Science.gov

Sample records for liquid waste quantification

  1. The Sonophysics and Sonochemistry of Liquid Waste Quantification and Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Matula, Thomas J.

    1998-06-01

    This research is being conducted to (a) perform an in-depth and comprehensive study of the fundamentals of acoustic cavitation and nonlinear bubble dynamics, (b) elucidate the fundamental physics of sonochemical reactions, (c) examine the potential of sonoluminescence to quantify and monitor the presence of alkali metals and other elements in waste liquids, (d) design and evaluate more effective sonochemical reactors for waste remediation, and (e) determine the optimal acoustical parameters in the use of sonochemistry for liquid-waste-contaminant remediation. So far cells have been designed for multibubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) and single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) spectroscopy experiments. Positive results have been obtained in both systems using a Raman system which covers the wavelength range from 790 to 1,070 nm. Further progress from year-1 involved the use of the newly discovered technique of changing the pressure head above the cavitation field to increase the light emission from MBSL. A second method for changing the pressure head involves pressure-jumping, whereby the pressure in the head space above the solution is quickly increased to a new steady value.

  2. THE SONOPHYSICS AND SONOCHEMISTRY OF LIQUID WASTE QUANTIFICATION AND REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    When an ultrasonic field of moderate to large intensity is applied to a liquid, the liquid often fails under the action of the dynamic tensile stress applied by the ultrasound. Consequently, the vapor cavity that is formed during the rarefaction portion of the sound field can thu...

  3. The sonophysics and sonochemistry of liquid waste quantification and remediation. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Matula, T.J.

    1998-06-01

    'To perform an in-depth and comprehensive study of the fundamentals of acoustic cavitation and nonlinear bubble dynamics, to elucidate the fundamental physics of sonochemical reactions, to examine the potential of sonoluminescence to quantify and to monitor the presence of alkali metals and other elements in waste liquids, to design and to evaluate more effective sonochemical reactors for waste remediation, and to determine the optimal acoustical parameters in the use of sonochemistry for liquid-waste-contaminant remediation. This report summarizes work performed during year 2 of a 3-year project. The goals included performing near-IR spectroscopy of sonoluminescence. Cells have been designed for multi-bubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) and single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) spectroscopy experiments. The MBSL cells are designed around a 20 kHz acoustic horn with replaceable titanium tips from Sonics and Materials. The horn is pressure-fitted into a stainless steel cell via O-rings and a compression ring, to seal the cell up to 100 psi for pressure experiments. The cell is thermostated by circulating coolant in a jacket, as well as flowing the cell fluid (at 4L/min.) through a temperature control bath. Several ports are located on the cell for gas ports (one for headspace, another for bubbling), a pressure transducer, a thermocouple, a needle hydrophone, and a septum port for addition or withdrawal of samples. The total volume is approximately 80 mL with a 10 mL head space. Directly opposite the horn tip is a 2 cm quartz window against which a fiber optic bundle is placed. Light collected through the fiber optic is imaged onto one of several detection systems.'

  4. FINAL REPORT. THE SONOPHYSICS AND SONOCHEMISTRY OF LIQUID WASTE QUANTIFICATION AND REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this proposal was to study the physics and chemistry of acoustic cavitation--thatis, the formation, growth, and violent collapse of bubbles--for its eventual application as both an analytical tool for toxic waste identification and monitoring, as well as a cost-...

  5. High-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous quantification of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and cholesterol in shrimp waste hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    López-Cervantes, J; Sánchez-Machado, D I; Ríos-Vázquez, N J

    2006-02-10

    This study presents an HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and cholesterol in shrimp waste hydrolysate lipid fraction. The method includes microscale saponification and extraction with n-hexane. Liposoluble vitamins and cholesterol were quantified by HPLC with UV detection (HPLC-UV), on a 25 cm x 0.46 cm SS Exil ODS 5 microm column, mobile phase 68:28:4 (v/v/v) methanol:acetonitrile:water; flow rate 1.4 ml/min; column temperature 36 degrees C. The detection was operated using two channels of a diode-array spectrophotometer, 325 nm for retinol and 208 nm for alpha-tocopherol and cholesterol. With these conditions, the overall recovery was 95.7, 100.8, and 98.0% for retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and cholesterol, respectively. The method precision (relative standard deviation) was 1.83% for retinol, 2.32% for alpha-tocopherol, and 1.98% for cholesterol. This method was used to quantify the cited analytes in the hydrolysate obtained during lactic acid fermentation of shrimp waste. This hydrolysate may be a valuable supplement of nutrients in fish production. PMID:16439259

  6. Immobilization of organic liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1985-08-07

    This report describes a portland cement immobilization process for the disposal treatment of radioactive organic liquid wastes which would be generated in a a FFTF fuels reprocessing line. An incineration system already on-hand was determined to be too costly to operate for the 100 to 400 gallons per year organic liquid. Organic test liquids were dispersed into an aqueous phosphate liquid using an emulsifier. A total of 109 gallons of potential and radioactive aqueous immiscible organic liquid wastes from Hanford 300 Area operations were solidified with portland cement and disposed of as solid waste during a 3-month test program with in-drum mixers. Waste packing efficiencies varied from 32 to 40% and included pump oils, mineral spirits, and TBP-NPH type solvents.

  7. Method for treating liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Singh, Prahlad; Ketring, Alan R.

    1995-01-01

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering .sup.99 Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of .sup.99 TcO.sub.4.sup.- from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of .sup.99 Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester .sup.99 Tc from those liquids.

  8. Method for treating liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Singh, P.; Ketring, A.R.

    1995-12-26

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering {sup 99}Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of {sup 99}Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester {sup 99}Tc from those liquids. 6 figs.

  9. Investigations of Some Liquid Matrixes for Analyte Quantification by MALDI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Jeong Hee; Park, Kyung Man; Ahn, Sung Hee; Lee, Seong Hoon; Kim, Myung Soo

    2015-06-01

    Sample inhomogeneity is one of the obstacles preventing the generation of reproducible mass spectra by MALDI and to their use for the purpose of analyte quantification. As a potential solution to this problem, we investigated MALDI with some liquid matrixes prepared by nonstoichiometric mixing of acids and bases. Out of 27 combinations of acids and bases, liquid matrixes could be produced from seven. When the overall spectral features were considered, two liquid matrixes using α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid as the acid and 3-aminoquinoline and N,N-diethylaniline as bases were the best choices. In our previous study of MALDI with solid matrixes, we found that three requirements had to be met for the generation of reproducible spectra and for analyte quantification: (1) controlling the temperature by fixing the total ion count, (2) plotting the analyte-to-matrix ion ratio versus the analyte concentration as the calibration curve, and (3) keeping the matrix suppression below a critical value. We found that the same requirements had to be met in MALDI with liquid matrixes as well. In particular, although the liquid matrixes tested here were homogeneous, they failed to display spot-to-spot spectral reproducibility unless the first requirement above was met. We also found that analyte-derived ions could not be produced efficiently by MALDI with the above liquid matrixes unless the analyte was sufficiently basic. In this sense, MALDI processes with solid and liquid matrixes should be regarded as complementary techniques rather than as competing ones.

  10. Electrochemical treatment of liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1997-10-01

    Under this task, electrochemical treatment processes are being evaluated and developed for the destruction of organic compounds and nitrates/nitrites and the removal of other hazardous species from liquid wastes stored throughout the DOE complex. This technology targets the (1) destruction of nitrates, nitrites and organic compounds; (2) removal of radionuclides; and (3) removal of RCRA metals. The development program consists of five major tasks: (1) evaluation of electrochemical reactors for the destruction and removal of hazardous waste components, (2) development and validation of engineering process models, (3) radioactive laboratory-scale tests, (4) demonstration of the technology in an engineering-scale reactor, and (5) analysis and evaluation of test data. The development program team is comprised of individuals from national laboratories, academic institutions, and private industry. Possible benefits of this technology include: (1) improved radionuclide separation as a result of the removal of organic complexants, (2) reduction in the concentrations of hazardous and radioactive species in the waste (e.g., removal of nitrate, mercury, chromium, cadmium, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 106}Ru), (3) reduction in the size of the off-gas handling equipment for the vitrification of low-level waste (LLW) by reducing the source of NO{sub x} emissions, (4) recovery of chemicals of value (e.g. sodium hydroxide), and (5) reduction in the volume of waste requiring disposal.

  11. A Spanish model for quantification and management of construction waste.

    PubMed

    Solís-Guzmán, Jaime; Marrero, Madelyn; Montes-Delgado, Maria Victoria; Ramírez-de-Arellano, Antonio

    2009-09-01

    Currently, construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is a worldwide issue that concerns not only governments but also the building actors involved in construction activity. In Spain, a new national decree has been regulating the production and management of C&D waste since February 2008. The present work describes the waste management model that has inspired this decree: the Alcores model implemented with good results in Los Alcores Community (Seville, Spain). A detailed model is also provided to estimate the volume of waste that is expected to be generated on the building site. The quantification of C&D waste volume, from the project stage, is essential for the building actors to properly plan and control its disposal. This quantification model has been developed by studying 100 dwelling projects, especially their bill of quantities, and defining three coefficients to estimate the demolished volume (CT), the wreckage volume (CR) and the packaging volume (CE). Finally, two case studies are included to illustrate the usefulness of the model to estimate C&D waste volume in both new construction and demolition projects. PMID:19523801

  12. A Spanish model for quantification and management of construction waste

    SciTech Connect

    Solis-Guzman, Jaime Marrero, Madelyn; Montes-Delgado, Maria Victoria; Ramirez-de-Arellano, Antonio

    2009-09-15

    Currently, construction and demolition waste (C and D waste) is a worldwide issue that concerns not only governments but also the building actors involved in construction activity. In Spain, a new national decree has been regulating the production and management of C and D waste since February 2008. The present work describes the waste management model that has inspired this decree: the Alcores model implemented with good results in Los Alcores Community (Seville, Spain). A detailed model is also provided to estimate the volume of waste that is expected to be generated on the building site. The quantification of C and D waste volume, from the project stage, is essential for the building actors to properly plan and control its disposal. This quantification model has been developed by studying 100 dwelling projects, especially their bill of quantities, and defining three coefficients to estimate the demolished volume (CT), the wreckage volume (CR) and the packaging volume (CE). Finally, two case studies are included to illustrate the usefulness of the model to estimate C and D waste volume in both new construction and demolition projects.

  13. Radioactive liquid waste treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.L.

    1984-07-01

    The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho provides improved treatment for low-level aqueous waste compared to conventional systems. A unique, patented evaporated system is used in the RLWTF. SHADE (shielded hot air drum evaporator, US Patent No. 4,305,780) is a low-cost disposable unit constructed from standard components and is self-shielded. The results of testing and recent operations indicate that evaporation rates of 2 to 6 gph (8 to 23 L/h) can be achieved with a single unit housed in a standard 30-gal (114-L) drum container. The operating experience has confirmed the design evaporation rate of 60,000 gal (227,000 L) per year, using six SHADE's. 2 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Electrochemical treatment of liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    1996-10-01

    Electrochemical treatment processes are being evaluated and developed for the destruction of organic compounds and nitrates/nitrites and the removal of other hazardous species from liquid wastes stored throughout the DOE complex. This activity consists of five major tasks: (1) evaluation of different electrochemical reactors for the destruction and removal of hazardous waste components, (2) development and validation of engineering process models, (3) radioactive laboratory-scale tests, (4) demonstration of the technology in an engineering-scale size reactor, and (5) analysis and evaluation of testing data. The development program team is comprised of individuals from federal, academic, and private industry. Work is being carried out in DOE, academic, and private industrial laboratories.

  15. Reduction of INTEC Analytical Radioactive Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Virgil James; Hu, Jian Sheng; Chambers, Andrea

    1999-06-01

    This report details the evaluation of the reduction in radioactive liquid waste from the analytical laboratories sent to the Process Effluent Waste system (deep tanks). The contributors are the Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD), the Waste Operations Department, the laboratories at CPP-637, and natural run off. Other labs were contacted to learn of methods used and if any new technologies had emerged. A waste generation database was made from the current methods in use in the ALD. From this database, methods were targeted to reduce waste. Individuals were contacted on ways to reduce waste. The results are: a new method generating much less waste, several methods being handled differently, some cleaning processes being changed to reduce waste, and changes to reduce chemicals to waste.

  16. Reduction of INTEC Analytical Radioactive Liquid Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    V. J. Johnson; J. S. Hu; A. G. Chambers

    1999-06-01

    This report details the evaluation of the reduction in radioactive liquid waste from the analytical laboratories sent to the Process Effluent Waste system (deep tanks). The contributors are the Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD), the Waste Operations Department, the laboratories at CPP-637, and natural run off. Other labs were contacted to learn the methods used and if any new technologies had emerged. A waste generation database was made from the current methods in used in the ALD. From this database, methods were targeted to reduce waste. Individuals were contacted on ways to reduce waste. The results are: a new method generating much less waste, several methods being handled differently, some cleaning processes being changed to reduce waste, and changes to reduce chemicals to waste.

  17. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  18. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  19. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  20. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  1. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  2. Method for solidifying liquid radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Berreth, Julius R.

    1976-01-01

    The quantity of nitrous oxides produced during the solidification of liquid radioactive wastes containing nitrates and nitrites can be substantially reduced by the addition to the wastes of a stoichiometric amount of urea which, upon heating, destroys the nitrates and nitrites, liberating nontoxic N.sub.2, CO.sub.2 and NH.sub.3.

  3. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  4. Bioprocessing of a stored mixed liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Finney, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development and results of a demonstration for a continuous bioprocess for mixed waste treatment. A key element of the process is an unique microbial strain which tolerates high levels of aromatic solvents and surfactants. This microorganism is the biocatalysis of the continuous flow system designed for the processing of stored liquid scintillation wastes. During the past year a process demonstration has been conducted on commercial formulation of liquid scintillation cocktails (LSC). Based on data obtained from this demonstration, the Ohio EPA granted the Mound Applied Technologies Lab a treatability permit allowing the limited processing of actual mixed waste. Since August 1994, the system has been successfully processing stored, {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} LSC waste. The initial LSC waste fed into the system contained 11% pseudocumene and detectable quantities of plutonium. Another treated waste stream contained pseudocumene and tritium. Data from this initial work shows that the hazardous organic solvent, and pseudocumene have been removed due to processing, leaving the aqueous low level radioactive waste. Results to date have shown that living cells are not affected by the dissolved plutonium and that 95% of the plutonium was sorbed to the biomass. This paper discusses the bioprocess, rates of processing, effluent, and the implications of bioprocessing for mixed waste management.

  5. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  6. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  7. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  8. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  9. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  10. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J. ); Jackson, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Process equipment waste and process waste liquid collection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The US DOE has prepared an environmental assessment for construction related to the Process Equipment Waste (PEW) and Process Waste Liquid (PWL) Collection System Tasks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. This report describes and evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposed action (and alternatives). The purpose of the proposed action would be to ensure that the PEW and PWL collection systems, a series of enclosed process hazardous waste, and radioactive waste lines and associated equipment, would be brought into compliance with applicable State and Federal hazardous waste regulations. This would be accomplished primarily by rerouting the lines to stay within the buildings where the lined floors of the cells and corridors would provide secondary containment. Leak detection would be provided via instrumented collection sumps locate din the cells and corridors. Hazardous waste transfer lines that are routed outside buildings will be constructed using pipe-in-pipe techniques with leak detection instrumentation in the interstitial area. The need for the proposed action was identified when a DOE-sponsored Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance assessment of the ICPP facilities found that singly-contained waste lines ran buried in the soil under some of the original facilities. These lines carried wastes with a pH of less than 2.0, which were hazardous waste according to the RCRA standards. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. 324 Bldg Liquid Waste Handling System Functional Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    HAM, J.E.

    1999-12-16

    The 324 Building in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, is preparing to design, construct, and operate the Liquid Waste Handling System (LWHS). The system will include transfer, collection, treatment, and disposal of radiological and mixed liquid waste.

  13. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    SciTech Connect

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Wafa, Syed Asraf; Wo, Yii Mei; Mahat, Sarimah

    2015-04-29

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as ‘problematic’ waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  14. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  15. Quantification of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from various waste treatment facilities by tracer dilution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mønster, Jacob; Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    Urban activities generate solid and liquid waste, and the handling and aftercare of the waste results in the emission of various compounds into the surrounding environment. Some of these compounds are emitted as gasses into the atmosphere, including methane and nitrous oxide. Methane and nitrous oxide are strong greenhouse gases and are considered to have 25 and 298 times the greenhouse gas potential of carbon dioxide on a hundred years term (Solomon et al. 2007). Global observations of both gasses have shown increasing concentrations that significantly contribute to the greenhouse gas effect. Methane and nitrous oxide are emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources and inventories of source specific fugitive emissions from the anthropogenic sources of methane and nitrous oxide of are often estimated on the basis of modeling and mass balance. Though these methods are well-developed, actual measurements for quantification of the emissions is a very useful tool for verifying the modeling and mass balance as well as for validation initiatives done for lowering the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. One approach to performing such measurements is the tracer dilution method (Galle et al. 2001, Scheutz et al. 2011), where the exact location of the source is located and a tracer gas is released at this source location at a known flow. The ratio of downwind concentrations of the tracer gas and the methane and nitrous oxide gives the emissions rates of the greenhouse gases. This tracer dilution method can be performed using both stationary and mobile measurements and in both cases, real-time measurements of both tracer and quantified gas are required, placing high demands on the analytical detection method. To perform the methane and nitrous oxide measurements, two robust instruments capable of real-time measurements were used, based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy and operating in the near-infrared spectral region. One instrument measured the methane and

  16. Quantification of Tea Flavonoids by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jessica D.; Niemeyer, Emily D.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory experiment that uses high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify flavonoid levels in a variety of commercial teas. Specifically, this experiment analyzes a group of flavonoids known as catechins, plant-derived polyphenolic compounds commonly found in many foods and beverages, including green and black…

  17. Waste generated in high-rise buildings construction: a quantification model based on statistical multiple regression.

    PubMed

    Parisi Kern, Andrea; Ferreira Dias, Michele; Piva Kulakowski, Marlova; Paulo Gomes, Luciana

    2015-05-01

    Reducing construction waste is becoming a key environmental issue in the construction industry. The quantification of waste generation rates in the construction sector is an invaluable management tool in supporting mitigation actions. However, the quantification of waste can be a difficult process because of the specific characteristics and the wide range of materials used in different construction projects. Large variations are observed in the methods used to predict the amount of waste generated because of the range of variables involved in construction processes and the different contexts in which these methods are employed. This paper proposes a statistical model to determine the amount of waste generated in the construction of high-rise buildings by assessing the influence of design process and production system, often mentioned as the major culprits behind the generation of waste in construction. Multiple regression was used to conduct a case study based on multiple sources of data of eighteen residential buildings. The resulting statistical model produced dependent (i.e. amount of waste generated) and independent variables associated with the design and the production system used. The best regression model obtained from the sample data resulted in an adjusted R(2) value of 0.694, which means that it predicts approximately 69% of the factors involved in the generation of waste in similar constructions. Most independent variables showed a low determination coefficient when assessed in isolation, which emphasizes the importance of assessing their joint influence on the response (dependent) variable. PMID:25704604

  18. [Utilization of organic resources in paper pulp waste liquid].

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiaojia; Liu, Jinghong; Yang, Guidi; Huang, Biao

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, one hundred percent of condensed sulfate paper pulp waste liquid was used as the raw material of adhesive, and the activation of its lignin as well as the improving effects of phenol formaldehyde resin and polyfunctional aqueous polymer isocyanate (PAPI) were studied. The results showed that adding formaldehyde to the waste liquid could increase the reactivity of contained lignin, and adding 30% phenol formaldehyde resin or 20% PAPI could make the waste liquid in place of pure phenol formaldehyde resin for producing class I plywood. Furthermore, the cost could be reduced by 55.5% and 49.0%, respectively, in comparing with pure phenol formaldehyde resin. This approach fully used the organic resources in paper pulp waste liquid, reduced environment pollution at the same time, and had unexceptionable economic, social and ecological benefits. The feasibility of preparing adhesives from paper pulp waste liquid was also analyzed by infrared spectrum. PMID:16011170

  19. Existing data on the 216-Z liquid waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, K.W.

    1981-05-01

    During 36 years of operation at the Hanford Site, the ground has been used for disposal of liquid and solid transuranic and/or low-level wastes. Liquid waste was disposed in surface and subsurface cribs, trenches, French drains, reverse wells, ditches and ponds. Disposal structures associated with Z Plant received liquid waste from plutonium finishing and reclamation, waste treatment and laboratory operations. The nineteen 216-Z sites have received 83% of the plutonium discharged to 325 liquid waste facilities at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this document is to support the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement by drawing the existing data together for the 216-Z liquid waste disposal sites. This document provides an interim reference while a sitewide Waste Information Data System (WIDS) is developed and put on line. Eventually these and additional site data for all Hanford waste disposal sites will be available on WIDS. Compilation of existing data is the first step in evaluating the need and developing the technology for long-term management of these waste sites. The scope of this document is confined to data describing the status of the 216-Z waste sites as of December 31, 1979. Information and sketches are taken from existing documents and drawings.

  20. Natural diatomite process for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste.

    PubMed

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2007-01-01

    Diatomite has a number of unique physical properties and has found diversified industrial utilization. The filtration characteristics are particularly significant in the purification of liquids. The purpose of this study was to test natural diatomaceous earth (diatomite) as an alternative material that could be used for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste. A pilot-scale column-type device was designed. Natural diatomite samples were ground, sieved and prepared to use as sorption media. In this study, real waste liquid was used as radioactive liquid having special conditions. The liquid waste contained three radionuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60). Following the treatment by diatomite, the radioactivity of liquid waste was reduced from the initial 2.60 Bq/ml to less than 0.40 Bq/ml. The results of this study show that most of the radioactivity was removed from the solution by processing with diatomite. PMID:17049259

  1. Cement encapsulation of low-level waste liquids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Pretreatment of liquid high-level radioactive waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was essential to ensuring the success of high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. By chemically separating the HLW from liquid waste, it was possible to achieve a significant reduction in the volume of HLW to be vitrified. In addition, pretreatment made it possible to remove sulfates, which posed several processing problems, from the HLW before vitrification took place.

  2. Waste characterization for radioactive liquid waste evaporators at Argonne National Laboratory - West.

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, B. D.

    1999-02-15

    Several facilities at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) generate many thousand gallons of radioactive liquid waste per year. These waste streams are sent to the AFL-W Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) where they are processed through hot air evaporators. These evaporators remove the liquid portion of the waste and leave a relatively small volume of solids in a shielded container. The ANL-W sampling, characterization and tracking programs ensure that these solids ultimately meet the disposal requirements of a low-level radioactive waste landfill. One set of evaporators will process an average 25,000 gallons of radioactive liquid waste, provide shielding, and reduce it to a volume of six cubic meters (container volume) for disposal. Waste characterization of the shielded evaporators poses some challenges. The process of evaporating the liquid and reducing the volume of waste increases the concentrations of RCIU regulated metals and radionuclides in the final waste form. Also, once the liquid waste has been processed through the evaporators it is not possible to obtain sample material for characterization. The process for tracking and assessing the final radioactive waste concentrations is described in this paper, The structural components of the evaporator are an approved and integral part of the final waste stream and they are included in the final waste characterization.

  3. DETERMINATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF NON-AQUEOUS PHASE LIQUID MIXTURES IN ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, G

    2006-09-22

    It is important to recognize the presence of Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) in soils at a waste site in order to design and construct a successful remediation system. NAPLs often manifest as a complex, multi-component mixture of organic compounds that can occur in environmental media, such as vadose zone soil, where the mixture will partition and equilibrate with soil particles, pore vapor, and pore water. Complex organic mixtures can greatly complicate the determination and quantification of NAPL in soil due to inter-media transfer. NAPL thresholds can also change because of mixture physical properties and can disguise the presence of NAPL. A unique analytical method and copyrighted software have been developed at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site that facilitates solution of this problem. The analytical method uses a classic chemistry approach and applies the principals of solubility limit theory, Raoult's Law, and equilibrium chemistry to derive an accurate estimation of NAPL presence and quantity. The method is unique because it calculates an exact result that is mass balanced for each physical state, chemical mixture component, and mixture characteristics. The method is also unique because the solution can be calculated on both a wet weight and dry weight basis--a factor which is often overlooked. The software includes physical parameters for 300 chemicals in a database that self-loads into the model to save time. The method accommodates up to 20 different chemicals in a multi-component mixture analysis. A robust data display is generated including important parameters of the components and mixture including: NAPL thresholds for individual chemical components within the mixture, mass distribution in soil for each physical state, molar fractions, density, vapor pressure, solubility, mass balance, media concentrations, residual saturation, and modest graphing capabilities. This method and software are power tools to simplify otherwise tedious

  4. Concepts for detritiation of waste liquids

    SciTech Connect

    King, C.M. ); Van Brunt, V.; Garber, A.R. ); King, R.B. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    Tritium is formed in thermal nuclear reactors both by neutron activation of elements such as deuterium and lithium and by ternary fission in the fuel. It is a weak beta-emitter with a short half-life, 12.3 years, and its radiological significance in reactor discharges is very low. In heavy-water-cooled and -moderated reactors, such as the SRS reactors, the tritium concentration in the moderator is sufficiently high to cause a potential hazard to operators, so research and development programs have been carried out on processes to remove the tritium. Detritiation of light water has also been the subject of major R D efforts world-wide, because reprocessing operations can generate significant quantities of tritium in liquid waste, and high concentrations of tritium may arise in some aqueous streams in future fusion reactors. This paper presents a review of some of the methods that have been proposed, studied, and developed for removal of tritium from light and heavy water, along with some new concepts for aqueous detritiation directly from liquid oxide (HTO) bearing feed streams.

  5. Concepts for detritiation of waste liquids

    SciTech Connect

    King, C.M.; Van Brunt, V.; Garber, A.R.; King, R.B.

    1991-12-31

    Tritium is formed in thermal nuclear reactors both by neutron activation of elements such as deuterium and lithium and by ternary fission in the fuel. It is a weak beta-emitter with a short half-life, 12.3 years, and its radiological significance in reactor discharges is very low. In heavy-water-cooled and -moderated reactors, such as the SRS reactors, the tritium concentration in the moderator is sufficiently high to cause a potential hazard to operators, so research and development programs have been carried out on processes to remove the tritium. Detritiation of light water has also been the subject of major R&D efforts world-wide, because reprocessing operations can generate significant quantities of tritium in liquid waste, and high concentrations of tritium may arise in some aqueous streams in future fusion reactors. This paper presents a review of some of the methods that have been proposed, studied, and developed for removal of tritium from light and heavy water, along with some new concepts for aqueous detritiation directly from liquid oxide (HTO) bearing feed streams.

  6. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  7. Treatability Variance for Containerised Liquids in Mixed Debris Waste - 12101

    SciTech Connect

    Alstatt, Catherine M.

    2012-07-01

    The TRU Waste Processing Center (TWPC) is a Department of Energy facility whose mission is to receive and process for appropriate disposal legacy Contact Handled (CH) and Remote Handled (RH) waste, including debris waste stored at various DOE Oak Ridge facilities. Acceptable Knowledge (AK) prepared for the waste characterizes the waste as mixed waste, meaning it is both radioactive and regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The AK also indicates that a number of the debris waste packages contain small amounts of containerised liquids. The documentation indicates liquid wastes generated in routine lab operations were typically collected for potential recovery of valuable isotopes. However, during activities associated with decontamination and decommissioning (D and D), some containers with small amounts of liquids were placed into the waste containers with debris waste. Many of these containers now hold from 2.5 milliliters (ml) to 237 ml of liquid; a few contain larger volumes. At least some of these containers were likely empty at the time of generation, but documentation of this condition is lacking. Since WIPP compliant AK is developed on a waste stream basis, rather than an individual container basis, and includes every potential RCRA hazardous constituent within the waste stream, it is insufficient for the purpose of characterizing individual containers of liquid. Debris waste is defined in 40 CFR 268.2(g) as 'solid material exceeding a 60 mm particle size that is intended for disposal and that is: a manufactured object; or plant or animal matter; or natural geologic material'. The definition further states that intact containers of hazardous waste that are not ruptured and that retain at least 75% of their original volume are not debris. The prescribed treatment is removal of intact containers from the debris waste, and treatment of their contents to meet specific Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) standards. This is true for

  8. Quantification of feather structure, wettability and resistance to liquid penetration

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Siddarth; Chhatre, Shreerang S.; Guardado, Jesus O.; Park, Kyoo-Chul; Parker, Andrew R.; Rubner, Michael F.; McKinley, Gareth H.; Cohen, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Birds in the cormorant (Phalacrocoracidae) family dive tens of metres into water to prey on fish while entraining a thin layer of air (a plastron film) within the microstructures of their feathers. In addition, many species within the family spread their wings for long periods of time upon emerging from water. To investigate whether wetting and wing-spreading are related to feather structure, microscopy and photographic studies have previously been used to extract structural parameters for barbs and barbules. In this work, we describe a systematic methodology to characterize the quasi-hierarchical topography of bird feathers that is based on contact angle measurements using a set of polar and non-polar probing liquids. Contact angle measurements on dip-coated feathers of six aquatic bird species (including three from the Phalacrocoracidae family) are used to extract two distinguishing structural parameters, a dimensionless spacing ratio of the barbule (D*) and a characteristic length scale corresponding to the spacing of defect sites. The dimensionless spacing parameter can be used in conjunction with a model for the surface topography to enable us to predict a priori the apparent contact angles of water droplets on feathers as well as the water breakthrough pressure required for the disruption of the plastron on the feather barbules. The predicted values of breakthrough depths in water (1–4 m) are towards the lower end of typical diving depths for the aquatic bird species examined here, and therefore a representative feather is expected to be fully wetted in a typical deep dive. However, thermodynamic surface energy analysis based on a simple one-dimensional cylindrical model of the feathers using parameters extracted from the goniometric analysis reveals that for water droplets on feathers of all six species under consideration, the non-wetting ‘Cassie–Baxter’ composite state represents the global energy minimum of the system. By contrast, for other

  9. QUANTIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL DISPOSAL METHODS FOR INDUSTRIALLY GENERATED HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimations of the amounts of industrial hazardous wastes being disposed of according to various methods of disposal were generated for significant portions of the five following SIC codes: 28, Chemical and Allied Products; 29, Petroleum Refining and Related Industries; 30, Rubbe...

  10. Detection of free liquid in containers of solidified radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    Nondestructive detection of the presence of free liquid within a sealed enclosure containing solidified waste is accomplished by measuring the levels of waste at two diametrically opposite locations while slowly tilting the enclosure toward one of said locations. When the measured level remains constant at the other location, the measured level at said one location is noted and any measured difference of levels indicates the presence of liquid on the surface of the solifified waste. The absence of liquid in the enclosure is verified when the measured levels at both locations are equal.

  11. Detection of free liquid in containers of solidified radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1985-01-01

    A method of nondestructively detecting the presence of free liquid within a sealed enclosure containing solidified waste by measuring the levels of waste at two diametrically opposite locations while slowly tilting the enclosure toward one of said locations. When the measured level remains constant at the other location, the measured level at said one location is noted and any measured difference of levels indicates the presence of liquid on the surface of the solidified waste. The absence of liquid in the enclosure is verified when the measured levels at both locations are equal.

  12. Methodology for quantification of waste generated in Spanish railway construction works.

    PubMed

    de Guzmán Báez, Ana; Villoria Sáez, Paola; del Río Merino, Mercedes; García Navarro, Justo

    2012-05-01

    In the last years, the European Union (EU) has been focused on the reduction of construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Specifically, in 2006, Spain generated roughly 47million tons of C&D waste, of which only 13.6% was recycled. This situation has lead to the drawing up of many regulations on C&D waste during the past years forcing EU countries to include new measures for waste prevention and recycling. Among these measures, the mandatory obligation to quantify the C&D waste expected to be originated during a construction project is mandated. However, limited data is available on civil engineering projects. Therefore, the aim of this research study is to improve C&D waste management in railway projects, by developing a model for C&D waste quantification. For this purpose, we develop two equations which estimate in advance the amount, both in weight and volume, of the C&D waste likely to be generated in railway construction projects, including the category of C&D waste generated for the entire project. PMID:22321896

  13. Methodology for quantification of waste generated in Spanish railway construction works

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman Baez, Ana de; Garcia Navarro, Justo

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two equations for C and D waste estimation in railway construction works are developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mixed C and D waste is the most generated category during railway construction works. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tunnel construction is essential to quantify the waste generated during the works. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a relationship between C and D waste generated and railway functional units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The methodology proposed can be used to obtain new constants for other areas. - Abstract: In the last years, the European Union (EU) has been focused on the reduction of construction and demolition (C and D) waste. Specifically, in 2006, Spain generated roughly 47 million tons of C and D waste, of which only 13.6% was recycled. This situation has lead to the drawing up of many regulations on C and D waste during the past years forcing EU countries to include new measures for waste prevention and recycling. Among these measures, the mandatory obligation to quantify the C and D waste expected to be originated during a construction project is mandated. However, limited data is available on civil engineering projects. Therefore, the aim of this research study is to improve C and D waste management in railway projects, by developing a model for C and D waste quantification. For this purpose, we develop two equations which estimate in advance the amount, both in weight and volume, of the C and D waste likely to be generated in railway construction projects, including the category of C and D waste generated for the entire project.

  14. OBSERVATIONS ON WASTE DESTRUCTION IN LIQUID INJECTION INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various factors affecting the performance of a subscale liquid injection incinerator simulator are discussed. The mechanisms by which waste escapes incineration within the spray flame are investigated for variations in atomization quality, flame stoichiometry. and the initial was...

  15. Liquid return from gas pressurization of grouted waste

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, W.J.; Benny, H.L.

    1994-05-01

    The ability to force pore liquids out of a simulated waste grout matrix using air pressure was measured. Specimens cured under various conditions were placed in a permeameter and subjected to increasing air pressure. The pressure was held constant for 24 hours and then stepped up until either liquid was released or 150 psi was reached. One specimen was taken to 190 psi with no liquid release. Permeability to simulated tank waste was then measured. Compressive strength was measured following these tests. This data is to assess the amount of fluid that might be released from grouted waste resulting from the buildup of radiolytically generated hydrogen and other gasses within the waste form matrix. A plot of the unconfined compressive strength versus breakthrough pressures identifies a region of ``good`` grout, which will resist liquid release.

  16. Evaluation of mercury in the liquid waste processing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Vijay; Shah, Hasmukh; Occhipinti, John E.; Wilmarth, William R.; Edwards, Richard E.

    2015-08-13

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  17. Decommissioning and Dismantling of Liquid Waste Storage and Liquid Waste Treatment Facility from Paldiski Nuclear Site, Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Varvas, M.; Putnik, H.; Johnsson, B.

    2006-07-01

    The Paldiski Nuclear Facility in Estonia, with two nuclear reactors was owned by the Soviet Navy and was used for training the navy personnel to operate submarine nuclear reactors. After collapse of Soviet Union the Facility was shut down and handed over to the Estonian government in 1995. In co-operation with the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (PIERG) decommission strategy was worked out and started to implement. Conditioning of solid and liquid operational waste and dismantling of contaminated installations and buildings were among the key issues of the Strategy. Most of the liquid waste volume, remained at the Facility, was processed in the frames of an Estonian-Finnish co-operation project using a mobile wastewater purification unit NURES (IVO International OY) and water was discharged prior to the site take-over. In 1999-2002 ca 120 m{sup 3} of semi-liquid tank sediments (a mixture of ion exchange resins, sand filters, evaporator and flocculation slurry), remained after treatment of liquid waste were solidified in steel containers and stored into interim storage. The project was carried out under the Swedish - Estonian co-operation program on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Contaminated installations in buildings, used for treatment and storage of liquid waste (Liquid Waste Treatment Facility and Liquid Waste Storage) were then dismantled and the buildings demolished in 2001-2004. (authors)

  18. Direct quantification of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Spielmeyer, Astrid; Pohnert, Georg

    2010-12-01

    A simple, derivatization free method for the direct determination of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)/mass spectrometry is introduced. DMSP is a zwitterionic osmolyte which is produced from marine plankton, macro algae and higher plants. Due to its central role in climate relevant geochemical processes as well as in plant physiology and chemical ecology there is a great interest in methods for its quantification. Since DMSP is labile and difficult to extract currently most protocols for quantification are based on indirect methods. Here we show that ultra performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry using a HILIC stationary phase is suitable for the direct quantification of DMSP from aqueous samples and microalgal extracts. The protocol requires minimal sample preparation and phytoplankton samples can be investigated after filtration of small volumes. The limit of detection is 20nM and the calibration curve is linear in the range of 60nM to 50μM. The use of [(2)H(6)]-DMSP as internal standard allows prolonged sample storage since it is transformed with the same kinetics as natural DMSP. This makes the method suitable for both laboratory and field studies. PMID:21030323

  19. Quantification of astaxanthin in shrimp waste hydrolysate by HPLC.

    PubMed

    López-Cervantes, J; Sánchez-Machado, D I; Gutiérrez-Coronado, M A; Ríos-Vázquez, N J

    2006-10-01

    In the present study, a simple and rapid reversed-phase HPLC method for the determination of astaxanthin in shrimp waste hydrolysate has been developed and validated. The analytical procedure involves the direct extraction of astaxanthin from the lipid fraction with methanol. The analytical column, SS Exil ODS, was operated at 25C. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of water:methanol:dichloromethane:acetonitrile (4.5:28:22:45.5 v/v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection and identification were performed using a photodiode array detector (lambda(detection) = 476 nm). The proposed HPLC method showed adequate linearity, repeatability and accuracy. PMID:16802328

  20. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L.

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

  1. Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

    2003-02-25

    The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

  2. In-Situ Chemical Precipitation of Radioactive Liquid Waste - 12492

    SciTech Connect

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2012-07-01

    This paper presented in-situ chemical precipitation for radioactive liquid waste by using chemical agents. Results are reported on large-scale implementation on the removal of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 60}Co from liquid radioactive waste generating from Nuclear Research and Training Centre. Total amount of liquid radioactive waste was 35 m{sup 3} and main radionuclides were Cs-137, Cs- 134 and Co-60. Initial radioactivity concentration of the liquid waste was 2264, 17 and 9 Bq/liter for Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60 respectively. Potassium ferro cyanide was selected as chemical agent at high pH levels 8-10 according to laboratory tests. After the process, radioactive sludge precipitated at the bottom of the tank and decontaminated clean liquid was evaluated depending on discharge limits. By this precipitation method decontamination factors were determined as 60, 9 and 17 for Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60 respectively. At the bottom of the tank radioactive sludge amount was 0.98 m{sup 3}. It was transferred by sludge pumps to cementation unit for solidification. By in situ chemical processing 97% of volume reduction was achieved. Using the optimal concentration of 0.75 M potassium ferro cyanide about 98% of the {sup 137}Cs can be removed at pH 8. The Potassium ferro cyanide precipitation method could be used successfully in large scale applications with nickel and ferrum agents for removal of Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co- 60. Although DF values of laboratory test were much higher than in-situ implementation, liquid radioactive waste was decontaminated successfully by using potassium ferro cyanide. Majority of liquid waste were discharged as clean liquid. %97.2 volumetric amount of liquid waste was cleaned and discharged at the original site. Reduced amount of sludge transportation in drums is more economical and safer method than liquid transportation. Although DF values could be different for each of applications related to main specifications of original liquid waste, this

  3. Process for treating liquid chlorinated hydrocarbon wastes containing iron

    SciTech Connect

    Doane, E.P.

    1986-09-30

    A process is described for reducing the ferric chloride content of liquid waste streams comprising higher boiling chlorinated hydrocarbons and containing amounts of ferric chloride. The process consists essentially of contacting the waste stream with an amount of water sufficient to convert ferric chloride contained in the stream to solid ferric chloride hexahydrate, and then removing the solid hexahydrate by filtration or centrifugation from the waste stream.

  4. APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO INCINERATION OF LIQUID HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the effect of acoustic pulsations on the steady-state operation of a pulse combustor burning liquid hazardous waste. A horizontal tunnel furnace was retrofitted with a liquid injection pulse combustor that burned No. 2 fuel oil. Th...

  5. Quantification of regional leachate variance from municipal solid waste landfills in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Kjeldsen, Peter; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2015-12-01

    The quantity of leachate is crucial when assessing pollution emanating from municipal landfills. In most cases, existing leachate quantification measures only take into account one source - precipitation, which resulted in serious underestimation in China due to its waste properties: high moisture contents. To overcome this problem, a new estimation method was established considering two sources: (1) precipitation infiltrated throughout waste layers, which was simulated with the HELP model, (2) water squeezed out of the waste itself, which was theoretically calculated using actual data of Chinese waste. The two sources depended on climate conditions and waste characteristics, respectively, which both varied in different regions. In this study, 31 Chinese cities were investigated and classified into three geographic regions according to landfill leachate generation performance: northwestern China (China-NW) with semi-arid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 46.0%, northern China (China-N) with semi-humid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%, and southern China (China-S) with humid and sub-tropical/tropical climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%. In China-NW, accumulated leachate amounts were very low and mainly the result of waste degradation, implying on-site spraying/irrigation or recirculation may be an economic approach to treatment. In China-N, water squeezed out of waste by compaction totaled 22-45% of overall leachate amounts in the first 40 years, so decreasing the initial moisture content of waste arriving at landfills could reduce leachate generation. In China-S, the leachate generated by infiltrated precipitation after HDPE geomembranes in top cover started failing, contributed more than 60% of the overall amounts over 100 years of landfilling. Therefore, the quality and placing of HDPE geomembranes in the top cover should be controlled strictly for the purpose of mitigation leachate generation

  6. Elimination of liquid discharge to the environment from the TA-50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, D.; Williams, N.; Hall, D.; Hargis, K.; Saladen, M.; Sanders, M.; Voit, S.; Worland, P.; Yarbro, S.

    1998-06-01

    Alternatives were evaluated for management of treated radioactive liquid waste from the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The alternatives included continued discharge into Mortandad Canyon, diversion to the sanitary wastewater treatment facility and discharge of its effluent to Sandia Canyon or Canada del Buey, and zero liquid discharge. Implementation of a zero liquid discharge system is recommended in addition to two phases of upgrades currently under way. Three additional phases of upgrades to the present radioactive liquid waste system are proposed to accomplish zero liquid discharge. The first phase involves minimization of liquid waste generation, along with improved characterization and monitoring of the remaining liquid waste. The second phase removes dissolved salts from the reverse osmosis concentrate stream to yield a higher effluent quality. In the final phase, the high-quality effluent is reused for industrial purposes within the Laboratory or evaporated. Completion of these three phases will result in zero discharge of treated radioactive liquid wastewater from the RLWTF.

  7. Assessment and quantification of plastics waste generation in major 60 cities of India.

    PubMed

    Nalini, R; Srinivasulu, B; Shit, Subhas C; Nigam, Suneel Kumar; Akolkar, A B; Dwivedfi, R K

    2013-04-01

    Polymers or plastics materials registered rapid growth in 1970s, 1980s and 1990s at the rate of 2-2.5 times the GDP growth in India. The demand for plastic raw material got more than doubled from 3.3 Million Metric Ton to 6.8 Million Metric Tons in 2010 attributed mainly to rapid urbanization, spread of retail chains, plastics based packaging from grocery to food and vegetable products to cosmetics and consumer items. Plastics packages have its merits over many of conventional materials in the related sector but unless they are collected back effectively after their use to go into recycling process, they become an eyesore in the stream of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) due to high visibility. As the synthetic and conventional plastics are non-biodegradable in nature, these remain in the dump yards/ landfills for several years, if not collected properly. Due to non- biodegradability, plastics waste remains in the environment for several years, if not collected and disposing plastics wastes at landfills are unsafe since toxic chemicals leach out into the soil and as they contaminate soil and underground water quality. The municipal solid waste also increasing day-by-day due to the inefficient source collection, segregation and transmission of plastics waste for recycling and reusing. In order to find out the realistic plastics waste generation, a study on assessment and quantification of plastics waste has been carried out by CPCB in collaboration with CIPET on selected 60 major cities of India. PMID:25464691

  8. Assessment and quantification of plastics waste generation in major 60 cities of India.

    PubMed

    Nalini, R; Srinivasulu, B; Shit, Subhas C; Nigam, Suneel Kumar; Akolkar, A B; Dwivedfi, R K

    2013-04-01

    Polymers or plastics materials registered rapid growth in 1970s, 1980s and 1990s at the rate of 2-2.5 times the GDP growth in India. The demand for plastic raw material got more than doubled from 3.3 Million Metric Ton to 6.8 Million Metric Tons in 2010 attributed mainly to rapid urbanization, spread of retail chains, plastics based packaging from grocery to food and vegetable products to cosmetics and consumer items. Plastics packages have its merits over many of conventional materials in the related sector but unless they are collected back effectively after their use to go into recycling process, they become an eyesore in the stream of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) due to high visibility. As the synthetic and conventional plastics are non-biodegradable in nature, these remain in the dump yards/ landfills for several years, if not collected properly. Due to non- biodegradability, plastics waste remains in the environment for several years, if not collected and disposing plastics wastes at landfills are unsafe since toxic chemicals leach out into the soil and as they contaminate soil and underground water quality. The municipal solid waste also increasing day-by-day due to the inefficient source collection, segregation and transmission of plastics waste for recycling and reusing. In order to find out the realistic plastics waste generation, a study on assessment and quantification of plastics waste has been carried out by CPCB in collaboration with CIPET on selected 60 major cities of India. PMID:25508322

  9. Corrosion experience in calcination of liquid nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, C A

    1980-01-01

    The Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory became operational in 1963. Since that time, approximately 13,337,137 litres (3,523,375 gallons) of liquid nuclear wastes, generated during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel materials, have been reduced to dry granular solids. The volume reduction is about seven or eight gallons of liquid waste to one gallon of dry granular solids. This paper covers some of the corrosion experiences encountered in over fifteen years of operating that calcination facility. 7 figures, 7 tables.

  10. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.A.; Pincock, L.F.; Christiansen, I.N.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until recently, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, changing world events have raised questions concerning the need to recover and recycle this material. In April 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the management and disposition of radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste) and 3,800 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of calcine waste are in inventory at the ICPP. Legal drivers and agreements exist obligating the INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for safe and environmentally sound treatment and interim storage of radioactive liquid and calcine waste. Candidate treatment processes and waste forms are being evaluated using the Technology Evaluation and Analysis Methodology (TEAM) Model. This process allows decision makers to (1) identify optimum radioactive waste treatment and disposal form alternatives; (2) assess tradeoffs between various optimization criteria; (3) identify uncertainties in performance parameters; and (4) focus development efforts on options that best satisfy stakeholder concerns. The Systems Analysis technology evaluation presented in this document supports the DOE in selecting the most effective radioactive liquid and calcine waste management plan to implement in compliance with established regulations, court orders, and agreements.

  11. QUANTIFICATION OF CERAMIDE SPECIES IN BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTROSPRAY TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Kasumov, Takhar; Huang, Hazel; Chung, Yoon-Mi; Zhang, Renliang; McCullough, Arthur J.; Kirwan, John P.

    2010-01-01

    We present an optimized and validated liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous measurement of concentrations of different ceramide species in biological samples. The method of analysis of tissue samples is based on Bligh and Dyer extraction, reverse-phase HPLC separation and multiple reaction monitoring of ceramides. Preparation of plasma samples also requires isolation of sphingolipids by silica gel column chromatography prior to LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The limits of detection and quantification are in a range of 5–50 pg/ml for distinct ceramides. The method was reliable for inter-assay and intra-assay precision, accuracy and linearity. Recovery of ceramide subspecies from human plasma, rat liver and muscle tissue were 78–91%, 70–99%, and 71–95%, respectively. The separation and quantification of several endogenous long-chain and very-long-chain ceramides using two non-physiological odd chain ceramide (C17 and C25) internal standards was achieved within a single 21 min chromatographic run. The technique was applied to quantify distinct ceramide species in different rat tissues (muscle, liver, and heart) and in human plasma. Using this analytical technique we demonstrated that a clinical exercise training intervention reduces the levels of ceramides in plasma of obese adults. This technique could be extended for quantification of other ceramides and sphyngolipids with no significant modification. PMID:20178771

  12. Municipal solid waste characterization and quantification as a measure towards effective waste management in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Miezah, Kodwo; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Kádár, Zsófia; Fei-Baffoe, Bernard; Mensah, Moses Y

    2015-12-01

    Reliable national data on waste generation and composition that will inform effective planning on waste management in Ghana is absent. To help obtain this data on a regional basis, selected households in each region were recruited to obtain data on rate of waste generation, physical composition of waste, sorting and separation efficiency and per capita of waste. Results show that rate of waste generation in Ghana was 0.47 kg/person/day, which translates into about 12,710 tons of waste per day per the current population of 27,043,093. Nationally, biodegradable waste (organics and papers) was 0.318 kg/person/day and non-biodegradable or recyclables (metals, glass, textiles, leather and rubbers) was 0.096 kg/person/day. Inert and miscellaneous waste was 0.055 kg/person/day. The average household waste generation rate among the metropolitan cities, except Tamale, was high, 0.72 kg/person/day. Metropolises generated higher waste (average 0.63 kg/person/day) than the municipalities (0.40 kg/person/day) and the least in the districts (0.28 kg/person/day) which are less developed. The waste generation rate also varied across geographical locations, the coastal and forest zones generated higher waste than the northern savanna zone. Waste composition was 61% organics, 14% plastics, 6% inert, 5% miscellaneous, 5% paper, 3% metals, 3% glass, 1% leather and rubber, and 1% textiles. However, organics and plastics, the two major fractions of the household waste varied considerably across the geographical areas. In the coastal zone, the organic waste fraction was highest but decreased through the forest zone towards the northern savanna. However, through the same zones towards the north, plastic waste rather increased in percentage fraction. Households did separate their waste effectively averaging 80%. However, in terms of separating into the bin marked biodegradables, 84% effectiveness was obtained whiles 76% effectiveness for sorting into the bin labeled other waste was

  13. Quantification and pharmacokinetics of crizotinib in rats by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Feng; Gu, Yanan; Wang, Tingting; Gao, Yingying; Li, Xiao; Gao, Xiangyu; Cheng, Shan

    2016-06-01

    Crizotinib is a small molecule inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and can be used to treat ALK-positive nonsmall-cell lung cancer. A rapid and simple high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of crizotinib in rat plasma using a chemical synthetic compound buspirone as the internal standard (IS). The plasma samples were pretreated by a simple protein precipitation with methanol-acetonitrile (1:1, v/v). Chromatographic separation was successfully achieved on an Agilent Zorbax XDB C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, 3.5 µm). The gradient elution system was composed of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and 0.1% formic acid in methanol solution. The flow rate was set at 0.50 mL/min. The multiple reaction monitoring was based on the transitions of m/z = 450.3 → 177.1 for crizotinib and 386.2 → 122.2 for buspirone (IS). The assay was successfully validated to demonstrate the selectivity, matrix effect, linearity, lower limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, recovery and stability according to the international guidelines. The lower limit of quantification was 1.00 ng/mL in 50 μL of rat plasma. This LC-MS/MS assay was successfully applied to the quantification and pharmacokinetic study of crizotinib in rats after intravenous and oral administration of crizotinib. The oral absolute bioavailability of crizotinib in rats was 68.6 ± 9.63%. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26467669

  14. Quantification of breast density using dual-energy mammography with liquid phantom calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Alfonso R.; Ding, Huanjun; Molloi, Sabee

    2014-07-01

    Breast density is a widely recognized potential risk factor for breast cancer. However, accurate quantification of breast density is a challenging task in mammography. The current use of plastic breast-equivalent phantoms for calibration provides limited accuracy in dual-energy mammography due to the chemical composition of the phantom. We implemented a breast-equivalent liquid phantom for dual-energy calibration in order to improve the accuracy of breast density measurement. To design these phantoms, three liquid compounds were chosen: water, isopropyl alcohol, and glycerol. Chemical compositions of glandular and adipose tissues, obtained from NIST database, were used as reference materials. Dual-energy signal of the liquid phantom at different breast densities (0% to 100%) and thicknesses (1 to 8 cm) were simulated. Glandular and adipose tissue thicknesses were estimated from a higher order polynomial of the signals. Our results indicated that the linear attenuation coefficients of the breast-equivalent liquid phantoms match those of the target material. Comparison between measured and known breast density data shows a linear correlation with a slope close to 1 and a non-zero intercept of 7%, while plastic phantoms showed a slope of 0.6 and a non-zero intercept of 8%. Breast density results derived from the liquid calibration phantoms showed higher accuracy than those derived from the plastic phantoms for different breast thicknesses and various tube voltages. We performed experimental phantom studies using liquid phantoms and then compared the computed breast density with those obtained using a bovine tissue model. The experimental data and the known values were in good correlation with a slope close to 1 (˜1.1). In conclusion, our results indicate that liquid phantoms are a reliable alternative for calibration in dual-energy mammography and better reproduce the chemical properties of the target material.

  15. Liquid radioactive waste discharges from B plant to cribs

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.C., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-29

    This engineering report compiles information on types and quantities of liquid waste discharged from B-Plant directly to cribs, ditches, reverse wells, etc., that are associated with B-Plant. Waste discharges to these cribs via overflow form 241-B, 241-BX, and 241-BY tank farms, and waste discharged to these cribs from sources other than B-Plant are discussed.Discharges from B-Plant to other cribs, unplanned releases, or waste remaining in tanks are not included in the report. Waste stream composition information is used to predict quantities of individual chemicals sent to cribs. This provides an accurate mass balance of waste streams from B-Plant to these cribs. These predictions are compared with known crib inventories as a verification of the process.

  16. Real-time quantification of viable bacteria in liquid medium using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaimeh, Ahmad A.; Campion, Jeffrey J.; Gharaibeh, Belal Y.; Evans, Martin E.; Saito, Kozo

    2011-11-01

    Quantifying viable bacteria in liquids is important in environmental, food processing, manufacturing, and medical applications. Since vegetative bacteria generate heat as a result of biochemical reactions associated with cellular functions, thermal sensing techniques, including infrared thermography (IRT), have been used to detect viable cells in biologic samples. We developed a novel method that extends the dynamic range and improves the sensitivity of bacterial quantification by IRT. The approach uses IRT video, thermodynamics laws, and heat transfer mechanisms to directly measure, in real-time, the amount of energy lost as heat from the surface of a liquid sample containing bacteria when the specimen cools to a lower temperature over 2 min. We show that the Energy Content ( EC) of liquid media containing as few as 120 colony-forming units (CFU) of Escherichia coli per ml was significantly higher than that of sterile media ( P < 0.0001), and that EC and viable counts were strongly positively correlated ( r = 0.986) over a range of 120 to approximately 5 × 10 8 CFU/ml. Our IRT approach is a unique non-contact method that provides real-time bacterial enumeration over a wide dynamic range without the need for sample concentration, modification, or destruction. The approach could be adapted to quantify other living cells in a liquid milieu and has the potential for automation and high throughput.

  17. Methane Production Quantification and Energy Estimation for Bangalore Municipal Solid Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Dand, R.; Lakshmikanthan, P.; Babu, G. L. Sivakumar

    2014-01-01

    Landfills are considered as cornerstone of solid waste management. Landfill gas (LFG) and leachate are principal outputs from landfills. Methane, occupying significant volume of landfill gas, has considerable potential as a source of energy replacing enormous amounts of fossil fuels currently in use. Gas extraction and utilization systems need to be designed and implemented in order to exploit this resource. Assessment of economic viability of these systems necessitates estimation of gas released and its energy potential. Gas quantification and energy estimation for municipal solid waste (MSW) of Bangalore city was carried out using five independent methodologies. A small scale experiment was conducted to monitor the gas generation and the results were compared and analysed. Results show that significant energy can be harnessed from the MSW if requisite LFG management systems are installed. The use of methane as an energy source maximizes the extraction of useful resources from landfills, minimizes the global warming and offsets significant amount of fossil fuels.

  18. Removal of dissolved and suspended radionuclides from Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, S.D. ); Nankani, F.D. ); Bray, L.A.; Eakin, D.E.; Larson, D.E. )

    1990-12-01

    It was determined during Preliminary Design of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant that certain intermediate process liquid waste streams should be decontaminated in a way that would permit the purge of dissolved chemical species from the process recycle shop. This capability is needed to ensure proper control of product glass chemical composition and to avoid excessive corrosion of process equipment. This paper discusses the process design of a system that will remove both radioactive particulates and certain dissolved fission products from process liquid waste streams. Supporting data obtained from literature sources as well as from laboratory- and pilot-scale tests are presented. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department Annual Operating Report, CY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the waste management operations section of the liquid and gaseous waste operations department at ORNL for 1993. The process waste, liquid low-level waste, gaseous waste systems activities are reported, as well as the low-level waste solidification project. Upgrade activities is the various waste processing and treatment systems are summarized. A maintenance activity overview is provided, and program management, training, and other miscellaneous activities are covered.

  20. ISOLATION OF RADIOACTIVE METALS FROM LIQUID WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metals are present in many waste streams, and pose challenges with regard to their disposal. Release of metals into the environment presents both human health and ecological concerns. As a result, efforts are directed at reducing their toxicity, bioavailability, and environment...

  1. A Canadian Solution for Management of Mixed Liquid Waste - 13384

    SciTech Connect

    Suryanarayan, Sriram; Husain, Aamir

    2013-07-01

    Mixed liquid wastes (MLW) from Canadian nuclear facilities consist of solvents, PCB (Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls) and non-PCB contaminated oils and aqueous wastes. Historically, MLW drums were shipped to a licensed US facility for destruction via incineration. This option is relatively expensive considering the significant logistics and destruction costs involved. In addition, commercial waste destruction facilities in US cannot accept PCB wastes from non-US jurisdictions. Because of this, Kinectrics has recently developed a novel and flexible process for disposing both PCB as well as non-PCB contaminated MLW within Canada. This avoids the need for cross-border shipments which significantly reduces the complexity and cost for waste disposal. This paper presents an overview of the various approaches and activities undertaken to date by Kinectrics for successfully processing and disposing the MLW drums. A summary of the results, challenges and how they were overcome are also presented. (authors)

  2. Waste Form Development for the Solidification of PDCF/MOX Liquid Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    COZZI, ALEX

    2004-02-18

    At the Savannah River Site, part of the Department of Energy's nuclear materials complex located in South Carolina, cementation has been selected as the solidification method for high-alpha and low-activity waste streams generated in the planned plutonium disposition facilities. A Waste Solidification Building (WSB) that will be used to treat and solidify three radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility is in the preliminary design stage. The WSB is expected to treat a transuranic (TRU) waste stream composed primarily of americium and two low-level waste (LLW) streams. The acidic wastes will be concentrated in the WSB evaporator and neutralized in a cement head tank prior to solidification. A series of TRU mixes were prepared to produce waste forms exhibiting a range of processing and cured properties. The LLW mixes were prepared using the premix from the preferred TRU waste form. All of the waste forms tested passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. After processing in the WSB, current plans are to dispose of the solidified TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and the solidified LLW waste at an approved low-level waste disposal facility.

  3. WEEE and portable batteries in residual household waste: Quantification and characterisation of misplaced waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bigum, Marianne; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We analyse 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 Danish households. • We quantify and characterise misplaced WEEE and portable batteries. • We compare misplaced WEEE and batteries to collection through dedicated schemes. • Characterisation showed that primarily small WEEE and light sources are misplaced. • Significant amounts of misplaced batteries were discarded as built-in WEEE. - Abstract: A total of 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 households in 12 Danish municipalities was analysed and revealed that 89.6 kg of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), 11 kg of batteries, 2.2 kg of toners and 16 kg of cables had been wrongfully discarded. This corresponds to a Danish household discarding 29 g of WEEE (7 items per year), 4 g of batteries (9 batteries per year), 1 g of toners and 7 g of unidentifiable cables on average per week, constituting 0.34% (w/w), 0.04% (w/w), 0.01% (w/w) and 0.09% (w/w), respectively, of residual waste. The study also found that misplaced WEEE and batteries in the residual waste constituted 16% and 39%, respectively, of what is being collected properly through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. This shows that a large amount of batteries are being discarded with the residual waste, whereas WEEE seems to be collected relatively successfully through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. Characterisation of the misplaced batteries showed that 20% (w/w) of the discarded batteries were discarded as part of WEEE (built-in). Primarily alkaline batteries, carbon zinc batteries and alkaline button cell batteries were found to be discarded with the residual household waste. Characterisation of WEEE showed that primarily small WEEE (WEEE directive categories 2, 5a, 6, 7 and 9) and light sources (WEEE directive category 5b) were misplaced. Electric tooth brushes, watches, clocks, headphones, flashlights, bicycle lights, and cables were items most frequently found. It is recommended that these

  4. Confirmation and quantification of clenbuterol in horse urine using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry triple quadrupole.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jennifer; Heffron, Brendan; Taddei, Lisa; Benoit, Marc; Hurt, Laura; Costello, Sara; Gross, Melissa; Negrusz, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Clenbuterol (CLE) is used in horses as a bronchodilator and for its anabolic steroid-like effects. CLE is a Class 3 drug according to current Association of Racing Commissioners International (ARCI) Uniform Classification Guidelines. The Racing Medication and Testing Consortium recommended a urine CLE threshold of 140 pg/mL after careful scientific review of the results of studies describing the disposition of CLE in the horse and this threshold was adopted by the ARCI. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was previously used to screen samples for CLE in Illinois, but could not detect such low concentrations in urine. Thus, a liquid-liquid extraction of CLE from urine followed by quantification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. Method validation included testing stability, ion suppression and enhancement, precision, accuracy and uncertainty. Intra-, interday and total precision and accuracy were calculated for each control and found to be within the ±15% acceptance range. The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement approach was used to calculate uncertainty, which was 11% at the 95% confidence level. In the past 5 years, only 15 samples were reported as positive for CLE in Illinois. This new method was used in a pilot program to screen and confirm samples received from thoroughbred and harness horses. PMID:25505053

  5. Process for immobilizing radioactive boric acid liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1986-01-01

    A method of immobilizing boric acid liquid wastes containing radionuclides by neutralizing the solution and evaporating the resulting precipitate to near dryness. The dry residue is then fused into a reduced volume, insoluble, inert, solid form containing substantially all the radionuclides.

  6. Simultaneous liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry quantification of cefixime and clavulanic acid in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Dubala, Anil; Nagarajan, Janaki Sankarachari Krishnan; Vimal, Chandran Sathish; George, Renjith

    2015-01-01

    A simple and specific liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) assay method has been developed and fully validated for the simultaneous quantification of cefixime (CX) and clavulanic acid (CA) in human plasma. Analytes and internal standard were extracted from human plasma by a solid phase extraction technique using a Sam prep (3 mL, 100 mg) extraction cartridge. The extracted samples were chromatographed on a reverse phase C18 column using a mixture of methanol : acetonitrile : 2 mM ammonium acetate (pH 3.5) (25 : 25 : 50, v/v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Quantification of the analytes were carried out using single quadrupole LC-APCI-MS through selected ion monitoring at m/z 452 and 198, respectively, for CX and CA. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.05-10.0 and 0.1-10.0 μg/mL, respectively, for CX and CA. The mean plasma extraction recoveries of the CX and CA were found to be 95.20-96.27% and 94.67-95.58%, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the determination of pharmacokinetics of CX and CA after oral administration of single dosage CX/CA (200/125 mg) pill to the humans (n = 12). PMID:25209681

  7. Recent progress in polar metabolite quantification in plants using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqian; Rochfort, Simone

    2014-09-01

    Metabolite analysis or metabolomics is an important component of systems biology in the post-genomic era. Although separate liquid chromatography (LC) methods for quantification of the major classes of polar metabolites of plants have been available for decades, a single method that enables simultaneous determination of hundreds of polar metabolites is possible only with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) techniques. The rapid expansion of new LC stationary phases in the market and the ready access of mass spectrometry in many laboratories provides an excellent opportunity for developing LC–MS based methods for multi-target quantification of polar metabolites. Although various LC–MS methods have been developed over the last 10 years with the aim to quantify one or more classes of polar compounds in different matrices, currently there is no consensus LC–MS method that is widely used in plant metabolomics studies. The most promising methods applicable to plant metabolite analysis will be reviewed in this paper and the major problems encountered highlighted. The aim of this review is to provide plant scientists, with limited to moderate experience in analytical chemistry, with up-to-date and simplified information regarding the current status of polar metabolite analysis using LC–MS techniques. PMID:25340205

  8. Methane-oxygen electrochemical coupling in an ionic liquid: a robust sensor for simultaneous quantification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Guo, Min; Baker, Gary A; Stetter, Joseph R; Lin, Lu; Mason, Andrew J; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2014-10-21

    Current sensor devices for the detection of methane or natural gas emission are either expensive and have high power requirements or fail to provide a rapid response. This report describes an electrochemical methane sensor utilizing a non-volatile and conductive pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte and an innovative internal standard method for methane and oxygen dual-gas detection with high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability. At a platinum electrode in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NTf2)-based ILs, methane is electro-oxidized to produce CO2 and water when an oxygen reduction process is included. The in situ generated CO2 arising from methane oxidation was shown to provide an excellent internal standard for quantification of the electrochemical oxygen sensor signal. The simultaneous quantification of both methane and oxygen in real time strengthens the reliability of the measurements by cross-validation of two ambient gases occurring within a single sample matrix and allows for the elimination of several types of random and systematic errors in the detection. We have also validated this IL-based methane sensor employing both conventional solid macroelectrodes and flexible microfabricated electrodes using single- and double-potential step chronoamperometry. PMID:25093213

  9. WEEE and portable batteries in residual household waste: quantification and characterisation of misplaced waste.

    PubMed

    Bigum, Marianne; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas H; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-11-01

    A total of 26.1Mg of residual waste from 3129 households in 12 Danish municipalities was analysed and revealed that 89.6kg of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), 11kg of batteries, 2.2kg of toners and 16kg of cables had been wrongfully discarded. This corresponds to a Danish household discarding 29g of WEEE (7 items per year), 4g of batteries (9 batteries per year), 1g of toners and 7g of unidentifiable cables on average per week, constituting 0.34% (w/w), 0.04% (w/w), 0.01% (w/w) and 0.09% (w/w), respectively, of residual waste. The study also found that misplaced WEEE and batteries in the residual waste constituted 16% and 39%, respectively, of what is being collected properly through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. This shows that a large amount of batteries are being discarded with the residual waste, whereas WEEE seems to be collected relatively successfully through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. Characterisation of the misplaced batteries showed that 20% (w/w) of the discarded batteries were discarded as part of WEEE (built-in). Primarily alkaline batteries, carbon zinc batteries and alkaline button cell batteries were found to be discarded with the residual household waste. Characterisation of WEEE showed that primarily small WEEE (WEEE directive categories 2, 5a, 6, 7 and 9) and light sources (WEEE directive category 5b) were misplaced. Electric tooth brushes, watches, clocks, headphones, flashlights, bicycle lights, and cables were items most frequently found. It is recommended that these findings are taken into account when designing new or improving existing special waste collection schemes. Improving the collection of WEEE is also recommended as one way to also improve the collection of batteries due to the large fraction of batteries found as built-in. The findings in this study were comparable to other western European studies, suggesting that the recommendations made in this study could apply to other

  10. Quantification of homocysteine and cysteine by derivatization with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Głowacki, Rafał; Stachniuk, Justyna; Borowczyk, Kamila; Jakubowski, Hieronim

    2016-03-01

    A simple and rapid assay using pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a derivatizing reagent was developed for the simultaneous determination of homocysteine (Hcy) and cysteine (Cys) in human plasma. Derivatization with PLP affords UV-absorbing tetrahydrothiazine and thiazolidine derivatives of Hcy and Cys, respectively. Separation of these derivatives was achieved in 5 min using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, followed by UV detection at 330 nm. Linearity in detector response was observed over the range of 0.25-20 μM for Hcy and 10-300 μM for Cys. The limit of quantification (LOQ) values for Hcy and Cys were 0.25 and 2.5 μM, respectively. The method was successfully applied to plasma samples donated by apparently healthy volunteers. Graphical Abstract A flow chart diagram of analytical procedure for total plasma Hcy and Cys determination. PMID:26794212

  11. Low level liquid waste conditioning at the ENEA Trisaia Centre

    SciTech Connect

    Di Pace, L.; Risoluti, P.; Lippolis, G.

    1993-12-31

    At the ENEA Trisaia Centre (Southern Italy) 56 m{sup 3} of radioactive low-level liquid wastes, generated during past operations of the ITREC reprocessing pilot plant and presently stored in a 60,000 liter carbon steel tank, have to be solidified in order to fulfill the specific requirements established by the Safety Authority, taking into account a Technical Guide issued on the matter of Radioactive Waste Management. For this purpose, the design of a facility, for conditioning this liquid LLW by cementation, was completed and submitted to the Safety Authority. The facility, named SIRTE, is composed of a transfer system and a cementation section based on the MOWA technique. Furthermore a qualification program for the treatment and conditioning process has been completed, in order to define the best cement matrix formulation, at the ENEA Casaccia Research Centre. The main characteristics of the cement matrix, coming from tests on simulated conditioned waste, are given.

  12. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Cochran, John Russell; Sol Shamsaldin, Emad

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  13. Supported liquid inorganic membranes for nuclear waste separation

    SciTech Connect

    Bhave, Ramesh R; DeBusk, Melanie M; DelCul, Guillermo D; Delmau, Laetitia H; Narula, Chaitanya K

    2015-04-07

    A system and method for the extraction of americium from radioactive waste solutions. The method includes the transfer of highly oxidized americium from an acidic aqueous feed solution through an immobilized liquid membrane to an organic receiving solvent, for example tributyl phosphate. The immobilized liquid membrane includes porous support and separating layers loaded with tributyl phosphate. The extracted solution is subsequently stripped of americium and recycled at the immobilized liquid membrane as neat tributyl phosphate for the continuous extraction of americium. The sequestered americium can be used as a nuclear fuel, a nuclear fuel component or a radiation source, and the remaining constituent elements in the aqueous feed solution can be stored in glassified waste forms substantially free of americium.

  14. Quantification of Bile Acids in Traditional Animal Medicines and Their Preparations Using Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry in the Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mode.

    PubMed

    Yerigui; Wu, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Xi-Jun; Ma, Chao-Mei

    2016-01-01

    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatograph-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry has been established and validated for the simultaneous quantification of 15 bile acids in four traditional animal medicines and their preparations. The separations of bile acids were performed on an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm; 1.8 μm) with methanol-0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase. Glycyrrhetinic acid was added as internal standard owing to its similar physiochemical properties with the bile acids. Using this condition, detected in the multiple reaction monitoring mode, the 15 bile acids, including three groups of isomers, were well quantified individually. Method validation showed that the linear regression relationship (r(2), 0.9993 - 0.9999), precisions (intra-day RSD, 0.96 - 4.31%; inter-day, 1.73 - 4.43%), and recovery (95.3 - 120.9%) were all satisfactory. The analysis results showed that bear bile and bezoar (Niu Huang) as well as their formulations contained large amounts of most of the 15 bile acids. In addition, this research revealed for the first time the presences of bile acids in animal waste medication used in traditional medicine from two clinics, Hei-Bing-Pian (discharges of wild boar) and Trogopterus Dung. The established method could be used for the quantification of other bile- or animal waste-based crude drugs and their formulated products. PMID:27169647

  15. Pilot studies to achieve waste minimization and enhance radioactive liquid waste treatment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Freer, J.; Freer, E.; Bond, A.

    1996-07-01

    The Radioactive and Industrial Wastewater Science Group manages and operates the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The RLWTF treats low-level radioactive liquid waste generated by research and analytical facilities at approximately 35 technical areas throughout the 43-square-mile site. The RLWTF treats an average of 5.8 million gallons (21.8-million liters) of liquid waste annually. Clarifloculation and filtration is the primary treatment technology used by the RLWTF. This technology has been used since the RLWTF became operable in 1963. Last year the RLWTF achieved an average of 99.7% removal of gross alpha activity in the waste stream. The treatment process requires the addition of chemicals for the flocculation and subsequent precipitation of radionuclides. The resultant sludge generated during this process is solidified in drums and stored or disposed of at LANL.

  16. Sensitive quantification of omeprazole and its metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Ute; Schwab, Matthias; Treiber, Gerd; Klotz, Ulrich

    2006-02-01

    A sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous determination of omeprazole and its major metabolites 5-hydroxyomeprazole and omeprazole sulfone in human plasma by HPLC-electrospray mass spectrometry. Following liquid-liquid extraction HPLC separation was achieved on a ProntoSil AQ, C18 column using a gradient with 10 mM ammonium acetate in water (pH 7.25) and acetonitrile. The mass spectrometer was operated in the selected ion monitoring mode using the respective MH(+) ions, m/z 346 for omeprazole, m/z 362 for 5-hydroxy-omeprazole and omeprazol-sulfone and m/z 300 for the internal standard (2-{[(3,5-dimethylpyridine-2-yl)methyl]thio}-1H-benzimidazole-5-yl)methanol. The limit of quantification (LOQ) achieved with this method was 5 ng/ml for 5-hydroxyomeprazole and 10 ng/ml for omeprazole and omeprazole-sulfone using 0.25 ml of plasma. Intra- and inter-assay variability was below 11% over the whole concentration range from 5 to 250 ng/ml for 5-hydroxyomeprazol and from 10 to 750 ng/ml for omeprazole and omeprazole-sulfone. The method was successfully applied to the determination of pharmacokinetic parameters of esomeprazole and the two major metabolites after a single dose and under steady state conditions. PMID:16338182

  17. Determination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in nuclear waste by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    du Bois de Maquillé, Laurence; Renaudin, Laetitia; Goutelard, Florence; Jardy, Alain; Vial, Jérôme; Thiébaut, Didier

    2013-02-01

    EDTA is a chelating agent that has been used in decontamination processes. Its quantification is required for nuclear waste management because it affects the mobility of radionuclides and metals in environment and, thus, can harm the safety of the storage. Ion-pair chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry detection is a convenient method for quantitative analysis of EDTA but EDTA should be present as a single anionic chelate form. However, radioactive liquid wastes contain high concentrations of heavy metals and salts and consequently, EDTA is present as several chelates. Speciation studies were carried out to choose a metal cation to be added in excess to the solution to obtain a major chelate form. Fe is the predominant cation and Fe(III)-EDTA is thermodynamically favored but these speciation studies showed that ferric hydroxide precipitated above pH 2. Consequently, it was not possible to quantify EDTA as Fe(III)-EDTA complex. Therefore, Ni(2+) was chosen but its use implied pretreatment with a base of the solution to eliminate Fe. Deuterated EDTA was used as tracer in order to validate the whole procedure, from the treatment with a base to the final analysis by HPLC-ESI-MS. This analytical method was successfully applied for EDTA quantification in two real effluents resulting from a nuclear liquid waste process. A recovery rate between 60 and 80% was obtained. The limit of detection of this method was determined at 34×10(-9)mol L(-1). PMID:23312862

  18. RECOVERY OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED LIQUID WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin M. Stewart

    1999-09-29

    Mercury was widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons facilities, resulting in a broad range of mercury-contaminated wastes and wastewaters. Some of the mercury contamination has escaped to the local environment, particularly at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, where approximately 330 metric tons of mercury were discharged to the environment between 1953 and 1963 (TN & Associates, 1998). Effective removal of mercury contamination from water is a complex and difficult problem. In particular, mercury treatment of natural waters is difficult because of the low regulatory standards. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency has established a national ambient water quality standard of 12 parts-per-trillion (ppt), whereas the standard is 1.8 ppt in the Great Lakes Region. In addition, mercury in the environment is typically present in several different forms, but sorption processes are rarely effective with more than one or two of these forms. To meet the low regulatory discharge limits, an effective sorption process must be able to address all forms of mercury present in the water. One approach is to apply different sorbents in series depending on the mercury speciation and the regulatory discharge limits. ADA Technologies, Inc. has developed four new sorbents to address the variety of mercury species present in industrial discharges and natural waters. Three of these sorbents have been field tested on contaminated creek water at the Y-12 Plant. Two of these sorbents have been successfully demonstrated very high removal efficiencies for soluble mercury species, reducing mercury concentrations at the outlet of a pilot-scale system to less than 12 ppt for as long as six months. The other sorbent tested at the Y-12 Plant targeted colloidal mercury not removed by standard sorption or filtration processes. At the Y-12 Plant, colloidal mercury appears to be associated with iron, so a sorbent that removes mercury-iron complexes in the presence of a

  19. Identification and Quantification of Dimethylamylamine in Geranium by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, J.S.; Chen, M.; Li, Z.C.

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive and reliable method of liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/ MS) was developed and validated for determining 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The sample was extracted with 0.5 M HCl and purified by liquid-liquid partition with hexane. The parameters for reverse-phase (C18) LC and positive ESI/MS/MS were optimized. The matrix effect, specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy and reproducibility of the method were determined and evaluated. The method was linear over a range of 0.10–10.00 ng/mL examined, with R2 of 0.99 for both 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA. The recoveries from spiked concentrations between 5.00–40.00 ng/g were 85.1%–104.9% for 1,3-DMAA, with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.9%–11.0%, and 82.9%–101.8% for 1,4-DMAA, with RSD of 3.2%–11.7%. The instrument detection limit was 1–2 pg for both DMAAs. The quantification limit was estimated to be 1–2 ng/g for the plant sample. This method was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of 1,3- and 1,4-DMAA in both geranium plant and geranium oil. PMID:22915838

  20. Automated Label-free Quantification of Metabolites from Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Data*

    PubMed Central

    Kenar, Erhan; Franken, Holger; Forcisi, Sara; Wörmann, Kilian; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Lehmann, Rainer; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Zell, Andreas; Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has become a standard technology in metabolomics. In particular, label-free quantification based on LC-MS is easily amenable to large-scale studies and thus well suited to clinical metabolomics. Large-scale studies, however, require automated processing of the large and complex LC-MS datasets. We present a novel algorithm for the detection of mass traces and their aggregation into features (i.e. all signals caused by the same analyte species) that is computationally efficient and sensitive and that leads to reproducible quantification results. The algorithm is based on a sensitive detection of mass traces, which are then assembled into features based on mass-to-charge spacing, co-elution information, and a support vector machine–based classifier able to identify potential metabolite isotope patterns. The algorithm is not limited to metabolites but is applicable to a wide range of small molecules (e.g. lipidomics, peptidomics), as well as to other separation technologies. We assessed the algorithm's robustness with regard to varying noise levels on synthetic data and then validated the approach on experimental data investigating human plasma samples. We obtained excellent results in a fully automated data-processing pipeline with respect to both accuracy and reproducibility. Relative to state-of-the art algorithms, ours demonstrated increased precision and recall of the method. The algorithm is available as part of the open-source software package OpenMS and runs on all major operating systems. PMID:24176773

  1. Quantification of six cannabinoids and metabolites in oral fluid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-08-01

    Δ(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most commonly analyzed cannabinoid in oral fluid (OF); however, its metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) offers the advantage of documenting active consumption, as it is not detected in cannabis smoke. Analytical challenges such as low (ng/L) THCCOOH OF concentrations hampered routine OF THCCOOH monitoring. Presence of minor cannabinoids like cannabidiol and cannabinol offer the advantage of identifying recent cannabis intake. Published OF cannabinoids methods have limitations, including few analytes and lengthy derivatization. We developed and validated a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for THC, its metabolites, 11-hydroxy-THC and THCCOOH quantification, and other natural cannabinoids including tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabigerol (CBG) in 1 mL OF collected with the Quantisal device. After solid-phase extraction, chromatography was performed on a Selectra PFPP column with a 0.15% formic acid in water and acetonitrile gradient with a 0.5 mL/min flow rate. All analytes were monitored in positive mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) with multiple reaction monitoring. Limits of quantification were 15 ng/L THCCOOH and 0.2 µg/L for all other analytes. Linear ranges extended to 3750 ng/L THCCOOH, 100 µg/L THC, and 50 µg/L for all other analytes. Inter-day analytical recoveries (bias) and imprecision at low, mid, and high quality control (QC) concentrations were 88.7-107.3% and 2.3-6.7%, respectively (n = 20). Mean extraction efficiencies and matrix effects evaluated at low and high QC were 75.9-86.1% and 8.4-99.4%, respectively. This method will be highly useful for workplace, criminal justice, drug treatment and driving under the influence of cannabis OF testing. PMID:25428610

  2. Simultaneous quantification of Pacific ciguatoxins in fish blood using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mak, Yim Ling; Wu, Jia Jun; Chan, Wing Hei; Murphy, Margaret B; Lam, James C W; Chan, Leo L; Lam, Paul K S

    2013-04-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a food intoxication caused by exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs) in coral reef fish. Rapid analytical methods have been developed recently to quantify Pacific-CTX-1 (P-CTX-1) in fish muscle, but it is destructive and can cause harm to valuable live coral reef fish. Also fish muscle extract was complex making CTX quantification challenging. Not only P-CTX-1, but also P-CTX-2 and P-CTX-3 could be present in fish, contributing to ciguatoxicity. Therefore, an analytical method for simultaneous quantification of P-CTX-1, P-CTX-2, and P-CTX-3 in whole blood of marketed coral reef fish using sonication, solid-phase extraction (SPE), and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The optimized method gave acceptable recoveries of P-CTXs (74-103 %) in fish blood. Matrix effects (6-26 %) in blood extracts were found to be significantly reduced compared with those in muscle extracts (suppressed by 34-75 % as reported in other studies), thereby minimizing potential for false negative results. The target P-CTXs were detectable in whole blood from four coral reef fish species collected in a CFP-endemic region. Similar trends in total P-CTX levels and patterns of P-CTX composition profiles in blood and muscle of these fish were observed, suggesting a relationship between blood and muscle levels of P-CTXs. This optimized method provides an essential tool for studies of P-CTX pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in fish, which are needed for establishing the use of fish blood as a reliable sample for the assessment and control of CFP. PMID:23392409

  3. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report CY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1997-03-01

    This annual report summarizes operating activities dealing with the process waste system, the liquid low-level waste system, and the gaseous waste system. It also describes upgrade activities dealing with the process and liquid low-level waste systems, the cathodic protection system, a stack ventilation system, and configuration control. Maintenance activities are described dealing with nonradiological wastewater treatment plant, process waste treatment plant and collection system, liquid low-level waste system, and gaseous waste system. Miscellaneous activities include training, audits/reviews/tours, and environmental restoration support.

  4. [A system for decontamination of liquid radioactive waste produced in in vitro tests in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, T; Norimura, T; Ueno, T

    1983-06-01

    It is well known that very large storage tanks for radioactive liquids are necessary for the disposal of liquid radioactive waste. In vitro tests in radioimmunoassay in nuclear medicine are rapidly increasing for clinical examination causing marked increase in the volume of liquid radioactive waste. Thus we have developed a system for decontaminating radioactivity from liquid waste. In the first step, the liquid waste is boiled by a sterilizer and, in the second step, this sterilised liquid is filtered by a cylindrical filter (Toyo filter No. 84). After filtration, the liquid waste is passed into a beaded charcoal column and an ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA 402) column. After these treatments, the radioactivity level of liquid waste is lowered to less than 1% of the original radioactivity. We are now in the planning stages of building an apparatus for practical use. PMID:6622764

  5. Decontamination of a radioactive waste liquid by electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstrom, J.E.

    1987-02-24

    An apparatus is described for the removal and recovery of acidic and radioactive components of a liquid waste stream comprising in combination a series of at least two electrodialysis units or stacks. Each stack is comprised of a cathode chamber at one terminal end, and an anode chamber at the opposite terminal end. The chambers contain respectively a cathode and anode electrode. A deacidification stack is the first stack in the series having all of its chambers being separated one from the other by separate anion selective membranes defining between the electrode chambers at least one neutral liquid chamber positioned adjacent to the cathode chamber. A primary desalting stack is the second stack in the series comprising a multi-chamber unit having alternating salt diluting and salt concentrating chambers defined by alternating cation and anion selective membranes, means for introducing a liquid to be treated into the cathode chamber of the deacidification stack with exit means for withdrawal of the liquid, and means for passing the withdrawn liquid into and out of the salt diluting chambers of the primary desalting stack. A means is included for introducing a liquid into and out of the concentrating and electrode chambers of the primary desalting stack and for passing a direct electric current transversely across the membranes and chambers of each stack in the series.

  6. Quantification of maltol in Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) products by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun Cheol; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Young-Chan; Rhee, Young Kyoung; Choi, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kyung-Tack; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Young-Chul; Cho, Chang-Won

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maltol, as a type of phenolic compounds, is produced by the browning reaction during the high-temperature treatment of ginseng. Thus, maltol can be used as a marker for the quality control of various ginseng products manufactured by high-temperature treatment including red ginseng. For the quantification of maltol in Korean ginseng products, an effective high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed. Materials and Methods: The HPLC-DAD method for maltol quantification coupled with a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method was developed and validated in terms of linearity, precision, and accuracy. An HPLC separation was performed on a C18 column. Results: The LLE methods and HPLC running conditions for maltol quantification were optimized. The calibration curve of the maltol exhibited good linearity (R2 = 1.00). The limit of detection value of maltol was 0.26 μg/mL, and the limit of quantification value was 0.79 μg/mL. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the data of the intra- and inter-day experiments were <1.27% and 0.61%, respectively. The results of the recovery test were 101.35–101.75% with an RSD value of 0.21–1.65%. The developed method was applied successfully to quantify the maltol in three ginseng products manufactured by different methods. Conclusion: The results of validation demonstrated that the proposed HPLC-DAD method was useful for the quantification of maltol in various ginseng products. PMID:26246746

  7. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  8. Dielectric Properties of Low-Level Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    L. E. Lagos; M. A. Ebadian

    1998-10-20

    The purpose of this study was to develop a data collection containing values for the dielectric properties of various low-level liquid waste (LLLW) simulants measured as a function of frequency, temperature, and composition. The investigation was motivated by current interest in the use of microwave processing for the treatment of radioactive waste. A large volume of transuranic liquid and sludge produced by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) during the production of nuclear fiel bars is stored at several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites around the United States. Waste storage and disposal space is scarce, expensive, and must be minimized. Thus, several DOE sites are pursuing the use of microwave heating as a means of achieving volume reduction and solidification of low-level liquid wastes. It is important to know which microwave frequencies should be employed tc achieve the most efficient processing at a range of different temperatures. The dielectric properties of the LLLW simulants can be utilized to determine the optimum frequencies for use with a particular LLLW or with other LLLWS of similar composition. Furthermore, nonlinear thermal processes, such as thermal runaway, which occur in the material being treated cannot be modeled without a knowledge of the temperature dependence of the dielectric properties. Often, this data does not exist; however, when it does, only very limited data near room temperature are available. The data collection generated in this study can be used to predict the behavior of a variety of microwave thermal treatment technologies, which have the potential of substantially reducing the volume of the LLLWS that are currently stored at many DOE sites. This information should help the users of the microwave reduction and solidification technology to optimize microwave processes used in the treatment of LLLW. The microwave reduction and solidification technology has clear advantages over other methods of reducing LLLWS. These

  9. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams. Volume 1, Methodology and liquid photographic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1994-04-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. This report examines the usefulness of benchmarking as a waste minimization tool, specifically regarding common waste streams at DOE sites. A team of process experts from a variety of sites, a project leader, and benchmarking consultants completed the project with management support provided by the Waste Minimization Division EM-352. Using a 12-step benchmarking process, the team examined current waste minimization processes for liquid photographic waste used at their sites and used telephone and written questionnaires to find ``best-in-class`` industrv partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies through a site visit. Eastman Kodak Co., and Johnson Space Center/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to be partners. The site visits yielded strategies for source reduction, recycle/recovery of components, regeneration/reuse of solutions, and treatment of residuals, as well as best management practices. An additional benefit of the work was the opportunity for DOE process experts to network and exchange ideas with their peers at similar sites.

  10. Selective classification and quantification model of C&D waste from material resources consumed in residential building construction.

    PubMed

    Mercader-Moyano, Pilar; Ramírez-de-Arellano-Agudo, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    The unfortunate economic situation involving Spain and the European Union is, among other factors, the result of intensive construction activity over recent years. The excessive consumption of natural resources, together with the impact caused by the uncontrolled dumping of untreated C&D waste in illegal landfills have caused environmental pollution and a deterioration of the landscape. The objective of this research was to generate a selective classification and quantification model of C&D waste based on the material resources consumed in the construction of residential buildings, either new or renovated, namely the Conventional Constructive Model (CCM). A practical example carried out on ten residential buildings in Seville, Spain, enabled the identification and quantification of the C&D waste generated in their construction and the origin of the waste, in terms of the building material from which it originated and its impact for every m(2) constructed. This model enables other researchers to establish comparisons between the various improvements proposed for the minimization of the environmental impact produced by building a CCM, new corrective measures to be proposed in future policies that regulate the production and management of C&D waste generated in construction from the design stage to the completion of the construction process, and the establishment of sustainable management for C&D waste and for the selection of materials for the construction on projected or renovated buildings. PMID:23446631

  11. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report CY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents details about the operation of the liquid and gaseous waste department of Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the calendar year 1994. Topics discussed include; process waste system, upgrade activities, low-level liquid radioactive waste solidification project, maintenance activities, and other activities such as training, audits, and tours.

  12. A study of waste liquid crystal display generation in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhifeng; Xu, Zeying; Huang, Haihong; Li, Bingbing

    2016-01-01

    The generation of liquid crystal display waste is becoming a serious social problem. Predicting liquid crystal display waste status is the foundation for establishing a recycling network; however, the difficulty in predicting liquid crystal display waste quantity lies in data mining. In order to determine the quantity and the distribution of liquid crystal display waste in China, the four top-selling liquid crystal display products (liquid crystal display TVs, desktop PCs, notebook PCs, and mobile phones) were selected as study objects. Then, the extended logistic model and market supply A method was used to predict the quantity of liquid crystal display waste products. Moreover, the distribution of liquid crystal display waste products in different regions was evaluated by examining the consumption levels of household equipment. The results revealed that the quantity of waste liquid crystal displays would increase rapidly in the next decade. In particular, the predicted quantity of waste liquid crystal displays would rise to approximately 4.262 × 10(9) pieces in 2020, and the total display area (i.e. the surface area of liquid crystal display panels) of waste liquid crystal displays would reach 5.539 × 10(7) m(2). The prediction on the display area of waste liquid crystal display TVs showed that it would account for 71.5% of the total display area by 2020. Meanwhile, the quantity of waste mobile phones would significantly grow, increasing 5.8 times from 2012 to 2020. In terms of distribution, Guangdong is the top waste liquid crystal display-generating province in China, followed by Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan, Zhejiang, and Sichuan. Considering its regional characteristics, Guangdong has been proposed to be the most important location of the recycling network. PMID:26542394

  13. Recovering low-turbidity cutting liquid from silicon slurry waste.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzu-Hsuan; Shih, Yu-Pei

    2014-04-30

    In order to recover a low-turbidity polyalkylene glycol (PAG) liquid from silicon slurry waste by sedimentation, temperatures were adjusted, and acetone, ethanol or water was used as a diluent. The experimental results show that the particles in the waste would aggregate and settle readily by using water as a diluent. This is because particle surfaces had lower surface potential value and weaker steric stabilization in PAG-water than in PAG-ethanol or PAG-acetone solutions. Therefore, water is the suggested diluent for recovering a low-turbidity PAG (<100 NTU) by sedimentation. After 50 wt.% water-assisted sedimentation for 21 days, the solid content of the upper liquid reduced to 0.122 g/L, and the turbidity decreased to 44 NTU. The obtained upper liquid was then vacuum-distillated to remove water. The final recovered PAG with 0.37 NTU had similar viscosity and density to the unused PAG and could be reused in the cutting process. PMID:24637449

  14. High performance liquid chromatography-charged aerosol detection applying an inverse gradient for quantification of rhamnolipid biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Beate; Baune, Matthias; Jungkeit, Janek; Tiso, Till; Blank, Lars M; Hayen, Heiko

    2016-07-15

    A method using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to charged-aerosol detection (HPLC-CAD) was developed for the quantification of rhamnolipid biosurfactants. Qualitative sample composition was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The relative quantification of different derivatives of rhamnolipids including di-rhamnolipids, mono-rhamnolipids, and their precursors 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkanoic acids (HAAs) differed for two compared LC-MS instruments and revealed instrument dependent responses. Our here reported HPLC-CAD method provides uniform response. An inverse gradient was applied for the absolute quantification of rhamnolipid congeners to account for the detector's dependency on the solvent composition. The CAD produces a uniform response not only for the analytes but also for structurally different (nonvolatile) compounds. It was demonstrated that n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside or deoxycholic acid can be used as alternative standards. The method of HPLC-ultra violet (UV) detection after a derivatization of rhamnolipids and HAAs to their corresponding phenacyl esters confirmed the obtained results but required additional, laborious sample preparation steps. Sensitivity determined as limit of detection and limit of quantification for four mono-rhamnolipids was in the range of 0.3-1.0 and 1.2-2.0μg/mL, respectively, for HPLC-CAD and 0.4 and 1.5μg/mL, respectively, for HPLC-UV. Linearity for HPLC-CAD was at least 0.996 (R(2)) in the calibrated range of about 1-200μg/mL. Hence, the here presented HPLC-CAD method allows absolute quantification of rhamnolipids and derivatives. PMID:27283098

  15. Speciation and quantification of vapor phases in soy biodiesel and waste cooking oil biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Dai, Yu-Tung

    2006-12-01

    This study characterizes the compositions of two biodiesel vapors, soy biodiesel and waste cooking oil biodiesel, to provide a comprehensive understanding of biodiesels. Vapor phases were sampled by purging oil vapors through thermal desorption tubes which were then analyzed by the thermal desorption/GC/MS system. The results show that the compounds of biodiesel vapors can be divided into four groups. They include methyl esters (the main biodiesel components), oxygenated chemicals, alkanes and alkenes, and aromatics. The first two chemical groups are only found in biodiesel vapors, not in the diesel vapor emissions. The percentages of mean concentrations for methyl esters, oxygenated chemicals, alkanes and alkenes, and aromatics are 66.1%, 22.8%, 4.8% and 6.4%, respectively for soy biodiesel, and 35.8%, 35.9%, 27.9% and 0.3%, respectively for waste cooking oil biodiesel at a temperature of 25+/-2 degrees C. These results show that biodiesels have fewer chemicals and lower concentrations in vapor phase than petroleum diesel, and the total emission rates are between one-sixteenth and one-sixth of that of diesel emission, corresponding to fuel evaporative emissions of loading losses of between 106 microg l(-1) and 283 microg l(-1). Although diesels generate more vapor phase emissions, biodiesels still generate considerable amount of vapor emissions, particularly the emissions from methyl esters and oxygenated chemicals. These two chemical groups are more reactive than alkanes and aromatics. Therefore, speciation and quantification of biodiesel vapor phases are important. PMID:16904162

  16. Optimization of a packed bed reactor for liquid waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, C.A.; Brower, M.J.; Coogan, J.J.; Tennant, R.A.

    1993-11-01

    The authors describe an optimization study of a packed bed reactor (PBR), developed for the treatment of hazardous liquid wastes. The focus is on the destruction of trichloroethylene (TCE). The PBR technology offers many distinct advantages over other processes: simple design, high destruction rates (99.99%), low costs, ambient pressure operation, easy maintenance and scaleability. The cost effectiveness, optimal operating parameters and scaleability were determined. As a second stage of treatment, a silent discharge plasma (SDP) reactor was installed to further treat offgases from the PBR. A primary advantage of this system is closed loop operation, where exhaust gases are continuously recycled and not released into the atmosphere.

  17. Disposal of liquid radioactive wastes through wells or shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, B. L.

    1982-01-01

    Liquids and, in some cases, suitable solids and/or entrapped gases can be disposed of by: (1) well injection into deep permeable strata, bounded by impermeable layers; (2) grout injection into an impermeable host rock, forming fractures in which the waste solidifies; and (3) slurrying into excavated subsurface cavities. Radioactive materials are presently being disposed of worldwide using all three techniques; however, it would appear that if the techniques were verified as posing minimum hazards to the environment and suitable site-specific host rock were identified, these disposal techniques could be more widely used.

  18. Disposal of liquid radioactive wastes through wells or shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes disposal of liquids and, in some cases, suitable solids and/or entrapped gases, through: (1) well injection into deep permeable strata, bounded by impermeable layers; (2) grout injection into an impermeable host rock, forming fractures in which the waste solidifies; and (3) slurrying into excavated subsurface cavities. Radioactive materials are presently being disposed of worldwide using all three techniques. However, it would appear that if the techniques were verified as posing minimum hazards to the environment and suitable site-specific host rock were identified, these disposal techniques could be more widely used.

  19. Quantification of free formaldehyde in carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hornshøj, Bettina Høj; Kobbelgaard, Sara; Blakemore, William R; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Bixler, Harris J; Klinger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the European Commission placed a limit on the amount of free formaldehyde in carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed (PES) of 5 mg kg(-1). Formaldehyde is not used in carrageenan and PES processing and accordingly one would not expect free formaldehyde to be present in carrageenan and PES. However, surprisingly high levels up to 10 mg kg(-1) have been found using the generally accepted AOAC and Hach tests. These findings are, per proposed reaction pathways, likely due to the formation of formaldehyde when sulphated galactose, the backbone of carrageenan, is hydrolysed with the strong acid used in these conventional tests. In order to minimise the risk of false-positives, which may lead to regulatory non-compliance, a new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed. Initially, carrageenan or PES is extracted with 2-propanol and subsequently reacted with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to form the chromophore formaldehyde-DNPH, which is finally quantified by reversed-phase HPLC with ultraviolet light detection at 355 nm. This method has been found to have a limit of detection of 0.05 mg kg(-1) and a limit of quantification of 0.2 mg kg(-1). Recoveries from samples spiked with known quantities of formaldehyde were 95-107%. Using this more specific technique, 20 samples of carrageenan and PES were tested for formaldehyde. Only one sample had a detectable content of formaldehyde (0.40 mg kg(-1)), thus demonstrating that the formaldehyde content of commercial carrageenan and PES products are well below the European Commission maximum limit of 5 mg kg(-1). PMID:25531040

  20. Simultaneous quantification of 21 water soluble vitamin circulating forms in human plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Meisser Redeuil, Karine; Longet, Karin; Bénet, Sylvie; Munari, Caroline; Campos-Giménez, Esther

    2015-11-27

    This manuscript reports a validated analytical approach for the quantification of 21 water soluble vitamins and their main circulating forms in human plasma. Isotope dilution-based sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation using acidic methanol enriched with stable isotope labelled internal standards. Separation was achieved by reversed-phase liquid chromatography and detection performed by tandem mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode. Instrumental lower limits of detection and quantification reached <0.1-10nM and 0.2-25nM, respectively. Commercially available pooled human plasma was used to build matrix-matched calibration curves ranging 2-500, 5-1250, 20-5000 or 150-37500nM depending on the analyte. The overall performance of the method was considered adequate, with 2.8-20.9% and 5.2-20.0% intra and inter-day precision, respectively and averaged accuracy reaching 91-108%. Recovery experiments were also performed and reached in average 82%. This analytical approach was then applied for the quantification of circulating water soluble vitamins in human plasma single donor samples. The present report provides a sensitive and reliable approach for the quantification of water soluble vitamins and main circulating forms in human plasma. In the future, the application of this analytical approach will give more confidence to provide a comprehensive assessment of water soluble vitamins nutritional status and bioavailability studies in humans. PMID:26522745

  1. Highly sensitive quantification of pyrethroid insecticide etofenprox in vegetables with high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Eiki; Baba, Koji

    2015-03-13

    This paper describes a highly sensitive analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) capable of quantifying trace amounts of synthetic pyrethroid insecticide etofenprox residue in six vegetable samples: bell pepper, cucumber, eggplant, Japanese mustard spinach, spinach, and tomato. After extraction with acetonitrile, the crude sample extract was cleaned up with a solid-phase extraction cartridge. The matrix interference derived from the tested vegetable samples was evaluated. Quantification was conducted using external calibrators prepared in pure acetonitrile. The limits of quantification for etofenprox in each sample were 1.87-3.87 ng/g. Recoveries obtained by application of the proposed analytical method of vegetable samples spiked at the considerably low levels (5-100 ng/g) were 85-111% with relative standard deviations of less than 12%. The proposed method using the HPLC-FLD was applied for trace analysis of the insecticide residue in vegetable samples. PMID:25662063

  2. Real-time alpha monitoring of a radioactive liquid waste stream at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.D.; Whitley, C.R.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.

    1995-12-31

    This poster display concerns the development, installation, and testing of a real-time radioactive liquid waste monitor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detector system was designed for the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility so that influent to the plant could be monitored in real time. By knowing the activity of the influent, plant operators can better monitor treatment, better segregate waste (potentially), and monitor the regulatory compliance of users of the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System. The detector system uses long-range alpha detection technology, which is a nonintrusive method of characterization that determines alpha activity on the liquid surface by measuring the ionization of ambient air. Extensive testing has been performed to ensure long-term use with a minimal amount of maintenance. The final design was a simple cost-effective alpha monitor that could be modified for monitoring influent waste streams at various points in the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System.

  3. Innovative Process for Comprehensive Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste - 12551

    SciTech Connect

    Penzin, R.A.; Sarychev, G.A.

    2012-07-01

    the necessity to take emergency measures and to use marine water for cooling of reactor zone in contravention of the technological regulations. In these cases significant amount of liquid radioactive wastes of complex physicochemical composition is being generated, the purification of which by traditional methods is close to impossible. According to the practice of elimination of the accident after-effects at NPP 'Fukushima' there are still no technical means for the efficient purification of liquid radioactive wastes of complex composition like marine water from radionuclides. Therefore development of state-of-the-art highly efficient facilities capable of fast and safe purification of big amounts of liquid radioactive wastes of complex physicochemical composition from radionuclides turns to be utterly topical problem. Cesium radionuclides, being extremely dangerous for the environment, present over 90% of total radioactivity contained in liquid radioactive wastes left as a result of accidents at nuclear power objects. For the purpose of radiation accidents aftereffects liquidation VNIIHT proposes to create a plant for LRW reprocessing, consisting of 4 major technological modules: Module of LRW pretreatment to remove mechanical and organic impurities including oil products; Module of sorption purification of LWR by means of selective inorganic sorbents; Module of reverse osmotic purification and desalination; Module of deep evaporation of LRW concentrates. The first free modules are based on completed technological and designing concepts implemented by VNIIHT in the framework of LLRW Project in the period of 2000-2001 in Russia for comprehensive treatment of LWR of atomic fleet. These industrial plants proved to be highly efficient and secure during their long operation life. Module of deep evaporation is a new technological development. It will ensure conduction of evaporation and purification of LRW of different physicochemical composition, including those

  4. Incineration of radioactive organic liquid wastes by underwater thermal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabrouk, M.; Lemont, F.; Baronnet, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    This work deals with incineration of radioactive organic liquid wastes using an oxygen thermal plasma jet, submerged under water. The results presented here are focused on incineration of three different wastes: a mixture of tributylphosphate (TBP) and dodecane, a perfluoropolyether oil (PFPE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). To evaluate the plutonium behavior in used TBP/dodecane incineration, zirconium is used as a surrogate of plutonium; the method to enrich TBP/dodecane mixture in zirconium is detailed. Experimental set-up is described. During a trial run, CO2 and CO contents in the exhaust gas are continuously measured; samples, periodically taken from the solution, are analyzed by appropriate chemical methods: contents in total organic carbon (COT), phosphorus, fluoride and nitrates are measured. Condensed residues are characterized by RX diffraction and SEM with EDS. Process efficiency, during tests with a few L/h of separated or mixed wastes, is given by mineralization rate which is better than 99.9 % for feed rate up to 4 L/h. Trapping rate is also better than 99 % for phosphorous as for fluorine and chlorine. Those trials, with long duration, have shown that there is no corrosion problems, also the hydrogen chloride and fluoride have been neutralized by an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate.

  5. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography for the separation, purification, and quantification of raffinose family oligosaccharides from Lycopus lucidus Turcz.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tu; Fu, Qing; Li, Fangbing; Zhou, Wei; Xin, Huaxia; Wang, Hui; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-08-01

    A systematic strategy based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography was developed for the separation, purification and quantification of raffinose family oligosaccharides from Lycopus lucidus Turcz. Methods with enough hydrophilicity and selectivity were utilized to resolve the problems encountered in the separation of oligosaccharides such as low retention, low resolution and poor solubility. The raffinose family oligosaccharides in L. lucidus Turcz. were isolated using solid-phase extraction followed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography at semi-preparative scale to obtain standards of stachyose, verbascose and ajugose. Utilizing the obtained oligosaccharides as standards, a quantitative determination method was developed, validated and applied for the content determination of raffinose family oligosaccharides both in the aerial and root parts of L. lucidus Turcz. There were no oligosaccharides in the aerial parts, while in the root parts, the total content was 686.5 mg/g with the average distribution: raffinose 66.5 mg/g, stachyose 289.0 mg/g, verbascose 212.4 mg/g, and ajugose 118.6 mg/g. The result provided the potential of roots of L. lucidus Turcz. as new raffinose family oligosaccharides sources for functional food. Moreover, since the present systematic strategy is efficient, sensitive and robust, separation, purification and quantification of oligosaccharides by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography seems to be possible. PMID:26011699

  6. Properties required by extractants and diluents for the decontamination of liquid wastes using supported liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Dozol, J.F.; Rouquette, H.; Eymard, S.; Tournois, B.

    1993-12-31

    Macrocyclic extractants are now being studied more and more often for the decontamination of radioactive liquid wastes: coronands (crown ethers, azacrown...) and cryptands. As these very sophisticated compounds are expensive, the best technique is supported liquid membranes which need a very low extractant inventory. This paper deals with the properties required by the extractant and the diluent in order to be used in an SLM device and to ensure a stable and efficient SLM: solubility of the extractant in organic compounds and in aqueous solutions; size of crown ether cavities; influence of the substituent groups on the selectivity of the crown ether; and influence of the properties of the diluent (polarity, transport of acidity) on the efficiency of the process and on the stability of the membrane (interfacial tension between the organic and aqueous phases, solubility in the aqueous phase). The influence of these parameters is illustrated by experiments performed in order to remove strontium and cesium from high sodium content liquid waste. The studies described in this paper are focused on the decategorization of evaporator concentrates arising from the reprocessing of spent fuel.

  7. Quantification of Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyltransferase Enzyme Activity by Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijun; Ptolemy, Adam S.; Harmonay, Lauren; Kellogg, Mark; Berry, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of galactosemia usually involves the measurement of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) activity. Traditional radioactive and fluorescent GALT assays are nonspecific, laborious, and/or lack sufficient analytical sensitivity. We developed a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)–based assay for GALT enzyme activity measurement. Method Our assay used stable isotope-labeled α-galactose-1-phosphate ([13C6]-Gal-1-P) as an enzyme substrate. Sample cleanup and separation were achieved by reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography, and the enzymatic product, isotope-labeled uridine diphosphate galactose ([13C6]-UDPGal), was detected by MS/MS at mass transition (571 > 323) and quantified by use of [13C6]-Glu-1-P (265 > 79) as an internal standard. Results The method yielded a mean (SD) GALT enzyme activity of 23.8 (3.8) µmol · (gHgb)−1 · h−1 in erythrocyte extracts from 71 controls. The limit of quantification was 0.04 µmol · (g Hgb)−1 · h−1 (0.2% of normal control value). Intraassay imprecision was determined at 4 different levels (100%, 25%, 5%, and 0.2% of the normal control values), and the CVs were calculated to be 2.1%, 2.5%, 4.6%, and 9.7%, respectively (n = 3). Interassay imprecision CVs were 4.5%, 6.7%, 8.2%, and 13.2% (n = 5), respectively. The assay recoveries at the 4 levels were higher than 90%. The apparent Km of the 2 substrates, Gal-1-P and UDPGlc, were determined to be 0.38 mmol/L and 0.071 mmol/L, respectively. The assay in erythrocytes of 33 patients with classical galactosemia revealed no detectable activity. Conclusions This LC-MS/MS–based assay for GALT enzyme activity will be useful for the diagnosis and study of biochemically heterogeneous patients with galactosemia, especially those with uncommon genotypes and detectable but low residual activities. PMID:20348403

  8. A&M. Hot liquid waste holding tanks. Camera faces southeast. Located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste holding tanks. Camera faces southeast. Located in vicinity of TAN-616, hot liquid waste treatment plant. Date: November 13, 1953. INEEL negative no. 9159 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. FORMATION OF TRANSIENT PUFFS FROM CONTAINED LIQUID WASTES IN A ROTARY KILN SIMULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of the generation of transient puffs resulting from the batch incineration of liquid waste into a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator. Liquid wastes investigated included toluene, methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, and No. 5 fuel oil....

  10. Non radiological issues in the treatment of low-level liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Welbergen, Jeroen; Verhoef, Ewoud; Eijke, Anton; Best, Alex de; Hengst, Jan; Codee, Hans

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In the Netherlands there are some 200 producers of radioactive waste. Most of them generate only small volumes of low and medium level waste. These small volumes however cover a wide range of waste forms: solids, liquids of all nature, slurries, etc. Because of the resulting wide spectrum of radiological and chemical contaminations, a certain amount of flexibility is required in both solid and liquid waste treatment. In addition, the Nuclear Energy Act license requires a five yearly evaluation of the waste processing installation with respect to the Best Practicable Technologies. The bulk of the solid waste are compacted, conditioned as cemented packages and stored for at least hundred years. The low-level liquid waste is treated batch-wise as the volumes of liquid waste are too small to operate a continuous system. Moreover, batch-wise processing enables more flexibility. Discharge of treated water is bounded by concentration limits of chemicals and total activity per nuclide. Evaluation of the installation showed that the radiological constraints provide a larger degree of freedom to discharge, and the waste water treatment can effectively meet the required limits. The limits of concentration of chemicals are more restrictive. The liquid waste often has more chemical contamination than radiological. This paper describes the evaluation of the waste water treatment. (authors)

  11. Remediation of Hanford's N-reactor liquid waste disposal sites.

    PubMed

    Sitsler, Robert B; DeMers, Steven K

    2003-02-01

    Hanford's N-Reactor operated from 1963 to 1987 generating approximately 9 x 10(7) m3 of radioactive and hazardous liquid effluent as a result of reactor operations. Two liquid waste disposal sites, essentially large trenches designed to filter contaminants from the water as it percolates through the soil column, were established to dispose of the effluent. The discharges to the sites included cooling water from the reactor primary, spent fuel storage, and periphery systems, along with miscellaneous drainage from reactor support facilities. Today, both sites are classified as Treatment Storage and Disposal Facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, which makes them priority sites for remediation. The two sites cover approximately 4,100 m2 and 9,300 m2, respectively. Remediation of the sites requires removing a combined total of approximately 2.6 x 10(8) kg of contaminated soil and debris. Principal radionuclides contained in the soil/debris are 60Co, 137Cs, 239Pu, and 90Sr. Remediation of these waste sites requires demolishing concrete structures and excavating, hauling, and disposing of contaminated soils in work areas containing high levels of contamination and whole body dose rates in excess of 1 mSv h-1. The work presents unique radiological control challenges, such as minimizing external dose to workers in a constantly changing outdoor work environment, maintaining contamination control during removal of a water distribution trough filled with highly contaminated sludge, and minimizing outdoor airborne contamination during size reduction of highly contaminated pipelines. Through innovative approaches to dose reduction and contamination control, Hanford's Environmental Restoration Contractor has met the challenge, completing the first phase on schedule and with a total project exposure below the goal of 0.1 person-Sv. PMID:12564346

  12. Remediation of Hanford's N-Reactor Liquid Waste Disposal Sites.

    PubMed

    Sitsler, Robert B.; DeMers, Steven K.

    2003-02-01

    Hanford's N-Reactor operated from 1963 to 1987 generating approximately 9 x 10 m of radioactive and hazardous liquid effluent as a result of reactor operations. Two liquid waste disposal sites, essentially large trenches designed to filter contaminants from the water as it percolates through the soil column, were established to dispose of the effluent. The discharges to the sites included cooling water from the reactor primary, spent fuel storage, and periphery systems, along with miscellaneous drainage from reactor support facilities. Today, both sites are classified as Treatment Storage and Disposal Facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, which makes them priority sites for remediation. The two sites cover approximately 4,100 m and 9,300 m, respectively. Remediation of the sites requires removing a combined total of approximately 2.6 x 10 kg of contaminated soil and debris. Principal radionuclides contained in the soil/debris are Co, Cs, Pu, and Sr. Remediation of these waste sites requires demolishing concrete structures and excavating, hauling, and disposing of contaminated soils in work areas containing high levels of contamination and whole body dose rates in excess of 1 mSv h. The work presents unique radiological control challenges, such as minimizing external dose to workers in a constantly changing outdoor work environment, maintaining contamination control during removal of a water distribution trough filled with highly contaminated sludge, and minimizing outdoor airborne contamination during size reduction of highly contaminated pipelines. Through innovative approaches to dose reduction and contamination control, Hanford's Environmental Restoration Contractor has met the challenge, completing the first phase on schedule and with a total project exposure below the goal of 0.1 person-Sv. PMID:12555036

  13. 324 Building liquid waste handling and removal system project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-07-29

    This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 324 Building. Recent discussions indicate that the Hanford site railroad system will be closed by the end of FY 1998 necessitating the need for an alternate transfer method. The issue of handling of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) from the 324 Building (assuming the 340 Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart 1997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 324 Building RLWS to allow load-out of wastewater to a truck tanker, while making maximum use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes to the building. This alternative is accepted as the basis for further discussion presented in this study. The goal of this engineering study is to verify the path forward presented in the previous studies and assure that the selected alternative satisfies the 324 Building deactivation goals and objectives as currently described in the project management plan. This study will also evaluate options available to implement the preferred alternative and select the preferred option for implementation of the entire system. Items requiring further examination will also be identified. Finally, the study will provide a conceptual design, schedule and cost estimate for the required modifications to the 324 Building to allow removal of RLW. Attachment 5 is an excerpt from the project baseline schedule found in the Project Management Plan.

  14. Quantification of voriconazole in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Heng, S C; Nation, R L; Levvey, B; Snell, G I; Slavin, M A; Kong, D C M

    2013-01-15

    The quantification of voriconazole concentration in lung epithelial lining fluid to facilitate the management of pulmonary fungal colonisation or aspergillosis is of increasing interest. An accurate and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography method to quantify voriconazole in human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was developed and validated. BAL samples were concentrated by freeze-drying and reconstituted with water prior to deproteinisation. Separation was achieved with a C18 column employing fluorescence detection (excitation: 260nm, emission: 370nm). The calibration curves were linear from 2.5 to 500ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were within 7%. Accuracies ranged from 102% to 107%. The clinical applicability was established by successful measurement of voriconazole concentrations in lung transplant recipients. The assay provides an alternative approach for those with negligible access to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry instrumentation. PMID:23314356

  15. MECHANISMS GOVERNING TRANSIENTS FROM THE BATCH INCINERATION OF LIQUID WASTES IN ROTARY KILNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When "containerized" liquid wastes, bound on sorbents. are introduced into a rotary kiln in a batch mode, transient phenomena in-volving heat transfer into, and waste mass transfer out of, the sorbent can oromote the raoid release of waste vaoor into the kiln environment. This ra...

  16. ISOLATION OF METALS FROM LIQUID WASTES: REACTIVE SCAVENGING IN TURBULENT THERMAL REACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal-bearing liquids constitute a major part of the DOE waste inventory. This waste is extremely varied with respect to metals (radionuclides, heavy metals, transuranics) and other species (e.g., organics). For much of this waste, concentration of metals to reduce the volume req...

  17. Packed bed reactor treatment of liquid hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Tennant, R.A.; Wantuck, P.J.; Vargas, R.

    1992-01-01

    We are developing thermal-based packed bed reactor (PBR) technology as an alternative to incineration for treatment of hazardous organic liquid wastes. The waste streams targeted by this technology are machining fluids contaminated with chlorocarbons and/or chlorofluorocarbons and low levels of plutonium or tritium The PBR offers several distinct advantages including simplistic design, rugged construction, ambient pressure processing, economical operations, as well as ease of scalability and maintainability. In this paper, we provide a description of the apparatus as well as test results using prepared mixtures of machining oils/emulsions with trichloroethylene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), trichloroethane (TCA), and Freon TF. The current treatment system is configured as a two stage device with the PBR (1st stage) coupled to a silent discharge plasma (SDP) cell. The SDP serves as a second stage for further treatment of the gaseous effluent from the PBR. One of the primary advantages of this two stage system is that its suitability for closed loop operation where radioactive components are well contained and even CO{sub 2} is not released to the environment.

  18. Packed bed reactor treatment of liquid hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Tennant, R.A.; Wantuck, P.J.; Vargas, R.

    1992-05-01

    We are developing thermal-based packed bed reactor (PBR) technology as an alternative to incineration for treatment of hazardous organic liquid wastes. The waste streams targeted by this technology are machining fluids contaminated with chlorocarbons and/or chlorofluorocarbons and low levels of plutonium or tritium The PBR offers several distinct advantages including simplistic design, rugged construction, ambient pressure processing, economical operations, as well as ease of scalability and maintainability. In this paper, we provide a description of the apparatus as well as test results using prepared mixtures of machining oils/emulsions with trichloroethylene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), trichloroethane (TCA), and Freon TF. The current treatment system is configured as a two stage device with the PBR (1st stage) coupled to a silent discharge plasma (SDP) cell. The SDP serves as a second stage for further treatment of the gaseous effluent from the PBR. One of the primary advantages of this two stage system is that its suitability for closed loop operation where radioactive components are well contained and even CO{sub 2} is not released to the environment.

  19. Low-level liquid waste decontamination by ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.

    1991-12-01

    Improved processes are being developed to treat contaminated liquid wastes that have been and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Both inorganic and organic ion-exchange methods have given promising results. Nickel and cobalt hexacyanoferrate(2) compounds are extremely selective for cesium removal, with distribution coefficients in excess of 10{sup 6} and remarkable insensitivity to competition from sodium and potassium. They tend to lose effectiveness at pH > {approximately}11, but some formulations are useful for limited periods of time up to pH {approximately}13. Sodium titanate is selective for strontium removal at high pH. The separations are so efficient that simple batch processes can yield large decontamination factors while generating small volumes of solid waste. A resorcinol-based resin developed at the Savannah River Site gave superior cesium removal, compared with other organic ion exchangers; the distribution coefficient was limited primarily by competition from potassium and was nearly independent of sodium. The optimum pH was {approximately}12.5. It was much less effective for strontium removal, which was limited by competition from sodium. 8 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Baseline-Corrected Second-Order Derivative Electroanalysis Combined With Ultrasound-Assisted Liquid-Liquid Microextraction: Simultaneous Quantification of Fluoroquinolones at Low Levels.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Luiz Henrique; Trindade, Magno Aparecido Gonçalves

    2016-06-21

    A baseline-corrected second-order derivative procedure and a miniaturized sample preparation based on low-density solvent and ultrasound-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (LDS-UA-LLME) was combined to provide the simultaneous electroanalysis of three fluoroquinolones (FQ) as emerging contaminants (ECs). The enhanced mathematical processing provided the best separation with an accurate measurement of the overlapping peaks during the simultaneous electro-oxidation of target FQs that were directly dropped on the surface of carbon nanofiber-modified screen-printed electrodes. The adapted LDS-UA-LLME protocol was the key step involved in the sample preparation, which preconcentrate target analytes from diluted tap water samples with an enrichment factor of around 80×, allowing their quantification at trace levels. This combined feature demonstrated the unique application of an electroanalytical technique for the simultaneous electroanalysis of three FQs in spiked tap water samples, with recovery values remarkably close to 100%. PMID:27249314

  1. CONTINUOUS MICRO-SORTING OF COMPLEX WASTE PLASTICS PARTICLEMIXTURES VIA LIQUID-FLUIDIZED BED CLASSIFICATION (LFBC) FOR WASTE MINIMIZATIONAND RECYCLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fundamental investigation is proposed to provide a technical basis for the development of a novel, liquid-fluidized bed classification (LFBC) technology for the continuous separation of complex waste plastic mixtures for in-process recycling and waste minimization. Although ...

  2. Solid Waste Composition and Quantification at Taman Melewar, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Abidin, S. S. S. Z.

    2016-07-01

    The poor management of solid waste is noticeable through the increasing of the solid waste each year and the difficulties in disposing the waste in the current available landfill. This study was undertaken to analyze the quantity and composition of waste generation in Taman melewar. Taman Melewar is a student residential area and this study is focusing on student's daily waste composition. The objective of this study was to identify the amount of solid waste generation, analyze and classify the composition of solid waste in Taman Melewar. The waste collection was conducted for 50 houses on a daily basis for two weeks. The average household waste generation rate was 0.082 kg/person/day. Organic waste was the major constituent of waste production. The average of organic waste represents about 72.4% followed by paper (9%), plastics film (5.5%), plastics rigid (4.7%), napkins (3.8%), tetrapek (1.3%), glass (1.1%), household hazardous waste (0.85%), textiles (0.52%), metal (0.51%) and rubber (0.34%). The moisture content was ranging from 27.67% to 28.68%. An evaluation was made based on student's behavior towards waste production and recycling. In conclusion, the results revealed that organic waste is the highest waste generated and recycling habits is also poor in Taman Melewar.

  3. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition. PMID:26298257

  4. Recovery of valuable materials from waste liquid crystal display panel

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jinhui Gao Song; Duan Huabo; Liu Lili

    2009-07-15

    Associated with the rapid development of the information and electronic industry, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been increasingly sold as displays. However, during the discarding at their end-of-life stage, significant environmental hazards, impacts on health and a loss of resources may occur, if the scraps are not managed in an appropriate way. In order to improve the efficiency of the recovery of valuable materials from waste LCDs panel in an environmentally sound manner, this study presents a combined recycling technology process on the basis of manual dismantling and chemical treatment of LCDs. Three key processes of this technology have been studied, including the separation of LCD polarizing film by thermal shock method the removal of liquid crystals between the glass substrates by the ultrasonic cleaning, and the recovery of indium metal from glass by dissolution. The results show that valuable materials (e.g. indium) and harmful substances (e.g. liquid crystals) could be efficiently recovered or separated through above-mentioned combined technology. The optimal conditions are: (1) the peak temperature of thermal shock to separate polarizing film, ranges from 230 to 240 deg. C, where pyrolysis could be avoided; (2) the ultrasonic-assisted cleaning was most efficient at a frequency of 40 KHz (P = 40 W) and the exposure of the substrate to industrial detergents for 10 min; and (3) indium separation from glass in a mix of concentrated hydrochloric acid at 38% and nitric acid at 69% (HCl:HNO{sub 3}:H{sub 2}O = 45:5:50, volume ratio). The indium separation process was conducted with an exposure time of 30 min at a constant temperature of 60 deg. C.

  5. Identification and absolute quantification of enzymes in laundry detergents by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gaubert, Alexandra; Jeudy, Jérémy; Rougemont, Blandine; Bordes, Claire; Lemoine, Jérôme; Casabianca, Hervé; Salvador, Arnaud

    2016-07-01

    In a stricter legislative context, greener detergent formulations are developed. In this way, synthetic surfactants are frequently replaced by bio-sourced surfactants and/or used at lower concentrations in combination with enzymes. In this paper, a LC-MS/MS method was developed for the identification and quantification of enzymes in laundry detergents. Prior to the LC-MS/MS analyses, a specific sample preparation protocol was developed due to matrix complexity (high surfactant percentages). Then for each enzyme family mainly used in detergent formulations (protease, amylase, cellulase, and lipase), specific peptides were identified on a high resolution platform. A LC-MS/MS method was then developed in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) MS mode for the light and corresponding heavy peptides. The method was linear on the peptide concentration ranges 25-1000 ng/mL for protease, lipase, and cellulase; 50-1000 ng/mL for amylase; and 5-1000 ng/mL for cellulase in both water and laundry detergent matrices. The application of the developed analytical strategy to real commercial laundry detergents enabled enzyme identification and absolute quantification. For the first time, identification and absolute quantification of enzymes in laundry detergent was realized by LC-MS/MS in a single run. Graphical Abstract Identification and quantification of enzymes by LC-MS/MS. PMID:27098933

  6. Review of Potential Candidate Stabilization Technologies for Liquid and Solid Secondary Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Scheele, Randall D.; Um, Wooyong; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2010-01-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has initiated a waste form testing program to support the long-term durability evaluation of a waste form for secondary wastes generated from the treatment and immobilization of Hanford radioactive tank wastes. The purpose of the work discussed in this report is to identify candidate stabilization technologies and getters that have the potential to successfully treat the secondary waste stream liquid effluent, mainly from off-gas scrubbers and spent solids, produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Down-selection to the most promising stabilization processes/waste forms is needed to support the design of a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). To support key decision processes, an initial screening of the secondary liquid waste forms must be completed by February 2010.

  7. A sensitive high performance liquid chromatography assay for the quantification of doxorubicin associated with DNA in tumor and tissues.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Andrew T; O'Neal, Sara K; Santos, Charlene M; White, Taylor F; Zamboni, William C

    2016-02-01

    Doxorubicin, a widely used anticancer agent, exhibits antitumor activity against a wide variety of malignancies. The drug exerts its cytotoxic effects by binding to and intercalating within the DNA of tumor and tissue cells. However, current assays are unable to accurately determine the concentration of the intracellular active form of doxorubicin. Thus, the development of a sample processing method and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methodology was performed in order to quantify doxorubicin that is associated with DNA in tumors and tissues, which provided an intracellular cytotoxic measure of doxorubicin exposure after administration of small molecule and nanoparticle formulations of doxorubicin. The assay uses daunorubicin as an internal standard; liquid-liquid phase extraction to isolate drug associated with DNA; a Shimadzu HPLC with fluorescence detection equipped with a Phenomenex Luna C18 (2μm, 2.0×100mm) analytical column and a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in water or acetonitrile for separation and quantification. The assay has a lower limit of detection (LLOQ) of 10ng/mL and is shown to be linear up to 3000ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision of the assay expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV%) ranged from 4.01 to 8.81%. Furthermore, the suitability of this assay for measuring doxorubicin associated with DNA in vivo was demonstrated by using it to quantify the doxorubicin concentration within tumor samples from SKOV3 and HEC1A mice obtained 72h after administration of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil(®); PLD) at 6mg/kg IV x 1. This HPLC assay allows for sensitive intracellular quantification of doxorubicin and will be an important tool for future studies evaluating intracellular pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin and various nanoparticle formulations of doxorubicin. PMID:26678179

  8. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation final report and recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Using a formalized Systems Engineering approach, the Latched Idaho Technologies Company developed and evaluated numerous alternatives for treating, immobilizing, and disposing of radioactive liquid and calcine wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Based on technical analysis data as of March, 1995, it is recommended that the Department of Energy consider a phased processing approach -- utilizing Radionuclide Partitioning for radioactive liquid and calcine waste treatment, FUETAP Grout for low-activity waste immobilization, and Glass (Vitrification) for high-activity waste immobilization -- as the preferred treatment and immobilization alternative.

  9. Reduction of Sodium Nitrate Liquid Waste in Nuclear Reprocessing Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Numata, M.; Mihara, S.; Kojima, S.; Ito, H.; Kato, T.

    2006-07-01

    Sodium nitrate solution has been generated from nuclear reprocessing plant as a result of neutralization of nitric acid. The sodium nitrate has been immobilized by bitumen, cement or other material in the site and waste packages have been produced. In order to reduce an environmental impact of the waste packages from the reprocessing plant, it is preferable to decompose nitrate ion to harmless gases such as nitrogen. A combination of formic acid and catalyst has been proposed for this purpose. But, the method is inadequate for a full decomposition of the nitrate ion. In addition, a mixture of NO and NO{sub 2} is produced during the reaction. Formaldehyde and hydrazine were selected as reductants and a combined use of Pd-Cu catalyst was tried to decompose the nitrate ion. As a result, the nitrate ion can almost entirely be decomposed without any generation of NO and NO{sub 2}. The test was conducted by 1 L flask. In case of formaldehyde, nitrate ion concentration can be reduced from 0.017 mol/l to 3.9x10{sup -4} mol/l. In case of hydrazine, nitrate concentration can be decreased from 2.8 mol/l to 9.5 x 10{sup -3} mol/l and ammonium ion is detected. The ammonium ion concentration in the final solution is 0.12 mol/l when 2.8 mol/l nitrate is reduced by hydrazine. Chemical reactions for formaldehyde on the Pd-Cu catalyst are estimated as combination of: NO{sub 3-} + HCHO = NO{sub 2-} + HCOOH; 2NO{sub 2-} + 3HCOOH = N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + 2H{sub 2}O + 2OH-; 4NO{sub 2-} + 3HCHO = 2N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + 4OH-. the other hand, for hydrazine with the Pd-Cu catalyst: 3N{sub 2}H{sub 4} = 2NH{sub 3} + 2N{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2}; NO{sub 3-} + H{sub 2} = NO{sub 2-} + H{sub 2}O; NO{sub 2-} + NH{sub 3} = N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + OH-. The fundamental research shows that the combination usage of the Pd-Cu catalyst and formaldehyde or hydrazine is applicable for the reduction of nitrate liquid waste in the nuclear reprocessing plant. (authors)

  10. Quantification of Food Waste Disposal in the United States: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Thyberg, Krista L; Tonjes, David J; Gurevitch, Jessica

    2015-12-15

    Food waste has major consequences for social, nutritional, economic, and environmental issues, and yet the amount of food waste disposed in the U.S. has not been accurately quantified. We introduce the transparent and repeatable methods of meta-analysis and systematic reviewing to determine how much food is discarded in the U.S., and to determine if specific factors drive increased disposal. The aggregate proportion of food waste in U.S. municipal solid waste from 1995 to 2013 was found to be 0.147 (95% CI 0.137-0.157) of total disposed waste, which is lower than that estimated by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the same period (0.176). The proportion of food waste increased significantly with time, with the western U.S. region having consistently and significantly higher proportions of food waste than other regions. There were no significant differences in food waste between rural and urban samples, or between commercial/institutional and residential samples. The aggregate disposal rate for food waste was 0.615 pounds (0.279 kg) (95% CI 0.565-0.664) of food waste disposed per person per day, which equates to over 35.5 million tons (32.2 million tonnes) of food waste disposed annually in the U.S. PMID:26551283

  11. Quantification of anthocyanins and flavonols in milk-based food products by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Kornél; Redeuil, Karine; Bertholet, Raymond; Steiling, Heike; Kussmann, Martin

    2009-08-01

    The present article describes the development and validation of an ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the comprehensive quantification of anthocyanin and flavonol constituents of milk-based food products. Protein precipitation by acidified methanol and ultrafiltration was utilized as sample preparation to preserve overall polyphenol composition but to eliminate milk proteins in order to comply with UPLC. Reversed-phase chromatography was optimized to achieve separation of 27 analytes in 10 min in order to reduce suppression effects, achieve a wide dynamic range, and most importantly, to resolve isomeric compounds. Positive-ion electrospray mass spectrometric detection and fragmentation of analytes was optimized, final transitions were selected for maximized selectivity, reliable quantification, and reduction of false positives. The quantitative performance of the method was validated, the main features include (1) range of lower limits of detection 0.3-30 ng/mL for glycosylated analytes, 10-300 ng/mL for aglycones, (2) lower limits of quantification 1-100 ng/mL for glycosylated analytes, 30-1,000 ng/mL for aglycones, (3) averaged intraday precision 9%, (4) calibrated range 2-180,000 ng/mL for glycosylated analytes, 60-600,000 ng/mL for aglycones, and (5) averaged accuracy 101%. Applications for yogurt and ice cream products are given. The presented data suggest that this method will help to better characterize the polyphenol composition of milk-based food products for quality control, for assessment of dietary intake, and for polyphenol bioavailability/bioefficacy studies. PMID:20337399

  12. Simultaneous Quantification of Dexpanthenol and Resorcinol from Hair Care Formulation Using Liquid Chromatography: Method Development and Validation

    PubMed Central

    De, Amit Kumar; Chowdhury, Partha Pratim; Chattapadhyay, Shyamaprasad

    2016-01-01

    The current study presents the simultaneous quantification of dexpanthenol and resorcinol from marketed hair care formulation. Dexpanthenol is often present as an active ingredient in personal care products for its beautifying and invigorating properties and restorative and smoothing properties. On the other hand resorcinol is mainly prescribed for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of scalp. The toxic side effects of resorcinol limit its use in dermatological preparations. Therefore an accurate quantification technique for the simultaneous estimation of these two components can be helpful for the formulation industries for the accurate analysis of their product quality. In the current study a high performance liquid chromatographic technique has been developed using a C18 column and a mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer of pH = 2.8 following a gradient elution. The mobile phase flow rate was 0.6 mL per minute and the detection wavelength was 210 nm for dexpanthenol and 280 nm for resorcinol. The linearity study was carried out using five solutions having concentrations ranging between 10.34 μg·mL−1 and 82.69 μg·mL−1 (r2 = 0.999) for resorcinol and 10.44 μg·mL−1 and 83.50 μg·mL−1 (r2 = 0.998) for dexpanthenol. The method has been validated as per ICH Q2(R1) guidelines. The ease of single step sample preparation, accuracy, and precision (intraday and interday) study presents the method suitable for the simultaneous quantification of dexpanthenol and resorcinol from any personal care product and dermatological preparations containing these two ingredients. PMID:27042377

  13. Radwaste desk reference - Volume 3, Part 2: Liquid waste management. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deltete, D.; Fisher, S.; Kelly, J.J.; Mis, F.; Miller, C.; Soto, R.; Vance, J.

    1994-05-01

    EPRI began, in late in 1987, to produce a Radwaste Desk Reference that would allow each of the member utilities access to the available information and expertise on radwaste management. EPRI considers this important because radwaste management involves a wide variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. These include chemical and mechanical engineering, chemistry, and health physics. Radwaste management also plays a role in implementing a wide variety of regulatory requirements. These include plant-specific technical specifications, NRC standards for protection against radiation, DOT transportation regulations and major environmental legislation such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. EPRI chose a question and answer format because it could be easily accessed by radwaste professionals with a variety of interests. The questions were generated at two meetings of utility radwaste professionals and EPRI contractors. Volume 1, which is already in publication, addresses dry active waste generation, processing and measurement. Volume 2 addresses low level waste storage, transportation and disposal. This volume, Volume 3, is being issued in two parts. Part 1 concentrates on the processing of liquid radioactive waste, whereas Part 2, included here, addresses liquid waste management. It includes extensive information and operating practices related to liquid waste generation and control, liquid waste processing systems at existing U.S. nuclear plants, processes for managing wet wastes (handling, dewatering, solidifying, processing, and packaging), and liquid waste measurement and analysis.

  14. Identification, characterization, and high-performance liquid chromatography quantification of process-related impurities in vonoprazan fumarate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Cao, Na; Ma, Xingling; Xiong, Kaihe; Sun, Lili; Zou, Qiaogen

    2016-04-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of vonoprazan fumarate, a novel proton pump inhibitor drug revealed six impurities. These were identified by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Further, the structures of the impurities were confirmed by synthesis followed by characterization by mass spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. On the basis of these data and knowledge of the synthetic scheme of vonoprazan fumarate, the previously unknown impurity was identified as 1-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-(pyridin-3-ylsulfonyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]-N-methyldimethylamine, which is a new compound. The possible mechanisms by which these impurities were formed were also discussed. A high-performance liquid chromatography method was optimized in order to separate, selectively detect, and quantify all process-related impurities of vonoprazan fumarate. The presented method has been validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection, and quantification, and response factors and, therefore, is highly suitable for routine analysis of vonoprazan fumarate related substances as well as stability studies. PMID:26843471

  15. Quantification of roxatidine in human plasma by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ju-Hee; Choi, Sang-Jun; Lee, Heon-Woo; Choi, Seung-Ki; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2008-12-01

    A sensitive and specific method using a one-step liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with ethyl acetate followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) detection was developed and validated for the determination of roxatidine in human plasma using famotidine as an internal standard (IS). Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, by monitoring the transitions m/z 307.3-->107.1 for roxatidine and m/z 338.4-->189.1 for famotidine. Chromatographic separation was performed on a reverse phase Hydrosphere C(18) column at 0.2 mL min(-1) using a mixture of methanol-ammonium formate buffer as mobile phase (20:80, v/v; adjusted to pH 3.9 with formic acid). The achieved lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 1.0 ng mL(-1) and the standard calibration curve for roxatidine was linear (r(2)=0.998) over the studied range (1-1000 ng mL(-1)) with acceptable accuracy and precision. Roxatidine was found to be stable in human plasma samples under short-, long-term storage and processing conditions. The developed method was validated and successfully applied to the bioequivalence study of roxatidine administrated as a single oral dose (75 mg as roxatidine acetate hydrochloride) to healthy female Korean volunteers. PMID:18977187

  16. Modified microspheres for cleaning liquid wastes from radioactive nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Danilin, Lev; Drozhzhin, Valery

    2007-07-01

    An effective solution of nuclear industry problems related to deactivation of technological and natural waters polluted with toxic and radioactive elements is the development of inorganic sorbents capable of not only withdrawing radioactive nuclides, but also of providing their subsequent conservation under conditions of long-term storage. A successful technical approach to creation of sorbents can be the use of hollow aluminosilicate microspheres. Such microspheres are formed from mineral additives during coal burning in furnaces of boiler units of electric power stations. Despite some reduction in exchange capacity per a mass unit of sorbents the latter have high kinetic characteristics that makes it possible to carry out the sorption process both in static and dynamic modes. Taking into account large industrial resources of microspheres as by-products of electric power stations, a comparative simplicity of the modification process, as well as good kinetic and capacitor characteristics, this class of sorbents can be considered promising enough for solving the problems of cleaning liquid radioactive wastes of various pollution levels. (authors)

  17. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility Discharges in 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Del Signore, John C.

    2012-05-16

    This report documents radioactive discharges from the TA50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities (RLWTF) during calendar 2011. During 2011, three pathways were available for the discharge of treated water to the environment: discharge as water through NPDES Outfall 051 into Mortandad Canyon, evaporation via the TA50 cooling towers, and evaporation using the newly-installed natural-gas effluent evaporator at TA50. Only one of these pathways was used; all treated water (3,352,890 liters) was fed to the effluent evaporator. The quality of treated water was established by collecting a weekly grab sample of water being fed to the effluent evaporator. Forty weekly samples were collected; each was analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Weekly samples were also composited at the end of each month. These flow-weighted composite samples were then analyzed for 37 radioisotopes: nine alpha-emitting isotopes, 27 beta emitters, and tritium. These monthly analyses were used to estimate the radioactive content of treated water fed to the effluent evaporator. Table 1 summarizes this information. The concentrations and quantities of radioactivity in Table 1 are for treated water fed to the evaporator. Amounts of radioactivity discharged to the environment through the evaporator stack were likely smaller since only entrained materials would exit via the evaporator stack.

  18. Identification and quantification of active alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qinhua; Zhang, Wenpeng; Zhang, Yulin; Chen, Jing; Chen, Zilin

    2013-08-15

    Catharanthus roseus is an important dicotyledonous medicinal plant that produces anticancer compounds. The active alkaloids vinblastine, vindoline, ajmalicine, catharanthine, and vinleurosine were identified by direct-injection ion trap-mass spectrometry (IT-MS) for collecting MS(1-2) spectra. The determinations of five alkaloids were accomplished by liquid chromatography (LC) with UV and MS detections. The analytes provided good signals corresponding to the protonated molecular ions [M+H](+) and product ions. The precursor ions and product ions for quantification of vinblastine, vindoline, ajmalicine, catharanthine, and vinleurosine were m/z 825→807, 457→397, 353→144, 337→144 and 809→748 by LC-IT-MS, respectively. Two methods were used to evaluate a number of validation characteristics (repeatability, LOD, calibration range, and recovery). MS provided a high selectivity and sensitivity for determination of five alkaloids in positive mode. After optimisation of the methods, separation, identification and quantification of the five components in C. roseus were comprehensively accomplished by HPLC with UV and MS detection. PMID:23561180

  19. Liquid-phase microextraction and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for identification and quantification of basic drugs in human urine.

    PubMed

    Thunig, Janina; Flø, Linda; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Janfelt, Christian

    2012-01-30

    Hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) were evaluated for the identification and quantification of basic drugs in human urine samples. The selective extraction capabilities of three-phase LPME provided a significant reduction in the matrix effects otherwise observed in direct DESI-MS analysis of urine samples. Aqueous LPME extracts (in 10 mM HCl) were deposited on porous Teflon, dried at room temperature, and the dried spots were then analyzed directly with DESI-MS in full scan mode. Pethidine, diphenhydramine, nortriptyline, and methadone were used as model compounds for identification, and their limits of identification were determined to be 100, 25, 100, and 30 ng/mL, respectively. In a reliability test with 19 spiked urine samples, 100% of the positive samples containing the model drugs in concentrations at or above the limit of identification were identified. Diphenhydramine was used as a model compound for quantitative analysis with diphenhydramine-d(5) as an internal standard. The calibration curve was linear in the range 50-2000 ng/mL (R(2) = 0.992) with a limit of quantification at approximately 140 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were <9.5%. In a reliability test with six spiked urine samples, deviations between the measured and the true values for diphenhydramine were in the range 0.2-22.9%. PMID:22173801

  20. Pantothenic acid quantification by a stable isotope dilution assay based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rychlik, Michael

    2003-07-01

    A stable isotope dilution assay for the quantification of free and total pantothenic acid has been developed by using [13C3,15N]-pantothenic acid as the internal standard. The three-dimensional specificity of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry enabled unequivocal determination of the vitamin. Due to the very simple extraction and clean-up procedure, free pantothenic acid could be analysed within 2 h, which is much faster than by microbiological or gas chromatographic assays. For quantification of total pantothenic acid, the vitamin was liberated from its conjugates by an overnight incubation with pigeon liver pantetheinase and alkaline phosphatase. In analyses of corn flour, the intra-assay coefficient of variation was 8.5% (n = 5) and 15.3% (n = 4) for free and total pantothenic acid, respectively. When pantothenic acid was added to corn starch at a level of 6 mg kg(-1), a recovery of 97.5% was found. Application of the stable isotope dilution assay to whole egg powder, hazel nuts and corn revealed similar data compared to those listed in nutrition data bases, whereas the content in mushrooms and porcine liver determined by the newly developed assay appeared to be lower and that of cocoa higher than reported in the literature. PMID:12894818

  1. Quantification of Modified Tyrosines in Healthy and Diabetic Human Urine using Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoji; Dozaki, Natsuko; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Yoshida, Akihiro; Naito, Michitaka; Kitamura, Masayasu; Osawa, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    The quantification of urinary oxidized tyrosines, dityrosine (DiY), nitrotyrosine (NY), bromotyrosine (BrY), and dibromotyrosine (DiBrY), was accomplished by quadruple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The sample was partially purified by solid phase extraction, and was then applied to the LC/MS/MS using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) methods. The analysis for the DiY quantification was done first. The residual samples were further butylated with n-butanol/HCl, and the other modified tyrosines were then quantified with isotopic dilution methods. MRM peaks of the modified tyrosines (DiY, NY, BrY, and DiBrY) from human urine were measured and the elution times coincided with the authentic and isotopic standards. The amounts of modified tyrosines in healthy human urine (n = 23) were 8.8 +/- 0.6 (DiY), 1.4 +/- 0.4 (NY), 3.8 +/- 0.3 (BrY), and 0.7 +/- 0.1 (DiBrY) micromol/mol of creatinine, respectively. A comparison of the modified tyrosines with urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine, pentosidine, and N(epsilon)-(hexanoyl)lysine was also performed. Almost all products, except for NY, showed good correlations with each other. The amounts of the modified tyrosines (NY, BrY, and DiBrY) in the diabetic urine were higher than those in the urine from healthy people. PMID:19177191

  2. Quantification of multiple DNA adducts formed through oxidative stress using liquid chromatography and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Churchwell, Mona I; Beland, Frederick A; Doerge, Daniel R

    2002-10-01

    Damage to DNA can arise through covalent modification of bases by reaction with oxidants and products of lipid peroxidation derived through normal aerobic metabolism. Such premutagenic lesions, including 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG), pyrimido[1,2alpha]purine-10(3H)one-2'-deoxyribose (M1-dG), etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (epsilon-dA), and etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (epsilon-dC), are believed to be important in the development of human cancers related to diet, disease states, and lifestyle. We report the development of a method for concurrent quantification of these four adducts in DNA hydrolysates of 100 microg or less using on-line sample preparation coupled with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The sensitive detection permitted adduct quantification at levels below one adduct in 10(8) normal nucleotides and measurement of these adducts in DNA from untreated rodent liver and normal human liver samples. This methodology should prove useful in hypothesis-driven studies of cancer etiology in laboratory animals and humans. PMID:12387628

  3. Quantification of isocyanates and amines in polyurethane foams and coated products by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mutsuga, Motoh; Yamaguchi, Miku; Kawamura, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    An analytical method for the identification and quantification of 10 different isocyanates and 11 different amines in polyurethane (PUR) foam and PUR-coated products was developed and optimized. Isocyanates were extracted and derivatized with di-n-butylamine, while amines were extracted with methanol. Quantification was subsequently performed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Using this methodology, residual levels of isocyanates and amines in commercial PUR products were quantified. Although the recoveries of certain isocyanates and amines were low, the main compounds used as monomers in the production of PUR products, and their decomposition species, were clearly identified at quantifiable levels. 2,4-and 2,6-toluenediisocyanate were detected in most PUR foam samples and a pastry bag in the range of 0.02–0.92 mg/kg, with their decomposition compounds, 2,4-and 2,6-toluenediamine, detected in all PUR foam samples in the range of 9.5–59 mg/kg. PUR-coated gloves are manufactured using 4,4′-methylenebisphenyl diisocyanate as the main raw material, and a large amount of this compound, in addition to 4,4′-methylenedianiline and dicyclohexylmethane-4,4′-diamine were found in these samples. PMID:24804074

  4. Quantification of phylloquinone and menaquinones in feces, serum, and food by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Karl, J Philip; Fu, Xueyan; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Saltzman, Edward; Booth, Sarah L

    2014-07-15

    Vitamin K, comprising phylloquinone (PK) and menaquinones (MKn), is a family of vitamers found in multiple biological and environmental matrices. Advancing emerging evidence for novel and distinct physiologic roles of these vitamers in human health and disease necessitates sensitive and selective methods for quantifying PK and MKn in these matrices. We developed a novel method employing high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LC-APCI-MS) for simultaneous quantification of 11 vitamin K vitamers that can be applied in feces, serum and food. Minimal detectable concentrations of vitamin K vitamers ranged from 1 pmol/g to 30 pmol/g. Limits of quantification ranged from 5 pmol/g to 90 pmol/g. Inter-assay and intra-assay variations were <17% and <8%, respectively, in food, and <12% and <8%, respectively, in feces. Recovery exceeded 80% for all vitamers in both food and feces. The method successfully quantified PK and MKn concentrations in rat chow, feces and serum. In summary, this LC-APCI-MS method provides a sensitive and selective tool for quantifying vitamin K vitamers in feces, serum and food. This method can be applied in human and animal studies examining the role of vitamin K vitamers derived from the diet and gut bacteria synthesis in health and disease. PMID:24956079

  5. Solid waste characterization, quantification and management practices in developing countries. a case study: Nablus district - Palestine.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Monou, Maria; Abu Zahra, Abdul Salam F; Shaheen, Hafez Q; Kassinos, Despo

    2010-05-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the most challenging issues faced by developing countries that suffer from serious pollution problems caused by the generation of large waste quantities. This paper presents the case study of SWM in the Nablus district - Palestine. Surveys for household residents' and SWM program operators, field investigations, on-site waste measurements and characterizations were conducted. Per capita waste generation rates varied between different localities although trends were similar. Overall, the majority of waste was organic (65.1% by weight), suggesting a strong resource recovery potential in terms of animal feed or compost. Recyclable waste (plastic, paper and card) made up 16.7% by weight the waste composition suggesting an incentive to introduce source separation. Household attitudes complemented the waste characterization study, revealing the main problems faced. SWM operators quoted on the current status, highlighting problems with disposing in unsanitary landfills, ineffective solid waste fees system, increasing solid waste quantities and lacking equipment and experienced personnel. To enhance sustainable SWM, public awareness, funding, expertise, equipment and facilities and other provisions currently lacking or inappropriate must be provided. PMID:20116162

  6. Environmental data package for ORNL Solid Waste Storage Area Four, the adjacent intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the liquid waste pilot pit area

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Shoun, R.R.

    1986-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Remedial Action Program has determined through its review of past environmental studies that Solid Waste Storage Area Four (SWSA-4) continually releases radioactivity to White Oak Creek and therefore requires application of the site stabilization and remedial actions outlined under the 3004u provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under these provisions, a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) forms the basis for determining the extent of actions. This report assembles available historical and environmental data relative to the SWSA-4 waste area grouping (WAG), which includes the 9.3-ha SWSA-4 site, the adjacent abandoned intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the experimental pilot pit area. The rationale for grouping these three waste management units into the SWSA-4 WAG is the fact that they each lie in the same hydrologic unit and share a common tributary to White Oak Creek. The results of this compilation demonstrate that although a considerable number of studies have been carried out in SWSA-4, needs such as installation of water quality wells and continued monitoring and reporting of hydrologic data still exist. These needs will become even more critical as the RI/FS process proceeds and remedial measures for the site are considered. Fewer studies have been carried out to characterize the extent of contamination at the waste transfer line and the pilot pit area. Alternatives for characterizing and stabilizing these two minor components of the SWSA-4 WAG are presented; however, extensive remedial actions do not appear to be warranted.

  7. Detection and Quantification of Pu(III, IV, V, and VI) Using a1.0-meter Liquid Core Waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Richard E.; Hu, Yung-Jin; Nitsche, Heino

    2005-02-15

    Detection and quantification of the aquo ions of Pu in 1 MHClO4 was carried out using a 1-meter liquid core waveguide (LCW) coupledto a fiber optic UV-Vis spectrometer. Detection limits of 7 x 10-7 M forPu(VI), 1.6 x 10-5 M for Pu(V), 5 x 10-6 M for Pu(IV) and 8 x 10-6 M forPu(III) were achieved. The limits of detection represent increases of 18to 33 times those achievable using a conventional 1-cm path length.Because of the much lower detection limits of the LCW, routineidentification of the oxidation states in dilute Pu solutions can bemade.

  8. Electrophoresis Gel Quantification with a Flatbed Scanner and Versatile Lighting from a Screen Scavenged from a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Monitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Brendan; Ng, Tuck Wah; Tan, Han Yen; Liew, Oi Wah

    2012-01-01

    The use of different types of stains in the quantification of proteins separated on gels using electrophoresis offers the capability of deriving good outcomes in terms of linear dynamic range, sensitivity, and compatibility with specific proteins. An inexpensive, simple, and versatile lighting system based on liquid crystal display backlighting is…

  9. Disposal of Liquid Wastes from Parlors and Milkhouses. Special Circular 154.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides information to assist in assessing the pollution potential of liquid wastes from parlors and milkhouses. Approaches to resolving problems through stabilization lagoons, irrigation, and tank collection as mandated in statutory authority are discussed. (CS)

  10. A&M. Hot liquid waste building (TAN616) under construction. Camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste building (TAN-616) under construction. Camera facing northeast. Date: November 25, 1953. INEEL negative no. 9232 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. A&M. Hot liquid waste building (TAN616). Interior of evaporator control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste building (TAN-616). Interior of evaporator control room. Date: 1962. INEEL negative no. 62-6824 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the operating activities, upgrade activities, maintenance, and other activities regarding liquid and gaseous low level radioactive waste management at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Miscellaneous activities include training, audits, tours, and environmental restoration support.

  13. Functions and requirements document, WESF decoupling project, low-level liquid waste system

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) was constructed in 1974 to encapsulate and store cesium and strontium which were isolated at B Plant from underground storage tank waste. The WESF, Building 225-B, is attached physically to the west end of B Plant, Building 221-B, 200 East area. The WESF currently utilizes B Plant facilities for disposing liquid and solid waste streams. With the deactivation of B Plant, the WESF Decoupling Project will provide replacement systems allowing WESF to continue operations independently from B Plant. Four major systems have been identified to be replaced by the WESF Decoupling Project, including the following: Low Level Liquid Waste System, Solid Waste Handling System, Liquid Effluent Control System, and Deionized Water System.

  14. Disposal of Liquid Combustible Wastes using Flameless Burners with Porous Carbon Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, Sergei; Savchenko, Evgenii; Khaustov, Sergei; Tabakaev, Roman; Zavorin, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Two modifications of flameless burners with a carbon porous media in the combustion area were investigated. Kerosene TS-1 and mixtures of highly flammable liquids wastes (HIL) were used as fuel. Experimental data are presented in a graphical form as plot of the burner thermal capacity. Results show capacity for of the developed devices and prove the prospects of disposal of liquid combustible wastes using flameless burners with porous carbon matrix.

  15. Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste Processing Facilities - Phase I Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, V.; Occhipinti, J.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, B.; Edwards, R.

    2015-07-01

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  16. Evaluation of mercury in liquid waste processing facilities - Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, V.; Occhipinti, J. E.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Edwards, R. E.

    2015-07-01

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  17. A Regulatory Analysis and Reassessment of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Listed Hazardous Waste Numbers for Applicability to the INTEC Liquid Waste System

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, K.L.; Venneman, T.E.

    1998-12-01

    This report concludes that there are four listed hazardous waste numbers (F001, F002, F005, and U134) applicable to the waste in the Process Equipment Waste Evaporator (PEWE) liquid waste system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The chemical constituents associated with these listed hazardous waste numbers, including those listed only for ignitability are identified. The RCRA Part A permit application hazardous waste numbers identify chemical constituents that may be treated or stored by the PEWE liquid waste system either as a result of a particular characteristic (40 CFR, Subpart C) or as a result of a specific process (40 CFR 261, Subpart D). The RCRA Part A permit application for the PEWE liquid waste system identifies the universe of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hazardous waste numbers [23 characteristic (hazardous waste codes) numbers and 105 listed numbers (four F-listed hazardous waste numbers, 20 P-listed hazardous waste numbers, and 81 U-listed hazardous waste numbers)] deemed acceptable for storage and treatment. This evaluation, however, identifies only listed wastes (and their chemical constituents) that have actually entered the PEWE liquid waste system and would, therefore, be assigned to the PEWE liquids and treatment residuals.

  18. Quantification of construction waste prevented by BIM-based design validation: Case studies in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Won, Jongsung; Cheng, Jack C P; Lee, Ghang

    2016-03-01

    Waste generated in construction and demolition processes comprised around 50% of the solid waste in South Korea in 2013. Many cases show that design validation based on building information modeling (BIM) is an effective means to reduce the amount of construction waste since construction waste is mainly generated due to improper design and unexpected changes in the design and construction phases. However, the amount of construction waste that could be avoided by adopting BIM-based design validation has been unknown. This paper aims to estimate the amount of construction waste prevented by a BIM-based design validation process based on the amount of construction waste that might be generated due to design errors. Two project cases in South Korea were studied in this paper, with 381 and 136 design errors detected, respectively during the BIM-based design validation. Each design error was categorized according to its cause and the likelihood of detection before construction. The case studies show that BIM-based design validation could prevent 4.3-15.2% of construction waste that might have been generated without using BIM. PMID:26754615

  19. ASSESSMENT OF LIQUID EMULSION MEMBRANE FOR CLEAN UP OF AQUEOUS WASTE EFFLUENTS FROM HAZARDOUS ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    El-Reefy, Sohair A.; Selim, Y.T.; Hassan, M.A.; Aly, H.F.

    2003-02-27

    Four liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) systems are given to remove different hazardous elements such as uranium, thorium, cobalt, copper, lead, and cadmium from different aqueous waste effluents. The optimum conditions for use of these systems are deduced. The potentiality of LEM for removal of hazardous pollutants from aqueous waste solutions is given.

  20. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616). Camera facing southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616). Camera facing southwest. Oblique view of east and north walls. Note three corrugated pipes at lower left indicating location of underground hot waste storage tanks. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-1-4 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. FACTORS IN ASSESSING THE COMPATIBILITY OF FMLS (FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINERS) AND WASTE LIQUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The experimental research project studied various factors in the compatibility of flexible membrane liners (FMLs) with waste liquids and other hazardous substances that may be encountered in waste storage and disposal facilities. This work included: (1) Swelling of FMLs and other...

  2. Current and projected liquid low-level waste generation at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, S.M.; West, G.D.

    1996-04-01

    Liquid low-level waste (LLLW) is generated by various programs and projects throughout Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This waste is collected in bottles, by trucks, or in underground collection tanks; it is then neutralized with sodium hydroxide and reduced in volume at the ORNL LLLW evaporator. This report presents historical and projected data concerning the volume and the characterization of LLLW, both prior to and after evaporation. Storage space for projected waste generation is also discussed.

  3. Liquid low-level waste generation projections for ORNL in 1993

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, S.M.

    1994-04-01

    Liquid low-level waste (LLLW) is generated by various programs and projects throughout Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These wastes are collected in underground collection tanks, bottles, and trucks; they are then neutralized with sodium hydroxide and treated for volume reduction at the ORNL evaporator facility. This report presents historical and projected data concerning the volume and characterization of LLLW, prior to and after evaporation. Storage space for projected waste generation is also discussed.

  4. Quantification of photoinduced order increase in liquid crystals with naphthopyran guests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumi, Mariacristina; Cazzell, Seth A.; Kosa, Tamas; Sukhomlinova, Ludmila; Taheri, Bahman; White, Timothy J.; Bunning, Timothy J.

    2016-03-01

    Photoinduced order-increasing phase transitions can occur in dye-liquid crystal mixtures when the photoproduct of the excitation of the dye molecules is more compatible with the liquid crystalline medium than the initial dye species. A detailed investigation of the photoinduced changes of the phase behavior and optical properties of mixtures of liquid crystals with naphthopyran guests upon exposure to light at 365 nm is presented here. In these guest-host systems, the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition temperature is increased upon irradiation. We show that the nematic range can be extended up to 2.9 °C by illumination in 5CB (4 -n -pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl) liquid crystal mixtures. The order parameter is significantly increased by illumination at all temperatures within the nematic range and the changes are larger at higher concentrations of the guests. In particular, the illuminated guest-host mixtures exhibit order parameters close to those of the neat liquid crystal host at the same temperature relative to the clearing point. An improved understanding of the photophysical processes taking place at the molecular level in these material systems can inform the design of photoresponsive materials and enhance their potential utility in optical or photonic devices.

  5. Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, J.

    1995-12-31

    This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area.

  6. 327 Building liquid waste handling options modification project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-03-28

    This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste (RLW) generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 327 Building. The overall objective of the 327 Facility Stabilization Project is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration of the 327 Facility. The issue of handling of RLW from the 327 Facility (assuming the 34O Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been conceptually examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart l997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 327 Facility RLWS handling systems to provide a truck load-out station, either within the confines of the facility or exterior to the facility. The alternatives also maximized the use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes. An issue discussed in each study involved the anticipated volume of the RLW stream. Estimates ranged between 113,550 and 387,500 liters in the earlier studies. During the development of the 324/327 Building Stabilization/Deactivation Project Management Plan, the lower estimate of approximately 113,550 liters was confirmed and has been adopted as the baseline for the 327 Facility RLW stream. The goal of this engineering study is to reevaluate the existing preferred alternative and select a new preferred alternative, if appropriate. Based on the new or confirmed preferred alternative, this study will also provide a conceptual design and cost estimate for required modifications to the 327 Facility to allow removal of RLWS and treatment of the RLW generated during deactivation.

  7. OCCURRENCE OF TRANSIENT PUFFS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR SIMULATOR. 2. CONTAINED LIQUID WASTES ON SORBENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of the generation of transient puffs resulting from the batch incineration of liquid waste into a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator. The liquid was added onto a sorbent, enclosed in cardboard cylinders that are introduced into the combusti...

  8. System for removing liquid waste from a tank

    DOEpatents

    Meneely, T.K.; Sherbine, C.A.

    1994-04-26

    A tank especially suited for nuclear applications is disclosed. The tank comprises a tank shell for protectively surrounding the liquid contained therein; an inlet positioned on the tank for passing a liquid into the tank; a sump positioned in an interior portion of the tank for forming a reservoir of the liquid; a sloped incline for resting the tank thereon and for creating a natural flow of the liquid toward the sump; a pump disposed adjacent the tank for pumping the liquid; and a pipe attached to the pump and extending into the sump for passing the liquid there through. The pump pumps the liquid in the sump through the pipe and into the pump for discharging the liquid out of the tank. 2 figures.

  9. System for removing liquid waste from a tank

    DOEpatents

    Meneely, Timothy K.; Sherbine, Catherine A.

    1994-01-01

    A tank especially suited for nuclear applications is disclosed. The tank comprises a tank shell for protectively surrounding the liquid contained therein; an inlet positioned on the tank for passing a liquid into the tank; a sump positioned in an interior portion of the tank for forming a reservoir of the liquid; a sloped incline for resting the tank thereon and for creating a natural flow of the liquid toward the sump; a pump disposed adjacent the tank for pumping the liquid; and a pipe attached to the pump and extending into the sump for passing the liquid therethrough. The pump pumps the liquid in the sump through the pipe and into the pump for discharging the liquid out of the tank.

  10. Simultaneous quantification of cardiovascular disease related metabolic risk factors using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in human serum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mo; Yang, Ruiyue; Dong, Jun; Zhang, Tianjiao; Wang, Siming; Zhou, Weiyan; Li, Hongxia; Zhao, Haijian; Zhang, Lijiao; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Chuanbao; Chen, Wenxiang

    2016-01-15

    Recent observations from metabonomic studies have consistently found that branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), aromatic amino acids (AAAs), glutamine (Gln), glutamic acid (Glu), Gln/Glu ratio, carnitine, and several species of acylcarnitines and lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) are possible risk factors for metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We described here a simple and reliable method for simultaneous quantification of these metabolic risk factors by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum samples were extracted with isopropanol, and the extracted metabolites were separated by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and detected with electrospary ionization (ESI) inpositive ion mode with multiple reaction monitor (MRM) mode. All the metabolites were effectively separated within 5.5min. Analytical recoveries were in the range of 92.8-106.9%, with an average of 100.6%. The intra- run and total imprecisions for the measurement of these metabolites were 1.2-3.8% and 1.5-7.4%, respectively. Serum concentrations of the metabolites were analyzed in 123 apparently healthy volunteers. Significant associations between the metabolites and traditional CVD risk factors were observed. The newly developed LC-MS/MS method was simple, precise, and accurate and can be used as an efficient tool in CVD research and studies. PMID:26735710

  11. Low-level detection and quantification of Plutonium(III, IV, V,and VI) using a liquid core waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Richard E.; Hu, Yung-Jin; Nitsche, Heino

    2003-06-28

    Understanding the aqueous chemistry of plutonium, in particular in environmental conditions, is often complicated by plutonium's complex redox chemistry. Because plutonium possesses four oxidation states, all of which can coexist in solution, a reliable method for the identification of these oxidation states is needed. The identification of plutonium oxidation states at low levels in aqueous solution is often accomplished through an indirect determination using series of liquid-liquid extraction procedures using oxidation state specific reagents such as HDEHP and TTA. While these methods, coupled with radioactive counting techniques provide superior limits of detection they may influence the plutonium redox equilibrium, are time consuming, waste intensive and costly. Other analytical methods such as mass spectrometry and radioactive counting as stand alone methods provide excellent detection limits but lack the ability to discriminate between the oxidation states of the plutonium ions in solution.

  12. Remotely operated organic liquid waste incinerator for the fuels and materials examination facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, W.L.; Barker, R.E.; Hershey, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The search for a practical method for the disposal of small quantities of oraganic liquid waste, a waste product of metallographic sample preparation at the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility has led to the design of an incinerator/off-gas system to burn organic liquid wastes and selected organic solids. The incinerator is to be installed in a shielded inert-atmosphere cell, and will be remotely operated and maintained. The off-gas system is a wet-scrubber and filter system designed to release particulate-free off-gas to the FMEF Building Exhaust System.

  13. Rapid quantification of imidazolium-based ionic liquids by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography: Methodology and an investigation of the retention mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Cory A; Rud, Anna; Guthrie, Margaret L; Dietz, Mark L

    2015-06-26

    The separation of nine N,N'-dialkylimidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) by an isocratic hydrophilic interaction high-performance liquid chromatographic method using an unmodified silica column was investigated. The chosen analytical conditions using a 90:10 acetonitrile-ammonium formate buffer mobile phase on a high-purity, unmodified silica column were found to be efficient, robust, and sensitive for the determination of ILs in a variety of solutions. The retention window (k' = 2-11) was narrower than that of previous methods, resulting in a 7-min runtime for the nine IL homologues. The lower limit of quantification of the method, 2-3 μmol L(-1), was significantly lower than those reported previously for HPLC-UV methods. The effects of systematically modifying the IL cation alkyl chain length, column temperature, and mobile-phase water and buffer content on solute retention were examined. Cation exchange was identified as the dominant retention mechanism for most of the solutes, with a distinct (single methylene group) transition to a dominant partitioning mode at the highest solute polarity. PMID:25979537

  14. Simultaneous Quantification of 20 Synthetic Cannabinoids and 21 Metabolites, and Semi-quantification of 12 Alkyl Hydroxy Metabolites in Human Urine by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Clandestine laboratories constantly produce new synthetic cannabinoids to circumvent legislative efforts, complicating toxicological analysis. No extensive synthetic cannabinoid quantitative urinary methods are reported in the literature. We developed and validated a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneously quantifying JWH-018, JWH-019, JWH-073, JWH-081, JWH-122, JWH-200, JWH-210, JWH-250, JWH-398, RCS-4, AM-2201, MAM-2201, UR-144, CP 47,497-C7, CP 47,497-C8 and their metabolites, and JWH-203, AM-694, RCS-8, XLR-11 and HU-210 parent compounds in urine. Non-chromatographically resolved alkyl hydroxy metabolite isomers were considered semi-quantitative. β-glucuronidase hydrolyzed urine was extracted with 1 ml Biotage SLE+ columns. Specimens were reconstituted in 150 µL mobile phase consisting of 50% A (0.01% formic acid in water) and 50% B (0.01% formic acid in 50:50 methanol:acetonitrile). 4 and 25 µL injections were performed to acquire data in positive and negative ionization modes, respectively. The LC-MS/MS instrument consisted of a Shimadzu UFLCxr system and an ABSciex 5500 Qtrap mass spectrometer with an electrospray source. Gradient chromatographic separation was achieved utilizing a Restek Ultra Biphenyl column with a 0.5 ml/min flow rate and an overall run time of 19.5 and 11.4 min for positive and negative mode methods, respectively. Quantification was by multiple reaction monitoring with CP 47,497 compounds and HU-210 ionized via negative polarity; all other analytes were acquired in positive mode. Lower and upper limits of linearity were 0.1–1.0 and 50–100 µg/l (r2 > 0.994). Validation parameters were evaluated at three concentrations spanning linear dynamic ranges. Inter-day analytical recovery (bias) and imprecision (N=20) were 88.3–112.2% and 4.3–13.5% coefficient of variation, respectively. Extraction efficiencies and matrix effect (N=10) were 44–110 and −73 to 52%, respectively. We present

  15. A New Technique for Quantification of Elemental Hg in Mine Wastes and Its Implications for Mercury Evasion Into the Atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    JEW, ADAM D.; KIM, CHRISTOPHER S.; RYTUBA, JAMES J.; GUSTIN, MAE S.; BROWN, GORDON E.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury in the environment is of prime concern to both ecosystem and human health. Determination of the molecular-level speciation of Hg in soils and mine wastes is important for understanding its sequestration, mobility, and availability for methylation. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy carried out under ambient P-T conditions has been used in a number of past studies to determine Hg speciation in complex mine wastes and associated soils. However, this approach cannot detect elemental (liquid) mercury in Hg-polluted soils and sediments due to the significant structural disorder of liquid Hg at ambient-temperature. A new sample preparation protocol involving slow cooling through the crystallization temperature of Hg(0) (234K) results in its transformation to crystalline α-Hg(0). The presence and proportion of Hg(0), relative to other crystalline Hg-bearing phases, in samples prepared in this way can be quantified by low-temperature (77K) EXAFS spectroscopy. Using this approach, we have determined the relative concentrations of liquid Hg(0) in Hg mine wastes from several sites in the California Coast Range and have found that they correlate well with measured fluxes of gaseous Hg released during light and dark exposure of the same samples, with higher evasion ratios from samples containing higher concentrations of liquid Hg(0). Two different linear relationships are observed in plots of the ratio of Hg emission under light and dark conditions vs. % Hg(0), corresponding to silica-carbonate- and hot springs-type Hg deposits, with the hot springs-type samples exhibiting higher evasion fluxes than silica-carbonate type samples at similar Hg(0) concentrations. Our findings help explain significant differences in Hg evasion data for different mine sites in the California Coast Range. PMID:21121657

  16. New technique for quantification of elemental hg in mine wastes and its implications for mercury evasion into the atmosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jew, A.D.; Kim, C.S.; Rytuba, J.J.; Gustin, M.S.; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury in the environment is of prime concern to both ecosystem and human health. Determination of the molecular-level speciation of Hg in soils and mine wastes is important for understanding its sequestration, mobility, and availability for methylation. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy carried out under ambient P-T conditions has been used in a number of past studies to determine Hg speciation in complex mine wastes and associated soils. However, this approach cannot detect elemental (liquid) mercury in Hg-polluted soils and sediments due to the significant structural disorder of liquid Hg at ambient-temperature. A new sample preparation protocol involving slow cooling through the crystallization temperature of Hg(0) (234 K) results in its transformation to crystalline ??-Hg(0). The presence and proportion of Hg(0), relative to other crystalline Hg-bearing phases, in samples prepared in this way can be quantified by low-temperature (77 K) EXAFS spectroscopy. Using this approach, we have determined the relative concentrations of liquid Hg(0) in Hg mine wastes from several sites in the California Coast Range and have found that they correlate well with measured fluxes of gaseous Hg released during light and dark exposure of the same samples, with higher evasion ratios from samples containing higher concentrations of liquid Hg(0). Two different linear relationships are observed in plots of the ratio of Hg emission under light and dark conditions vs % Hg(0), corresponding to silica-carbonate- and hot springs-type Hg deposits, with the hot springs-type samples exhibiting higher evasion fluxes than silica-carbonate type samples at similar Hg(0) concentrations. Our findings help explain significant differences in Hg evasion data for different mine sites in the California Coast Range. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. PARTITIONING TRACERS FOR IN SITU DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS IN GROUNDWATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall goal of the proposed project is to explore the use of partitioning tracers to characterize dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in aquifer systems. Bulk-phase partitioning tracers will be investigated to detect and determine DNAPL saturation, while interface partit...

  18. Pressurized liquid extraction and quantification of anthocyanins in purple-fleshed sweetpotato genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of anthocyanins responsible for the purple flesh color is important for breeding programs and development of value-added products. This study aimed to optimize the conditions for anthocyanin extraction from purple-fleshed sweet potatoes (PFSP) using pressurized-liquid extraction (PLE) metho...

  19. Treatment of radioactive liquid waste by sorption on natural zeolite in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2006-09-01

    Liquid radioactive waste has been generated from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine in Turkey. Natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) have been studied for the removal of several key radionuclides ((137)Cs, (60)Co, (90)Sr and (110m)Ag) from liquid radioactive waste. The aim of the present study is to investigate effectiveness of zeolite treatment on decontamination factor (DF) in a combined process (chemical precipitation and adsorption) at the laboratory tests and scale up to the waste treatment plant. In this study, sorption and precipitation techniques were adapted to decontamination of liquid low level waste (LLW). Effective decontamination was achieved when sorbents are used during the chemical precipitation. Natural zeolite samples were taken from different zeolite formations in Turkey. Comparison of the ion-exchange properties of zeolite minerals from different formations shows that Gordes clinoptilolite was the most suitable natural sorbent for radionuclides under dynamic treatment conditions and as an additive for chemical precipitation process. Clinoptilolite were shown to have a high selectivity for (137)Cs and (110m)Ag as sorbent. In the absence of potassium ions, native clinoptilolite removed (60)Co and (90)Sr very effectively from the liquid waste. In the end of this liquid waste treatment, decontamination factor was provided as 430 by using 0.5 mm clinoptilolite at 30 degrees C. PMID:16563616

  20. Distribution of aquifers, liquid-waste impoundments, and municipal water-supply sources, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delaney, David F.; Maevsky, Anthony

    1980-01-01

    Impoundments of liquid waste are potential sources of ground-water contamination in Massachusetts. The map report, at a scale of 1 inch equals 4 miles, shows the idstribution of aquifers and the locations of municipal water-supply sources and known liquid-waste impoundments. Ground water, an important source of municipal water supply, is produced from shallow sand and gravel aquifers that are generally unconfined, less than 200 feet thick, and yield less than 2,000 gallons per minute to individual wells. These aquifers commonly occupy lowlands and stream valleys and are most extensive in eastern Massachusetts. Surface impoundments of liquid waste are commonly located over these aquifers. These impoundments may leak and allow waste to infiltrate underlying aquifers and alter their water quality. (USGS)

  1. Oak Ridge National Lebroatory Liquid&Gaseous Waste Treatment System Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2003-09-09

    Excellence in Laboratory operations is one of the three key goals of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Agenda. That goal will be met through comprehensive upgrades of facilities and operational approaches over the next few years. Many of ORNL's physical facilities, including the liquid and gaseous waste collection and treatment systems, are quite old, and are reaching the end of their safe operating life. The condition of research facilities and supporting infrastructure, including the waste handling facilities, is a key environmental, safety and health (ES&H) concern. The existing infrastructure will add considerably to the overhead costs of research due to increased maintenance and operating costs as these facilities continue to age. The Liquid Gaseous Waste Treatment System (LGWTS) Reengineering Project is a UT-Battelle, LLC (UT-B) Operations Improvement Program (OIP) project that was undertaken to develop a plan for upgrading the ORNL liquid and gaseous waste systems to support ORNL's research mission.

  2. Heat transfer enhanced microwave process for stabilization of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.

    1995-03-31

    The objectve of this CRADA is to combine a polymer process for encapsulation of liquid radioactive waste slurry developed by Monolith Technology, Inc. (MTI), with an in-drum microwave process for drying radioactive wastes developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), for the purpose of achieving a fast, cost-effectve commercial process for solidification of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Tests performed so far show a four-fold increase in process throughput due to the direct microwave heating of the polymer/slurry mixture, compared to conventional edge-heating of the mixer. We measured a steady-state throughput of 33 ml/min for 1.4 kW of absorbed microwave power. The final waste form is a solid monolith with no free liquids and no free particulates.

  3. Food waste within food supply chains: quantification and potential for change to 2050

    PubMed Central

    Parfitt, Julian; Barthel, Mark; Macnaughton, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Food waste in the global food supply chain is reviewed in relation to the prospects for feeding a population of nine billion by 2050. Different definitions of food waste with respect to the complexities of food supply chains (FSCs)are discussed. An international literature review found a dearth of data on food waste and estimates varied widely; those for post-harvest losses of grain in developing countries might be overestimated. As much of the post-harvest loss data for developing countries was collected over 30 years ago, current global losses cannot be quantified. A significant gap exists in the understanding of the food waste implications of the rapid development of ‘BRIC’ economies. The limited data suggest that losses are much higher at the immediate post-harvest stages in developing countries and higher for perishable foods across industrialized and developing economies alike. For affluent economies, post-consumer food waste accounts for the greatest overall losses. To supplement the fragmentary picture and to gain a forward view, interviews were conducted with international FSC experts. The analyses highlighted the scale of the problem, the scope for improved system efficiencies and the challenges of affecting behavioural change to reduce post-consumer waste in affluent populations. PMID:20713403

  4. Quantification of vincristine and its major metabolite in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Jennifer B; Renbarger, Jamie L; Walterhouse, David O; Jones, David R; Hall, Stephen D

    2008-06-01

    An analytical method using electrospray ionization and high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) was developed to quantify vincristine and M1, the CYP3A-mediated metabolite of vincristine, in human plasma. Vinblastine (internal standard), vincristine, and M1 in plasma were extracted in methylene chloride after acidification with TCAA. The analytes were separated on an Inertsil ODS-3 C18 column (2.1 x 150 mm) with a 5-mum particle size using a gradient elution with a run time of 20 min. The initial mobile phase composition was 0.2% formic acid/water (80:20, v/v) with a final composition of 0.2% formic acid/water (20:80, v/v). Detection was accomplished with multiple reaction monitoring for vinblastine (m/z 406.3--> 271.7), vincristine (m/z 413.2--> 362.2), and M1 (m/z 397.3 --> 376.2). At three concentrations of vincristine and M1, the inter-day and intra-day accuracy and precision were within the acceptable limits for validation (106.8 +/- 9.6% for intra-day, n = 5 each concentration; 90.9 +/- 10.9% for inter-day, n = 4 each concentration). For both vincristine and M1, the concentration limits of quantification and detection were 12 pg/mL and 6 pg/mL, respectively. Stability studies indicated that 80% of M1 degraded in plasma after 15 hours at room temperature (n = 3, high and low QC concentrations). Therefore, short plasma processing times (<30 min) are recommended. The assay was used successfully to quantify vincristine and M1 in pediatric plasma samples up to 24 hours after vincristine administration. Vincristine and M1 concentrations were within the limits of quantification for all patient plasma samples. PMID:18520608

  5. [Qualification and quantification of 10 sulfonamides in animal feedstuff by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Qin, Yan; Zhang, Meijin; Lin, Haidan

    2005-07-01

    The presence of sulfonamide (SA) residues in foods is largely due to the raising of animals with sulfonamide antibiotics added or polluted feedstuff. Because of interference from the matrices, the commonly used immunoassay or chromatographic method is not suitable for the analysis of multi-SAs in feedstuff. A high performance liquid chromatographic-electrospray tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC/ESI-MS-MS) method has been established for the simultaneous determination of multi-SAs including sulfadiazine (SD), sulfapyridine (SPD), sulfamerazine (SM1), sulfameter (SM), sulfamethazine (SM2), sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMP), sulfamethoxazole (SMZ), sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), sulfadimethoxine (SDM) and sulfaquinoxaline (SQX). After solvent extraction, solid phase extraction, dilution and reversed-phase HPLC separation, SAs were detected by ESI-MS-MS under multi-reaction monitoring mode. The qualification analysis was done by using retention time and distribution of diagnostic ion pairs, and the quantification was based on the peak intensity of common fragment ion m/z 156. The limits of quantification for 10 SAs were 0.5 - 2.0 microg/kg (S/N = 10). The correlation coefficient of linear calibration curve was over 0.9995 within the SAs concentration range 2.0 - 200 microg/L except for SDM and SQX. At the spiked level of 1.0 mg/kg, the average recoveries for the 10 SAs were between 70% and 92%, the relative standard deviations were under 10% for intra-day and under 15% for inter-day. Routine tests showed the method was fast, sensitive, specific, and practical for the SAs determination in feedstuff. PMID:16250451

  6. Quantification of rifapentine, a potent antituberculosis drug, from dried blood spot samples using liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Teresa L; Marzinke, Mark A; Hoang, Thuy; Bliven-Sizemore, Erin; Weiner, Marc; Mac Kenzie, William R; Dorman, Susan E; Dooley, Kelly E

    2014-11-01

    The quantification of antituberculosis drug concentrations in multinational trials currently requires the collection of modest blood volumes, centrifugation, aliquoting of plasma, freezing, and keeping samples frozen during shipping. We prospectively enrolled healthy individuals into the Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 29B, a phase I dose escalation study of rifapentine, a rifamycin under evaluation in tuberculosis treatment trials. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantifying rifapentine in whole blood on dried blood spots (DBS) to facilitate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses in clinical trials. Paired plasma and whole-blood samples were collected by venipuncture, and whole blood was spotted on Whatman protein saver 903 cards. The methods were optimized for plasma and then validated for DBS. The analytical measuring range for quantification of rifapentine and its metabolite was 50 to 80,000 ng/ml in whole-blood DBS. The analyte was stable on the cards for 11 weeks with a desiccant at room temperature and protected from light. The method concordance for paired plasma and whole-blood DBS samples was determined after correcting for participant hematocrit or population-based estimates of bias from Bland-Altman plots. The application of either correction factor resulted in acceptable correlation between plasma and whole-blood DBS (Passing-Bablok regression corrected for hematocrit; y = 0.98x + 356). Concentrations of rifapentine may be determined from whole-blood DBS collected via venipuncture after normalization in order to account for the dilutional effects of red blood cells. Additional studies are focused on the application of this methodology to capillary blood collected by finger stick. The simplicity of processing, storage, shipping, and low blood volume makes whole-blood DBS attractive for rifapentine pharmacokinetic evaluations, especially in international and pediatric trials. PMID:25182637

  7. Localisation and quantification of benzalkonium chloride in eye tissue by TOF-SIMS imaging and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Desbenoit, Nicolas; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Baudouin, Christophe; Laprévote, Olivier; Touboul, David; Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Brunelle, Alain

    2013-05-01

    Benzalkonium (BAK) chloride is the most commonly used preservative in eye drops. It is generally composed of benzyldimethyldodecylammonium C12 and benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium C14 and is supposed to increase penetration of active compounds. However, numerous studies have reported its toxic effect to ocular surface especially in long-term treatments like against glaucoma, a sight-threatening disease. Albino rabbits were treated with a hyperosmolar solution and a high concentration of BAK solution for 1 month. Enucleated eyes were cryo-sectioned and analysed by mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry imaging using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has been used to characterize the spatial distribution and to determine the relative quantity of BAK at the surface of rabbit eye sections. Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using a hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap® mass spectrometer was used to obtain relative quantification of BAK at the sample surface. TOF-SIMS images of BAK ions indicated a distribution at the ocular surface and in deeper structures. Didecyldimethylammonium (DDMAC), which is used in hospitals as a substitute for BAK, was also detected and showed an accumulation around the eyes. After extraction with acetonitrile and chromatographic separation using a Gemini C18 column and an original elution gradient, the relative quantities of BAK and DDMAC present in the whole eye section surface were determined. This LC-MS method was validated in terms of limits of quantification, linearity, repeatability and reproducibility and its feasibility was evaluated in surgically obtained human samples. Specimens of iris, lens capsule or trabecular meshwork were found with significant levels of BAK and DDMAC, thus confirming the penetration of BAK in deep ocular structures, with potential deleterious effects induced by this cytotoxic compound. The analytical method developed here could therefore be of primary interest in

  8. Quantification of L-ergothioneine in human plasma and erythrocytes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Zhi; Thuya, Win-Lwin; Toh, Dorothy Su-Lin; Lie, Michael George-Limenta; Lau, Jie-Ying Amelia; Kong, Li-Ren; Wan, Seow-Ching; Chua, Kian-Ngiap; Lee, Edmund Jon-Deoon; Goh, Boon-Cher

    2013-03-01

    A sensitive analytical method has been developed and validated for the quantification of L-ergothioneine in human plasma and erythrocytes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A commercially available isotope-labeled L-ergothioneine-d9 is used as the internal standard. A simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile is utilized for bio-sample preparation prior to analysis. Chromatographic separation of L-ergothioneine is conducted using gradient elution on Alltime C18 (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 µ). The run time is 6 min at a constant flow rate of 0.45 ml/min. The mass spectrometer is operated under a positive electrospray ionization condition with multiple reaction monitoring mode. The mass transitions of L-ergothioneine and L-ergothioneine-d9 are m/z 230 > 127 and m/z 239 > 127, respectively. Excellent linearity [coefficient of determination (r(2)) ≥ 0.9998] can be achieved for L-ergothioneine quantification at the ranges of 10 to 10,000 ng/ml, with the intra-day and inter-day precisions at 0.9-3.9% and 1.3-5.7%, respectively, and the accuracies for all quality control samples between 94.5 and 101.0%. This validated analytical method is suitable for pharmacokinetic monitoring of L-ergothioneine in human and erythrocytes. Based on the determination of bio-samples from five healthy subjects, the mean concentrations of L-ergothioneine in plasma and erythrocytes are 107.4 ± 20.5 ng/ml and 1285.0 ± 1363.0 ng/ml, respectively. PMID:23494799

  9. Peptides quantification by liquid chromatography with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and selected reaction monitoring detection.

    PubMed

    Lesur, Antoine; Varesio, Emmanuel; Domon, Bruno; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2012-10-01

    We present a novel analytical platform for peptides quantitative assays in biological matrices based on microscale liquid chromatography fractionation and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric detection using the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The MALDI source was equipped with a high frequency Nd:YAG laser (1000 Hz) and mounted on a triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer (MALDI-QqQ(LIT)). Compared to conventional LC-ESI-SRM/MS, the separated analytes are "time-frozen" onto the MALDI plate in fractions, and navigation through the LC chromatogram makes it possible to perform SRM experiments as well as enhanced product ion spectra acquisition for confirmatory analyses without time constraints. The LC spots were analyzed using different rastering speeds ranging from 0.25 to 4 mm/sec with the shortest analysis time of 425 ms/spot. Since the LC runs can be multiplexed and do not need a comprehensive investigation, the present platform offers a valuable alternative to LC-ESI-SRM/MS for high throughput proteomic analyses. In addition, the derivatization of the N-terminal α-amino group by sulfonation was found to be key for the fragmentation of singly charged peptides under low collision energy regime. Under such conditions, y-ion series were observed in the MS/MS spectra, and thus the design of SRM experiments was greatly simplified. The quantitative performance of the platform was compared to that of LC-ESI-SRM/MS by spiking yeast tryptic peptides in human plasma digests. Both platforms exhibited similar sensitivities, accuracy (within ±20%) and precision (under 20%) in the relative quantification mode. As a proof of principle, the relative and absolute quantification of proteins associated with glycolysis, glyoxylate and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycles over a growth time course of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose media was successfully performed using isotopic dilution. PMID:22897511

  10. Fast liquid chromatography-diode array detection assisted by chemometrics for quantification of seven ultraviolet filters in effluent wastewater.

    PubMed

    Vosough, Maryam; Mojdehi, Nahal Rahimdoost

    2011-09-30

    A fast chromatographic method is presented for simultaneous quantification of seven organic ultraviolet (UV) filters (benzophenone-3,4-methylbenzilidene camphor, octocrylene, 1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-3-(4-methyoxyphenyl)1,3-propanedione), ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate, ethylhexyl salicylate and homosalate) in effluent wastewater samples. The UV filters were pre-concentrated by Bond Elut-ENV cartridges and separated on an ODS column (15 cm × 0.46 cm, 5 μm) in less than 2.5 min using a non-aqueous mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) with flow-rate of 1.5 mL min(-1). Appropriate baseline correction through asymmetric least squares was applied to reduce the matrix of background signals in three way data. Then, second-order calibration based on multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was implemented on the unfolded three-way data obtained from liquid chromatography with diode array detection (LC-DAD) through standard addition calibration method for handling co-eluted peaks, systematic and proportional errors. Recoveries ranging from 76% to 130% and %RSD values less than 11.2 for all UV filter shows the accuracy and precision of the proposed method in wastewater samples. In addition, statistical t-test as well as computed elliptical joint confidence region (EJCR) confirms the accuracy of the proposed method and indicates the absence of both constant and proportional errors in the predicted concentrations. This study demonstrates that coupling of the fast HPLC-DAD method with powerful algorithm of MCR-ALS can be considered as an efficient method for quantification of UV filters in highly contaminated samples of wastewaters where both time and cost per each analysis can be reduced significantly. PMID:21872075

  11. Quantification of Rifapentine, a Potent Antituberculosis Drug, from Dried Blood Spot Samples Using Liquid Chromatographic-Tandem Mass Spectrometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Teresa L.; Marzinke, Mark A.; Hoang, Thuy; Bliven-Sizemore, Erin; Weiner, Marc; Mac Kenzie, William R.; Dorman, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of antituberculosis drug concentrations in multinational trials currently requires the collection of modest blood volumes, centrifugation, aliquoting of plasma, freezing, and keeping samples frozen during shipping. We prospectively enrolled healthy individuals into the Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 29B, a phase I dose escalation study of rifapentine, a rifamycin under evaluation in tuberculosis treatment trials. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantifying rifapentine in whole blood on dried blood spots (DBS) to facilitate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses in clinical trials. Paired plasma and whole-blood samples were collected by venipuncture, and whole blood was spotted on Whatman protein saver 903 cards. The methods were optimized for plasma and then validated for DBS. The analytical measuring range for quantification of rifapentine and its metabolite was 50 to 80,000 ng/ml in whole-blood DBS. The analyte was stable on the cards for 11 weeks with a desiccant at room temperature and protected from light. The method concordance for paired plasma and whole-blood DBS samples was determined after correcting for participant hematocrit or population-based estimates of bias from Bland-Altman plots. The application of either correction factor resulted in acceptable correlation between plasma and whole-blood DBS (Passing-Bablok regression corrected for hematocrit; y = 0.98x + 356). Concentrations of rifapentine may be determined from whole-blood DBS collected via venipuncture after normalization in order to account for the dilutional effects of red blood cells. Additional studies are focused on the application of this methodology to capillary blood collected by finger stick. The simplicity of processing, storage, shipping, and low blood volume makes whole-blood DBS attractive for rifapentine pharmacokinetic evaluations, especially in international and pediatric trials. PMID:25182637

  12. Identification and quantification of ricin in biomedical samples by magnetic immunocapture enrichment and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoxi; Tang, Jijun; Li, Chunzheng; Liu, Qin; Chen, Jia; Li, Hua; Guo, Lei; Xie, Jianwei

    2014-08-01

    Ricin is a toxic protein derived from castor beans and composed of a cytotoxic A chain and a galactose-binding B chain linked by a disulfide bond, which can inhibit protein synthesis and cause cell death. Owing to its high toxicity, ease of preparation, and lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has been listed as both chemical and biological warfare agents. For homeland security or public safety, the unambiguous, sensitive, and rapid methods for identification and quantification of ricin in complicated matrices are of urgent need. Mass spectrometric analysis, which provides specific and sensitive characterization of protein, can be applied to confirm and quantify ricin. Here, we report a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method in which ricin was extracted and enriched from serum by immunocapture using anti-ricin monoclonal antibody 3D74 linked to magnetic beads, then digested by trypsin, and analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Among 19 distinct peptides observed in LC-quadrupole/time of flight-MS (LC-QTOF-MS), two specific and sensitive peptides, T7A ((49)VGLPINQR(56)) and T14B ((188)DNCLTSDSNIR(198)), were chosen, and a highly sensitive determination of ricin was established in LC-triple quadrupole-MS (LC-QqQ-MS) operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode. These specific peptides can definitely distinguish ricin from the homologous protein Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA120), even though the amino acid sequence homology of the A-chain of ricin and RCA120 is up to ca. 93% and that of B-chain is ca. 85%. Furthermore, peptide T7A was preferred in the quantification of ricin because its sensitivity was at least one order of magnitude higher than that of the peptide T14B. Combined with immunocapture enrichment, this method provided a limit of detection of ca. 2.5 ng/mL and the limit of quantification was ca. 5 ng/mL of ricin in serum, respectively. Both precision and accuracy of this method were determined and the RSD

  13. Quantification of ordering at a solid-liquid interface using plasmon electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gandman, Maria; Kauffmann, Yaron; Kaplan, Wayne D.

    2015-02-02

    We present an in situ electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) study of ordering of liquid Al at various Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfaces. This technique utilizes precise measurements of the shifts in bulk plasmon resonance and their sensitivity to the valence electron density. Plasmon EELS combined with high resolution transmission electron microscopy provides information regarding the chemical composition in liquid Al at Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfaces. Preferential oxygen segregation to the (0006) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} plane was verified, and the (101{sup ¯}2) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} plane was found to contain the lowest amount of segregated species.

  14. PROBABILITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR LIQUID WASTE TANKS - PART III

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.; Edwards, T.

    2010-12-09

    The liquid waste chemistry control program is designed to reduce the pitting corrosion occurrence on tank walls. The chemistry control program has been implemented, in part, by applying engineering judgment safety factors to experimental data. However, the simple application of a general safety factor can result in use of excessive corrosion inhibiting agents. The required use of excess corrosion inhibitors can be costly for tank maintenance, waste processing, and in future tank closure. It is proposed that a probability-based approach can be used to quantify the risk associated with the chemistry control program. This approach can lead to the application of tank-specific chemistry control programs reducing overall costs associated with overly conservative use of inhibitor. Furthermore, when using nitrite as an inhibitor, the current chemistry control program is based on a linear model of increased aggressive species requiring increased protective species. This linear model was primarily supported by experimental data obtained from dilute solutions with nitrate concentrations less than 0.6 M, but is used to produce the current chemistry control program up to 1.0 M nitrate. Therefore, in the nitrate space between 0.6 and 1.0 M, the current control limit is based on assumptions that the linear model developed from data in the <0.6 M region is applicable in the 0.6-1.0 M region. Due to this assumption, further investigation of the nitrate region of 0.6 M to 1.0 M has potential for significant inhibitor reduction, while maintaining the same level of corrosion risk associated with the current chemistry control program. Ongoing studies have been conducted in FY07, FY08, FY09 and FY10 to evaluate the corrosion controls at the SRS tank farm and to assess the minimum nitrite concentrations to inhibit pitting in ASTM A537 carbon steel below 1.0 molar nitrate. The experimentation from FY08 suggested a non-linear model known as the mixture/amount model could be used to predict

  15. Protein Quantification by Derivatization-Free High-Performance Liquid Chromatography of Aromatic Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Almut; Weller, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid analysis is considered to be the gold standard for quantitative peptide and protein analysis. Here, we would like to propose a simple HPLC/UV method based on a reversed-phase separation of the aromatic amino acids tyrosine (Tyr), phenylalanine (Phe), and optionally tryptophan (Trp) without any derivatization. The hydrolysis of the proteins and peptides was performed by an accelerated microwave technique, which needs only 30 minutes. Two internal standard compounds, homotyrosine (HTyr) and 4-fluorophenylalanine (FPhe) were used for calibration. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 0.05 µM (~10 µg/L) for tyrosine and phenylalanine at 215 nm. The LOD for a protein determination was calculated to be below 16 mg/L (~300 ng BSA absolute). Aromatic amino acid analysis (AAAA) offers excellent accuracy and a precision of about 5% relative standard deviation, including the hydrolysis step. The method was validated with certified reference materials (CRM) of amino acids and of a pure protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA). AAAA can be used for the quantification of aromatic amino acids, isolated peptides or proteins, complex peptide or protein samples, such as serum or milk powder, and peptides or proteins immobilized on solid supports. PMID:27559481

  16. Protein Quantification by Derivatization-Free High-Performance Liquid Chromatography of Aromatic Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Almut

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid analysis is considered to be the gold standard for quantitative peptide and protein analysis. Here, we would like to propose a simple HPLC/UV method based on a reversed-phase separation of the aromatic amino acids tyrosine (Tyr), phenylalanine (Phe), and optionally tryptophan (Trp) without any derivatization. The hydrolysis of the proteins and peptides was performed by an accelerated microwave technique, which needs only 30 minutes. Two internal standard compounds, homotyrosine (HTyr) and 4-fluorophenylalanine (FPhe) were used for calibration. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 0.05 µM (~10 µg/L) for tyrosine and phenylalanine at 215 nm. The LOD for a protein determination was calculated to be below 16 mg/L (~300 ng BSA absolute). Aromatic amino acid analysis (AAAA) offers excellent accuracy and a precision of about 5% relative standard deviation, including the hydrolysis step. The method was validated with certified reference materials (CRM) of amino acids and of a pure protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA). AAAA can be used for the quantification of aromatic amino acids, isolated peptides or proteins, complex peptide or protein samples, such as serum or milk powder, and peptides or proteins immobilized on solid supports. PMID:27559481

  17. Simultaneous quantification of carbamate insecticides in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Ahmed; Medley, Gregory; Roberts, Darren M; Mohamed, Mosaad Sayed; Elshanawani, Abdalla A; Roberts, Michael S; Liu, Xin

    2011-08-01

    Carbofuran (CFN), carbosulfan (CSN) and fenobucarb (FBC) are carbamate pesticides that are widely used in gardening and agriculture for the control of insects. Human poisoning due to occupational or self-poisoning exposures is also reported, so assays are required to quantify the plasma concentration of these insecticides. An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of these three carbamate insecticides in the plasma of patients with acute intentional self-poisoning. Plasma samples were pretreated by acetonitrile for protein precipitation. Chromatography was carried out on a Luna C18(2) analytical column with gradient elution using a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water with 10mM ammonium acetate. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed by an Applied Biosystems MDS Sciex API 2000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in the positive ion mode. The total run time was 7 min. The assay was validated over a concentration range from 10 to 1000 ng/ml for CSN and FBC and 20-2000 ng/ml for CFN. The precision and accuracy for both intra- and inter-day determination of all analytes were acceptable (<15%). No significant matrix effect was observed. Stability of compounds was established for short term bench and autosampler storage as well as freeze/thaw cycles. The method was effectively applied to 270 clinical samples from patients with a history of acute intentional carbamate self-poisoning. PMID:21723210

  18. Quantification of chemical contaminants in the paper and board fractions of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Pivnenko, K; Olsson, M E; Götze, R; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2016-05-01

    Chemicals are used in materials as additives in order to improve the performance of the material or the production process itself. The presence of these chemicals in recyclable waste materials may potentially affect the recyclability of the materials. The addition of chemicals may vary depending on the production technology or the potential end-use of the material. Paper has been previously shown to potentially contain a large variety of chemicals. Quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper are necessary for appropriate waste paper management, including the recycling and re-processing of paper. However, a lack of quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper is evident in the literature. The aim of the present work is to quantify the presence of selected chemicals in waste paper derived from households. Samples of paper and board were collected from Danish households, including both residual and source-segregated materials, which were disposed of (e.g., through incineration) and recycled, respectively. The concentration of selected chemicals was quantified for all of the samples. The quantified chemicals included mineral oil hydrocarbons, phthalates, phenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, and selected toxic metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb). The results suggest large variations in the concentration of chemicals depending on the waste paper fraction analysed. Research on the fate of chemicals in waste recycling and potential problem mitigation measures should be focused on in further studies. PMID:26969284

  19. Data on subsurface storage of liquid waste near Pensacola, Florida, 1963-1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hull, R.W.; Martin, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Since 1963, when industrial waste was first injected into the subsurface in northwest Florida, considerable data have been collected relating to the geochemistry of subsurface waste storage. This report presents hydrogeologic data on two subsurface waste storage. This report presents hydrogeologic data on two subsurface storage systems near Pensacola, Fla., which inject liquid industrial waste through deep wells into a saline aquifer. Injection sites are described giving a history of well construction, injection, and testing; geologic data from cores and grab samples; hydrographs of injection rates, volume, pressure, and water levels; and chemical and physical data from water-quality samples collected from injection and monitor wells. (USGS)

  20. Time-of-flight direct recoil spectrometry: Application to liquid surfaces and steps toward quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassotto, Michael

    2001-08-01

    Liquid surfaces are very abundant in nature. Despite the importance of the liquid interface in general, experimental molecular-level data was almost completely lacking prior to the last decade and a half. The intent of this work is to provide a means by which experimental data on the composition of liquid surfaces and the average orientation of their constituent molecules can be obtained in order to supplement data from molecular dynamics and related computational techniques. To this end, a unique time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer, which constitutes the backbone of a new method to study liquid surfaces, was constructed and commissioned. The performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated in a number of exemplary TOF spectra obtained from liquid glycerol. Moving from mere qualitative to quantitative surface analysis necessitates the ability to relate physical quantities such as detection efficiencies, accurate signal intensities, and interaction cross-sections for all elements to one another. As a first step, the absolute detection efficiency of a channel electron multiplier, used as particle detector in the spectrometer, was measured for the noble gas ions He+, Ar+, and Xe +. The data obtained led to an empirically derived, general expression of the detection efficiency that is applicable to particles of any atomic number. The results also show that the threshold velocity, below which a multiplier does not respond to impinging ions, cannot be regarded as independent of the ion's atomic number as previously reported in the literature. The second step involved a comprehensive investigation of ion-atom interactions and spectral features that are crucial for the processing of experimental signal intensities for quantitative analysis. For this purpose, the binary collision code MARLOWE was used in extensive trajectory calculations simulating TOF spectra. The simulation results confirm the high surface sensitivity of the technique and reveal the strong dependence of the

  1. Experimental quantification of a granular crater induced by a liquid-to-granular impact using a 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyser, Emmanuel; Abellan, Antonio; Carrea, Dario; Rudaz, Benjamin; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Granular impacts have been extensively studied but much remains to be investigated regarding the complex topic of liquid-to-granular impact. Its applications to Geosciences are of interest regarding recent advances in the investigation of the raindrop erosion or the sediment flux. In our study, we focus on the quantification of both the excavated and deposited volumes resulting from a water-droplet impact onto a fine granular. The quantification of the existing relationships between the impact energy, the packing fraction and the excavated volume is also of interest. Indeed, the relationship between the packing fraction and the excavated volume has still to be investigated for constant impact energy (fixed height of fall and droplet size). Moreover, the volume distribution of the granular matter around the impact target has still to be achieved regarding the previous studies. Much of the previous work was focused on the ejected particles distribution but less is known about the volume distribution of the ejected mass. In this study, we have developed a specific methodology in order to investigate these two topics, as follows: a) First of all, we carried out experimental investigations in laboratory on a setup inspired by the previous works of Long et al. (2014) and Furbish et al. (2007). Granular samples were prepared using a compaction device in order to produce various packing fractions. Pre- and post-impact surface geometries were recorded using a high precision 3D scanner (KONICA MINOLTA VIVID 9i). This provided an accurate point cloud of the impact crater and ejecta deposits. b) Afterwards, we processed each point cloud pairs using different softwares (PolyWorks & MATLAB). We used an accurate change detection method by computing orthogonal distance from points (post-geometry) to reference meshed surface (pre-geometry) to extract the points belonging to deposits (positive distance) or crater (negative distance). Then, we used the computational geometry toolbox

  2. Process for immobilizing radioactive boric acid liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1986-06-17

    A method is described for immobilizing radioactive boric acid waste solutions comprising: neutralizing a boric acid waste solution containing radionuclides with calcium hydroxide and forming a precipitate, evaporating the precipitate to near dryness, and firing the dry precipitate to form a calcium borate glass product containing the radionuclides.

  3. Quantification of Dental Health Care Waste Generated among Private Dental Practices in Bengaluru City

    PubMed Central

    Krishnappa, Pushpanjali; Sreekantaiah, Pruthvish; Hiremath, S S; Thapsey, Hemanth; Shivraj, N S; Murthy, Nandagudi Srinavasa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bengaluru, in India has more than 1148 practicing dentists for a population of 8.42 million. The amount and type of dental health care waste (DHCW) generated by the dental practitioners has to be assessed prior to chalking out and implementation of an effective DCHW management plan. Currently, there is no evidence available regarding the quantity, type, and method of disposal adopted by these practitioners. Hence, this study was conducted with the objective of estimating the quantity of DHCW by the private dental practitioners in Bengaluru city. Materials and Methods: The sample size was estimated to be 110. The sampling frame was constituted from the registered dental practitioners in Bengaluru with the Department of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of Karnataka. Sampling strategy employed included a probability proportional sampling strategy for the four zones in Bengaluru followed by a simple random sampling of clinics from each zone. Standardized weight method was followed to estimate the quantity of different category of waste. Three data collectors who were trained and calibrated collected the information regarding the type and quantity of waste generated, the nature of practice and years of establishment. Results: Total quantity of waste generated was 0.161 kg/clinic/day with 0.130 kg and 0.026 kg of infectious and recyclables, respectively. The projected data for the actual number of private practices in Bengaluru city showed alarming figures of 41,535 kg and 8307 kg of infectious and recyclable waste being generated every year. Data also showed poor management practices of lead foil and plaster of paris and alarming figures projected annual quantity. Conclusion: The data demonstrated large quantities of hazardous waste generation and poor segregation practices of the practitioners. This warrants the immediate need for collective, voluntary measures to be initiated for appropriate and effective management of DHCW. PMID:26124606

  4. Accurate and reliable quantification of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D species by liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry[S

    PubMed Central

    Liebisch, Gerhard; Matysik, Silke

    2015-01-01

    In general, mass spectrometric quantification of small molecules in routine laboratory testing utilizes liquid chromatography coupled to low mass resolution triple-quadrupole mass spectrometers (QQQs). Here we introduce high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (quadrupole-Orbitrap) for the quantification of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D], a marker of the vitamin D status, because the specificity of 25(OH)D immunoassays is still questionable and mass spectrometric quantification is becoming increasingly important. Liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/HR-MS) was used to quantify 25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol [25(OH)D3], 25-hydroxy-ergocalciferol [25(OH)D2], and their C3-epimers 3-epi-25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D2. The method has a run time of 5 min and was validated according to the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency guidelines. High mass resolution was advantageously applied to separate a quasi-isobaric interference of the internal standard D6-25(OH)D2 with 3-epi-25(OH)D3. All analytes showed an imprecision of below 10% coefficient of variation (CV), trueness between 90% and 110%, and limits of quantification below 10 nM. Concentrations measured by LC-MS/HR-MS are in good agreement with those of the National Institute of Standards and Technology reference methods using LC-MS/MS (QQQ). In conclusion, quantification of 25(OH)D by LC-MS/HR-MS is applicable for routine testing and also holds promise for highly specific quantification of other small molecules. PMID:25833687

  5. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF RESIDUAL LIQUID ORGANICS FROM SPILLS, LEAKS, AND THE DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic liquids that are essentially immiscible with water migrate through the subsurface under the influence of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. These liquids originate from the improper disposal of hazardous wastes, and the spills and leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons a...

  6. Treatment of Bottled Liquid Waste During Remediation of the Hanford 618-10 Burial Ground - 13001

    SciTech Connect

    Faulk, Darrin E.; Pearson, Chris M.; Vedder, Barry L.; Martin, David W.

    2013-07-01

    A problematic waste form encountered during remediation of the Hanford Site 618-10 burial ground consists of bottled aqueous waste potentially contaminated with regulated metals. The liquid waste requires stabilization prior to landfill disposal. Prior remediation activities at other Hanford burial grounds resulted in a standard process for sampling and analyzing liquid waste using manual methods. Due to the highly dispersible characteristics of alpha contamination, and the potential for shock sensitive chemicals, a different method for bottle processing was needed for the 618-10 burial ground. Discussions with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to development of a modified approach. The modified approach involves treatment of liquid waste in bottles, up to one gallon per bottle, in a tray or box within the excavation of the remediation site. Bottles are placed in the box, covered with soil and fixative, crushed, and mixed with a Portland cement grout. The potential hazards of the liquid waste preclude sampling prior to treatment. Post treatment verification sampling is performed to demonstrate compliance with land disposal restrictions and disposal facility acceptance criteria. (authors)

  7. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Project Annual Operating Report CY 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    2000-03-01

    A total of 5.77 x 10 7 gallons (gal) of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Complex (PWTC) - Building 3544 ion exchange system during calendar year (CY) 1999. This averaged to 110 gpm throughout the year. An additional 3.94 x 10 6 gal of liquid waste (average of 8 gpm throughout the year) was decontaminated using the zeolite treatment system due to periods of high Cesium levels in the influent wastewater. A total of 6.17 x 10 7 gal of liquid waste (average of 118 gpm throughout the year) was decontaminated at Building 3544 during the year. During the year, the regeneration of the ion exchange resins resulted in the generation of 8.00 x 10 3 gal of Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) concentrate and 9.00 x 10 2 gal of LLLW supernate. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at Building 3544. Figure 1 shows a diagram of the Process Waste Collection and Transfer System and Figure 2 shows a diagram of the Building 3544 treatment process. Figures 3, 4 5, and 6 s how a comparison of operations at Building 3544 in 1997 with previous years. Figure 7 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1995.

  8. Quantification of cortisol in human eccrine sweat by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Min; Chew, Wade M; Feinstein, Yelena; Skeath, Perry; Sternberg, Esther M

    2016-03-21

    Cortisol has long been recognized as the "stress biomarker" in evaluating stress related disorders. Plasma, urine or saliva are the current source for cortisol analysis. The sampling of these biofluids is either invasive or has reliability problems that could lead to inaccurate results. Sweat has drawn increasing attention as a promising source for non-invasive stress analysis. A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitation of cortisol ((11β)-11,17,21-trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione) in human eccrine sweat. At least one unknown isomer that has previously not been reported and could potentially interfere with quantification was separated from cortisol with mixed mode RP HPLC. Detection of cortisol was carried out using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in positive ion mode, using cortisol-9,11,12,12-D4 as internal standard. LOD and LOQ were estimated to be 0.04 ng ml(-1) and 0.1 ng ml(-1), respectively. Linear range of 0.10-25.00 ng ml(-1) was obtained. Intraday precision (2.5%-9.7%) and accuracy (0.5%-2.1%), interday precision (12.3%-18.7%) and accuracy (7.1%-15.1%) were achieved. This method has been successfully applied to the cortisol analysis of human eccrine sweat samples. This is the first demonstration that HPLC-MS/MS can be used for the sensitive and highly specific determination of cortisol in human eccrine sweat in the presence of at least one isomer that has similar hydrophobicity as cortisol. This study demonstrated that human eccrine sweat could be used as a promising source for non-invasive assessment of stress biomarkers such as cortisol and other steroid hormones. PMID:26858998

  9. Quantification of melamine in drinking water and wastewater by micellar liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Martinavarro, Beatriz; Peris-Vicente, Juan; Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Marco-Peiró, Sergio; Esteve-Romero, Josep; Carda-Broch, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Because of the large potential health impact caused by deliberate contamination with the synthetic chemical melamine of different products for human and animal consumption, the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations provided a range of recommendations in order to facilitate obtaining needed data, among which was the determination of the background levels of melamine in drinking water and wastewater (December 4, 2008). A chromatographic procedure using a C18 column, a micellar mobile phase consisting of sodium dodecyl sulfate (0.1 M), and 1-propanol (7.5%) buffered at pH 3, and detection by absorbance at 210 nm is reported in this paper for the quantification of melamine in drinking water and wastewater. Samples were filtered and directly injected into the chromatographic system, thus avoiding an extraction procedure. The optimal mobile phase composition was obtained by a chemometrics approach that considered the retention factor, efficiency, and peak shape. Melamine was eluted in about 6.2 min without interferences. Validation was performed following U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines. The analytical parameters studied were linearity (0.03-5 microg/mL, R2 = 0.998), LOD (13 nglmL), intraday and interday accuracy (between 4.1 and 12.2%), intraday and interday precision (less than 14.8%), and robustness (RSD < 5.1% for retention time and <9.0% for area). The proposed methodology was successfully applied for analysis of local wastewater and drinking water, in which no melamine was found. PMID:24000762

  10. Assessment of Tank 241-S-112 Liquid Waste Mixing in Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Yasuo; Trent, Donald S.; Wells, Beric E.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2003-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate mixing of liquid waste from Tank 241-S-112 with waste in Tank 241-SY-101 and to determine the properties of the resulting waste for the cross-site transfer to avoid potential double-shell tank corrosion and pipeline plugging. We applied the time-varying, three-dimensional computer code TEMPEST to Tank SY-101 as it received the S-112 liquid waste. The model predicts that temperature variations in Tank SY-101 generate a natural convection flow that is very slow, varying from about 7 x 10{sup -5} to 1 x 10{sup -3} ft/sec (0.3 to about 4 ft/hr) in most areas. Thus, natural convection would eventually mix the liquid waste in SY-101 but would be very slow to achieve nearly complete mixing. These simulations indicate that the mixing of S-112 and SY-101 wastes in Tank SY-101 is a very slow process, and the density difference between the two wastes would further limit mixing. It is expected to take days or weeks to achieve relatively complete mixing in Tank SY-101.

  11. Quantification of triazine herbicides in soil by microwave-assisted extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jasmin; Rasul Jan, M; Ara, Behisht; Shehzad, Farhat-Un-Nisa

    2011-07-01

    A method for the determination of herbicides residues, triazine (atrazine, metribuzin, ametryn, and terbutryn), in soil samples with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV detection is described. The proposed method is based on microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of soil samples for 4 min at 80% of 850-W magnetron outputs in the presence of mixture of solvents (methanol/acetonitrile/ethylacetate). Related important factors influencing the MAE efficiency, such as the solvent type and volume, irradiation energy, and time, were optimized in detail. Calibration curve ranges established using HPLC for metribuzin, atrazine, ametryn, and terbutryn are 1.0-19.0, 0.9-18.0, 0.6-11.0, and 0.7-11.0 µg mL( -1), respectively. The limits of detection of metribuzin, atrazine, ametryn, and terbutryn are 0.30, 0.24, 0.16, and 0.20 µg mL( -1) while limits of quantification are 1.0, 0.80, 0.50, and 0.60 µg mL( -1), respectively. A Plackett-Burman factorial design was used as a screening method in order to select the variables that influence MAE extraction. The recoveries of the method at three different spiked levels were assessed by analyzing real soil samples and were found to be in the range of 83.33 ± 0.12-96.33 ± 0.23 with good precision (<8%). PMID:20824333

  12. Quantification of nardosinone in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its pharmacokinetics application.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhihe; Zhou, Peng; Zhan, Yuzhu; Su, Jingrong; Yi, Deliang

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was established and validated to assay the concentration of nardosinone, a main active compound isolated from Nardostachys chinensis, in rat plasma. Plasma samples were processed by protein precipitation with acetonitrile and separated on a Venusil MP-C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 5 µm) at an isocratic flow rate of 0.6 mL/min using methanol-0.1% formic acid in water (55 : 45, v/v) as mobile phase, and total run time was 2.5 min. MS-MS detection was accomplished in selected reaction monitoring mode with positive electrospray ionization. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 9.60-320 ng/mL with lower limit of quantification of 9.60 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were below 12.3% in terms of relative standard deviation, and the accuracy was within ±9.0% in terms of relative error. Extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability were also satisfactory in rat plasma. The developed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of nardosinone following an intravenous injection at a dose of 1.04 mg/kg to Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:26116832

  13. Quantification of monosaccharides through multiple-reaction monitoring liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry using an aminopropyl column.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Loubna A; Derryberry, Dakota Z; Jmeian, Yazen R; Mechref, Yehia

    2010-06-15

    A simple, sensitive, and reproducible quantitative liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was designed for the simultaneous quantification of monosaccharides derived from glycoprotein and blood serum using a multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) approach. Sialic acids and neutral monosaccharides were efficiently separated using an amino-bonded silica phase column. Neutral monosaccharide molecules were detected as their aldol acetate anion adducts [M + CH(3)CO(2)](-) using electrospray ionization in negative ion MRM mode, while sialic acids were detected as deprotonated ions [M-H](-). The new method did not require a reduction step, and exhibited very high sensitivity to carbohydrates with limits of detection of 1 pg for the sugars studied. The linearity of the described approach spanned over three orders of magnitude (pg to ng). The method was validated for monosaccharides originating from N-linked glycans attached to glycoproteins and glycoproteins found in human blood serum. The method effectively quantified monosaccharides originating from as little as 1 microg of glycoprotein and 5 microL of blood serum. The method was robust, reproducible, and highly sensitive. It did not require reduction, derivatization or postcolumn addition of reagents. PMID:20486252

  14. Differentiated quantification of human bile acids in serum by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Burkard, Ines; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Rentsch, Katharina M

    2005-11-01

    Determination of quantitative changes in the pattern of serum bile acids is important for the monitoring of diseases affecting bile acid metabolism. A sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-MS/MS method was developed for the differentiated quantification of unconjugated as well as glycine- and taurine-conjugated cholic, chenodeoxycholic (CDCA), deoxycholic (DCA), ursodeoxycholic (UDCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA) in serum samples. After solid-phase extraction and reversed-phase HPLC separation, detection of the conjugated bile acids was performed using electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS and selected reaction monitoring mode, whereas unconjugated bile acids were determined by ESI-MS and selected ion monitoring mode. The within-day and between-day coefficients of variation were below 7% for all bile acids and the recovery rates of the extraction procedure were between 84.9 and 105%. The developed method was applied to a group of 21 healthy volunteers and preliminary reference intervals in serum were established. In patients with drug-induced cholestasis, an elevation of primary bile acids has been shown. PMID:16182619

  15. Optimized ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem high resolution mass spectrometry method for the quantification of paraquat in plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haihua; Yu, Jing; Wu, Linlin; Xing, Jingjing; Wang, Jun; Huang, Peipei; Zhang, Jinsong; Xiao, Hang; Gao, Rong

    2016-08-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS) method has been developed and validated for quantification of paraquat in plasma and urine. The sample preparation was carried out by one-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The paraquat was separated with a HILIC column in 10min. Detection was performed using Q Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer by Targeted-MS/MS scan mode. Methodological parameters, such as ammonium formate concentration, formic acid concentration, spray voltage, capillary temperature, heater temperature and normalized collision energy were optimized to achieve the highest sensitivity. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of LOQ-1000ng/mL. LOD was 0.1 and 0.3ng/mL, LOQ was 0.3 and 0.8ng/mL for urine and plasma, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were <7.97% and 4.78% for plasma and urine. The accuracies were within the range 93.51-100.90%. The plasma and urine matrices had negligible relative matrix effect in this study. This method was successfully applied to determine paraquat concentration in plasma samples with hemoperfusion from 5 suspected paraquat poisoning patients. PMID:27270261

  16. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method for quantification of methotrexate in cancer patients serum.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-dong; Li, Yan; Liang, Ning-sheng; Yang, Fan; Kuang, Zhi-peng

    2015-10-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the determination of methotrexate in human serum. After deproteinization of the serum with 40% silver nitrate solution, methotrexate and internal standard (IS) were separated on a reversed-phase column with a mobile phase consisting of 10mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH6.40)-methanol (78:22%, v/v) and ultraviolet detection at 310nm. The linearity is evaluated by a calibration curve in the concentration range of 0.05-10.0μg/mL and presented a correlation coefficient of 0.9995. The absolute recoveries were 97.52±3.9% and 96.87±3.7% for methotrexate and ferulic acid (internal standard), respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision were less 6.19 and 5.89%, respectively (n=6). The limit of quantitation was 0.02μg/mL and the limit of detection was 0.006μg/mL. The complete analysis was achieved less than 10min with no interference from endogenous components or 22 examined drugs. This method was validated by using serum samples from high-dose methotrexate treated patients with osteosarcoma, breast cancer, acute leukemia and lymphoma. The method was demonstrated to be a simple, rapid and reliable approach in quantification of methotrexate in serum samples from patients with high-dose methotrexate therapy. PMID:26319303

  17. Quantification of atrazine, phenylurea, and sulfonylurea herbicide metabolites in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Johnny V; Olsson, Anders O; Bravo, Roberto; Needham, Larry L; Barr, Dana B

    2007-05-01

    We developed a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) method to measure metabolites of atrazine, phenylurea, and sulfonylurea herbicides in human urine. The metabolites measured in the method include atrazine mercapturate, desethyl atrazine, and desisopropyl atrazine as markers of atrazine exposure; dichlorophenyl urea, dichlorophenylmethyl urea, diuron, and linuron as markers of phenylurea herbicide exposure; and dimethoxypyrimidine, dimethylpyrimidine, and methoxymethyl triazine as markers for sulfonylurea herbicide exposure. The metabolites were extracted from urine by simple solid-phase extraction using a mixed-bed cartridge and were analyzed by HPLC-MS-MS. Quantification of the atrazine metabolites was achieved using isotope-dilution calibration. The remaining metabolites were quantified using similarly structured chemicals as internal standards. Extraction recoveries ranged from 88% to 104% (n = 5). Limits of detection for the entire method ranged from 0.125 to 1 ng/mL, and the average relative standard deviation of repeat measurements was about 13% (n = 30). PMID:17555640

  18. High performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for V and Ni quantification as tetrapyrroles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duyck, Christiane Béatrice; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana Dillenburg; Miekeley, Norbert; da Fonseca, Teresa Cristina Oliveira; Szatmari, Peter

    2011-05-01

    A method was developed for the determination of V and Ni as tetrapyrroles by High Performance Liquid Chromatography hyphenated to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) using reversed phase and elution gradient. Chlorinated solvents and tetrahydrofuran were investigated as regard to separation time and ICP-MS detection efficiencies. The final elution gradient program started from pure methanol to a mixture of 20:80 (v/v) chloroform:methanol. External quantification of V and Ni with inorganic standards by flow injection ICP-MS, used online with HPLC, resulted in 95% of recoveries. The Limits of Detection for V during methanol elution and for Ni during the 20% chloroform gradient elution were evaluated by their minimum detectable concentrations, which were, respectively, 5 μg L - 1 and 8 μg L - 1 . The methodology was applied to polar and resin fractions separated from a Brazilian crude oil and a sediment extract from an oil-polluted area in the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Vanadium as tetrapyrroles represented the totality of V content in the polar fraction, whereas Ni was in different polar forms in the resin and sediment extract.

  19. Interferon-alpha 2b quantification in inclusion bodies using reversed phase-ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC).

    PubMed

    Cueto-Rojas, H F; Pérez, N O; Pérez-Sánchez, G; Ocampo-Juárez, I; Medina-Rivero, E

    2010-04-15

    Interferon-alpha 2b (IFN-alpha 2b) is a recombinant therapeutic cytokine produced as inclusion bodies using a strain of Escherichia coli as expression system. After fermentation and recovery, it is necessary to know the amount of recombinant IFN-alpha 2b, in order to determine the yield and the load for solubilization, and chromatographic protein purification steps. The present work details the validation of a new short run-time and fast sample-preparation method to quantify IFN-alpha 2b in inclusion bodies using Reversed Phase-Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-UPLC). The developed method demonstrated an accuracy of 100.28%; the relative standard deviations for method precision, repeatability and inter-day precision tests were found to be 0.57%, 1.54% and 1.83%, respectively. Linearity of the method was assessed in the range of concentrations from 0.05 mg/mL to 0.5 mg/mL, the curve obtained had a determination coefficient (r(2)) of 0.9989. Detection and quantification limits were found to be 0.008 mg/mL and 0.025 mg/mL, respectively. The method also demonstrated robustness for changes in column temperature, and specificity against host proteins and other recombinant protein expressed in the same E. coli strain. PMID:20299292

  20. Simultaneous quantification of related substances of perindopril tert-butylamine using a novel stability indicating liquid chromatographic method.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zoltán-István; Réti, Zenkő-Zsuzsánna; Gagyi, László; Kis, Erika Lilla; Sipos, Emese

    2015-03-01

    A novel stability indicating gradient reverse-phased high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the quantification of impurities of perindopril tert-butylamine (PER) in pharmaceutical dosage form. Separation of the active substance and its known (Impurities B, C, D, E, F) and unknown impurities was achieved on a BDS Hypersil C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm), thermostated at 70°C, using a mobile phase comprised of aqueous solution of sodium 1-heptanesulfonate adjusted to pH 2 with perchloric acid and acetonitrile. The flow rate was maintained at 1.5 mL min(-1), injection volume of 20 µL was utilized and detection of analytes was performed at 215 nm. The developed method was validated in accordance with current ICH Guidelines for all suggested parameters, including forced degradation studies and proved to be linear, accurate, precise and suitable for the impurity testing of PER, being subsequently applied during on-going stability studies of a newly developed generic formulation. PMID:25616989

  1. On-line desalting and carbohydrate analysis for immobilized enzyme hydrolysis of waste cellulosic biomass by column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheanyeh; Chen, Chi-Sung; Hsieh, Pei-Hsin

    2010-04-01

    An innovative green column-switching high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique was developed by coupling traditional and Pb(2+) ion-exclusion columns to study enzyme hydrolysis components of waste cellulosic biomass. Pure water was used as the mobile phase to separate neutral polar analytes in high salt content solution. The column-switching HPLC-RI was connected on-line to the immobilized enzyme reactor for successive on-line desalting and simultaneous analysis of six carbohydrates (cellobiose, glucose, xylose, galactose, mannose, and arabinose) in the hydrolysate of waste paper and waste tree branch by incorporating the heart-cut and the elution-time-difference techniques. Six internal standard calibration curves in the linear concentration range of 0-2,000 microg mL(-1) were prepared. Xylitol was used as the internal standard to give excellent linear correlation coefficients (0.9984-0.9999). The limits of detection and quantification for cellobiose, glucose, xylose, galactose, mannose, and arabinose varied between 0.12-4.88 and 0.40-16.3 microg mL(-1), respectively, with an accuracy of 90-102% and a precision of 0.1-7.8%. Cellulose and hemicellulose contents were higher in waste paper than in waste tree branch. PMID:20181346

  2. Selective identification and quantification of saccharin by liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Sergio N F; Cardoso, Carlos R; Maciel, Márcia Mosca A; Vokac, Lidmila; da Silva Junior, Ademário I

    2014-09-15

    High-pressure liquid chromatography with ultra-violet detection (HPLC-UV) is one of the most commonly used methods to identify and quantify saccharin in non-alcoholic beverages. However, due to the wide variety of interfering UV spectra in saccharin-containing beverage matrices, the same method cannot be used to measure this analyte accurately. We have developed a new, highly effective method to identify and quantify saccharin using HPLC with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The excitation wavelength (250 nm) and emission wavelength (440 nm) chosen increased selectivity for all matrices and ensured few changes were required in the mobile phase or other parameters. The presence of saccharin in non-diet beverages - a fraud commonly used to replace more expensive sucrose - was confirmed by comparing coincident peaks as well as the emission spectra of standards and samples. PMID:24767060

  3. US and Russian innovative technologies to process low-level liquid radioactive wastes: The Murmansk initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Penzin, R.; Duffey, R.B.; Sorlie, A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper documents the status of the technical design for the upgrade and expansion to the existing Low-level Liquid Radioactive Waste (LLLRW) treatment facility in Murmansk, the Russian Federation. This facility, owned by the Ministry of Transportation and operated by the Russian company RTP Atomflot in Murmansk, Russia, has been used by the Murmansk Shipping Company (MSCo) to process low-level liquid radioactive waste generated by the operation of its civilian icebreaker fleet. The purpose of the new design is to enable Russia to permanently cease the disposal at sea of LLLRW in the Arctic, and to treat liquid waste and high saline solutions from both the Civil and North Navy Fleet operations and decommissioning activities. Innovative treatments are to be used in the plant which are discussed in this paper.

  4. Calculation of chemical quantities for the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Del Signore, John C.; McClenahan, Robert L.

    2007-03-01

    The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) receives, stores, and treats both low-level and transuranic radioactive liquid wastes (RLW). Treatment of RLW requires the use of different chemicals. Examples include the use of calcium oxide to precipitate metals and radioactive elements from the radioactive liquid waste, and the use of hydrochloric acid to clean membrane filters that are used in the treatment process. The RL WTF is a Hazard Category 2 nuclear facility, as set forth in the LANL Final Safety Analysis Report of October 1995, and a DOE letter of March 11, 1999. A revised safety basis is being prepared for the RLWTF, and will be submitted to the NNSA in early 2007. This set of calculations establishes maximum chemical quantities that will be used in the 2007 safety basis.

  5. Quantification of the resource recovery potential of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes.

    PubMed

    Allegrini, Elisa; Maresca, Alberto; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Holtze, Maria Sommer; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-09-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plays an important role in many European waste management systems. However, increasing focus on resource criticality has raised concern regarding the possible loss of critical resources through MSWI. The primary form of solid output from waste incinerators is bottom ashes (BAs), which also have important resource potential. Based on a full-scale Danish recovery facility, detailed material and substance flow analyses (MFA and SFA) were carried out, in order to characterise the resource recovery potential of Danish BA: (i) based on historical and experimental data, all individual flows (representing different grain size fractions) within the recovery facility were quantified, (ii) the resource potential of ferrous (Fe) and non-ferrous (NFe) metals as well as rare earth elements (REE) was determined, (iii) recovery efficiencies were quantified for scrap metal and (iv) resource potential variability and recovery efficiencies were quantified based on a range of ashes from different incinerators. Recovery efficiencies for Fe and NFe reached 85% and 61%, respectively, with the resource potential of metals in BA before recovery being 7.2%ww for Fe and 2.2%ww for NFe. Considerable non-recovered resource potential was found in fine fraction (below 2mm), where approximately 12% of the total NFe potential in the BA were left. REEs were detected in the ashes, but the levels were two or three orders of magnitude lower than typical ore concentrations. The lack of REE enrichment in BAs indicated that the post-incineration recovery of these resources may not be a likely option with current technology. Based on these results, it is recommended to focus on limiting REE-containing products in waste for incineration and improving pre-incineration sorting initiatives for these elements. PMID:24889793

  6. A column-switching method for quantification of the enantiomers of omeprazole in native matrices of waste and estuarine water samples.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Juliana Cristina; Vanzolini, Kenia Lourenço; Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2010-06-30

    This work reports the use of a two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) system for quantification of the enantiomers of omeprazole in distinct native aqueous matrices. An octyl restricted-access media bovine serum albumin column (RAM-BSA C(8)) was used in the first dimension, while a polysaccharide-based chiral column was used in the second dimension with either ultraviolet (UV-vis) or ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (IT-MS/MS) detection. An in-line configuration was employed to assess the exclusion capacity of the RAM-BSA columns to humic substances. The excluded macromolecules had a molecular mass in the order of 18 kDa. Good selectivity, extraction efficiency, accuracy, and precision were achieved employing a very small amount (500 microL or 1.00 mL) of native water sample per injection, with detection limits of 5.00 microg L(-1), using UV-vis, and 0.0250 microg L(-1), using IT-MS/MS. The total analysis time was only 35 min, with no time spent on sample preparation. The methods were successfully applied to analyze a series of waste and estuarine water samples. The enantiomers were detected in an estuarine water sample collected from the Douro River estuary (Portugal) and in an influent sample from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of São Carlos (Brazil). As far as we are concerned, this is the first report of the occurrence of (+)-omeprazole and (-)-omeprazole in native aqueous matrices. PMID:20685482

  7. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  8. Household hazardous waste quantification, characterization and management in China's cities: a case study of Suzhou.

    PubMed

    Gu, Binxian; Zhu, Weimo; Wang, Haikun; Zhang, Rongrong; Liu, Miaomiao; Chen, Yangqing; Wu, Yi; Yang, Xiayu; He, Sheng; Cheng, Rong; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-01

    A four-stage systematic tracking survey of 240 households was conducted from the summer of 2011 to the spring of 2012 in a Chinese city of Suzhou to determine the characteristics of household hazardous waste (HHW) generated by the city. Factor analysis and a regression model were used to study the major driving forces of HHW generation. The results indicate that the rate of HHW generation was 6.16 (0.16-31.74, 95% CI) g/person/day, which accounted for 2.23% of the household solid waste stream. The major waste categories contributing to total HHW were home cleaning products (21.33%), medicines (17.67%) and personal care products (15.19%). Packaging and containers (one-way) and products (single-use) accounted for over 80% of total HHW generation, implying a considerable potential to mitigate HHW generation by changing the packaging design and materials used by manufacturing enterprises. Strong correlations were observed between HHW generation (g/person/day) and the driving forces group of "household structure" and "consumer preferences" (among which the educational level of the household financial manager has the greatest impact). Furthermore, the HHW generation stream in Suzhou suggested the influence of another set of variables, such as local customs and culture, consumption patterns, and urban residential life-style. This study emphasizes that HHW should be categorized at its source (residential households) as an important step toward controlling the HHW hazards of Chinese cities. PMID:25022547

  9. FY 1995 separation studies for liquid low-level waste treatment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D.; Burgess, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    During FY 1995, studies were continued to develop improved methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus in this reporting period was on (1) identifying the parameters that affect the selective removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, two of the principal radioactive contaminants expected in the waste; (2) validating the effectiveness of the treatment methods by testing an ac Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate; (3) evaluating the optimum solid/liquid separation techniques for the waste; (4) identifying potential treatment methods for removal of technetium from LLLW; and (5) identifying potential methods for stabilizing the high-activity secondary solid wastes generated by the treatment.

  10. Microbial consortium role in processing liquid waste of vegetables in Keputran Market Surabaya as organic liquid fertilizer ferti-plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizqi, Fauziah; Supriyanto, Agus; Lestari, Intan; Lita Indri D., L.; Elmi Irmayanti, A.; Rahmaniyah, Fadilatur

    2016-03-01

    Many activities in this market is directly proportional to increase production of vegetables waste, especially surabaya. Therefore, in this study aims to utilize liquid waste of vegetables into liquid organic fertilizer by mixing microbial consorsium. The microbial consorsium consist of Azotobacter chrococcum, Azospirillum brasilense, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas putida, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Ttreatment of microbial concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%) and the length of the incubation period (7 days, 14 days, 21 days) used in this research. The parameters used are: C/N ratio, levels of CNP, and BOD value. This study uses a standard organic fertilizer value according SNI19-7030-2004, The results show the value of C/N ratio comply with the ISO standards. C levels showed an increase during the incubation period but not compare with standards. N levels that compare with standards are microbial treatment in all group concentration except control group with an incubation period of 21 days is > 7. P levels compare with the existing standards in the group of microbe concentration of 10% and 15% during the incubation period. The value of the initial BOD liquid waste of vegetable is 790.25 mg / L, this value indicates that the waste should not go into the water body. Accordingly, the results of this study can not be used as a liquid organic fertilizer, but potentially if it is used as a natural career or build natural soil. The Building natural soil is defined as the natural ingredients that can be used to improve soil properties.