bulk regions are determined by the solution of local multi-phase Riemann problems across the interface. The Riemann solution accounts for the relevant physics by enforcing appropriate jump conditions at the phase boundary. A wide variety of interface effects can be handled in a thermodynamically consistent way. This includes surface tension or mass/energy transfer by phase transition. Moreover, the local normal speed of the interface, which is needed to calculate the time evolution of the interface, is given by the...

  8. On the phase transitions of 8CB/Sn2P2S6 liquid crystal nanocolloids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y; Douali, R; Dubois, F; Segovia-Mera, A; Daoudi, A

    2015-09-01

    Using differential scanning calorimetry measurements, the influence of Sn2P2S6 ferroelectric nanoparticles on the phase transition temperatures of the 8CB liquid crystal is studied. The spontaneous polarization, ionic and anchoring effects are discussed. For low concentration of dopant, the global effect leads to a decrease and an increase of the nematic-isotropic and the smectic A-nematic phase transition temperatures, respectively. For high concentrations, due to aggregates formation, the predominant anchoring effect induces a decrease of the both phase transition temperatures. PMID:26410848

  9. Acoustical and optical investigations of the size effect in nematic-isotropic phase transition in liquid crystal microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimochkin, G. I.; Pasechnik, S. V.; Lukin, A. V.

    2015-07-01

    The absorption of ultrasound (at a frequency of 2.7 MHz) and the depolarized light transmission and scattering (at a wavelength of 630 nm) in liquid crystal (LC) emulsions have been studied during the nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition in LC droplets with radii ranging from 150 to 2300 nm. The obtained acoustical and optical data are used to determine the influence of the droplet size on characteristics of the N-I phase transition. It is shown that the acoustical and optical characteristics of LC emulsions have good prospects to be used for the investigation of phase transitions in submicron samples.

  10. Liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter with density-dependent relativistic mean-field models

    E-print Network

    Guang-Hua Zhang; Wei-Zhou Jiang

    2013-02-14

    The liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter is studied within density-dependent relativistic mean-field models where the density dependence is introduced according to the Brown-Rho scaling and constrained by available data at low densities and empirical properties of nuclear matter. The critical temperature of the liquid-gas phase transition is obtained to be 15.7 MeV in symmetric nuclear matter falling on the lower edge of the small experimental error bars. In hot asymmetric matter, the boundary of the phase-coexistence region is found to be sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy. The critical pressure and the area of phase-coexistence region increases clearly with the softening of the symmetry energy. The critical temperature of hot asymmetric matter separating the gas phase from the LG coexistence phase is found to be higher for the softer symmetry energy.

  11. Separation of rare earths from transition metals by liquid-liquid extraction from a molten salt hydrate to an ionic liquid phase.

    PubMed

    Rout, Alok; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-02-28

    The solvent extraction of trivalent rare-earth ions and their separation from divalent transition metal ions using molten salt hydrates as the feed phase and an undiluted fluorine-free ionic liquid as the extracting phase were investigated in detail. The extractant was tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate, [A336][NO3], and the hydrated melt was calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, Ca(NO3)2·4H2O. The extraction behavior of rare-earth ions was studied for solutions of individual elements, as well as for mixtures of rare earths in the hydrated melt. The influence of different extraction parameters was investigated: the initial metal loading in the feed phase, percentage of water in the feed solution, equilibration time, and the type of hydrated melt. The extraction of rare earths from Ca(NO3)2·4H2O was compared with extraction from CaCl2·4H2O by [A336][Cl] (Aliquat 336). The nitrate system was found to be the better one. The extraction and separation of rare earths from the transition metals nickel, cobalt and zinc were also investigated. Remarkably high separation factors of rare-earth ions over transition metal ions were observed for extraction from Ca(NO3)2·4H2O by the [A336][NO3] extracting phase. Furthermore, rare-earth ions could be separated efficiently from transition metal ions, even in melts with very high concentrations of transition metal ions. Rare-earth oxides could be directly dissolved in the Ca(NO3)2·4H2O phase in the presence of small amounts of Al(NO3)3·9H2O or concentrated nitric acid. The efficiency of extraction after dissolving the rare-earth oxides in the hydrated nitrate melt was identical to extraction from solutions with rare-earth nitrates dissolved in the molten phase. The stripping of the rare-earth ions from the loaded ionic liquid phase and the reuse of the recycled ionic liquid were also investigated in detail. PMID:24352299

  12. Studies of molecular monolayers at air-liquid interfaces by second harmonic generation: question of orientational phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Rasing, T.; Shen, Y.R.; Kim, M.W.; Grubb, S.; Bock, J.

    1985-06-01

    Insoluble molecular monolayers at gas-liquid interfaces provide an insight to the understanding of surfactants, wetting, microemulsions and membrane structures and offer a possibility to study the rich world of 2-dimensional phase transitions. In the interpretation of the observed properties of these systems various assumptions about the molecular orientation are often made, but so far few clear experimental data exist. In this paper we will show how optical second harmonic generation (SHG) can be used to measure the molecular orientation of monolayers of surfactant molecules at water-air interfaces. By simultaneously measuring the surface pressure versus surface molecular area we can show for the first time that the observed liquid condensed-liquid expanded transition is an orientational phase transition. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Solid - Liquid Phase Transition in a Gibbs Monolayer of Melissic Acid at the n-Hexane - Water Interface

    E-print Network

    Aleksey M. Tikhonov

    2015-12-02

    A sharp phase transition from a crystalline state with the area per molecule A = (17 +/- 1) Angstrom^2 to a liquid state with A = (23 +/- 1) Angstrom^2 at the n-hexane - water interface in a Gibbs monolayer of melissic acid has been revealed in data of X-ray reflectometry with the use of synchrotron radiation.

  14. Observing in space and time the ephemeral nucleation of liquid-to-crystal phase transitions

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byung-Kuk; Kwon, Oh-Hoon; Liu, Haihua; Tang, Jau; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2015-01-01

    The phase transition of crystalline ordering is a general phenomenon, but its evolution in space and time requires microscopic probes for visualization. Here we report direct imaging of the transformation of amorphous titanium dioxide nanofilm, from the liquid state, passing through the nucleation step and finally to the ordered crystal phase. Single-pulse transient diffraction profiles at different times provide the structural transformation and the specific degree of crystallinity (?) in the evolution process. It is found that the temporal behaviour of ? exhibits unique ‘two-step' dynamics, with a robust ‘plateau' that extends over a microsecond; the rate constants vary by two orders of magnitude. Such behaviour reflects the presence of intermediate structure(s) that are the precursor of the ordered crystal state. Theoretically, we extend the well-known Johnson–Mehl–Avrami–Kolmogorov equation, which describes the isothermal process with a stretched-exponential function, but here over the range of times covering the melt-to-crystal transformation. PMID:26478194

  15. The nuclear liquid-vapor phase transition: Equilibrium between phases or free decay in vacuum?

    SciTech Connect

    Phair, L.; Moretto, L.G.; Elliott, J.B.; Wozniak, G.J.

    2002-11-14

    Recent analyses of multifragmentation in terms of Fisher's model and the related construction of a phase diagram brings forth the problem of the true existence of the vapor phase and the meaning of its associated pressure. Our analysis shows that a thermal emission picture is equivalent to a Fisher-like equilibrium description which avoids the problem of the vapor and explains the recently observed Boltzmann-like distribution of the emission times. In this picture a simple Fermi gas thermometric relation is naturally justified. Low energy compound nucleus emission of intermediate mass fragments is shown to scale according to Fisher's formula and can be simultaneously fit with the much higher energy ISiS multifragmentation data.

  16. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model

    SciTech Connect

    Butlitsky, M. A.; Zelener, B. V.

    2014-07-14

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a “shelf Coulomb” model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The “shelf Coulomb” model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ? parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ? and ? = ?e{sup 2}n{sup 1/3} (where ? = 1/k{sub B}T, n is the particle's density, k{sub B} is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ? and ? parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ?{sub crit}?13(T{sub crit}{sup *}?0.076),?{sub crit}?1.8(v{sub crit}{sup *}?0.17),P{sub crit}{sup *}?0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/?{sup 3} and reduced temperature T{sup *} = ?{sup ?1}.

  17. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model.

    PubMed

    Butlitsky, M A; Zelener, B B; Zelener, B V

    2014-07-14

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a "shelf Coulomb" model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The "shelf Coulomb" model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ? parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ? and ? = ?e(2)n(1/3) (where ? = 1/kBT, n is the particle's density, kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ? and ? parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ?(crit) ? 13(T(*)(crit) ? 0.076), ?(crit) ? 1.8(v(*)(crit) ? 0.17), P(*)(crit) ? 0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/?(3) and reduced temperature T(*) = ?(-1). PMID:25028031

  18. Kinetic Effect on Pressure-Induced Phase Transitions of Room Temperature Ionic Liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Trifluoromethanesulfonate.

    PubMed

    Li, Haining; Wang, Zheng; Chen, Liucheng; Wu, Jie; Huang, Haijun; Yang, Kun; Wang, Yongqiang; Su, Lei; Yang, Guoqiang

    2015-11-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have intriguing high-pressure phase behavior, and investigation of how pressure affects phase transitions of RTILs might yield interesting results. We here present kinetically driven phase transitions of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([Emim][CF3SO3]) at different rates of ?0.3 and ?1.2 GPa/h up to ?5 GPa. Two crystalline phases formed at ?1.3 and ?1.7 GPa with increasing pressure at lower compression rate of ?0.3 GPa/h; however, the amorphous phase solidified with superpressurized glass above ?3.3 GPa at higher compression rate of ?1.2 GPa/h. Notably, crystal polymorphism is discussed in view of the conformational isomerism of [Emim](+) cation and an unknown cation conformer is observed. These facts indicate that kinetic effect on pressure-induced phase transitions of [Emim][CF3SO3] might be dependent on compression rate, which needs to be considered as a non-negligible factor for phase transitions of RTILs under high pressure. PMID:26465251

  19. Nonlinear optical refraction of the dye-doped E7 thermotropic liquid crystal at the nematic-isotropic phase transition

    E-print Network

    Vinicius M. Lenart; Gerson K. da Cruz; Sergio L. Gómez; Rozane F. Turchiello; Ivan H. Bechtold; Andre A. Vieira; Hugo Gallardo

    2013-04-16

    It is known that the doping of liquid crystal with dyes usually changes the physical properties of the host, like the transition temperatures and the optical absorption among others. In this work we report a study of the nonlinear optical refraction of a dye doped sample of the E7 thermotropic liquid crystal by the Z-scan technique. It was found that the nonlinear refraction of the sample is higher than the undoped one, diverging at the clearing point. Close to the N-I transition, the nonlinear birefringence is characterized by a critical exponent that seams to confirm the tricritical hypothesis of the nature of the N-I phase transition, being independent of the doping.

  20. Ab Initio Investigation of a Possible Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition in MgSiO3 at Megabar Pressures

    E-print Network

    Militzer, Burkhard

    of state for the liquid and solid phases and compute the shock Hugoniot curves. We discuss different technique that allows one to map out a whole segment of the Hugoniot curve with a single shock wave on the basis of decaying laser shock wave experiments [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (2012) 065701]. However, our

  1. Reversible temperature regulation of electrical and thermal conductivity using liquid–solid phase transitions

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ruiting; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Jianjian; Chen, Gang

    2011-01-01

    Reversible temperature tuning of electrical and thermal conductivities of materials is of interest for many applications, including seasonal regulation of building temperature, thermal storage and sensors. Here we introduce a general strategy to achieve large contrasts in electrical and thermal conductivities using first-order phase transitions in percolated composite materials. Internal stress generated during a phase transition modulates the electrical and thermal contact resistances, leading to large contrasts in the electrical and thermal conductivities at the phase transition temperature. With graphite/hexadecane suspensions, the electrical conductivity changes 2 orders of magnitude and the thermal conductivity varies up to 3.2 times near 18 °C. The generality of the approach is also demonstrated in other materials such as graphite/water and carbon nanotube/hexadecane suspensions. PMID:21505445

  2. Nuclear liquid-gas phase transition at large N{sub c} in the van der Waals approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Torrieri, Giorgio; Mishustin, Igor

    2010-11-15

    We examine the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition at a large number of colors (N{sub c}) within the framework of the van der Waals (VdW) We argue that the VdW equation is appropriate for describing internucleon forces, and discuss how each parameter scales with N{sub c}. We demonstrate that N{sub c}=3 (our world) is not large with respect to the other dimensionless scale relevant to baryonic matter, the number of neighbors in a dense system N{sub N}. Consequently, we show that the liquid-gas phase transition looks dramatically different at N{sub c{yields}{infinity}} with respect to our world: The critical-point temperature becomes of the order of {Lambda}{sub QCD} rather than below it. The critical-point density becomes of the order of the baryonic density, rather than an order of magnitude below it. These are precisely the characteristics usually associated with the ''quarkyonic phase.'' We therefore conjecture that quarkyonic matter is simply the large-N{sub c} limit of the nuclear liquid, and the interplay between N{sub c} and N{sub N} is the reason that the nuclear liquid in our world is so different from quarkyonic matter. We conclude by suggesting ways in which our conjecture can be tested in future lattice measurements.

  3. Free volume and phase transitions of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquids from positron lifetime spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Beichel, Witali; Dlubek, Günter; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard; Paluch, Marian; Pionteck, Jürgen; Pfefferkorn, Dirk; Bulut, Safak; Friedrich, Christian; Pogodina, Natalia; Krossing, Ingo

    2012-05-21

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) was used to study a series of ionic liquids (ILs) with the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation ([C4MIM](+)) but different anions [Cl](-), [BF4](-), [PF6](-), [OTf](-), [NTf2](-), and [B(hfip)4](-) with increasing anion volumes. Changes of the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime parameters with temperature were observed for crystalline and amorphous (glass, supercooled, and normal liquid) states. Evidence for distinct phase transitions, e.g. melting, crystallization and solid-solid transitions, was observed in several PALS experiments. The o-Ps mean lifetime ?3 showed smaller values in the crystalline phase due to dense packing of the material compared to the amorphous phase. The o-Ps lifetime intensity I3 in the liquid state is clearly smaller than in the crystallized state. This behaviour can be attributed to a solvation of e(+) by the anions, which reduces the Ps formation probability in the normal and supercooled liquid. These phenomena were observed for the first time when applying the PALS technique to ionic liquids by us in one preliminary and in this work. Four of the ionic liquids investigated in this work ([BF4](-), [NTf2](-), [PF6](-) and [Cl](-) ILs) exhibit supercooled phases. The specific hole densities and occupied volumes of those ILs were obtained by comparing the local free volume with the specific volume from pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) experiments. From the o-Ps lifetime, the mean size vh of free volume holes of the four samples was calculated and compared with that calculated according to Fürth's hole theory. The hole volumes from both methods agree well. From the Cohen-Turnbull fitting of viscosity and conductivity against PALS/PVT results, the influence of the free volume on molecular transport properties was investigated. PMID:22472912

  4. Search for the First-Order Liquid-to-Liquid Phase Transition in Low-Temperature Confined Water by Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Sow-Hsin; Wang, Zhe; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Kao-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    It has been conjectured that a 1st order liquid-to-liquid (L-L) phase transition (LLPT) between high density liquid (HDL) and low density liquid (LDL) in supercooled water may exist, as a thermodynamic extension to the liquid phase of the 1st order transition established between the two bulk solid phases of amorphous ice, the high density amorphous ice (HDA) and the low density amorphous ice (LDA). In this paper, we first recall our previous attempts to establish the existence of the 1st order L-L phase transition through the use of two neutron scattering techniques: a constant Q elastic diffraction study of isobaric temperature scan of the D2O density, namely, the equation of state (EOS) measurements. A pronounced density hysteresis phenomenon in the temperature scan of the density above P = 1500 bar is observed which gives a plausible evidence of crossing the 1st order L-L phase transition line above this pressure; an incoherent quasi-elastic scattering measurements of temperature-dependence of the alpha-relaxation time of H2O at a series of pressures, namely, the study of the Fragile-to-Strong dynamic crossover (FSC) phenomenon as a function of pressure which we interpreted as the results of crossing the Widom line in the one-phase region. In this new experiment, we used incoherent inelastic neutron scattering (INS) to measure the density of states (DOS) of H atoms in H2O molecules in confined water as function of temperature and pressure, through which we may be able to follow the emergence of the LDL and HDL phases at supercooled temperature and high pressures. We here report for the first time the differences of librational and translational DOSs between the hypothetical HDL and LDL phases, which are similar to the corresponding differences between the well-established HDA and LDA ices. This is plausible evidence that the HDL and LDL phases are the thermodynamic extensions of the corresponding amorphous solid water HDA and LDA ices.

  5. Search for the first-order liquid-to-liquid phase transition in low-temperature confined water by neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sow-Hsin; Wang, Zhe; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Kao-Hsiang

    2013-02-01

    It has been conjectured that a 1st order liquid-to-liquid (L-L) phase transition (LLPT) between high density liquid (HDL) and low density liquid (LDL) in supercooled water may exist, as a thermodynamic extension to the liquid phase of the 1st order transition established between the two bulk solid phases of amorphous ice, the high density amorphous ice (HDA) and the low density amorphous ice (LDA). In this paper, we first recall our previous attempts to establish the existence of the 1st order L-L phase transition through the use of two neutron scattering techniques: a constant Q elastic diffraction study of isobaric temperature scan of the D2O density, namely, the equation of state (EOS) measurements. A pronounced density hysteresis phenomenon in the temperature scan of the density above P = 1500 bar is observed which gives a plausible evidence of crossing the 1st order L-L phase transition line above this pressure; an incoherent quasi-elastic scattering measurements of temperature-dependence of the ?-relaxation time of H2O at a series of pressures, namely, the study of the Fragile-to-Strong dynamic crossover (FSC) phenomenon as a function of pressure which we interpreted as the results of crossing the Widom line in the one-phase region. In this new experiment, we used incoherent inelastic neutron scattering (INS) to measure the density of states (DOS) of H atoms in H2O molecules in confined water as function of temperature and pressure, through which we may be able to follow the emergence of the LDL and HDL phases at supercooled temperature and high pressures. We here report for the first time the differences of librational and translational DOSs between the hypothetical HDL and LDL phases, which are similar to the corresponding differences between the well-established HDA and LDA ices. This is plausible evidence that the HDL and LDL phases are the thermodynamic extensions of the corresponding amorphous solid water HDA and LDA ices.

  6. Effects of isospin and momentum dependent interactions on liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    E-print Network

    Jun Xu; Lie-Wen Chen; Bao-An Li; Hong-Ru Ma

    2007-05-29

    The liquid-gas phase transition in hot neutron-rich nuclear matter is investigated within a self-consistent thermal model using an isospin and momentum dependent interaction (MDI) constrained by the isospin diffusion data in heavy-ion collisions, a momentum-independent interaction (MID), and an isoscalar momentum-dependent interaction (eMDYI). The boundary of the phase-coexistence region is shown to be sensitive to the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy with a softer symmetry energy giving a higher critical pressure and a larger area of phase-coexistence region. Compared with the momentum-independent MID interaction, the isospin and momentum-dependent MDI interaction is found to increase the critical pressure and enlarge the area of phase-coexistence region. For the isoscalar momentum-dependent eMDYI interaction, a limiting pressure above which the liquid-gas phase transition cannot take place has been found and it is shown to be sensitive to the stiffness of the symmetry energy.

  7. Liquid-solid and solid-solid phase transition of monolayer water: high-density rhombic monolayer ice.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Toshihiro; Bai, Jaeil; Yasuoka, Kenji; Mitsutake, Ayori; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2014-05-14

    Liquid-solid and solid-solid phase transitions of a monolayer water confined between two parallel hydrophobic surfaces are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The solid phase considered is the high-density rhombic monolayer ice. Based on the computed free energy surface, it is found that at a certain width of the slit nanopore, the monolayer water exhibits not only a high freezing point but also a low energy barrier to crystallization. Moreover, through analyzing the oxygen-hydrogen-oxygen angle distribution and oxygen-hydrogen radial distribution, the high-density monolayer ice is classified as either a flat ice or a puckered ice. The transition between a flat ice and a puckered ice reflects a trade-off between the water-wall interactions and the electrostatic interactions among water molecules. PMID:24832288

  8. Simultaneous calorimetric and polarization microscopy investigations of light induced changes over phase transitions in a liquid crystal-napthopyran mixture.

    PubMed

    Paoloni, S; Mercuri, F; Marinelli, M; Pizzoferrato, R; Zammit, U; Kosa, T; Sukhomlinova, L; Taheri, B

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the specific heat and the thermal conductivity in a 4-(n-octyl)-4'-cyanobiphenyl liquid crystal (LC)-photochromic molecules mixture, before, during, and after the photo-activation of the dispersed photochromic molecules, over both the smectic A-nematic and the nematic-isotropic phase transitions. The evaluation of the specific heat has enabled the determination of the changes of the phase transition characteristics induced by the photochromic molecules photoisomerization, while that of the thermal conductivity could be used to monitor the modifications induced in the average LC molecular orientation. The polarization microscopy imaging of the sample texture constituted a valuable support for the interpretation of the obtained thermal conductivity results. PMID:26450328

  9. Simultaneous calorimetric and polarization microscopy investigations of light induced changes over phase transitions in a liquid crystal-napthopyran mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoloni, S.; Mercuri, F.; Marinelli, M.; Pizzoferrato, R.; Zammit, U.; Kosa, T.; Sukhomlinova, L.; Taheri, B.

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the specific heat and the thermal conductivity in a 4-(n-octyl)-4'-cyanobiphenyl liquid crystal (LC)-photochromic molecules mixture, before, during, and after the photo-activation of the dispersed photochromic molecules, over both the smectic A-nematic and the nematic-isotropic phase transitions. The evaluation of the specific heat has enabled the determination of the changes of the phase transition characteristics induced by the photochromic molecules photoisomerization, while that of the thermal conductivity could be used to monitor the modifications induced in the average LC molecular orientation. The polarization microscopy imaging of the sample texture constituted a valuable support for the interpretation of the obtained thermal conductivity results.

  10. Morphogenesis of defects and tactoids during isotropic-nematic phase transition in self-assembled lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Ki; Shiyanovskii, Sergij V.; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2013-10-01

    We explore the structure of nuclei and topological defects in the first-order phase transition between the nematic (N) and isotropic (I) phases in lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs). The LCLCs are formed by self-assembled molecular aggregates of various lengths and show a broad biphasic region. The defects emerge as a result of two mechanisms: (1) surface-anisotropy that endows each N nucleus (‘tactoid’) with topological defects thanks to preferential (tangential) orientation of the director at the closed I-N interface, and (2) Kibble mechanism with defects forming when differently oriented N tactoids merge with each other. Different scenarios of phase transition involve positive (N-in-I) and negative (I-in-N) tactoids with nontrivial topology of the director field and also multiply connected tactoid-in-tactoid configurations. The closed I-N interface limiting a tactoid shows a certain number of cusps; the lips of the interface on the opposite sides of the cusp make an angle different from ?. The N side of each cusp contains a point defect-boojum. The number of cusps shows how many times the director becomes perpendicular to the I-N interface when one circumnavigates the closed boundary of the tactoid. We derive conservation laws that connect the number of cusps c to the topological strength m of defects in the N part of the simply connected and multiply connected tactoids. We demonstrate how the elastic anisotropy of the N phase results in non-circular shape of the disclination cores. A generalized Wulff construction is used to derive the shape of I and N tactoids as a function of I-N interfacial tension anisotropy in the approximation of frozen director field of various topological charges m. The complex shapes and structures of tactoids and topological defects demonstrate an important role of surface anisotropy in morphogenesis of phase transitions in liquid crystals.

  11. Morphogenesis of defects and tactoids during isotropic-nematic phase transition in self-assembled lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ki; Shiyanovskii, Sergij V; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2013-10-01

    We explore the structure of nuclei and topological defects in the first-order phase transition between the nematic (N) and isotropic (I) phases in lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs). The LCLCs are formed by self-assembled molecular aggregates of various lengths and show a broad biphasic region. The defects emerge as a result of two mechanisms: (1) surface-anisotropy that endows each N nucleus ('tactoid') with topological defects thanks to preferential (tangential) orientation of the director at the closed I-N interface, and (2) Kibble mechanism with defects forming when differently oriented N tactoids merge with each other. Different scenarios of phase transition involve positive (N-in-I) and negative (I-in-N) tactoids with nontrivial topology of the director field and also multiply connected tactoid-in-tactoid configurations. The closed I-N interface limiting a tactoid shows a certain number of cusps; the lips of the interface on the opposite sides of the cusp make an angle different from ?. The N side of each cusp contains a point defect-boojum. The number of cusps shows how many times the director becomes perpendicular to the I-N interface when one circumnavigates the closed boundary of the tactoid. We derive conservation laws that connect the number of cusps c to the topological strength m of defects in the N part of the simply connected and multiply connected tactoids. We demonstrate how the elastic anisotropy of the N phase results in non-circular shape of the disclination cores. A generalized Wulff construction is used to derive the shape of I and N tactoids as a function of I-N interfacial tension anisotropy in the approximation of frozen director field of various topological charges m. The complex shapes and structures of tactoids and topological defects demonstrate an important role of surface anisotropy in morphogenesis of phase transitions in liquid crystals. PMID:24025849

  12. Morphogenesis of defects and tactoids during isotropic-nematic phase transition in self-assembled lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals

    E-print Network

    Young-Ki Kim; Sergij V. Shiyanovskii; Oleg D. Lavrentovich

    2013-03-25

    We explore the structure of nuclei and topological defects in the first-order phase transition between the nematic (N) and isotropic (I) phases in lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs). The LCLCs are formed by self-assembled molecular aggregates of various lengths and show a broad biphasic region. The defects emerge as a result of two mechanisms. 1) Surface anisotropy mechanism that endows each N nucleus (tactoid) with topological defects thanks to preferential (tangential) orientation of the director at the closed I-N interface, and 2) Kibble mechanism with defects forming when differently oriented N tactoids merge with each other. Different scenarios of phase transition involve positive (N-in-I) and negative (I-in-N) tactoids with non-trivial topology of the director field and also multiply connected tactoids-in-tactoids configurations. The closed I-N interface limiting a tactoid shows a certain number of cusps; the lips of the interface on the opposite sides of the cusp make an angle different from pi. The N side of each cusp contains a point defect-boojum. The number of cusps shows how many times the director becomes perpendicular to the I-N interface when one circumnavigates the closed boundary of the tactoid. We derive conservation laws that connect the number of cusps c to the topological strength m of defects in the N part of the simply-connected and multiply-connected tactoids. We demonstrate how the elastic anisotropy of the N phase results in non-circular shape of the disclination cores. A generalized Wulff construction is used to derive the shape of I and N tactoids as the function of I-N interfacial tension anisotropy in the frozen director field of various topological charges m. The complex shapes and structures of tactoids and topological defects demonstrate an important role of surface anisotropy in morphogenesis of phase transitions in liquid crystals.

  13. Nanosecond Ultrasonics to Study Phase Transitions in Solid and Liquid Systems at High Pressure and Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, B P; Berge, P A; Carlson, S C; Farber, D L; Akella, J

    2007-03-21

    This report describes the development of a high-frequency ultrasonic measurement capability for application to the study of phase transitions at elevated pressure and temperature. We combined expertise in various aspects of static high-pressure technique with recent advances in wave propagation modeling, ultrasonic transducer development, electronic methods and broadband instrumentation to accomplish the goals of this project. The transduction and electronic systems have a demonstrated bandwidth of 400 MHz, allowing investigations of phenomena with characteristic times as short as 2.5 nS. A compact, pneumatically driven moissanite anvil cell was developed and constructed for this project. This device generates a high-pressure environment for mm dimension samples to pressures of 3 GPa. Ultrasonic measurements were conducted in the moissanite cell, an LLNL multi-anvil device and in a modified piston cylinder device. Measurements for water, and elemental tantalum, tin and cerium demonstrate the success of the methods. The {gamma}-{alpha} phase transition in cerium was clearly detected at {approx}0.7 GPa with 75 MHz longitudinal waves. These results have direct application to important problems in LLNL programs, as well as seismology and planetary science.

  14. Low-density/high-density liquid phase transition for model globular proteins.

    PubMed

    Grosfils, Patrick; Lutsko, James F

    2010-06-01

    The effect of molecule size (excluded volume) and the range of interaction on the surface tension, phase diagram, and nucleation properties of a model globular protein is investigated using a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and finite temperature classical density functional theory calculations. We use a parametrized potential that can vary smoothly from the standard Lennard-Jones interaction characteristic of simple fluids to the ten Wolde-Frenkel model for the effective interaction of globular proteins in solution. We find that the large excluded volume characteristic of large macromolecules such as proteins is the dominant effect in determining the liquid-vapor surface tension and nucleation properties. The variation of the range of the potential is important only in the case of small excluded volumes such as for simple fluids. The DFT calculations are then used to study the homogeneous nucleation of the high-density phase from the low-density phase including the nucleation barriers, nucleation pathways, and rate. It is found that the nucleation barriers are typically only a few k(B)T and that the nucleation rates are substantially higher than would be predicted by classical nucleation theory. PMID:20222718

  15. Faraday waves on nematic liquid crystals: effect of Marangoni flow and thermal phase transition.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Contreras, M

    2013-12-01

    The parametric instability in nematic liquid crystal layers has been studied using linear stability theory. Using material parameters of typical nematics, the neutral stability curve and dispersion relation of a system that presents critical subharmonic waves is obtained. The critical acceleration and wave number of the unstable stationary waves are discontinuous at the nematic-isotropic transition temperature and conform to similar sharp changes experienced by the viscosities and surface tension as a function of temperature. Due to Marangoni flow the curve of the critical acceleration as a function of excitation frequency exhibits a minimum. If the Marangoni flow is neglected and the dynamical viscosity is increased, a monotonously increasing dependence of the acceleration in terms of oscillation frequency is observed. A bicritical instability is reached for a layer thickness of a few millimeters. A well-defined subharmonic wave is attained when the thickness of the layer is further increased. The dispersion relation of these waves displays a discontinuous shift at high frequencies due to alternating secondary thresholds of Faraday waves. At negligible external forcing we determined the dispersion relationship of thermal surface waves. PMID:24483448

  16. Fluctuations and phase transitions in Larkin-Ovchinnikov liquid-crystal states of a population-imbalanced resonant Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Radzihovsky, Leo

    2011-08-15

    Motivated by a realization of imbalanced Feshbach-resonant atomic Fermi gases, we formulate a low-energy theory of the Fulde-Ferrell and the Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) states and use it to analyze fluctuations, stability, and phase transitions in these enigmatic finite momentum-paired superfluids. Focusing on the unidirectional LO pair-density-wave state, which spontaneously breaks the continuous rotational and translational symmetries, we show that it is characterized by two Goldstone modes, corresponding to a superfluid phase and a smectic phonon. Because of the liquid-crystalline ''softness'' of the latter, at finite temperature the three-dimensional state is characterized by a vanishing LO order parameter, quasi-Bragg peaks in the structure and momentum distribution functions, and a ''charge''-4, paired-Cooper-pairs, off-diagonal long-range order, with a superfluid-stiffness anisotropy that diverges near a transition into a nonsuperfluid state. In addition to conventional integer vortices and dislocations, the LO superfluid smectic exhibits composite half-integer vortex-dislocation defects. A proliferation of defects leads to a rich variety of descendant states, such as the charge-4 superfluid and Fermi-liquid nematics and topologically ordered nonsuperfluid states, that generically intervene between the LO state and the conventional superfluid and the polarized Fermi liquid at low and high imbalance, respectively. The fermionic sector of the LO gapless superconductor is also quite unique, exhibiting a Fermi surface of Bogoliubov quasiparticles associated with the Andreev band of states, localized on the array of the LO domain walls.

  17. Morphogenesis of defects and tactoids during isotropic-nematic phase transition in self-assembled lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals

    E-print Network

    Kim, Young-Ki; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2013-01-01

    We explore the structure of nuclei and topological defects in the first-order phase transition between the nematic (N) and isotropic (I) phases in lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs). The LCLCs are formed by self-assembled molecular aggregates of various lengths and show a broad biphasic region. The defects emerge as a result of two mechanisms. 1) Surface anisotropy mechanism that endows each N nucleus (tactoid) with topological defects thanks to preferential (tangential) orientation of the director at the closed I-N interface, and 2) Kibble mechanism with defects forming when differently oriented N tactoids merge with each other. Different scenarios of phase transition involve positive (N-in-I) and negative (I-in-N) tactoids with non-trivial topology of the director field and also multiply connected tactoids-in-tactoids configurations. The closed I-N interface limiting a tactoid shows a certain number of cusps; the lips of the interface on the opposite sides of the cusp make an angle different from p...

  18. Hidden non-Fermi liquid behavior caused by magnetic phase transition in Ni-doped Ba-122 pnictides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seokbae; Choi, Ki-Young; Jung, Eilho; Rho, Seulki; Shin, Soohyeon; Park, Tuson; Hwang, Jungseek

    2015-01-01

    We studied two BaFe(2-x)N(I)xAs2 (Ni-doped Ba-122) single crystals at two different doping levels (underdoped and optimally doped) using an optical spectroscopic technique. The underdoped sample shows a magnetic phase transition around 80?K. We analyze the data with a Drude-Lorentz model with two Drude components (D1 and D2). It is known that the narrow D1 component originates from electron carriers in the electron-pockets and the broad D2 mode is from hole carriers in the hole-pockets. While the plasma frequencies of both Drude components and the static scattering rate of the broad D2 component show negligible temperature dependencies, the static scattering rate of the D1 mode shows strong temperature dependence for the both samples. We observed a hidden quasi-linear temperature dependence in the scattering rate of the D1 mode above and below the magnetic transition temperature while in the optimally doped sample the scattering rate shows a more quadratic temperature dependence. The hidden non-Fermi liquid behavior in the underdoped sample seems to be related to the magnetic phase of the material. PMID:26184412

  19. Hidden non-Fermi liquid behavior caused by magnetic phase transition in Ni-doped Ba-122 pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seokbae; Choi, Ki-Young; Jung, Eilho; Rho, Seulki; Shin, Soohyeon; Park, Tuson; Hwang, Jungseek

    2015-07-01

    We studied two BaFe2-xNixAs2 (Ni-doped Ba-122) single crystals at two different doping levels (underdoped and optimally doped) using an optical spectroscopic technique. The underdoped sample shows a magnetic phase transition around 80?K. We analyze the data with a Drude-Lorentz model with two Drude components (D1 and D2). It is known that the narrow D1 component originates from electron carriers in the electron-pockets and the broad D2 mode is from hole carriers in the hole-pockets. While the plasma frequencies of both Drude components and the static scattering rate of the broad D2 component show negligible temperature dependencies, the static scattering rate of the D1 mode shows strong temperature dependence for the both samples. We observed a hidden quasi-linear temperature dependence in the scattering rate of the D1 mode above and below the magnetic transition temperature while in the optimally doped sample the scattering rate shows a more quadratic temperature dependence. The hidden non-Fermi liquid behavior in the underdoped sample seems to be related to the magnetic phase of the material.

  20. Hidden non-Fermi liquid behavior caused by magnetic phase transition in Ni-doped Ba-122 pnictides

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seokbae; Choi, Ki-Young; Jung, Eilho; Rho, Seulki; Shin, Soohyeon; Park, Tuson; Hwang, Jungseek

    2015-01-01

    We studied two BaFe2?xNixAs2 (Ni-doped Ba-122) single crystals at two different doping levels (underdoped and optimally doped) using an optical spectroscopic technique. The underdoped sample shows a magnetic phase transition around 80?K. We analyze the data with a Drude-Lorentz model with two Drude components (D1 and D2). It is known that the narrow D1 component originates from electron carriers in the electron-pockets and the broad D2 mode is from hole carriers in the hole-pockets. While the plasma frequencies of both Drude components and the static scattering rate of the broad D2 component show negligible temperature dependencies, the static scattering rate of the D1 mode shows strong temperature dependence for the both samples. We observed a hidden quasi-linear temperature dependence in the scattering rate of the D1 mode above and below the magnetic transition temperature while in the optimally doped sample the scattering rate shows a more quadratic temperature dependence. The hidden non-Fermi liquid behavior in the underdoped sample seems to be related to the magnetic phase of the material. PMID:26184412

  1. Studying viscoelastic properties of liquid crystals during nematic-isotropic phase transition by low-frequency ultrasound probing of small-volume samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimochkin, G. I.; Pasechnik, S. V.; Kravchuk, A. S.; Usol'Tseva, N. V.; Bykova, V. V.; Timofeev, G. A.

    2007-06-01

    The velocity of propagation and the coefficient of absorption of ultrasound in liquid crystals (LCs) in the vicinity of the phase transition from a nematic phase (N) to the isotropic liquid (I) has been studied in samples with a volume of 0.15 cm3 using an acoustic resonance technique at frequencies in the range from 0.68 to 1.63 MHz. An analysis of the results of acoustic measurements provides information on the characteristics of phase transition and critical anomalies in the viscous properties of LCs in the N-I phase transition region. The proposed acoustic method offers good prospects for the rapid investigation of small volumes of mesogenic compounds.

  2. Cosmological phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W. |

    1993-10-01

    If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions.

  3. LIGHT NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLS) are hydrocarbons that exist as a separate, immiscible phase when in contact with water and/or air. ifferences in the physical and chemical properties of water and NAPL result in the formation of a physical interface between the liquids which preve...

  4. Phase Transitions in the Nucleus: the functional implications of concentration-dependent assembly of a Liquid-like RNA/Protein Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lian; Weber, Stephanie; Berry, Joel; Vaidya, Nilesh; Haataja, Mikko; Brangwynne, Clifford

    2015-03-01

    The nucleolus is a liquid-like membrane-less nuclear body which plays an important role in cell growth and size control. By modulating nucleolar component concentration through RNAi conditions that change C. elegans cell size, we find that nucleoli only assemble above a threshold concentration; moreover, the ripening dynamics of nucleated droplets are consistent with the hypothesis that the assembly of the nucleolus represents an intracellular liquid-liquid phase transition. A key question is how this phase-transition is linked to the primary function of the nucleolus, in transcribing and processing ribosomal RNA. To address this, we characterize the localization of RNA Polymerase I, a key transcriptional enzyme, into nucleolar foci as a function of nucleolar component concentration. Our results suggest that there are a small number of key disordered phosphoproteins that may serve as a link between transcription and assembly. Finally, we present preliminary results using a reduced model system consisting of purified nucleolar proteins to assess the ability of nucleolar proteins to drive liquid-liquid phase separation in vitro. These results lay the foundation for a quantitative understanding of intracellular phase transitions and their impact on biomedically-critical RNA-processing steps.

  5. BNL-65424-AB LIQUID TO LIQUID AND CRITICAL NUCLEUS TO CRITICAL NUCLEUS PHASE

    E-print Network

    BNL-65424-AB LIQUID TO LIQUID AND CRITICAL NUCLEUS TO CRITICAL NUCLEUS PHASE TRANSITIONS IN SUPER AND CRITICAL NUCLEUS TO CRITICAL NUCLEUS PHASE TRANSITIONS IN SUPER-COOLED DROPLETS Dan Imre, Robert Mc 11973 Key words: Ammonium sulfate; single particle; phase transitions; critical nucleus I. LIQUID

  6. Dual spectrum neutron radiography: identification of phase transitions between frozen and liquid water.

    PubMed

    Biesdorf, J; Oberholzer, P; Bernauer, F; Kaestner, A; Vontobel, P; Lehmann, E H; Schmidt, T J; Boillat, P

    2014-06-20

    In this Letter, a new approach to distinguish liquid water and ice based on dual spectrum neutron radiography is presented. The distinction is based on arising differences between the cross section of water and ice in the cold energy range. As a significant portion of the energy spectrum of the ICON beam line at Paul Scherrer Institut is in the thermal energy range, no differences can be observed with the entire beam. Introducing a polycrystalline neutron filter (beryllium) inside the beam, neutrons above its cutoff energy are filtered out and the cold energy region is emphasized. Finally, a contrast of about 1.6% is obtained with our imaging setup between liquid water and ice. Based on this measurement concept, the temporal evolution of the aggregate state of water can be investigated without any prior knowledge of its thickness. Using this technique, we could unambiguously prove the production of supercooled water inside fuel cells with a direct measurement method. PMID:24996112

  7. Blocking of phase transitions in liquid crystal 5*CB (isopentylcyanobiphenyl) as a result of surface interactions at the nano-membranes

    E-print Network

    Andrzej B?k; Krystyna Ch??dowska; Piotr Inglot

    2014-12-22

    In this paper we present results of dielectric measurements of the liquid crystal (LC) 5*CB arranged in the porous matrices with a pore diameter of 100 and 20nm. We analyze the effect of surface interactions on the dynamics of molecules. The results were compared with the results of the bulk 5*CB. The most important result is the blocking of phase transition of 5*CB into the solid phase in a matrix of 20 nm.

  8. ?5?1 Integrin-Fibronectin Interactions Specify Liquid to Solid Phase Transition of 3D Cellular Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Caicedo-Carvajal, Carlos E.; Shinbrot, Troy; Foty, Ramsey A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Tissue organization during embryonic development and wound healing depends on the ability of cells on the one hand to exchange adhesive bonds during active rearrangement and on the other to become fixed in place as tissue homeostasis is reached. Cells achieve these contradictory tasks by regulating either cell-cell adhesive bonds, mediated by cadherins, or cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) connections, regulated by integrins. Integrin ?5?1 and soluble fibronectin (sFN) are key players in cell-ECM force generation and in ECM polymerization. Here, we explore the interplay between integrin ?5?1 and sFN and its influence on tissue mechanical properties and cell sorting behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated a series of cell lines varying in ?5?1 receptor density. We then systematically explored the effects of different sFN concentrations on aggregate biomechanical properties using tissue surface tensiometry. We found previously unreported complex behaviors including the observation that interactions between fibronectin and integrin ?5?1 generates biphasic tissue cohesion profiles. Specifically, we show that at constant sFn concentration, aggregate cohesion increases linearly as ?5?1 receptor density is increased from low to moderate levels, producing a transition from viscoelastic-liquid to pseudo viscoelastic-solid behavior. However, further increase in receptor density causes an abrupt drop in tissue cohesion and a transition back to viscoelastic-liquid properties. We propose that this may be due to depletion of sFn below a critical value in the aggregate microenvironment at high ?5?1 levels. We also show that differential expression of ?5?1 integrin can promote phase-separation between cells. Conclusions/Significance The interplay between ?5-integrin and sFn contributes significantly to tissue cohesion and, depending on their level of expression, can mediate a shift from liquid to elastic behavior. This interplay represents a tunable level of control between integrins and the ECM that can influence tissue cohesion and other mechanical properties, which may translate to the specification of tissue structure and function. These studies provide insights into important biological processes such as embryonic development, wound healing, and for tissue engineering applications. PMID:20686611

  9. Critical behavior at the isotropic to nematic, nematic to smectic-A and smectic-A to smectic-C phase transitions in a pyrimidine liquid crystal compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Anish; Chakraborty, Susanta; Kumar Das, Malay

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution optical birefringence (?n) measurement of a pyrimidine liquid crystal compound having nematic, smectic-A and smectic-C phases are reported. The high-resolution ?n data are rather successful in assessing the critical anomaly at different phase transitions in the investigated compound with a reasonably good accuracy. The critical exponent ?, describing the limiting behavior of the nematic order parameter close to the isotropic-nematic (I-N) phase transition, is found to be in good agreement with the tricritical hypothesis. The critical behavior at the nematic-smectic-A (N-Sm-A) and the smectic-A-smectic-C (Sm-A-Sm-C) phase transitions has been explored with the aid of a differential quotient extracted from the ?n values. The yielded effective critical exponent ?? is appeared to be nearly tricritical in nature for the N-Sm-A phase transition. For the Sm-A-Sm-C phase transition, ?? exhibits a weak dependence on the fit range and assumes tricritical value for large temperature range considered, which again is found to be diminished slightly with reduction in the temperature range. Related critical amplitude quotient and corrections-to-scaling quotient are found to display deviations from the theoretical models. Such behavior signals the appearance of a non-Landau character for the orthogonal to tilted smectic phase transition in the investigated compound.

  10. Metal-Nonmetal Transition in Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, H.

    A brief review is presented on the aspects and mechanism of the metal-nonmetal transition in the disordered systems. The electronic and thermodynamic properties are discussed for expanded Hg and dilute amalgams near the liquid-gas critical point. In expanded liquid Hg a metal-nonmetal (M-NM) transition occurs at density near 9g/cm^3 and anomalous are found in the thermodynamic properties such as equation-of-state and isothermal compressibility. At low densities substantial volume contraction and large increase in conductivity are brought about by the addition of a small amount of the elements with high valency such as Bi and Pb to expanded liquid Hg. The semiconductor-metal transition is discussed for liquid and amorphous Se-Te mixtures. In the liquid mixture, the transition from Se-like loosely packed to Te-like densely packed structure occurs by changing the temperature, pressure and Te content. The transition may be associated with the change in the short-range order around Te atoms. In amorphous Se_{0.8}Te_{0.2} mixture a reproducible sharp semiconductor-metal transition is found under pressure. The semiconductor-metal transition near the liquid-liquid critical point is also described for liquid Tl-Se mixtures in the Se-rich region. The liquid-liquid two-phase region is diminished by the application of pressure. It is suggested that the metal-nonmetal transitions observed in the liquid and amorphous systems are closely related to the structural changes.

  11. Liquid-vapor phase transition in nuclei or compound nucleus decay?

    E-print Network

    L. G. Moretto; J. B. Elliott; L. Phair; G. J. Wozniak

    2002-09-12

    Recent analyses of multifragmentation in terms of Fisher's model and the related construction of a phase diagram brings forth the problem of the true existence of the vapor phase and the meaning of its associated pressure. Our analysis shows that a thermal emission picture is equivalent to a Fisher-like equilibrium description which avoids the problem of the vapor and explains the recently observed Boltzmann-like distribution of the emission times. In this picture a simple Fermi gas thermometric relation is naturally justified. Low energy compound nucleus emission of intermediate mass fragments is shown to scale according to Fisher's formula and can be simultaneously fit with the much higher energy ISiS multifragmentation data.

  12. Liquid manipulation via morphological transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seemann, Ralf; Brinkmann, Martin; Gurevich, Evgeny; Herminghaus, Stephan; Baret, Jean-Christophe; Decre, Michel

    2006-03-01

    Liquid deposited on rectangular grooves, has a variety of possible liquid morphologies determined by the contact angle, ?, and the exact channel geometry. In our experiments, electrowetting is used to tune ? reversibly from 100 to 50 ^o, leading to a reversible transition between a drop- like morphology at large ? and extended liquid filaments for small ?. The transition is capillarity-driven but the behavior of the liquid above the transition is influenced by the electrical properties of the liquid. The static length of the liquid filament is a function of the applied Voltage and is in perfect agreement with a simple transmission-line model. Emphasis is put on the dynamic aspects of the filling and the draining behavior that follow a modified Washburn law. In case of thin and elastic ridges separating two grooves the cross talk of the liquid morphologies with the elastic substrate has an ordering effect on the position of the droplets.

  13. CosmoTransitions: Cosmological Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Carroll L.

    2015-04-01

    CosmoTransitions analyzes early-Universe finite-temperature phase transitions with multiple scalar fields. The code enables analysis of the phase structure of an input theory, determines the amount of supercooling at each phase transition, and finds the bubble-wall profiles of the nucleated bubbles that drive the transitions.

  14. Order-parameter-aided temperature-accelerated sampling for the exploration of crystal polymorphism and solid-liquid phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tang-Qing; Chen, Pei-Yang; Chen, Ming; Samanta, Amit; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Tuckerman, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The problem of predicting polymorphism in atomic and molecular crystals constitutes a significant challenge both experimentally and theoretically. From the theoretical viewpoint, polymorphism prediction falls into the general class of problems characterized by an underlying rough energy landscape, and consequently, free energy based enhanced sampling approaches can be brought to bear on the problem. In this paper, we build on a scheme previously introduced by two of the authors in which the lengths and angles of the supercell are targeted for enhanced sampling via temperature accelerated adiabatic free energy dynamics [T. Q. Yu and M. E. Tuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 015701 (2011)]. Here, that framework is expanded to include general order parameters that distinguish different crystalline arrangements as target collective variables for enhanced sampling. The resulting free energy surface, being of quite high dimension, is nontrivial to reconstruct, and we discuss one particular strategy for performing the free energy analysis. The method is applied to the study of polymorphism in xenon crystals at high pressure and temperature using the Steinhardt order parameters without and with the supercell included in the set of collective variables. The expected fcc and bcc structures are obtained, and when the supercell parameters are included as collective variables, we also find several new structures, including fcc states with hcp stacking faults. We also apply the new method to the solid-liquid phase transition in copper at 1300 K using the same Steinhardt order parameters. Our method is able to melt and refreeze the system repeatedly, and the free energy profile can be obtained with high efficiency.

  15. Order-parameter-aided temperature-accelerated sampling for the exploration of crystal polymorphism and solid-liquid phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Tang-Qing Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Chen, Pei-Yang; Chen, Ming; Samanta, Amit; Tuckerman, Mark

    2014-06-07

    The problem of predicting polymorphism in atomic and molecular crystals constitutes a significant challenge both experimentally and theoretically. From the theoretical viewpoint, polymorphism prediction falls into the general class of problems characterized by an underlying rough energy landscape, and consequently, free energy based enhanced sampling approaches can be brought to bear on the problem. In this paper, we build on a scheme previously introduced by two of the authors in which the lengths and angles of the supercell are targeted for enhanced sampling via temperature accelerated adiabatic free energy dynamics [T. Q. Yu and M. E. Tuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 015701 (2011)]. Here, that framework is expanded to include general order parameters that distinguish different crystalline arrangements as target collective variables for enhanced sampling. The resulting free energy surface, being of quite high dimension, is nontrivial to reconstruct, and we discuss one particular strategy for performing the free energy analysis. The method is applied to the study of polymorphism in xenon crystals at high pressure and temperature using the Steinhardt order parameters without and with the supercell included in the set of collective variables. The expected fcc and bcc structures are obtained, and when the supercell parameters are included as collective variables, we also find several new structures, including fcc states with hcp stacking faults. We also apply the new method to the solid-liquid phase transition in copper at 1300 K using the same Steinhardt order parameters. Our method is able to melt and refreeze the system repeatedly, and the free energy profile can be obtained with high efficiency.

  16. Order-parameter-aided temperature-accelerated sampling for the exploration of crystal polymorphism and solid-liquid phase transitions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tang-Qing; Chen, Pei-Yang; Chen, Ming; Samanta, Amit; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Tuckerman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The problem of predicting polymorphism in atomic and molecular crystals constitutes a significant challenge both experimentally and theoretically. From the theoretical viewpoint, polymorphism prediction falls into the general class of problems characterized by an underlying rough energy landscape, and consequently, free energy based enhanced sampling approaches can be brought to bear on the problem. In this paper, we build on a scheme previously introduced by two of the authors in which the lengths and angles of the supercell are targeted for enhanced sampling via temperature accelerated adiabatic free energy dynamics [T. Q. Yu and M. E. Tuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 015701 (2011)]. Here, that framework is expanded to include general order parameters that distinguish different crystalline arrangements as target collective variables for enhanced sampling. The resulting free energy surface, being of quite high dimension, is nontrivial to reconstruct, and we discuss one particular strategy for performing the free energy analysis. The method is applied to the study of polymorphism in xenon crystals at high pressure and temperature using the Steinhardt order parameters without and with the supercell included in the set of collective variables. The expected fcc and bcc structures are obtained, and when the supercell parameters are included as collective variables, we also find several new structures, including fcc states with hcp stacking faults. We also apply the new method to the solid-liquid phase transition in copper at 1300 K using the same Steinhardt order parameters. Our method is able to melt and refreeze the system repeatedly, and the free energy profile can be obtained with high efficiency. PMID:24907992

  17. Comparison between Protein-Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Interactions and the Effect of PEG on Protein-Protein Interactions Using the Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition

    E-print Network

    Benedek, George B.

    Comparison between Protein-Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Interactions and the Effect of PEG on Protein-ProteinVember 18, 2006 Phase transitions of protein aqueous solutions are important for protein crystallization and biomaterials science in general. One source of thermodynamic complexity in protein solutions and their phase

  18. A flux induced crystal phase transition in the vapor-liquid-solid growth of indium-tin oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Gang; Yanagida, Takeshi; Yoshida, Hideto; Nagashima, Kazuki; Kanai, Masaki; Zhuge, Fuwei; He, Yong; Klamchuen, Annop; Rahong, Sakon; Fang, Xiaodong; Takeda, Seiji; Kawai, Tomoji

    2014-05-01

    Single crystalline metal oxide nanowires formed via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) route provide a platform not only for studying fundamental nanoscale properties but also for exploring novel device applications. Although the crystal phase variation of metal oxides, which exhibits a variety of physical properties, is an interesting feature compared with conventional semiconductors, it has been difficult to control the crystal phase of metal oxides during the VLS nanowire growth. Here we show that a material flux critically determines the crystal phase of indium-tin oxide nanowires grown via the VLS route, although thermodynamical parameters, such as temperature and pressure, were previously believed to determine the crystal phase. The crystal phases of indium-tin oxide nanowires varied from the rutile structures (SnO2), the metastable fluorite structures (InxSnyO3.5) and the bixbyite structures (Sn-doped In2O3) when only the material flux was varied within an order of magnitude. This trend can be interpreted in terms of the material flux dependence of crystal phases (rutile SnO2 and bixbyite In2O3) on the critical nucleation at the liquid-solid (LS) interface. Thus, precisely controlling the material flux, which has been underestimated for VLS nanowire growths, allows us to design the crystal phase and properties in the VLS nanowire growth of multicomponent metal oxides.Single crystalline metal oxide nanowires formed via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) route provide a platform not only for studying fundamental nanoscale properties but also for exploring novel device applications. Although the crystal phase variation of metal oxides, which exhibits a variety of physical properties, is an interesting feature compared with conventional semiconductors, it has been difficult to control the crystal phase of metal oxides during the VLS nanowire growth. Here we show that a material flux critically determines the crystal phase of indium-tin oxide nanowires grown via the VLS route, although thermodynamical parameters, such as temperature and pressure, were previously believed to determine the crystal phase. The crystal phases of indium-tin oxide nanowires varied from the rutile structures (SnO2), the metastable fluorite structures (InxSnyO3.5) and the bixbyite structures (Sn-doped In2O3) when only the material flux was varied within an order of magnitude. This trend can be interpreted in terms of the material flux dependence of crystal phases (rutile SnO2 and bixbyite In2O3) on the critical nucleation at the liquid-solid (LS) interface. Thus, precisely controlling the material flux, which has been underestimated for VLS nanowire growths, allows us to design the crystal phase and properties in the VLS nanowire growth of multicomponent metal oxides. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: STEM mapping of In and Sn in an ISO nanowire (Fig. S1) and homogeneity of a fluorite ISO phase at the full length of a nanowire (Fig. S2). See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01016g

  19. Electroweak phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.W.

    1991-09-16

    An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.

  20. Electroweak phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.W.

    1991-09-16

    An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.

  1. Viscosity near phase transitions

    E-print Network

    Antonio Dobado; Felipe J. Llanes-Estrada; Juan M. Torres-Rincon

    2010-09-30

    Probably the most enticing observation in theoretical physics during the last decade was the discovery of the great amount of consequences obtained from the AdS/CFT conjecture put forward by Maldacena. In this work we review how this correspondence can be used to address hydrodynamic properties such as the viscosity of some strongly interacting systems. We also employ the Boltzmann equation for those systems closer to low-energy QCD, and argue that this kind of transport coefficients can be related to phase transitions, in particular the QGP/hadronic phase transition studied in heavy ion collisions.

  2. Unraveling the Solid-Liquid-Vapor Phase Transition Dynamics at the Atomic Level with Ultrafast X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dorchies, F.; Goyon, C.; Descamps, D.; Fourment, C.; Harmand, M.; Hulin, S.; Leguay, P. M.; Petit, S.; Peyrusse, O.; Santos, J. J.; Levy, A.; Combis, P.

    2011-12-09

    X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) is a powerful probe of electronic and atomic structures in various media, ranging from molecules to condensed matter. We show how ultrafast time resolution opens new possibilities to investigate highly nonequilibrium states of matter including phase transitions. Based on a tabletop laser-plasma ultrafast x-ray source, we have performed a time-resolved ({approx}3 ps) XANES experiment that reveals the evolution of an aluminum foil at the atomic level, when undergoing ultrafast laser heating and ablation. X-ray absorption spectra highlight an ultrafast transition from the crystalline solid to the disordered liquid followed by a progressive transition of the delocalized valence electronic structure (metal) down to localized atomic orbitals (nonmetal--vapor), as the average distance between atoms increases.

  3. Metastable liquid-liquid transition in a molecular model of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Jeremy C.; Martelli, Fausto; Liu, Yang; Car, Roberto; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    2014-06-01

    Liquid water's isothermal compressibility and isobaric heat capacity, and the magnitude of its thermal expansion coefficient, increase sharply on cooling below the equilibrium freezing point. Many experimental, theoretical and computational studies have sought to understand the molecular origin and implications of this anomalous behaviour. Of the different theoretical scenarios put forward, one posits the existence of a first-order phase transition that involves two forms of liquid water and terminates at a critical point located at deeply supercooled conditions. Some experimental evidence is consistent with this hypothesis, but no definitive proof of a liquid-liquid transition in water has been obtained to date: rapid ice crystallization has so far prevented decisive measurements on deeply supercooled water, although this challenge has been overcome recently. Computer simulations are therefore crucial for exploring water's structure and behaviour in this regime, and have shown that some water models exhibit liquid-liquid transitions and others do not. However, recent work has argued that the liquid-liquid transition has been mistakenly interpreted, and is in fact a liquid-crystal transition in all atomistic models of water. Here we show, by studying the liquid-liquid transition in the ST2 model of water with the use of six advanced sampling methods to compute the free-energy surface, that two metastable liquid phases and a stable crystal phase exist at the same deeply supercooled thermodynamic condition, and that the transition between the two liquids satisfies the thermodynamic criteria of a first-order transition. We follow the rearrangement of water's coordination shell and topological ring structure along a thermodynamically reversible path from the low-density liquid to cubic ice. We also show that the system fluctuates freely between the two liquid phases rather than crystallizing. These findings provide unambiguous evidence for a liquid-liquid transition in the ST2 model of water, and point to the separation of time scales between crystallization and relaxation as being crucial for enabling it.

  4. Metastable liquid-liquid transition in a molecular model of water.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Jeremy C; Martelli, Fausto; Liu, Yang; Car, Roberto; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2014-06-19

    Liquid water's isothermal compressibility and isobaric heat capacity, and the magnitude of its thermal expansion coefficient, increase sharply on cooling below the equilibrium freezing point. Many experimental, theoretical and computational studies have sought to understand the molecular origin and implications of this anomalous behaviour. Of the different theoretical scenarios put forward, one posits the existence of a first-order phase transition that involves two forms of liquid water and terminates at a critical point located at deeply supercooled conditions. Some experimental evidence is consistent with this hypothesis, but no definitive proof of a liquid-liquid transition in water has been obtained to date: rapid ice crystallization has so far prevented decisive measurements on deeply supercooled water, although this challenge has been overcome recently. Computer simulations are therefore crucial for exploring water's structure and behaviour in this regime, and have shown that some water models exhibit liquid-liquid transitions and others do not. However, recent work has argued that the liquid-liquid transition has been mistakenly interpreted, and is in fact a liquid-crystal transition in all atomistic models of water. Here we show, by studying the liquid-liquid transition in the ST2 model of water with the use of six advanced sampling methods to compute the free-energy surface, that two metastable liquid phases and a stable crystal phase exist at the same deeply supercooled thermodynamic condition, and that the transition between the two liquids satisfies the thermodynamic criteria of a first-order transition. We follow the rearrangement of water's coordination shell and topological ring structure along a thermodynamically reversible path from the low-density liquid to cubic ice. We also show that the system fluctuates freely between the two liquid phases rather than crystallizing. These findings provide unambiguous evidence for a liquid-liquid transition in the ST2 model of water, and point to the separation of time scales between crystallization and relaxation as being crucial for enabling it. PMID:24943954

  5. String mediated phase transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, ED; Haws, D.; Rivers, R.; Holbraad, S.

    1988-01-01

    It is demonstrated from first principles how the existence of string-like structures can cause a system to undergo a phase transition. In particular, the role of topologically stable cosmic string in the restoration of spontaneously broken symmetries is emphasized. How the thermodynamic properties of strings alter when stiffness and nearest neighbor string-string interactions are included is discussed.

  6. Mathematical Models and Numerical Solutions of Liquid-Solid and Solid-Liquid Phase Change

    E-print Network

    Surana, Karan S.; Joy, Aaron; Quiros, Luis; Reddy, JN

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations of liquid-solid and solid-liquid phase change processes using mathematical models in Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions. The mathematical models are derived by assuming a smooth interface or transition...

  7. Fragile-to-fragile Liquid Transition at Tg and Stable-Glass Phase Nucleation Rate Maximum at the Kauzmann Temperature TK

    E-print Network

    Robert Felix Tournier

    2015-02-23

    An undercooled liquid is unstable. The driving force of the glass transition at Tg is a change of the undercooled-liquid Gibbs free energy. The classical Gibbs free energy change for a crystal formation is completed including an enthalpy saving. The crystal growth critical nucleus is used as a probe to observe the Laplace pressure change Dp accompanying the enthalpy change -Vm *Dp at Tg where Vm is the molar volume. A stable glass-liquid transition model predicts the specific heat jump of fragile liquids at temperatures smaller than Tg, the Kauzmann temperature TK where the liquid entropy excess with regard to crystal goes to zero, the equilibrium enthalpy between TK and Tg, the maximum nucleation rate at TK of superclusters containing magic atom numbers, and the equilibrium latent heats at Tg and TK. Strong-to-fragile and strong-to-strong liquid transitions at Tg are also described and all their thermodynamic parameters are determined from their specific heat jumps. The existence of fragile liquids quenched in the amorphous state, which do not undergo liquid-liquid transition during heating preceding their crystallization, is predicted. Long ageing times leading to the formation at TK of a stable glass composed of superclusters containing up to 147 atoms, touching and interpenetrating, are evaluated from nucleation rates. A fragile-to-fragile liquid transition occurs at Tg without stable-glass formation while a strong glass is stable after transition.

  8. Fragile-to-fragile liquid transition at Tg and stable-glass phase nucleation rate maximum at the Kauzmann temperature TK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournier, Robert F.

    2014-12-01

    An undercooled liquid is unstable. The driving force of the glass transition at Tg is a change of the undercooled-liquid Gibbs free energy. The classical Gibbs free energy change for a crystal formation is completed including an enthalpy saving. The crystal growth critical nucleus is used as a probe to observe the Laplace pressure change ?p accompanying the enthalpy change -Vm×?p at Tg where Vm is the molar volume. A stable glass-liquid transition model predicts the specific heat jump of fragile liquids at T?Tg, the Kauzmann temperature TK where the liquid entropy excess with regard to crystal goes to zero, the equilibrium enthalpy between TK and Tg, the maximum nucleation rate at TK of superclusters containing magic atom numbers, and the equilibrium latent heats at Tg and TK. Strong-to-fragile and strong-to-strong liquid transitions at Tg are also described and all their thermodynamic parameters are determined from their specific heat jumps. The existence of fragile liquids quenched in the amorphous state, which do not undergo liquid-liquid transition during heating preceding their crystallization, is predicted. Long ageing times leading to the formation at TK of a stable glass composed of superclusters containing up to 147 atom, touching and interpenetrating, are evaluated from nucleation rates. A fragile-to-fragile liquid transition occurs at Tg without stable-glass formation while a strong glass is stable after transition.

  9. Fermionic phase transition induced by the effective impurity in holography

    E-print Network

    Li-Qing Fang; Xiao-Mei Kuang; Bin Wang; Jian-Pin Wu

    2015-11-22

    We investigate the holographic fermionic phase transition induced by the effective impurity in holography, which is introduced by massless scalar fields in Einstein-Maxwell-massless scalar gravity. We obtain a phase diagram in $(\\alpha, T)$ plane separating the Fermi liquid phase and the non-Fermi liquid phase.

  10. Phase transition thermodynamics of bisphenols.

    PubMed

    Costa, José C S; Dávalos, Juan Z; Santos, Luís M N B F

    2014-10-16

    Herein we have studied, presented, and analyzed the phase equilibria thermodynamics of a bisphenols (BP-A, BP-E, BP-F, BP-AP, and BP-S) series. In particular, the heat capacities, melting temperatures, and vapor pressures at different temperatures as well as the standard enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs energies of phase transition (fusion and sublimation) were experimentally determined. Also, we have presented the phase diagrams of each bisphenol derivative and investigated the key parameters related to the thermodynamic stability of the condensed phases. When all the bisphenol derivatives are compared at the same conditions, solids BP-AP and BP-S present lower volatilities (higher Gibbs energy of sublimation) and high melting temperatures due to the higher stability of their solid phases. Solids BP-A and BP-F present similar stabilities, whereas BP-E is more volatile. The introduction of -CH3 groups in BP-F (giving BP-E and BP-A) leads an entropic differentiation in the solid phase, whereas in the isotropic liquids the enthalpic and entropic differentiations are negligible. PMID:25244127

  11. Bond orientational ordering in liquids: Towards a unified description of water-like anomalies, liquid-liquid transition, glass transition, and crystallization

    E-print Network

    Tanaka, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    There are at least three fundamental states of matter, depending upon temperature and pressure: gas, liquid, and solid (crystal). These states are separated by first-order phase transitions between them. In both gas and liquid phases the complete translational and rotational symmetry exist, whereas in a solid phase both symmetries are broken. In intermediate phases between liquid and solid, which include liquid crystal and plastic crystal phases, only one of the two symmetries is preserved. Among the fundamental states of matter, the liquid state is most poorly understood. We argue that it is crucial for a better understanding of liquid to recognize that a liquid generally has a tendency to have local structural order and its presence is intrinsic and universal to any liquid. Such structural ordering is a consequence of many body correlations, more specifically, bond angle correlations, which we believe are crucial for the description of the liquid state. We show that this physical picture may naturally expla...

  12. Evidence of liquid-liquid transition in glass-forming La50Al35Ni15 melt above liquidus temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Sandor, Magdalena T.; Yu, Yao; Ke, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Hua-Ping; Li, Mao-Zhi; Wang, Wei-Hua; Liu, Lin; Wu, Yue

    2015-07-01

    Liquid-liquid transition, a phase transition of one liquid phase to another with the same composition, provides a key opportunity for investigating the relationship between liquid structures and dynamics. Here we report experimental evidences of a liquid-liquid transition in glass-forming La50Al35Ni15 melt above its liquidus temperature by 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance including the temperature dependence of cage volume fluctuations and atomic diffusion. The observed dependence of the incubation time on the degree of undercooling is consistent with a first-order phase transition. Simulation results indicate that such transition is accompanied by the change of bond-orientational order without noticeable change in density. The temperature dependence of atomic diffusion revealed by simulations is also in agreement with experiments. These observations indicate the need of two-order parameters in describing phase transitions of liquids.

  13. Evidence of liquid–liquid transition in glass-forming La50Al35Ni15 melt above liquidus temperature

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Sandor, Magdalena T.; Yu, Yao; Ke, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Hua-Ping; Li, Mao-Zhi; Wang, Wei-Hua; Liu, Lin; Wu, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Liquid–liquid transition, a phase transition of one liquid phase to another with the same composition, provides a key opportunity for investigating the relationship between liquid structures and dynamics. Here we report experimental evidences of a liquid–liquid transition in glass-forming La50Al35Ni15 melt above its liquidus temperature by 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance including the temperature dependence of cage volume fluctuations and atomic diffusion. The observed dependence of the incubation time on the degree of undercooling is consistent with a first-order phase transition. Simulation results indicate that such transition is accompanied by the change of bond-orientational order without noticeable change in density. The temperature dependence of atomic diffusion revealed by simulations is also in agreement with experiments. These observations indicate the need of two-order parameters in describing phase transitions of liquids. PMID:26165855

  14. Integrated modeling of CO2 storage and leakage scenarios including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    2011-05-15

    Storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers is intended to be at supercritical pressure and temperature conditions, but CO{sub 2} leaking from a geologic storage reservoir and migrating toward the land surface (through faults, fractures, or improperly abandoned wells) would reach subcritical conditions at depths shallower than 500-750 m. At these and shallower depths, subcritical CO{sub 2} can form two-phase mixtures of liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}, with significant latent heat effects during boiling and condensation. Additional strongly non-isothermal effects can arise from decompression of gas-like subcritical CO{sub 2}, the so-called Joule-Thomson effect. Integrated modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage requires the ability to model non-isothermal flows of brine and CO{sub 2} at conditions that range from supercritical to subcritical, including three-phase flow of aqueous phase, and both liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate comprehensive simulation capabilities that can cope with all possible phase conditions in brine-CO{sub 2} systems. Our model formulation includes: (1) an accurate description of thermophysical properties of aqueous and CO{sub 2}-rich phases as functions of temperature, pressure, salinity and CO{sub 2} content, including the mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; (2) transitions between super- and subcritical conditions, including phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}; (3) one-, two-, and three-phase flow of brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including heat flow; (4) non-isothermal effects associated with phase change, mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and water, and (de-) compression effects; and (5) the effects of dissolved NaCl, and the possibility of precipitating solid halite, with associated porosity and permeability change. Applications to specific leakage scenarios demonstrate that the peculiar thermophysical properties of CO{sub 2} provide a potential for positive as well as negative feedbacks on leakage rates, with a combination of self-enhancing and self-limiting effects. Lower viscosity and density of CO{sub 2} as compared to aqueous fluids provides a potential for self-enhancing effects during leakage, while strong cooling effects from liquid CO{sub 2} boiling into gas, and from expansion of gas rising towards the land surface, act to self-limit discharges. Strong interference between fluid phases under three-phase conditions (aqueous - liquid CO{sub 2} - gaseous CO{sub 2}) also tends to reduce CO{sub 2} fluxes. Feedback on different space and time scales can induce non-monotonic behavior of CO{sub 2} flow rates.

  15. Phase transitions in layered crystals

    E-print Network

    Yuri Mnyukh

    2011-05-22

    It is demonstrated by analyzing real examples that phase transitions in layered crystals occur like all other solid-state phase transitions by nucleation and crystal growth, but have a specific morphology. There the nucleation is epitaxial, resulting in the rigorous orientation relationship between the polymorphs, such that the direction of molecular layers are preserved. The detailed molecular mechanism of these phase transitions and formation of the laminar domain structures are described and related to the nature of ferroelectrics.

  16. Diffusion phase transitions in alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinovshchikov, Yu I.

    2014-07-01

    We present a critical analysis of research on the thermodynamics, kinetics, and morphology of diffusion phase transitions in alloys. We show that diffusion phase transitions are mainly driven by the chemical potential difference due to a change in the sign of the chemical interaction among the component atoms. We explain how the sign of the chemical interaction energy can be obtained from experimental measurements. Examples are given to illustrate the kinetics and morphology of the ordering-separation phase transition in Ni- and Co-based alloys. We show how introducing the concept of the ordering-separation phase transition may affect our thinking in this area.

  17. Quantum phase transition in space

    SciTech Connect

    Damski, Bogdan; Zurek, Wojciech H

    2008-01-01

    A quantum phase transition between the symmetric (polar) phase and the phase with broken symmetry can be induced in a ferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate in space (rather than in time). We consider such a phase transition and show that the transition region in the vicinity of the critical point exhibits scalings that reflect a compromise between the rate at which the transition is imposed (i.e., the gradient of the control parameter) and the scaling of the divergent healing length in the critical region. Our results suggest a method for the direct measurement of the scaling exponent {nu}.

  18. The putative liquid-liquid transition is a liquid-solid transition in atomistic models of water. II

    SciTech Connect

    Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David

    2013-06-07

    This paper extends our earlier studies of free energy functions of density and crystalline order parameters for models of supercooled water, which allows us to examine the possibility of two distinct metastable liquid phases [D. T. Limmer and D. Chandler, J. Chem. Phys.135, 134503 (2011) and preprint http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1107.0337 (2011)]. Low-temperature reversible free energy surfaces of several different atomistic models are computed: mW water, TIP4P/2005 water, Stillinger-Weber silicon, and ST2 water, the last of these comparing three different treatments of long-ranged forces. In each case, we show that there is one stable or metastable liquid phase, and there is an ice-like crystal phase. The time scales for crystallization in these systems far exceed those of structural relaxation in the supercooled metastable liquid. We show how this wide separation in time scales produces an illusion of a low-temperature liquid-liquid transition. The phenomenon suggesting metastability of two distinct liquid phases is actually coarsening of the ordered ice-like phase, which we elucidate using both analytical theory and computer simulation. For the latter, we describe robust methods for computing reversible free energy surfaces, and we consider effects of electrostatic boundary conditions. We show that sensible alterations of models and boundary conditions produce no qualitative changes in low-temperature phase behaviors of these systems, only marginal changes in equations of state. On the other hand, we show that altering sampling time scales can produce large and qualitative non-equilibrium effects. Recent reports of evidence of a liquid-liquid critical point in computer simulations of supercooled water are considered in this light.

  19. Phase transitions in disordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrahsheh, Fawaz Y.

    Disorder can have a wide variety of consequences for the physics of phase transitions. Some transitions remain unchanged in the presence of disorder while others are completely destroyed. In this thesis we study the effects of disorder on several classical and quantum phase transitions in condensed matter systems. After a brief introduction, we study the ferromagnetic phase transition in a randomly layered Heisenberg magnet using large-scale Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results provide numerical evidence for the exotic infinite-randomness scenario. We study classical and quantum smeared phase transitions in substitutional alloys A1-xBx. Our results show that the disorder completely destroys the phase transition with a pronounced tail of the ordered phase developing for all compositions x < 1. In addition, we find that short-ranged disorder correlations can have a dramatic effect on the transition. Moreover, we show an experimental realization of the composition-tuned ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic quantum phase transition in Sr1-xCa xRuO3. We investigate the effects of disorder on first-order quantum phase transitions on the example of the N-color quantum Ashkin-Teller model. By means of a strong disorder renormalization group, we demonstrate that disorder rounds the first-order transition to a continuous one for both weak and strong coupling between the colors. Finally, we investigate the superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition of one-dimensional bosons with off-diagonal disorder by means of large-scale Monte-Carlo simulations. Beyond a critical disorder strength, we find nonuniversal, disorder dependent critical behavior.

  20. Colloidal particles in blue phase liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Pawsey, Anne C; Clegg, Paul S

    2015-05-01

    We study the effect of disorder on the phase transitions of a system already dominated by defects. Micron-sized colloidal particles are dispersed chiral nematic liquid crystals which exhibit a blue phase (BP). The colloids are a source of disorder, disrupting the liquid crystal as the system is heated from the cholesteric to the isotropic phase through the blue phase. The colloids act as a preferential site for the growth of BPI from the cholesteric; in high chirality samples BPII also forms. In both BPI and BPII the colloids lead to localised melting to the isotropic, giving rise to faceted isotropic inclusions. This is in contrast to the behaviour of a cholesteric LC where colloids lead to system spanning defects. PMID:25698218

  1. Fluctuation driven electroweak phase transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe. For Higgs masses in the range 46 less than or = M sub H less than or = 150 GeV and top quark masses less than 200 GeV, regions of symmetric and asymmetric vacuum coexist to below the critical temperature, with thermal equilibrium between the two phases maintained by fluctuations of both phases. We propose that the transition to the asymmetric vacuum is completed by percolation of these subcritical fluctuations. Our results are relevant to scenarios of baryogenesis that invoke a weakly first-order phase transition at the electroweak scale.

  2. Polymer physics of intracellular phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brangwynne, Clifford P.; Tompa, Peter; Pappu, Rohit V.

    2015-11-01

    Intracellular organelles are either membrane-bound vesicles or membrane-less compartments that are made up of proteins and RNA. These organelles play key biological roles, by compartmentalizing the cell to enable spatiotemporal control of biological reactions. Recent studies suggest that membrane-less intracellular compartments are multicomponent viscous liquid droplets that form via phase separation. Proteins that have an intrinsic tendency for being conformationally heterogeneous seem to be the main drivers of liquid-liquid phase separation in the cell. These findings highlight the relevance of classical concepts from the physics of polymeric phase transitions for understanding the assembly of intracellular membrane-less compartments. However, applying these concepts is challenging, given the heteropolymeric nature of protein sequences, the complex intracellular environment, and non-equilibrium features intrinsic to cells. This provides new opportunities for adapting established theories and for the emergence of new physics.

  3. Microscopic identification of the order parameter governing liquid–liquid transition in a molecular liquid

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Ken-ichiro; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    A liquid–liquid transition (LLT) in a single-component substance is an unconventional phase transition from one liquid to another. LLT has recently attracted considerable attention because of its fundamental importance in our understanding of the liquid state. To access the order parameter governing LLT from a microscopic viewpoint, here we follow the structural evolution during the LLT of an organic molecular liquid, triphenyl phosphite (TPP), by time-resolved small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements. We find that locally favored clusters, whose characteristic size is a few nanometers, are spontaneously formed and their number density monotonically increases during LLT. This strongly suggests that the order parameter of LLT is the number density of locally favored structures and of nonconserved nature. We also show that the locally favored structures are distinct from the crystal structure and these two types of orderings compete with each other. Thus, our study not only experimentally identifies the structural order parameter governing LLT, but also may settle a long-standing debate on the nature of the transition in TPP, i.e., whether the transition is LLT or merely microcrystal formation. PMID:25918385

  4. Liquid-liquid transition in ST2 water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Palmer, Jeremy C.; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    2012-12-01

    We use the weighted histogram analysis method [S. Kumar, D. Bouzida, R. H. Swendsen, P. A. Kollman, and J. M. Rosenberg, J. Comput. Chem. 13, 1011 (1992), 10.1002/jcc.540130812] to calculate the free energy surface of the ST2 model of water as a function of density and bond-orientational order. We perform our calculations at deeply supercooled conditions (T = 228.6 K, P = 2.2 kbar; T = 235 K, P = 2.2 kbar) and focus our attention on the region of bond-orientational order that is relevant to disordered phases. We find a first-order transition between a low-density liquid (LDL, ? ? 0.9 g/cc) and a high-density liquid (HDL, ? ? 1.15 g/cc), confirming our earlier sampling of the free energy surface of this model as a function of density [Y. Liu, A. Z. Panagiotopoulos, and P. G. Debenedetti, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 104508 (2009), 10.1063/1.3229892]. We demonstrate the disappearance of the LDL basin at high pressure and of the HDL basin at low pressure, in agreement with independent simulations of the system's equation of state. Consistency between directly computed and reweighted free energies, as well as between free energy surfaces computed using different thermodynamic starting conditions, confirms proper equilibrium sampling. Diffusion and structural relaxation calculations demonstrate that equilibration of the LDL phase, which exhibits slow dynamics, is attained in the course of the simulations. Repeated flipping between the LDL and HDL phases in the course of long molecular dynamics runs provides further evidence of a phase transition. We use the Ewald summation with vacuum boundary conditions to calculate long-ranged Coulombic interactions and show that conducting boundary conditions lead to unphysical behavior at low temperatures.

  5. Liquid Phase Heating Systems 

    E-print Network

    Mordt, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    excessive. Here, the High Temperature/Low Pressure (HT/LP) organic thermal liquids are applicable. The higher the temperature, the greater the potential fuel savings over a conventional steam system. Less expensive low pressure heat users may be used. Water...

  6. Isotropic to cholesteric phase transition of DNA solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Prabir K.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that both long and short complementary B-form DNA oligomers exhibit liquid crystals phases. We study the isotropic to cholesteric (I-Ch) phase transition of DNA solutions using Landau theory. We define relevant order parameters for this transition. It is shown that the I-Ch transition temperature is depressed and a two phase region is formed due to the presence of the DNA concentration. The concentration and oligomers length dependent transition temperature is calculated and compared with experimental results. The Kerr effect and Cotton-Mouton coefficient are calculated in the isotropic phase above the I-Ch transition.

  7. Fréedericksz transition in polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Rui-Qing; Yang, Deng-Ke

    2000-02-01

    We have constructed polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystals by photopolymerizing diacrylate monomers in the nematic phase. The orientation of the liquid crystal was controlled by the polymer network. We studied the Fréedericksz transition in these systems. Experimentally we studied the transition by measuring the capacitance of the liquid crystal cells as a function of applied voltage. The transition was affected profoundly by the dispersed polymer network. The threshold was higher with shorter interpolymer network distance. Theoretically we studied the systems using a two-dimensional model in which the polymer networks were represented by parallel cylinders with random location. The interaction between the liquid crystal and the polymer network was described by the boundary condition imposed by the polymer network. By fitting the experimental data, we found that the polymer cylinders had diameters of a few submicrons, and a substantial amount of liquid crystal was trapped inside the cylinders.

  8. Phase transition towards strange matter

    E-print Network

    F. Gulminelli; Ad. R. Raduta; M. Oertel

    2012-08-31

    The phase diagram of a system constituted of neutrons and $\\Lambda$-hyperons in thermal equilibrium is evaluated in the mean-field approximation. It is shown that this simple system exhibits a complex phase diagram with first and second order phase transitions. Due to the generic presence of attractive and repulsive couplings, the existence of phase transitions involving strangeness appears independent of the specific interaction model. In addition we will show under which conditions a phase transition towards strange matter at high density exists, which is expected to persist even within a complete treatment including all the different strange and non- strange baryon states. The impact of this transition on the composition of matter in the inner core of neutron stars is discussed.

  9. Bond orientational ordering in liquids: Towards a unified description of water-like anomalies, liquid-liquid transition, glass transition, and crystallization

    E-print Network

    Hajime Tanaka

    2013-07-02

    There are at least three fundamental states of matter, depending upon temperature and pressure: gas, liquid, and solid (crystal). These states are separated by first-order phase transitions between them. In both gas and liquid phases the complete translational and rotational symmetry exist, whereas in a solid phase both symmetries are broken. In intermediate phases between liquid and solid, which include liquid crystal and plastic crystal phases, only one of the two symmetries is preserved. Among the fundamental states of matter, the liquid state is most poorly understood. We argue that it is crucial for a better understanding of liquid to recognize that a liquid generally has a tendency to have local structural order and its presence is intrinsic and universal to any liquid. Such structural ordering is a consequence of many body correlations, more specifically, bond angle correlations, which we believe are crucial for the description of the liquid state. We show that this physical picture may naturally explain difficult unsolved problems associated with the liquid state, such as anomalies of water-type liquids (water, Si, Ge, ...), liquid-liquid transition, liquid-glass transition, crystallization and quasicrystal formation, in a unified manner. In other words, we need a new order parameter representing low local free-energy configuration, which is bond orientational order parameter in many cases, in addition to density order parameter for the physical description of these phenomena. Here we review our two-order-parameter model of liquid and consider how transient local structural ordering is linked to all of the above-mentioned phenomena. The relationship between these phenomena are also discussed.

  10. Phase Transitions in "Small" systems

    E-print Network

    D. H. E. Gross; E. Votyakov

    1999-11-17

    Traditionally, phase transitions are defined in the thermodynamic limit only. We discuss how phase transitions of first order (with phase separation and surface tension), continuous transitions and (multi)-critical points can be seen and classified for small systems. Boltzmann defines the entropy as the logarithm of the area W(E,N)=e^S(E,N) of the surface in the mechanical N-body phase space at total energy E. The topology of the curvature determinant D(E,N) of S(E,N) allows the classification of phase transitions without taking the thermodynamic limit. The first calculation of the entire entropy surface S(E,N) for the diluted Potts model (ordinary (q=3)-Potts model plus vacancies) on a 50*50 square lattice is shown. The regions in {E,N} where D>0 correspond to pure phases, ordered resp. disordered, and D<0 represent transitions of first order with phase separation and ``surface tension''. These regions are bordered by a line with D=0. A line of continuous transitions starts at the critical point of the ordinary (q=3)-Potts model and runs down to a branching point P_m. Along this line \

  11. The transition from the annular to the slug flow regime in two-phase flow

    E-print Network

    Haberstroh, Robert D.

    1964-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the transition from annular to semiannular flow regimes for two-phase, gas-liquid upflow in vertical tubes. The influencesof liquid flow rate, tube diameter, liquid viscosity, surface ...

  12. Spacetime Approach to Phase Transitions

    E-print Network

    Wolfhard Janke; Adriaan M. J. Schakel

    2007-05-08

    In these notes, the application of Feynman's sum-over-paths approach to thermal phase transitions is discussed. The paradigm of such a spacetime approach to critical phenomena is provided by the high-temperature expansion of spin models. This expansion, known as the hopping expansion in the context of lattice field theory, yields a geometric description of the phase transition in these models, with the thermal critical exponents being determined by the fractal structure of the high-temperature graphs. The graphs percolate at the thermal critical point and can be studied using purely geometrical observables known from percolation theory. Besides the phase transition in spin models and in the closely related $\\phi^4$ theory, other transitions discussed from this perspective include Bose-Einstein condensation, and the transitions in the Higgs model and the pure U(1) gauge theory.

  13. that accompany the phase transition. Before the phase transition (1 ps), we calculated N1

    E-print Network

    structure and the subsequent atomic rearrangements reduce N1 to 10.0 0.3 at 6 ps. There is no observable is that of subpicosecond time resolution with sufficient structural sensitivity to reveal the atomic details of even diffraction has provided an unprecedented atomic-level view of ultrafast solid-liquid phase transition

  14. Hadron-Quark Phase Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Cavagnoli, Rafael; Menezes, Debora P.; Providencia, Constanca

    2009-06-03

    In the present work we study the hadron-quarkphase transition with boson condensation by investigating the binodal surface and extending it to finite temperature in order to mimic the QCD phase diagram.

  15. Effects of terminal chain length in hydrogen-bonded chiral switches on phototunable behavior of chiral nematic liquid crystals: helicity inversion and phase transition.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dengwei; Li, Juntao; Wei, Jie; Guo, Jinbao

    2015-04-21

    A novel series of photoresponsive chiral switches are fabricated by a facile hydrogen-bonded (H-bonded) assembly method, in which the binaphthyl azobenzene molecule is used as the proton acceptor, and binaphthyl acids with opposite chiral configuration are proton donors. We find that the helical twisted power of H-bonded chiral switches and the helical handedness of induced chiral nematic liquid crystals (N*-LCs) are mainly determined by the terminal flexible chain length in proton donors of binaphthyl acids. Controlling the lengths of the terminal flexible chain leads to different photoswitching behaviors by light irradiation, such as a helical inversion in the N*-LCs and a phase transition from N*-LCs to nematic LCs. This is mainly because of chiral counteraction and intensity attenuation of opposite chiral configurations between the proton acceptor and proton donor during UV-vis irradiation. Additionally, the thermal switching behavior of N*-LCs doped with H-bonded chiral switches is also demonstrated, and the related tuning mechanism may be attributed to the H-bonded effect and the changes in a dihedral angle of the binaphthyl rings. This facile assembly approach provides a new way for the fabrication of functional chiral switches for photonic applications. PMID:25743076

  16. ALS/FTD Mutation-Induced Phase Transition of FUS Liquid Droplets and Reversible Hydrogels into Irreversible Hydrogels Impairs RNP Granule Function

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Tetsuro; Qamar, Seema; Lin, Julie Qiaojin; Schierle, Gabriele S. Kaminski; Rees, Eric; Miyashita, Akinori; Costa, Ana R.; Dodd, Roger B.; Chan, Fiona T.S.; Michel, Claire H.; Kronenberg-Versteeg, Deborah; Li, Yi; Yang, Seung-Pil; Wakutani, Yosuke; Meadows, William; Ferry, Rodylyn Rose; Dong, Liang; Tartaglia, Gian Gaetano; Favrin, Giorgio; Lin, Wen-Lang; Dickson, Dennis W.; Zhen, Mei; Ron, David; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold; Fraser, Paul E.; Shneider, Neil A.; Holt, Christine; Vendruscolo, Michele; Kaminski, Clemens F.; St George-Hyslop, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Summary The mechanisms by which mutations in FUS and other RNA binding proteins cause ALS and FTD remain controversial. We propose a model in which low-complexity (LC) domains of FUS drive its physiologically reversible assembly into membrane-free, liquid droplet and hydrogel-like structures. ALS/FTD mutations in LC or non-LC domains induce further phase transition into poorly soluble fibrillar hydrogels distinct from conventional amyloids. These assemblies are necessary and sufficient for neurotoxicity in a C. elegans model of FUS-dependent neurodegeneration. They trap other ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granule components and disrupt RNP granule function. One consequence is impairment of new protein synthesis by cytoplasmic RNP granules in axon terminals, where RNP granules regulate local RNA metabolism and translation. Nuclear FUS granules may be similarly affected. Inhibiting formation of these fibrillar hydrogel assemblies mitigates neurotoxicity and suggests a potential therapeutic strategy that may also be applicable to ALS/FTD associated with mutations in other RNA binding proteins. PMID:26526393

  17. Transitions between paraelectric and ferroelectric phases of bent-core smectic liquid crystals in the bulk and in thin freely suspended films.

    PubMed

    Eremin, Alexey; Floegel, Martin; Kornek, Ulrike; Stern, Stephan; Stannarius, Ralf; Nádasi, Hajnalka; Weissflog, Wolfgang; Zhu, Chenhui; Shen, Yongqiang; Park, Cheol Soo; Maclennan, Joseph; Clark, Noel

    2012-11-01

    We report on the contrasting phase behavior of a bent-core liquid crystal with a large opening angle between the mesogenic units in the bulk and in freely suspended films. Second-harmonic generation experiments and direct observation of director inversion walls in films in an applied electric field reveal that the nonpolar smectic C phase observed in bulk samples becomes a ferroelectric "banana" phase in films, showing that a mesogen with a small steric moment can give a phase with polar order in freely suspended films even when the corresponding bulk phase is paraelectric. PMID:23214799

  18. Liquid-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Systems Neima Brauner

    E-print Network

    Brauner, Neima

    2.22.2323 1 #12;Liquid-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Systems Neima Brauner School of Engineering, Tel-Aviv University Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel 1 General Description of Liquid-Liquid Flows: Flow Patterns Flows of two immiscible liquids are encountered in a diverse range of processes and equipments. In particular

  19. Liquid-Phase Adsorption Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, David O.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an experiment developed and used in the unit operations laboratory course at the University of Wyoming. Involves the liquid-phase adsorption of an organic compound from aqueous solution on activated carbon, and is relevant to adsorption processes in general. (TW)

  20. Multiple ordering transitions in a chiral liquid

    E-print Network

    Pierre Ronceray; Peter Harrowell

    2013-08-26

    We present here a numerical study of a lattice model of a chiral liquid. The low symmetry of the favoured local structure depresses the freezing point to reveal an exotic liquid-liquid transition characterised by the appearance of an extended chirality,prior to freezing. What mechanisms impede crystallisation in liquids with low molecular symmetry ? The ordered liquid can be readily supercooled to zero temperature, as the combination of critical slowing down and competing crystal polymorphs results in a dramatically slow crystallisation process.

  1. Texture transitions in the liquid crystalline alkyloxybenzoic acid 6OBAC

    E-print Network

    A. Sparavigna; A. Mello; B. Montrucchio

    2006-09-01

    The 4,n-alkyloxybenzoic acid 6OBAC has a very rich variety of crystalline structures and two nematic sub-phases, characterised by different textures. It is a material belonging to a family of liquid crystals formed by hydrogen bonded molecules, the 4,n-alkyloxybenzoic acids indicates the homologue number). The homologues with n ranging from 7 to 13 display both smectic C and N phases. In spite of the absence of a smectic phase, 6OBAC exhibits two sub-phases with different textures, as it happens in other materials of the homologue series which possess the smectic phase. This is the first material that exhibits a texture transition in a nematic phase directly originated from a crystal phase. Here we present the results of an image processing assisted optical investigation to characterise the textures and the transitions between textures. This processing is necessary to discriminate between crystal modifications and nematic sub-phases.

  2. Solid liquid phase changes with different densities

    E-print Network

    Fremond, Michel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a new thermodynamically consistent phase transition model describing the evolution of a liquid substance, e.g., water, in a rigid container $\\Omega$ when we freeze the container. Since the density $\\varrho_{2}$ of ice with volume fraction $\\beta_{2}$, is lower than the density $\\varrho_{1}$ of water with volume fraction $\\beta_{1}$, experiments - for instance the freezing of a glass bottle filled with water - show that the water pressure increases up to the rupture of the bottle. When the container is not impermeable, freezing may produce a non-homogeneous material, for instance water ice or sorbet. Here we describe a general class of phase transition processes including this example as particular case. Moreover, we study the resulting nonlinear and singular PDE system from the analytical viewpoint recovering existence of a global (in time) weak solution and also uniqueness for some particular choices of the nonlinear functions involved.

  3. Solid liquid phase changes with different densities

    E-print Network

    Michel Fremond; Elisabetta Rocca

    2008-06-18

    In this paper we present a new thermodynamically consistent phase transition model describing the evolution of a liquid substance, e.g., water, in a rigid container $\\Omega$ when we freeze the container. Since the density $\\varrho_{2}$ of ice with volume fraction $\\beta_{2}$, is lower than the density $\\varrho_{1}$ of water with volume fraction $\\beta_{1}$, experiments - for instance the freezing of a glass bottle filled with water - show that the water pressure increases up to the rupture of the bottle. When the container is not impermeable, freezing may produce a non-homogeneous material, for instance water ice or sorbet. Here we describe a general class of phase transition processes including this example as particular case. Moreover, we study the resulting nonlinear and singular PDE system from the analytical viewpoint recovering existence of a global (in time) weak solution and also uniqueness for some particular choices of the nonlinear functions involved.

  4. Two Phase Flow Mapping and Transition Under Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parang, Masood; Chao, David F.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, recent microgravity two-phase flow data for air-water, air-water-glycerin, and air- water-Zonyl FSP mixtures are analyzed for transition from bubbly to slug and from slug to annular flow. It is found that Weber number-based maps are inadequate to predict flow-pattern transition, especially over a wide range of liquid flow rates. It is further shown that slug to annular flow transition is dependent on liquid phase Reynolds number at high liquid flow rate. This effect may be attributed to growing importance of liquid phase inertia in the dynamics of the phase flow and distribution. As a result a new form of scaling is introduced to present data using liquid Weber number based on vapor and liquid superficial velocities and Reynolds number based on liquid superficial velocity. This new combination of the dimensionless parameters seem to be more appropriate for the presentation of the microgravity data and provides a better flow pattern prediction and should be considered for evaluation with data obtained in the future. Similarly, the analysis of bubble to slug flow transition indicates a strong dependence on both liquid inertia and turbulence fluctuations which seem to play a significant role on this transition at high values of liquid velocity. A revised mapping of data using a new group of dimensionless parameters show a better and more consistent description of flow transition over a wide range of liquid flow rates. Further evaluation of the proposed flow transition mapping will have to be made after a wider range of microgravity data become available.

  5. A Demonstration of the Continuous Phase (Second-Order) Transition of a Binary Liquid System in the Region around Its Critical Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    In most general chemistry and introductory physical chemistry classes, critical point is defined as that temperature-pressure point on a phase diagram where the liquid-gas interface disappears, a phenomenon that generally occurs at relatively high temperatures or high pressures. Two examples are: water, with a critical point at 647 K (critical…

  6. Dynamical signature of two ``ideal glass transitions'' in nematic liquid crystals

    E-print Network

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Dynamical signature of two ``ideal glass transitions'' in nematic liquid crystals Hu Cang, Jie Li heterodyne detected optical Kerr effect data for four liquid crystals. The data cover a range of times from 1G theory for the isotropic phase of liquid crystals. However, it is also found that the liquid crystal data

  7. Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations

    SciTech Connect

    You, Yuan; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Hanna, Sarah; Hiranuma, Naruki; Kamal, Saeid; Smith, Mackenzie L.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney; Shilling, John E.; Dabdub, Donald; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2012-07-30

    A large fraction of submicron atmospheric particles contains both organic material and inorganic salts. As the relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere, these mixed particles can undergo a range of phase transitions, possibly including liquid-liquid phase separation. If liquid-liquid phase separation occurs, the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds, the scattering and absorption of solar radiation, and the uptake of reactive gas species on atmospheric particles will be affected, with important implications for climate predictions. The actual occurrence of these types of phase transitions within individual atmospheric particles has been considered uncertain, in large part because of the absence of observations for real-world samples. Here, using optical and fluorescence microscopy, we observe the coexistence of two non-crystalline phases in particles generated from real-world samples collected on multiple days in Atlanta, Georgia, and in particles generated in the laboratory using atmospheric conditions. These results reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations. Using a box model, we show that liquid-liquid phase separation can result in increased concentrations of gas-phase NO3 and N2O5 in the Atlanta region, due to decreased particle uptake of N2O5.

  8. Phase Transition in Reconstituted Chromatin

    E-print Network

    Tonau Nakai; Kohji Hizume; Shige. H. Yoshimura; Kunio Takeyasu; Kenichi Yoshikawa

    2004-09-10

    By observing reconstituted chromatin by fluorescence microscopy (FM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), we found that the density of nucleosomes exhibits a bimodal profile, i.e., there is a large transition between the dense and dispersed states in reconstituted chromatin. Based on an analysis of the spatial distribution of nucleosome cores, we deduced an effective thermodynamic potential as a function of the nucleosome-nucleosome distance. This enabled us to interpret the folding transition of chromatin in terms of a first-order phase transition. This mechanism for the condensation of chromatin is discussed in terms of its biological significance.

  9. Transitional Phenomena on Phase Change Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, Tadeusz M.; Pastuszko, Robert; Wojda, Marta; Kalawa, Wojciech

    2014-03-01

    One of the most significant problem with technology development is transferring of large heat fluxes, which requires constant heat transfer temperature (in the specified temperature range). This problem concern mainly the nuclear energetics, space technologies, military technologies and most of all electronics containing integrated circuits with very large scale of integrations. Intensive heat transfer and thermal energy storage are possible by the use of phase change materials (PCMs). In the paper there are presented preliminary results of research on the use of liquid-gas (L-G PCMs) and solid-solid phase change materials (S-S PCMs). For L-G PCMs the boiling characteristics were determined by increasing and decreasing the heat flux, which for certain sets of structural parameters of the heating surface and the physical properties of the liquid induce a variety of forms of transitional phenomena. Thermal energy storage is much more effective when using PCMs than sensible heat.

  10. Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid–liquid phase separations

    PubMed Central

    You, Yuan; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Hanna, Sarah J.; Hiranuma, Naruki; Kamal, Saeid; Smith, Mackenzie L.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney J.; Shilling, John E.; Dabdub, Donald; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2012-01-01

    A large fraction of submicron atmospheric aerosol particles contains both organic material and inorganic salts. As the relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere and the water content of the particles correspondingly changes, these mixed particles can undergo a range of phase transitions, possibly including liquid–liquid phase separation. If liquid–liquid phase separation occurs, the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds, the scattering and absorption of solar radiation, and the reactive uptake of gas species on atmospheric particles may be affected, with important implications for climate predictions. The actual occurrence of liquid–liquid phase separation within individual atmospheric particles has been considered uncertain, in large part because of the absence of observations for real-world samples. Here, using optical and fluorescence microscopy, we present images that show the coexistence of two noncrystalline phases for real-world samples collected on multiple days in Atlanta, GA as well as for laboratory-generated samples under simulated atmospheric conditions. These results reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid–liquid phase separations. To explore the implications of these findings, we carried out simulations of the Atlanta urban environment and found that liquid–liquid phase separation can result in increased concentrations of gas-phase NO3 and N2O5 due to decreased particle uptake of N2O5. PMID:22847443

  11. Surface Effects on Phases Transitions in Smectic Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, LiDong

    2011-07-01

    In liquid crystal materials, frustration between competing interactions and thermal fluctuation results in the observation of many different phases (up to 5) in a relatively narrow temperature window (usually about 30K). Identifying the interactions as well as finding out the nature of those interactions that stabilize those phases is a very important and interesting question. In this thesis, we study the interlayer interactions in smectic liquid crystal materials through the study of surface effects on the phase transition in smectic liquid crystal films. Elevated surface interactions in liquid crystal materials result in surface transitions higher in temperature than the bulk transitions. In the free standing film geometry employed in our research, the nature of the surface order (surface transition temperature, number of surface layers, surface critical exponent, etc.) are intrinsic properties of the system. With the surfaces ordered before the rest of the sample, the interior transitions take place under the effective field created by the ordered surfaces. By studying the effects of this surface field on the interior transitions, as well as the interactions between surface layers and interior layers, and the interactions between the surface layers, we are able to obtain valuable information about the nature of the interlayer interactions in smectic liquid crystal materials. Our results also provide new insights into the nature of the surface transitions in the ordered surface region of the phase diagram.

  12. On Asymmetric Diffusional Solidification During Transient Liquid Phase Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghobadi Bigvand, A.; Ojo, Olanrewaju A.

    2014-04-01

    The underlying cause of asymmetric diffusion solidification which alters microstructure during transient liquid phase bonding under low temperature gradient was studied. A new solute-conserving asymmetric numerical model coupled with experimental verification showed that a transition from bi-directional to unidirectional solidification, under a constant temperature gradient, is controlled by competition between liquid and solid-state diffusion at one of the two liquid-solid interfaces. This mechanistic understanding would aid a more effective use of the process.

  13. Liquid-phase chromatography detector

    DOEpatents

    Voigtman, Edward G. (Gainesville, FL); Winefordner, James D. (Gainesville, FL); Jurgensen, Arthur R. (Gainesville, FL)

    1983-01-01

    A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprising a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focussing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof.

  14. Liquid-phase chromatography detector

    DOEpatents

    Voigtman, E.G.; Winefordner, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

    1983-11-08

    A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprises a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focusing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof. 5 figs.

  15. The liquid-glass transition: a mode-coupling perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, H. Z.

    1999-03-01

    We review the dynamics of supercooled liquids approaching the liquid-glass transition, starting with the conventional generalized hydrodynamics formulation. Empirical models for the memory function are discussed, as are empirical models for the self-energy function for phonons in crystals. Two examples of microscopic analyses based on non-linear interactions are then described, the anharmonic lattice dynamics model for structural phase transitions, and Kawasaki's mode-mode-coupling approach for critical dynamics. We then review the mode-coupling theory of the liquid-glass transition, emphasizing its relation to generalized hydrodynamics with the memory function derived from a microscopic theory of non-linear interactions. We discuss the major predictions of this theory, particularly the asymptotic expansion results, which provide specific formulae for analysing experimental data.

  16. Entropy Calculations for a Supercooled Liquid Crystalline Blue Phase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, U.

    2007-01-01

    We observed, using polarized light microscopy, the supercooling of the blue phase (BPI) of cholesteryl proprionate and measured the corresponding liquid crystalline phase transition temperatures. From these temperatures and additional published data we have provided, for the benefit of undergraduate physics students, a nontraditional example…

  17. Symmetry structure and phase transitions

    E-print Network

    Ashok Goyal; Meenu Dahiya; Deepak Chandra

    2002-01-22

    We study chiral symmetry structure at finite density and temperature in the presence of external magnetic field and gravity, a situation relevant in the early Universe and in the core of compact stars. We then investigate the dynamical evolution of phase transition in the expanding early Universe and possible formation of quark nuggets and their survival.

  18. Solitonic bubbles and phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Masperi, L. , 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro, )

    1990-05-15

    It is shown that the nontopological bubble-shaped classical solutions which are possible in a scalar field theory with quartic and sextic self-interactions in 1+1 dimensions are responsible for the discontinuous transition in the quantum problem between a phase with a degenerate excited level and a disordered one.

  19. Coyote series data report LLNL/NWC 1981 LNG spill tests dispersion, vapor burn, and rapid-phase-transition. Volume 1. [7 experiments with liquefied natural gas, 2 with liquid methane, and one with liquid nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Goldwire, H.C. Jr.; Rodean, H.C.; Cederwall, R.T.; Kansa, E.J.; Koopman, R.P.; McClure, J.W.; McRae, T.G.; Morris, L.K.; Kamppinen, L.; Kiefer, R.D.

    1983-10-01

    The Coyote series of liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill experiments was performed at the Naval Weapons Center (NWC), China Lake, California, during the summer and fall of 1981. These tests were a joint effort of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the NWC and were sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Gas Research Institute. There were ten Coyote experiments, five primarily for the study of vapor dispersion and burning vapor clouds, and five for investigating the occurrence of rapid-phase-transition (RPT) explosions. Each of the last four of the five RPT tests consisted of a series of three spills. Seven experiments were with LNG, two were with liquid methane (LCH/sub 4/), and one was with liquid nitrogen (LN/sub 2/). Three arrays of instrumentation were deployed. An array of RPT diagnostic instruments was concentrated at the spill pond and was operated during all of the tests, vapor burn as well as RPT. The wind-field array was operated during the last nine experiments to define the wind direction and speed in the area upwind and downwind of the spill pond. The gas-dispersion array was deployed mostly downwind of the spill pond to measure gas concentration, humidity, temperature, ground heat flux, infrared (IR) radiation, and flame-front passage during three of the vapor dispersion and burn experiments (Coyotes 3, 5, and 6). High-speed color motion pictures were taken during every test, and IR imagery (side and overhead) was obtained during some vapor-burn experiments. Data was obtained by radiometers during Coyotes 3, 6, and 7. This report presents a comprehensive selection of the data obtained. It does not include any data analysis except that required to determine the test conditions and the reliability of the data. Data analysis is to be reported in other publications. 19 references, 76 figures, 13 tables.

  20. Convective instability of solidification with a phase transition zone

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, D. V.; Malygin, A. P.

    2011-04-15

    The morphological instability of solidification is analytically studied in the presence of an anisotropic and heterogeneous phase transition zone with allowance for a liquid flow and convective heat-andmass transfer in this two-phase zone. The mechanism of breaking the stability of solidification is considered; it consists in a convective heat and impurity transfer during a liquid flow along channels in the phase transition zone. The morphological instability is subjected to linear analysis with allowance for a liquid flow in the liquid phase of the system, impurity diffusion in the two-phase zone, and the dependence of the transfer coefficients on the phase composition. The perturbation evolution parameter is determined for an anisotropic and heterogeneous two-phase zone, and neutral stability curves of the process are obtained. It is shown that taking into account impurity diffusion and an increase in the heterogeneity of the phase transition zone broaden the instability region and that a decrease in the anisotropy narrows this region. A new criterion of convective morphological instability of solidification with a two-phase zone is found, and it substantially broadens the instability region when the liquid flow velocity increases.

  1. Control of the Liquid-Liquid Transition in a Molecular Liquid by Spatial Confinement Rei Kurita and Hajime Tanaka*

    E-print Network

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Control of the Liquid-Liquid Transition in a Molecular Liquid by Spatial Confinement Rei Kurita to nanotechnology. Here we report the first systematic experimental study on confinement effects on a liquid-liquid transition of a molecular liquid. We found that one liquid can be transformed into another purely by spatial

  2. Phase Transitions in Gravitational Allocation

    E-print Network

    Sourav Chatterjee; Ron Peled; Yuval Peres; Dan Romik

    2009-03-26

    Given a Poisson point process of unit masses (``stars'') in dimension d>=3, Newtonian gravity partitions space into domains of attraction (cells) of equal volume. In earlier work, we showed the diameters of these cells have exponential tails. Here we analyze the quantitative geometry of the cells and show that their large deviations occur at the stretched-exponential scale. More precisely, the probability that mass exp(-R^gamma) in a cell travels distance R decays like exp(-R^f_d(gamma)) where we identify the functions f_d exactly. These functions are piecewise smooth and the discontinuities of f_d' represent phase transitions. In dimension d=3, the large deviation is due to a ``distant attracting galaxy'' but a phase transition occurs when f_3(gamma)=1 (at that point, the fluctuations due to individual stars dominate). When d>=5, the large deviation is due to a thin tube (a ``wormhole'') along which the star density increases monotonically, until the point f_d(gamma)=1 (where again fluctuations due to individual stars dominate). In dimension 4 we find a double phase transition, where the transition between low-dimensional behavior (attracting galaxy) and high-dimensional behavior (wormhole) occurs at gamma=4/3. As consequences, we determine the tail behavior of the distance from a star to a uniform point in its cell, and prove a sharp lower bound for the tail probability of the cell's diameter, matching our earlier upper bound.

  3. Liquid polymorphism, order-disorder transitions and anomalous a Monte Carlo study of the Bell-Lavis model for water

    E-print Network

    Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

    APS/PRE Liquid polymorphism, order-disorder transitions and anomalous behavior: a Monte Carlo study for liquid water is investigated through numerical simulations. The lattice- gas model on a triangular and a loosely bonded high density phase. We show that the model liquid-liquid transition is continuous

  4. Temperature- and pressure-induced phase transitions in cyclobutanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xuerui; Li, Junyu; Chen, Liucheng; Zhu, Xiang; Yuan, Chaosheng; Wang, Yongqiang; Su, Lei

    2015-07-01

    The phase transition and polymorphism of cyclobutanol (C4H8O) has been investigated at low temperature and high pressure. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Raman spectra reveal that a supercooled state is observed during the cooling process, while crystalline state is formed in the heating process. We also present pressure-induced phase transition of cyclobutanol by means of Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The results indicate that cyclobutanol undergoes two phase transformations during compression to 11.4 GPa. At around 0.9 GPa, the liquid cyclobutanol transforms to a solid crystal structure. Further compression to 1.4 GPa, another fully ordered crystalline phase is observed. Simultaneously, conformational change is observed accompanied by phase transition. In addition, the red shift of the O-H stretching modes with pressure suggests the ordered crystalline phases are characterized by the formation of hydrogen-bonded molecular chains. Finally, the phase transitions under high pressure or low temperature are reversible.

  5. Phase transition theory of sprite halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraki, Yasutaka

    2010-04-01

    We present the phase transition theory for sprite halo using measurable lightning parameters (charge moment and discharge time) on the basis of steady state thermodynamics. A halo is located at the upper part of the tree-like structure of a sprite and is produced through electron impact excitation of neutral species under the lightning-induced electric field. We proposed in our previous studies that the occurrence criteria for halos and sprites are characterized by the above lightning parameters, and additionally, the intensity of a halo weakens rapidly with an increase in the discharge time T. We assume that this phenomenon is quite similar to the phase transition between the vapor and the liquid states of water; here the analogy is between the accelerated electrons and the water molecules. We demonstrate analytically a phase transition for a simply modeled halo based on the quasistatic theory of lightning-induced electric field. Choosing the luminosity of a halo as an order parameter, we show that it has a dependence of T-0.25 - Tc-0.25 near the critical point Tc, which is characteristic of the phase transition. Furthermore, the critical time scale Tc ? 5.5 ms is provided naturally from our modeling and is somewhat larger than the typical time scale of the halo luminosity in observations. We consider that this kind of formalism is useful in understanding the detailed relationship between lightning activity and occurrence of halos. We discuss this point for future observations along with the possibilities of the transition model of column and carrot structures.

  6. Dissociation and dissociative phase transition in dense hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Khomkin, A. L. Shumikhin, A. S.

    2012-01-15

    A simple physical model is proposed for dissociating dense fluid hydrogen. We propose that free dissociated atoms interact via quantum electron-electron exchange analogously to the interaction in the liquid-metal phase of alkali metals. The density dependence of a hydrogen atom's binding energy in such a quasi-liquid is calculated. It is shown that the transition from the molecular fluid to liquid hydrogen is a first-order phase transition. The critical parameters of the transition are determined: P{sub c} = 72 GPa, T{sub c} = 10500 K, and {rho}{sub c} = 0.5 g/cm{sup 3}. The possibility of the metastable existence of atomic liquid hydrogen in a dissociated molecular fluid under decreased pressure is established.

  7. Extracellular ice phase transitions in insects.

    PubMed

    Hawes, T C

    2014-01-01

    At temperatures below their temperature of crystallization (Tc), the extracellular body fluids of insects undergo a phase transition from liquid to solid. Insects that survive the transition to equilibrium (complete freezing of the body fluids) are designated as freeze tolerant. Although this phenomenon has been reported and described in many Insecta, current nomenclature and theory does not clearly delineate between the process of transition (freezing) and the final solid phase itself (the frozen state). Thus freeze tolerant insects are currently, by convention, described in terms of the temperature at which the crystallization of their body fluids is initiated, Tc. In fact, the correct descriptor for insects that tolerate freezing is the temperature of equilibrium freezing, Tef. The process of freezing is itself a separate physical event with unique physiological stresses that are associated with ice growth. Correspondingly there are a number of insects whose physiological cryo-limits are very specifically delineated by this transitional envelope. The distinction also has considerable significance for our understanding of insect cryobiology: firstly, because the ability to manage endogenous ice growth is a fundamental segregator of cryotype; and secondly, because our understanding of internal ice management is still largely nascent. PMID:25397954

  8. Transient liquid phase ceramic bonding

    DOEpatents

    Glaeser, Andreas M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Ceramics are joined to themselves or to metals using a transient liquid phase method employing three layers, one of which is a refractory metal, ceramic or alloy. The refractory layer is placed between two metal layers, each of which has a lower melting point than the refractory layer. The three layers are pressed between the two articles to be bonded to form an assembly. The assembly is heated to a bonding temperature at which the refractory layer remains solid, but the two metal layers melt to form a liquid. The refractory layer reacts with the surrounding liquid and a single solid bonding layer is eventually formed. The layers may be designed to react completely with each other and form refractory intermetallic bonding layers. Impurities incorporated into the refractory metal may react with the metal layers to form refractory compounds. Another method for joining ceramic articles employs a ceramic interlayer sandwiched between two metal layers. In alternative embodiments, the metal layers may include sublayers. A method is also provided for joining two ceramic articles using a single interlayer. An alternate bonding method provides a refractory-metal oxide interlayer placed adjacent to a strong oxide former. Aluminum or aluminum alloys are joined together using metal interlayers.

  9. The Proximal Chiral Phase Transition

    E-print Network

    Joseph I. Kapusta; Ajit M. Srivastava

    1994-04-22

    We consider the form of the chiral symmetry breaking piece of the effective potential in the linear sigma model. Surprisingly, it allows for a second local minimum at both zero and finite temperature. Even though chiral symmetry is not exact, and therefore is not restored in a true phase transition at finite temperature, this second minimum can nevertheless mimic many of the effects of a first order phase transition. We derive a lower limit on the height of the second minimum relative to the global minimum based on cosmological considerations; this limit is so weak as to be practically nonexistent. In high energy nuclear collisions, it may lead to observable effects in Bose-Einstein interferometry due to domain walls and to coherent pion emission.

  10. Comment on "Negative heat and first order phase transitions in nuclei" by Moretto et al

    E-print Network

    D. H. E. Gross

    2002-08-19

    The recent paper nucl-th/0208024 by Moretto et al. is commented: Their picture of nuclear phase transition in terms of macroscopic control parameters, temperature and pressure, is irrelevant. Their criticism of order-disorder phase-transitions on a periodic lattice uses the wrong scenario. This transition has nothing to do with the liquid-gas transition of a single spherical droplet.

  11. Liquid-like phases of ?^+?^- matter

    E-print Network

    D. V. Anchishkin; A. V. Nazarenko

    2006-11-11

    To give a common theoretical description of liquid phases of the charged pion matter in a wide temperature interval, the relativistic quantum $\\phi^6$ type model is considered. The liquid states of pion condensate and hot pion matter are investigated.

  12. Non-equilibrium phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Mottola, E.; Cooper, F.M.; Bishop, A.R.; Habib, S.; Kluger, Y.; Jensen, N.G.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Non-equilibrium phase transitions play a central role in a very broad range of scientific areas, ranging from nuclear, particle, and astrophysics to condensed matter physics and the material and biological sciences. The aim of this project was to explore the path to a deeper and more fundamental understanding of the common physical principles underlying the complex real time dynamics of phase transitions. The main emphasis was on the development of general theoretical tools to deal with non-equilibrium processes, and of numerical methods robust enough to capture the time-evolving structures that occur in actual experimental situations. Specific applications to Laboratory multidivisional efforts in relativistic heavy-ion physics (transition to a new phase of nuclear matter consisting of a quark-gluon plasma) and layered high-temperature superconductors (critical currents and flux flow at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory) were undertaken.

  13. A continuous Mott transition between a metal and a quantum spin liquid Ryan V. Mishmash,1

    E-print Network

    A continuous Mott transition between a metal and a quantum spin liquid Ryan V. Mishmash,1 Iv-Thouless-like) quantum phase transition between a metal and a gapless spin liquid characterized by a spinon Fermi sea, i, the decep- tively simple question of whether the interaction-driven electronic metal-insulator tran- sition

  14. Glass–liquid transition of water at high pressure

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Ove

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge of the existence of liquid water under extreme conditions and its concomitant properties are important in many fields of science. Glassy water has previously been prepared by hyperquenching micron-sized droplets of liquid water and vapor deposition on a cold substrate (ASW), and its transformation to an ultraviscous liquid form has been reported on heating. A densified amorphous solid form of water, high-density amorphous ice (HDA), has also been made by collapsing the structure of ice at pressures above 1 GPa and temperatures below approximately 140 K, but a corresponding liquid phase has not been detected. Here we report results of heat capacity Cp and thermal conductivity, in situ, measurements, which are consistent with a reversible transition from annealed HDA to ultraviscous high-density liquid water at 1 GPa and 140 K. On heating of HDA, the Cp increases abruptly by (3.4 ± 0.2) J mol-1 K-1 before crystallization starts at (153 ± 1) K. This is larger than the Cp rise at the glass to liquid transition of annealed ASW at 1 atm, which suggests the existence of liquid water under these extreme conditions. PMID:21690361

  15. Deterministic chaos in materials exhibiting phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemrod, M.

    1983-06-01

    The author spent one half of the Spring 1983 semester at the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications. During that time he interacted with colleagues, engaged in research, and gave two public lectures at the Institute: chaos in phase transitions, and dynamics of phase transitions. The main thrust of his research was in two areas, specifically: deterministic chaos in materials exhibiting phase transitions, and admissibility criteria for weak solutions of the non-hyperbolic conservation laws which describe dynamic phase transitions.

  16. Liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide

    DOEpatents

    Cutler, R.A.; Virkar, A.V.; Hurford, A.C.

    1989-05-09

    Liquid phase sintering is used to densify silicon carbide based ceramics using a compound comprising a rare earth oxide and aluminum oxide to form liquids at temperatures in excess of 1,600 C. The resulting sintered ceramic body has a density greater than 95% of its theoretical density and hardness in excess of 23 GPa. Boron and carbon are not needed to promote densification and silicon carbide powder with an average particle size of greater than one micron can be densified via the liquid phase process. The sintered ceramic bodies made by the present invention are fine grained and have secondary phases resulting from the liquid phase. 4 figs.

  17. Liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide

    DOEpatents

    Cutler, Raymond A. (Bountiful, UT); Virkar, Anil V. (Salt Lake City, UT); Hurford, Andrew C. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1989-01-01

    Liquid phase sintering is used to densify silicon carbide based ceramics using a compound comprising a rare earth oxide and aluminum oxide to form liquids at temperatures in excess of 1600.degree. C. The resulting sintered ceramic body has a density greater than 95% of its theoretical density and hardness in excess of 23 GPa. Boron and carbon are not needed to promote densification and silicon carbide powder with an average particle size of greater than one micron can be densified via the liquid phase process. The sintered ceramic bodies made by the present invention are fine grained and have secondary phases resulting from the liquid phase.

  18. MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei Phase Transitions and Phase Diagrams

    E-print Network

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei Phase Transitions and Phase Diagrams One equation Understanding phase diagrams for one-component systems Polymorphic phase transitions Driving force for a phase transition First order and second-order phase transitions Reading: 1.2 of Porter and Easterling

  19. Evidence for liquid water during the high-density to low-density amorphous ice transition

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Sol M.

    distinct forms of supercooled water: high-density liquid (HDL) and low-density liquid (LDL) water (8). In the singularity-free hypothesis, HDL transforms continuously to LDL. In the LL critical point theory, HDL undergoes a first-order phase transition to LDL (8). However, experimental study of the HDL­LDL phase

  20. Porous Liquid Phases for Indented Colloids with Depletion Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashton, Douglas J.; Jack, Robert L.; Wilding, Nigel B.

    2015-06-01

    We study indented spherical colloids, interacting via depletion forces. These systems exhibit liquid-vapor phase transitions whose properties are determined by a combination of strong "lock-and-key" bonds and weaker nonspecific interactions. As the propensity for lock-and-key binding increases, the critical point moves to significantly lower density, and the coexisting phases change their structure. In particular, the liquid phase is porous, exhibiting large percolating voids. The properties of this system depend strongly on the topological structure of an underlying bond network: we comment on the implications of this fact for the assembly of equilibrium states with controlled porous structures.

  1. Work and quantum phase transitions: quantum latency.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, E; Bragança, H; Dorner, R; França Santos, M; Vedral, V; Modi, K; Goold, J

    2014-06-01

    We study the physics of quantum phase transitions from the perspective of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. For first-order quantum phase transitions, we find that the average work done per quench in crossing the critical point is discontinuous. This leads us to introduce the quantum latent work in analogy with the classical latent heat of first order classical phase transitions. For second order quantum phase transitions the irreversible work is closely related to the fidelity susceptibility for weak sudden quenches of the system Hamiltonian. We demonstrate our ideas with numerical simulations of first, second, and infinite order phase transitions in various spin chain models. PMID:25019721

  2. Recent development of ionic liquid stationary phases for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xianzhe; Qiao, Lizhen; Xu, Guowang

    2015-11-13

    Based on their particular physicochemical characteristics, ionic liquids have been widely applied in many fields of analytical chemistry. Many types of ionic liquids were immobilized on a support like silica or monolith as stationary phases for liquid chromatography. Moreover, different approaches were developed to bond covalently ionic liquids onto the supporting materials. The obtained ionic liquid stationary phases show multi-mode mechanism including hydrophobic, hydrophilic, hydrogen bond, anion exchange, ?-?, and dipole-dipole interactions. Therefore, they could be used in different chromatographic modes including ion-exchange, RPLC, NPLC and HILIC to separate various classes of compounds. This review mainly summarizes the immobilized patterns and types of ionic liquid stationary phases, their retention mechanisms and applications in the recent five years. PMID:26463427

  3. Morphology of Liquid-Liquid Phase Separated Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yuqing; Molinero, Valeria

    2015-08-26

    The morphology of liquid-liquid phase separated aerosols has a strong impact on their rate of gas and water uptake, and the type and rate of heterogeneous reactions in the atmosphere. However, it is extremely challenging to experimentally distinguish different morphologies (core-shell or partial wetting) of aerosols and to quantify the extent of wetting between the two phases. The aim of this work is to quantitatively predict the morphology of liquid-liquid aerosols from fundamental physical properties of the aerosol phases. We determine the equilibrium structure of liquid-liquid phase separated aerosols through free energy minimization and predict that the contact angle between the two liquids in the aerosol depends on the composition but not the amount of each phase. We demonstrate that for aerosols of diameter larger than ?100 nm, the equilibrium contact angle can be accurately predicted from the surface tensions of each liquid with the vapor and between the two liquids through an expression that is identical to Young's equation. The internal structure of smaller, ultrafine aerosols depends also on the value of the line tension between the two liquids and the vapor. The thermodynamic model accurately predicts the experimental morphology, core-shell or partial wetting, of all aerosols for which surface tensions are provided in the literature, and provides contact angles that cannot be accurately determined with state of the art experimental methods. We find that the contact angle of model atmospheric aerosols is rarely higher than 30°. We validate the thermodynamic predictions through molecular simulations of nonane-water droplets, and use the simulation data to compute line tension values that are in good agreement with theory and the analysis from experimental data in water-nonane droplets. Our finding of a simple analytical equation to compute the contact angle of liquid-liquid droplets should have broad application for the prediction of the morphology of two-phase atmospheric aerosols and its impact in their chemistry. PMID:26230969

  4. Phase Transition in Tensor Models

    E-print Network

    Thibault Delepouve; Razvan Gurau

    2015-04-22

    Generalizing matrix models, tensor models generate dynamical triangulations in any dimension and support a $1/N$ expansion. Using the intermediate field representation we explicitly rewrite a quartic tensor model as a field theory for a fluctuation field around a vacuum state corresponding to the resummation of the entire leading order in $1/N$ (a resummation of the melonic family). We then prove that the critical regime in which the continuum limit in the sense of dynamical triangulations is reached is precisely a phase transition in the field theory sense for the fluctuation field.

  5. Phase Transition in Tensor Models

    E-print Network

    Delepouve, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    Generalizing matrix models, tensor models generate dynamical triangulations in any dimension and support a $1/N$ expansion. Using the intermediate field representation we explicitly rewrite a quartic tensor model as a field theory for a fluctuation field around a vacuum state corresponding to the resummation of the entire leading order in $1/N$ (a resummation of the melonic family). We then prove that the critical regime in which the continuum limit in the sense of dynamical triangulations is reached is precisely a phase transition in the field theory sense for the fluctuation field.

  6. Brain Performance versus Phase Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Joaquín J.; Marro, J.

    2015-01-01

    We here illustrate how a well-founded study of the brain may originate in assuming analogies with phase-transition phenomena. Analyzing to what extent a weak signal endures in noisy environments, we identify the underlying mechanisms, and it results a description of how the excitability associated to (non-equilibrium) phase changes and criticality optimizes the processing of the signal. Our setting is a network of integrate-and-fire nodes in which connections are heterogeneous with rapid time-varying intensities mimicking fatigue and potentiation. Emergence then becomes quite robust against wiring topology modification—in fact, we considered from a fully connected network to the Homo sapiens connectome—showing the essential role of synaptic flickering on computations. We also suggest how to experimentally disclose significant changes during actual brain operation. PMID:26193453

  7. Liquid-phase combinatorial synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Han, H; Wolfe, M M; Brenner, S; Janda, K D

    1995-01-01

    A concept termed liquid-phase combinatorial synthesis (LPCS) is described. The central feature of this methodology is that it combines the advantages that classic organic synthesis in solution offers with those that solid-phase synthesis can provide, through the application of a linear homogeneous polymer. To validate this concept two libraries were prepared, one of peptide and the second of nonpeptide origin. The peptide-based library was synthesized by a recursive deconvolution strategy [Erb, E., Janda, K. D. & Brenner, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 11422-11426] and several ligands were found within this library to bind a monoclonal antibody elicited against beta-endorphin. The non-peptide molecules synthesized were arylsulfonamides, a class of compounds of known clinical bactericidal efficacy. The results indicate that the reaction scope of LPCS should be general, and its value to multiple, high-throughput screening assays could be of particular merit, since multimilligram quantities of each library member can readily be attained. PMID:7541541

  8. Phase transitions in the assembly of multivalent signalling proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Pilong; Banjade, Sudeep; Cheng, Hui-Chun; Kim, Soyeon; Chen, Baoyu; Guo, Liang; Llaguno, Marc; Hollingsworth, Javoris V.; King, David S.; Banani, Salman F.; Russo, Paul S.; Jiang, Qiu-Xing; Nixon, B. Tracy; Rosen, Michael K.

    2013-04-08

    Cells are organized on length scales ranging from angstrom to micrometers. However, the mechanisms by which angstrom-scale molecular properties are translated to micrometer-scale macroscopic properties are not well understood. Here we show that interactions between diverse synthetic, multivalent macromolecules (including multi-domain proteins and RNA) produce sharp liquid-liquid-demixing phase separations, generating micrometer-sized liquid droplets in aqueous solution. This macroscopic transition corresponds to a molecular transition between small complexes and large, dynamic supramolecular polymers. The concentrations needed for phase transition are directly related to the valency of the interacting species. In the case of the actin-regulatory protein called neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) interacting with its established biological partners NCK and phosphorylated nephrin1, the phase transition corresponds to a sharp increase in activity towards an actin nucleation factor, the Arp2/3 complex. The transition is governed by the degree of phosphorylation of nephrin, explaining how this property of the system can be controlled to regulatory effect by kinases. The widespread occurrence of multivalent systems suggests that phase transitions may be used to spatially organize and biochemically regulate information throughout biology.

  9. Glass transition of aqueous solutions involving annealing-induced ice recrystallization resolves liquid-liquid transition puzzle of water

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li-Shan; Cao, Ze-Xian; Wang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-liquid transition of water is an important concept in condensed-matter physics. Recently, it was claimed to have been confirmed in aqueous solutions based on annealing-induced upshift of glass-liquid transition temperature, . Here we report a universal water-content, , dependence of for aqueous solutions. Solutions with vitrify/devitrify at a constant temperature, , referring to freeze-concentrated phase with left behind ice crystallization. Those solutions with totally vitrify at under conventional cooling/heating process though, of the samples annealed at temperatures?? to effectively evoke ice recrystallization is stabilized at . Experiments on aqueous glycerol and 1,2,4-butanetriol solutions in literature were repeated, and the same samples subject to other annealing treatments equally reproduce the result. The upshift of by annealing is attributable to freeze-concentrated phase of solutions instead of ‘liquid II phase of water’. Our work also provides a reliable method to determine hydration formula and to scrutinize solute-solvent interaction in solution. PMID:26503911

  10. Glass transition of aqueous solutions involving annealing-induced ice recrystallization resolves liquid-liquid transition puzzle of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Li-Shan; Cao, Ze-Xian; Wang, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    Liquid-liquid transition of water is an important concept in condensed-matter physics. Recently, it was claimed to have been confirmed in aqueous solutions based on annealing-induced upshift of glass-liquid transition temperature, . Here we report a universal water-content, , dependence of for aqueous solutions. Solutions with vitrify/devitrify at a constant temperature, , referring to freeze-concentrated phase with left behind ice crystallization. Those solutions with totally vitrify at under conventional cooling/heating process though, of the samples annealed at temperatures?? to effectively evoke ice recrystallization is stabilized at . Experiments on aqueous glycerol and 1,2,4-butanetriol solutions in literature were repeated, and the same samples subject to other annealing treatments equally reproduce the result. The upshift of by annealing is attributable to freeze-concentrated phase of solutions instead of ‘liquid II phase of water’. Our work also provides a reliable method to determine hydration formula and to scrutinize solute-solvent interaction in solution.

  11. Glass transition of aqueous solutions involving annealing-induced ice recrystallization resolves liquid-liquid transition puzzle of water.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Shan; Cao, Ze-Xian; Wang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-liquid transition of water is an important concept in condensed-matter physics. Recently, it was claimed to have been confirmed in aqueous solutions based on annealing-induced upshift of glass-liquid transition temperature, . Here we report a universal water-content, , dependence of for aqueous solutions. Solutions with vitrify/devitrify at a constant temperature, , referring to freeze-concentrated phase with left behind ice crystallization. Those solutions with totally vitrify at under conventional cooling/heating process though, of the samples annealed at temperatures?? to effectively evoke ice recrystallization is stabilized at . Experiments on aqueous glycerol and 1,2,4-butanetriol solutions in literature were repeated, and the same samples subject to other annealing treatments equally reproduce the result. The upshift of by annealing is attributable to freeze-concentrated phase of solutions instead of 'liquid II phase of water'. Our work also provides a reliable method to determine hydration formula and to scrutinize solute-solvent interaction in solution. PMID:26503911

  12. Tricritical phenomena at the Fréedericksz transition in ferronematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Makarov, D V; Zakhlevnykh, A N

    2010-05-01

    Within the continuum theory we study the magnetic segregation effects in ferronematics, i.e., suspensions of monodomain magnetic particles in nematic liquid crystals. Orientational and concentrational distributions in a ferronematic layer are obtained as functions of a magnetic field strength for different values of material parameters. Tricritical behavior of the Fréedericksz transition in ferronematics induced by magnetic field is revealed. It is found out that this transition can be either first- or second-order transition depending on the segregation degree. We derive the analytical expression for the tricritical segregation parameter, determining the phase-transition character change. The dependence of birefringence on the external magnetic field and the segregation parameter is studied. PMID:20866250

  13. Structural transitions of CTAB micelles in a protic ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    López-Barrón, Carlos R; Wagner, Norman J

    2012-09-01

    Micellar solutions of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in a protic ionic liquid, ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), are studied by shear rheology, polarizing optical microscopy (POM), conductivity measurements, and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Three concentration regimes are examined: A dilute regime (with concentrations [CTAB] < 5 wt %) consisting of noninteracting spherical micelles, a semidilute regime (5 wt % ? [CTAB] ? 45 wt %) where micelles interact via electrostatic repulsions, and a concentrated regime (45 wt % < [CTAB] ? 62 wt %) where a reversible, temperature-dependent isotropic (L(1)) to hexatic (Hex) phase transition is observed. The L(1)-Hex transition, which has been predicted but not previously observed, is characterized by (1) a sharp increase in the shear viscosity, (2) the formation of focal conical birefringence textures (observed by POM), and (3) enhancement of the crystalline order, evidenced by the appearance of Bragg reflections in the SANS profiles. Ionic conductivity is not sensitive to the L(1)-Hex transition, which corroborates the absence of topological transitions. PMID:22877559

  14. Electric Field Induced Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardone, Marco; Karpov, Victor

    2012-02-01

    A novel theory of phase transitions that are driven by strong, symmetry-breaking electric fields is presented. The underlying mechanism is based on the formation of needle-shaped, metallic embryos that acquire strong dipole moments in the applied field. It is shown that the electrostatic contribution to the free energy can be so significant that it dominates the nucleation process and elongated metallic particles can form even in cases where they would be otherwise unstable in the bulk. As such, the theory predicts that any insulator will eventually form metallic inclusions when immersed in a sufficient electric field. Materials can thus be synthesized by the controlled application of a dc or laser field. In this work, the general mechanism is described and closed form expressions are presented for the field-dependent nucleation barrier and the effective field range as functions of material parameters. Overall, the theory presents a new parameter space to explore phase transitions and opens the venue of Field Induced Materials Synthesis (FIMS). As a provocative example, the potential for FIMS of metallic hydrogen at standard pressure is discussed; the effective field range is estimated to be 10^7 < E10^9 V/cm (laser intensity 10^12< I 10^16 W/cm^2).

  15. Structural Transitions at Ionic Liquid Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Benjamin; Salanne, Mathieu

    2015-12-17

    Recent advances in experimental and computational techniques have allowed for an accurate description of the adsorption of ionic liquids on metallic electrodes. It is now well-established that they adopt a multilayered structure and that the composition of the layers changes with the potential of the electrode. In some cases, potential-driven ordering transitions in the first adsorbed layer have been observed in experiments probing the interface on the molecular scale or by molecular simulations. This perspective gives an overview of the current understanding of such transitions and of their potential impact on the physical and (electro)chemical processes at the interface. In particular, peaks in the differential capacitance, slow dynamics at the interface, and changes in the reactivity have been reported in electrochemical studies. Interfaces between ionic liquids and metallic electrodes are also highly relevant for their friction properties, the voltage-dependence of which opens the way to exciting applications. PMID:26722704

  16. Phase Transitions for the Brusselator Model

    E-print Network

    Tian Ma; Shouhong Wang

    2010-08-08

    Dynamic phase transitions of the Brusselator model is carefully analyzed, leading to a rigorous characterization of the types and structure of the phase transitions of the model from basic homogeneous states. The study is based on the dynamic transition theory developed recently by the authors.

  17. Thermal expansion of glasses in the solid and liquid phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drotning, W. D.

    1985-11-01

    In this study, the thermal expansion of a number of mixed oxide glasses was measured in the solid and liquid regions by gamma densitometry. Conventional density measurement techniques are limited to either the solid or the liquid phase; however, with this noncontacting technique, the density and thermal expansion of both the solid and the liquid phases may be investigated as the temperature is varied and the glass viscosity varies over a wide range. This technique allows the continuous measurement of density as the liquid cools to a supercooled glass or to a crystalline solid. Lead borate glasses were examined in the range 27 to 42 mol % PbO. The liquid-phase volumetric thermal expansion coefficient was observed to decrease with increasing PbO content, in contrast to the solid-phase linear thermal expansion coefficients. In soda-baria phosphate glasses (50 mol% P2O5), liquid-phase volumetric expansion coefficients were found to vary as the solid-phase linear expansion coefficients. Measurements on a lithia-aluminoscilicate glass ceramic were obtained by this method to approximately 400°C above the limit of conventional dilatometry. The gamma densitometry technique can yield density, thermal expansion, glass transition and crystallization information, and quenching-rate dependence data on glasses to temperatures in excess of 1500°C, and thus provides a means for high-temperature characterization of glasses which complements conventional dilatometry, calorimetry, and thermal analysis.

  18. Phase Transition and Fragment Production in the Lattice Gas Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulminelli, Francesca; Chomaz, Philippe

    The critical behavior of fragment production is studied within a Lattice Gas Model in the canonical ensemble. Finite size effects on the liquid-gas phase transition are analyzed by a direct calculation of the partition function, and it is shown that phase coexistence and phase transition are relevant concepts even for systems of a few tens of particles. Critical exponents are extracted from the behavior of the fragment production yield as a function of temperature by means of a finite size scaling. The result is that in a finite system well defined critical signals can be found at supercritical (Kertész line) as well as subcritical densities inside the coexistence zone.

  19. Phase behavior and dynamics of a cholesteric liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, D.; Fragiadakis, D.; Roland, C. M.; Dabrowski, R.; Dziaduszek, J.; Urban, S.

    2014-02-21

    The synthesis, equation of state, phase diagram, and dielectric relaxation properties are reported for a new liquid crystal, 4{sup ?}-butyl-4-(2-methylbutoxy)azoxybenzene (4ABO5*), which exhibits a cholesteric phase at ambient temperature. The steepness of the intermolecular potential was characterized from the thermodynamic potential parameter, ? = 4.3 ± 0.1 and the dynamic scaling exponent, ? = 3.5 ± 0.2. The difference between them is similar to that seen previously for nematic and smectic liquid crystals, with the near equivalence of ? and ? consistent with the near constancy of the relaxation time of 4ABO5* at the cholesteric to isotropic phase transition (i.e., the clearing line). Thus, chirality does not cause deviations from the general relationship between thermodynamics and dynamics in the ordered phase of liquid crystals. The ionic conductivity of 4ABO5* shows strong coupling to the reorientational dynamics.

  20. QCD Phase Transitions, Volume 15

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, T.; Shuryak, E.

    1999-03-20

    The title of the workshop, ''The QCD Phase Transitions'', in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discussion of the underlying non-perturbative mechanisms which manifest themselves as all those phases. Before we go to specifics, let us emphasize one important aspect of the present status of non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory in general. It remains true that its studies do not get attention proportional to the intellectual challenge they deserve, and that the theorists working on it remain very fragmented. The efforts to create Theory of Everything including Quantum Gravity have attracted the lion share of attention and young talent. Nevertheless, in the last few years there was also a tremendous progress and even some shift of attention toward emphasis on the unity of non-perturbative phenomena. For example, we have seen some efforts to connect the lessons from recent progress in Supersymmetric theories with that in QCD, as derived from phenomenology and lattice. Another example is Maldacena conjecture and related development, which connect three things together, string theory, super-gravity and the (N=4) supersymmetric gauge theory. Although the progress mentioned is remarkable by itself, if we would listen to each other more we may have chance to strengthen the field and reach better understanding of the spectacular non-perturbative physics.

  1. Phase transitions and morphologies of aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, M.; Marcolli, C.; Krieger, U.; Zuend, A.; Peter, T.

    2012-12-01

    Tropospheric aerosol particles consisting of complex mixtures of organic compounds, ammonium sulfate (AS) and water undergo phase transitions such as liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), efflorescence and deliquescence as a consequence of changes in ambient relative humidity (RH). These phase transitions in the mixed aerosol particles may lead to different particle configurations such as core-shell or partially engulfed structures. However, the physical states and morphologies of these aerosol particles are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the phase transitions and morphological changes of various internally mixed organics/AS/water particles with different organic-to-inorganic ratios (OIR), namely OIR = 6:1, 2:1, 1:2 and 1:6 during humidity cycles using optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Particularly, we explore how the properties of different organic functional groups and the compositional complexity of the organic aerosol fraction influence the occurrence of LLPS in the relationship with the organic oxygen-to-carbon (O:C) ratios. We found that LLPS occurred for all mixtures with O:C < 0.56, for none of the mixtures with O:C > 0.80, and depended on the specific types and compositions of organic functional groups for 0.56 < O:C < 0.80. Moreover, the number of mixture components and the spread of the O:C range did not notably influence the conditions for LLPS to occur. Since in ambient aerosols O:C and OIR range typically between 0.2 and 1.0, and between 4:1 and 1:5, respectively, LLPS is expected to be a common feature of tropospheric aerosols. AS in the mixed particles effloresced between 0 and 47 %RH and deliquesced between 71 and 80 %RH during humidity cycles. Compared to a deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of 80 % for pure AS, the DRH in the mixed particles showed slightly lower values. A strong reduction or complete inhibition of efflorescence occurred for mixtures with high OIR that did not exhibit LLPS. Both core-shell and partially engulfed morphologies were observed. To obtain definitive conclusions whether the core-shell or the partially engulfed configuration is prevalent, we perform supplementary experiments on levitated particles in an electrodynamic balance and also compare surface and interfacial tensions of the investigated mixtures. The detailed results will be presented.

  2. Competition between glass transition and liquid-gas separation in attracting colloids

    E-print Network

    A. M. Puertas; M. Fuchs; M. E. Cates

    2006-10-19

    We present simulation results addressing the phenomena of colloidal gelation induced by attractive interactions. The liquid-gas transition is prevented by the glass arrest at high enough attraction strength, resulting in a colloidal gel. The dynamics of the system is controlled by the glass, with little effect of the liquid-gas transition. When the system separates in a liquid and vapor phases, even if the denser phase enters the non-ergodic region, the vapor phase enables the structural relaxation of the system as a whole.

  3. Liquid Crystalline Polymer Vesicles: Thermotropic Phases in Lyotropic Structures

    E-print Network

    Lin Jia; Min-Hui Li

    2015-03-04

    This paper reviews the research work on the liquid crystalline (LC) polymer vesicles (polymersomes), where the thermotropic nematic and smectic phases are displayed in the lyotropic bilayer polymer membrane. LC polymersomes possess the properties of both liquid crystals and polymers, the two essential soft matters. LC polymersomes offer, on the one hand, novel examples of the interplay between orientational order and the curved geometry of a two dimensional membrane. Spherical, ellipsoidal and tetrahedral vesicles are discussed. On the other hand, LC polymersomes enable novel design of stimuli-responsive polymersomes using intramolecular conformational transition from nematic to isotropic phase of LC blocks. Photo-responsive polymersome bursting is highlighted.

  4. Phase behavior of ionic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrat, S.; Bier, M.; Harnau, L.

    2010-05-01

    Bulk properties of ionic liquid crystals are investigated using density functional theory. The liquid crystal molecules are represented by ellipsoidal particles with charges located in their center or at their tails. Attractive interactions are taken into account in terms of the Gay-Berne pair potential. Rich phase diagrams involving vapor, isotropic and nematic liquid, as well as smectic phases are found. The dependence of the phase behavior on various parameters such as the length of the particles and the location of charges on the particles is studied.

  5. Phase behavior of ionic liquid crystals

    E-print Network

    S. Kondrat; M. Bier; L. Harnau

    2010-04-15

    Bulk properties of ionic liquid crystals are investigated using density functional theory. The liquid crystal molecules are represented by ellipsoidal particles with charges located in their center or at their tails. Attractive interactions are taken into account in terms of the Gay-Berne pair potential. Rich phase diagrams involving vapor, isotropic and nematic liquid, as well as smectic phases are found. The dependence of the phase behavior on various parameters such as the length of the particles and the location of charges on the particles is studied.

  6. Nuclear multifragmentation and phase transition for hot nuclei

    E-print Network

    B. Borderie; M. F. Rivet

    2008-12-18

    This review article is focused on the tremendous progress realized during the last fifteen years in the understanding of multifragmentation and its relationship to the liquid-gas phase diagram of nuclei and nuclear matter. The explosion of the whole nucleus, early predicted by Bohr [N. Bohr, Nature 137 (1936) 351], is a very complex and rich subject which continues to fascinate nuclear physicists as well as theoreticians who extend the thermodynamics of phase transitions to finite systems.

  7. Nuclear multifragmentation and phase transition for hot nuclei

    E-print Network

    Borderie, B; 10.1016/j.ppnp.2008.01.003

    2008-01-01

    This review article is focused on the tremendous progress realized during the last fifteen years in the understanding of multifragmentation and its relationship to the liquid-gas phase diagram of nuclei and nuclear matter. The explosion of the whole nucleus, early predicted by Bohr [N. Bohr, Nature 137 (1936) 351], is a very complex and rich subject which continues to fascinate nuclear physicists as well as theoreticians who extend the thermodynamics of phase transitions to finite systems.

  8. Nuclear multifragmentation and phase transition for hot nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borderie, B.; Rivet, M. F.

    2008-10-01

    This review article is focused on the tremendous progress realized during the last fifteen years in the understanding of multifragmentation and its relationship to the liquid-gas phase diagram of nuclei and nuclear matter. The explosion of the whole nucleus, early predicted by Bohr [N. Bohr, Nature 137 (1936) 351], is a very complex and rich subject which continues to fascinate nuclear physicists as well as theoreticians who extend the thermodynamics of phase transitions to finite systems.

  9. Role of the vortex solid topology in a first-order liquid-solid phase M. Menghini1

    E-print Network

    Zeldov, Eli

    of the vortex solid phase in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 crystals with different doses of columnar defects (CDs). The magneticRole of the vortex solid topology in a first-order liquid-solid phase transition M. Menghini1 the interrelation between the order of the vortex liquid-solid phase transition and the corresponding structure

  10. Topological phase transitions in the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, C.; Naya, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate that the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model with a double vacuum potential allows for phase transitions from a non-solitonic to a solitonic phase, where the latter corresponds to a ferromagnetic liquid. Such a transition can be generated by increasing the external pressure P or by turning on an external magnetic field H. As a consequence, the topological phase where gauged BPS baby skyrmions exist, is a higher density phase. For smaller densities, obtained for smaller values of P and H, a phase without solitons is reached. We find the critical line in the P, H parameter space. Furthermore, in the soliton phase, we find the equation of state for the baby skyrmion matter V = V( P,H) at zero temperature, where V is the "volume", i.e., area of the solitons.

  11. Topological phase transitions in the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model

    E-print Network

    Adam, C; Romanczukiewicz, T; Sanchez-Guillen, J; Wereszczynski, A

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model with a double vacuum potential allows for phase transitions from a non-solitonic to a solitonic phase, where the latter corresponds to a ferromagnetic liquid. Such a transition can be generated by increasing the external pressure $P$ or by turning on an external magnetic field $H$. As a consequence, the topological phase where gauged BPS baby skyrmions exist, is a higher density phase. For smaller densities, obtained for smaller values of $P$ and $H$, a phase without solitons is reached. We find the critical line in the $P,H$ parameter space. Furthermore, in the soliton phase, we find the equation of state for the baby skyrmion matter $V=V(P,H)$ at zero temperature, where $V$ is the "volume", i.e., area of the solitons.

  12. Topological phase transitions in the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model

    E-print Network

    C. Adam; C. Naya; T. Romanczukiewicz; J. Sanchez-Guillen; A. Wereszczynski

    2015-01-15

    We demonstrate that the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model with a double vacuum potential allows for phase transitions from a non-solitonic to a solitonic phase, where the latter corresponds to a ferromagnetic liquid. Such a transition can be generated by increasing the external pressure $P$ or by turning on an external magnetic field $H$. As a consequence, the topological phase where gauged BPS baby skyrmions exist, is a higher density phase. For smaller densities, obtained for smaller values of $P$ and $H$, a phase without solitons is reached. We find the critical line in the $P,H$ parameter space. Furthermore, in the soliton phase, we find the equation of state for the baby skyrmion matter $V=V(P,H)$ at zero temperature, where $V$ is the "volume", i.e., area of the solitons.

  13. Game Theory and Topological Phase Transition

    E-print Network

    Tieyan Si

    2008-03-29

    Phase transition is a war game. It widely exists in different kinds of complex system beyond physics. Where there is revolution, there is phase transition. The renormalization group transformation, which was proved to be a powerful tool to study the critical phenomena, is actually a game process. The phase boundary between the old phase and new phase is the outcome of many rounds of negotiation between the old force and new force. The order of phase transition is determined by the cutoff of renormalization group transformation. This definition unified Ehrenfest's definition of phase transition in thermodynamic physics. If the strategy manifold has nontrivial topology, the topological relation would put a constrain on the surviving strategies, the transition occurred under this constrain may be called a topological one. If the strategy manifold is open and noncompact, phase transition is simply a game process, there is no table for topology. An universal phase coexistence equation is found, it sits at the Nash equilibrium point. Inspired by the fractal space structure demonstrated by renormalization group theory, a conjecture is proposed that the universal scaling law of a general phase transition in a complex system comes from the coexistence equation around Nash equilibrium point. Game theory also provide us new understanding to pairing mechanism and entanglement in many body physics.

  14. Vapor-liquid phase separator studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, Y. I.; Hepler, W. A.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1983-01-01

    Porous plugs serve as both entropy rejection devices and phase separation components separating the vapor phase on the downstream side from liquid Helium 2 upstream. The liquid upstream is the cryo-reservoir fluid needed for equipment cooling by means of Helium 2, i.e Helium-4 below its lambda temperature in near-saturated states. The topics outlined are characteristic lengths, transport equations and plug results.

  15. Order-(incommensurable disorder) phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, A.; Nagaev, E.

    1982-01-05

    In first-order phase transitions in magnetic materials exhibiting a high-order spin, the short-range-order vector above the transition point may be incommensurable with the long-range-order vector below the transition point. This theoretical result explains some experiments on UAs. Some other materials which may exhibit this effect are pointed out.

  16. Using Peltier Cells to Study Solid-Liquid-Vapour Transitions and Supercooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torzo, Giacomo; Soletta, Isabella; Branca, Mario

    2007-01-01

    We propose an apparatus for teaching experimental thermodynamics in undergraduate introductory courses, using thermoelectric modules and a real-time data acquisition system. The device may be made at low cost, still providing an easy approach to the investigation of liquid-solid and liquid-vapour phase transitions and of metastable states…

  17. Phase Transition to an Opaque Plasma in a Sonoluminescing Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappus, Brian; Khalid, Shahzad; Chakravarty, Avik; Putterman, Seth

    2011-06-01

    Time-resolved spectrum measurements of a sonoluminescing Xe bubble reveal a transition from transparency to an opaque Planck blackbody. As the temperature is <10000K and the density is below liquid density, the photon scattering length is 10 000 times too large to explain its opacity. We resolve this issue with a model that reduces the ionization potential. According to this model, sonoluminescence originates in a new phase of matter with high ionization. Analysis of line emission from Xe* also yields evidence of phase segregation for this first-order transition inside a bubble.

  18. Phase transitions in the web of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    The Internet age is changing the structure of science, and affecting interdisciplinary interactions. Publication profiles connecting mathematics with molecular biology and condensed matter physics over the last 40 years exhibit common phase transitions indicative of the critical role played by specific interdisciplinary interactions. The strengths of the phase transitions quantify the importance of interdisciplinary interactions.

  19. Harmonic strain-optical response revealed in the isotropic (liquid) phase of liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, P.; Baroni, P.; Noirez, L.

    2015-08-01

    A strong optical birefringence is observed when applying a small amplitude oscillatory strain to the liquid phase of a liquid crystal. This unpredicted birefringence is found to oscillate at the same frequency as the driving frequency, with frequencies down to 0.01 Hz. This birefringence is visible up to 15 °C above the liquid crystal transition. This opto-dynamic property is interpreted as a result of a coupling of the orientational pretransitional fluctuations existing in the isotropic phase and long range elastic interactions recently identified in liquids. The conversion of the mechanical wave in an optical response is shapeable. Two examples of synchronized periodic signals are shown: the sine and the square waves. The optimization of the signal is analyzed using a Heaviside-step shear test. This optical property is immediately exploitable to design low energy on/off switching materials.

  20. Analysis of Nuclear Quantum Phase Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z. P.; Meng, J.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P.

    2009-08-26

    A microscopic analysis, based on nuclear energy density functionals, is presented for shape phase transitions in Nd isotopes. Low-lying excitation spectra and transition probabilities are calculated starting from a five-dimensional Hamiltonian, with parameters determined by constrained relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. The results reproduce available data, and show that there is an abrupt change of structure at N = 90, that corresponds to a first-order quantum phase transition between spherical and axially deformed shapes.

  1. Microscopic Description of Nuclear Quantum Phase Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P.

    2007-08-31

    The relativistic mean-field framework, extended to include correlations related to restoration of broken symmetries and to fluctuations of the quadrupole deformation, is applied to a study of shape transitions in Nd isotopes. It is demonstrated that the microscopic self-consistent approach, based on global effective interactions, can describe not only general features of transitions between spherical and deformed nuclei, but also the singular properties of excitation spectra and transition rates at the critical point of quantum shape phase transition.

  2. Liquid-phase compositions from vapor-phase analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W. Jr. ); Cochran, H.D. )

    1990-02-01

    Arsenic normally is not considered to be a contaminant. However, because arsenic was found in many cylinders of UF{sub 6}, including in corrosion products, a study was performed of the distribution of the two arsenic fluorides, AsF{sub 3} and AsF{sub 5}, between liquid and vapor phases. The results of the study pertain to condensation or vaporization of liquid UF{sub 6}. This study includes use of various experimental data plus many extrapolations necessitated by the meagerness of the experimental data. The results of this study provide additional support for the vapor-liquid equilibrium model of J.M. Prausnitz and his coworkers as a means of describing the distribution of various impurities between vapor and liquid phases of UF{sub 6}. Thus, it is concluded that AsF{sub 3} will tend to concentrate in the liquid phase but that the concentration of AsF{sub 5} in the vapor phase will exceed its liquid-phase concentration by a factor of about 7.5, which is in agreement with experimental data. Because the weight of the liquid phase in a condensation operation may be in the range of thousands of times that of the vapor phase, most of any AsF{sub 5} will be in the liquid phase in spite of this separation factor of 7.5. It may also be concluded that any arsenic fluorides fed into a uranium isotope separation plant will either travel with other low-molecular-weight gases or react with materials present in the plant. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Binary Solid-Liquid Phase Equilibria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Herbert R.

    1978-01-01

    Indicates some of the information that may be obtained from a binary solid-liquid phase equilibria experiment and a method to write a computer program that will plot an ideal phase diagram to which the experimental results may be compared. (Author/CP)

  4. Electroweak phase transition in ultraminimal technicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Jaervinen, Matti; Sannino, Francesco; Ryttov, Thomas A.

    2009-05-01

    We unveil the temperature-dependent electroweak phase transition in new extensions of the standard model in which the electroweak symmetry is spontaneously broken via strongly coupled, nearly conformal dynamics achieved by the means of multiple matter representations. In particular, we focus on the low energy effective theory introduced to describe ultra minimal walking technicolor at the phase transition. Using the one-loop effective potential with ring improvement, we identify regions of parameter space, which yield a strong first-order transition. A striking feature of the model is the existence of a second phase transition associated to the electroweak-singlet sector. The interplay between these two transitions leads to an extremely rich phase diagram.

  5. Synthetic gauge fields stabilize a chiral spin liquid phase

    E-print Network

    Gang Chen; Kaden R. A. Hazzard; Ana Maria Rey; Michael Hermele

    2015-01-16

    We calculate the phase diagram of the SU($N$) Hubbard model describing fermionic alkaline earth atoms in a square optical lattice with on-average one atom per site, using a slave-rotor mean-field approximation. We find that the chiral spin liquid predicted for $N\\ge5$ and large interactions passes through a fractionalized state with a spinon Fermi surface as interactions are decreased before transitioning to a weakly interacting metal. We also show that by adding an artificial uniform magnetic field with flux per plaquette $2\\pi/N$, the chiral spin liquid becomes the ground state for all $N\\ge 3$ at large interactions, persists to weaker interactions, and its spin gap increases, suggesting that the spin liquid physics will persist to higher temperatures. We discuss potential methods to realize the artificial gauge fields and detect the predicted phases.

  6. Optical sensor for characterizing the phase transition in salted solutions.

    PubMed

    Claverie, Rémy; Fontana, Marc D; Duri?kovi?, Ivana; Bourson, Patrice; Marchetti, Mario; Chassot, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new optical sensor to characterize the solid-liquid phase transition in salted solutions. The probe mainly consists of a Raman spectrometer that extracts the vibrational properties from the light scattered by the salty medium. The spectrum of the O-H stretching band was shown to be strongly affected by the introduction of NaCl and the temperature change as well. A parameter SD defined as the ratio of the integrated intensities of two parts of this band allows to study the temperature and concentration dependences of the phase transition. Then, an easy and efficient signal processing and the exploitation of a modified Boltzmann equation give information on the phase transition. Validations were done on solutions with varying concentration of NaCl. PMID:22319327

  7. Molecular-scale remnants of the liquid-gas transition in supercritical polar fluids

    E-print Network

    Sokhan, V P; Cipcigan, F S; Crain, J; Martyna, G J

    2015-01-01

    An electronically coarse-grained model for water reveals a persistent vestige of the liquid-gas transition deep into the supercritical region. A crossover in the density dependence of the molecular dipole arises from the onset of non-percolating hydrogen bonds. The crossover points coincide with the Widom line in the scaling region but extend further, tracking the heat capacity maxima, offering evidence for liquid- and gas-like state points in a "one-phase" fluid. The effect is present even in dipole-limit models suggesting that it is common for all molecular liquids exhibiting dipole enhancement in the liquid phase.

  8. Tuning the Liquid-Liquid Transition by Modulating the Hydrogen-Bond Angular Flexibility in a Model for Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smallenburg, Frank; Sciortino, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    We propose a simple extension of the well known ST2 model for water [F. H. Stillinger and A. Rahman, J. Chem. Phys. 60, 1545 (1974)] that allows for a continuous modification of the hydrogen-bond angular flexibility. We show that the bond flexibility affects the relative thermodynamic stability of the liquid and of the hexagonal (or cubic) ice. On increasing the flexibility, the liquid-liquid critical point, which in the original ST2 model is located in the no-man's land (i.e., the region where ice is the thermodynamically stable phase) progressively moves to a temperature where the liquid is more stable than ice. Our study definitively proves that the liquid-liquid transition in the ST2 model is a genuine phenomenon, of high relevance in all tetrahedral network-forming liquids, including water.

  9. The Influence of Disorder on Thermotropic Nematic Liquid Crystals Phase Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Popa-Nita, Vlad; Gerli?, Ivan; Kralj, Samo

    2009-01-01

    We review the theoretical research on the influence of disorder on structure and phase behavior of condensed matter system exhibiting continuous symmetry breaking focusing on liquid crystal phase transitions. We discuss the main properties of liquid crystals as adequate systems in which several open questions with respect to the impact of disorder on universal phase and structural behavior could be explored. Main advantages of liquid crystalline materials and different experimental realizations of random field-type disorder imposed on liquid crystal phases are described. PMID:19865529

  10. Pore filling process in liquid phase sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyo-Hoon; Cho, Seong-Jai; Yoon, Duk N.

    1984-06-01

    Models for liquid flow into isolated pores during liquid phase sintering are described qualitatively. The grains are assumed to maintain an equilibrium shape determined by a balance between their tendency to become spherical and a negative capillary pressure in the liquid due to menisci at the specimen surface and the pore. With an increase of grain size, the grain sphering force decreases while the radius of liquid menisci increases to maintain the force equilibrium. When grain growth reaches a critical point, the liquid menisci around a pore become spherical and the driving force for filling the pore rapidly increases as liquid flows into it. The critical grain size required for filling a pore increases linearly with pore size. Experimentally, filling of isolated pores has been investigated in Fe-Cu powder mixture after liquid phase sintering treatment and after dipping into a molten matrix alloy. The observed pore filling behaviors agree with the qualitative predictions based on the models. In Fe-Cu alloy, pore filling is terminated by gas bubbles formed in liquid pockets.

  11. Quantum phase transitions in the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model

    E-print Network

    M. Hohenadler; Z. Y. Meng; T. C. Lang; S. Wessel; A. Muramatsu; F. F. Assaad

    2012-03-29

    We study the two-dimensional Kane-Mele-Hubbard model at half filling by means of quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We present a refined phase boundary for the quantum spin liquid. The topological insulator at finite Hubbard interaction strength is adiabatically connected to the groundstate of the Kane-Mele model. In the presence of spin-orbit coupling, magnetic order at large Hubbard U is restricted to the transverse direction. The transition from the topological band insulator to the antiferromagnetic Mott insulator is in the universality class of the three-dimensional XY model. The numerical data suggest that the spin liquid to topological insulator and spin liquid to Mott insulator transitions are both continuous.

  12. Phenomena of solid state grain boundaries phase transition in technology

    SciTech Connect

    Minaev, Y. A.

    2015-03-30

    The results of study the phenomenon, discovered by author (1971), of the phase transition of grain boundary by the formation of two-dimensional liquid or quasi-liquid films have been done. The described phenomena of the first order phase transition (two-dimensional melting) at temperatures 0.6 – 0.9 T{sub S0} (of the solid state melting point) is a fundamental property of solid crystalline materials, which has allowed to revise radically scientific representations about a solid state of substance. Using the mathematical tools of the film thermodynamics it has been obtained the generalized equation of Clausius - Clapeyron type for two-dimensional phase transition. The generalized equation has been used for calculating grain boundary phase transition temperature T{sub Sf} of any metal, which value lies in the range of (0.55…0.86) T{sub S0}. Based on these works conclusions the develop strategies for effective forming of coatings (by thermo-chemical processing) on surface layers of functional alloys and hard metals have been made. The short overview of the results of some graded alloys characterization has been done.

  13. Thermodynamic precursors, liquid-liquid transitions, dynamic and topological anomalies in densified liquid germania.

    PubMed

    Pacaud, F; Micoulaut, M

    2015-08-14

    The thermodynamic, dynamic, structural, and rigidity properties of densified liquid germania (GeO2) have been investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulation. We construct from a thermodynamic framework an analytical equation of state for the liquid allowing the possible detection of thermodynamic precursors (extrema of the derivatives of the free energy), which usually indicate the possibility of a liquid-liquid transition. It is found that for the present germania system, such precursors and the possible underlying liquid-liquid transition are hidden by the slowing down of the dynamics with decreasing temperature. In this respect, germania behaves quite differently when compared to parent tetrahedral systems such as silica or water. We then detect a diffusivity anomaly (a maximum of diffusion with changing density/volume) that is strongly correlated with changes in coordinated species, and the softening of bond-bending (BB) topological constraints that decrease the liquid rigidity and enhance transport. The diffusivity anomaly is finally substantiated from a Rosenfeld-type scaling law linked to the pair correlation entropy, and to structural relaxation. PMID:26277140

  14. Thermodynamic precursors, liquid-liquid transitions, dynamic and topological anomalies in densified liquid germania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacaud, F.; Micoulaut, M.

    2015-08-01

    The thermodynamic, dynamic, structural, and rigidity properties of densified liquid germania (GeO2) have been investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulation. We construct from a thermodynamic framework an analytical equation of state for the liquid allowing the possible detection of thermodynamic precursors (extrema of the derivatives of the free energy), which usually indicate the possibility of a liquid-liquid transition. It is found that for the present germania system, such precursors and the possible underlying liquid-liquid transition are hidden by the slowing down of the dynamics with decreasing temperature. In this respect, germania behaves quite differently when compared to parent tetrahedral systems such as silica or water. We then detect a diffusivity anomaly (a maximum of diffusion with changing density/volume) that is strongly correlated with changes in coordinated species, and the softening of bond-bending (BB) topological constraints that decrease the liquid rigidity and enhance transport. The diffusivity anomaly is finally substantiated from a Rosenfeld-type scaling law linked to the pair correlation entropy, and to structural relaxation.

  15. SIMMER-II analysis of transition-phase experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wehner, T.R.; Bell, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Analyses of Los Alamos transition-phase experiments with the SIMMER-II computer code are reported. These transient boilup experiments simulated the recriticality-induced transient motion of a boiling pool of molten fuel, molten steel and steel vapor, within a subassembly duct in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor during the transition phase of a core-disruptive accident. The two purposes of these experiments were to explore and reach a better understanding of fast reactor safety issues, and to provide data for SIMMER-II verification. Experimental data, consisting of four pressure traces and a high-speed movie, were recorded for four sets of initial conditions. For three of the four cases, SIMMER-II-calculated pressures compared reasonably well with the experimental pressures. After a modification to SIMMER-II's liquid-vapor drag correlation, the comparison for the fourth case was reasonable also. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Phase transitions in dissipative Josephson chains

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbert, P.A.; Fazio, R.; Schoen, G. ); Zimanyi, G.T. )

    1990-03-01

    We study the zero-temperature phase transitions of a chain of Josephson junctions, taking into account the quantum fluctuations due to the charging energy and the effects of an Ohmic dissipation. We map the problem onto a generalized Coulomb gas model, which then is transformed into a sine-Gordon field theory. Apart from the expected dipole unbinding transition, which describes a transition between globally superconducting and resistive behavior, we find a quadrupole unbinding transition at a critical strength of the dissipation. This transition separates two superconducting states characterized by different local properties.

  17. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 91, 235140 (2015) Continuous Mott transition between a metal and a quantum spin liquid

    E-print Network

    2015-01-01

    (Kosterlitz-Thouless-like) quantum phase transition between a metal and a gapless spin liquid characterizedPHYSICAL REVIEW B 91, 235140 (2015) Continuous Mott transition between a metal and a quantum spin liquid Ryan V. Mishmash,1,2 Iv´an Gonz´alez,3 Roger G. Melko,4,5 Olexei I. Motrunich,6 and Matthew P. A

  18. Phase transition of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) in aqueous protic ionic liquids: kosmotropic versus chaotropic anions and their interaction with water.

    PubMed

    Debeljuh, Natalie J; Sutti, Alessandra; Barrow, Colin J; Byrne, Nolene

    2013-07-18

    We have investigated the influence of a series of triethylammonium-based protic ionic liquid-water solutions on the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM). We find that kosmotropic anions lower the LCST of PNIPAM more dramatically when compared with chaotropic anions. In addition, we have probed the solvent properties of the hydrated protic ionic liquid solutions using (1)H NMR, polarity measurements, and solvatochromic analysis of the Kamlet-Taft parameters, ? and ?*. We find that the hydrogen bond character--more specifically, the interactions between water and pIL--is the dominant parameter responsible for lowering the LCST of PNIPAM. We have added choline dihydrogen phosphate (choline dhp) into this study on the basis of positive results from previously reported protein folding studies using this ionic liquid. PMID:23758528

  19. Critical behaviours of contact near phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-Y; Jiang, Y-Z; Guan, X-W; Zhou, Qi

    2014-01-01

    A central quantity of importance for ultracold atoms is contact, which measures two-body correlations at short distances in dilute systems. It appears in universal relations among thermodynamic quantities, such as large momentum tails, energy and dynamic structure factors, through the renowned Tan relations. However, a conceptual question remains open as to whether or not contact can signify phase transitions that are insensitive to short-range physics. Here we show that, near a continuous classical or quantum phase transition, contact exhibits a variety of critical behaviours, including scaling laws and critical exponents that are uniquely determined by the universality class of the phase transition, and a constant contact per particle. We also use a prototypical exactly solvable model to demonstrate these critical behaviours in one-dimensional strongly interacting fermions. Our work establishes an intrinsic connection between the universality of dilute many-body systems and universal critical phenomena near a phase transition. PMID:25346226

  20. Phase transition phenomenon: A compound measure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Bo Soo; Park, Chanhi; Ryu, Doojin; Song, Wonho

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the well-documented phenomenon of phase transition in financial markets using combined information from both return and volume changes within short time intervals. We suggest a new measure for the phase transition behaviour of markets, calculated as a return distribution conditional on local variance in volume imbalance, and show that this measure successfully captures phase transition behaviour under various conditions. We analyse the intraday trade and quote dataset from the KOSPI 200 index futures, which includes detailed information on the original order size and the type of each initiating investor. We find that among these two competing factors, the submitted order size yields more explanatory power on the phenomenon of market phase transition than the investor type.

  1. Phase transitions in systems possessing shock solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabsalmani, Maryam; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2006-07-01

    Recently it has been shown that there are three families of stochastic one-dimensional nonequilibrium lattice models for which the single-shock measures form an invariant subspace of the states of these models. Here, both the stationary states and dynamics of single-shocks on a one-dimensional lattice are studied. This is done for both an infinite lattice and a finite lattice with boundaries. It is seen that these models possess both static and dynamical phase transitions. The static phase transition is the well-known low-high density phase transition for the asymmetric simple exclusion process. The branching-coalescing random walk and asymmetric Kawasaki-Glauber process models also show the same phase transition. Double-shocks on a one-dimensional lattice are also investigated. It is shown that at the stationary state the contribution of double-shocks with higher width becomes small, and the main contribution comes from thin double-shocks.

  2. Critical behaviours of contact near phase transitions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y.-Y.; Jiang, Y.-Z.; Guan, X.-W.; Zhou, Qi

    2014-01-01

    A central quantity of importance for ultracold atoms is contact, which measures two-body correlations at short distances in dilute systems. It appears in universal relations among thermodynamic quantities, such as large momentum tails, energy and dynamic structure factors, through the renowned Tan relations. However, a conceptual question remains open as to whether or not contact can signify phase transitions that are insensitive to short-range physics. Here we show that, near a continuous classical or quantum phase transition, contact exhibits a variety of critical behaviours, including scaling laws and critical exponents that are uniquely determined by the universality class of the phase transition, and a constant contact per particle. We also use a prototypical exactly solvable model to demonstrate these critical behaviours in one-dimensional strongly interacting fermions. Our work establishes an intrinsic connection between the universality of dilute many-body systems and universal critical phenomena near a phase transition. PMID:25346226

  3. Phase transition model for community detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianshe; Lu, Rui; Jiao, Licheng; Liu, Fang; Yu, Xin; Wang, Da; Sun, Bo

    2013-03-01

    Motivated by social and biological interactions, a novel type of phase transition model is provided in order to investigate the emergence of the clustering phenomenon in networks. The model has two types of interactions: one is attractive and the other is repulsive. In each iteration, the phase of a node (or an agent) moves toward the average phase of its neighbors and moves away from the average phase of its non-neighbors. The velocities of the two types of phase transition are controlled by two parameters, respectively. It is found that the phase transition phenomenon is closely related to the topological structure of the underlying network, and thus can be applied to identify its communities and overlapping groups. By giving each node of the network a randomly generated initial phase and updating these phases by the phase transition model until they reach stability, one or two communities will be detected according to the nodes’ stable phases, confusable nodes are moved into a set named Of. By removing the detected communities and the nodes in Of, another one or two communities will be detected by an iteration of the algorithm, …. In this way, all communities and the overlapping nodes are detected. Simulations on both real-world networks and the LFR benchmark graphs have verified the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  4. Static structure factor of a suspension of charge-stabilized colloids: Application to liquid-glass transition phase diagram and to micellar solution

    E-print Network

    stresses the main feature of the polyelectro- lyte solution by approximating it as an effectively one com solution by placing equal footing on its constituents. For these colloidal solutions, one aban- donsStatic structure factor of a suspension of charge-stabilized colloids: Application to liquid-glass

  5. Quantum phase transitions in rotating nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Nazmitdinov, R. G.; Kvasil, J.

    2009-01-28

    We extend the classical Landau theory for rotating nuclei and show that the backbending in {sup 162}Yb, that comes about as a result of the two-quasiparticle alignment, is identified with the second order phase transition. We found that the backbending in {sup 156}Dy, caused by the instability of {gamma}-vibrations in the rotating frame, corresponds to the first order phase transition.

  6. Mesoscopic aspects of phase transitions in a solvent extraction system.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Ross J; Audras, Matthieu; Antonio, Mark R

    2012-11-01

    In liquid-liquid extraction, organic phase splitting arises when high concentrations of polar solutes (acids/metal ions) are extracted. Herein, we investigate the mesoscopic roots that underpin phase splitting in alkane phases containing mixed amphiphiles, of contemporary interest in solvent extraction separation systems, by extracting various oxoacids. The oxoacids exhibited individual macroscopic (extractive and physical) behaviors, inducing phase splitting into heavy and light domains under markedly different conditions. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data analyzed using the generalized indirect Fourier transform (GIFT) method, we showed that, in all cases, acid extraction drove the self-assembly of reverse micelles into rods. These grew with increased acid extraction until reaching a critical length of 20 nm, at which point interactions produced interconnected cylinders or lamellar sheets that prelude phase splitting into heavy and light domains. In all cases, the heavy phase contained the same surfactant ratio-TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate) and CMPO (octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide)-even though the concentrations of acid, water, and amphiphiles were markedly different. The remarkable similarities in structure and amphiphile stoichiometries underpinning phase splitting across the macroscopically different acid extraction series allude to the mesoscopic roots of organic phase behavior in solvent extraction. Our studies show that the structures underpinning phase splitting in solvent extraction systems are more complex than previously thought and are reminiscent of phase transitions in soft matter. PMID:23062174

  7. Higgs couplings and electroweak phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Andrey; Perelstein, Maxim

    2014-07-01

    We argue that extensions of the Standard Model (SM) with a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition generically predict significant deviations of the Higgs couplings to gluons, photons, and Z bosons from their SM values. Precise experimental measurements of the Higgs couplings at the LHC and at the proposed next-generation facilities will allow for a robust test of the phase transition dynamics. To illustrate this point, in this paper we focus on the scenario in which loops of a new scalar field are responsible for the first-order phase transition, and study a selection of benchmark models with various SM gauge quantum numbers of the new scalar. We find that the current LHC measurement of the Higgs coupling to gluons already excludes the possibility of a first-order phase transition induced by a scalar in a sextet, or larger, representation of the SU(3) c . Future LHC experiments (including HL-LHC) will be able to definitively probe the case when the new scalar is a color triplet. If the new scalar is not colored, an electron-positron Higgs factory, such as the proposed ILC or TLEP, would be required to test the nature of the phase transition. The extremely precise measurement of the Higgsstrahlung cross section possible at such machines will allow for a comprehensive and definitive probe of the possibility of a first-order electroweak phase transition in all models we considered, including the case when the new scalar is a pure gauge singlet.

  8. Phase transition, formation and fragmentation of fullerenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussien, A.; Yakubovich, A. V.; Solov'yov, A. V.; Greiner, W.

    2010-04-01

    We present a statistical mechanics model treating the formation and the fragmentation of fullerenes as a phase transition. Based on this model, we investigate the formation and fragmentation of C60 and C240 fullerenes from and to a gas of carbon dimers by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. These simulations were conducted for 500 ns using a topologically-constrained forcefield. At the phase transition temperature, both the cage and gaseous phases were found to coexist and the system continuously oscillates between the two phases. Combining the results of the MD simulations and the statistical mechanics approach, we obtain the dependence of the phase transition temperature on pressure and compare the results of our model with arc-discharge experiments.

  9. Closure Phase Signatures of Planet Transit Events

    E-print Network

    G. T. van Belle

    2008-04-16

    Planet transit events present as attractive targets for the ultra-high-resolution capabilities afforded by optical interferometers. Herein is presented an evaluation of the possibility of detection of such events through measurement of high-precision closure phases with the MIRC instrument on the CHARA Array. Recovery of the transit position angle upon the sky appears readily achievable with the existing capabilities of the instrument, along with characterization of other system parameters, such as stellar radius, planet radius, and other parameters of the transit event. This technique is the only one presently available that can provide a transiting planet's orbital plane position angle, and can directly determine the planet's radius independent of any outside observations, appearing able to improve substantially upon other determinations of that radius. Additional directly observed parameters - also not dependent upon transit photometry or spectroscopy - include impact parameter, transit ingress time, transit velocity and stellar radius.

  10. Liquid-liquid phase separation of freely falling undercooled ternary Fe-Cu-Sn alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. L.; Wu, Y. H.; Li, L. H.; Zhai, W.; Zhang, X. M.; Wei, B.

    2015-11-01

    The active modulation and control of the liquid phase separation for high-temperature metallic systems are still challenging the development of advanced immiscible alloys. Here we present an attempt to manipulate the dynamic process of liquid-liquid phase separation for ternary Fe47.5Cu47.5Sn5 alloy. It was firstly dispersed into numerous droplets with 66?~?810??m diameters and then highly undercooled and rapidly solidified under the containerless microgravity condition inside drop tube. 3-D phase field simulation was performed to explore the kinetic evolution of liquid phase separation. Through regulating the combined effects of undercooling level, phase separation time and Marangoni migration, three types of separation patterns were yielded: monotectic cell, core shell and dispersive structures. The two-layer core-shell morphology proved to be the most stable separation configuration owing to its lowest chemical potential. Whereas the monotectic cell and dispersive microstructures were both thermodynamically metastable transition states because of their highly active energy. The Sn solute partition profiles of Fe-rich core and Cu-rich shell in core-shell structures varied only slightly with cooling rate.

  11. Liquid-liquid phase separation of freely falling undercooled ternary Fe-Cu-Sn alloy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W .L.; Wu, Y. H.; Li, L. H.; Zhai, W.; Zhang, X. M.; Wei, B.

    2015-01-01

    The active modulation and control of the liquid phase separation for high-temperature metallic systems are still challenging the development of advanced immiscible alloys. Here we present an attempt to manipulate the dynamic process of liquid-liquid phase separation for ternary Fe47.5Cu47.5Sn5 alloy. It was firstly dispersed into numerous droplets with 66?~?810??m diameters and then highly undercooled and rapidly solidified under the containerless microgravity condition inside drop tube. 3-D phase field simulation was performed to explore the kinetic evolution of liquid phase separation. Through regulating the combined effects of undercooling level, phase separation time and Marangoni migration, three types of separation patterns were yielded: monotectic cell, core shell and dispersive structures. The two-layer core-shell morphology proved to be the most stable separation configuration owing to its lowest chemical potential. Whereas the monotectic cell and dispersive microstructures were both thermodynamically metastable transition states because of their highly active energy. The Sn solute partition profiles of Fe-rich core and Cu-rich shell in core-shell structures varied only slightly with cooling rate. PMID:26552711

  12. Liquid-liquid phase separation of freely falling undercooled ternary Fe-Cu-Sn alloy.

    PubMed

    Wang, W L; Wu, Y H; Li, L H; Zhai, W; Zhang, X M; Wei, B

    2015-01-01

    The active modulation and control of the liquid phase separation for high-temperature metallic systems are still challenging the development of advanced immiscible alloys. Here we present an attempt to manipulate the dynamic process of liquid-liquid phase separation for ternary Fe47.5Cu47.5Sn5 alloy. It was firstly dispersed into numerous droplets with 66?~?810??m diameters and then highly undercooled and rapidly solidified under the containerless microgravity condition inside drop tube. 3-D phase field simulation was performed to explore the kinetic evolution of liquid phase separation. Through regulating the combined effects of undercooling level, phase separation time and Marangoni migration, three types of separation patterns were yielded: monotectic cell, core shell and dispersive structures. The two-layer core-shell morphology proved to be the most stable separation configuration owing to its lowest chemical potential. Whereas the monotectic cell and dispersive microstructures were both thermodynamically metastable transition states because of their highly active energy. The Sn solute partition profiles of Fe-rich core and Cu-rich shell in core-shell structures varied only slightly with cooling rate. PMID:26552711

  13. Contemporary Research of Dynamically Induced Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    Dynamically induced phase transitions in metals, within the present discussion, are those that take place within a time scale characteristic of the shock waves and any reflections or rarefactions involved in the loading structure along with associated plastic flow. Contemporary topics of interest include the influence of loading wave shape, the effect of shear produced by directionality of the loading relative to the sample dimensions and initial velocity field, and the loading duration (kinetic effects, hysteresis) on the appearance and longevity of a transformed phase. These topics often arise while considering the loading of parts of various shapes with high explosives, are typically two or three-dimensional, and are often selected because of the potential of the transformed phase to significantly modify the motion. In this paper, we look at current work on phase transitions in metals influenced by shear reported in the literature, and relate recent work conducted at Los Alamos on iron's epsilon phase transition that indicates a significant response to shear produced by reflected elastic waves. A brief discussion of criteria for the occurrence of stress induced phase transitions is provided. Closing remarks regard certain physical processes, such as fragmentation and jet formation, which may be strongly influenced by phase transitions. Supported by the DoD/DOE Joint Munitions Technology Development Program.

  14. Spin dynamics and spin freezing at ferromagnetic quantum phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmakat, P.; Wagner, M.; Ritz, R.; Bauer, A.; Brando, M.; Deppe, M.; Duncan, W.; Duvinage, C.; Franz, C.; Geibel, C.; Grosche, F. M.; Hirschberger, M.; Hradil, K.; Meven, M.; Neubauer, A.; Schulz, M.; Senyshyn, A.; Süllow, S.; Pedersen, B.; Böni, P.; Pfleiderer, C.

    2015-07-01

    We report selected experimental results on the spin dynamics and spin freezing at ferromagnetic quantum phase transitions to illustrate some of the most prominent escape routes by which ferromagnetic quantum criticality is avoided in real materials. In the transition metal Heusler compound Fe2TiSn we observe evidence for incipient ferromagnetic quantum criticality. High pressure studies in MnSi reveal empirical evidence for a topological non-Fermi liquid state without quantum criticality. Single crystals of the hexagonal Laves phase compound Nb1- y Fe2+ y provide evidence of a ferromagnetic to spin density wave transition as a function of slight compositional changes. Last but not least, neutron depolarisation imaging in CePd1- x Rh x underscore evidence taken from the bulk properties of the formation of a Kondo cluster glass.

  15. Locally critical quantum phase transitions in strongly correlated metals.

    PubMed

    Si, Q; Rabello, S; Ingersent, K; Smith, J L

    2001-10-25

    When a metal undergoes a continuous quantum phase transition, non-Fermi-liquid behaviour arises near the critical point. All the low-energy degrees of freedom induced by quantum criticality are usually assumed to be spatially extended, corresponding to long-wavelength fluctuations of the order parameter. But this picture has been contradicted by the results of recent experiments on a prototype system: heavy fermion metals at a zero-temperature magnetic transition. In particular, neutron scattering from CeCu6-x Aux has revealed anomalous dynamics at atomic length scales, leading to much debate as to the fate of the local moments in the quantum-critical regime. Here we report our theoretical finding of a locally critical quantum phase transition in a model of heavy fermions. The dynamics at the critical point are in agreement with experiment. We propose local criticality to be a phenomenon of general relevance to strongly correlated metals. PMID:11677597

  16. Electroweak phase transition in the ??SSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Long, Andrew J.

    2010-06-01

    An extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model called the ??SSM does not allow a conventional thermal leptogenesis scenario because of the low scale seesaw that it utilizes. Hence, we investigate the possibility of electroweak baryogenesis. Specifically, we identify a parameter region for which the electroweak phase transition is sufficiently strongly first order to realize electroweak baryogenesis. In addition to transitions that are similar to those in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, we find a novel class of phase transitions in which there is a rotation in the singlet vector space.

  17. Photopyroelectric Calorimetry for the Thermal and Optical Study Over Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zammit, U.; Mercuri, F.; Paoloni, S.; Marinelli, M.

    2015-06-01

    The capabilities of an upgraded photopyroelectric calorimetric setup to perform simultaneous evaluations of thermal and optical parameters for a more comprehensive evaluation of several phase transition studies are reported. It has been applied to the study of the nematic-isotropic phase transition of an 8CB liquid crystal hosted in a network of silica nanoparticles, of the sol-gel transition in hydrated parchment fibers and of the nematic-isotropic and the smecticA-nematic transitions of 8CB liquid crystal with inclusions of photochromic molecules.

  18. Liquid-vapor phase equilibrium in a tin-selenium system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volodin, V. N.; Burabaeva, N. M.; Trebukhov, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Based on the pressure of the saturated vapor and components over liquid alloys in a tin-selenium system, determined using the boiling points approach (isothermal variant), its boiling point and corresponding vapor phase composition are calculated in the region of liquid solutions. The phase diagram is supple-mented with the liquid-vapor phase transition under atmospheric pressure and in vacuums of 100 and 10 Pa with the boundaries of the region in which the regions of liquid and vapor coexist being determined.

  19. Theory of ferroelectric phase transition of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Susumu; Suda, Hiroyuki

    1997-09-01

    We propose a model of ferroelectric polymers constructed through abstraction of ferroelectric properties of copolymers of vinylidene fluoride and trifluoroethylene. Each element in the model can take two different structures whose energy states are split into three levels under an electric field. Interaction between elements in this system is classified into two categories; intermolecular interaction and intramolecular interaction. Fundamental properties of the model are calculated by the Bethe approximation. We find the thermodynamic character of the phase transition changes from the first order phase transition to the diffuse transition with a change in the ratio of intermolecular and intramolecular interactions. We demonstrate a critical phenomenon at a boundary between the first order phase transition and the diffuse transition. The critical temperature is independent of the properties related to the intramolecular degrees of freedom such as intramolecular interaction and multiplicity of an excited conformation state. Furthermore, a smearing out effect that is introduced into the intermolecular interaction influences the transition temperature. The effects of external fields on the phase transition are also discussed.

  20. Electroweak phase transition in nearly conformal technicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, James M.; Jaervinen, Matti; Sannino, Francesco

    2008-10-01

    We examine the temperature-dependent electroweak phase transition in extensions of the standard model in which the electroweak symmetry is spontaneously broken via strongly coupled, nearly conformal dynamics. In particular, we focus on the low energy effective theory used to describe minimal walking technicolor at the phase transition. Using the one-loop effective potential with ring improvement, we identify significant regions of parameter space which yield a sufficiently strong first-order transition for electroweak baryogenesis. The composite particle spectrum corresponding to these regions can be produced and studied at the Large Hadron Collider experiment. We note the possible emergence of a second phase transition at lower temperatures. This occurs when the underlying technicolor theory possesses a nontrivial center symmetry.

  1. Phase Transitions in Disordered Quantum Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalettar, Richard T.

    1998-03-01

    The problem of the interplay between disorder and interactions in quantum systems is challenging and has a long history. Disorder can, by itself, cause localization and the vanishing of the conductivity, the Anderson transition. At appropriate densities, interactions can drive insulating states, the Mott transition, as well as ordered magnetic phases. In this talk I will describe the application of Quantum Monte Carlo techniques to the fermion Hubbard model, including calculations of the conductivity and density of states at the superconductor--insulator phase transition in the attractive model, and the effect of randomness on the Mott and magnetic phase transitions in the repulsive model.(N. Trivedi, R.T. Scalettar, and M. Randeria, Phys. Rev. B54), 3756 (1996); C. Huscroft and R.T. Scalettar, Phys. Rev. B55, 1185 (1997); M. Ulmke and R.T. Scalettar, Phys. Rev. B55, 4149 (1997); M. Ulmke, P. J. H. Denteneer, R. T. Scalettar, and G. T. Zimanyi, preprint.

  2. Polydispersity in Colloidal Phase Transitions 

    E-print Network

    Fairhurst, David John

    I have studied the effects of polydispersity on the phase behaviour of suspensions of PMMA colloidal spheres on their own and in the presence of non-adsorbed polymer. I systematically explored the volume fraction-polydispersity ...

  3. Electromechanical phase transition in dielectric elastomers under uniaxial tension and electrical voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rui; Suo, Zhigang

    2012-02-01

    Subject to forces and voltage, a dielectric elastomer may undergo electromechanical phase transition. A phase diagram is constructed for an ideal dielectric elastomer membrane under uniaxial force and voltage, reminiscent of the phase diagram for liquid-vapor transition of a pure substance. We identify a critical point for the electromechanical phase transition. Two states of deformation (thick and thin) may coexist during the phase transition, with the mismatch in lateral stretch accommodated by wrinkling of the membrane in the thin state. The processes of electromechanical phase transition under various conditions are discussed. A reversible cycle is suggested for electromechanical energy conversion using the dielectric elastomer membrane, analogous to the classical Carnot cycle for a heat engine. The amount of energy conversion, however, is limited by failure of the dielectric elastomer due to electrical breakdown. With a particular combination of material properties, the electromechanical energy conversion can be significantly extended by taking advantage of the phase transition without electrical breakdown.

  4. Improved Boat For Liquid-Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid-phase epitaxial (LPE) growth boat redesigned. Still fabricated from ultra-high-purity graphite, but modified to permit easy disassembly and cleaning, along with improved wiping action for more complete removal of melt to reduce carry-over of gallium. Larger substrates and more uniform composition obtained.

  5. Liquid phase sintered compacts in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mookherji, T. K.; Mcanelly, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    A model that will explain the effect of gravity on liquid phase sintering was developed. Wetting characteristics and density segregation which are the two important phenomena in liquid phase sintering are considered in the model development. Experiments were conducted on some selected material combinations to study the gravity effects on liquid phase sintering, and to verify the validity of the model. It is concluded that: (1) The surface tension forces acting on solid particles in a one-g environment are not appreciably different from those anticipated in a 0.00001g/g sub 0 (or lower) environment. (2) The capillary forces are dependent on the contact angle, the quantity of the liquid phase, and the distance between solid particles. (3) The pores (i.e., bubbles) do not appear to be driven to the surface by gravity-produced buoyancy forces. (4) The length of time to produce the same degree of settling in a low-gravity environment will be increased significantly. (5) A low gravity environment would appear to offer a unique means of satisfactorily infiltrating a larger and/or complex shaped compact.

  6. A Liquid-Phase Diffusion Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemetz, Thomas M.; Ball, David W.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment that measures the diffusion of ions in the liquid phase and shows that the relative distances of diffusion are related qualitatively to the inverse of the mass of the solvated ion. Involves soluble salts on opposite sides of a Petri dish diffusing through a layer of water and meeting to form an insoluble salt. (JRH)

  7. DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS -- A WORKSHOP SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    site characterization, and, therefore, DNAPL remediation, can be expected. Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface are long-term sources of ground-water contamination, and may persist for centuries before dissolving completely in adjacent ground water. In respo...

  8. Heavy Fermions and Quantum Phase Transitions

    E-print Network

    Qimiao Si; Frank Steglich

    2011-02-24

    Quantum phase transitions arise in many-body systems due to competing interactions that promote rivaling ground states. Recent years have seen the identification of continuous quantum phase transitions, or quantum critical points, in a host of antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion compounds. Studies of the interplay between the various effects have revealed new classes of quantum critical points, and are uncovering a plethora of new quantum phases. At the same time, quantum criticality has provided fresh insights into the electronic, magnetic, and superconducting properties of the heavy-fermion metals. We review these developments, discuss the open issues, and outline some directions for future research.

  9. Heavy fermions and quantum phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Si, Qimiao; Steglich, Frank

    2010-09-01

    Quantum phase transitions arise in many-body systems because of competing interactions that promote rivaling ground states. Recent years have seen the identification of continuous quantum phase transitions, or quantum critical points, in a host of antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion compounds. Studies of the interplay between the various effects have revealed new classes of quantum critical points and are uncovering a plethora of new quantum phases. At the same time, quantum criticality has provided fresh insights into the electronic, magnetic, and superconducting properties of the heavy-fermion metals. We review these developments, discuss the open issues, and outline some directions for future research. PMID:20813946

  10. Quantum phase transitions of antiferromagnets and the cuprate superconductors

    E-print Network

    Subir Sachdev

    2011-10-26

    I begin with a proposed global phase diagram of the cuprate superconductors as a function of carrier concentration, magnetic field, and temperature, and highlight its connection to numerous recent experiments. The phase diagram is then used as a point of departure for a pedagogical review of various quantum phases and phase transitions of insulators, superconductors, and metals. The bond operator method is used to describe the transition of dimerized antiferromagnetic insulators between magnetically ordered states and spin-gap states. The Schwinger boson method is applied to frustrated square lattice antiferromagnets: phase diagrams containing collinear and spirally ordered magnetic states, Z_2 spin liquids, and valence bond solids are presented, and described by an effective gauge theory of spinons. Insights from these theories of insulators are then applied to a variety of symmetry breaking transitions in d-wave superconductors. The latter systems also contain fermionic quasiparticles with a massless Dirac spectrum, and their influence on the order parameter fluctuations and quantum criticality is carefully discussed. I conclude with an introduction to strong coupling problems associated with symmetry breaking transitions in two-dimensional metals, where the order parameter fluctuations couple to a gapless line of fermionic excitations along the Fermi surface.

  11. Size dependence of phase transitions in aerosol nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Koop, Thomas; Mikhailov, Eugene; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Phase transitions of nanoparticles are of fundamental importance in atmospheric sciences, but current understanding is insufficient to explain observations at the nano-scale. In particular, discrepancies exist between observations and model predictions of deliquescence and efflorescence transitions and the hygroscopic growth of salt nanoparticles. Here we show that these discrepancies can be resolved by consideration of particle size effects with consistent thermodynamic data. We present a new method for the determination of water and solute activities and interfacial energies in highly supersaturated aqueous solution droplets (Differential Köhler Analysis). Our analysis reveals that particle size can strongly alter the characteristic concentration of phase separation in mixed systems, resembling the influence of temperature. Owing to similar effects, atmospheric secondary organic aerosol particles at room temperature are expected to be always liquid at diameters below ~20?nm. We thus propose and demonstrate that particle size should be included as an additional dimension in the equilibrium phase diagram of aerosol nanoparticles. PMID:25586967

  12. Phase Transition Induced Fission in Lipid Vesicles

    E-print Network

    C. Leirer; B. Wunderlich; V. M. Myles; M. F. Schneider

    2010-05-24

    In this work we demonstrate how the first order phase transition in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) can function as a trigger for membrane fission. When driven through their gel-fluid phase transition GUVs exhibit budding or pearl formation. These buds remain connected to the mother vesicle presumably by a small neck. Cooling these vesicles from the fluid phase (T>Tm) through the phase transition into the gel state (T

  13. Phase transition and properties of compact star

    E-print Network

    B. K. Sharma; P. K. Panda; S. K. Patra

    2006-11-13

    We investigate the phase transition to a deconfined phase and the consequences in the formation of neutron stars. We use the recently proposed effective field theory motivated relativistic mean field theory for hadron and the MIT Bag model and color-flavor locked (CFL) phase for the quark matter in order to get the appropriate equation of state. The properties of star are then calculated. The differences between unpaired and CFL quark matter are discussed.

  14. Phase transitions in ammonium perchlorate to 26 GPA and 700 K in a diamond anvil cell

    SciTech Connect

    Foltz, M.F.; Maienschein, J.L.

    1995-07-10

    Ammonium perchlorate (AP) showed previously unreported phase behavior when studied in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) at high temperature (to 693 K) and high pressure (to {approximately}26 GPa). Liquid droplets, observed above the known 513 K orthorhombic-to-cubic phase transition, are interpreted as the onset to melting. The melting point decreased with increasing pressure. Mid-infrared FTIR spectra of the residue showed only AP. The AP melt may contribute to shock insensitivity of AP-based propellants. Gas formation was seen at higher temperatures. A phase diagram was constructed using the appearance of liquid and gas as solid-liquid and liquid-gas transitions. Preliminary pressurized differential scanning calorimetry data showed a weak pressure dependence (to {approximately}6.9 MPa) for the orthorhombic-to-cubic phase transition.

  15. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in Mixed Organic/Inorganic Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, V. Gabriela; Marcolli, Claudia; Krieger, Ulrich K.; Weers, Uwe; Peter, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    Currently, the physical state of mixed organic/inorganic aerosol particles is not well characterized, largely because of the still unclear chemical composition of the organic fraction and of its properties with respect to mixing with the inorganic fraction. To obtain insight in the possible phases and phase transitions of such aerosol particles, we investigated the ternary poly(ethylene glycol)-400/ammonium sulfate/water system as a representative model system with partially immiscible constituents. For this purpose, we used optical microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy on micrometer-sized particles deposited on a hydrophobically coated substrate. The particles show liquid-liquid phase separations both upon decreasing (˜90-85%) and increasing (during ammonium sulfate deliquescence) relative humidities. In dependence upon the organic-to-inorganic ratio, OIR (i.e., poly(ethylene glycol)-400 to ammonium sulfate dry mass), phase separation is observed to occur by fundamentally different mechanisms, namely, nucleation-and-growth (OIR = 8:1 to 2:1), spinodal decomposition (OIR = 1.5:1 to 1:1.5) and growth of a second phase at the surface of the particle (OIR = 1:2 to 1:8). For each of these mechanisms, after completion of the phase separation, the resulting morphology of the particles is an aqueous ammonium sulfate inner phase surrounded by a mainly poly(ethylene glycol)-400 containing outer phase. We depict the various physical states of the ternary system in the relative humidity/composition phase diagram, constructed from bulk data and single particle measurements. Given the complex chemical composition of the organic fraction in tropospheric aerosols, it is expected that repulsive forces between the organic and inorganic aerosol constituents exist and that liquid-liquid phase separations commonly occur. The presence of liquid-liquid phase separations may change the partitioning of semivolatile species between the gas and the condensed phase, whereas the predominantly organic shell is likely to influence heterogeneous chemical reactions, such as N2O5 hydrolysis.

  16. High-resolution calorimetric study of the nematic to smectic- A transition in aligned liquid crystal–aerosil gels

    E-print Network

    Garland, Carl W.

    High-resolution ac calorimetry has been used to study the nematic to smectic-A (N-SmA) phase transition in the liquid crystal octylcyanobiphenyl (8CB) confined in aligned colloidal aerosil gels. A stable and robust nematic ...

  17. Gravitational Role in Liquid Phase Sintering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upadhyaya, Anish; Iacocca, Ronald G.; German, Randall M.

    1998-01-01

    To comprehensively understand the gravitational effects on the evolution of both the microstructure and the macrostructure during liquid phase sintering, W-Ni-Fe alloys with W content varying from 35 to 98 wt.% were sintered in microgravity. Compositions that slump during ground-based sintering also distort when sintered under microgravity. In ground-based sintering, low solid content alloys distort with a typical elephant-foot profile, while in microgravity, the compacts tend to spheroidize. This study shows that microstructural segregation occurs in both ground-based as well as microgravity sintering. In ground-based experiments, because of the density difference between the solid and the liquid phase, the solid content increases from top to the bottom of the sample. In microgravity, the solid content increases from periphery to the center of the samples. This study also shows that the pores during microgravity sintering act as a stable phase and attain anomalous shapes.

  18. Molecular-Scale Remnants of the Liquid-Gas Transition in Supercritical Polar Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokhan, V. P.; Jones, A.; Cipcigan, F. S.; Crain, J.; Martyna, G. J.

    2015-09-01

    An electronically coarse-grained model for water reveals a persistent vestige of the liquid-gas transition deep into the supercritical region. A crossover in the density dependence of the molecular dipole arises from the onset of nonpercolating hydrogen bonds. The crossover points coincide with the Widom line in the scaling region but extend farther, tracking the heat capacity maxima, offering evidence for liquidlike and gaslike state points in a "one-phase" fluid. The effect is present even in dipole-limit models, suggesting that it is common for all molecular liquids exhibiting dipole enhancement in the liquid phase.

  19. Entropic Description of Gas Hydrate Ice-Liquid Equilibrium via Enhanced Sampling of Coexisting Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma?olepsza, Edyta; Kim, Jaegil; Keyes, Tom

    2015-05-01

    Metastable ? ice holds small guest molecules in stable gas hydrates, so its solid-liquid equilibrium is of interest. However, aqueous crystal-liquid transitions are very difficult to simulate. A new molecular dynamics algorithm generates trajectories in a generalized N P T ensemble and equilibrates states of coexisting phases with a selectable enthalpy. With replicas spanning the range between ? ice and liquid water, we find the statistical temperature from the enthalpy histograms and characterize the transition by the entropy, introducing a general computational procedure for first-order transitions.

  20. Nonequilibrium Phase TransitionsNonequilibrium Phase Transitions ZoltnZoltn RczRcz

    E-print Network

    Rácz, Zoltán

    - t Boundary conditions and drives fluxes V V' Ej mE jj steady state M T #12;Nonequilibrium steady statesNonequilibrium Phase TransitionsNonequilibrium Phase Transitions ZoltánZoltán RáczRácz OutlineOutline (1) Nonequilibrium steady states Breaking of detailed balance problems with usual thermodynamic

  1. Exciton-driven quantum phase transitions in holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubankova, E.; ?ubrovi?, M.; Zaanen, J.

    2015-10-01

    We study phase transitions driven by fermionic double-trace deformations in gauge-gravity duality. Both the strength of the double-trace deformation and the infrared conformal dimension/self-energy scaling of the quasiparticle can be used to decrease the critical temperature to zero, leading to a line of quantum critical points. The self-energy scaling is controlled indirectly through an applied magnetic field and the quantum phase transition naturally involves the condensation of a fermion bilinear which models the spin density wave in an antiferromagnetic state. The nature of the quantum critical points depends on the parameters and we find either a Berezinsky-Kosterliz-Touless-type transition or one of two distinct second-order transitions with non-mean-field exponents. One of these is an anomalous branch where the order parameter of constituent non-Fermi liquid quasiparticles is enhanced by the magnetic field. Stabilization of ordered non-Fermi liquids by a strong magnetic field is observed in experiments with highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

  2. Reversible Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic Transition of Ionic Liquids Driven by Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Dazhen; Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Zhiyong; Yao, Kaisheng; Zhang, Suojiang

    2015-06-15

    Ionic liquids (ILs) with a reversible hydrophobic-hydrophilic transition were developed, and they exhibited unique phase behavior with H2O: monophase in the presence of CO2, but biphase upon removal of CO2 at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Thus, coupling of reaction, separation, and recovery steps in sustainable chemical processes could be realized by a reversible liquid-liquid phase transition of such IL-H2O mixtures. Spectroscopic investigations and DFT calculations showed that the mechanism behind hydrophobic-hydrophilic transition involved reversible reaction of CO2 with anion of the ILs and formation of hydrophilic ammonium salts. These unique IL-H2O systems were successfully utilized for facile one-step synthesis of Au porous films by bubbling CO2 under ambient conditions. The Au porous films and the ILs were then separated simultaneously from aqueous solutions by bubbling N2, and recovered ILs could be directly reused in the next process. PMID:25925191

  3. Studying Phase Transition in Nanocarbon Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussien, Adilah; Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2009-12-01

    We investigate phase transitions in C60 and present a novel theoretical approach for the description of its fragmentation and formation. This theoretical approach consists of a statistical mechanics model combined with a topologically-constrained forcefield which was developed to describe the formation and fragmentation of C60 within a specific C60?30C2 channel. Based on this forcefield, we conduct molecular dynamics simulations where we demonstrate that at the phase transition temperature, both the cage and gaseous phases were found to coexist and the system continuously oscillates between the two phases, i.e. the fullerene repeats its fragmentation and reassembly within a single molecular dynamics trajectory. Combining the results of the molecular dynamics simulations and the statistical mechanics approach, we obtain a phase transition temperature of 3800-4200 K at pressures of 10-100 kPa, in good correspondence with carbon-arc discharge experiments. Furthermore, we also conduct molecular dynamics simulations using the Tersoff potential to investigate the effect of lifting the C60?30C2 constraint on the phase transition of C60. Finally, we investigate phase transitions for the following systems consisting of 240 carbon atoms: fullerene, buckybowl, nanocarbon, graphene and carbon onion. We demonstrate that the C240 fullerene is the most stable of the 5 phases, while the uncapped (10, 10) nanotube is the least stable. We also show that the carbon onion, nanotube and buckybowl all transform into a fullerene-like structure before total decomposition. In particular, the C60 of the C60@C180 carbon onion fully fragments and its 60 atoms are incorporated into the C180 shell to form a C240 fullerene, while both the nanotube and buckybowl evaporate a few C atoms before forming a cage-like structure.

  4. RNA transcription modulates phase transition-driven nuclear body assembly.

    PubMed

    Berry, Joel; Weber, Stephanie C; Vaidya, Nilesh; Haataja, Mikko; Brangwynne, Clifford P

    2015-09-22

    Nuclear bodies are RNA and protein-rich, membraneless organelles that play important roles in gene regulation. The largest and most well-known nuclear body is the nucleolus, an organelle whose primary function in ribosome biogenesis makes it key for cell growth and size homeostasis. The nucleolus and other nuclear bodies behave like liquid-phase droplets and appear to condense from the nucleoplasm by concentration-dependent phase separation. However, nucleoli actively consume chemical energy, and it is unclear how such nonequilibrium activity might impact classical liquid-liquid phase separation. Here, we combine in vivo and in vitro experiments with theory and simulation to characterize the assembly and disassembly dynamics of nucleoli in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. In addition to classical nucleoli that assemble at the transcriptionally active nucleolar organizing regions, we observe dozens of "extranucleolar droplets" (ENDs) that condense in the nucleoplasm in a transcription-independent manner. We show that growth of nucleoli and ENDs is consistent with a first-order phase transition in which late-stage coarsening dynamics are mediated by Brownian coalescence and, to a lesser degree, Ostwald ripening. By manipulating C. elegans cell size, we change nucleolar component concentration and confirm several key model predictions. Our results show that rRNA transcription and other nonequilibrium biological activity can modulate the effective thermodynamic parameters governing nucleolar and END assembly, but do not appear to fundamentally alter the passive phase separation mechanism. PMID:26351690

  5. Non-equilibrium dynamics and phase transitions

    E-print Network

    Janik, Romuald A; Soltanpanahi, Hesam

    2015-01-01

    We study the poles of the retarded Green's functions of strongly coupled field theories exhibiting a variety of phase structures from a crossover up to a first order phase transition. These theories are modeled by a dual gravitational description. The poles of the holographic Green's functions appear at the frequencies of the quasinormal modes of the dual black hole background. We establish that near the transition, in all cases considered, the applicability of a hydrodynamic description breaks down already at lower momenta than in the conformal case. We establish the appearance of the spinodal region in the case of the first order phase transition at temperatures for which the speed of sound squared is negative. An estimate of the preferential scale attained by the unstable modes is also given. We additionally observe a novel diffusive regime for sound modes for a range of wavelengths.

  6. Friction forces on phase transition fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Mégevand, Ariel

    2013-07-01

    In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling.

  7. Friction forces on phase transition fronts

    E-print Network

    Ariel Megevand

    2013-03-31

    In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling.

  8. Phase transitions in multiplicative competitive processes

    SciTech Connect

    Shimazaki, Hideaki; Niebur, Ernst

    2005-07-01

    We introduce a discrete multiplicative process as a generic model of competition. Players with different abilities successively join the game and compete for finite resources. Emergence of dominant players and evolutionary development occur as a phase transition. The competitive dynamics underlying this transition is understood from a formal analogy to statistical mechanics. The theory is applicable to bacterial competition, predicting novel population dynamics near criticality.

  9. Phase transition in a static granular system

    E-print Network

    Matthias Schröter; Sibylle Nägle; Charles Radin; Harry L. Swinney

    2006-10-03

    We find that a column of glass beads exhibits a well-defined transition between two phases that differ in their resistance to shear. Pulses of fluidization are used to prepare static states with well-defined particle volume fractions $\\phi$ in the range 0.57-0.63. The resistance to shear is determined by slowly inserting a rod into the column of beads. The transition occurs at $\\phi=0.60$ for a range of speeds of the rod.

  10. Microrheology close to an equilibrium phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, J.; Scacchi, A.; Brader, J. M.

    2014-04-14

    We investigate the microstructural and microrheological response to a tracer particle of a two-dimensional colloidal suspension under thermodynamic conditions close to a liquid-gas phase boundary. On the liquid side of the binodal, increasing the velocity of the (repulsive) tracer leads to the development of a pronounced cavitation bubble, within which the concentration of colloidal particles is strongly depleted. The tendency of the liquid to cavitate is characterized by a dimensionless “colloidal cavitation” number. On the gas side of the binodal, a pulled (attractive) tracer leaves behind it an extended trail of colloidal liquid, arising from downstream advection of a wetting layer on its surface. For both situations the velocity dependent friction is calculated.

  11. Blue-phase liquid crystal droplets.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, José A; Zhou, Ye; Rahimi, Mohammad; Bukusoglu, Emre; Abbott, Nicholas L; de Pablo, Juan J

    2015-10-27

    Blue phases of liquid crystals represent unique ordered states of matter in which arrays of defects are organized into striking patterns. Most studies of blue phases to date have focused on bulk properties. In this work, we present a systematic study of blue phases confined into spherical droplets. It is found that, in addition to the so-called blue phases I and II, several new morphologies arise under confinement, with a complexity that increases with the chirality of the medium and with a nature that can be altered by surface anchoring. Through a combination of simulations and experiments, it is also found that one can control the wavelength at which blue-phase droplets absorb light by manipulating either their size or the strength of the anchoring, thereby providing a liquid-state analog of nanoparticles, where dimensions are used to control absorbance or emission. The results presented in this work also suggest that there are conditions where confinement increases the range of stability of blue phases, thereby providing intriguing prospects for applications. PMID:26460039

  12. Blue-phase liquid crystal droplets

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, José A.; Zhou, Ye; Rahimi, Mohammad; Bukusoglu, Emre; Abbott, Nicholas L.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Blue phases of liquid crystals represent unique ordered states of matter in which arrays of defects are organized into striking patterns. Most studies of blue phases to date have focused on bulk properties. In this work, we present a systematic study of blue phases confined into spherical droplets. It is found that, in addition to the so-called blue phases I and II, several new morphologies arise under confinement, with a complexity that increases with the chirality of the medium and with a nature that can be altered by surface anchoring. Through a combination of simulations and experiments, it is also found that one can control the wavelength at which blue-phase droplets absorb light by manipulating either their size or the strength of the anchoring, thereby providing a liquid–state analog of nanoparticles, where dimensions are used to control absorbance or emission. The results presented in this work also suggest that there are conditions where confinement increases the range of stability of blue phases, thereby providing intriguing prospects for applications. PMID:26460039

  13. The ?–? phase transition in volcanic cristobalite

    PubMed Central

    Damby, David E.; Llewellin, Edward W.; Horwell, Claire J.; Williamson, Ben J.; Najorka, Jens; Cressey, Gordon; Carpenter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cristobalite is a common mineral in volcanic ash produced from dome-forming eruptions. Assessment of the respiratory hazard posed by volcanic ash requires understanding the nature of the cristobalite it contains. Volcanic cristobalite contains coupled substitutions of Al3+ and Na+ for Si4+; similar co-substitutions in synthetic cristobalite are known to modify the crystal structure, affecting the stability of the ? and ? forms and the observed transition between them. Here, for the first time, the dynamics and energy changes associated with the ?–? phase transition in volcanic cristobalite are investigated using X-ray powder diffraction with simultaneous in situ heating and differential scanning calorimetry. At ambient temperature, volcanic cristobalite exists in the ? form and has a larger cell volume than synthetic ?-cristobalite; as a result, its diffraction pattern sits between ICDD ?- and ?-cristobalite library patterns, which could cause ambiguity in phase identification. On heating from ambient temperature, volcanic cristobalite exhibits a lower degree of thermal expansion than synthetic cristobalite, and it also has a lower ?–? transition temperature (?473?K) compared with synthetic cristobalite (upwards of 543?K); these observations are discussed in relation to the presence of Al3+ and Na+ defects. The transition shows a stable and reproducible hysteresis loop with ? and ? phases coexisting through the transition, suggesting that discrete crystals in the sample have different transition temperatures. PMID:25242910

  14. Late-time cosmological phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1990-11-01

    It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large-scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z {approx gt} 5), structures existing on scales of 100M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies ({Delta}T/T) {approx lt} 10{sup {minus}5} can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of {approximately}100M pc for large-scale structure as well as {approximately}1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition. 47 refs., 2 figs.

  15. A reactive force field simulation of liquidliquid phase transitions in phosphorus

    E-print Network

    A reactive force field simulation of liquid­liquid phase transitions in phosphorus P. Ballone 2004; accepted 6 August 2004 A force field model of phosphorus has been developed based on density T of the black P to arsenic A17 structure observed in the solid state, and also corresponds to a semiconductor

  16. How pre-melting on surrounding interfaces broadens solidliquid phase transitions

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    . The domains melt gradually below the bulk melting point of alkane. They coexist with a `pre-molten' liquid or confinement, every solid will melt (partially) and spread out at temperatures below its bulk melting pointARTICLES How pre-melting on surrounding interfaces broadens solid­liquid phase transitions HANS

  17. Phase Segregation at the Liquid-Air Interface Prior to Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez-Salguero, Carolina; Gracia-Fadrique, Jesús

    2015-08-13

    Binary systems with partial miscibility segregate into two liquid phases when their overall composition lies within the interval defined by the saturation points; out of this interval, there is one single phase, either solvent-rich or solute-rich. In most systems, in the one-phase regions, surface tension decreases with increasing solute concentration due to solute adsorption at the liquid-air interface. Therefore, the solute concentration at the surface is higher than in the bulk, leading to the hypothesis that phase segregation starts at the liquid-air interface with the formation of two surface phases, before the liquid-liquid equilibrium. This phenomenon is called surface segregation and is a step toward understanding liquid segregation at a molecular level and detailing the constitution of fluid interfaces. Surface segregation of aqueous binary systems of alkyl acetates with partial miscibility was theoretically demonstrated by means of a thermodynamic stability test based on energy minimization. Experimentally, the coexistence of two surface regions was verified through Brewster's angle microscopy. The observations were further interpreted with the aid of molecular dynamics simulations, which show the diffusion of the acetates from the bulk toward the liquid-air interface, where acetates aggregate into acetate-rich domains. PMID:26189700

  18. Critical Exponents for Granular Phase Transitions

    E-print Network

    Gerald H. Ristow

    1998-10-20

    The solid--fluid phase transition of a granular material shaken horizontally is investigated numerically. We find that it is a second-order phase transition and propose two order parameters, namely the averaged kinetic energy and the averaged granular temperature, to determine the fluidization point precisely. It scales with the acceleration of the external vibration. Using this fluidization point as critical point, we discuss the scaling of the kinetic energy and show that the kinetic energy and the granular temperature show two different universal critical point exponents for a wide range of excitation amplitudes.

  19. Shape phase transitions and critical points

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2009-05-04

    We investigate different aspects connected with shape phase transitions in nuclei and the possible occurrence of dynamical symmetries at the critical points. We discuss in particular the behaviour of the neighbour odd nuclei at the vicinity of the critical points in the even nuclei. We consider both the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the gamma-unstable deformation (characterized within the collective Bohr hamiltonian by the E(5) critical point symmetry) and the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the stable axial deformation (characterized by the X(5) symmetry). The odd particle is assumed to be moving in the three single particle orbitals j = 1/2,3/2,5/2, a set of orbitals that is known to lead to possible supersymmetric cases. The coupling of the odd particle to the Bohr hamiltonian does lead in fact in the former case at the critical point to the E(5/12) boson-fermion dynamical symmetry. An alternative approach to the two shape transitions is based on the Interacting Boson Fermion Model. In this case suitably parametrized boson-fermion hamiltonians can describe the evolution of the odd system along the shape transitions. At the critical points both energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions were found to display characteristic patterns similar to those displayed by the even nuclei at the corresponding critical point. The behaviour of the odd nuclei can therefore be seen as necessary complementary signatures of the occurrence of the phase transitions.

  20. Dimension Changing Phase Transitions in Instanton Crystals

    E-print Network

    Vadim Kaplunovsky; Jacob Sonnenschein

    2013-09-18

    We investigate lattices of instantons and the dimension-changing transitions between them. Our ultimate goal is the 3D->4D transition, which is holographically dual to the phase transition between the baryonic and the quarkyonic phases of cold nuclear matter. However, in this paper (just as in [1]) we focus on lower dimensions -- the 1D lattice of instantons in a harmonic potential V M_2^2x_2^2+M_3^2x_2^2+M_4^2x_4^2 and the zigzag-shaped lattice as a first stage of the 1D->2D transition. We prove that in the low- and moderate-density regimes, interactions between the instantons are dominated by two-body forces. This drastically simplifies finding the ground state of the instantons' orientations, so we made a numeric scan of the whole orientation space instead of assuming any particular ansatz. We find that depending on the M_2/M_3/M_4 ratios, the ground state of instanton orientations can follow a wide variety of patterns. For the straight 1D lattices, we found orientations periodically running over elements of a Z_2, Klein, prismatic, or dihedral subgroup of the SU(2)/Z_2, as well as irrational but link-periodic patterns. For the zigzag-shaped lattices, we detected 4 distinct orientation phases -- the anti-ferromagnet, another abelian phase, and two non-abelian phases. Allowing the zigzag amplitude to vary as a function of increasing compression force, we obtained the phase diagram for the straight and zigzag-shaped lattices in the (force, M_3/M_4), (chemical potential, M_3/M_4), and (density, M_3/M_4) planes. Some of the transitions between these phases are second-order while others are first-order. Our techniques can be applied to other types of non-abelian crystals.

  1. Holographic endpoint of spatially modulated phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Ooguri, Hirosi; Park, Chang-Soon

    2010-12-15

    In a previous paper [S. Nakamura, H. Ooguri, and C. S. Park, Phys. Rev. D 81, 044018 (2010)], we showed that the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole in the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space coupled to the Maxwell theory with the Chern-Simons term is unstable when the Chern-Simons coupling is sufficiently large. In the dual conformal field theory, the instability suggests a spatially modulated phase transition. In this paper, we construct and analyze nonlinear solutions which describe the endpoint of this phase transition. In the limit where the Chern-Simons coupling is large, we find that the phase transition is of the second order with the mean field critical exponent. However, the dispersion relation with the Van Hove singularity enhances quantum corrections in the bulk, and we argue that this changes the order of the phase transition from the second to the first. We compute linear response functions in the nonlinear solution and find an infinite off-diagonal DC conductivity in the new phase.

  2. Holographic phase transitions at finite baryon density

    E-print Network

    Shinpei Kobayashi; David Mateos; Shunji Matsuura; Robert C. Myers; Rowan M. Thomson

    2007-02-07

    We use holographic techniques to study SU(Nc) super Yang-Mills theory coupled to Nf density. We focus on four dimensions, for which the dual description consists of Nf D7-branes in the background of Nc black D3-branes, but our results apply in other dimensions as well. A non-zero chemical potential mu or baryon number density n is introduced via a nonvanishing worldvolume gauge field on the D7-branes. Ref. [1] identified a first order phase transition at zero density associated with `melting' of the mesons. This extends to a line of phase transitions for small n, which terminates at a critical point at finite n. Investigation of the D7-branes' thermodynamics reveals that (d mu / dn)_T <0 in a small region of the phase diagram, indicating an instability. We comment on a possible new phase which may appear in this region.

  3. Vapor-liquid phase separator studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Hepler, W. A.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1985-01-01

    A study of porous plug use for vapor-liquid phase seperation in spaceborne cryogenic systems was conducted. The three main topics addressed were: (1) the usefulness of porous media in designs that call for variable areas and flow rates; (2) the possibility of prediction of main parameters of porous plugs for a given material; and (3) prediction of all parameters of the plug, including secondary parameters.

  4. Convex Arrhenius behaviour in a nematic-isotropic phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, K.; Roy, M.; Datta, A.

    2014-11-01

    Convex Arrhenius behaviour, rare in transitions between equilibrium phases of pure systems, is observed in the plot of heating rate (? = \\frac{\\text{d}T}{\\text{d}t}) vs. temperature (T) for Nematic-Isotropic (N-I) transition of liquid crystalline MBBA through Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The plot is best fit by a monomolecular growth function, using which an entropy-driven activation barrier, increasing non-linearly with temperature, is obtained. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) studies of MBBA around the N-I transition temperature (T_c) show increase in out-of-plane benzene ring distortions and decrease in order along the C=N-C axis, consistent with DSC results of conformational entropy-driven barrier.

  5. Phase structure and phase transitions in semicrystalline isotactic polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hui

    Semicrystalline polymers have been recognized as being in a non-equilibrium, metastable state. A single molecule can participate in several phase regimes. Thus, interpretation of the phase structure of semicrystalline polymers, and an understanding of their correspondent phase transitions are essential aspects in today's polymer physics research. The ultimate goal of this thesis is to provide general descriptions regarding understanding the metastable phase structure and correspondent phase transitions in semicrystalline polymers based on the study of simple homopolymer isotactic polystyrene. This thesis gives a detailed description about characterizing the phase structure of semicrystalline isotactic polystyrene. More importantly, this thesis investigates the most hotly debated issues regarding the phase transitions observed in semicrystalline polymers, i.e., formation (vitrification) and relaxation (devitrification) of the rigid amorphous fraction, reversible melting of crystals of semicrystalline polymer, and interpretation of multiple melting of semicrystalline polymer. In this thesis, semicrystalline isotactic polystyrene (iPS) is obtained using two different mechanisms---crystallization from the glassy state, or crystallization from dilute solution. The experimental techniques including thermal analysis, X-ray scattering and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, are used to characterize the phase structure and phase transitions for both semicrystalline WS systems. The main topics contained in this thesis are: (1) Phase structure of semicrystalline isotactic polystyrene. For the WS sample crystallized from the glassy state, the experimental evidence demonstrates that the phase structure can be interpreted by a three-phase stack model comprising mobile amorphous, rigid amorphous and crystalline fractions. The phase structure of WS samples crystallized from dilute solution can be interpreted by either a two-phase or a three-phase model depending upon the sample treatment. (2) Formation (vitrification) and relaxation (devitrification) of rigid amorphous fraction. The rigid amorphous fraction is suggested to be located at the interface between the mobile amorphous and crystalline fractions. The time development (kinetics) of phase formation shows that the rigid amorphous fraction in WS is established mostly during secondary crystallization. The real time quasi-isothermal crystallization measurements demonstrate that the rigid amorphous fraction forms at the crystallization temperature for a well crystallized WS sample. (3) Reversible melting and multiple melting of semicrystalline isotactic polystyrene. The melting behavior of cold crystallized, or solution grown crystals of PS is investigated by thermal analysis and X-ray scattering. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  6. Liquid-phase electroepitaxy - Dopant segregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagowski, J.; Jastrzebski, L.; Gatos, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical model is presented which accounts for the dopant segregation in liquid-phase electroepitaxy in terms of dopant transport in the liquid phase (by electromigration and diffusion), the growth velocity, and the Peltier effect at the substrate-solution interface. The contribution of dopant electromigration to the magnitude of the effective segregation coefficient is dominant in the absence of convection; the contribution of the Peltier effect becomes significant only in the presence of pronounced convection. Quantitative expressions which relate the segregation coefficient to the growth parameters also permit the determination of the diffusion constant and electromigration mobility of the dopant in the liquid phase. The model was found to be in good agreement with the measured segregation characteristics of Sn in the electroepitaxial growth of GaAs from Ga-As solutions. For Sn in Ga-As solution at 900 C the diffusion constant was found to be 4 x 10 to the -5 sq cm/s and the electromigration velocity (toward the substrate with a positive polarity 2 x 10 to the -5 cm/s current density of 10 A/sq cm.

  7. Two-step melting in two dimensions: First-order liquid-hexatic transition

    E-print Network

    Etienne P. Bernard; Werner Krauth

    2011-08-30

    Melting in two spatial dimensions, as realized in thin films or at interfaces, represents one of the most fascinating phase transitions in nature, but it remains poorly understood. Even for the fundamental hard-disk model, the melting mechanism has not been agreed on after fifty years of studies. A recent Monte Carlo algorithm allows us to thermalize systems large enough to access the thermodynamic regime. We show that melting in hard disks proceeds in two steps with a liquid phase, a hexatic phase, and a solid. The hexatic-solid transition is continuous while, surprisingly, the liquid-hexatic transition is of first-order. This melting scenario solves one of the fundamental statistical-physics models, which is at the root of a large body of theoretical, computational and experimental research.

  8. On transit time instability in liquid jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabitz, G.; Meier, G.

    1982-01-01

    A basic transit time instability in flows with disturbances of speed is found. It was shown that the mass distribution is established by and large by the described transit time effects. These transit time effects may also be involved for gas jets.

  9. Viscosity and thermal conductivity effects at first-order phase transitions in heavy-ion collisions

    E-print Network

    D. N. Voskresensky; V. V. Skokov

    2010-12-22

    Effects of viscosity and thermal conductivity on the dynamics of first-order phase transitions are studied. The nuclear gas-liquid and hadron-quark transitions in heavy-ion collisions are considered. We demonstrate that at non-zero thermal conductivity, $\\kappa \

  10. Phase transition into the metallic state in hypothetical (without molecules) dense atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Khomkin, A. L. Shumikhin, A. S.

    2013-10-15

    A simple physical model of the metal-dielectric (vapor-liquid) phase transition in hypothetical (without molecules) atomic hydrogen is proposed. The reason for such a transition is the quantum collective cohesive energy occurring due to quantum electron-electron exchange similar to the cohesive energy in the liquid-metal phase of alkali metals. It is found that the critical parameters of the transition are P{sub c} ? 41000 atm, ?{sub c} ? 0.1 g/cm{sup 3}, and T{sub c} ? 9750 K.

  11. Water in Inhomogeneous Nanoconfinement: Coexistence of Multilayered Liquid and Transition to Ice Nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hu; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Guo, Wanlin

    2015-10-27

    Phase behavior and the associated phase transition of water within inhomogeneous nanoconfinement are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The nanoconfinement is constructed by a flat bottom plate and a convex top plate. At 300 K, the confined water can be viewed as a coexistence of monolayer, bilayer, and trilayer liquid domains to accommodate the inhomogeneous confinement. With increasing liquid density, the confined water with uneven layers transforms separately into two-dimensional ice crystals with unchanged layer number and rhombic in-plane symmetry for oxygen atoms. The monolayer water undergoes the transition first into a puckered ice nanoribbon, and the bilayer water transforms into a rhombic ice nanoribbon next, followed by the transition of trilayer water into a trilayer ice nanoribbon. The sequential localized liquid-to-solid transition within the inhomogeneous confinement can also be achieved by gradually decreasing the temperature at low liquid densities. These findings of phase behaviors of water under the inhomogeneous nanoconfinement not only extend the phase diagram of confined water but also have implications for realistic nanofluidic systems and microporous materials. PMID:26348704

  12. Theory and phenomenology of electroweak phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Hiren H.

    An open problem in cosmology is to explain the origin of baryon abundance implied by observational cosmology. Among the many proposed explanations, electroweak baryogenesis is particularly attractive in that its ingredients is discoverable by modern experiments. The analysis of the electroweak phase transition in the early universe comprises an integral component within the larger study of electroweak baryogenesis. In this work, I make a detailed investigation of the conventional analysis of the electroweak phase transition commonly found in literature, and explicitly demonstrate that results are not independent of the choice of gauge. In its place, I provide a manifestly gauge-independent method for the analysis, review sources of theoretical and numerical uncertainties, and explore avenues for further development. Next, I explore the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in two minimal extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics. Within these simple models, I describe a novel pattern of electroweak symmetry breaking favorable for baryogenesis that can serve as a paradigm for phase transition analysis in more complicated models.

  13. Caloric materials near ferroic phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moya, X.; Kar-Narayan, S.; Mathur, N. D.

    2014-05-01

    A magnetically, electrically or mechanically responsive material can undergo significant thermal changes near a ferroic phase transition when its order parameter is modified by the conjugate applied field. The resulting magnetocaloric, electrocaloric and mechanocaloric (elastocaloric or barocaloric) effects are compared here in terms of history, experimental method, performance and prospective cooling applications.

  14. Quantum phase transitions without thermodynamic limits

    E-print Network

    Macrina, Andrea

    at finite temperatures. Keywords: microcanonical equilibrium; continuous phase transition 1. Introduction at about 267 K, a temperature that is some 104 K greater than the melting point of bulk sodium (Schmidt et, London WC2R 2LS, UK A new microcanonical equilibrium state is introduced for quantum systems with finite

  15. Discovery of phase transitions in photosynthetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drissler, F.

    1980-05-01

    The temperature dependence of Stokes Raman scattering from green monocellular algae ( Chlorella pyrenoidosa) indicates that phase transitions which involve the photoactive pigment molecules occur during warming up at 230 K and 261 K. It is shown that these collective structural rearrangements lead to a spectral shape which is known from Raman experiments with living cells.

  16. Chiral Phase Transitions around Black Holes

    E-print Network

    Antonino Flachi; Takahiro Tanaka

    2011-06-20

    In this paper we discuss the possibility that chiral phase transitions, analogous to those of QCD, occur in the vicinity of a black hole. If the black hole is surrounded by a gas of strongly interacting particles, an inhomogeneous condensate will form. We demonstrate this by explicitly constructing self-consistent solutions.

  17. Quantum Phase Transitions Josephson & Optical Lattices

    E-print Network

    Fominov, Yakov

    corresponding to the extra boson is localized #12;Monte Carlo simulations S = t U , [1 - cos (i, - jQuantum Phase Transitions in Frustrated Josephson & Optical Lattices R o s a r i o F a z i o SISSA - Frustrated systems * Aharonov-Bohm cages in frustrated dice lattices M. Rizzi, V. Cataudella and R. Fazio PRB

  18. Dual condensate and QCD phase transition

    E-print Network

    Bo Zhang; Falk Bruckmann; Christof Gattringer; Zoltan Fodor; Kalman K. Szabo

    2010-12-10

    The dual condensate is a new QCD phase transition order parameter, which connnects confinement and chiral symmetry breaking as different mass limits. We discuss the relation between the fermion spectrum at general boundary conditions and the dual condensate and show numerical results for the latter from unquenched SU(3) lattice configurations.

  19. Phase transitions in systems possessing shock solutions.

    PubMed

    Arabsalmani, Maryam; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2006-07-01

    Recently it has been shown that there are three families of stochastic one-dimensional nonequilibrium lattice models for which the single-shock measures form an invariant subspace of the states of these models. Here, both the stationary states and dynamics of single-shocks on a one-dimensional lattice are studied. This is done for both an infinite lattice and a finite lattice with boundaries. It is seen that these models possess both static and dynamical phase transitions. The static phase transition is the well-known low-high density phase transition for the asymmetric simple exclusion process. The branching-coalescing random walk and asymmetric Kawasaki-Glauber process models also show the same phase transition. Double-shocks on a one-dimensional lattice are also investigated. It is shown that at the stationary state the contribution of double-shocks with higher width becomes small, and the main contribution comes from thin double-shocks. PMID:16907060

  20. Caloric materials near ferroic phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Moya, X; Kar-Narayan, S; Mathur, N D

    2014-05-01

    A magnetically, electrically or mechanically responsive material can undergo significant thermal changes near a ferroic phase transition when its order parameter is modified by the conjugate applied field. The resulting magnetocaloric, electrocaloric and mechanocaloric (elastocaloric or barocaloric) effects are compared here in terms of history, experimental method, performance and prospective cooling applications. PMID:24751772

  1. Dual condensate and QCD phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Bo; Bruckmann, Falk; Fodor, Zoltan; Szabo, Kalman K.; Gattringer, Christof

    2011-05-23

    The dual condensate is a new QCD phase transition order parameter, which connnects confinement and chiral symmetry breaking as different mass limits. We discuss the relation between the fermion spectrum at general boundary conditions and the dual condensate and show numerical results for the latter from unquenched SU(3) lattice configurations.

  2. Chaos: Butterflies also Generate Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leplaideur, Renaud

    2015-10-01

    We exhibit examples of mixing subshifts of finite type and of continuous potentials such that there are phase transitions but the pressure is always strictly convex. More surprisingly, we show that the pressure can be analytic on some interval although there exist several equilibrium states.

  3. Double-Diffusive Layers and Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dude, Sabine; Hansen, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Researching the thermal evolution of the Earth's mantle on numerical base is very challenging. During the last decade different approaches are put forward in oder to understand the picture of the today's Earth's mantle. One way is to incorporate all the known features and physics (plate tectonics, phase transitions, CMB-topography, ...) into numerical models and make them as complex (or 'complete') as possible to capture Earth's mantle processes and surface signals. Another way is, to take a step back and look at less complex models which account for single processes and their interaction and evolution. With these 'simpler' models one is able look in detail into the physical processes and dependencies on certain parameters. Since the knowledge of slab stagnation in the transitions zone of the Earth's mantle the question whether the mantle is or at least has been layered to some degree is still under debate. On this basis we address two important features that lead to layered mantle convection and may affect each other and with this the thermal evolution of the mantle. It is commonly known the main mantle mineral olivine pass through various phase changes with depth [1]. Detailed numerical studies had been carried out to ascertain the influence on convective motion and planetary evolution [2]. It is still heavily discussed whether the endothermic phase change at 660km depth can lead an isolated lower mantle. Most of the numerical studies favour a model which has phases of layering that are disrupted by catastrophic events. In the last years double-diffusive convection has also been intensively studied with regard to planetary mantle evolution such as pile formation and core-mantle boundary topography [3]. However, another striking feature still posing open questions are evolving layers self-organised from a previous non layered state. Considering a chemical component that influences the density of a fluid in addition to the temperature leads to dynamical phenomena that have no counterpart in pure thermal convection. In oder to determine the interaction of double-diffusive layers with a phase transition we carried out numerical simulations ranging from exothermic to endothermic conditions. Taking into account a depth and temperature dependence of the phase transition the results show that on the one hand double-diffusive layering is strongly affected by the presence of phase transition but on the other hand the equilibrium position of the phase transition is shifted depending on the properties of the considered transition. In addition to that we incorporate the chemical dependence of the phase change and determine the influence on the layer growth and the overall dynamics. References [1] Schubert, G., Yuen, D. A., Turcotte, D. L., Role of Phase Transitions in a Dynamic Mantle. Geophys. J. Roy. Astron. Soc., 42:705-735, 1975. [2] Christensen, U., Effects of Phase Transitions on Mantle Convection. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 23:65-88, 1995. [3] Tackley, P. J. Dynamics and evolution of the deep mantle resulting from thermal, chemical, phase and melting effects. Earth-Sci. Rev., 110:1-25, 2012.

  4. Magnetic fluctuations and correlations in MnSi: Evidence for a chiral skyrmion spin liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, C.; Lelievre-Berna, E.; Bentley, P.; Falus, P.; Fouquet, P.; Farago, B.

    2011-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of high-resolution neutron scattering data involving neutron spin echo spectroscopy and spherical polarimetry, which confirm the first-order nature of the helical transition in MnSi. The experiments reveal the existence of a totally chiral dynamic phase in a very narrow temperature range above T{sub C}. This unconventional magnetic short-range order has a topology similar to that of a skyrmion liquid or the blue phases of liquid crystals.

  5. Glass and liquid phase diagram of a polyamorphic monatomic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisman, Shaina; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2013-02-01

    We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a monatomic system with Fermi-Jagla (FJ) pair potential interactions. This model system exhibits polyamorphism both in the liquid and glass state. The two liquids, low-density (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL), are accessible in equilibrium MD simulations and can form two glasses, low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous (HDA) solid, upon isobaric cooling. The FJ model exhibits many of the anomalous properties observed in water and other polyamorphic liquids and thus, it is an excellent model system to explore qualitatively the thermodynamic properties of such substances. The liquid phase behavior of the FJ model system has been previously characterized. In this work, we focus on the glass behavior of the FJ system. Specifically, we perform systematic isothermal compression and decompression simulations of LDA and HDA at different temperatures and determine "phase diagrams" for the glass state; these phase diagrams varying with the compression/decompression rate used. We obtain the LDA-to-HDA and HDA-to-LDA transition pressure loci, PLDA-HDA(T) and PHDA-LDA(T), respectively. In addition, the compression-induced amorphization line, at which the low-pressure crystal (LPC) transforms to HDA, PLPC-HDA(T), is determined. As originally proposed by Poole et al. [Phys. Rev. E 48, 4605 (1993)], 10.1103/PhysRevE.48.4605 simulations suggest that the PLDA-HDA(T) and PHDA-LDA(T) loci are extensions of the LDL-to-HDL and HDL-to-LDL spinodal lines into the glass domain. Interestingly, our simulations indicate that the PLPC-HDA(T) locus is an extension, into the glass domain, of the LPC metastability limit relative to the liquid. We discuss the effects of compression/decompression rates on the behavior of the PLDA-HDA(T), PHDA-LDA(T), PLPC-HDA(T) loci. The competition between glass polyamorphism and crystallization is also addressed. At our "fast rate," crystallization can be partially suppressed and the glass phase diagram can be related directly with the liquid phase diagram. However, at our "slow rate," crystallization cannot be prevented at intermediate temperatures, within the glass region. In these cases, multiple crystal-crystal transformations are found upon compression/decompression (polymorphism).

  6. A simple monatomic ideal glass former: the glass transition by a first-order phase transition above the melting point

    E-print Network

    Måns Elenius; Tomas Oppelstrup; Mikhail Dzugutov

    2010-04-15

    A liquid can form under cooling a glassy state either as a result of a continuous slowing down or by a first order polyamorphous phase transition. The second scenario has so far always been observed below the melting point where it interfered with crystalline nucleation. We report the first observation of the liquid-glass transition by a first order phase transition above the melting point. The observation was made in a molecular dynamics simulation of a one-component system with a model metallic pair potential. This is also the first observation of a simple monatomic ideal glass former -- a liquid that avoids crystallization at any cooling rate. Besides its conceptual importance, this result indicates a possibility of existence of metallic ideal glass formers.

  7. Quantitative measurements of phase transitions in nano- and glassy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, J. B.; Ehm, L.; Benmore, C. J.; Antao, S. M.; Michel, F. M.

    2010-03-01

    Novel approaches to the collection and treatment of total x-ray scattering using high energy (> 65 keV) x-ray beams and area detectors allow in situ studies of unprecedented precision to be performed on nano-crystalline (n) and glassy materials at extremes of pressure (p) and temperature (T). Gradual structural transitions in glasses, liquids and nano-materials occurring via continuous changes in density, or involving phases related by pseudo symmetry are inherently difficult to identify due to their disordered nature. In such cases supplementary physical measurements along with modeling of the pair distribution function (PDF) provide powerful constraints on the possible models for the transition. Examples include transitions from n-FeS with a mackinawite-like structure to high p forms with structures related to NiAs structure-type. The distinction between the various high p models - MnP-type, troilite, FeS-III related or mixtures of these phases - is subtle; great care needs to be exercised in refining structure models to fit the observed data. Acoustic techniques are particularly valuable in identifying high p phase transitions in glasses, since measured changes in compressional velocities relate to density changes in the glass while shear waves provide an insight into network rigidity.

  8. Order parameter free enhanced sampling of the vapor-liquid transition using the generalized replica exchange method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qing; Kim, Jaegil; Straub, John E.

    2013-03-01

    The generalized Replica Exchange Method (gREM) is extended into the isobaric-isothermal ensemble, and applied to simulate a vapor-liquid phase transition in Lennard-Jones fluids. Merging an optimally designed generalized ensemble sampling with replica exchange, gREM is particularly well suited for the effective simulation of first-order phase transitions characterized by "backbending" in the statistical temperature. While the metastable and unstable states in the vicinity of the first-order phase transition are masked by the enthalpy gap in temperature replica exchange method simulations, they are transformed into stable states through the parameterized effective sampling weights in gREM simulations, and join vapor and liquid phases with a succession of unimodal enthalpy distributions. The enhanced sampling across metastable and unstable states is achieved without the need to identify a "good" order parameter for biased sampling. We performed gREM simulations at various pressures below and near the critical pressure to examine the change in behavior of the vapor-liquid phase transition at different pressures. We observed a crossover from the first-order phase transition at low pressure, characterized by the backbending in the statistical temperature and the "kink" in the Gibbs free energy, to a continuous second-order phase transition near the critical pressure. The controlling mechanisms of nucleation and continuous phase transition are evident and the coexistence properties and phase diagram are found in agreement with literature results.

  9. Order parameter free enhanced sampling of the vapor-liquid transition using the generalized replica exchange method.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing; Kim, Jaegil; Straub, John E

    2013-03-14

    The generalized Replica Exchange Method (gREM) is extended into the isobaric-isothermal ensemble, and applied to simulate a vapor-liquid phase transition in Lennard-Jones fluids. Merging an optimally designed generalized ensemble sampling with replica exchange, gREM is particularly well suited for the effective simulation of first-order phase transitions characterized by "backbending" in the statistical temperature. While the metastable and unstable states in the vicinity of the first-order phase transition are masked by the enthalpy gap in temperature replica exchange method simulations, they are transformed into stable states through the parameterized effective sampling weights in gREM simulations, and join vapor and liquid phases with a succession of unimodal enthalpy distributions. The enhanced sampling across metastable and unstable states is achieved without the need to identify a "good" order parameter for biased sampling. We performed gREM simulations at various pressures below and near the critical pressure to examine the change in behavior of the vapor-liquid phase transition at different pressures. We observed a crossover from the first-order phase transition at low pressure, characterized by the backbending in the statistical temperature and the "kink" in the Gibbs free energy, to a continuous second-order phase transition near the critical pressure. The controlling mechanisms of nucleation and continuous phase transition are evident and the coexistence properties and phase diagram are found in agreement with literature results. PMID:23514477

  10. Does Sex Induce a Phase Transition?

    E-print Network

    de Oliveira, P M C; Stauffer, D; Cebrat, S; Pekalski, A; 10.1140/epjb/e2008-00229-3

    2009-01-01

    We discovered a dynamic phase transition induced by sexual reproduction. The dynamics is a pure Darwinian rule with both fundamental ingredients to drive evolution: 1) random mutations and crossings which act in the sense of increasing the entropy (or diversity); and 2) selection which acts in the opposite sense by limiting the entropy explosion. Selection wins this competition if mutations performed at birth are few enough. By slowly increasing the average number m of mutations, however, the population suddenly undergoes a mutational degradation precisely at a transition point mc. Above this point, the "bad" alleles spread over the genetic pool of the population, overcoming the selection pressure. Individuals become selectively alike, and evolution stops. Only below this point, m < mc, evolutionary life is possible. The finite-size-scaling behaviour of this transition is exhibited for large enough "chromosome" lengths L. One important and surprising observation is the L-independence of the transition curv...

  11. Assessment of the thermal-hydraulic technology of the transition phase of a core-disruptive accident in a LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.A.; Ginsberg, T.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1982-11-01

    The technology of thermal hydraulic aspects of the transition phase accident sequence in liquid metal fast breeder reactors has been reviewed. Previous analyses of the transition phase accident sequence have been reviewed and the current understanding of major thermal hydraulic phenomenology has been assessed. As a result of the foregoing, together with a scoping analysis of the transition phase accident sequence, major transition phase issues have been defined and research needs have been identified. The major conclusion of transition phase scoping analysis is that fuel dispersal cannot be relied upon to rule out the possibility of recriticalities during this stage of the accident.

  12. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation of Oil Bodies from Seeds.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Cory L

    2016-01-01

    Fundamentally, oil bodies are discrete storage organelles found in oilseeds, comprising a hydrophobic triacylglycerol core surrounded by a half-unit phospholipid membrane and an outer shell of specialized proteins known as oleosins. Oil bodies possess a number of attributes that were exploited by SemBioSys Genetics to isolate highly enriched fractions of oil bodies through liquid-liquid phase separation for a number of commercial applications. The current chapter provides a general guide for the isolation of oil bodies from Arabidopsis and/or safflower seed, from which protocols can be refined for different oilseed sources. For SemBioSys Genetic's recombinant technology, therapeutic proteins were covalently attached to oleosins or fused in-frame with ligands which bound oil bodies, facilitating their recovery to high levels of purity during "upstream processing" of transformed seed. Core to this technology was oil body isolation consisting of simple manipulation including homogenization of seeds to free the oil bodies, followed by the removal of insoluble fractions, and phase separation to recover the oil bodies. During oil body enrichment (an increase in oil body content concomitant with removal of impurities), a number of options and tips are provided to aid researchers in the manipulation and monitoring of these robust organelles. PMID:26614290

  13. The comfortable driving model revisited: traffic phases and phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Florian; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2013-07-01

    We study the spatiotemporal patterns resulting from different boundary conditions for a microscopic traffic model and contrast them with empirical results. By evaluating the time series of local measurements, the local traffic states are assigned to the different traffic phases of Kerner’s three-phase traffic theory. For this classification we use the rule-based FOTO-method, which provides ‘hard’ rules for this assignment. Using this approach, our analysis shows that the model is indeed able to reproduce three qualitatively different traffic phases: free flow (F), synchronized traffic (S), and wide moving jams (J). In addition, we investigate the likelihood of transitions between the three traffic phases. We show that a transition from free flow to a wide moving jam often involves an intermediate transition: first from free flow to synchronized flow and then from synchronized flow to a wide moving jam. This is supported by the fact that the so-called F ? S transition (from free flow to synchronized traffic) is much more likely than a direct F ? J transition. The model under consideration has a functional relationship between traffic flow and traffic density. The fundamental hypothesis of the three-phase traffic theory, however, postulates that the steady states of synchronized flow occupy a two-dimensional region in the flow-density plane. Due to the obvious discrepancy between the model investigated here and the postulate of the three-phase traffic theory, the good agreement that we found could not be expected. For a more detailed analysis, we also studied vehicle dynamics at a microscopic level and provide a comparison of real detector data with simulated data of the identical highway segment.

  14. Monitoring phases and phase transitions in phosphatidylethanolamine monolayers using active interfacial microrheology.

    PubMed

    Ghazvini, Saba; Ricke, Brandon; Zasadzinski, Joseph A; Dhar, Prajnaparamita

    2015-05-01

    Active interfacial microrheology is a sensitive tool to detect phase transitions and headgroup order in phospholipid monolayers. The re-orientation of a magnetic nickel nanorod is used to explore changes in the surface rheology of 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DLPE) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DMPE), which differ by two CH2 groups in their alkyl chains. Phosphatidylethanolamines such as DLPE and DMPE are a major component of cell membranes in bacteria and in the nervous system. At room temperature, DLPE has a liquid expanded (LE) phase for surface pressure, ? < ?38 mN m(-1); DMPE has an LE phase for ? < ?7 mN m(-1). In their respective LE phases, DLPE and DMPE show no measurable change in surface viscosity with ?, consistent with a surface viscosity <10(-9) N s m(-1), the resolution of our technique. However, there is a measurable, discontinuous change in the surface viscosity at the LE to liquid condensed (LC) transition for both DLPE and DMPE. This discontinuous change is correlated with a significant increase in the surface compressibility modulus (or isothermal two-dimensional bulk modulus). In the LC phase of DMPE there is an exponential increase in surface viscosity with ? consistent with a two-dimensional free area model. The second-order LC to solid (S) transition in DMPE is marked by an abrupt onset of surface elasticity; there is no measurable elasticity in the LC phase. A measurable surface elasticity in the S phase suggests a change in the molecular ordering or interactions of the DMPE headgroups that is not reflected in isotherms or in grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. This onset of measurable elasticity is also seen in DLPE, even though no indication of a LC-S transition is visible in the isotherms. PMID:25782993

  15. Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Calculator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-02-19

    Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid or "NPAL" is a term that most environmental professionals are familiar with because NAPL has been recognized in the literature as a significant source of groundwater contamination. There are two types of NAPL: DNAPL and LNAPL. DNAPL is a ?dense? non-aqueous phase liquid. In this context, dense means having a density greater than water (1.0 kg/L). Trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachioroethylene (PCE) are examples of DNAPL compounds. A compound that is heaver thanmore »water means this type of NAPL will sink in an aquifer. Conversely, LNAPL is a ?light? non-aqueous phase liquid with a density less than water, and will float on top of the aquifer. Examples of LNAPL?s are benzene and toluene. LNAPL or DNAPL often manifest as a complex, multi-component mixture of organic compounds that can occur in environmental media. Complex multi-component mixtures distributed in soil pore-air, pore-water, soil particles and in free phase complicate residual saturation of single and multi component NAPL compounds in soil samples. The model output also includes estimates of the NAPL mass and volume and other physical and chemical properties that may be useful for characterization, modeling, and remedial system design and operation. The discovery of NAPL in the aquifer usually leads to a focused characterization for possible sources of NAPL in the vadose zone using a variety of innovative technologies and characterization methods. Often, the analytical data will indicated the presence of NAPL, yet, the NAPL will go unrecognized. Failure to recognize the NAPL can be attributed to the complicated processes of inter-media transfer or a general lack of knowledge about the physical characteristics of complex organic mixtures in environmental samples.« less

  16. Phase diagrams of mixtures of a polymer and a cholesteric liquid crystal under an external field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Akihiko

    2014-11-01

    We present a mean field theory to describe phase behaviors in mixtures of a polymer and a cholesteric liquid crystal under an external magnetic or electric field. Taking into account a chiral coupling between a polymer and a liquid crystal under the external field, we examine twist-untwist phase transitions and phase separations in the mixtures. It is found that a cholesteric-nematic phase transition can be induced by not only the external field but also concentration and temperature. Depending on the strength of the external field, we predict cholesteric-paranematic (Ch+pN), nematic-paranematic (N+pN), cholesteric-nematic (Ch+N) phase separations, etc., on the temperature-concentration plane. We also discuss mixtures of a non-chiral nematic liquid crystal and a chiral dopant.

  17. Phase diagrams of mixtures of a polymer and a cholesteric liquid crystal under an external field.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Akihiko

    2014-11-14

    We present a mean field theory to describe phase behaviors in mixtures of a polymer and a cholesteric liquid crystal under an external magnetic or electric field. Taking into account a chiral coupling between a polymer and a liquid crystal under the external field, we examine twist-untwist phase transitions and phase separations in the mixtures. It is found that a cholesteric-nematic phase transition can be induced by not only the external field but also concentration and temperature. Depending on the strength of the external field, we predict cholesteric-paranematic (Ch+pN), nematic-paranematic (N+pN), cholesteric-nematic (Ch+N) phase separations, etc., on the temperature-concentration plane. We also discuss mixtures of a non-chiral nematic liquid crystal and a chiral dopant. PMID:25399158

  18. The comfortable driving model revisited: Traffic phases and phase transitions

    E-print Network

    Knorr, Florian

    2013-01-01

    We study the spatiotemporal patterns resulting from different boundary conditions for a microscopic traffic model and contrast it with empirical results. By evaluating the time series of local measurements, the local traffic states are assigned to the different traffic phases of Kerner's three-phase traffic theory. For this classification we use the rule-based FOTO-method, which provides `hard' rules for this assignment. Using this approach, our analysis shows that the model is indeed able to reproduce three qualitatively different traffic phases: free flow (F), synchronized traffic (S), and wide moving jams (J). In addition, we investigate the likelihood of transitions between the three traffic phases. We show that a transition from free flow (F) to a wide moving jam (J) often involves an intermediate transition; first from free flow F to synchronized flow S and then from synchronized flow to a wide moving jam. This is supported by the fact that the so called F->S transition (from free flow to synchronized t...

  19. Thermalon mediated phase transitions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    E-print Network

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mbarek, Saoussen

    2015-01-01

    Thermalons can mediate phase transitions between different vacua in higher curvature gravity, potentially changing the asymptotic structure of the spacetime. Treating the cosmological constant as a dynamical parameter, we study these phase transitions in the context of extended thermodynamic phase space. We find that in addition to the AdS to dS phase transitions previously studied, thermal AdS space can undergo a phase transition to an asymptotically flat black hole geometry. In the context of AdS to AdS transitions, we comment on the similarities and differences between thermalon transitions and the Hawking-Page transition.

  20. Light clusters, pasta phases, and phase transitions in core-collapse supernova matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pais, Helena; Chiacchiera, Silvia; Providência, Constança

    2015-05-01

    The pasta phase in core-collapse supernova matter (finite temperatures and fixed proton fractions) is studied within relativistic mean-field models. Three different calculations are used for comparison: the Thomas-Fermi, the coexisting phases, and the compressible liquid drop approximations. The effects of including light clusters in nuclear matter and the densities at which the transitions between pasta configurations and to uniform matter occur are also investigated. The free energy, pressure, entropy, and chemical potentials in the range of particle number densities and temperatures expected to cover the pasta region are calculated. Finally, a comparison with a finite-temperature Skyrme-Hartree-Fock calculation is drawn.

  1. Analysis Of Phase Transitions In Quasi-Two-Dimensional Dusty Systems In RF-Discharge Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Adamovich, X. G.; Vaulina, O. S.; Khrustalev, Yu. V.; Nekhaevsky, Yu. Yu.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.

    2008-09-07

    In this work, we investigate the phase transitions in quasi-two-dimensional systems of dusty plasma in RF discharge. The quasi-2D systems are considered, where the areas with different phase states (dusty liquid and dusty crystal) coexist. The parameters of these areas of dusty subsystem are estimated, the obtained results are analysed and compared with theoretical predictions.

  2. Manipulating topological phase transition by strain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junwei; Xu, Yong; Wu, Jian; Gu, Bing-Lin; Zhang, S B; Duan, Wenhui

    2014-02-01

    First-principles calculations show that strain-induced topological phase transition is a universal phenomenon in those narrow-gap semiconductors for which the valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band minimum (CBM) have different parities. The transition originates from the opposite responses of the VBM and CBM, whose magnitudes depend critically on the direction of the applied strain. Our work suggests that strain can play a unique role in tuning the electronic properties of topological insulators for device applications, as well as in the achievement of new topological insulators. PMID:24508956

  3. Phase transitions in Pareto optimal complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seoane, Luís F.; Solé, Ricard

    2015-09-01

    The organization of interactions in complex systems can be described by networks connecting different units. These graphs are useful representations of the local and global complexity of the underlying systems. The origin of their topological structure can be diverse, resulting from different mechanisms including multiplicative processes and optimization. In spatial networks or in graphs where cost constraints are at work, as it occurs in a plethora of situations from power grids to the wiring of neurons in the brain, optimization plays an important part in shaping their organization. In this paper we study network designs resulting from a Pareto optimization process, where different simultaneous constraints are the targets of selection. We analyze three variations on a problem, finding phase transitions of different kinds. Distinct phases are associated with different arrangements of the connections, but the need of drastic topological changes does not determine the presence or the nature of the phase transitions encountered. Instead, the functions under optimization do play a determinant role. This reinforces the view that phase transitions do not arise from intrinsic properties of a system alone, but from the interplay of that system with its external constraints.

  4. Chiral smectic transition phases appearing near the electric-field-induced phase transition observed by resonant microbeam x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Atsuo; Nishiyama, Isa; Takanishi, Yoichi

    2014-03-01

    The electric-field-induced phase transition of a chiral liquid crystal containing Br revealed a transition phase between the three-layer periodicity ferrielectric phase and the synclinic ferroelectric phase in the electric field versus temperature phase diagram. Resonant x-ray scattering from the transition phase showed a diffuse streak or spotty weak reflections, which were composed of strong m/3-order (where m = 1 and 2) reflections and other weak peaks. The spotty reflections were found to be related to a 12-layer periodicity phase with a weak contribution from the 15-layer periodicity. An x-ray intensity analysis based on the Ising model suggested that the 12-layer periodicity phase was composed of two three-layer ferrielectric blocks and six synclinic layers. This model indicated that, in the transition phase, the three-layer ferrielectric molecular configuration gradually changed to the synclinic configuration. The diffuse streak appearing around m/3-order reflections near the field-induced transition from the four-layer periodicity phase to the synclinic ferroelectric phase is also discussed.

  5. Models of p- T diagrams for a ternary system with invariant equilibrium of three solid phases, liquid, and vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaldoyanidi, K. A.

    2013-03-01

    A version of a model of the p- T diagram for a ternary system in which three solid phases, liquid, and vapor are in invariant five-phase equilibrium is developed. The phase equilibria and phase transitions in the isobaric T- x- y diagram are analyzed, and isothermal and polythermal sections are presented.

  6. Multiple liquid-liquid critical points and density anomaly in core-softened potentials

    E-print Network

    Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

    REV IEW CO PY N O T FO R D ISTRIBU TIO N Multiple liquid-liquid critical points and density anomaly Abstract The relation between liquid-liquid phase transitions and waterlike density anomalies in core shown to present three liquid phases, two liquid-liquid phase transitions closely connected to two

  7. Gravitational Waves from a Dark Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaller, Pedro

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we show that a large class of models with a composite dark sector undergo a strong first order phase transition in the early Universe, which could lead to a detectable gravitational wave signal. We summarize the basic conditions for a strong first order phase transition for SU (N ) dark sectors with nf flavors, calculate the gravitational wave spectrum and show that, depending on the dark confinement scale, it can be detected at eLISA or in pulsar timing array experiments. The gravitational wave signal provides a unique test of the gravitational interactions of a dark sector, and we discuss the complementarity with conventional searches for new dark sectors. The discussion includes the twin Higgs and strongly interacting massive particle models as well as symmetric and asymmetric composite dark matter scenarios.

  8. Gravitational Waves from a Dark Phase Transition.

    PubMed

    Schwaller, Pedro

    2015-10-30

    In this work, we show that a large class of models with a composite dark sector undergo a strong first order phase transition in the early Universe, which could lead to a detectable gravitational wave signal. We summarize the basic conditions for a strong first order phase transition for SU(N) dark sectors with n_{f} flavors, calculate the gravitational wave spectrum and show that, depending on the dark confinement scale, it can be detected at eLISA or in pulsar timing array experiments. The gravitational wave signal provides a unique test of the gravitational interactions of a dark sector, and we discuss the complementarity with conventional searches for new dark sectors. The discussion includes the twin Higgs and strongly interacting massive particle models as well as symmetric and asymmetric composite dark matter scenarios. PMID:26565451

  9. QCD phase transitions from relativistic hadron models

    E-print Network

    A. Delfino; Jishnu Dey; Mira Dey; M. Malheiro

    1996-03-25

    The models of translationally invariant infinite nuclear matter in the relativistic mean field models are very interesting and simple, since the nucleon can connect only to a constant vector and scalar meson field. Can one connect these to the complicated phase transitions of QCD ? For an affirmative answer to this question, one must consider models where the coupling constants to the scalar and vector fields must depend on density in a non-linear way, since as such the models are not explicitly chirally invariant. Once this is ensured, indeed one can derive a quark condensate indirectly from the energy density of nuclear matter which goes to zero at large density and temperature. The change to zero condensate indicates a smooth phase transition.

  10. Phase transitions: An overview with a view

    SciTech Connect

    Gleiser, M.

    1997-10-01

    The dynamics of phase transitions plays a crucial role in the so- called interface between high energy particle physics and cosmology. Many of the interesting results generated during the last fifteen years or so rely on simplified assumptions concerning the complex mechanisms typical of nonequilibrium field theories. After reviewing well-known results concerning the dynamics of first and second order phase transitions, I argue that much is yet to be understood, in particular in situations where homogeneous nucleation theory does not apply. I present a method to deal with departures from homogeneous nucleation, and compare its efficacy with numerical simulations. Finally, I discuss the interesting problem of matching numerical simulations of stochastic field theories with continuum models.

  11. Evolution of structure during phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.E.; Wilcoxon, J.P.; Anderson, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    Nanostructured materials can be synthesized by utilizing the domain growth that accompanies first-order phase separation. Structural control can be achieved by appropriately selecting the quench depth and the quench time, but in order to do this in a mindful fashion one must understand the kinetics of domain growth. The authors have completed detailed light scattering studies of the evolution of structure in both temperature- and field-quenched phase transitions in two and three dimensional systems. They have studied these systems in the quiescent state and in shear and have developed theoretical models that account for the experimental results.

  12. Polarons and Mobile Impurities Near a Quantum Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadkhoo, Shahriar

    This dissertation aims at improving the current understanding of the physics of mobile impurities in highly correlated liquid-like phases of matter. Impurity problems pose challenging and intricate questions in different realms of many-body physics. For instance, the problem of ''solvation'' of charged solutes in polar solvents, has been the subject of longstanding debates among chemical physicists. The significant role of quantum fluctuations of the solvent, as well as the break down of linear response theory, render the ordinary treatments intractable. Inspired by this complicated problem, we first attempt to understand the role of non-specific quantum fluctuations in the solvation process. To this end, we calculate the dynamic structure factor of a model polar liquid, using the classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. We verify the failure of linear response approximation in the vicinity of a hydrated electron, by comparing the outcomes of MD simulations with the predictions of linear response theory. This nonlinear behavior is associated with the pronounced peaks of the structure factor, which reflect the strong fluctuations of the local modes. A cavity picture is constructed based on heuristic arguments, which suggests that the electron, along with the surrounding polarization cloud, behave like a frozen sphere, for which the linear response theory is broken inside and valid outside. The inverse radius of the spherical region serves as a UV momentum cutoff for the linear response approximation to be applicable. The problem of mobile impurities in polar liquids can be also addressed in the framework of the ''polaron'' problem. Polaron is a quasiparticle that typically acquires an extended state at weak couplings, and crossovers to a self-trapped state at strong couplings. Using the analytical fits to the numerically obtained charge-charge structure factor, a phenomenological approach is proposed within the Leggett's influence functional formalism, which derives the effective Euclidean action from the classical equation of motion. We calculate the effective mass of the polaron in the model polar liquid at zero and finite temperatures. The self-trapping transition of this polaron turns out to be discontinuous in certain regions of the phase diagram. In order to systematically investigate the role of quantum fluctuations on the polaron properties, we adopt a quantum field theory which supports nearly-critical local modes: the quantum Landau-Brazovskii (QLB) model, which exhibits fluctuation-induced first order transition (weak crystallization). In the vicinity of the phase transition, the quantum fluctuations are strongly correlated; one can in principle tune the strength of these fluctuations, by adjusting the parameters close to or away from the transition point. Furthermore, sufficiently close to the transition, the theory accommodates "soliton'' solutions, signaling the nonlinear response of the system. Therefore, the model seems to be a promising candidate for studying the effects of strong quantum fluctuations and also failure of linear response theory, in the polaron problem. We observe that at zero temperature, and away from the Brazovskii transition where the linear response approximation is valid, the localization transition of the polaron is discontinuous. Upon enhancing fluctuations---of either thermal or quantum nature---the gap of the effective mass closes at distinct second-order critical points. Sufficiently close to the Brazovskii transition where the nonlinear contributions of the field are significantly large, a new state appears in addition to extended and self-trapped polarons: an impurity-induced soliton. We interpret this as the break-down of linear response, reminiscent of what we observe in a polar liquid. Quantum LB model has been proposed to be realizable in ultracold Bose gases in cavities. We thus discuss the experimental feasibility, and propose a setup which is believed to exhibit the aforementioned polaronic and solitonic states. We eventually generalize the polaron formalism t

  13. New methods to measure phase transition strength

    E-print Network

    Wolfhard Janke; Des Johnston; Ralph Kenna

    2002-08-08

    A recently developed technique to determine the order and strength of phase transitions by extracting the density of partition function zeroes (a continuous function) from finite-size systems (a discrete data set) is generalized to systems for which (i) some or all of the zeroes occur in degenerate sets and/or (ii) they are not confined to a singular line in the complex plane. The technique is demonstrated by application to the case of free Wilson fermions.

  14. Phase transitions and elementary-particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    1981-01-01

    The reason physicists have recently taken an intense interest in the statistical mechanics of certain lattice models is reviewed. Phase transitions in these systems are of direct relevance to whether the gauge theory of interacting quarks and gluons can prevent the quark as appearing as a free isolated object. Monte Carlo simulation techniques have given the strongest evidence for the confinement phenomenon and are beginning to make numerical predictions in strong interaction physics.

  15. Topological phase transitions in frustrated magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southern, B. W.; Peles, A.

    2006-06-01

    The role of topological excitations in frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnets between two and three spatial dimensions is considered. In particular, the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a stacked triangular geometry with a finite number of layers is studied using Monte Carlo methods. A phase transition that is purely topological in nature occurs at a finite temperature for all film thicknesses. The results indicate that topological excitations are important for a complete understanding of the critical properties of the model between two and three dimensions.

  16. Matrix Product States and Quantum Phase Transitions

    E-print Network

    Heshami, K

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a new approach based on matrix product representations of ground states to study Quantum Phase Transitions (QPT). As confirmation of the power of our approach we have analytically analyzed the XXZ spin-one chain with uniaxial single-ion-type anisotropy and our results compare favourably with previous numerical studies. In addition, our description lets to know which part of parameters space of the Hamiltonian is most likely to be exactly solvable.

  17. Matrix Product States and Quantum Phase Transitions

    E-print Network

    K. Heshami; S. Raeisi

    2009-09-16

    We have developed a new approach based on matrix product representations of ground states to study Quantum Phase Transitions (QPT). As confirmation of the power of our approach we have analytically analyzed the XXZ spin-one chain with uniaxial single-ion-type anisotropy and our results compare favourably with previous numerical studies. In addition, our description lets to know which part of parameters space of the Hamiltonian is most likely to be exactly solvable.

  18. Liquid crystalline growth within a phase-field crystal model

    E-print Network

    Sai Tang; Simon Praetorius; Rainer Backofen; Axel Voigt; Yan-Mei Yu; Jincheng Wang

    2015-01-09

    By using a phase-field crystal (PFC) model, the liquid-crystal growth of the plastic triangular phase is simulated with emphasis on crystal shape and topological defect formation. The equilibrium shape of a plastic triangular crystal (PTC) grown from a isotropic phase is compared with that grown from a columnar/smectic A (CSA) phase. While the shape of a PTC nucleus in the isotropic phase is almost identical to that of a classical PFC model, the shape of a PTC nucleus in CSA is affected by the orientation of stripes in the CSA phase, and irregular hexagonal, elliptical, octagonal, and rectangular shapes are obtained. Concerning the dynamics of the growth process we analyse the topological structure of the nematic-order, which starts from nucleation of $+\\frac{1}{2}$ and $-\\frac{1}{2}$ disclination pairs at the PTC growth front and evolves into hexagonal cells consisting of $+1$ vortices surrounded by six satellite $-\\frac{1}{2}$ disclinations. It is found that the orientational and the positional order do not evolve simultaneously, the orientational order evolves behind the positional order, leading to a large transition zone, which can span over several lattice spacings.

  19. Phase field modeling of liquid metal embrittlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spatschek, Robert; Wang, Nan; Karma, Alain

    2008-03-01

    Liquid metal embrittlement (LME) is a phenomenon whereby a liquid metal in contact with another, higher-melting-point polycrystalline metal, rapidly penetrates from the surface along grain boundaries. This phenomenon is known to be greatly accelerated by the application of tensile stress, resulting in the rapid propagation of intergranular cracks in normally ductile materials. Although this phenomenon has been known for a long time, it still lacks a convincing physical explanation. In particular, the relationship of LME to conventional fracture mechanics remains unclear. We investigate LME using a phenomenological three-order-parameter phase field model that describes both the short scale physics of crystal decohesion and macroscopic linear elasticity. The model reproduces expected macroscopic properties for well separated crack surfaces and additionally introduces short scale modifications for liquid layer thicknesses in the nanometric range, which depend on the interfacial and grain boundary energy as well as elastic effects. The results shed light on the relative importance of capillary phenomena and stress in the kinetics of LME.

  20. Phase Transition Enhanced Thermoelectrics From the Resnick Sustainability Institute

    E-print Network

    RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Phase Transition Enhanced Thermoelectrics From the Resnick Sustainability SUSTAINABILITY INSTITUTE AT THE CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Phase Transition Enhanced Thermoelectrics mitigate this problem, without interfering with the normal operation of a car's engine. Thermoelectrics

  1. Liquid-liquid phase separation in solutions of ionic liquids: phase diagrams, corresponding state analysis and comparison with simulations of the primitive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröer, W.; Vale, V. R.

    2009-10-01

    Phase diagrams of ionic solutions of the ionic liquid C18mim+NTF2- (1-n-octadecyl-3-methyl imidazolium bistrifluormethylsulfonylimide) in decalin, cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane are reported and compared with that of solutions of other imidazolium ionic liquids with the anions NTF2-, Cl- and BF4- in arenes, CCl4, alcohols and water. The phase diagrams are analysed presuming Ising criticality and taking into account the asymmetry of the phase diagrams. The resulting parameters are compared with simulation results for equal-sized charged hard spheres in a dielectric continuum, the restricted primitive model (RPM) and the primitive model (PM) that allows for ions of different size. In the RPM temperature scale the critical temperatures vary almost linearly with the dielectric permittivity of the solvent. The RPM critical temperatures of the solutions in non-polar solvents are very similar, somewhat below the RPM value. Correlations with the boiling temperatures of the solvents and a dependence on the length of the side chain of the imidazolium cations show that dispersion interactions modify the phase transition, which is mainly determined by Coulomb forces. Critical concentrations, widths of the phase diagrams and the slopes of the diameter are different for the solutions in protic and aprotic solvents. The phase diagrams of the solutions in alcohols and water get a lower critical solution point when represented in RPM variables.

  2. Growth Conditions and Cell Cycle Phase Modulate Phase Transition Temperatures in RBL-2H3 Derived Plasma Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Erin M.; Díaz-Vázquez, Gladys; Veatch, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    Giant plasma membrane vesicle (GPMV) isolated from a flask of RBL-2H3 cells appear uniform at physiological temperatures and contain coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases at low temperatures. While a single GPMV transitions between these two states at a well-defined temperature, there is significant vesicle-to-vesicle heterogeneity in a single preparation of cells, and average transition temperatures can vary significantly between preparations. In this study, we explore how GPMV transition temperatures depend on growth conditions, and find that average transition temperatures are negatively correlated with average cell density over 15°C in transition temperature and nearly three orders of magnitude in average surface density. In addition, average transition temperatures are reduced by close to 10°C when GPMVs are isolated from cells starved of serum overnight, and elevated transition temperatures are restored when serum-starved cells are incubated in serum-containing media for 12h. We also investigated variation in transition temperature of GPMVs isolated from cells synchronized at the G1/S border through a double Thymidine block and find that average transition temperatures are systematically higher in GPMVs produced from G1 or M phase cells than in GPMVs prepared from S or G1 phase cells. Reduced miscibility transition temperatures are also observed in GPMVs prepared from cells treated with TRAIL to induce apoptosis or sphingomyelinase, and in some cases a gel phase is observed at temperatures above the miscibility transition in these vesicles. We conclude that at least some variability in GPMV transition temperature arises from variation in the local density of cells and asynchrony of the cell cycle. It is hypothesized that GPMV transition temperatures are a proxy for the magnitude of lipid-mediated membrane heterogeneity in intact cell plasma membranes at growth temperatures. If so, these results suggest that cells tune their plasma membrane composition in order to control the magnitude of membrane heterogeneity in response to different growth conditions. PMID:26368288

  3. Phase liquid turbulence as novel quantum approach

    E-print Network

    Sergey Kamenshchikov

    2015-03-03

    In this paper we consider a nonlinear stochastic approach to the description of quantum systems. It is shown that a possibility to derive quantum properties - spectrum quantization, zero point positive energy and uncertainty relations, exists in frame of Zaslavsky phase liquid. This liquid is considered as a projection of continuous turbulent medium into a Hilbert phase space.It has isotropic minimal diffusion defined by Planck constant.Areas of probability condensation may produce clustering centers: quasi stable particles-attractors which preserve boundaries and scale-free fractal transport properties.The stability of particles has been shown in frame of the first order perturbation theory. Quantum peculiarities of considered systems have been strictly derived from markovian Fokker-Planck equation. It turned out that the positive zero point energy has volumetric properties and grows for higher time resolutions. We have shown that a quasi stable attractor may be applied as a satisfactory model of an elementary quantum system. The conditions of attractor stability are defined on the basis of Nonlinear Prigogine Theorem. Finally the integrity of classical and quantum approaches is recovered: existence of particles is derived in terms of Zaslavsky quantum fluid.

  4. Hysteresis and Kinetic Effects During Liquid-Solid Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Streitz, F H; Chau, R

    2009-02-17

    We address the fundamental issue of phase transition kinetics in dynamically compressed materials. Focusing on solid bismuth (Bi) as a prototype material, we used a variety of time-resolved experiments including electrical conductivity and velocimetry to study the phase transition kinetics of the solid-solid phase transitions. Simple single shock experiments performed on several low-lying high pressure phases of Bi, revealed surprisingly complex behavior and slow dynamics. Strong hysteresis effects were observed in the transition behavior in experiments where the compressed Bi was allowed to release back across a phase line. These experiments represent the first reported simultaneous use of resistivity and velocimetry in a shock compression experiment, and the first observation of hysteresis effects occurring during dynamic compression and release.

  5. Liquid-liquid phase separation in aerosol particles: Imaging at the Nanometer Scale

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Rachel; Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Lundt, Nils; You, Yuan; Bertram, Allan K.; Leone, Stephen R.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.

    2015-04-21

    Atmospheric aerosols can undergo phase transitions including liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) while responding to changes in the ambient relative humidity (RH). Here, we report results of chemical imaging experiments using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to investigate the LLPS of micron sized particles undergoing a full hydration-dehydration cycle. Internally mixed particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS) and either: limonene secondary organic carbon (LSOC), a, 4-dihydroxy-3-methoxybenzeneaceticacid (HMMA), or polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) were studied. Events of LLPS with apparent core-shell particle morphology were observed for all samples with both techniques. Chemical imaging with STXM showed that both LSOC/AS and HMMA/AS particles were never homogeneously mixed for all measured RH’s above the deliquescence point and that the majority of the organic component was located in the shell. The shell composition was estimated as 65:35 organic: inorganic in LSOC/AS and as 50:50 organic: inorganic for HMMA/AS. PEG-400/AS particles showed fully homogeneous mixtures at high RH and phase separated below 89-92% RH with an estimated 50:50% organic to inorganic mix in the shell. These two chemical imaging techniques are well suited for in-situ analysis of the hygroscopic behavior, phase separation, and surface composition of collected ambient aerosol particles.

  6. Nanoporous quantum filters: inside vapor-liquid transitions of quantum fluids in nanopores.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Gauden, Piotr A; Terzyk, Artur P

    2010-04-22

    We study the impact of quantum fluctuations on the phase diagram of a realistic quantum liquid, namely, neon confined in atomistic carbon nanopores at 35 K. Due to the action of attractive solid-fluid potential, both classical and quantum neon vapor condense at lower pressures in carbonaceous nanopores than bulk neon. However, we found that continuous van der Waals s-shaped isotherms, which include stable, metastable, and unstable states computed from classical simulations, are shifted to lower values of pressures in comparison to those from path integral calculations. This systematic underestimation of equilibrium vapor-liquid transition pressures as well as spinodals in classical simulations is caused by neglecting the zero-point motion of adsorbed neon at 35 K. Delocalized neon atoms excluded more volume in the adsorbed phase than the classical neon particles. Thus, adsorbed and compressed liquidlike phases of quantum neon in the studied nanopores are characterized by lower densities than their classical counterparts. Interestingly, equilibrium vapor-liquid transition pressures of confined neon at 35 K computed from classical simulations are shifted to lower values in comparison to those computed from quantum simulations by approximately 30% for different pore sizes. Simulations of classical neon at higher effective temperatures reveal that liquidlike phases of confined quantum neon at 35 K look like classical ones at higher effective temperature of 37 K. Our calculations clearly show that quantum fluctuations cannot be neglected in calculations of phase transitions of quantum fluids at cryogenic temperatures. PMID:20345103

  7. Quantum Liquid Crystal Phases in Strongly Correlated Fermionic Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the investigation of the quantum liquid crystal phases in strongly correlated electronic systems. Such phases are characterized by their partially broken spatial symmetries and are observed in various strongly correlated systems as being summarized in Chapter 1. Although quantum liquid crystal phases often involve…

  8. Simple theory of transitions between smectic, nematic, and isotropic phases.

    PubMed

    Emelyanenko, A V; Khokhlov, A R

    2015-05-28

    The transitions between smectic, nematic, and isotropic phases are investigated in the framework of a unified molecular-statistical approach. The new translational order parameter is different from the one introduced in K. Kobayashi [Phys. Lett. A 31, 125 (1970)] and W. L. McMillan [Phys. Rev. A 4, 1238 (1971)]. The variance of the square sine of intermolecular shift angle along the director is introduced to take self-consistently into account the most probable location of the molecules with respect to each other, which is unique for every liquid crystal (LC) material and is mainly responsible for the order parameters and phase sequences. The mean molecular field was treated in terms of only two parameters specific to any intermolecular potential of elongated molecules: (1) its global minimum position with respect to the shift of two interacting molecules along the director and (2) its inhomogeneity/anisotropy ratio. A simple molecular model is also introduced, where the global minimum position is determined by the linking groups elongation ?/d, while the inhomogeneity/anisotropy ratio G?/G? is determined by the ratio of electrostatic and dispersion contributions. All possible phase sequences, including abrupt/continuous transformation between the smectic and nematic states and the direct smectic-isotropic phase transition, are predicted. The theoretical prediction is in a good agreement with experimental data for some simple materials correlating with our molecular model, but it is expected to be valid for any LC material. PMID:26026463

  9. Direct observation of an abrupt insulator-to-metal transition in dense liquid deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudson, Marcus; Desjarlais, Michael; Becker, Andeas; Lemke, Raymond; Cochrane, Kyle; Savage, Mark; Bliss, David; Mattsson, Thomas; Redmer, Ronald

    2015-06-01

    Recently a so-called shock-ramp platform has been developed on the Sandia Z Accelerator to access off-Hugoniot states in liquids. The accelerator delivers a two-step current pulse; the first accelerates the electrode to a reasonably constant velocity, which upon impact with the sample cell creates a well-defined shock, the subsequent current rise produces ramp compression from the initially shocked state. This technique generates relatively cool (~1-2 kK), high pressure (>300 GPa), high compression (~10-15 fold compression) states, allowing experimental access to the region of phase space where hydrogen is predicted to undergo a first-order phase transition from an insulating molecular-like liquid to a conducting atomic-like liquid. In this talk we will discuss the experimental platform, survey the various theoretical predictions for the liquid-liquid, insulator-to-metal transition in hydrogen, and present the results of experiments that clearly show an abrupt transition to a metallic state. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Phase transitions of nuclear matter beyond mean field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Tran Huu Phat; Nguyen Tuan Anh; Nguyen Van Long; Le Viet Hoa

    2007-10-15

    The Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action approach is applied to study the phase transition of nuclear matter modeled by the four-nucleon interaction. It is shown that in the Hartree-Fock approximation (HFA) a first-order phase transition takes place at low temperature, whereas the phase transition is of second order at higher temperature.

  11. The Phase Transition of Dark Energy

    E-print Network

    Wei Wang; Yuanxing Gui; Ying Shao

    2006-12-05

    Considering that the universe is filled with the nonrelativistic matter and dark energy and each component is respectively satisfied with its conservation condition in the absence of their interaction, we give the change rate of the fractional density and the density of dark energy from the conservation condition. It is clear that the fractional density of dark energy will monotonously increase and gradually become the dominating contribution to the universe as the redshift becomes low. Combining the evolutional trend of the state equation of dark energy and the change rate of the density of dark energy we find that the density of dark energy will decrease up to a minimum and whereafter it will increase again as the redshift becomes low. This can be regarded as the phase transition of dark energy from the quintessence phase to the phantom phase.

  12. Capillary and winding transitions in a confined cholesteric liquid crystal

    E-print Network

    Daniel de las Heras; Enrique Velasco; Yuri Martínez-Ratón

    2015-07-23

    We consider a Lebwohl-Lasher model of chiral particles confined in a planar cell (slit pore) with different boundary conditions, and solve it using mean-field theory. The phase behaviour of the system with respect to temperature and pore width is studied. Two phenomena are observed: (i) an isotropic-cholesteric transition which exhibits an oscillatory structure with respect to pore width, and (ii) an infinite set of winding transitions caused by commensuration effects between cholesteric pitch and pore width. The latter transitions have been predicted and analysed by other authors for cholesterics confined in a fixed pore and subject to an external field promoting the uniaxial nematic phase; here we induce winding transitions solely from geometry by changing the pore width at zero external field (a setup recently explored in Atomic-Force Microscopy experiments). In contrast with previous studies, we obtain the phase diagrams in the temperature vs pore width plane, including the isotropic-cholesteric transition, the winding transitions and their complex relationship. In particular, the structure of winding transitions terminates at the capillary isotropic-cholesteric transition via triple points where the confined isotropic phase coexists with two cholesterics with different helix indices. For symmetric and asymmetric monostable plate anchorings the phase diagram are qualitatively similar.

  13. On liquid phases in cometary nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Richard; Faillace, George A.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we review the relevant literature and investigate conditions likely to lead to melting of H2O ice, methanol (CH3OH) ice, ethane (C2H6) ice and other volatile ices in cometary nuclei. On the basis of a heat balance model which takes account of volatiles loss, we predict the formation of occasional aqueous and hydrocarbon liquid phases in subsurface regions at heliocentric distances, rh of 1-3 AU, and 5-12 AU, respectively. Low triple-point temperatures and low vapour pressures of C2H6, C3H8, and some higher-order alkanes and alkenes, favour liquid phase formation in cometary bodies at high rh. Microporosity and the formation of a stabilization crust occluding the escape of volatiles facilitate liquid-phase formation. Characteristics of the near-surface which favour subsurface melting include; low effective surface emissivity (at low rh), high amorphous carbon content, average pore sizes of ˜10 ?m or less, presence of solutes (e.g. CH3OH), mixtures of C2-C6 hydrocarbons (for melting at high rh), diurnal thermal cycling, and slow rotation rate. Applying the principles of soil mechanics, capillary forces are shown to initiate pre-melting phenomena and subsequent melting, which is expected to impart considerable strength of ˜104 Pa in partially saturated layers, reducing porosity and permeability, enhancing thermal conductivity and heat transfer. Diurnal thermal cycling is expected to have a marked effect on the composition and distribution of H2O ice in the near-surface leading to frost heave-type phenomena even where little if any true melting occurs. Where melting does take place, capillary suction in the wetted zone has the potential to enhance heat transfer via capillary wetting in a low-gravity environment, and to modify surface topography creating relatively smooth flat-bottomed features, which have a tendency to be located within small depressions. An important aspect of the "wetted layer" model is the prediction that diurnal melt-freeze cycles alter the mixing ratio vs. depth of solutes present, or of other miscible components, largely through a process of fractional crystallization, but also potentially involving frost heave. Wetted layers are potentially durable and can involve significant mass transport of volatile materials in the near-surface, increasing in extent over many rotations of the nucleus prior to and just after perihelion passage, and causing stratification and trapping of the lowest-melting mixtures at depths of several metres. A possible mechanism for cometary outbursts is proposed involving a heat pulse reaching the liquid phase in the deepest wetted zone, leading to supersaturation and triggering the sudden release under pressure of dissolved gases, in particular CO2, CO, CH4 or N2, contained beneath a consolidated near-surface layer. This study indicates that liquid water can persist for long periods of time in the near-surface of some intermediate-sized bodies (102-103 km radius) within protoplanetary discs.

  14. Epigenetics and locust life phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Ulrich R; Van Hiel, Matthias B; Depuydt, Geert; Boerjan, Bart; De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane

    2015-01-01

    Insects are one of the most successful classes on Earth, reflected in an enormous species richness and diversity. Arguably, this success is partly due to the high degree to which polyphenism, where one genotype gives rise to more than one phenotype, is exploited by many of its species. In social insects, for instance, larval diet influences the development into distinct castes; and locust polyphenism has tricked researchers for years into believing that the drastically different solitarious and gregarious phases might be different species. Solitarious locusts behave much as common grasshoppers. However, they are notorious for forming vast, devastating swarms upon crowding. These gregarious animals are shorter lived, less fecund and transmit their phase characteristics to their offspring. The behavioural gregarisation occurs within hours, yet the full display of gregarious characters takes several generations, as does the reversal to the solitarious phase. Hormones, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters influence some of the phase traits; however, none of the suggested mechanisms can account for all the observed differences, notably imprinting effects on longevity and fecundity. This is why, more recently, epigenetics has caught the interest of the polyphenism field. Accumulating evidence points towards a role for epigenetic regulation in locust phase polyphenism. This is corroborated in the economically important locust species Locusta migratoria and Schistocerca gregaria. Here, we review the key elements involved in phase transition in locusts and possible epigenetic regulation. We discuss the relative role of DNA methylation, histone modification and small RNA molecules, and suggest future research directions. PMID:25568455

  15. Study of cerium phase transitions in shock wave experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhernokletov, M. V. Kovalev, A. E.; Komissarov, V. V.; Novikov, M. G.; Zocher, M. A. Cherne, F. J.

    2011-02-15

    Cerium has a complex phase diagram that is explained by the presence of structural phase transitions. Experiments to measure the sound velocities in cerium by two methods were carried out to determine the onset of cerium melting on the Hugoniot. In the pressure range 4-37 GPa, the sound velocity in cerium samples was measured by the counter release method using manganin-based piezoresistive gauges. In the pressure range 35-140 GPa, the sound velocity in cerium was measured by the overtaking release method using carbogal and tetrachloromethane indicator liquids. The samples were loaded with plane shock wave generators using powerful explosive charges. The onset of cerium melting on the Hugoniot at a pressure of about 13 GPa has been ascertained from the measured elastic longitudinal and bulk sound velocities.

  16. Phase transitions and size scaling of membrane-less organelles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The coordinated growth of cells and their organelles is a fundamental and poorly understood problem, with implications for processes ranging from embryonic development to oncogenesis. Recent experiments have shed light on the cell size–dependent assembly of membrane-less cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic structures, including ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules and other intracellular bodies. Many of these structures behave as condensed liquid-like phases of the cytoplasm/nucleoplasm. The phase transitions that appear to govern their assembly exhibit an intrinsic dependence on cell size, and may explain the size scaling reported for a number of structures. This size scaling could, in turn, play a role in cell growth and size control. PMID:24368804

  17. The puzzling first-order phase transition in water-glycerol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Popov, Ivan; Greenbaum Gutina, Anna; Sokolov, Alexei P; Feldman, Yuri

    2015-07-21

    Over the last decade, discussions on a possible liquid-liquid transition (LLT) have strongly intensified. The LLT proposed by several authors focused mostly on explaining the anomalous properties of water in a deeply supercooled state. However, there have been no direct experimental observations yet of LLT in bulk water in the so-called 'no man's land', where water exists only in the crystalline states. Recently, a novel experimental strategy to detect LLT in water has been employed using water-glycerol (W-G) mixtures, because glycerol can generate a strong hindrance for water crystallization. As a result, the observed first-order phase transition at a concentration of glycerol around cg? 20 mol% was ascribed to the LLT. Here we show unambiguously that the first order phase transition in W-G mixtures is caused by the ice formation. We provide additional dielectric measurements, applying specific annealing temperature protocols in order to reinforce this conclusion. We also provide an explanation, why such a phase transition occurs only in the narrow glycerol concentration range. These results clearly demonstrate the danger of analysis of phase-separating liquids to gain better insights into water dynamics. These liquids have complex phase behavior that is affected by temperature, phase stability and segregation, viscosity and nucleation, and finally by crystallization, that might lead to significant misinterpretations. PMID:26100246

  18. Heat capacity of liquids: An approach from the solid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trachenko, Kostya

    2008-09-01

    We calculate the energy and heat capacity of a liquid on the basis of its elastic properties and vibrational states. The experimental decrease of liquid heat capacity with temperature is attributed to the increasing loss of two transverse modes with frequency ?<1/? , where ? is liquid relaxation time. In a simple model, liquid heat capacity is related to viscosity and is compared with the experimental data of mercury. We also calculate the vibrational energy of a quantum liquid, and show that transverse phonons cannot be excited in the low-temperature limit. Finally, we discuss the implications of the proposed approach to liquids for the problem of glass transition.

  19. Phase Transitions of MgO Along the Hugoniot (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, S.; Shulenburger, L.; Lemke, R. W.; Cochrane, K. R.; Mattsson, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of terrestrial planets and planetary structure has become of great interest because of recent exoplanet discoveries of super earths. MgO is a major constituent of Earth's mantle, the rocky cores of gas giants such as Jupiter, and likely constitutes the interiors of many exoplanets. The high pressure - high temperature behavior of MgO directly affects equation of state models for planetary structure and formation. In this work, we examine single crystal MgO under shock compression utilizing experimental and density functional theory (DFT) methods to determine phase transformations along the Hugoniot. We perform plate impact experiments using Sandia's Z - facility on MgO up to 11.6 Mbar. The plate impact experiments generate highly accurate Hugoniot state data. The experimental results show the B1 - B2 solid - solid phase transition occurs near 4 Mbar on the Hugoniot. The solid - liquid transition is determined to be near 7 Mbar with a large region of B2-liquid coexistence. Using DFT methods, we also determine melt along the B1 and B2 solid phase boundaries as well as along the Hugoniot. The combined experimental and DFT results have determined the phase boundaries along the Hugoniot, which can be implemented into new planetary and EOS models. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Securities Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. An improved model for the transit entropy of monatomic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Duane C; Chisolm, Eric D; Bock, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    In the original formulation of V-T theory for monatomic liquid dynamics, the transit contribution to entropy was taken to be a universal constant, calibrated to the constant-volume entropy of melting. This model suffers two deficiencies: (a) it does not account for experimental entropy differences of {+-}2% among elemental liquids, and (b) it implies a value of zero for the transit contribution to internal energy. The purpose of this paper is to correct these deficiencies. To this end, the V-T equation for entropy is fitted to an overall accuracy of {+-}0.1% to the available experimental high temperature entropy data for elemental liquids. The theory contains two nuclear motion contributions: (a) the dominant vibrational contribution S{sub vib}(T/{theta}{sub 0}), where T is temperature and {theta}{sub 0} is the vibrational characteristic temperature, and (b) the transit contribution S{sub tr}(T/{theta}{sub tr}), where {theta}{sub tr} is a scaling temperature for each liquid. The appearance of a common functional form of S{sub tr} for all the liquids studied is a property of the experimental data, when analyzed via the V-T formula. The resulting S{sub tr} implies the correct transit contribution to internal energy. The theoretical entropy of melting is derived, in a single formula applying to normal and anomalous melting alike. An ab initio calculation of {theta}{sub 0}, based on density functional theory, is reported for liquid Na and Cu. Comparison of these calculations with the above analysis of experimental entropy data provides verification of V-T theory. In view of the present results, techniques currently being applied in ab initio simulations of liquid properties can be employed to advantage in the further testing and development of V-T theory.

  1. Dynamical phase transitions in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotter, Ingrid

    2012-02-01

    The nucleus is described as an open many-body quantum system with a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator the eigenvalues of which are complex, in general. The eigenvalues may cross in the complex plane (exceptional points), the phases of the eigenfunctions are not rigid in approaching the crossing points and the widths bifurcate. By varying only one parameter, the eigenvalue trajectories usually avoid crossing and width bifurcation occurs at the critical value of avoided crossing. An analog spectroscopic redistribution takes place for discrete states below the particle decay threshold. By this means, a dynamical phase transition occurs in the many-level system starting at a critical value of the level density. Hence the properties of the low-lying nuclear states (described well by the shell model) and those of highly excited nuclear states (described by random ensembles) differ fundamentally from one another. The statement of Niels Bohr on the collective features of compound nucleus states at high level density is therefore not in contradiction to the shell-model description of nuclear (and atomic) states at low level density. Dynamical phase transitions are observed experimentally in different quantum mechanical systems by varying one or two parameters.

  2. Topological Phase Transition without Gap Closing

    PubMed Central

    Ezawa, Motohiko; Tanaka, Yukio; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Topological phase transition is accompanied with a change of topological numbers. According to the bulk-edge correspondence, the gap closing and the breakdown of the adiabaticity are necessary at the phase transition point to make the topological number ill-defined. However, the gap closing is not always needed. In this paper, we show that two topological distinct phases can be continuously connected without gap closing, provided the symmetry of the system changes during the process. Here we propose the generic principles how this is possible by demonstrating various examples such as 1D polyacetylene with the charge-density-wave order, 2D silicene with the antiferromagnetic order, 2D silicene or quantum well made of HgTe with superconducting proximity effects and 3D superconductor Cu doped Bi2Se3. It is argued that such an unusual phenomenon can occur when we detour around the gap closing point provided the connection of the topological numbers is lost along the detour path. PMID:24071900

  3. Stochastic resonance at nonequilibrium phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skokov, V. N.; Koverda, V. P.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Reshetnikov, A. V.

    2015-07-01

    Thermal pulsations in a transition from a nucleate to a film regime of water boiling on a wire heater with a periodic Joule heat release have been studied experimentally. At frequencies of the periodic action smaller than 0.1 Hz the intermittency of the nucleate and film boiling regimes was observed. In this case the amplitude of thermal pulsations increased. The experiments with an additional noise source were carried out. With an increase in the intensity of the noise the power of the output periodic mode increased and reaching the maximum began to decrease. The results are interpreted as stochastic resonance when the periodic component of pulsations increases in the presence of noise. The results show that in a complex system with nonequilibrium phase transitions there can occur both the extreme fluctuations with 1 / f power spectrum and stochastic resonance under external periodic action.

  4. Surfactant mediated liquid phase exfoliation of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Rekha; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2015-10-01

    Commercialization of graphene based applications inevitably requires cost effective mass production. From the early days of research on graphene, direct liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) of graphite has been considered as the most promising strategy to produce high-quality mono or few-layer graphene sheets in solvent dispersion forms. Substantial success has been achieved thus far in the LPE of graphene employing numerous solvent systems and suitable surfactants. This invited review article principally showcase the recent research progress as well as shortcomings of surfactant assisted LPE of graphene. In particular, a comprehensive assessment of the quality and yield of the graphene sheets produced by different categories of the surfactants are summarized. Future direction of LPE methods is also proposed for the eventual success of commercial applications.

  5. Modeling the polydomain-monodomain transition of liquid crystal elastomers.

    PubMed

    Whitmer, Jonathan K; Roberts, Tyler F; Shekhar, Raj; Abbott, Nicholas L; de Pablo, Juan J

    2013-02-01

    We study the mechanism of the polydomain-monodomain transition in liquid crystalline elastomers at the molecular scale. A coarse-grained model is proposed in which mesogens are described as ellipsoidal particles. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to examine the transition from a polydomain state to a monodomain state in the presence of uniaxial strain. Our model demonstrates soft elasticity, similar to that exhibited by side-chain elastomers in the literature. By analyzing the growth dynamics of nematic domains during uniaxial extension, we provide direct evidence that at a molecular level the polydomain-monodomain transition proceeds through cluster rotation and domain growth. PMID:23496448

  6. Swarms, phase transitions, and collective intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Millonas, M.M. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-01-01

    A model of the collective behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed. The model is intended to be realistic, but turns out to fit naturally into the category of connectionist models, Like all connectionist models, its properties can be divided into the categories of structure, dynamics, and learning. The space in which the organisms move is discretized, and is modeled by a lattice of nodes, or cells. Each cell hag a specified volume, and is connected to other cells in the space in a definite way. Organisms move probabilistically between local cells in this space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding constitutes of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. The generic properties of such systems are analyzed, and a number of results are obtained. The model has various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters. It is hoped that the present mode; might serve as a paradigmatic example of a complex cooperative system in nature. In particular this model can be used to explore the relation of phase transitions to at least three important issues encountered in artificial life. Firstly, that of emergence as complex adaptive behavior. Secondly, as an exploration of second order phase transitions in biological systems. Lastly, to derive behavioral criteria for the evolution of collective behavior in social organisms. The model is then applied to the specific case of ants moving on a lattice. The local behavior of the ants is inspired by the actual behavior observed in the laboratory, and analytic results for the collective behavior are compared to the corresponding laboratory results. Monte carlo simulations are used as illustrations.

  7. Swarms, phase transitions, and collective intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Millonas, M.M.

    1992-12-31

    A model of the collective behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed. The model is intended to be realistic, but turns out to fit naturally into the category of connectionist models, Like all connectionist models, its properties can be divided into the categories of structure, dynamics, and learning. The space in which the organisms move is discretized, and is modeled by a lattice of nodes, or cells. Each cell hag a specified volume, and is connected to other cells in the space in a definite way. Organisms move probabilistically between local cells in this space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding constitutes of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. The generic properties of such systems are analyzed, and a number of results are obtained. The model has various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters. It is hoped that the present mode; might serve as a paradigmatic example of a complex cooperative system in nature. In particular this model can be used to explore the relation of phase transitions to at least three important issues encountered in artificial life. Firstly, that of emergence as complex adaptive behavior. Secondly, as an exploration of second order phase transitions in biological systems. Lastly, to derive behavioral criteria for the evolution of collective behavior in social organisms. The model is then applied to the specific case of ants moving on a lattice. The local behavior of the ants is inspired by the actual behavior observed in the laboratory, and analytic results for the collective behavior are compared to the corresponding laboratory results. Monte carlo simulations are used as illustrations.

  8. Preon model and cosmological quantum-hyperchromodynamic phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, H.; Hayashi, Y.

    1987-05-01

    From the cosmological viewpoint, we investigate whether or not recent preon models are compatible with the picture of the first-order phase transition from the preon phase to the composite quark-lepton phase. It is shown that the current models accepting the 't Hooft anomaly-matching condition together with quantum hyperchromodynamics are consistent with the cosmological first-order phase transition.

  9. Preon model and cosmological quantum-hyperchromodynamic phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, H.; Hayashi, Y.

    1987-05-15

    From the cosmological viewpoint, we investigate whether or not recent preon models are compatible with the picture of the first-order phase transition from the preon phase to the composite quark-lepton phase. It is shown that the current models accepting the 't Hooft anomaly-matching condition together with quantum hyperchromodynamics are consistent with the cosmological first-order phase transition.

  10. Solid-Hexatic-Liquid Transition at Two-Dimensional Melting of Plasma-Dust Monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Oleg; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Tun, Ye; Stacenko, Konstantin; Vaulina, Olga; Vasilieva, Elena; Lisin, Evgeny; Myasnikov, Maxim; Fortov, Vladimir

    2014-10-01

    According to the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) theory based on unbinding of topological defects (dislocations and disclinations), the 2D system supports a two-stage transition from a crystal phase to a liquid state of a system via the formation of the intermediate, hexatic phase. Here we present new results of an experimental study of the change of translational and orientational order and topological defects, the excess of entropy and the pair interactions at 2D melting of dust monolayer in rf discharge plasma. The experimental results have revealed the existence of hexatic phase as well as solid-to-hexatic phase and hexatic-to-liquid transitions. The pair correlation and bond-angular correlation functions, the number of topological defects, the pair potentials and the excess entropy are measured and analyzed. The bond-orientational correlation functions show a clear solid-to-hexatic-to-fluid transition, in perfect agreement with the BKT theory. The spatial distribution of pair interparticle interaction forces was recovered by the original method based on solving the inverse problem using Langevin equations. The measured phase-state points with the theoretical phase diagram of two-dimensional Yukawa system have been obtained. This work was partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Projects No. 13-02-01393 and 13-02-12256) and by the Program of the Presidium of RAS ``Matter under High Energy Densities.''

  11. Covalent-to-ionic transition in liquid zinc dichloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruberto, R.; Pastore, G.; Tosi, M. P.

    2009-03-01

    We report molecular-dynamics simulations of self-diffusion and structure in a pseudoclassical model of liquid and crystalline ZnCl 2 over a wide region of the pressure-temperature plane. The model parameters are adjusted to reproduce a liquid structure of corner-sharing ZnCl 4 tetrahedra at the standard freezing point and the measured diffusion coefficients as functions of temperature on the sfp isobar. We find that compression first weakens the intermediate-range order of the melt near freezing into a fourfold-coordinated crystal structure, and then drives at higher temperatures a novel liquid-liquid transition consisting of two broad steps: (i) a transition in which the Zn atoms start to leave their tetrahedral cages, followed by (ii) a structural transition from a covalent network of Cl atoms to a dissociated ionic liquid which then freezes into a sixfold-coordinated crystal. Good agreement is found with data from X-ray diffraction experiments under pressure.

  12. Electronic and Sturctural Transitions in Dense Liquid Sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Raty, J Y; Schwegler, E R; Bonev, S A

    2007-08-06

    At ambient conditions, the light alkali metals are free-electron like crystals with a highly symmetric structure. However, they were shown recently to exhibit unexpected complexity under pressure. It was predicted from theory and later confirmed by experiment that Li and Na undergo a sequence of symmetry breaking transitions driven by a Peierls mechanism. Most recently, measurements of the Na melting curve revealed an unprecedented and still unexplained drop in the melting temperature from 1000 K at 30 GPa to room temperature at 120 GPa. Here we report results from ab initio calculations that explain the unusual melting behavior in dense Na. We show that molten Na undergoes a series of pressure-induced structural and electronic transitions analogous to that observed in solid Na, but commencing at much lower pressure in the presence of disorder. With increasing pressure, liquid Na initially evolves by assuming a more compact local structure. However, a transition to a lower coordinated liquid takes place at a pressure around 65 GPa, accompanied by a threefold drop in electrical conductivity. A pseudogap opening at the Fermi level, an effect previously not observed in a liquid metal, drives this transition. Remarkably, the lower coordinated liquid emerges at rather elevated temperatures and above the stability region of a closed packed free electron-like metal. We predict that similar exotic behavior is possible in other materials as well.

  13. Thermalization Calorimetry: A simple method for investigating glass transition and crystallization of supercooled liquids

    E-print Network

    Bo Jakobsen; Alejandro Sanz; Kristine Niss; Niels Boye Olsen; Ib H. Pedersen; Torben Rasmussen; Tage Christensen; Jeppe C. Dyre

    2015-11-30

    We present a simple method for fast and cheap thermal analysis on supercooled glass-forming liquids. This "Thermalization Calorimetry" technique is based on monitoring the temperature and its rate of change during heating or cooling of a sample for which the thermal power input comes from heat conduction through an insulating material, i.e., is proportional to the temperature difference between sample and surroundings. The monitored signal reflects the sample's specific heat and is sensitive to exo- and endothermic processes. The technique is useful for studying supercooled liquids and their crystallization, e.g., for locating the glass transition and melting point(s), as well as for investigating the stability against crystallization and estimating the relative change in specific heat between the solid and liquid phases at the glass transition.

  14. Thermalization Calorimetry: A simple method for investigating glass transition and crystallization of supercooled liquids

    E-print Network

    Jakobsen, Bo; Niss, Kristine; Olsen, Niels Boye; Pedersen, Ib H; Rasmussen, Torben; Christensen, Tage; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple method for fast and cheap thermal analysis on supercooled glass-forming liquids. This "Thermalization Calorimetry" technique is based on monitoring the temperature and its rate of change during heating or cooling of a sample for which the thermal power input comes from heat conduction through an insulating material, i.e., is proportional to the temperature difference between sample and surroundings. The monitored signal reflects the sample's specific heat and is sensitive to exo- and endothermic processes. The technique is useful for studying supercooled liquids and their crystallization, e.g., for locating the glass transition and melting point(s), as well as for investigating the stability against crystallization and estimating the relative change in specific heat between the solid and liquid phases at the glass transition.

  15. 2D Melting: From Liquid-Hexatic Coexistence to Continuous Transitions

    E-print Network

    Sebastian C. Kapfer; Werner Krauth

    2015-01-07

    The phase diagram of two-dimensional continuous particle systems is studied using Event-Chain Monte Carlo. For soft disks with repulsive power-law interactions $\\propto r^{-n}$ with $n \\gtrsim 6$, the recently established hard-disk melting scenario ($n \\to \\infty$) holds: a first-order liquid-hexatic and a continuous hexatic-solid transition are identified. Close to $n = 6$, the coexisting liquid exhibits very long orientational correlations, and positional correlations in the hexatic are extremely short. For $n\\lesssim 6$, the liquid-hexatic transition is continuous, with correlations consistent with the Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Yong (KTHNY) scenario. To illustrate the generality of these results, we demonstrate that Yukawa particles likewise may follow either the KTHNY or the hard-disk melting scenario, depending on the Debye-H\\"uckel screening length as well as on the temperature.

  16. Quantum phase transitions and bipartite entanglement.

    PubMed

    Wu, L-A; Sarandy, M S; Lidar, D A

    2004-12-17

    We develop a general theory of the relation between quantum phase transitions (QPTs) characterized by nonanalyticities in the energy and bipartite entanglement. We derive a functional relation between the matrix elements of two-particle reduced density matrices and the eigenvalues of general two-body Hamiltonians of d-level systems. The ground state energy eigenvalue and its derivatives, whose nonanalyticity characterizes a QPT, are directly tied to bipartite entanglement measures. We show that first-order QPTs are signaled by density matrix elements themselves and second-order QPTs by the first derivative of density matrix elements. Our general conclusions are illustrated via several quantum spin models. PMID:15697878

  17. Quantum phase transitions with Photons and Polaritons

    E-print Network

    Fernando G. S. L. Brandao; Michael J. Hartmann; Martin B. Plenio

    2007-01-31

    We show that a system of polaritons - combined atom and photon excitations - in an array of coupled cavities, under an experimental set-up usually considered in electromagnetically induced transparency, is described by the Bose-Hubbard model. This opens up the possibility of using this system as a quantum simulator, allowing for the observation of quantum phase transitions and for the measurement of local properties, such as single site observables. All the basic building blocks of the proposed setting have already been achieved experimentally, showing the feasibility of its realization in the near future.

  18. Quantum Entanglement Phase Transition in Werner State

    E-print Network

    Yuri Campbell; José Roberto Castilho Piqueira

    2011-10-27

    An extension to computational mechanics complexity measure is proposed in order to tackle quantum states complexity quantification. The method is applicable to any $n-$partite state of qudits through some simple modifications. A Werner state was considered to test this approach. The results show that it undergoes a phase transition between entangled and separable versions of itself. Also, results suggest interplay between quantum state complexity robustness rise and entanglement. Finally, only via symbolic dynamics statistical analysis, the proposed method was able to distinguish separable and entangled dynamical structural differences.

  19. Melonic phase transition in group field theory

    E-print Network

    Baratin, Aristide; Oriti, Daniele; Ryan, James P; Smerlak, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Group field theories have recently been shown to admit a 1/N expansion dominated by so-called `melonic graphs', dual to triangulated spheres. In this note, we deepen the analysis of this melonic sector. We obtain a combinatorial formula for the melonic amplitudes in terms of a graph polynomial related to a higher dimensional generalization of the Kirchhoff tree-matrix theorem. Simple bounds on these amplitudes show the existence of a phase transition driven by melonic interaction processes. We restrict our study to the Boulatov-Ooguri models, which describe topological BF theories and are the basis for the construction of four dimensional models of quantum gravity.

  20. Melonic phase transition in group field theory

    E-print Network

    Aristide Baratin; Sylvain Carrozza; Daniele Oriti; James P. Ryan; Matteo Smerlak

    2014-06-09

    Group field theories have recently been shown to admit a 1/N expansion dominated by so-called `melonic graphs', dual to triangulated spheres. In this note, we deepen the analysis of this melonic sector. We obtain a combinatorial formula for the melonic amplitudes in terms of a graph polynomial related to a higher dimensional generalization of the Kirchhoff tree-matrix theorem. Simple bounds on these amplitudes show the existence of a phase transition driven by melonic interaction processes. We restrict our study to the Boulatov-Ooguri models, which describe topological BF theories and are the basis for the construction of four dimensional models of quantum gravity.

  1. Detonations and deflagrations in cosmological phase transitions

    E-print Network

    Ariel Megevand; Alejandro D. Sanchez

    2009-05-22

    We study the steady state motion of bubble walls in cosmological phase transitions. Taking into account the boundary and continuity conditions for the fluid variables, we calculate numerically the wall velocity as a function of the nucleation temperature, the latent heat, and a friction parameter. We determine regions in the space of these parameters in which detonations and/or deflagrations are allowed. In order to apply the results to a physical case, we calculate these quantities in a specific model, which consists of an extension of the Standard Model with singlet scalar fields. We also obtain analytic approximations for the wall velocity, both in the case of deflagrations and of detonations.

  2. Detonations and deflagrations in cosmological phase transitions

    E-print Network

    Megevand, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    We study the steady state motion of bubble walls in cosmological phase transitions. Taking into account the boundary and continuity conditions for the fluid variables, we calculate numerically the wall velocity as a function of the nucleation temperature, the latent heat, and a friction parameter. We determine regions in the space of these parameters in which detonations and/or deflagrations are allowed. In order to apply the results to a physical case, we calculate these quantities in a specific model, which consists of an extension of the Standard Model with singlet scalar fields. We also obtain analytic approximations for deflagrations and detonations.

  3. Bound entanglement in quantum phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Baghbanzadeh, S.; Alipour, S.; Rezakhani, A. T.

    2010-04-15

    We investigate quantum phase transitions in which a change in the type of entanglement from bound entanglement to either free entanglement or separability may occur. In particular, we present a theoretical method to construct a class of quantum spin-chain Hamiltonians that exhibit this type of quantum criticality. Given parameter-dependent two-site reduced density matrices (with prescribed entanglement properties), we lay out a reverse construction for a compatible pure state for the whole system, as well as a class of Hamiltonians for which this pure state is a ground state. This construction is illustrated through several examples.

  4. Observables of non-equilibrium phase transition

    E-print Network

    Boris Tomasik; Martin Schulc; Ivan Melo; Renata Kopecna

    2015-10-30

    Rapidly expanding fireball which undergoes first-order phase transition will supercool and proceed via spinodal decomposition. Hadrons are produced from the individual fragments as well as leftover matter filling the space between them. Emission from fragments should be visible in rapidity correlations, particularly of protons. Also, even within narrow centrality classes, rapidity distributions will be fluctuating from one event to another in case of fragmentation. This can be identified with the help of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Finally, a method is presented which allows to sort events with varying rapidity distributions in such a way, that events with similar rapidity histograms are grouped together.

  5. Observables of non-equilibrium phase transition

    E-print Network

    Boris Tomasik; Martin Schulc; Ivan Melo; Renata Kopecna

    2015-12-22

    A rapidly expanding fireball which undergoes first-order phase transition will supercool and proceed via spinodal decomposition. Hadrons are produced from the individual fragments as well as the left-over matter filling the space between them. Emission from fragments should be visible in rapidity correlations, particularly of protons. In addition to that, even within narrow centrality classes, rapidity distributions will be fluctuating from one event to another in case of fragmentation. This can be identified with the help of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Finally, we present a method which allows to sort events with varying rapidity distributions in such a way, that events with similar rapidity histograms are grouped together.

  6. On the transition between two-phase and single-phase interface dynamics in multicomponent fluids at supercritical pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahms, Rainer N.; Oefelein, Joseph C.

    2013-09-01

    A theory that explains the operating pressures where liquid injection processes transition from exhibiting classical two-phase spray atomization phenomena to single-phase diffusion-dominated mixing is presented. Imaging from a variety of experiments have long shown that under certain conditions, typically when the pressure of the working fluid exceeds the thermodynamic critical pressure of the liquid phase, the presence of discrete two-phase flow processes become diminished. Instead, the classical gas-liquid interface is replaced by diffusion-dominated mixing. When and how this transition occurs, however, is not well understood. Modern theory still lacks a physically based model to quantify this transition and the precise mechanisms that lead to it. In this paper, we derive a new model that explains how the transition occurs in multicomponent fluids and present a detailed analysis to quantify it. The model applies a detailed property evaluation scheme based on a modified 32-term Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation of state that accounts for the relevant real-fluid thermodynamic and transport properties of the multicomponent system. This framework is combined with Linear Gradient Theory, which describes the detailed molecular structure of the vapor-liquid interface region. Our analysis reveals that the two-phase interface breaks down not necessarily due to vanishing surface tension forces, but due to thickened interfaces at high subcritical temperatures coupled with an inherent reduction of the mean free molecular path. At a certain point, the combination of reduced surface tension, the thicker interface, and reduced mean free molecular path enter the continuum length scale regime. When this occurs, inter-molecular forces approach that of the multicomponent continuum where transport processes dominate across the interfacial region. This leads to a continuous phase transition from compressed liquid to supercritical mixture states. Based on this theory, a regime diagram for liquid injection is developed that quantifies the conditions under which classical sprays transition to dense-fluid jets. It is shown that the chamber pressure required to support diffusion-dominated mixing dynamics depends on the composition and temperature of the injected liquid and ambient gas. To illustrate the method and analysis, we use conditions typical of diesel engine injection. We also present a companion set of high-speed images to provide experimental validation of the presented theory. The basic theory is quite general and applies to a wide range of modern propulsion and power systems such as liquid rockets, gas turbines, and reciprocating engines. Interestingly, the regime diagram associated with diesel engine injection suggests that classical spray phenomena at typical injection conditions do not occur.

  7. INTERFACIAL WAVE TRANSITIONS IN LIQUID-LIQUID FLOWS AND INSIGHT INTO FLOW REGIME TRANSITION

    E-print Network

    McCready, Mark J.

    , heat exchangers, gas-liquid reactors with solid catalyst and various other process piping and vessels of pores on different scales. However, given the current uncertainty that exists in the simplest case, gas-liquid is the strength of the largest scale disturbances present. For gas-liquid pipe flows, where 6 different flow

  8. Quark-hadron phase transition in massive gravity

    E-print Network

    Atazadeh, K

    2015-01-01

    We study the quark hadron phase transition in the framework of massive gravity. We show that the modification of the FRW cosmological equations leads to the quark hadron phase transition in the early massive Universe. Using numerical analysis, we consider that a phase transition based on the chiral symmetry breaking after the electroweak transition, occurred at approximately $10 \\mu$ seconds after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadrons.

  9. Quark-hadron phase transition in massive gravity

    E-print Network

    K. Atazadeh

    2015-11-30

    We study the quark hadron phase transition in the framework of massive gravity. We show that the modification of the FRW cosmological equations leads to the quark hadron phase transition in the early massive Universe. Using numerical analysis, we consider that a phase transition based on the chiral symmetry breaking after the electroweak transition, occurred at approximately $10 \\mu$ seconds after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadrons.

  10. Phase transitions in fluids and biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipos, Maksim

    In this thesis, I consider systems from two seemingly different fields: fluid dynamics and microbial ecology. In these systems, the unifying features are the existences of global non-equilibrium steady states. I consider generic and statistical models for transitions between these global states, and I relate the model results with experimental data. A theme of this thesis is that these rather simple, minimal models are able to capture a lot of functional detail about complex dynamical systems. In Part I, I consider the transition between laminar and turbulent flow. I find that quantitative and qualitative features of pipe flow experiments, the superexponential lifetime and the splitting of turbulent puffs, and the growth rate of turbulent slugs, can all be explained by a coarse-grained, phenomenological model in the directed percolation universality class. To relate this critical phenomena approach closer to the fluid dynamics, I consider the transition to turbulence in the Burgers equation, a simplified model for Navier-Stokes equations. Via a transformation to a model of directed polymers in a random medium, I find that the transition to Burgers turbulence may also be in the directed percolation universality class. This evidence implies that the turbulent-to-laminar transition is statistical in nature and does not depend on details of the Navier-Stokes equations describing the fluid flow. In Part II, I consider the disparate subject of microbial ecology where the complex interactions within microbial ecosystems produce observable patterns in microbe abundance, diversity and genotype. In order to be able to study these patterns, I develop a bioinformatics pipeline to multiply align and quickly cluster large microbial metagenomics datasets. I also develop a novel metric that quantifies the degree of interactions underlying the assembly of a microbial ecosystem, particularly the transition between neutral (random) and niche (deterministic) assembly. I apply this metric to 16S rRNA metagenomic studies of 6 vertebrate gastrointestinal microbiomes and find that they assembled through a highly non-neutral process. I then consider a phase transition that may occur in nutrient-poor environments such as ocean surface waters. In these systems, I find that the experimentally observed genome streamlining, specialization and opportunism may well be generic statistical phenomena.

  11. Liquid-liquid and vapor-liquid phase equilibria for 1-butanol + water + 2-propanol at ambient pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Aicher, T.; Bamberger, T.; Schluender, E.U.

    1995-05-01

    The liquid-liquid and the vapor-liquid phase equilibria of the ternary system 1-butanol + water + 2-propanol have been measured at ambient pressure. Compositions along the binodal curve have been determined gravimetrically at 0, 20, 50, and 60 C. The lines were determined for 0, 20, and 60 C. The data were compared to reported measurements at 80 C. Furthermore, the vapor-liquid equilibrium at ambient pressure has been measured for both one-phase and two-phase liquid mixtures using a recirculation still proposed by Roeck and Sieg.

  12. Microstructure and phase behavior in colloids and liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohr, Matthew Alan

    This thesis describes our investigation of microstructure and phase behavior in colloids and liquid crystals. The first set of experiments explores the phase behavior of helical packings of thermoresponsive microspheres inside glass capillaries as a function of volume fraction. Stable helical packings are observed with long-range orientational order. Some of these packings evolve abruptly to disordered states as the volume fraction is reduced. We quantify these transitions using correlation functions and susceptibilities of an orientational order parameter. The emergence of coexisting metastable packings, as well as coexisting ordered and disordered states, is also observed. These findings support the notion of phase-transition-like behavior in quasi-one-dimensional systems. The second set of experiments investigates cross-over behavior from glasses with attractive interactions to sparse gel-like states. In particular, the vibrational modes of quasi-two-dimensional disordered colloidal packings of hard colloidal spheres with short-range attractions are measured as a function of packing fraction. A crossover from glassy to sparse gel-like states is indicated by an excess of low-frequency phonon modes. This change in vibrational mode distribution appears to arise from highly localized vibrations that tend to involve individual and/or small clusters of particles with few local bonds. These mode behaviors and corresponding structural insights may serve as a useful signature for glass-gel transitions in wider classes of attractive packings. A third set of experiments explores the director structures of aqueous lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal (LCLC) films created on square lattice cylindrical-micropost substrates. The structures are manipulated by modulating of the concentration-dependent elastic properties of LCLC s via drying. Nematic LCLC films exhibit preferred bistable alignment along the diagonals of the micropost lattice. Columnar LCLC films form two distinct director and defect configurations: a diagonally aligned director pattern with local squares of defects, and an off-diagonal configuration with zig-zag defects. The formation of these patterns appears to be tied to the relative free energy costs of splay and bend deformations in the precursor nematic films. The observed nematic and columnar configurations are understood numerically using a Landau-de Gennes free energy model. This work provides first examples of quasi-2D micropatterning of LC films in the columnar phase and the first micropatterning of lyotropic LC films in general, as well as demonstrating alignment and configuration switching of typically difficult-to-align LCLC films via bulk elastic properties.

  13. Coal-Face Fracture With A Two-Phase Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    In new method for mining coal without explosive, two-phase liquid such as CO2 and water, injected at high pressure into deeper ends of holes drilled in coal face. Liquid permeates coal seam through existing microfractures; as liquid seeps back toward face, pressure eventually drops below critical value at which dissolved gas flashvaporizes, breaking up coal.

  14. Structure of Blue Phase III of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrich, O.; Stratford, K.; Cates, M. E.; Marenduzzo, D.

    2011-03-01

    We report large scale simulations of the blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals. Our results suggest a structure for blue phase III, the blue fog, which has been the subject of a long debate in liquid crystal physics. We propose that blue phase III is an amorphous network of disclination lines, which is thermodynamically and kinetically stabilized over crystalline blue phases at intermediate chiralities. This amorphous network becomes ordered under an applied electric field, as seen in experiments.

  15. Substrate-induced orientational order in the isotropic phase of liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauger, A.; Zribi, G.; Mills, D. L.; Toner, J.

    1984-01-01

    Nematic order induced near a solid boundary in an otherwise isotropic liquid crystal is studied theoretically, at temperatures just above the bulk nematic-isotropic phase transition. Three distinct regimes are found, depending on the strength of orientational torques at the boundary: (1) strong orientational order, (2) strong orientational order followed by a first-order transition to a state of weak orientational order as temperature is raised, and (3) a state of weak orientational order.

  16. Influence of director fluctuations on the electric-field phase diagrams of nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhara, Surajit; Madhusudana, N. V.

    2004-08-01

    We report the first experimental high electric-field phase diagram of a nematic liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy. The variation of the paranematic-nematic transition temperature (TPN) is essentially linear with |E|, whereas the Landau-de Gennes theory predicts a quadratic variation. It is argued that the quenching of director fluctuations by the field contributes significantly to the thermodynamics of the transition.

  17. Comment on ‘The experimental liquid-vapor phase diagram of bulk nuclear matter’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnaukhov, V. A.; Botvina, A. S.

    2013-05-01

    This comment recalls the long story of the experimental evaluation of the critical temperature for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition and emphasizes the importance of using different methods. The first reliable measurement of critical temperature was performed ten years ago in Dubna. It found the value 17±2 MeV by analysis of the cluster yield in multifragmentation.

  18. Phase transitions of superconducting wire network

    E-print Network

    Katsumoto, Shingo

    /2 Good agreement #12;FFXY model Vortex pair (size ~ KT) KT transition @ TKT Domain (size ~ sing) Ising transition Increase = lift degeneracy = 0, = 0 KT transition = 1/2, = 1/2 KT transition Same behavior

  19. Electronic phase transitions in ultrathin magnetite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal-Villamil, I.; Gallego, S.

    2015-07-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) shows singular electronic and magnetic properties, resulting from complex electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions that involve the interplay of charge, orbital and spin degrees of freedom. The Verwey transition is a manifestation of these interactions, with a puzzling connection between the low temperature charge ordered state and the dynamic charge fluctuations still present above the transition temperature. Here we explore how these rich physical phenomena are affected by thin film geometries, particularly focusing on the ultimate size limit defined by thicknesses below the minimum bulk unit cell. On one hand, we address the influence of extended defects, such as surfaces or antiphase domains, on the novel features exhibited by thin films. On the other, we try to isolate the effect of the reduced thickness on the electronic and magnetic properties. We will show that a distinct phase diagram and novel charge distributions emerge under reduced dimensions, while holding the local high magnetic moments. Altogether, thin film geometries offer unique possibilities to understand the complex interplay of short- and long-range orders in the Verwey transition. Furthermore, they arise as interesting candidates for the exploitation of the rich physics of magnetite in devices that demand nanoscale geometries, additionally offering novel functionalities based on their distinct properties with respect to the bulk form.

  20. Hygroscopic influence on the semisolid-to-liquid transition of secondary organic materials.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Adam P; Bertram, Allan K; Martin, Scot T

    2015-05-14

    The effect of relative humidity (RH) on the rebound of particles composed of isoprene, ?-pinene, and toluene secondary organic materials (SOMs) was studied. A three-arm impaction apparatus was used to study rebound from 5 to 95% RH at 298 K. Calibration experiments using sucrose particles of variable but known viscosities showed that the transition from rebounding to adhering particles occurred for a change in viscosity from 100 to 1 Pa s, corresponding to a transition from semisolid to liquid material. The experimentally determined rebound fractions of the studied SOMs were compared with results from a model of the rebound processes of hard particles, taking into account the particle kinetic energy, van der Waals forces, and RH-dependent capillary forces. For low RH values, the hard-particle model explained the diameter-dependent rebound behavior for all studied SOMs. For elevated RH, however, the experimental observations deviated from the model predictions. On the basis of the calibration experiments using sucrose particles as well as a comparison between the observations and the predictions of the hard-particle model, the interpretation is made that a semisolid-to-liquid transition occurred at elevated RH. Material softening, increased adhesion, or a combination of the two implied the action of additional modes of energy relaxation that were not included in the hard-particle model. The RH threshold for the semisolid-to-liquid phase transition was 40% RH for isoprene SOM, 70% for toluene SOM, and 70% for ?-pinene SOM. A correlation between the rebound fraction and the hygroscopic growth factor G was demonstrated, implying that absorbed water volume was a dominant governing factor of the semisolid-to-liquid transition for the studied classes of SOM. Simple heuristic rules based on G of 1.15 for the semisolid-to-liquid phase transition could be used for prognostication of the SOM phase in modeling applications at 298 K. With respect to atmospheric processes, the findings of this study suggest that both the chemical composition and the RH influence the phase state of organic particles. The findings can explain reports of solid organic particles for terpene-dominant conditions of a boreal forest at low RH compared to reports of liquid organic particles for isoprene-dominant tropical forests at high RH. PMID:25397730

  1. Phase transition in warm nuclear matter with alternative derivative coupling models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malheiro, M.; Delfino, A.; Coelho, C. T.

    1998-07-01

    An analysis is performed of the liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter obtained from different versions of scalar derivate coupling suggested by Zimanyi and Moszkowski (ZM) and the results are compared with those obtained from the Walecka model. We present the phase diagram for the models and one of them, the ZM3 model, has the lowest critical temperature Tc=13.6 MeV with the lowest critical density ?c=0.037 fm-3 and pressure pc=0.157 MeV fm-3. These results are in accordance with recent observations from energetic heavy-ion collisions, which suggest a small liquid-gas phase region.

  2. Liquid nanodroplet formation through phase explosion mechanism in laser-irradiated metal targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzi, Alberto; Gorrini, Federico; Miotello, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Some quantitative aspects of laser-irradiated pure metals, while approaching phase explosion, are still not completely understood. Here, we develop a model that describes the main quantities regulating the liquid-vapor explosive phase transition and the expulsion of liquid nanodroplets that, by solidifying, give rise to nanoparticle formation. The model combines both a thermodynamics description of the explosive phase change and a Monte Carlo simulation of the randomly generated critical vapor bubbles. The calculation is performed on a set of seven metals (Al, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ag, and Au) which are frequently used in pulsed laser ablation experiments. Our final predictions about the size distribution of the liquid nanodroplets and the number ratio of liquid/vapor ejected atoms are compared, whenever possible, with available molecular dynamics simulations and experimental data.

  3. Observation of FSS for a First Order Phase Transition

    E-print Network

    A. Billoire; T. Neuhaus; B. Berg

    1992-11-05

    We present the results of a multicanonical simulation of the q=20 2-d Potts model in the transition region. This is a very strong first order phase transition. We observe, for the first time, the asymptotic finite size scaling behavior predicted by Borgs and Koteck\\'y close to a first order phase transition point.

  4. Second-order phase transitions, L. Landau and his successors

    E-print Network

    Mnyukh, Y

    2011-01-01

    There are only two ways for solid-state phase transitions to be compliant with thermodynamics: emerging of infinitesimal quantity of the new phase, or infinitesimal "qualitative" change occurring uniformly throughout the bulk at a time. The suggested theories of phase transitions are checked here for that compliance and in historical perspective. While introducing the theory of "continuous" second-order phase transitions, L. Landau claimed that they "may also exist" along with the majority of first order phase transitions, the latter being "discontinuous", displaying "jumps" of their physical properties; the fundamental differences between the two types were specified. But his theoretical successors disregarded these irreconcilable differences, incorrectly presenting all phase transitions as a cooperative phenomenon treatable by statistical mechanics. In the meantime, evidence has been mounted that all phase transitions have a nucleation-and-growth mechanism, thus making the above classification unneeded.

  5. Electronic and structural transitions in dense liquid sodium.

    PubMed

    Raty, Jean-Yves; Schwegler, Eric; Bonev, Stanimir A

    2007-09-27

    At ambient conditions, the light alkali metals are free-electron-like crystals with a highly symmetric structure. However, they were found recently to exhibit unexpected complexity under pressure. It was predicted from theory--and later confirmed by experiment--that lithium and sodium undergo a sequence of symmetry-breaking transitions, driven by a Peierls mechanism, at high pressures. Measurements of the sodium melting curve have subsequently revealed an unprecedented (and still unexplained) pressure-induced drop in melting temperature from 1,000 K at 30 GPa down to room temperature at 120 GPa. Here we report results from ab initio calculations that explain the unusual melting behaviour in dense sodium. We show that molten sodium undergoes a series of pressure-induced structural and electronic transitions, analogous to those observed in solid sodium but commencing at much lower pressure in the presence of liquid disorder. As pressure is increased, liquid sodium initially evolves by assuming a more compact local structure. However, a transition to a lower-coordinated liquid takes place at a pressure of around 65 GPa, accompanied by a threefold drop in electrical conductivity. This transition is driven by the opening of a pseudogap, at the Fermi level, in the electronic density of states--an effect that has not hitherto been observed in a liquid metal. The lower-coordinated liquid emerges at high temperatures and above the stability region of a close-packed free-electron-like metal. We predict that similar exotic behaviour is possible in other materials as well. PMID:17898764

  6. Electronic and structural transitions in dense liquid sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raty, Jean-Yves; Schwegler, Eric; Bonev, Stanimir A.

    2007-09-01

    At ambient conditions, the light alkali metals are free-electron-like crystals with a highly symmetric structure. However, they were found recently to exhibit unexpected complexity under pressure. It was predicted from theory-and later confirmed by experiment-that lithium and sodium undergo a sequence of symmetry-breaking transitions, driven by a Peierls mechanism, at high pressures. Measurements of the sodium melting curve have subsequently revealed an unprecedented (and still unexplained) pressure-induced drop in melting temperature from 1,000K at 30GPa down to room temperature at 120GPa. Here we report results from ab initio calculations that explain the unusual melting behaviour in dense sodium. We show that molten sodium undergoes a series of pressure-induced structural and electronic transitions, analogous to those observed in solid sodium but commencing at much lower pressure in the presence of liquid disorder. As pressure is increased, liquid sodium initially evolves by assuming a more compact local structure. However, a transition to a lower-coordinated liquid takes place at a pressure of around 65GPa, accompanied by a threefold drop in electrical conductivity. This transition is driven by the opening of a pseudogap, at the Fermi level, in the electronic density of states-an effect that has not hitherto been observed in a liquid metal. The lower-coordinated liquid emerges at high temperatures and above the stability region of a close-packed free-electron-like metal. We predict that similar exotic behaviour is possible in other materials as well.

  7. Global quantum discord and quantum phase transition in XY model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Yang, Wen-Li; Fan, Heng

    2015-11-01

    We study the relationship between the behavior of global quantum correlations and quantum phase transitions in XY model. We find that the two kinds of phase transitions in the studied model can be characterized by the features of global quantum discord (GQD) and the corresponding quantum correlations. We demonstrate that the maximum of the sum of all the nearest neighbor bipartite GQDs is effective and accurate for signaling the Ising quantum phase transition, in contrast, the sudden change of GQD is very suitable for characterizing another phase transition in the XY model. This may shed lights on the study of properties of quantum correlations in different quantum phases.

  8. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons do not disturb liquid-liquid phase coexistence, but increase the fluidity of model membranes.

    PubMed

    Liland, Nina S; Simonsen, Adam C; Duelund, Lars; Torstensen, Bente E; Berntssen, Marc H G; Mouritsen, Ole G

    2014-12-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a group of compounds, many of which are toxic, formed by incomplete combustion or thermal processing of organic material. They are highly lipophilic and thus present in some seed oils used for human consumption as well as being increasingly common in aquaculture diets due to inclusion of vegetable oils. Cytotoxic effects of PAHs have been thought to be partly due to a membrane perturbing effect of these compounds. A series of studies were here performed to examine the effects of three different PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene) with different molecular sizes (two, three and five rings, respectively) and fat solubility (Kow 3.29, 4.53 and 6.04, respectively) on membrane models. The effects of PAHs on liquid-liquid phase coexistence in solid-supported lipid bilayers (dioleoylphosphocholine:dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine:cholesterol) were assessed using fluorescence microscopy. Benzo[a]pyrene had a slight affinity for the liquid-ordered phase, but there were no effects of adding any of the other PAHs on the number or size of the liquid domains (liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered). Benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene, but not naphthalene, lowered the transition temperature (Tm) and the enthalpy (?H) characterising the transition from the solid to the liquid-crystalline phase in DPPC vesicles. The membrane effects of the PAH molecules are likely related to size, with bigger and more fat-soluble molecules having a fluidising effect when embedded in the membrane, possibly causing some of the observed toxic effects in fish exposed to these contaminants. PMID:25181555

  9. Glass transition in biomolecules and the liquid-liquid critical point of water

    E-print Network

    P. Kumar; Z. Yan; L. Xu; M. G. Mazza; S. V. Buldyrev; S. -H. Chen; S. Sastry; H. E. Stanley

    2006-08-28

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the relation between the dynamic transitions of biomolecules (lysozyme and DNA) and the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of hydration water. We find that the dynamic transition of the macromolecules, sometimes called a ``protein glass transition'', occurs at the temperature of dynamic crossover in the diffusivity of hydration water, and also coincides with the maxima of the isobaric specific heat $C_P$ and the temperature derivative of the orientational order parameter. We relate these findings to the hypothesis of a liquid-liquid critical point in water. Our simulations are consistent with the possibility that the protein glass transition results from crossing the Widom line, which is defined as the locus of correlation length maxima emanating from the hypothesized second critical point of water.

  10. Viscosity and thermal conductivity effects at first-order phase transitions in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Voskresensky, D. N.; Skokov, V. V.

    2012-06-15

    Effects of viscosity and thermal conductivity on the dynamics of first-order phase transitions are studied. The nuclear gas-liquid and hadron-quark transitions in heavy-ion collisions are considered. We demonstrate that at nonzero thermal conductivity, {kappa} {ne} 0, onset of spinodal instabilities occurs on an isothermal spinodal line, whereas for {kappa} = 0 instabilities take place at lower temperatures, on an adiabatic spinodal.

  11. QCD PHASE TRANSITIONS-VOLUME 15.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHAFER,T.

    1998-11-04

    The title of the workshop, ''The QCD Phase Transitions'', in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discussion of the underlying non-perturbative mechanisms which manifest themselves as all those phases. Before we go to specifics, let us emphasize one important aspect of the present status of non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory in general. It remains true that its studies do not get attention proportional to the intellectual challenge they deserve, and that the theorists working on it remain very fragmented. The efforts to create Theory of Everything including Quantum Gravity have attracted the lion share of attention and young talent. Nevertheless, in the last few years there was also a tremendous progress and even some shift of attention toward emphasis on the unity of non-perturbative phenomena. For example, we have seen some. efforts to connect the lessons from recent progress in Supersymmetric theories with that in QCD, as derived from phenomenology and lattice. Another example is Maldacena conjecture and related development, which connect three things together, string theory, super-gravity and the (N=4) supersymmetric gauge theory. Although the progress mentioned is remarkable by itself, if we would listen to each other more we may have chance to strengthen the field and reach better understanding of the spectacular non-perturbative physics.

  12. Phase transitions in biogenic amorphous calcium carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yutao

    Geological calcium carbonate exists in both crystalline phases and amorphous phases. Compared with crystalline calcium carbonate, such as calcite, aragonite and vaterite, the amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is unstable. Unlike geological calcium carbonate crystals, crystalline sea urchin spicules (99.9 wt % calcium carbonate and 0.1 wt % proteins) do not present facets. To explain this property, crystal formation via amorphous precursors was proposed in theory. And previous research reported experimental evidence of ACC on the surface of forming sea urchin spicules. By using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), we studied cross-sections of fresh sea urchin spicules at different stages (36h, 48h and 72h after fertilization) and observed the transition sequence of three mineral phases: hydrated ACC ? dehydrated ACC ? biogenic calcite. In addition, we unexpectedly found hydrated ACC nanoparticles that are surrounded by biogenic calcite. This observation indicates the dehydration from hydrated ACC to dehydrated ACC is inhibited, resulting in stabilization of hydrated ACC nanoparticles. We thought that the dehydration was inhibited by protein matrix components occluded within the biomineral, and we designed an in vitro assay to test the hypothesis. By utilizing XANES-PEEM, we found that SM50, the most abundant occluded matrix protein in sea urchin spicules, has the function to stabilize hydrated ACC in vitro.

  13. Liquid Crystals: The Phase of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ondris-Crawford, Renate; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Liquid crystal displays are currently utilized to convey information via graphic displays. Presents experiments and explanations that employ the concept of liquid crystals to learn concepts related to the various states of matter, electric and magnetic forces, refraction of light, and optics. Discusses applications of liquid crystal technology.…

  14. Liquid-Phase Processing of Barium Titanate Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, David Thomas

    Processing of thin films introduces strict limits on the thermal budget due to substrate stability and thermal expansion mismatch stresses. Barium titanate serves as a model system for the difficulty in producing high quality thin films because of sensitivity to stress, scale, and crystal quality. Thermal budget restriction leads to reduced crystal quality, density, and grain growth, depressing ferroelectric and nonlinear dielectric properties. Processing of barium titanate is typically performed at temperatures hundreds of degrees above compatibility with metalized substrates. In particular integration with silicon and other low thermal expansion substrates is desirable for reductions in costs and wider availability of technologies. In bulk metal and ceramic systems, sintering behavior has been encouraged by the addition of a liquid forming second phase, improving kinetics and promoting densification and grain growth at lower temperatures. This approach is also widespread in the multilayer ceramic capacitor industry. However only limited exploration of flux processing with refractory thin films has been performed despite offering improved dielectric properties for barium titanate films at lower temperatures. This dissertation explores physical vapor deposition of barium titanate thin films with addition of liquid forming fluxes. Flux systems studied include BaO-B2O3, Bi2O3-BaB2O 4, BaO-V2O5, CuO-BaO-B2O3, and BaO-B2O3 modified by Al, Si, V, and Li. Additions of BaO-B2O3 leads to densification and an increase in average grain size from 50 nm to over 300 nm after annealing at 900 °C. The ability to tune permittivity of the material improved from 20% to 70%. Development of high quality films enables engineering of ferroelectric phase stability using residual thermal expansion mismatch in polycrystalline films. The observed shifts to TC match thermodynamic calculations, expected strain from the thermal expansion coefficients, as well as x-ray diffract measurements . Our system exhibits flux-film-substrate interactions that can lead to dramatic changes to the microstructure. This effect is especially pronounced onc -sapphire, with Al diffusion from the substrate leading to formation of an epitaxial BaAl2O4 second phase at the substrate-film interface. The formation of this second phase in the presence of a liquid phase seeds {111} twins that drive abnormal grain growth. The orientation of the sapphire substrate determines the BaAl2O 4 morphology, enabling control the abnormal grain growth behavior. CuO additions leads to significant grain growth at 900 °C, with average grain size approaching 500 nm. The orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition is clearly observable in temperature dependent measurements and both linear and nonlinear dielectric properties are improved. All films containing CuO are susceptible to aging. A number of other systems were investigated for efficacy at temperatures below 900 °C. Pulsed laser deposition was used to study flux + BaTiO 3 targets, layered flux films, and in situ liquids. RF-magnetron sputtering using a dual-gun approach was used to explore integration on flexible foils with Ba1-xSrxTiO3. Many of these systems were based on the BaO-B2O3 system, which has proven effective in thin films, multilayer ceramic capacitors, and bulk ceramics. Modifiers allow tailoring of the microstructure at 900 °C, however no compositions were found, and no reports exist in the open literature, that provide significant grain growth or densification below 900 °C. Liquid phase fluxes offer a promising path forward for low temperature processing of barium titanate, with the ultimate goal of integration with metalized silicon substrates. This work demonstrates significant improvements to dielectric properties and the necessity of understanding interactions in the film-flux-substrate system.

  15. Phase clustering and transition to phase synchronization in a large number of coupled nonlinear oscillators

    E-print Network

    Lai, Ying-Cheng

    Phase clustering and transition to phase synchronization in a large number of coupled nonlinear received 22 November 2000; published 9 April 2001 The transition to phase synchronization in systems consisting of a large number N of coupled nonlinear oscillators via the route of phase clustering phase

  16. Analysis of fragment yield ratios in the nuclear phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, R.; Galanopoulos, S.; Hagel, K.; Shetty, D. V.; Huseman, K.; Bonasera, A.; Wuenschel, S.; May, L. W.; Kohley, Z.; Soisson, S. N.; Stein, B. C.; Yennello, S. J.; Souliotis, G. A.

    2011-05-15

    The critical phenomenon of the liquid-gas phase transition has been investigated in the reactions {sup 78,86}Kr+{sup 58,64}Ni at beam energy of 35 MeV/nucleon using the Landau free energy approach with isospin asymmetry as an order parameter. Fits to the free energy of fragments showed three minima, suggesting that the system is in the regime of a first-order phase transition. The relation m = -{partial_derivative}F/{partial_derivative}H, which defines the order parameter and its conjugate field H, has been experimentally verified from the linear dependence of the mirror nuclei yield ratio data on the isospin asymmetry of the source. The slope parameter, which is a measure of the distance from a critical temperature, showed a systematic decrease with increasing excitation energy of the source. Within the framework of the Landau free energy approach, isoscaling provided similar results as obtained from the analysis of mirror nuclei yield ratio data. In the present work, it is shown that the external field is primarily related to the minimum of the free energy, which implies a modification of the source concentration {Delta} used in isospin studies.

  17. Phase Transition Properties of 3D Potts Models

    E-print Network

    Alexei Bazavov; Bernd A. Berg; Santosh Dubey

    2008-07-12

    Using multicanonical Metropolis simulations we estimate phase transition properties of 3D Potts models for q=4 to 10: The transition temperatures, latent heats, entropy gaps, normalized entropies at the disordered and ordered endpoints, interfacial tensions, and spinodal endpoints.

  18. Some demographic crashes seen as phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gligor, Mircea; Ignat, Margareta

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is the application of a usual method of statistical mechanics-the renormalization based on Wilson's recursive relations-in order to study the critical behavior of a social index, namely the live births per 1000 population. The drastic decreases of this index on certain periods have the specific features of the phase transitions as they follow approximately power laws and also, they lead to the complete change of the population age structure. The values of the critical exponents that are obtained by fitting the experimental data referring to some East European countries are in agreement with the value resulting from the theoretical approach, thus showing the universality of the power law behavior in the vicinity of the critical points, for complex social systems.

  19. Phase transition in cosmology with magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Avtar; Mishra, R. K.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we have investigated the Bianchi type-II cosmological model with variable parameters in the frame work of modified f(R, T) gravity theory as suggested by Harko et al. (Phys. Rev. D, 84:024020). As we know that the effect of space-time curvature upon phase transition is an expanding universe. In this communication we have constructed a cosmological model of the universe by taking suitable assumptions along with string in presence of magnetic field. It is to be noted that our procedure for solving the field equations is different from other authors as we have consider the time dependent deceleration parameter (DP), it means that the universe which was decelerating in the past is accelerating at present time. We found that the universe is decelerating for q > 0 and accelerating for -1 ? q < 0, which shown signature flipping.

  20. Generalized fidelity susceptibility at phase transitions.

    PubMed

    You, Wen-Long; He, Li

    2015-05-27

    In the present work, we investigate the intrinsic relation between quantum fidelity susceptibility (QFS) and the dynamical structure factor. We give a concise proof of the QFS beyond the perturbation theory. With the QFS in the Lehmann representation, we point out that the QFS is actually the negative-two-power moment of dynamical structure factor and illuminate the inherent relation between physical quantities in the linear response theory. Moreover, we discuss the generalized fidelity susceptibility (GFS) of any quantum relevant operator, that may not be coupled to the driving parameter, and present similar scaling behaviors. Finally, we demonstrate that the QFS cannot capture the fourth-order quantum phase transition in a spin-1/2 anisotropic XY chain in the transverse alternating field, while a lower-order GFS can seize the criticalities. PMID:25950245