Science.gov

Sample records for liquid-hydrogen fueled vehicles

  1. Performance test of a 6 L liquid hydrogen fuel tank for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garceau, N. M.; Kim, S. Y.; Lim, C. M.; Cho, M. J.; Kim, K. Y.; Baik, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    A 6 L liquid hydrogen fuel tank has been designed, fabricated and tested to optimize boil-off rate and minimize weight for a 200 W light weight fuel cell in an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The 200 W fuel cell required a maximum flow rate of 2.3 SLPM or less liquid hydrogen boil-off from the fuel tank. After looking at several different insulation schemes, the system was optimized as two concentric lightweight aluminum cylinders with high vacuum and multi-layer insulation in between. MLI thickness and support structures were designed to minimize the tank weight. For support, filling and feed gas to a fuel-cell, the system was designed with two G-10 CR tubes which connected the inner vessel to the outer shell. A secondary G10-CR support structure was also added to ensure stability and durability during a flight. After fabrication the fuel tank was filled with liquid hydrogen. A series of boil-off tests were performed in various operating conditions to confirm thermal performance of the fuel tank for a 200 W fuel cell.

  2. Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, Patrick; Leachman, Jacob

    2014-01-29

    Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate.

  3. Development and validation of purged thermal protection systems for liquid hydrogen fuel tanks of hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helenbrook, R. D.; Colt, J. Z.

    1977-01-01

    An economical, lightweight, safe, efficient, reliable, and reusable insulation system was developed for hypersonic cruise vehicle hydrogen fuel tanks. Results indicate that, a nitrogen purged, layered insulation system with nonpermeable closed-cell insulation next to the cryogenic tank and a high service temperature fibrous insulation surrounding it, is potentially an attractive solution to the insulation problem. For the postulated hypersonic flight the average unit weight of the purged insulation system (including insulation, condensate and fuel boil off) is 6.31 kg/sq m (1.29 psf). Limited cyclic tests of large specimens of closed cell polymethacrylimide foam indicate it will withstand the expected thermal cycle.

  4. Minimum energy, liquid hydrogen supersonic cruise vehicle study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The potential was examined of hydrogen-fueled supersonic vehicles designed for cruise at Mach 2.7 and at Mach 2.2. The aerodynamic, weight, and propulsion characteristics of a previously established design of a LH2 fueled, Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise vehicle (SCV) were critically reviewed and updated. The design of a Mach 2.2 SCV was established on a corresponding basis. These baseline designs were then studied to determine the potential of minimizing energy expenditure in performing their design mission, and to explore the effect of fuel price and noise restriction on their design and operating performance. The baseline designs of LH2 fueled aircraft were than compared with equivalent designs of jet A (conventional hydrocarbon) fueled SCV's. Use of liquid hydrogen for fuel for the subject aircraft provides significant advantages in performance, cost, noise, pollution, sonic boom, and energy utilization.

  5. Liquid hydrogen for automotive vehicles - Experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Peschka, W.

    1981-01-01

    A BMW-518 has been adapted for LH2-fuel, representing the first LH2-fueled car in Europe. This is a joint program between the German Research and Testing Laboratory for Aeronautics and the Research Institute for Motor-Transport Service and Automotive Engines at the University of Stuttgart. The program was established for demonstration of successful car-operation and and the safe handling of LH2-fuel during car operation and refueling. Based on earlier papers, more recent test results and experiences are reported about car operation and engine performance. The car has been driven over an accumulated distance of about 1800 km on a test track. The test track consists of a loop of about 2.5 km in length, including a proper combination of straight level sections, curved sections and ascending sections. In order to demonstrate a safe liquid hydrogen refueling procedure that could also be used by untrained people, a semiautomatic computer operated refueling station has been developed. This refueling station is in successful operation.

  6. Liquid hydrogen as a propulsion fuel, 1945-1959

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sloop, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    A historical review is presented on the research and development of liquid hydrogen for use as a propulsion fuel. The document is divided into three parts: Part 1 (1945-1950); Part 2 (1950-1957); and Part 3 (1957-1958), encompassing eleven topics. Two appendixes are included. Hydrogen Technology Through World War 2; and Propulsion Primer, Performance Parameters and Units.

  7. An investigation of the accuracy of empirical aircraft design for the development of an unmanned aerial vehicle intended for liquid hydrogen fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaney, Christopher Scott

    A study was conducted to assess the accuracy of empirical techniques used for the calculation of flight performance for unmanned aerial vehicles. This was achieved by quantifying the error between a mathematical model developed with these techniques and experimental test data taken using an unmanned aircraft. The vehicle utilized for this study was developed at Washington State University for the purpose of flying using power derived from hydrogen stored as a cryogenic liquid. The vehicle has a mass of 32.8 kg loaded and performed a total of 14 flights under battery power for 3.58 total flight hours. Over these flights, the design proved it is capable of sustaining level flight from the power available from a PEM fuel cell propulsion system. The empirical techniques used by the model are explicitly outlined within. These yield several performance metrics that are compared to measurements taken during flight testing. Calculations of required thrust for steady flight over all airspeeds and rates of climb modeled are found to have a mean percent error of 3.2%+/-7.0% and a mean absolute percent error of 34.6%+/-5.1%. Comparison of the calculated and measured takeoff distance are made and the calculated thrust required to perform a level turn at a given rate is compared to flight test data. A section of a test flight is analyzed, over which the vehicle proves it can sustain level flight under 875 watts of electrical power. The aircraft's design is presented including the wing and tail, propulsion system, and build technique. The software and equipment used for the collection and analysis of flight data are given. Documentation and validation is provided of a unique test rig for the characterization of propeller performance using a car. The aircraft remains operational to assist with research of alternative energy propulsion systems and novel fuel storage techniques. The results from the comparison of the mathematical model and flight test data can be utilized to assist

  8. Aerogel Insulation Applications for Liquid Hydrogen Launch Vehicle Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Sass, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aerogel based insulation systems for ambient pressure environments were developed for liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank applications. Solutions to thermal insulation problems were demonstrated for the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) through extensive testing at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory. Demonstration testing was performed using a 1/10th scale ET LH2 intertank unit and liquid helium as the coolant to provide the 20 K cold boundary temperature. Cryopumping tests in the range of 20K were performed using both constant mass and constant pressure methods. Long-duration tests (up to 10 hours) showed that the nitrogen mass taken up inside the intertank is reduced by a factor of nearly three for the aerogel insulated case as compared to the un-insulated (bare metal flight configuration) case. Test results including thermal stabilization, heat transfer effectiveness, and cryopumping confirm that the aerogel system eliminates free liquid nitrogen within the intertank. Physisorption (or adsorption) of liquid nitrogen within the fine pore structure of aerogel materials was also investigated. Results of a mass uptake method show that the sorption ratio (liquid nitrogen to aerogel beads) is about 62 percent by volume. A novel liquid nitrogen production method of testing the liquid nitrogen physical adsorption capacity of aerogel beads was also performed to more closely approximate the actual launch vehicle cooldown and thermal stabilization effects within the aerogel material. The extraordinary insulating effectiveness of the aerogel material shows that cryopumping is not an open-cell mass transport issue but is strictly driven by thermal communication between warm and cold surfaces. The new aerogel insulation technology is useful to solve heat transfer problem areas and to augment existing thermal protection systems on launch vehicles. Examples are given and potential benefits for producing launch systems that are more reliable, robust, reusable, and efficient are outlined.

  9. Study of Hydrogen Recovery Systems for Gas Vented While Refueling Liquid-Hydrogen Fueled Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    Methods of capturing and reliquefying the cold hydrogen vapor produced during the fueling of aircraft designed to utilize liquid hydrogen fuel were investigated. An assessment of the most practical, economic, and energy efficient of the hydrogen recovery methods is provided.

  10. Design, fabrication and testing of a liquid hydrogen fuel tank for a long duration aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Gary L.; Buchholtz, Brian; Olsen, Al

    2012-06-01

    Liquid hydrogen has distinct advantages as an aircraft fuel. These include a specific heat of combustion 2.8 times greater than gasoline or jet fuel and zero carbon emissions. It can be utilized by fuel cells, turbine engines and internal combustion engines. The high heat of combustion is particularly important in the design of long endurance aircraft with liquid hydrogen enabling cruise endurance of several days. However, the mass advantage of the liquid hydrogen fuel will result in a mass advantage for the fuel system only if the liquid hydrogen tank and insulation mass is a small fraction of the hydrogen mass. The challenge is producing a tank that meets the mass requirement while insulating the cryogenic liquid hydrogen well enough to prevent excessive heat leak and boil off. In this paper, we report on the design, fabrication and testing of a liquid hydrogen fuel tank for a prototype high altitude long endurance (HALE) demonstration aircraft. Design options on tank geometry, tank wall material and insulation systems are discussed. The final design is an aluminum sphere insulated with spray on foam insulation (SOFI). Several steps and organizations were involved in the tank fabrication and test. The tank was cold shocked, helium leak checked and proof pressure tested. The overall thermal performance was verified with a boil off test using liquid hydrogen.

  11. Thermal Analysis on Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen Tank on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Harpster, George; Hunter, James

    2007-01-01

    Thermal analyses are performed on the liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank designed for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) powered by solar arrays and a regenerative proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. A 14-day cruise mission at a 65,000 ft altitude is considered. Thermal analysis provides the thermal loads on the tank system and the boiling-off rates of LH2. Different approaches are being considered to minimize the boiling-off rates of the LH2. It includes an evacuated multilayer insulation (MLI) versus aerogel insulation on the LH2 tank and aluminum versus stainless steel spacer rings between the inner and outer tank. The resulting boil-off rates of LH2 provided by the one-dimensional model and three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) on the tank system are presented and compared to validate the results of the three-dimensional FEA. It concludes that heat flux through penetrations by conduction is as significant as that through insulation around the tank. The tank system with MLI insulation and stainless steel spacer rings result in the lowest boiling-off rate of LH2.

  12. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  13. An assessment of the crash fire hazard of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The crash fire hazards of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft relative to those of mission equivalent aircraft fueled either with conventional fuel or with liquefied methane were evaluated. The aircraft evaluated were based on Lockheed Corporation design for 400 passenger, Mach 0.85, 5500 n. mile aircraft. Four crash scenarios were considered ranging from a minor incident causing some loss of fuel system integrity to a catastrophic crash. Major tasks included a review of hazardous properties of the alternate fuels and of historic crash fire data; a comparative hazard evluation for each of the three fuels under four crash scenarios a comprehensive review and analysis and an identification of areas further development work. The conclusion was that the crash fire hazards are not significantly different when compared in general for the three fuels, although some fuels showed minor advantages in one respect or another.

  14. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    The authors describe a hydrogen vehicle fueling station that receives and stores hydrogen in liquid form and dispenses it either as a liquid or compressed gas. The economics of distribution that accrue from the favorable weight and volume advantages of liquid hydrogen support this concept both now and for some time to come. The authors model for liquid transfer to a 120 L vehicle tank shows that tank filling times under five minutes are feasible with pump-assisted transfer, or for pressure transfer with subcooling greater than 1 K. The authorsmodel for compressed gas transfer shows that vehicle tank underfilling of nearly 30 percent can occur during rapid refueling. Cooling the fill gas to 214 K completely eliminates the underfilling problem.

  15. Bonded and Sealed External Insulations for Liquid-Hydrogen-Fueled Rocket Tanks During Atmospheric Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, V. H.; Gelder, T. F.; Cochran, R. P.; Goodykoontz, J. H.

    1960-01-01

    Several currently available nonmetallic insulation materials that may be bonded onto liquid-hydrogen tanks and sealed against air penetration into the insulation have been investigated for application to rockets and spacecraft. Experimental data were obtained on the thermal conductivities of various materials in the cryogenic temperature range, as well as on the structural integrity and ablation characteristics of these materials at high temperatures occasioned by aerodynamic heating during atmospheric escape. Of the materials tested, commercial corkboard has the best overall properties for the specific requirements imposed during atmospheric flight of a high-acceleration rocket vehicle.

  16. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.; Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.

    1995-09-01

    The authors describe a hydrogen vehicle fueling station that receives and stores hydrogen in liquid form and dispenses it either as a liquid or compressed gas. The economics that accrue from the favorable weight and volume advantages of liquid hydrogen support this concept both now and probably for some time to come. The model for liquid transfer to a 120-liter vehicle tank shows that transfer times under five minutes are feasible with pump-assisted transfer, or for pressure transfer with subcooling greater than 1 K. The model for compressed gas transfer shows that underfilling of nearly 30% can occur during rapid filling. Cooling the fill gas to 214 K completely eliminates underfilling.

  17. Fail-safe system for activity cooled supersonic and hypersonic aircraft. [using liquid hydrogen fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. A.; Braswell, D. O.; Richie, C. B.

    1975-01-01

    A fail-safe-system concept was studied as an alternative to a redundant active cooling system for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft which use the heat sink of liquid-hydrogen fuel for cooling the aircraft structure. This concept consists of an abort maneuver by the aircraft and a passive thermal protection system (TPS) for the aircraft skin. The abort manuever provides a low-heat-load descent from normal cruise speed to a lower speed at which cooling is unnecessary, and the passive TPS allows the aircraft skin to absorb the abort heat load without exceeding critical skin temperature. On the basis of results obtained, it appears that this fail-safe-system concept warrants further consideration, inasmuch as a fail-safe system could possibly replace a redundant active cooling system with no increase in weight and would offer other potential advantages.

  18. Vehicle-scale investigation of a fluorine jet-pump liquid hydrogen tank pressurization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, E. C.; Kendle, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical and experimental program was performed to evaluate the performance of a fluorine-hydrogen jet-pump injector for main tank injection (MTI) pressurization of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank. The injector performance during pressurization and LH2 expulsion was determined by a series of seven tests of a full-scale injector and MTI pressure control system in a 28.3 cu m (1000 cu ft) flight-weight LH2 tank. Although the injector did not effectively jet-pump LH2 continuously, it showed improved pressurization performance compared to straight-pipe injectors tested under the same conditions in a previous program. The MTI computer code was modified to allow performance prediction for the jet-pump injector.

  19. Crash test of a liquid hydrogen automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finegold, J. G.; Van Vorst, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Details of the conversion of a U.S. Postal Service mail truck to hydrogen-fueled operation are given. Specific reference is made to design safety considerations. A traffic accident is described that caused the mail truck (mounted on a trailer) to turn on its side at approximately 20 mph and to finally slide to a stop and turn upside down. No one was injured, and there was essentially no damage to the liquid hydrogen fuel system. The mail truck was driven away from the scene of the accident. Suggestions to insure the safety of hydrogen-fueled experimental vehicles are made.

  20. Analytical and experimental investigation of rubbing interaction in labyrinth seals for a liquid hydrogen fuel pump. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, F.X.; Kennedy, F.E.; Schulson, E.M.

    1984-08-01

    Cracking of the titanium knife edges on the labyrinth seals of the liquid hydrogen fuel pump in the Space Shuttle main engine is considered. Finite element analysis of the thermal response of the knife edge in sliding contact with the wear ring surface shows that interfacial temperatures can be quite high and they are significantly influenced by the thermal conductivity of the surfaces in rubbing contact. Thermal shock experiments on a test specimen similar to the knife edge geometry demonstrate that cracking of the titanium alloy is possible in a situation involving repeated thermal cycles over a wide temperature range, as might be realized during a rub in the liquid hydrogen fuel pump. High-speed rub interaction tests were conducted using a representative knife edge and seal geometry over a broad range of interaction rates and alternate materials were experimentally evaluated. Plasma-sprayed aluminum-graphite was found to be significantly better than presently used aluminum alloy seals from the standpoint of rub performance. Ion nitriding the titanium alloy knife-edges also improved rub performance compared to the untreated baseline.

  1. Analytical and experimental investigation of rubbing interaction in labyrinth seals for a liquid hydrogen fuel pump. [space shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, F. X.; Kennedy, F. E.; Schulson, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    Cracking of the titanium knife edges on the labyrinth seals of the liquid hydrogen fuel pump in the Space Shuttle main engine is considered. Finite element analysis of the thermal response of the knife edge in sliding contact with the wear ring surface shows that interfacial temperatures can be quite high and they are significantly influenced by the thermal conductivity of the surfaces in rubbing contact. Thermal shock experiments on a test specimen similar to the knife edge geometry demonstrate that cracking of the titanium alloy is possible in a situation involving repeated thermal cycles over a wide temperature range, as might be realized during a rub in the liquid hydrogen fuel pump. High-speed rub interaction tests were conducted using a representative knife edge and seal geometry over a broad range of interaction rates and alternate materials were experimentally evaluated. Plasma-sprayed aluminum-graphite was found to be significantly better than presently used aluminum alloy seals from the standpoint of rub performance. Ion nitriding the titanium alloy knife-edges also improved rub performance compared to the untreated baseline.

  2. Balancing low cost with reliable operation in the rotordynamic design of the ALS Liquid Hydrogen Fuel Turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhill, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Force/NASA Advanced Launch System (ALS) Liquid Hydrogen Fuel Turbopump (FTP) has primary design goals of low cost and high reliability, with performance and weight having less importance. This approach is atypical compared with other rocket engine turbopump design efforts, such as on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), which emphasized high performance and low weight. Similar to the SSME turbopumps, the ALS FTP operates supercritically, which implies that stability and bearing loads strongly influence the design. In addition, the use of low cost/high reliability features in the ALS FTP such as hydrostatic bearings, relaxed seal clearances, and unshrouded turbine blades also have a negative influence on rotordynamics. This paper discusses the analysis conducted to achieve a balance between low cost and acceptable rotordynamic behavior, to ensure that the ALS FTP will operate reliably without subsynchronous instabilities or excessive bearing loads.

  3. High Efficient Cryocooler for Liquid Hydrogen System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagome, H.

    2006-04-01

    Conversion into Hydrogen Energy Society is advanced focusing on the application to a fuel cell electric vehicle. As volume and weight density of liquid hydrogen are large, it is the method which was most excellent as the storage method of hydrogen. However, in order to store liquid hydrogen stably over a long period of time, decreasing the loss of energy, development of an efficient small cryocooler becomes important. This paper reports the research about improvement in the refrigeration efficiency of a two-stage GM cryocooler. In order that the GM cryocooler may operate by the Simon expansion, it carries out asymptotic of the COP of the GM cryocooler to the Carnot COP as a compression ratio is lowered. When experimented based on this view, it was checked that refrigeration efficiency rises with reduction in a compression ratio. Furthermore, if the compression ratio is lowered, refrigeration efficiency will fall rapidly. The peak value of the refrigeration efficiency in 20K level attained 28%Carnot. It was verified by optimization of the compression ratio of the GM cryocooler that refrigeration efficiency can be improved significantly. Therefore, sharp reduction of the energy consumption of a liquid hydrogen system will be attained by applying the result of this research.

  4. Performance of a 10-kJ SMES model cooled by liquid hydrogen thermo-siphon flow for ASPCS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makida, Y.; Shintomi, T.; Hamajima, T.; Ota, N.; Katsura, M.; Ando, K.; Takao, T.; Tsuda, M.; Miyagi, D.; Tsujigami, H.; Fujikawa, S.; Hirose, J.; Iwaki, K.; Komagome, T.

    2015-12-01

    We propose a new electrical power storage and stabilization system, called an Advanced Superconducting Power Conditioning System (ASPCS), which consists of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) and hydrogen energy storage, converged on a liquid hydrogen station for fuel cell vehicles. A small 10- kJ SMES system, in which a BSCCO coil cooled by liquid hydrogen was installed, was developed to create an experimental model of an ASPCS. The SMES coil is conductively cooled by liquid hydrogen flow through a thermo-siphon line under a liquid hydrogen buffer tank. After fabrication of the system, cooldown tests were carried out using liquid hydrogen. The SMES coil was successfully charged up to a nominal current of 200 A. An eddy current loss, which was mainly induced in pure aluminum plates pasted onto each pancake coils for conduction cooling, was also measured.

  5. Vehicle fuel system

    DOEpatents

    Risse, John T.; Taggart, James C.

    1976-01-01

    A vehicle fuel system comprising a plurality of tanks, each tank having a feed and a return conduit extending into a lower portion thereof, the several feed conduits joined to form one supply conduit feeding fuel to a supply pump and using means, unused fuel being returned via a return conduit which branches off to the several return conduits.

  6. Near-Optimal Operation of Dual-Fuel Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Chou, H. C.; Bowles, J. V.

    1996-01-01

    A near-optimal guidance law for the ascent trajectory from earth surface to earth orbit of a fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit pure rocket launch vehicle is derived. Of interest are both the optimal operation of the propulsion system and the optimal flight path. A methodology is developed to investigate the optimal throttle switching of dual-fuel engines. The method is based on selecting propulsion system modes and parameters that maximize a certain performance function. This function is derived from consideration of the energy-state model of the aircraft equations of motion. Because the density of liquid hydrogen is relatively low, the sensitivity of perturbations in volume need to be taken into consideration as well as weight sensitivity. The cost functional is a weighted sum of fuel mass and volume; the weighting factor is chosen to minimize vehicle empty weight for a given payload mass and volume in orbit.

  7. Liquid Hydrogen Tank for the External Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This photograph shows an inside view of a liquid hydrogen tank for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA). The ET provides liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to the Shuttle's three main engines during the first 8.5 minutes of flight. At 154-feet long and more than 27-feet in diameter, the ET is the largest component of the Space Shuttle, the structural backbone of the entire Shuttle system, and is the only part of the vehicle that is not reusable. The ET is manufactured at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, by the Martin Marietta Corporation under management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  8. Fuel economy of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.; Kumar, R.

    On the basis of on-road energy consumption, fuel economy (FE) of hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicles is projected to be 2.5-2.7 times the fuel economy of the conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) on the same platforms. Even with a less efficient but higher power density 0.6 V per cell than the base case 0.7 V per cell at the rated power point, the hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are projected to offer essentially the same fuel economy multiplier. The key to obtaining high fuel economy as measured on standardized urban and highway drive schedules lies in maintaining high efficiency of the fuel cell (FC) system at low loads. To achieve this, besides a high performance fuel cell stack, low parasitic losses in the air management system (i.e., turndown and part load efficiencies of the compressor-expander module) are critical.

  9. Liquid Hydrogen Consumption During Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Jonathan K.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issue of liquid hydrogen consumption and the points of its loss in prior to the shuttle launch. It traces the movement of the fuel from the purchase to the on-board quantity and the loss that results in 54.6 of the purchased quantity being on board the Shuttle.

  10. Liquid Hydrogen: Target, Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.T.; Harigel, G.G.

    2004-06-23

    In 1952 D. Glaser demonstrated that a radioactive source's radiation could boil 135 deg. C superheated-diethyl ether in a 3-mm O glass vessel and recorded bubble track growth on high-speed film in a 2-cm3 chamber. This Bubble Chamber (BC) promised improved particle track time and spatial resolution and cycling rate. Hildebrand and Nagle, U of Chicago, reported Liquid Hydrogen minimum ionizing particle boiling in August 1953. John Wood created the 3.7-cm O Liquid Hydrogen BC at LBL in January 1954. By 1959 the Lawrence Berkley Laboratory (LBL) Alvarez group's '72-inch' BC had tracks in liquid hydrogen. Within 10 years bubble chamber volumes increased by a factor of a million and spread to every laboratory with a substantial high-energy physics program. The BC, particle accelerators and special separated particle beams created a new era of High Energy Physics (HEP) experimentation. The BC became the largest most complex cryogenic installation at the world's HEP laboratories for decades. The invention and worldwide development, deployment and characteristics of these cryogenic dynamic target/detectors and related hydrogen targets are described.

  11. Fuel issues for fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Borroni-Bird, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    In the near-term, infrastructure and energy density concerns dictate that the most appropriate fuel for a light-duty fuel cell vehicle is probably not hydrogen; there are also several concerns with using methanol, the generally accepted most convenient fuel. In order to accelerate fuel cell commercialization it may be necessary to use petroleum-based fuels and on-board fuel processors. In the near-term, this approach may reduce fuel cell system efficiency to a level comparable with advanced diesel engines but in the long-term fuel cells powered by hydrogen should be the most efficient and cleanest of all automotive powertrains.

  12. Energy supply and its effect on aircraft of the future. II - Liquid-hydrogen-fueled aircraft: Prospects and design issues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, F. S.; Driver, C.

    1973-01-01

    The performance of hydrogen-fueled commercial aircraft is examined in the subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic speed regime and compared with JP-fueled systems. Hydrogen aircraft are shown to provide substantial improvements in range and payload fraction as well as to minimize or eliminate many environmental problems. The major elements of a development program required to make hydrogen-fueled aircraft a commercial reality are also outlined and the rationale for and characteristics of both a subsonic demonstrator and a high speed research airplane are described.

  13. Alternative fuel information: Alternative fuel vehicle outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Major automobile manufacturers continue to examine a variety of alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) options in an effort to provide vehicles that meet the fleet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The current generation of AFVs available to consumers is somewhat limited as the auto industry attempts to respond to the presently uncertain market. At the same time, however, the automobile industry must anticipate future demand and is therefore engaged in research, development, and production programs on a wide range of alternative fuels. The ultimate composition of the AFV fleet may be determined by state and local regulations which will have the effect of determining demand. Many state and regional groups may require vehicles to meet emission standards more stringent than those required by the federal government. Therefore, a significant impact on the market could occur if emission classifications begin serving as the benchmark for vehicles, rather than simply certifying a vehicle as capable of operating on an ``alternative`` to gasoline. Vehicles classified as Zero-Emissions, or even Inherently Low-Emissions, could most likely be met only by electricity or natural gas, thereby dictating that multi-fuel vehicles would be unable to participate in some clean air markets. In the near-term, the Clinton Administration desires to accelerate the use of alternative fuels as evidenced by an executive order directing the federal government to increase the rate of conversion of the federal fleet beyond that called for in EPACT. The Administration has expressed particular interest in using more compressed natural gas (CNG) as a motor fuel, which has resulted in the auto industry`s strong response of concentrating short-term efforts on CNG vehicles. For the 1994 model year, a number of CNG cars and trucks will be available from major automobile manufacturers.

  14. Hazards Induced by Breach of Liquid Rocket Fuel Tanks: Conditions and Risks of Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen-Oxygen Mixture Explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osipov, Viatcheslav; Muratov, Cyrill; Hafiychuk, Halyna; Ponizovskya-Devine, Ekaterina; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Mathias, Donovan; Lawrence, Scott; Werkheiser, Mary

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the data of purposeful rupture experiments with LOx and LH2 tanks, the Hydrogen-Oxygen Vertical Impact (HOVI) tests that were performed to clarify the ignition mechanisms, the explosive power of cryogenic H2/Ox mixtures under different conditions, and to elucidate the puzzling source of the initial formation of flames near the intertank section during the Challenger disaster. We carry out a physics-based analysis of general explosions scenarios for cryogenic gaseous H2/Ox mixtures and determine their realizability conditions, using the well-established simplified models from the detonation and deflagration theory. We study the features of aerosol H2/Ox mixture combustion and show, in particular, that aerosols intensify the deflagration flames and can induce detonation for any ignition mechanism. We propose a cavitation-induced mechanism of self-ignition of cryogenic H2/Ox mixtures that may be realized when gaseous H2 and Ox flows are mixed with a liquid Ox turbulent stream, as occurred in all HOVI tests. We present an overview of the HOVI tests to make conclusion on the risk of strong explosions in possible liquid rocket incidents and provide a semi-quantitative interpretation of the HOVI data based on aerosol combustion. We uncover the most dangerous situations and discuss the foreseeable risks which can arise in space missions and lead to tragic outcomes. Our analysis relates to only unconfined mixtures that are likely to arise as a result of liquid propellant space vehicle incidents.

  15. Turbine engine altitude chamber and flight testing with liquid hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, E. W.

    1979-01-01

    In the late fifties the Lewis Research Center evaluated experimentally the use of hydrogen using three different turbojet engines in altitude test chambers. One of these engines was later flown experimentally using liquid hydrogen fuel. This paper is a brief overview of the significant aspects of this exploratory research and gives a few implications of the results to modern turbine engines. A subsequent contract dealing with a positive displacement pump operating on liquid hydrogen is discussed and some aspects of liquid hydrogen propellant systems, reflected by rocket booster experience are treated briefly. Areas requiring further research and technology effort are delineated.

  16. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel cell vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2004-01-01

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  17. Design study of the cooling scheme for SMES system in ASPCS by using liquid hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makida, Yasuhiro; Shintomi, Takakazu; Asami, Takuya; Suzuki, Goro; Takao, Tomoaki; Hamajima, Takataro; Tsuda, Makoto; Miyagi, Daisuke; Munakata, Kouhei; Kajiwara, Masataka

    2013-11-01

    From the point of view of environment and energy problems, the renewable energies have been attracting attention. However, fluctuating power generation by the renewable energies affects the stability of the power network. Thus, we propose a new electric power storage and stabilization system, Advanced Superconducting Power Conditioning System (ASPCS), in which a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and a hydrogen-energy-storage converge on a liquid hydrogen station for fuel cell vehicles. The ASPCS proposes that the SMES coils wound with MgB2 conductor are indirectly cooled by thermo-siphon circulation of liquid hydrogen to use its cooling capability. The conceptual design of cooling scheme of the ASPCS is presented.

  18. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshida, M.; Green, Michael A.; Kuno, Y.; Lau, Wing

    2010-05-30

    Liquid hydrogen absorbers for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) have been developed, and the first absorber has been tested at KEK. In the preliminary test at KEK we have successfully filled the absorber with {approx}2 liters of liquid hydrogen. The measured hydrogen condensation speed was 2.5 liters/day at 1.0 bar. No hydrogen leakage to vacuum was found between 300 K and 20 K. The MICE experiment includes three AFC (absorber focusing coil) modules, each containing a 21 liter liquid hydrogen absorber made of aluminum. The AFC module has safety windows to separate its vacuum from that of neighboring modules. Liquid hydrogen is supplied from a cryocooler with cooling power 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The first absorber will be assembled in the AFC module and installed in MICE at RAL.

  19. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  20. Performance Tests of a Liquid Hydrogen Propellant Densification Ground System for the X33/RLV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.

    1997-01-01

    A concept for improving the performance of propulsion systems in expendable and single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles much like the X33/RLV has been identified. The approach is to utilize densified cryogenic liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellants to fuel the propulsion stage. The primary benefit for using this relatively high specific impulse densified propellant mixture is the subsequent reduction of the launch vehicle gross lift-off weight. Production of densified propellants however requires specialized equipment to actively subcool both the liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen to temperatures below their normal boiling point. A propellant densification unit based on an external thermodynamic vent principle which operates at subatmospheric pressure and supercold temperatures provides a means for the LH2 and LOX densification process to occur. To demonstrate the production concept for the densification of the liquid hydrogen propellant, a system comprised of a multistage gaseous hydrogen compressor, LH2 recirculation pumps and a cryogenic LH2 heat exchanger was designed, built and tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). This paper presents the design configuration of the LH2 propellant densification production hardware, analytical details and results of performance testing conducted with the hydrogen densifier Ground Support Equipment (GSE).

  1. A 10,000-gpm liquid hydrogen transfer system for the Saturn/Apollo program.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wybranowski, E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Brief description of the design and operation of the liquid hydrogen transfer system used to service the Saturn V launch vehicle. The cryogenic loading of the huge booster begins eight hours before the scheduled liftoff. The first three hours of fueling are spent in cold hydrogen gas conditioning of the fuel tank. The cold hydrogen gas is provided by vaporizing liquid hydrogen from the storage tank and routing the resultant gas through the fill system. Boil-off losses after loading are continuously replaced through control valves which are driven by a computer system. The liquid hydrogen transfer system is made up of a number of subsystems including the 850,000 gal storage tank whose boil-off losses amount to only 200 gal/day, the pressurization system, the burn pond for controlled disposal of hydrogen waste gas, the storage tank fill manifold, and the hazardous gas monitoring system. Some of the subsystems and components are redundant to provide a high degree of reliability.

  2. Motor vehicle fuel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    A gas detecting system for classifying the type of liquid fuel in a container or tank. The system includes a plurality of semiconductor gas sensors, each of which differs from the other in its response to various organic vapors. The system includes a means of processing the responses of the plurality of sensors such that the responses to any particular organic substance or mixture is sufficiently distinctive to constitute a recognizable "signature". The signature of known substances are collected and divided into two classes based on some other known characteristic of the substances. A pattern recognition system classifies the signature of an unknown substance with reference to the two user-defined classes, thereby classifying the unknown substance with regard to the characteristic of interest, such as its suitability for a particular use.

  3. Motor vehicle fuel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1997-08-05

    A gas detecting system is described for classifying the type of liquid fuel in a container or tank. The system includes a plurality of semiconductor gas sensors, each of which differs from the other in its response to various organic vapors. The system includes a means of processing the responses of the plurality of sensors such that the responses to any particular organic substance or mixture is sufficiently distinctive to constitute a recognizable ``signature``. The signature of known substances are collected and divided into two classes based on some other known characteristic of the substances. A pattern recognition system classifies the signature of an unknown substance with reference to the two user-defined classes, thereby classifying the unknown substance with regard to the characteristic of interest, such as its suitability for a particular use. 14 figs.

  4. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-03-01

    Flexible Fuel vehicles are able to operate using more than one type of fuel. FFVs can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Today more than 7 million vehicles on U.S. highways are flexible fuel vehicles. The fact sheet discusses how E85 affects vehicle performance, the costs and benefits of using E85, and how to find E85 station locations.

  5. Alternative fuels and vehicles choice model

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the theory and implementation of a model of alternative fuel and vehicle choice (AFVC), designed for use with the US Department of Energy`s Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). The AFTM is a static equilibrium model of the world supply and demand for liquid fuels, encompassing resource production, conversion processes, transportation, and consumption. The AFTM also includes fuel-switching behavior by incorporating multinomial logit-type equations for choice of alternative fuel vehicles and alternative fuels. This allows the model to solve for market shares of vehicles and fuels, as well as for fuel prices and quantities. The AFVC model includes fuel-flexible, bi-fuel, and dedicated fuel vehicles. For multi-fuel vehicles, the choice of fuel is subsumed within the vehicle choice framework, resulting in a nested multinomial logit design. The nesting is shown to be required by the different price elasticities of fuel and vehicle choice. A unique feature of the AFVC is that its parameters are derived directly from the characteristics of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies, together with a few key assumptions about consumer behavior. This not only establishes a direct link between assumptions and model predictions, but facilitates sensitivity testing, as well. The implementation of the AFVC model as a spreadsheet is also described.

  6. Comparative analysis of selected fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-07

    Vehicles powered by fuel cells operate more efficiently, more quietly, and more cleanly than internal combustion engines (ICEs). Furthermore, methanol-fueled fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) can utilize major elements of the existing fueling infrastructure of present-day liquid-fueled ICE vehicles (ICEVs). DOE has maintained an active program to stimulate the development and demonstration o fuel cell technologies in conjunction with rechargeable batteries in road vehicles. The purpose of this study is to identify and assess the availability of data on FCVs, and to develop a vehicle subsystem structure that can be used to compare both FCVs and ICEV, from a number of perspectives--environmental impacts, energy utilization, materials usage, and life cycle costs. This report focuses on methanol-fueled FCVs fueled by gasoline, methanol, and diesel fuel that are likely to be demonstratable by the year 2000. The comparative analysis presented covers four vehicles--two passenger vehicles and two urban transit buses. The passenger vehicles include an ICEV using either gasoline or methanol and an FCV using methanol. The FCV uses a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an on-board methanol reformer, mid-term batteries, and an AC motor. The transit bus ICEV was evaluated for both diesel and methanol fuels. The transit bus FCV runs on methanol and uses a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) fuel cell, near-term batteries, a DC motor, and an on-board methanol reformer. 75 refs.

  7. DETAIL OF THE LIQUID HYDROGEN AND LIQUID OXYGEN VENT VALVES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE LIQUID HYDROGEN AND LIQUID OXYGEN VENT VALVES, SIXTH LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK CHECK-OUT CELLS, HB-2, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  8. OZONE PRECURSOR EMISSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVELY FUELED VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Smog chamber tests were conducted using automobile exhaust gas generated during emission tests with a group of alternatively fueled vehicles. he tests were designed to evaluate the photochemical characteristics of organic emissions from vehicles operating on compressed natural ga...

  9. Fuel Cell Propulsion Systems for an All-Electric Personal Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for all-electric aircraft propulsion as a means to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. Among the technologies under consideration for these concepts are advanced proton exchange membrane and solid oxide fuel cells, alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. This paper summarizes the results of a first-order feasibility study for an all-electric personal air vehicle utilizing a fuel cell-powered propulsion system. A representative aircraft with an internal combustion engine was chosen as a baseline to provide key parameters to the study, including engine power and subsystem mass, fuel storage volume and mass, and aircraft range. The engine, fuel tank, and associated ancillaries were then replaced with a fuel cell subsystem. Various configurations were considered including: a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell with liquid hydrogen storage; a direct methanol PEM fuel cell; and a direct internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/turbine hybrid system using liquid methane fuel. Each configuration was compared to the baseline case on a mass and range basis.

  10. Fuel Cell Propulsion Systems for an All-electric Personal Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2003-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for all-electric aircraft propulsion as a means to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. Among the technologies under consideration for these concepts are advanced proton exchange membrane and solid oxide fuel cells, alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. This paper summarizes the results of a first-order feasibility study for an all-electric personal air vehicle utilizing a fuel cell-powered propulsion system. A representative aircraft with an internal combustion engine was chosen as a baseline to provide key parameters to the study, including engine power and subsystem mass, fuel storage volume and mass, and aircraft range. The engine, fuel tank, and associated ancillaries were then replaced with a fuel cell subsystem. Various configurations were considered including: a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell with liquid hydrogen storage; a direct methanol PEM fuel cell; and a direct internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/turbine hybrid system using liquid methane fuel. Each configuration was compared to the baseline case on a mass and range basis.

  11. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  12. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  13. Advances in fuel cell vehicle design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, Jennifer

    Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied

  14. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  15. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-12-31

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  16. Tracked-vehicle fuel consumption. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-06

    This document describes test procedures for evaluating the fuel efficiency of tracked vehicles under controlled operating conditions. The test data are a major source for comparisons with similar vehicles, and can also serve to predict the operational range of these vehicles during tactical missions.

  17. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-05-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It discusses performance and lists additional resources.

  18. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  19. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    Clean Cities fact sheet describing aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It includes discussion on performance and how to identify these vehicles as well as listing additional resources.

  20. 76 FR 19829 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... include conversions of conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles to hybrid-electric vehicles, and conversions from hybrid-electric vehicles to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Since alternative fuel... Parts Manufacturing. 336322 Other Motor Vehicle Electrical and Electronic Equipment...

  1. Electric and Gasoline Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-05-24

    EAGLES1.1 is PC-based interactive software for analyzing performance (e.g., maximum range) of electric vehicles (EVs) or fuel economy (e.g., miles/gallon) of gasoline vehicles (GVs). The EV model provides a second by second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified vehicle velocity/time or power/time profile. It takes into account the effects of battery depth-of-discharge (DOD) and regenerative braking. The GV fuel economy model which relates fuel economy, vehicle parameters, and driving cycle characteristics, canmore » be used to investigate the effects of changes in vehicle parameters and driving patterns on fuel economy. For both types of vehicles, effects of heating/cooling loads on vehicle performance can be studied. Alternatively, the software can be used to determine the size of battery needed to satisfy given vehicle mission requirements (e.g., maximum range and driving patterns). Options are available to estimate the time necessary for a vehicle to reach a certain speed with the application of a specified constant power and to compute the fraction of time and/or distance in a drivng cycle for speeds exceeding a given value.« less

  2. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.33 Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel...

  3. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.33 Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel...

  4. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.33 Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel...

  5. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.33 Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel...

  6. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.33 Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel...

  7. Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F.

    1996-12-31

    The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

  8. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section...

  9. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section...

  10. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section...

  11. Comments on liquid hydrogen absorbers for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the heat transfer problems associatedwith a liquid hydrogen absorber for the MICE experiment. This reportdescribes a technique for modeling heat transfer from the outside world,to the abosrber case and in its vacuum vessel, to the hydrogen and theninto helium gas at 14 K. Also presented are the equation for freeconvection cooling of the liquid hydrogen in the absorber.

  12. An exploratory study to determine the integrated technological air transportation system ground requirements of liquid-hydrogen-fueled subsonic, long-haul civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A baseline air terminal concept was developed which permitted airlines and the airport to operate JP- or LH2-fueled aircraft at common terminal gates. The concept included installation of a hydrogen liquefaction and storage facility on airport property, as well as the fuel distribution system. The capital investment and hydrogen-related operating costs to the airlines were estimated.

  13. Energy Storage Fuel Cell Vehicle Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, T.; Pesaran, A.; Zolot, M.; Sprik, S.; Tataria, H.; Duong, T.

    2005-04-01

    In recent years, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) vehicle technology has received considerable attention as a strategy to decrease oil consumption and reduce harmful emissions. However, the cost, transient response, and cold performance of FC systems may present significant challenges to widespread adoption of the technology for transportation in the next 15 years. The objectives of this effort were to perform energy storage modeling with fuel cell vehicle simulations to quantify the benefits of hybridization and to identify a process for setting the requirements of ES for hydrogen-powered FC vehicles for U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program.

  14. Energy Storage Fuel Cell Vehicle Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A; Markel, T; Zolot, M; Sprik, S; Tataria, H; Duong, T

    2005-08-01

    In recent years, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) vehicle technology has received considerable attention as a strategy to decrease oil consumption and reduce harmful emissions. However, the cost, transient response, and cold performance of FC systems may present significant challenges to widespread adoption of the technology for transportation in the next 15 years. The objectives of this effort were to perform energy storage modeling with fuel cell vehicle simulations to quantify the benefits of hybridization and to identify a process for setting the requirements of ES for hydrogen-powered FC vehicles for U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program.

  15. Carbon monoxide exposure from aircraft fueling vehicles.

    PubMed

    McCammon, C S; Halperin, W F; Lemen, R A

    1981-01-01

    Investigators from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health observed deficiencies in maintenance of fueling trucks at an international airport. The exhaust system is vented under the front bumper, a standard design on fueling trucks which is intended to minimize the proximity of the exhaust system to the jet fuel in the vehicles. Carbon monoxide levels were measured in the cabs of 17 fueling trucks with windows closed, heaters on, and in different positions relative to the wind. One truck had an average CO level of 300 ppm, two exceeded 100 ppm, five others exceeded 50 ppm, while levels in the other nine averaged less than or equal to 500 ppm. Levels of CO depended on the mechanical condition of the vehicle and the vehicle's orientation to the wind. Stringent maintenance is required as the exhaust design is not fail-safe. PMID:6166254

  16. Fuel cell power system for utility vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, M.; Barbir, F.; Marken, F.; Nadal, M.

    1996-12-31

    Based on the experience of designing and building the Green Car, a fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle, and Genesis, a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell powered transporter, Energy Partners has developed a fuel cell power system for propulsion of an off-road utility vehicle. A 10 kW hydrogen/air fuel cell stack has been developed as a prototype for future mass production. The main features of this stack are discussed in this paper. Design considerations and selection criteria for the main components of the vehicular fuel cell system, such as traction motor, air compressor and compressor motor, hydrogen storage and delivery, water and heat management, power conditioning, and control and monitoring subsystem are discussed in detail.

  17. 16 CFR 309.10 - Alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternative vehicle fuel rating. 309.10... Electricity) and of Manufacturers of Electric Vehicle Fuel Dispensing Systems § 309.10 Alternative vehicle fuel rating. (a) If you are an importer, producer, or refiner of non-liquid alternative vehicle...

  18. Integrated gasifier combined cycle polygeneration system to produce liquid hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. K.; Staiger, P. J.; Donovan, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    An integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) system which simultaneously produces electricity, process steam, and liquid hydrogen was evaluated and compared to IGCC systems which cogenerate electricity and process steam. A number of IGCC plants, all employing a 15 MWe has turbine and producing from 0 to 20 tons per day of liquid hydrogen and from 0 to 20 MWt of process steam were considered. The annual revenue required to own and operate such plants was estimated to be significantly lower than the potential market value of the products. The results indicate a significant potential economic benefit to configuring IGCC systems to produce a clean fuel in addition to electricity and process steam in relatively small industrial applications.

  19. 10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. 490.506 Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506 Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. (a) Any...

  20. 10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. 490.506 Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506 Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. (a) Any...

  1. 10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. 490.506 Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506 Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. (a) Any...

  2. 10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. 490.506 Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506 Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. (a) Any...

  3. 10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. 490.506 Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506 Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. (a) Any...

  4. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section 538.9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel...

  5. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section 538.9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel...

  6. Pad B Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Felicia

    2007-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is home to two liquid hydrogen storage tanks, one at each launch pad of Launch Complex 39. The liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad B has a significantly higher boil off rate that the liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad A. This research looks at various calculations concerning the at Launch Pad B in an attempt to develop a solution to the excess boil off rate. We will look at Perlite levels inside the tank, Boil off rates, conductive heat transfer, and radiant heat transfer through the tank. As a conclusion to the research, we will model the effects of placing an external insulation to the tank in order to reduce the boil off rate and increase the economic efficiency of the liquid hydrogen storage tanks.

  7. Rapid Chill and Fill of a Liquid Hydrogen Tank Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudlac, Maureen T.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center, in conjunction with Boeing North American, has been supporting the High Energy Upper Stage (HEUS) program by performing feasibility studies at Lewis Supplemental Multilayer Insulation Research Facility (SMIRF). These tests were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of chilling and filling a tank with liquid hydrogen in under 5 minutes. The goal of the HEUS program is to release a satellite from the shuttle cargo bay and then use a cryogenic (high-energy) upper stage to allow the satellite to achieve final orbit. Because of safety considerations, the propellant tanks for the upper stage will be launched warm and dry. They will be filled from the shuttle's external tank during the mission phase after the solid rocket boosters have jettisoned and prior to jettison of the external tank. Data from previous shuttle missions have been analyzed to ensure that sufficient propellant would be available in the external tank to fill the propellant tank of the proposed vehicle upper stage. Because of mission time-line considerations, the propellant tanks for the upper stage will have to be chilled down and filled in approximately 5 minutes. An existing uninsulated flight weight test tank was installed inside the vacuum chamber at SMIRF, and the chamber was evacuated to the 10(exp -5) torr range to simulate space vacuum conditions in the cargo bay with the doors open. During prerun operations, the facility liquid hydrogen (LH2) supply piping was prechilled with the vent gas bypassing the test article. The liquid hydrogen supply dewar was saturated at local ambient pressure and then pressurized with ambient temperature gaseous helium to the test pressure. A control system was used to ensure that the liquid hydrogen supply pressure was maintained at the test pressure.

  8. Vehicle Data for Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) and Hybrid Fuel Vehicles (HEVs) from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFCD)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The AFDC provides search capabilities for many different models of both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. Engine and transmission type, fuel and class, fuel economy and emission certification are some of the facts available. The search will also help users locate dealers in their areas and do cost analyses. Information on alternative fuel vehicles and on advanced technology vehicles, along with calculators, resale and conversion information, links to incentives and programs such as Clean Cities, and dozens of fact sheets and publications make this section of the AFDC a valuable resource for car buyers.

  9. Modeling of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and fuel engine efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei

    "Near-CV" (i.e., near-conventional vehicle) hybrid vehicles, with an internal combustion engine, and a supplementary storage with low-weight, low-energy but high-power capacity, are analyzed. This design avoids the shortcoming of the "near-EV" and the "dual-mode" hybrid vehicles that need a large energy storage system (in terms of energy capacity and weight). The small storage is used to optimize engine energy management and can provide power when needed. The energy advantage of the "near-CV" design is to reduce reliance on the engine at low power, to enable regenerative braking, and to provide good performance with a small engine. The fuel consumption of internal combustion engines, which might be applied to hybrid vehicles, is analyzed by building simple analytical models that reflect the engines' energy loss characteristics. Both diesel and gasoline engines are modeled. The simple analytical models describe engine fuel consumption at any speed and load point by describing the engine's indicated efficiency and friction. The engine's indicated efficiency and heat loss are described in terms of several easy-to-obtain engine parameters, e.g., compression ratio, displacement, bore and stroke. Engine friction is described in terms of parameters obtained by fitting available fuel measurements on several diesel and spark-ignition engines. The engine models developed are shown to conform closely to experimental fuel consumption and motored friction data. A model of the energy use of "near-CV" hybrid vehicles with different storage mechanism is created, based on simple algebraic description of the components. With powertrain downsizing and hybridization, a "near-CV" hybrid vehicle can obtain a factor of approximately two in overall fuel efficiency (mpg) improvement, without considering reductions in the vehicle load.

  10. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    As nations around the world pursue a variety of sustainable transportation solutions, the hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) presents a promising opportunity for American consumers and automakers. FCEVs offer a sustainable transportation option, provide a cost-competitive alternative for drivers, reduce dependence on imported oil, and enable global economic leadership and job growth.

  11. Fuel cell drives for road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnah, R. M.

    For fuel-cell driven vehicles, including buses, the fuel cell may be the main, determining factor in the system but must be integrated into the complete design process. A Low-Floor Bus design is used to illustrate this point. The influence of advances in drive-train electronics is illustrated as are novel designs for motors and mechanical transmission of power to the wheels allowing the use of novel hub assemblies. A hybrid electric power system is being deployed in which Fuel Cells produce the energy needs but are coupled with batteries especially for acceleration phases and for recuperative braking.

  12. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K.

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  13. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  14. Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J.

    1993-06-14

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

  15. Hydrogen fuel dispensing station for transportation vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.N.; Richmond, A.A.

    1995-07-01

    A technical and economic assessment is being conducted of a hydrogen fuel dispensing station to develop an understanding of the infrastructure requirements for supplying hydrogen fuel for mobile applications. The study includes a process design of a conceptual small-scale, stand-alone, grassroots fuel dispensing facility (similar to the present-day gasoline stations) producing hydrogen by steam reforming of natural gas. Other hydrogen production processes (such as partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and water electrolysis) were reviewed to determine their suitability for manufacturing the hydrogen. The study includes an assessment of the environmental and other regulatory permitting requirements likely to be imposed on a hydrogen fuel dispensing station for transportation vehicles. The assessment concludes that a dispensing station designed to produce 0.75 million standard cubic feet of fuel grade (99.99%+ purity) hydrogen will meet the fuel needs of 300 light-duty vehicles per day. Preliminary economics place the total capital investment (in 1994 US dollars) for the dispensing station at $4.5 million and the annual operating costs at around $1 million. A discounted cash-flow analysis indicates that the fuel hydrogen product price (excluding taxes) to range between $1.37 to $2.31 per pound of hydrogen, depending upon the natural gas price, the plant financing scenario, and the rate of return on equity capital. A report on the assessment is due in June 1995. This paper presents a summary of the current status of the assessment.

  16. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements... diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements, provided that... under 40 CFR 69.52(c), (d), and (e) for commingled motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle diesel fuel:...

  17. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements... diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements, provided that... under 40 CFR 69.52(c), (d), and (e) for commingled motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle diesel fuel:...

  18. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements... diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements, provided that... under 40 CFR 69.52(c), (d), and (e) for commingled motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle diesel fuel:...

  19. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements... diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements, provided that... under 40 CFR 69.52(c), (d), and (e) for commingled motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle diesel fuel:...

  20. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements... diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements, provided that... under 40 CFR 69.52(c), (d), and (e) for commingled motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle diesel fuel:...

  1. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontela, Pablo; Soria, Antonio; Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, José Francisco; de Blas, Juan; Gauchia, Lucia; Martínez, Juan M.

    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness, …), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions.

  2. EMISSION AND FUEL ECONOMY OF DOE FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have established, through a Memorandum of Understanding, a coordinated framework for collaborative research examining the impact of alternative motor vehicle fuels on air quality and risk to public health ...

  3. EMISSIONS AND FUEL ECONOMY OF DOE FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental protection Agency have established, through a Memorandum of Understanding, a coordinated framework for collaborative research examining the impact of alternative motor vehicle fuels on air quality and risk to public health ...

  4. 75 FR 29605 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... of conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles to hybrid-electric vehicles, and conversions from hybrid-electric vehicles to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Since alternative fuel conversion activity often... Manufacturing. 336322 Other Motor Vehicle Electrical and Electronic Equipment Manufacturing. 336399 All...

  5. Liquid Hydrogen Target Experience at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Weisend, J.G.; Boyce, R.; Candia, A.; Kaminskas, W.; Mark, J.; Racine, M.; St. Lorant, S.; Weber, T.; Arnold, R.; Bosted, P.; Carr, R.; Gao, J.; Jones, C.E.; McKeown, R.; /Caltech

    2005-08-29

    Liquid hydrogen targets have played a vital role in the physics program at SLAC for the past 40 years. These targets have ranged from small ''beer can'' targets to the 1.5 m long E158 target that was capable of absorbing up to 800 W without any significant density changes. Successful use of these targets has required the development of thin wall designs, liquid hydrogen pumps, remote positioning and alignment systems, safety systems, control and data acquisition systems, cryogenic cooling circuits and heat exchangers. Detailed operating procedures have been created to ensure safety and operational reliability. This paper surveys the evolution of liquid hydrogen targets at SLAC and discusses advances in several of the enabling technologies that made these targets possible.

  6. Case history evaluation of methane-fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Lafrenz, D.J.; Glaub, J.C.; Jones, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an extensive case history evaluation of methane-fueled vehicles are presented. A questionnaire sent to fleet operators was designed to procure: general information regarding the fleet; information on the fuel and vehicle fuel system (source of methane, heating value of gas, and vehicle fuel tank capacity); vehicle fuel consumption and mileage information; cost information; and information regarding operational difficulties attributable to conversion for operation on methane. Twenty-eight responses were obtained, encompassing nearly 3,500 vehicles. Data from the study have been compiled into several comprehensive tables. The ranges of various parameters are discussed, as well as the operation difficulties that were reported. 13 refs.

  7. Analysis of hydrogen vehicles with cryogenic high pressure storage

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S. M.; Berry, G. D.

    1998-06-19

    Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen (LIQ) or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen (CH2). Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of liquid hydrogen tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (lower energy requirement for hydrogen liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). This paper shows an evaluation of the applicability of the insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles. The paper shows an evaluation of evaporative losses and insulation requirements and a description of the current experimental plans for testing insulated pressure vessels. The results show significant advantages to the use of insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles.

  8. Small, high-pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csomor, A.; Sutton, R.

    1977-01-01

    A high pressure, liquid hydrogen turbopump was designed, fabricated, and tested to a maximum speed of 9739 rad/s and a maximum pump discharge pressure of 2861 N/sq. cm. The approaches used in the analysis and design of the turbopump are described, and fabrication methods are discussed. Data obtained from gas generator tests, turbine performance calibration, and turbopump testing are presented.

  9. Particulate Measurements and Emissions Characterization of Alternative Fuel Vehicle Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.; Norbeck, J. M.

    1998-11-19

    The objective of this project was to measure and characterize particulate emissions from light-duty alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and equivalent gasoline-fueled vehicles. The project included emission testing of a fleet of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel vehicles. Particulate measurements were obtained over Federal Test Procedure and US06 cycles. Chemical characterization of the exhaust particulate was also performed. Overall, the particulate emissions from modern technology compressed natural gas and methanol vehicles were low, but were still comparable to those of similar technology gasoline vehicles.

  10. Prospects for the application of fuel cells in electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adcock, P. L.; Barton, R. T.; Dudfield, C. D.; Mitchell, P. J.; Naylor, P.; Newbold, A.

    1992-01-01

    For a hybrid vehicle the use pattern has large effect on the vehicle design. If the vehicle is to be used extensively on the motorway then a continuous high power is required. For the case of a fuel cell battery hybrid vehicle this would require a large fuel cell ( > 30 kW) to meet the sustained high power demand. The current high materials and fabrication cost of most fuel cells prohibits the commercial development of such a system. Consequently if fuel cell vehicles are to enter a 'clean car' market, earlier rather than later, alternative configurations must be sought and compromises in terms of performance are inevitable.

  11. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles, summary. [aircraft design of aircraft fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirrello, C. J.; Baker, A. H.; Stone, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed analytical study was made to investigate the effects of fuselage cross section (circular and elliptical) and the structural arrangement (integral and nonintegral tanks) on aircraft performance. The vehicle was a 200 passenger, liquid hydrogen fueled Mach 6 transport designed to meet a range goal of 9.26 Mn (5000 NM). A variety of trade studies were conducted in the area of configuration arrangement, structural design, and active cooling design in order to maximize the performance of each of three point design aircraft: (1) circular wing-body with nonintegral tanks, (2) circular wing-body with integral tanks and (3) elliptical blended wing-body with integral tanks. Aircraft range and weight were used as the basis for comparison. The resulting design and performance characteristics show that the blended body integral tank aircraft weights the least and has the greatest range capability, however, producibility and maintainability factors favor nonintegral tank concepts.

  12. 16 CFR 309.10 - Alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of D 1945-91 and D 1946-90 may be obtained from the... Fuels Duties of Importers, Producers, and Refiners of Non-Liquid Alternative Vehicle Fuels (other Than... fuel rating. (a) If you are an importer, producer, or refiner of non-liquid alternative vehicle...

  13. 16 CFR 309.10 - Alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of D 1945-91 and D 1946-90 may be obtained from the... Fuels Duties of Importers, Producers, and Refiners of Non-Liquid Alternative Vehicle Fuels (other Than... fuel rating. (a) If you are an importer, producer, or refiner of non-liquid alternative vehicle...

  14. 16 CFR 309.10 - Alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of D 1945-91 and D 1946-90 may be obtained from the... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternative vehicle fuel rating. 309.10... LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for...

  15. 16 CFR 309.10 - Alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of D 1945-91 and D 1946-90 may be obtained from the... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternative vehicle fuel rating. 309.10... LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for...

  16. Hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles: A technical and economic comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T.

    1997-12-31

    All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic and heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.

  17. Fuel cutoff apparatus for engine-driven vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, T.; Miyata, K.

    1988-05-03

    A fuel cutoff apparatus for use in an engine-driven vehicle is described comprising: an ignition switch having an off-position and an on-position; a fuel supply means for supplying fuel to the engine of the vehicle and comprising a fuel supply solenoid which, when energized, supplies fuel to the engine and, when deenergized, stops the supply of fuel; a normally-closed hydraulically actuated switch means; a fuel cutoff control means comprising an electric circuit including the fuel supply solenoid, and a warning means actuated independently of the driver coil by the hydraulically actuated switch means moving to its closed position.

  18. Nonlinear Thermal Analyses of a Liquid Hydrogen Tank Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Waters, W. Allen, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A thermal evaluation of a composite tank wall design for a liquid hydrogen tank was performed in the present study. The primary focus of the current effort was to perform one-dimensional, temperature nonlinear, transient thermal analyses to determine the through-the-thickness temperature profiles. These profiles were used to identify critical points within the flight envelope that could have detrimental effects on the adhesive bondlines used in the construction of the tank wall. Additionally, this paper presents the finite element models, analysis strategies, and thermal analysis results that were determined for several vehicle flight conditions. The basic tank wall configuration used to perform the thermal analyses consisted of carbon-epoxy facesheets and a Korex honeycomb core sandwich that was insulated with an Airex cryogenic foam and an Alumina Enhanced Thermal Barrier (AETB-12). Nonlinear, transient thermal analyses were conducted using the ABAQUS finite element code. Tank wall models at a windward side location on the fuel tank were analyzed for three basic flight conditions: cold-soak (ground-hold), ascent, and re-entry. Additionally, three ambient temperature boundary conditions were applied to the tank wall for the cold-soak condition, which simulated the launch pad cooldown process. Time-dependent heating rates were used in the analyses of the ascent and reentry segments of the flight history along with temperature dependent material properties. The steady-state through-the-thickness temperature profile from the cold-soak condition was used as the initial condition for the ascent analyses. Results from the nonlinear thermal analyses demonstrated very good correlation with results from similar models evaluated by Northrop- Grumman using a different analysis tool. Wall through-the-thickness temperature gradients as a function of flight time were obtained for future incorporation into a full-scale thermostructural analysis to evaluate the adhesive bondlines

  19. 40 CFR 600.304-12 - Fuel economy label-special requirements for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. 600.304-12 Section 600.304-12 Protection of Environment... MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.304-12 Fuel economy label—special requirements for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Fuel economy labels for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles must meet the...

  20. 40 CFR 600.304-12 - Fuel economy label-special requirements for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. 600.304-12 Section 600.304-12 Protection of Environment... MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.304-12 Fuel economy label—special requirements for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Fuel economy labels for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles must meet the...

  1. 40 CFR 600.304-12 - Fuel economy label-special requirements for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. 600.304-12 Section 600.304-12 Protection of Environment... MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.304-12 Fuel economy label—special requirements for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Fuel economy labels for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles must meet the...

  2. A dynamic simulation tool for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. M.; Hauer, K. H.; Friedman, D.; Cunningham, J.; Badrinarayanan, P.; Ramaswamy, S.; Eggert, A.

    This paper describes a dynamic fuel cell vehicle simulation (FCVSim) tool for the load-following direct-hydrogen (DH) fuel cell vehicle. The emphasis is on simulation of the direct-hydrogen fuel cell system (FC System) within the vehicle simulation tool. This paper is focused on the subsystems that are specific to the load-following direct-hydrogen model. The four major subsystems discussed are the fuel cell stack, the air supply, the water and thermal management (WTM), and the hydrogen supply. The discussion provides the details of these subsystem simulations. The basic vehicle configuration has been previously outlined by Hauer [An Analysis Tool For Fuel Cell Vehicle Hardware and Software (Controls) with an Application to Fuel Economy Comparisons of Alternative System Designs, Dissertation, UC California, Davis, USA, 2001] and Hauer and Moore [Fuel Cells for Automotive Applications, Professional Engineering Publishing, 2003, pp. 157-177, ISBN 1860584233] and is only briefly reviewed in this paper.

  3. New Methodology for Estimating Fuel Economy by Vehicle Class

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Shih-Miao; Dabbs, Kathryn; Hwang, Ho-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Office of Highway Policy Information to develop a new methodology to generate annual estimates of average fuel efficiency and number of motor vehicles registered by vehicle class for Table VM-1 of the Highway Statistics annual publication. This paper describes the new methodology developed under this effort and compares the results of the existing manual method and the new systematic approach. The methodology developed under this study takes a two-step approach. First, the preliminary fuel efficiency rates are estimated based on vehicle stock models for different classes of vehicles. Then, a reconciliation model is used to adjust the initial fuel consumption rates from the vehicle stock models and match the VMT information for each vehicle class and the reported total fuel consumption. This reconciliation model utilizes a systematic approach that produces documentable and reproducible results. The basic framework utilizes a mathematical programming formulation to minimize the deviations between the fuel economy estimates published in the previous year s Highway Statistics and the results from the vehicle stock models, subject to the constraint that fuel consumptions for different vehicle classes must sum to the total fuel consumption estimate published in Table MF-21 of the current year Highway Statistics. The results generated from this new approach provide a smoother time series for the fuel economies by vehicle class. It also utilizes the most up-to-date and best available data with sound econometric models to generate MPG estimates by vehicle class.

  4. Design of a liquid hydrogen target system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komisarcik, K.; Meyer, H. O.; Bertuccio, T.; Manwaring, W.; Smith, W.

    1986-08-01

    An internal liquid hydrogen target is described for use with intermediate energy light ion beams. As a result, certain safety features are required to prevent a possible hydrogen explosion within the beamline or cyclotron. These safety features include an acoustical delay line which slows the hydrogen gas shock wave and a fast closing valve which shuts before any large volume of escaping gas reaches it. Other safety devices which reduce the chances of cell breakage and quickly shut off various ignition sources are discussed. Also described is a device involving a variable heat load which is coupled directly to the cryocondenser and is used to continually monitor and stabilize the pressure and temperature of the liquid hydrogen.

  5. Liquid Hydrogen Sensor Considerations for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2006-01-01

    The on-orbit management of liquid hydrogen planned for the return to the moon will introduce new considerations not encountered in previous missions. This paper identifies critical liquid hydrogen sensing needs from the perspective of reliable on-orbit cryogenic fluid management, and contrasts the fundamental differences in fluid and thermodynamic behavior for ground-based versus on-orbit conditions. Opportunities for advanced sensor development and implementation are explored in the context of critical Exploration Architecture operations such as on-orbit storage, docking, and trans-lunar injection burn. Key sensing needs relative to these operations are also examined, including: liquid/vapor detection, thermodynamic condition monitoring, mass gauging, and leak detection. Finally, operational aspects of an integrated system health management approach are discussed to highlight the potential impact on mission success.

  6. Small, high pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csomor, A.; Warren, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    A high pressure, low capacity, liquid hydrogen turbopump was designed, fabricated, and tested. The design configuration of the turbopump is summarized and the results of the analytical and test efforts are presented. Approaches used to pin point the cause of poor suction performance with the original design are described and performance data are included with an axial inlet design which results in excellent suction capability.

  7. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Tools (AFAVT), AFDC (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Web site offers a collection of calculators, interactive maps, and informational tools to assist fleets, fuel providers, and others looking to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector.

  8. Integrated Refrigeration and Storage for Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanger, A. M.; Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has used liquefied hydrogen (LH2) on a large scale since the beginning of the space program as fuel for the Centaur and Apollo upper stages, and more recently to feed the three space shuttle main engines. The LH2 systems currently in place at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pads are aging and inefficient compared to the state-of-the-art. Therefore, the need exists to explore advanced technologies and operations that can drive commodity costs down, and provide increased capabilities. The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) was developed at KSC to pursue these goals by demonstrating active thermal control of the propellant state by direct removal of heat using a cryocooler. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The key technology challenge was efficiently integrating the cryogenic refrigerator into the LH2 storage tank. A Linde LR1620 Brayton cycle refrigerator is used to produce up to 900W cooling at 20K, circulating approximately 22 g/s gaseous helium through the hydrogen via approximately 300 m of heat exchanger tubing. The GODU-LH2 system is fully operational, and is currently under test. This paper will discuss the design features of the refrigerator and storage system, as well as the current test results.

  9. Emissions from ethanol- and LPG-fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the United States. Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the United States for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the United States, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing U.S. interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat-ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles, and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG, will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat-ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural impacts from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG as compared with other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat-ethanol-fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG-fueled vehicles.

  10. Fuel cell commercialization issues for light-duty vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E.

    The major challenges facing fuel cells in light-duty vehicle applications relate to the high cost of the fuel cell stack components (membrane, electro-catalyst and bipolar plate) which dictate that new manufacturing processes and materials must be developed. Initially, the best fuel for a mass market light-duty vehicle will probably not be the best fuel for the fuel cell (hydrogen); refueling infrastructure and energy density concerns may demand the use of an on-board fuel processor for petroleum-based fuels since this will increase customer acceptance. The use of fuel processors does, however, reduce the fuel cell system's efficiency. Moreover, if such fuels are used then the emissions benefit associated with fuel cells may come with a significant penalty in terms of added complexity, weight, size and cost. However, ultimately, fuel cells powered by hydrogen do promise to be the most efficient and cleanest of automotive powertrains.

  11. The new generation of vehicles: market opportunities for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalk, Steven G.; Patil, Pandit G.; Venkateswaran, S. R.

    The Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), a historic US Government-auto industry partnership initiated in 1993, is pursuing three specific, interrelated goals, including the development of the next generation of vehicles capable of achieving up to three times the fuel efficiency of today's comparable vehicles. Fuel cells have been identified as one of three primary propulsion system candidates to meet this triple fuel efficiency goal, since they can dramatically increase automotive propulsion efficiency combined with very low to zero emissions. The US Government is working closely with industry and research institutions in pursuing a strategy of aggressive research and development (R&D) to accelerate the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. The US Department of Energy has a major role in this fuel cell technology development effort. R&D activities are focused on overcoming the major technical, economic, and infrastructure-related hurdles. The high efficiency, very low emissions, and other favorable characteristics of fuel cells (such as fuel flexibility, low noise, and vibration) create significant market opportunities for fuel cells over the entire spectrum of transportation applications. While the focus of near-term markets for fuel cell vehicles will be urban areas having severe air-quality problems, long-term market prospects are encouraging since fuel cell vehicles can compete on an even ground with conventional vehicles in all key aspects, including vehicle range and refueling. This paper will discuss near- and long-term market opportunities for fuel cells in transportation and provide an update on driving regulatory developments in the USA at the federal and state level. The paper also provides an introduction to the PNGV (focusing on the role and prospects for fuel cells) and discusses the status of fuel cell vehicle development projects.

  12. Study questions environmental impact of fuel-cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2015-09-01

    Fuel-cell electric vehicles are seen by many as an environmentally friendly technology that can reduce greenhousegas emissions by producing no harmful emissions. But a new study has found that overall a fuel cell electric vehicle has about the same negative environmental impact as a luxury sports car.

  13. Vehicle conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donakowski, T. D.

    1982-11-01

    The alternative fuels considered are compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and methanol; vehicles were required to operate in a hybrid or dual-fuel gasoline/alternative fuel mode. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of continued use of gasoline fuel with the use of alternative fuel and retrofitted equipment. Differences in the amounts of future expenditures are adjusted by means of a total life-cycle costing. All fuels studied are technically feasible to allow a retrofit conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation except for methanol. Conversion to LPG is not recommended for vehicles with more than 100,000 km (60,000 miles) of prior use. Methanol conversion is not recommended for vehicles with more than 50,00 km (30,000 miles).

  14. Vehicle conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donakowski, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    The alternative fuels considered are compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and methanol; vehicles were required to operate in a hybrid or dual-fuel gasoline/alternative fuel mode. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of continued use of gasoline fuel with the use of alternative fuel and retrofitted equipment. Differences in the amounts of future expenditures are adjusted by means of a total life-cycle costing. All fuels studied are technically feasible to allow a retrofit conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation except for methanol. Conversion to LPG is not recommended for vehicles with more than 100,000 km (60,000 miles) of prior use. Methanol conversion is not recommended for vehicles with more than 50,00 km (30,000 miles).

  15. Hot Fire Ignition Test with Densified Liquid Hydrogen using a RL10B-2 Cryogenic H2/O2 Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Nancy B.; Haberbusch, Mark S.

    1997-01-01

    Enhancements to propellants provide an opportunity to either increase performance of an existing vehicle, or reduce the size of a new vehicle. In the late 1980's the National AeroSpace Plane (NASP) reopened the technology chapter on densified propellants, in particular hydrogen. Since that point in time the NASA Lewis Research Center (LERC) in Cleveland, Ohio has been leading the way to provide critical research on the production and transfer of densified propellants. On October 4, 1996 NASA LeRC provided another key demonstration towards the advancement of densified propellants as a viable fuel. Successful ignition of an RL10B-2 engine was achieved with near triple point liquid hydrogen.

  16. Dynamic behavior of gasoline fuel cell electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, William; Bowers, Brian J.; Garnier, Christophe; Boudjemaa, Fabien

    As we begin the 21st century, society is continuing efforts towards finding clean power sources and alternative forms of energy. In the automotive sector, reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from the power plant is one of the main objectives of car manufacturers and innovative technologies are under active consideration to achieve this goal. One technology that has been proposed and vigorously pursued in the past decade is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an electrochemical device that reacts hydrogen with oxygen to produce water, electricity and heat. Since today there is no existing extensive hydrogen infrastructure and no commercially viable hydrogen storage technology for vehicles, there is a continuing debate as to how the hydrogen for these advanced vehicles will be supplied. In order to circumvent the above issues, power systems based on PEM fuel cells can employ an on-board fuel processor that has the ability to convert conventional fuels such as gasoline into hydrogen for the fuel cell. This option could thereby remove the fuel infrastructure and storage issues. However, for these fuel processor/fuel cell vehicles to be commercially successful, issues such as start time and transient response must be addressed. This paper discusses the role of transient response of the fuel processor power plant and how it relates to the battery sizing for a gasoline fuel cell vehicle. In addition, results of fuel processor testing from a current Renault/Nuvera Fuel Cells project are presented to show the progress in transient performance.

  17. Alternate-Fuel Vehicles and Their Application in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Chip

    1991-01-01

    Alternative fuels are becoming increasingly attractive from environmental, energy independence, and economic perspectives. Addresses the following topics: (1) federal and state legislation; (2) alternative fuels and their attributes; (3) practical experience with alternative-fuel vehicles in pupil transportation; and (4) options for school…

  18. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    SciTech Connect

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  19. Storage of fuel in hydrates for natural gas vehicles (NGVs)

    SciTech Connect

    Yevi, G.Y.; Rogers, R.E.

    1996-09-01

    The need for alternative fuels to replace liquid petroleum-based fuels has been accelerated in recent years by environmental concerns, concerns of shortage of imported liquid hydrocarbon, and congressional prompting. The fact is accepted that natural gas is the cheapest, most domestically abundant, and cleanest burning of fossil fuels. However, socio-economical and technical handicaps associated with the safety and efficiency of on-board fuel storage inhibit its practical use in vehicles as an alternative fuel. A concept is presented for safely storing fuel at low pressures in the form of hydrates in natural gas vehicles. Experimental results lead to gas storage capacities of 143 to 159 volumes/volume. Vehicle travel range could be up to 204 mi. Controlled decomposition rate of hydrates is possible for feeding an automotive vehicle. Upon sudden pressure decrease in the event of a vehicle accident, the rate of release of hydrocarbons from the hydrates at constant temperature is 2.63 to 12.50% per min, slow enough to prevent an explosion or a fireball. A model is given for predicting the rates of gas release from hydrates in a vehicle wreck. A storage tank design is proposed and a process is suggested for forming and decomposing hydrates on-board vehicles. A consistent fuel composition is obtained with hydrates.

  20. Electric vehicles - an alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, G.A.; Lyons, J.K.

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventionally fuelled vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well. This report discusses electric powered vehicles as an alternative fuels vehicle.

  1. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications: Conceptual vehicle design report pure fuel cell powertrain vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Oei, D.; Kinnelly, A.; Sims, R.; Sulek, M.; Wernette, D.

    1997-02-01

    In partial fulfillment of the Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this preliminary report addresses the conceptual design and packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle. Three classes of vehicles are considered in this design and packaging exercise, the Aspire representing the small vehicle class, the Taurus or Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV) Sable representing the mid-size vehicle and the E-150 Econoline representing the van-size class. A fuel cell system spreadsheet model and Ford`s Corporate Vehicle Simulation Program (CVSP) were utilized to determine the size and the weight of the fuel cell required to power a particular size vehicle. The fuel cell power system must meet the required performance criteria for each vehicle. In this vehicle design and packaging exercise, the following assumptions were made: fuel cell power system density of 0.33 kW/kg and 0.33 kg/liter, platinum catalyst loading less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total and hydrogen tanks containing gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The fuel cell power system includes gas conditioning, thermal management, humidity control, and blowers or compressors, where appropriate. This conceptual design of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle will help in the determination of the propulsion system requirements for a vehicle powered by a PEMFC engine in lieu of the internal combustion (IC) engine. Only basic performance level requirements are considered for the three classes of vehicles in this report. Each vehicle will contain one or more hydrogen storage tanks and hydrogen fuel for 560 km (350 mi) driving range. Under these circumstances, the packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle is increasingly difficult as the vehicle size diminishes.

  2. Study on Introduction of CO2 Free Energy to Japan with Liquid Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Shoji; Nishimura, Motohiko; Harada, Eichi

    In Japan, both CO2(Carbon dioxide) emission reduction and energy security are the very important social issues after Fukushima Daiichi accident. On the other hand, FCV (Fuel Cell Vehicle)using hydrogen will be on the market in 2015. Introducing large mass hydrogen energy is being expected as expanding hydrogen applications, or solution to energy issues of Japan.And then,the Japanese government announced the road map for introducing hydrogen energy supply chain in this June,2014. Under these circumstances, imported CO2 free hydrogen will be one of the solutions for energy security and CO2 reduction, if the hydrogen price is affordable. To achieve this, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI) performed a feasibility studyon CO2-free hydrogen energy supply chainfrom Australian brown coal linked with CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) to Japan. In the study, hydrogen production systems utilizing brown coal gasificationandLH2 (liquid hydrogen)systems as storing and transporting hydrogen are examined.This paper shows the possibilityof realizingthe CO2 free hydrogen supply chain, the cost breakdown of imported hydrogen cost, its cost competitiveness with conventionalfossil, andLH2systems as key technologies of the hydrogen energy chain.

  3. Energy utilization and efficiency analysis for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. M.; Hauer, K. H.; Ramaswamy, S.; Cunningham, J. M.

    This paper presents the results of an energy analysis for load-following versus battery-hybrid direct-hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The analysis utilizes dynamic fuel cell vehicle simulation tools previously presented [R.M. Moore, K.H. Hauer, J. Cunningham, S. Ramaswamy, A dynamic simulation tool for the battery-hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicle, Fuel Cells, submitted for publication; R.M. Moore, K.H. Hauer, D.J. Friedman, J.M. Cunningham, P. Badrinarayanan, S.X. Ramaswamy, A. Eggert, A dynamic simulation tool for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, J. Power Sources, 141 (2005) 272-285], and evaluates energy utilization and efficiency for standardized drive cycles used in the US, Europe and Japan.

  4. Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

  5. The Liquid Hydrogen Option for the Subsonic Transport: A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korycinski, P. F.

    1977-01-01

    Continued subsonic air transport design studies include the option for a liquid hydrogen fuel system as an aircraft fuel conservation measure. Elements of this option discussed include: (1) economical production of hydrogen; (2) efficient liquefaction of hydrogen; (3) materials for long service life LH2 fuel tanks; (4) insulation materials; (5) LH2 fuel service and installations at major air terminals; (6) assessment of LH2 hazards; and (7) the engineering definition of an LH2 fuel system for a large subsonic passenger air transport.

  6. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  7. Fuel economy and life-cycle cost analysis of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Kwi Seong; Oh, Byeong Soo

    The most promising vehicle engine that can overcome the problem of present internal combustion is the hydrogen fuel cell. Fuel cells are devices that change chemical energy directly into electrical energy without combustion. Pure fuel cell vehicles and fuel cell hybrid vehicles (i.e. a combination of fuel cell and battery) as energy sources are studied. Considerations of efficiency, fuel economy, and the characteristics of power output in hybridization of fuel cell vehicle are necessary. In the case of Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) cycle simulation, hybridization is more efficient than a pure fuel cell vehicle. The reason is that it is possible to capture regenerative braking energy and to operate the fuel cell system within a more efficient range by using battery. Life-cycle cost is largely affected by the fuel cell size, fuel cell cost, and hydrogen cost. When the cost of fuel cell is high, hybridization is profitable, but when the cost of fuel cell is less than 400 US$/kW, a pure fuel cell vehicle is more profitable.

  8. 26 CFR 1.179A-1 - Recapture of deduction for qualified clean-fuel vehicle property and qualified clean-fuel vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... vehicle property and qualified clean-fuel vehicle refueling property. 1.179A-1 Section 1.179A-1 Internal... of deduction for qualified clean-fuel vehicle property and qualified clean-fuel vehicle refueling property. (a) In general. If a recapture event occurs with respect to a taxpayer's qualified...

  9. 26 CFR 1.179A-1 - Recapture of deduction for qualified clean-fuel vehicle property and qualified clean-fuel vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... vehicle property and qualified clean-fuel vehicle refueling property. 1.179A-1 Section 1.179A-1 Internal... of deduction for qualified clean-fuel vehicle property and qualified clean-fuel vehicle refueling property. (a) In general. If a recapture event occurs with respect to a taxpayer's qualified...

  10. 26 CFR 1.179A-1 - Recapture of deduction for qualified clean-fuel vehicle property and qualified clean-fuel vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... vehicle property and qualified clean-fuel vehicle refueling property. 1.179A-1 Section 1.179A-1 Internal... of deduction for qualified clean-fuel vehicle property and qualified clean-fuel vehicle refueling property. (a) In general. If a recapture event occurs with respect to a taxpayer's qualified...

  11. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Fuel Economy Testing at the U.S. EPA National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (SAE Paper 2004-01-2900)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The introduction of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and their new technology has created the need for development of new fuel economy test procedures and safety procedures during testing. The United States Environmental Protection Agency-National Vehicle Fuels and Emissions Laborato...

  12. Effects of ambient conditions on fuel cell vehicle performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraldsson, K.; Alvfors, P.

    Ambient conditions have considerable impact on the performance of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Here, the vehicle fuel consumption, the air compressor power demand, the water management system and the heat loads of a fuel cell hybrid sport utility vehicle (SUV) were studied. The simulation results show that the vehicle fuel consumption increases with 10% when the altitude increases from 0 m up to 3000 m to 4.1 L gasoline equivalents/100 km over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). The increase is 19% on the more power demanding highway US06 cycle. The air compressor is the major contributor to this fuel consumption increase. Its load-following strategy makes its power demand increase with increasing altitude. Almost 40% of the net power output of the fuel cell system is consumed by the air compressor at the altitude of 3000 m with this load-following strategy and is thus more apparent in the high-power US06 cycle. Changes in ambient air temperature and relative humidity effect on the fuel cell system performance in terms of the water management rather in vehicle fuel consumption. Ambient air temperature and relative humidity have some impact on the vehicle performance mostly seen in the heat and water management of the fuel cell system. While the heat loads of the fuel cell system components vary significantly with increasing ambient temperature, the relative humidity did not have a great impact on the water balance. Overall, dimensioning the compressor and other system components to meet the fuel cell system requirements at the minimum and maximum expected ambient temperatures, in this case 5 and 40 °C, and high altitude, while simultaneously choosing a correct control strategy are important parameters for efficient vehicle power train management.

  13. Compressed natural gas fueled vehicles: The Houston experience

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The report describes the experience of the City of Houston in defining the compressed natural gas fueled vehicle research scope and issues. It details the ways in which the project met initial expectations, and how the project scope, focus, and duration were adjusted in response to unanticipated results. It provides examples of real world successes and failures in efforts to commercialize basic research in adapting a proven technology (natural gas) to a noncommercially proven application (vehicles). Phase one of the demonstration study investigates, develops, documents, and disseminates information regarding the economic, operational, and environmental implications of utilizing compressed natural gas (CNG) in various truck fueling applications. The four (4) truck classes investigated are light duty gasoline trucks, medium duty gasoline trucks, medium duty diesel trucks and heavy duty diesel trucks. The project researches aftermarket CNG conversions for the first three vehicle classes and original equipment manufactured (OEM) CNG vehicles for light duty gasoline and heavy duty diesel classes. In phase two of the demonstration project, critical issues are identified and assessed with respect to implementing use of CNG fueled vehicles in a large vehicle fleet. These issues include defining changes in local, state, and industry CNG fueled vehicle related codes and standards; addressing vehicle fuel storage limitations; using standardized vehicle emission testing procedures and results; and resolving CNG refueling infrastructure implementation issues and related cost factors. The report identifies which CNG vehicle fueling options were tried and failed and which were tried and succeeded, with and without modifications. The conclusions include a caution regarding overly optimistic assessments of CNG vehicle technology at the initiation of the project.

  14. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  15. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in

  16. Prospects on fuel economy improvements for hydrogen powered vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, A.; Wallner, T.; Pagerit, S.; Lohse-Bush, H.

    2008-01-01

    Fuel cell vehicles are the subject of extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and the demand for hydrogen is therefore limited, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. Despite its lower cost, the hydrogen-fueled ICE offers, for a similar amount of onboard hydrogen, a lower driving range because of its lower efficiency. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen-fueled vehicles to their conventional gasoline counterparts. To take uncertainties into account, the current and future status of both technologies were considered. Although complete data related to port fuel injection were provided from engine testing, the map for the direct-injection engine was developed from single-cylinder data. The fuel cell system data represent the status of the current technology and the goals of FreedomCAR. For both port-injected and direct-injected hydrogen engine technologies, power split and series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) configurations were considered. For the fuel cell system, only a series HEV configuration was simulated.

  17. Liquid hydrogen flow problems in Kiwi reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, R.S.

    1992-09-01

    The Kiwi series of reactors were the first ones tested in the US Rover Program in the development of nuclear rocket engines for space propulsion. The early experiments with liquid hydrogen showed that parallel flow systems were prone to uneven flow distributions and violent fluctuations in pressure and flow that were capable of destroying a reactor core. Kiwi flow distribution problems were solved by using multiple feed lines into the nozzle cooling system and carefully balancing impedance among them. The violent pressure and flow fluctuations were eliminated after their cause was identified as resonance phenomena driven by the response to flow disturbances of heat transfer through a superheated hydrogen layer. Smooth flow operations were assured by rapidly bringing operating pressures beyond several times the critical pressure of hydrogen. After this initial rough start, solid core nuclear rocket engines successfully passed milestones of achievements during the remainder of the Rover program.

  18. Eddy Current Loss Induced in Aluminum Thermal Conduction Strips for ASPCS Coils Indirectly Cooled by Liquid Hydrogen through Thermo-siphon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Narumi; Katsura, Masashi; Ando, Kennosuke; Takao, Tomoaki; Shintomi, Takakazu; Makida, Yasuhiro; Hamajima, Takataro; Tsuda, Makoto; Miyagi, Daisuke; Tsujigami, Hiroshi; Fujikawa, Shizuichi; Semba, Toshiaki; Iwaki, Katsuya

    To promote renewable energy sources, we proposed a new system called the Advanced Superconducting Power Conditioning System (ASPCS), which consists of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage-system (SMES), Electrolyzer, and Fuel Cell, and is also combined with a liquid hydrogen station for vehicles. The SMES plays a role to compensate the fast fluctuations generated by the renewable energies. In case of the ASPCS with a capacity of 5 MW, we designed the 50 MJ-class SMES composed of 4 solenoid coils. The winding of the solenoid coils is double pancake and a basic coil is 2 m in diameter and 0.5 m in height. Each SMES coil is wound with MgB2 conductor and indirectly cooled at 20 K by liquid hydrogen flowing through a thermo-siphon cooling system. Pure aluminum strips are inserted between the double-pancake coils and the pure aluminum plates gathering the strips lead to liquid hydrogen pipes. This scheme enables the strips and the plates to transfer the heat load in the coils to the cooling pipes and keep the coils at low temperature. On the other hand, we must consider that the strips generate eddy current loss which is strongly affected by a width of the strips. At the same time as the primary study of the SMES coils, we experimented on the thermo-siphon cooling system and investigated the relationship between the heat load and the heat extraction ability of the cooling system. The experiments showed that the cooling system could proficiently function. The estimation of eddy current loss from the particular cooling aluminum strips for the SMES in the ASPCS is reported with the results of the thermo-siphon driving experiment.

  19. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Powered by a Renewable U.S. Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    Clean Cities fact sheet describing aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It includes discussion on performance and how to identify these vehicles as well as listing additional resources.

  20. Modular Energy Storage System for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Janice

    2010-08-27

    The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plug-in electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. The in-depth research into the complex interactions between the lower and higher voltage systems from data obtained via modeling, bench testing and instrumented vehicle data will allow an optimum system to be developed from a performance, cost, weight and size perspective. The subsystems are designed for modularity so that they may be used with different propulsion and energy delivery systems. This approach will allow expansion into new alternative energy vehicle markets.

  1. Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel-economy vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M. M.; Vyas, A. D.; Wang, M. Q.

    1997-12-18

    This paper presents estimates of the fill fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low-sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. Results were obtained for three scenarios: a Reference Scenario without PNGVs, a High Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for 60% of new light-duty vehicle sales by 2030, and a Low Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for half as many sales by 2030. Under the higher of these two, the fuel-efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into a nearly 50% reduction in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sulfur oxide, (SO{sub x}), and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM{sub 10}) for most of the engine-fuel combinations examined. The key exceptions were diesel- and ethanol-fueled vehicles for which PM{sub 10} emissions increased.

  2. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam; Ainscough, Chris; Saur, Genevieve

    2015-06-10

    This presentation provides a summary of NREL's FY15 fuel cell electric vehicle evaluation project activities and accomplishments. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 10, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia.

  3. Commercial Training Issues: Heavy Duty Alternative Fuel Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Douglas

    The needs and opportunities in the heavy-duty alternative fuel vehicle training arena were examined in an informal ethnographic study of the appropriateness and effectiveness of the instructional materials currently being used in such training. Interviews were conducted with eight instructors from the National Alternative Fuels Training Program…

  4. Gaseous fueled vehicles: A role for natural gas and hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Jasionowski, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    The commercialization of gaseous hydrogen fueled vehicles requires both the development of hydrogen fueled vehicles and the establishment of a hydrogen fueling infrastructure. These requirements create a classic chicken and egg scenario in that manufacturers will not build and consumers will not buy vehicles without an adequate refueling infrastructure and potential refueling station operators will not invest the needed capital without an adequate market to serve. One solution to this dilemma is to create a bridging strategy whereby hydrogen is introduced gradually via another carrier. The only contending alternative fuel that can act as a bridge to hydrogen fueled vehicles is natural gas. To explore this possibility, IGT is conducting emission tests on its dedicated natural gas vehicle (NGV) test platform to determine what, if any, effects small quantities of hydrogen have on emissions and performance. Furthermore, IGT is actively developing an adsorbent based low-pressure natural gas storage system for NGV applications. This system has also shown promise as a storage media for hydrogen. A discussion of our research results in this area will be presented. Finally, a review of IGT's testing facility will be presented to indicate our capabilities in conducted natural gas/hydrogen vehicle (NGHV) research. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Projected Cost, Energy Use, and Emissions of Hydrogen Technologies for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M. F.; Diakov, V.; Laffen, M. J.; Timbario, T. A.

    2010-01-01

    Each combination of technologies necessary to produce, deliver, and distribute hydrogen for transportation use has a corresponding levelized cost, energy requirement, and greenhouse gas emission profile depending upon the technologies' efficiencies and costs. Understanding the technical status, potential, and tradeoffs is necessary to properly allocate research and development (R&D) funding. In this paper, levelized delivered hydrogen costs, pathway energy use, and well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and emissions are reported for multiple hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways. Technologies analyzed include both central and distributed reforming of natural gas and electrolysis of water, and central hydrogen production from biomass and coal. Delivery options analyzed include trucks carrying liquid hydrogen and pipelines carrying gaseous hydrogen. Projected costs, energy use, and emissions for current technologies (technology that has been developed to at least the bench-scale, extrapolated to commercial-scale) are reported. Results compare favorably with those for gasoline, diesel, and E85 used in current internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, gasoline hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and flexible fuel vehicles. Sensitivities of pathway cost, pathway energy use, WTW energy use, and WTW emissions to important primary parameters were examined as an aid in understanding the benefits of various options. Sensitivity studies on production process energy efficiency, total production process capital investment, feed stock cost, production facility operating capacity, electricity grid mix, hydrogen vehicle market penetration, distance from the hydrogen production facility to city gate, and other parameters are reported. The Hydrogen Macro-System Model (MSM) was used for this analysis. The MSM estimates the cost, energy use, and emissions trade offs of various hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways under consideration. The MSM links the H2

  6. Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored. PMID:24600326

  7. Fuel cells: a real option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles propulsion.

    PubMed

    González-Espasandín, Óscar; Leo, Teresa J; Navarro-Arévalo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored. PMID:24600326

  8. Fuel economy rebound effect of U.S. household vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Kahn, J.R.; Gibson, R.C.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents an econometric estimation of the rebound effect for household vehicle travel in the US based on analysis of survey data collected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) at approximately three-year intervals over a 15-year period. The rebound effect measures the tendency to take back potential energy savings from fuel economy improvements as increased travel. Vehicle use models were estimated for one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-vehicle households. The results confirm recent estimates based on national or state-level data: a long-run take back of about 20% of potential energy savings. Consumer responses to changes in fuel economy or fuel price per gallon appear to be equal and opposite in sign. Recognizing the interdependencies among miles of travel, fuel economy and price is key to obtaining meaningful results.

  9. Analysis of vehicle fuel release resulting in waste tank fire

    SciTech Connect

    STEPHENS, L.S.

    2003-03-21

    This document reevaluates several aspects of the in-tank vehicle fuel fire/deflagration accident formally documented as an independent accident (representative accident [rep acc] 2). This reevaluation includes frequencies for the accidents and incorporates the behavior of gasoline and diesel fuel in more detail than previous analysis. This reevaluation uses data from RPP-13121, ''Historical Summary of Occurrences from the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report'', Table B-1, ''Tank Farm Events, Off-Normal and Critiques,'' and B-2, ''Summary of Occurrences,'' and from the River Protection Project--Occurrence Reporting & Processing System (ORPS) reports as a basis for changing some of the conclusions formally reported in HNF-SD-WM-CN-037, ''Frequency Analysis of Vehicle Fuel Releases Resulting in Waste Tank Fire''. This calculation note will demonstrate that the in-tank vehicle fuel fire/deflagration accident event may be relocated to other, more bounding accidents.

  10. Fuel economy and emissions evaluation of BMW hydrogen 7 mono-fuel demonstration vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, T.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Gurski, S.; Duoba, M.; Thiel, W.; Martin, D.; Korn, T.; Energy Systems; BMW Group Munich Germany; BMW Group Oxnard USA

    2008-12-01

    This article summarizes the testing of two BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). The BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles are derived from the BMW Hydrogen 7 bi-fuel vehicles and based on a BMW 760iL. The mono-fuel as well as the bi-fuel vehicle(s) is equipped with cryogenic hydrogen on-board storage and a gaseous hydrogen port fuel injection system. The BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles were tested for fuel economy as well as emissions on the Federal Test Procedure FTP-75 cold-start test as well as the highway test. The results show that these vehicles achieve emissions levels that are only a fraction of the Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (SULEV) standard for nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. For non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions the cycle-averaged emissions are actually 0 g/mile, which require the car to actively reduce emissions compared to the ambient concentration. The fuel economy numbers on the FTP-75 test were 3.7 kg of hydrogen per 100 km, which, on an energy basis, is equivalent to a gasoline fuel consumption of 17 miles per gallon (mpg). Fuel economy numbers for the highway cycle were determined to be 2.1 kg of hydrogen per 100 km or 30 miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE). In addition to cycle-averaged emissions and fuel economy numbers, time-resolved (modal) emissions as well as air/fuel ratio data is analyzed to further investigate the root causes of the remaining emissions traces. The BMW Hydrogen 7 vehicles employ a switching strategy with lean engine operation at low engine loads and stoichiometric operation at high engine loads that avoids the NO{sub x} emissions critical operating regime with relative air/fuel ratios between 1 < {lambda} < 2. The switching between these operating modes was found to be a major source of the remaining NO{sub x} emissions. The emissions results collected

  11. Design and performance of a prototype fuel cell powered vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, P.A.; Chamberlin, C.E.

    1996-12-31

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) is now engaged in the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project. The Project involves a consortium which includes the City of Palm Desert, SERC, the U.S. Department of Energy, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and Sandia and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Its goal to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community will be accomplished by producing a fleet of fuel cell vehicles, installing a refueling infrastructure utilizing hydrogen generated from solar and wind power, and developing and staffing a fuel cell service and diagnostic center. We will describe details of the project and performance goals for the fuel cell vehicles and associated peripheral systems. In the past year during the first stage in the project, SERC has designed and built a prototype fuel cell powered personal utility vehicle (PUV). These steps included: (1) Designing, building, and testing a 4.0 kW proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a power plant for the PUV. (2) Designing, building and testing peripherals including the air delivery, fuel storage/delivery, refueling, water circulation, cooling, and electrical systems. (3) Devising a control algorithm for the fuel cell power plant in the PUV. (4) Designing and building a test bench in which running conditions in the PUV could be simulated and the fuel cell and its peripheral systems tested. (5) Installing an onboard computer and associated electronics into the PUV (6) Assembling and road testing the PUV.

  12. Describing current and potential markets for alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-26

    Motor vehicles are a major source of greenhouse gases, and the rising numbers of motor vehicles and miles driven could lead to more harmful emissions that may ultimately affect the world`s climate. One approach to curtailing such emissions is to use, instead of gasoline, alternative fuels: LPG, compressed natural gas, or alcohol fuels. In addition to the greenhouse gases, pollutants can be harmful to human health: ozone, CO. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 authorized EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards to control this. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) was the first new law to emphasize strengthened energy security and decreased reliance on foreign oil since the oil shortages of the 1970`s. EPACT emphasized increasing the number of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV`s) by mandating their incremental increase of use by Federal, state, and alternative fuel provider fleets over the new few years. Its goals are far from being met; alternative fuels` share remains trivial, about 0.3%, despite gains. This report describes current and potential markets for AFV`s; it begins by assessing the total vehicle stock, and then it focuses on current use of AFV`s in alternative fuel provider fleets and the potential for use of AFV`s in US households.

  13. 40 CFR 80.531 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits generated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Temporary Compliance Option § 80.531...

  14. 40 CFR 80.532 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Temporary Compliance Option §...

  15. 40 CFR 80.532 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Temporary Compliance Option §...

  16. 40 CFR 80.531 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits generated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Temporary Compliance Option § 80.531...

  17. Leveraging Intelligent Vehicle Technologies to Maximize Fuel Economy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.

    2011-11-01

    Advancements in vehicle electronics, along with communication and sensing technologies, have led to a growing number of intelligent vehicle applications. Example systems include those for advanced driver information, route planning and prediction, driver assistance, and crash avoidance. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is exploring ways to leverage intelligent vehicle systems to achieve fuel savings. This presentation discusses several potential applications, such as providing intelligent feedback to drivers on specific ways to improve their driving efficiency, and using information about upcoming driving to optimize electrified vehicle control strategies for maximum energy efficiency and battery life. The talk also covers the potential of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and related technologies to deliver significant fuel savings in addition to providing safety and convenience benefits.

  18. Behavior of liquid hydrogen inside an ICF target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K.; Mok, L.; Bernat, T.

    1982-01-01

    The configuration of liquid hydrogen inside spherical glass shell ICF target was studied both theoretically and experimentally. Because of the zero contact angle between the .D2 liquid and glass substrate and the limited wetting surface that is continuous, the liquid hydrogen completely covers the interior of the glass shell, resulting in the formation of a void at the center. For this reason, the present problem distinguishes itself from that for a sessile drop sitting on a flat surface. A theory was formulated to calculate the liquid hydrogen configuration by including the London-dispersion force between the liquid and the substrate molecules. The net result is an augmented Bashforth-Adams equation appropriate to a spherical substrate, which is considered to be the major contribution of the present work. Preliminary calculations indicate that this equation accurately models the liquid hydrogen behavior inside a spherical microshell.

  19. EMISSIONS AND FUEL ECONOMY OF FEDERAL ALTERNATIVELY FUELED FLEET VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents results from a study designed to investigate the effects of automobile fuels on emissions and fuel economy. The study is part of a larger program mandated by the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 that requires the Department of Energy (DOE), in cooperation w...

  20. Gas detection for alternate-fuel vehicle facilities.

    PubMed

    Ferree, Steve

    2003-05-01

    Alternative fuel vehicles' safety is driven by local, state, and federal regulations in which fleet owners in key metropolitan [table: see text] areas convert much of their fleet to cleaner-burning fuels. Various alternative fuels are available to meet this requirement, each with its own advantages and requirements. This conversion to alternative fuels leads to special requirements for safety monitoring in the maintenance facilities and refueling stations. A comprehensive gas and flame monitoring system needs to meet the needs of both the user and the local fire marshal. PMID:12754860

  1. Fuel cells for vehicle propulsion applications: A preliminary comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K. M.; Nelson, P. A.

    Fuel cells are being considered seriously as a potential replacement for internal combustion engines in buses, vans, and ultimately passenger cars. Concern for air quality in urban areas, the possibility of better fuel efficiency, and the prospect of using coal- or biomass-derived alcohols rather than imported oil as fuel are the major motivations. The challenges are to reduce the capital cost of the fuel cell systems and to adapt them for automative use. This study was conducted to make a preliminary comparison of the major types of fuel cells for vehicle propulsion applications. Simplified schematic flow sheets were devised for different fuel cell types. These flow sheets were then used for thermodynamic analyses. Other factors investigated include startup, transient response capability, and system complexity, but no attempt was made to analyze system behavior with reference to any specific driving cycle. For these analyses, fuel cell systems of 60 kWe (gross) were used, equivalent to the approx. 55 kWe battery systems required for advanced electric vans. Four fuel cell types were considered in this study: phosphoric acid (PAFC), proton exchange membrane (PEM), molten carbonate (MCFC), and monolithic acid oxide (MSOFC). Although an experimental van has been successfully operated with an alkaline fuel cell on bottled hydrogen fuel in Europe, this type of fuel cell was not considered in this study. In our view, the alkaline fuel cell is not compatible with alcohol fuels because of the CO2.

  2. 10 CFR 490.504 - Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits. 490.504 Section 490.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.504 Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits. At the...

  3. 10 CFR 490.504 - Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits. 490.504 Section 490.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.504 Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits. At the...

  4. 10 CFR 490.504 - Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits. 490.504 Section 490.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.504 Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits. At the...

  5. 10 CFR 490.504 - Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits. 490.504 Section 490.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.504 Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits. At the...

  6. 10 CFR 490.504 - Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits. 490.504 Section 490.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.504 Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits. At the...

  7. 40 CFR 88.308-94 - Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-fuel fleet vehicles. 88.308-94 Section 88.308-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.308-94 Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles. (a) Multi-State nonattainment areas. The...

  8. 40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contained in 40 CFR part 88, subpart A. (b) Program administration. (1)(i) Each state in which there is all... covered area, a dual-fuel/flexible-fuel vehicle which a fleet owner purchases to comply with covered fleet... the fleet owner receives credit for a dual-fuel/flexible-fuel vehicle purchase, the vehicle must...

  9. Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexities of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating. The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.

  10. 40 CFR Appendix Xvi to Part 86 - Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation... Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With...-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure. (1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs,...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix Xvi to Part 86 - Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation... Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With...-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure. (1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs,...

  12. Heel and toe driving on fuel cell vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Tayoung; Chen, Dongmei

    2012-12-11

    A system and method for providing nearly instantaneous power in a fuel cell vehicle. The method includes monitoring the brake pedal angle and the accelerator pedal angle of the vehicle, and if the vehicle driver is pressing both the brake pedal and the accelerator pedal at the same time and the vehicle is in a drive gear, activating a heel and toe mode. When the heel and toe mode is activated, the speed of a cathode compressor is increased to a predetermined speed set-point, which is higher than the normal compressor speed for the pedal position. Thus, when the vehicle brake is removed, the compressor speed is high enough to provide enough air to the cathode, so that the stack can generate nearly immediate power.

  13. Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-09-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with fueling infrastructure for compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. It provides estimated cost ranges for various sizes and types of CNG fueling stations and an overview of factors that contribute to the total cost of an installed station. The information presented is based on input from professionals in the natural gas industry who design, sell equipment for, and/or own and operate CNG stations.

  14. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AQ86 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle... hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as ``Tier 3''),...

  15. Analysis of a fuel cell hybrid commuter railway vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meegahawatte, Danushka; Hillmansen, Stuart; Roberts, Clive; Falco, Marco; McGordon, Andrew; Jennings, Paul

    This study presents paper presents an analysis of the potential CO 2 savings that could be gained through the introduction of hydrogen-powered fuel cells on a commuter-style railway route. Vehicle is modelled as a fuel cell series hybrid. The analysis consists of power/energy flow models of a fuel cell stack, battery pack and hybrid drive controller. The models are implemented in a custom C# application and are capable of providing key parametric information of the simulated journey and individual energy drive components. A typical commuter return journey between Stratford Upon Avon and Birmingham is investigated. The fuel cell stack and battery pack behaviour is assessed for different stack sizes, battery sizes and control strategies to evaluate the performance of the overall system with the aim of understanding the optimum component configuration. Finally, the fuel (H 2) requirements are compared with typical diesel and hybrid-diesel powered vehicles with the aim of understanding the potential energy savings gained from such a fuel cell hybrid vehicle.

  16. Low Floor Americans with Disabilities Compliant Alternate Fuel Vehicle Project

    SciTech Connect

    James Bartel

    2004-11-26

    This project developed a low emission, cost effective, fuel efficient, medium-duty community/transit shuttle bus that meets American's with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements and meets National Energy Policy Act requirements (uses alternative fuel). The Low Profile chassis, which is the basis of this vehicle is configured to be fuel neutral to accommodate various alternative fuels. Demonstration of the vehicle in Yellowstone Park in summer (wheeled operation) and winter (track operation) demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility for this vehicle to provide year around operation throughout the Parks system as well as normal transit operation. The unique configuration of the chassis which provides ADA access with a simple ramp and a flat floor throughout the passenger compartment, provides maximum access for all passengers as well as maximum flexibility to configure the vehicle for each application. Because this product is derived from an existing medium duty truck chassis, the completed bus is 40-50% less expensive than existing low floor transit buses, with the reliability and durability of OEM a medium duty truck.

  17. Analyzing Vehicle Fuel Saving Opportunities through Intelligent Driver Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Earleywine, M.; Sparks, W.

    2012-06-01

    Driving style changes, e.g., improving driver efficiency and motivating driver behavior changes, could deliver significant petroleum savings. This project examines eliminating stop-and-go driving and unnecessary idling, and also adjusting acceleration rates and cruising speeds to ideal levels to quantify fuel savings. Such extreme adjustments can result in dramatic fuel savings of over 30%, but would in reality only be achievable through automated control of vehicles and traffic flow. In real-world driving, efficient driving behaviors could reduce fuel use by 20% on aggressively driven cycles and by 5-10% on more moderately driven trips. A literature survey was conducted of driver behavior influences, and pertinent factors from on-road experiments with different driving styles were observed. This effort highlighted important driver influences such as surrounding vehicle behavior, anxiety over trying to get somewhere quickly, and the power/torque available from the vehicle. Existing feedback approaches often deliver efficiency information and instruction. Three recommendations for maximizing fuel savings from potential drive cycle improvement are: (1) leveraging applications with enhanced incentives, (2) using an approach that is easy and widely deployable to motivate drivers, and (3) utilizing connected vehicle and automation technologies to achieve large and widespread efficiency improvements.

  18. Robotic on-orbit fueling of SEI vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Margaret M.; Haines, David E.; Mauceri, A. J.

    Research to investigate the feasibility of, and to develop concepts for, the robotic supply of consumables on orbit is examined, with emphasis on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) assets. Principal methods for effecting propellant transfer on orbit are summarized, and the pros and cons of applying robotics to each method are discussed. Methods include direct transfer of fuel and oxidizer, assembly of tanks to the vehicle, and assembly of propulsion modules to the vehicles. Guidelines are developed for the automated/robotic cryogenic propellant transfer mechanism to accomplish on-orbit consumable supply of SEI vehicles by direct fluid transfer. The development of initial design concepts for the LEO fueling of the Mars Transfer System is traced.

  19. Hydrogen Fuel Pilot Plant and Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    J. Francfort

    2005-03-01

    The U.S. Department Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) teamed with Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Arizona Public Service (APS) to develop the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant that produces and compresses hydrogen on site through an electrolysis process by operating a PEM fuel cell in reverse; natural gas is also compressed onsite. The Pilot Plant dispenses 100% hydrogen, 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG), and 100% CNG via a credit card billing system at pressures up to 5,000 psi. Thirty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles (including Daimler Chrysler, Ford and General Motors vehicles) are operating on 100% hydrogen and 15 to 50% H/CNG blends. Since the Pilot Plant started operating in June 2002, they hydrogen and H/CNG ICE vehicels have accumulated 250,000 test miles.

  20. Fuel Economy and Emissions of a Vehicle Equipped with an Aftermarket Flexible-Fuel Conversion Kit

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grants Certificates of Conformity for alternative fuel conversion systems and also offers other forms of premarket registration of conversion kits for use in vehicles more than two model years old. Use of alternative fuels such as ethanol, natural gas, and propane are encouraged by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) produce emissions-certified vehicles capable of using alternative fuels, and several alternative fuel conversion system manufacturers produce EPA-approved conversion systems for a variety of alternative fuels and vehicle types. To date, only one manufacturer (Flex Fuel U.S.) has received EPA certifications for ethanol fuel (E85) conversion kits. This report details an independent evaluation of a vehicle with a legal installation of a Flex Fuel U.S. conversion kit. A 2006 Dodge Charger was baseline tested with ethanol-free certification gasoline (E0) and E20 (gasoline with 20 vol % ethanol), converted to flex-fuel operation via installation of a Flex Box Smart Kit from Flex Fuel U.S., and retested with E0, E20, E50, and E81. Test cycles included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP or city cycle), the highway fuel economy test (HFET), and the US06 test (aggressive driving test). Averaged test results show that the vehicle was emissions compliant on E0 in the OEM condition (before conversion) and compliant on all test fuels after conversion. Average nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions exceeded the Tier 2/Bin 5 intermediate life NO{sub X} standard with E20 fuel in the OEM condition due to two of three test results exceeding this standard [note that E20 is not a legal fuel for non-flexible-fuel vehicles (non-FFVs)]. In addition, one E0 test result before conversion and one E20 test result after conversion exceeded the NOX standard, although the average result in these two cases was below the standard. Emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde increased with increasing ethanol

  1. Non-methane hydrocarbon emissions from vehicle fuel caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Stuart A.; Yu, Yungdae; Jia, Chunrong; Godwin, Christopher

    Vehicles emit non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) from a number of sources, including missing, worn or improperly tightened fuel caps. Inspection and maintenance programs and the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) system will detect some of these deficiencies, however, even properly tightened caps will emit NMHCs due to permeation, diffusion, cracks and gaps in seals, and failures of pressure-relief mechanisms. These emissions have not been previously quantified. In this study, in-use emissions from fuel caps were measured in 213 tests on vehicles of varying age and condition over several seasons, including cold and warm temperatures. Diffusion/permeation models are presented to complement the experimental work. NMHC emissions from fuel caps were detected from all vehicles, of which benzene constituted 2.5%. Emissions averaged 2.0 mg h -1 (median=0.5 mg h -1), and the distribution of emission rates was highly skewed by a small number of vehicles with much higher emissions, e.g., the 90th, 95th and maximum percentile values were 2.7, 5.0, and 62.7 mg h -1, respectively. Emission rates increased substantially if the fuel cap was loose, in hot weather, and with vehicle age and mileage. Overall, emissions from properly functioning caps are small relative to running and refueling losses, though they may be significant if the gas cap is defective or loose. Further reductions in emissions may be achieved by using new low-torque cap designs, improved elastomers, properly tightening fuel caps, and replacing old caps.

  2. 40 CFR 80.524 - What sulfur content standard applies to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or importer? 80.524 Section 80.524 Protection... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.524 What sulfur content...

  3. Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Confer, Keith

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

  4. 76 FR 31513 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...).\\6\\ Examples of the fuel labels appear below. \\4\\ 60 FR 26926 (May 19, 1995). \\5\\ The Commission's... described below. \\9\\ See 75 FR 58078 (Sept. 23, 2010). \\10\\ Although EPA regulations (40 CFR Part 600... the EPA, 99% of FFV owners run their vehicles only on gasoline and never use alternative fuel. 75...

  5. 49 CFR 571.303 - Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the high pressure side of the fuel system in accordance with the vehicle manufacturer's recommendation... reduce deaths and injuries occurring from fires that result from fuel leakage during and after motor... components used to store or supply CNG to a vehicle's engine. Dedicated CNG vehicle means a vehicle...

  6. 40 CFR 600.006-08 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... submit the following information for each fuel economy data vehicle: (i) A description of the vehicle... test fuel property values as specified in § 600.113-08. (ii) A statement of the origin of the vehicle including total mileage accumulation, and modification (if any) form the vehicle configuration in which...

  7. The mobility of negative charges in liquid hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, P. B.; Sokolov, I. M.

    1994-06-01

    There is a great difference in behavior of e- in liquid hydrogen and helium despite the fact that the adopted theories of the mobility are quite similar. Recently, Levchenko and Mezhov-Deglin (Journal of Low Temperature Physics, 89, 457 (1992)) reported large discrepancies of the mobility of the electrons in liquid hydrogen from estimates based on the theory that the electrons are trapped in bubbles forming atomlike structures (“bubblonium”). They properly suggested that these deviations are related to the existence in liquid hydrogen of another, metastable type of negative charge carrier. The subject of the current paper is the physical explanation of the existence of two types of carriers in liquid hydrogen. We attribute the second type of carriers to the cluster ion H - ( H 2 ) x , which is created by the formation of solid hydrogen around a bound state of a hydride ion. We provide estimates for the radius and the kinetics of degradation of the “snowball” formed around the H - ion on the basis of energy diagrams for a hydride ion submerged in liquid hydrogen.

  8. Vehicle fuel economy and vehicle miles traveled: An empirical investigation of Jevons' Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munyon, Vinola Vincent

    There has been, in recent decades, a concerted effort to promote energy efficiency as a means to reduce energy consumption, along the supply and demand sides. The general thesis is that, ceteris paribus, an increase in energy efficiency would lead to a decrease in the consumption of the good or service rendered efficient. This is in opposition to Jevons' Paradox which states that "It is wholly a confusion of ideas to suppose that the economical use of fuel is equivalent to a diminished consumption. The very contrary is the truth..." (Jevons, 1865). While many studies have applied Jevons' Paradox to various sectors to estimate rebound effects, few have examined if Jevons' Paradox holds when all available factors that could affect consumption of an efficient good/service are controlled for. This study hoped to fill that gap in literature. The study looked at vehicle fuel economy and vehicle miles travelled (VMT) and examined if, all else being equal, a vehicle that was more fuel efficient accrued greater VMT. Using data from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS, 2009), a multivariate regression model was built (N = 82,485) controlling for driver, household and vehicle attributes. The findings indicated that, at the microlevel, Jevons' Paradox does hold true; a 1% increase in fuel efficiency was associated with a 1.2% increase in VMT.

  9. Primer on Motor Fuel Excise Taxes and the Role of Alternative Fuels and Energy Efficient Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-08-26

    Motor fuel taxes were established to finance our nation’s transportation infrastructure, yet evolving economic, political, and technological influences are constraining this ability. At the federal level, the Highway Trust Fund (HTF), which is primarily funded by motor fuel taxes, has become increasingly dependent on general fund contributions and short-term reauthorizations to prevent insolvency. As a result, there are discussions at both the federal and state levels in which stakeholders are examining the future of motor fuel excise taxes as well as the role of electric and alternative fuel vehicles in that future. On July 1, 2015, six states increased their motor fuel tax rates.

  10. The importance of vehicle costs, fuel prices, and fuel efficiency to HEV market success.

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D. J.; Patterson, P. D.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-12-08

    Toyota's introduction of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) named ''Prius'' in Japan and Honda's proposed introduction of an HEV in the United States have generated considerable interest in the long-term viability of such fuel-efficient vehicles. A performance and cost projection model developed entirely at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is used here to estimate costs. ANL staff developed fuel economy estimates by extending conventional vehicle (CV) modeling done primarily under the National Cooperative Highway Research Program. Together, these estimates are employed to analyze dollar costs vs. benefits of two of many possible HEV technologies. We project incremental costs and fuel savings for a Prius-type low-performance hybrid (14.3 seconds zero to 60 mph acceleration, 260 time) and a higher-performance ''mild'' hybrid vehicle, or MHV (11 seconds 260 time). Each HEV is compared to a U.S. Toyota Corolla with automatic transmission (11 seconds 260 time). The base incremental retail price range, projected a decade hence, is $3,200-$3,750, before considering battery replacement cost. Historical data are analyzed to evaluate the effect of fuel price on consumer preferences for vehicle fuel economy, performance, and size. The relationship between fuel price, the level of change in fuel price, and consumer attitude toward higher fuel efficiency is also evaluated. A recent survey on the value of higher fuel efficiency is presented and U.S. commercial viability of the hybrids is evaluated using discount rates of 2090 and 870. Our analysis, with our current HEV cost estimates and current fuel savings estimates, implies that the U.S. market for such HEVS would be quite limited.

  11. Skid steer fuel cell powered unmanned ground vehicle (Burro)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meldrum, Jay S.; Green, Christopher A.

    2008-04-01

    The use of alternative energy technology for vehicle propulsion and auxiliary power is becoming more important. Work is being performed at Michigan Technological University's Keweenaw Research Center on an Army Research Laboratory cooperative agreement to develop two unmanned ground vehicles for military applications. A wide range of alternative energy technologies were investigated. Hydrogen-powered proton exchange membrane fuel cells were identified as the most appropriate alternative energy source. This is due to some development and commercialization which makes the technology "drop-in plug-in" for immediate use. We have previously presented research work on a small unmanned ground vehicle demonstration platform where the fuel cell is the only power source. We now present research work on the integration of a fuel cell onto a larger skid steer platform. The dual-power capability of this vehicle can provide a modest level of propulsion in "engine-off mode" and may also be used to power directed energy devices which have applications in countermine and similar threat technologies.

  12. Analysis of vehicle fuel release resulting in waste tank fire

    SciTech Connect

    HARRIS, J.P.

    2003-10-14

    The purpose of the calculation documented here is to support in-tank vehicle fuel fire accident frequencies in the Documented Safety Analysis. This analysis demonstrates that the frequency of the pool fire and deflagration scenarios of the in-tank vehicle fuel fire/deflagration accident are ''extremely unlikely'' to ''unlikely.'' The chains of events that result in each scenario are presented in this document and are the same as used in previous analyses of this accident. Probabilities and frequencies are developed for each event, using wherever possible, information from RPP-13121, Tables B-1 and B-2, and from the River Protection Project ORPS. The estimated probabilities are considered reasonably conservative, but do not necessarily assume the worst possible outcomes or the most conservative possible cases. A sensitivity analysis performed in Section 4.2 shows that if the probability of either the ignition of fuel event or the fuel flows into riser event were underestimated by an order of magnitude, the accident frequency for a pool fire could increase and shift into the ''unlikely'' category. If the probability of an increase in riser strikes, or an increase in broken risers, unignited fuel entering a riser, or a fuel ignition source being present in a tank were underestimated by an order of magnitude, the accident frequency for a deflagration would remain in the ''unlikely'' category. When the likelihood of a broken riser is increased by an order of magnitude, a pool fire remains in the ''extremely unlikely'' category. The DSA accident analysis indicates that an unmitigated flammable gas deflagration resulting from an induced gas release event or an organic solvent fire occurring in either an SST or a DST is an anticipated event (> 10{sup -2}). Deflagration in a DST annulus is considered unlikely (> 10{sup -4} to {le}10{sup -2}). These frequencies clearly bound those of the in-tank vehicle fuel fire family of accidents.

  13. NREL - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics - Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are helping the nation achieve these goals by developing transportation technologies like: advanced vehicle systems and components; alternative fuels; as well as fuel cells, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid vehicles. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/advanced_vehicles_fuels.html

  14. NREL - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics - Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems 2010

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are helping the nation achieve these goals by developing transportation technologies like: advanced vehicle systems and components; alternative fuels; as well as fuel cells, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid vehicles. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/advanced_vehicles_fuels.html

  15. Onboard fuel reformers for fuel cell vehicles: Equilibrium, kinetic and system modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M.M.; Ogden, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    On-board reforming of liquid fuels to hydrogen for use in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) has been the subject of numerous investigations. In many respects, liquid fuels represent a more attractive method of carrying hydrogen than compressed hydrogen itself, promising greater vehicle range, shorter refilling times, increased safety, and perhaps most importantly, utilization of the current fuel distribution infrastructure. The drawbacks of on-board reformers include their inherent complexity [for example a POX reactor includes: a fuel vaporizer, a reformer, water-gas shift reactors, a preferential oxidation (PROX) unit for CO cleanup, heat exchangers for thermal integration, sensors and controls, etc.], weight, and expense relative to compressed H{sub 2}, as well as degraded fuel cell performance due to the presence of inert gases and impurities in the reformate. Partial oxidation (POX) of automotive fuels is another alternative for hydrogen production. This paper provides an analysis of POX reformers and a fuel economy comparison of vehicles powered by on-board POX and SRM fuel processors.

  16. Compression mass gauge testing in a liquid hydrogen dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurns, J. M.; Rogers, A. C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes testing that was conducted using a mass gauge in a liquid hydrogen environment. The mass gauge, herein referred to as the 'compressibility gauge,' is being developed as a means to accurately determine the mass of liquid contained in a tank in a low-gravity environment. The concept is based on the thermodynamic principle that the pressure of gas or vapor changes when its volume changes. Previous work has been conducted by Southwest Research Institute in collaboration with NASA Lewis Research Center. This consisted of testing the concept with water and other cryogenic simulant fluids. The purpose of conducting liquid hydrogen tests is to test the concept in actual cryogenic conditions, and address hardware issues that arise in fabricating a test article for use in liquid hydrogen.

  17. 40 CFR 600.006 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... components on the test vehicle as well as the design tolerances. (iv) In the case of electric vehicles, plug... following information for each fuel economy data vehicle: (i) A description of the vehicle, exhaust emission... property values as specified in § 600.113-08. (ii) A statement of the origin of the vehicle including...

  18. 40 CFR 600.006 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... components on the test vehicle as well as the design tolerances. (iv) In the case of electric vehicles, plug... following information for each fuel economy data vehicle: (i) A description of the vehicle, exhaust emission... property values as specified in § 600.113-08. (ii) A statement of the origin of the vehicle including...

  19. 40 CFR 600.006-87 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vehicle as well as the design tolerances. (iv) In the case of electric vehicles, a copy of calibrations... information for each fuel economy data vehicle: (i) A description of the vehicle, exhaust emission test... origin of the vehicle including total mileage accumulation, and modifications (if any) from the...

  20. 40 CFR 600.006 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... components on the test vehicle as well as the design tolerances. (iv) In the case of electric vehicles, plug... following information for each fuel economy data vehicle: (i) A description of the vehicle, exhaust emission... property values as specified in § 600.113-08. (ii) A statement of the origin of the vehicle including...

  1. 40 CFR 600.006-86 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... components on the test vehicle as well as the design tolerances. (iv) In the case of electric vehicles, the... information for each fuel economy data vehicle: (i) A description of the vehicle, exhaust emission test... origin of the vehicle including total mileage accumulation, and modifications (if any) from the...

  2. Optimal trajectories for hypersonic launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.; Bowles, Jeffrey V.; Whittaker, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we derive a near-optimal guidance law for the ascent trajectory from earth surface to earth orbit of a hypersonic, dual-mode propulsion, lifting vehicle. Of interest are both the optical flight path and the optimal operation of the propulsion system. The guidance law is developed from the energy-state approximation of the equations of motion. Because liquid hydrogen fueled hypersonic aircraft are volume sensitive, as well as weight sensitive, the cost functional is a weighted sum of fuel mass and volume; the weighting factor is chosen to minimize gross take-off weight for a given payload mass and volume in orbit.

  3. Vapor ingestion in Centaur liquid-hydrogen tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Symons, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    Vapor ingestion phenomena were investigated using scale models of the Centaur liquid hydrogen tank to determine the height of the free surface of the liquid when vapor is intially ingested into the tank outlet. Data are compared with an analysin and, is general the agreement is very good. Predictions are presented for minimum liquid levels required in the Centaur liquid hydrogen tank in order to prevent vapor ingestion when restarting the engines in space and the quantities of liquid remaining in the tank at vapor ingestion during main engine firing.

  4. Molecular absorption cryogenic cooler for liquid hydrogen propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, G. A.; Jones, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    A light weight, long life molecular absorption cryogenic cooler (MACC) system is described which can use low temperature waste heat to provide cooling for liquid hydrogen propellant tanks for interplanetary spacecraft. Detailed tradeoff studies were made to evaluate the refrigeration system component interactions in order to minimize the mass of the spacecraft cooler system. Based on this analysis a refrigerator system mass of 31 kg is required to provide the .48 watts of cooling required by a 2.3 meter diameter liquid hydrogen tank.

  5. Liquid-hydrogen rocket engine development at Aerojet, 1944 - 1950

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, G. H.; Gordon, R.; Coplen, H. L.; James, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    This program demonstrated the feasibility of virtually all the components in present-day, high-energy, liquid-rocket engines. Transpiration and film-cooled thrust chambers were successfully operated. The first liquid-hydrogen tests of the coaxial injector was conducted and the first pump to successfully produce high pressures in pumping liquid hydrogen was tested. A 1,000-lb-thrust gaseous propellant and a 3,000-lb-thrust liquid-propellant thrust chamber were operated satisfactorily. Also, the first tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of jet overexpansion and separation on performance of rocket thrust chambers with hydrogen-oxygen propellants.

  6. Gasoline-fueled hybrid vs. conventional vehicle emissions and fuel economy.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.; Bharathan, D.; He, J.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.; Vyas, A.

    1999-06-18

    This paper addresses the relative fuel economy and emissions behavior, both measured and modeled, of technically comparable, contemporary hybrid and conventional vehicles fueled by gasoline, in terms of different driving cycles. Criteria pollutants (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides) are discussed, and the potential emissions benefits of designing hybrids for grid connection are briefly considered. In 1997, Toyota estimated that their grid-independent hybrid vehicle would obtain twice the fuel economy of a comparable conventional vehicle on the Japan 10/15 mode driving cycle. This initial result, as well as the fuel economy level (66 mpg), made its way into the U.S. press. Criteria emissions amounting to one-tenth of Japanese standards were cited, and some have interpreted these results to suggest that the grid-independent hybrid can reduce criteria emissions in the U.S. more sharply than can a conventional gasoline vehicle. This paper shows that the potential of contemporary grid-independent hybrid vehicle technology for reducing emissions and fuel consumption under U.S. driving conditions is less than some have inferred. The importance (and difficulty) of doing test and model assessments with comparable driving cycles, comparable emissions control technology, and comparable performance capabilities is emphasized. Compared with comparable-technology conventional vehicles, grid-independent hybrids appear to have no clear criteria pollutant benefits (or disbenefits). (Such benefits are clearly possible with grid-connectable hybrids operating in zero emissions mode.) However, significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., fuel consumption) are possible with hybrid vehicles when they are used to best advantage.

  7. 16 CFR 309.15 - Posting of non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Posting of non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel rating. 309.15 Section 309.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Duties...

  8. 40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contained in 40 CFR part 88, subpart A. (b) Program administration. (1)(i) Each state in which there is all... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.304-94 Clean-fuel...

  9. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Powered by Renewable Hydrogen

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently received a Borrego fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) on loan from Kia for display at a variety of summer events. The Borrego is fueled using renewable hydrogen that is produced and dispensed at NREL's National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado. The hydrogen dispensed at the station is produced via renewable electrolysis as part of the wind-to-hydrogen project, which uses wind turbines and photovoltaic arrays to power electrolyzer stacks that split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The FCEV features state-of-the-art technology with zero harmful emissions.

  10. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-07-01

    This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. This report serves as one of many mechanisms to help transfer knowledge and lessons learned within various parts of DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, as well as externally to other stakeholders. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

  11. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Powered by Renewable Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently received a Borrego fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) on loan from Kia for display at a variety of summer events. The Borrego is fueled using renewable hydrogen that is produced and dispensed at NREL's National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado. The hydrogen dispensed at the station is produced via renewable electrolysis as part of the wind-to-hydrogen project, which uses wind turbines and photovoltaic arrays to power electrolyzer stacks that split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The FCEV features state-of-the-art technology with zero harmful emissions.

  12. How hybrid-electric vehicles are different from conventional vehicles: the effect of weight and power on fuel consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, C.; Kandlikar, M.

    2007-01-01

    An increasingly diverse set of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) is now available in North America. The recent generation of HEVs have higher fuel consumption, are heavier, and are significantly more powerful than the first generation of HEVs. We compare HEVs for sale in the United States in 2007 to equivalent conventional vehicles and determine how vehicle weight and system power affects fuel consumption within each vehicle set. We find that heavier and more powerful hybrid-electric vehicles are eroding the fuel consumption benefit of this technology. Nonetheless, the weight penalty for fuel consumption in HEVs is significantly lower than in equivalent conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). A 100 kg change in vehicle weight increases fuel consumption by 0.7 l/100 km in ICEVs compared with 0.4 l/100 km in HEVs. When the HEVs are compared with their ICEV counterparts in an equivalence model that differentiates between cars and sports-utility vehicles, the average fuel consumption benefit was 2.7 l/100 km. This analysis further reveals that a HEV which is 100 kg heavier than an identical ICEV would have a fuel consumption penalty of 0.15 l/100 km. Likewise, an increase in the HEV's power by 10 kW results in a fuel consumption penalty of 0.27 l/100 km.

  13. Evaluation of oxygen-enrichment system for alternative fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.R.; Ng, H.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents results on the reduction in exhaust emissions achieved by using oxygen-enriched intake air on a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) that used Indolene and M85 as test fuels. The standard federal test procedure (FTP) and the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) off-cycle (REP05) test were followed. The report also provides a review of literature on the oxygen membrane device and design considerations. It presents information on the sources and contributions of cold-phase emissions to the overall exhaust emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and on the various emission standards and present-day control technologies under consideration. The effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on FTP and off-cycle emissions are discussed on the basis of test results. Conclusions are drawn from the results and discussion, and different approaches for the practical application of this technology in LDVs are recommended.

  14. Emissions of fuel metals content from a diesel vehicle engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Fen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Li, Chun-Teh; Mi, Hsiao-Hsuan; Luo, Jih-Haur; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    This study was set out to assess the characteristics and significance of metal contents emitted from diesel engines. We found that the emitted concentrations of crust elements (including Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Si) were much higher than those of anthropogenic elements (including Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn) from diesel vehicle engine exhausts under the transient-cycle condition. The emission concentrations of particulate matters from diesel vehicle engine were inversely proportional to the specified engine speeds. To the contrary, the increase of engine speeds resulted in increase of fractions of metal contents in particulate matters. We conducted simple linear regression analysis to relate the emission rates of the metal contents in vehicle exhaust to the consumption rates of metal contents in diesel fuel. This study yielded R2=0.999 which suggests that the emission of the metal contents in vehicle exhaust could be fully explained by the consumption of metal contents in diesel fuel. For illustration, we found that the annual emission rates of both crust and anthropogenic elements from all diesel engine vehicles (=269 000 and 58 700 kg yr -1, respectively) were significantly higher than those from the coal power plant, electrical arc furnace, and coke oven (=90 100 and 1660 kg yr -1, 2060 and 173 kg yr -1, and 60 500 and 3740 kg yr -1, respectively) in Taiwan area. The relatively high amount of metal contents emitted from diesel engines strongly suggests that the measurement on the control of metal contents in diesel fuel should be taken in the future.

  15. 40 CFR 80.581 - What are the batch testing and sample retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? 80.581 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Sampling and Testing § 80.581 What are the batch testing and sample...

  16. 40 CFR 80.581 - What are the batch testing and sample retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? 80.581 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Sampling and Testing § 80.581 What are the batch testing and sample...

  17. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-07-01

    This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

  18. Vehicle engines produce exhaust nanoparticles even when not fueled.

    PubMed

    Rönkkö, Topi; Pirjola, Liisa; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Heikkilä, Juha; Karjalainen, Panu; Hillamo, Risto; Keskinen, Jorma

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle engines produce submicrometer exhaust particles affecting air quality, especially in urban environments. In on-road exhaust studies with a heavy duty diesel vehicle and in laboratory studies with two gasoline-fueled passenger cars, we found that as much as 20-30% of the number of exhaust particles larger than 3 nm may be formed during engine braking conditions-that is, during decelerations and downhill driving while the engine is not fueled. Particles appeared at size ranges extending even below 7 nm and at high number concentrations. Their small size and nonvolatility, coupled with the observation that these particles contain lube-oil-derived metals zinc, phosphorus, and calcium, are suggestive of health risks at least similar to those of exhaust particles observed before. The particles' characteristics indicate that their emissions can be reduced using exhaust after-treatment devices, although these devices have not been mandated for all relevant vehicle types. Altogether, our findings enhance the understanding of the formation vehicle emissions and allow for improved protection of human health in proximity to traffic. PMID:24397401

  19. Fuel Properties Database from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    This database contains information on advanced petroleum and non-petroleum based fuels, as well as key data on advanced compression ignition fuels. Included are data on physical, chemical, operational, environmental, safety, and health properties. These data result from tests conducted according to standard methods (mostly American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The source and test methods for each fuel data set are provided with the information. The database can be searched in various ways and can output numbers or explanatory text. Heavy vehicle chassis emission data are also available for some fuels.

  20. 40 CFR 600.303-12 - Fuel economy label-special requirements for flexible-fuel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-fuel vehicles equipped with gasoline engines. If the vehicle has a diesel engine, all the references to “gas” or “gasoline” in this section are understood to refer to “diesel” or “diesel fuel”,...

  1. 40 CFR 600.303-12 - Fuel economy label-special requirements for flexible-fuel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-fuel vehicles equipped with gasoline engines. If the vehicle has a diesel engine, all the references to “gas” or “gasoline” in this section are understood to refer to “diesel” or “diesel fuel”,...

  2. Methanol reformers for fuel cell powered vehicles: Some design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel cells are being developed for use in automotive propulsion systems as alternatives for the internal combustion engine in buses, vans, passenger cars. The two most important operational requirements for a stand-alone fuel cell power system for a vehicle are the ability to start up quickly and the ability to supply the necessary power on demand for the dynamically fluctuating load. Methanol is a likely fuel for use in fuel cells for transportation applications. It is a commodity chemical that is manufactured from coal, natural gas, and other feedstocks. For use in a fuel cell, however, the methanol must first be converted (reformed) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture. The desired features for a methanol reformer include rapid start-up, good dynamic response, high fuel conversion, small size and weight, simple construction and operation, and low cost. In this paper the present the design considerations that are important for developing such a reformer, namely: (1) a small catalyst bed for quick starting, small size, and low weight; (2) multiple catalysts for optimum operation of the dissociation and reforming reactions; (3) reforming by direct heat transfer partial oxidation for rapid response to fluctuating loads; and (4) thermal independence from the rest of the fuel cell system. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Advanced supersonic technology concept study: Hydrogen fueled configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of hydrogen fueled supersonic transport configurations for the 1990 time period were developed and compared with equivalent technology Jet A-1 fueled vehicles to determine the economic and performance potential of liquid hydrogen as an alternate fuel. Parametric evaluations of supersonic cruise vehicles with varying design and transport mission characteristics established the basis for selecting a preferred configuration which was then studied in greater detail. An assessment was made of the general viability of the selected concept including an evaluation of costs and environmental considerations, i.e., exhaust emissions and sonic boom characteristics. Technology development requirements and suggested implementation schedules are presented.

  4. Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket, 1958-2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Virginia P.; Bowles, Mark D.

    2004-01-01

    During its maiden voyage in May 1962, a Centaur upper stage rocket, mated to an Atlas booster, exploded 54 seconds after launch, engulfing the rocket in a huge fireball. Investigation revealed that Centaur's light, stainless-steel tank had split open, spilling its liquid-hydrogen fuel down its sides, where the flame of the rocket exhaust immediately ignited it. Coming less than a year after President Kennedy had made landing human beings on the Moon a national priority, the loss of Centaur was regarded as a serious setback for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). During the failure investigation, Homer Newell, Director of Space Sciences, ruefully declared: "Taming liquid hydrogen to the point where expensive operational space missions can be committed to it has turned out to be more difficult than anyone supposed at the outset." After this failure, Centaur critics, led by Wernher von Braun, mounted a campaign to cancel the program. In addition to the unknowns associated with liquid hydrogen, he objected to the unusual design of Centaur. Like the Atlas rocket, Centaur depended on pressure to keep its paper-thin, stainless-steel shell from collapsing. It was literally inflated with its propellants like a football or balloon and needed no internal structure to give it added strength and stability. The so-called "pressure-stabilized structure" of Centaur, coupled with the light weight of its high- energy cryogenic propellants, made Centaur lighter and more powerful than upper stages that used conventional fuel. But, the critics argued, it would never become the reliable rocket that the United States needed.

  5. Application of matrix heat exchangers to thermomechanical exergy recovery from liquid hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Vikas; Green, Roger

    This paper reports the outcome of a project aimed at exploring thermomechanical exergy recovery from liquid hydrogen. The basis of this project was the conceptual design, development and testing of a new process for CO 2 removal from air for use in alkaline fuel cells operating with hydrogen stored as a liquid, addressing simultaneously: thermomechanical exergy recovery from liquid hydrogen, and its application to CO 2 removal from atmospheric air. This project was an attempt to address these issues by using the cooling available from the vaporisation of liquid hydrogen and/or boil-off vapour, to remove CO 2 from the alkaline fuel cell feed air by refrigeration purification, ie. by freezing the CO 2 out of the air. A schematic description of the process and an energy balance for refrigeration purification for the CO 2 removal are presented, showing that the process relies on high effectiveness heat exchangers and water re-vaporisation. The high effectiveness heat transfer is achieved using perforated plate matrix heat exchangers. Implicit in this work were: The development of a new sizing procedure for matrix heat exchangers based on an approximate analytical solution for their performance, published recently in this journal. The development of a new method for construction of perforated plate matrix heat exchangers. Experimental testing of matrix heat exchanger performance. The application of matrix heat exchangers to mass transfer, and their use as reversing heat exchangers. Certain questions relating to the recent analysis published in this journal are raised and modifications suggested. Experimental results of heat exchanger effectiveness tests and CO 2 removal tests showed that heat exchangers of the requisite effectiveness were designed and manufactured, and that the proposed process was successful in exergy recovery and CO 2 removal

  6. Performance of turbine-type flowmeters in liquid hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Tests using commercially available flowmeters provide information on the constancy in water of the calibration factor /pulses per unit volume/, on the maximum deviation of the factor from its mean value, and on the probability of predicting the calibration factor of a meter in liquid hydrogen at full scale.

  7. Large-capacity pump vaporizer for liquid hydrogen and nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, J. A.

    1970-01-01

    Pump vaporizer system delivers 500 standard cubic feet per minute of hydrogen or nitrogen, one system delivers both gases. Vacuum-jacketed pump discharges liquid hydrogen or liquid nitrogen into vaporizing system heated by ambient air. Principal characteristics of the flow and discharge system, pump, and vaporizer are given.

  8. Silicon surface barrier detectors used for liquid hydrogen density measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, D. T.; Milam, J. K.; Winslett, H. B.

    1968-01-01

    Multichannel system employing a radioisotope radiation source, strontium-90, radiation detector, and a silicon surface barrier detector, measures the local density of liquid hydrogen at various levels in a storage tank. The instrument contains electronic equipment for collecting the density information, and a data handling system for processing this information.

  9. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Hydrogen-Fueled Mercedes Sprinter Van Operating Summary - January 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

    2003-01-22

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of testing conducted over 6,864 kilometers (4,265 miles) of operation using the pure-hydrogen-fueled Mercedes Sprinter van.

  10. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Hydrogen-Fueled Mercedes Sprinter Van -- Operating Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Karner, D.; Francfort, James Edward

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure- hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of testing conducted over 6,864 kilometers (4,265 miles) of operation using the pure-hydrogen-fueled Mercedes Sprinter van.