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Sample records for literature analysis cross-validation

  1. Annotation of protein residues based on a literature analysis: cross-validation against UniProtKb

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Kevin; Jimeno-Yepes, Antonio; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2009-01-01

    Background A protein annotation database, such as the Universal Protein Resource knowledge base (UniProtKb), is a valuable resource for the validation and interpretation of predicted 3D structure patterns in proteins. Existing studies have focussed on point mutation extraction methods from biomedical literature which can be used to support the time consuming work of manual database curation. However, these methods were limited to point mutation extraction and do not extract features for the annotation of proteins at the residue level. Results This work introduces a system that identifies protein residues in MEDLINE abstracts and annotates them with features extracted from the context written in the surrounding text. MEDLINE abstract texts have been processed to identify protein mentions in combination with taxonomic species and protein residues (F1-measure 0.52). The identified protein-species-residue triplets have been validated and benchmarked against reference data resources (UniProtKb, average F1-measure of 0.54). Then, contextual features were extracted through shallow and deep parsing and the features have been classified into predefined categories (F1-measure ranges from 0.15 to 0.67). Furthermore, the feature sets have been aligned with annotation types in UniProtKb to assess the relevance of the annotations for ongoing curation projects. Altogether, the annotations have been assessed automatically and manually against reference data resources. Conclusion This work proposes a solution for the automatic extraction of functional annotation for protein residues from biomedical articles. The presented approach is an extension to other existing systems in that a wider range of residue entities are considered and that features of residues are extracted as annotations. PMID:19758468

  2. Application of Discriminant Analysis and Cross-Validation on Proteomics Data.

    PubMed

    Kuligowski, Julia; Pérez-Guaita, David; Quintás, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput proteomic experiments have raised the importance and complexity of bioinformatic analysis to extract useful information from raw data. Discriminant analysis is frequently used to identify differences among test groups of individuals or to describe combinations of discriminant variables. However, even in relatively large studies, the number of detected variables typically largely exceeds the number of samples and the classifiers should be thoroughly validated to assess their performance for new samples. Cross-validation is a widely approach when an external validation set is not available. In this chapter, different approaches for cross-validation are presented including relevant aspects that should be taken into account to avoid overly optimistic results and the assessment of the statistical significance of cross-validated figures of merit. PMID:26519177

  3. Cross Validation and Discriminative Analysis Techniques in a College Student Attrition Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alan D.

    1982-01-01

    Used a current attrition study to show the usefulness of discriminative analysis and a cross validation technique applied to student nonpersister questionnaire respondents and nonrespondents. Results of the techniques allowed delineation of several areas of sample under-representation and established the instability of the regression weights…

  4. Exact Analysis of Squared Cross-Validity Coefficient in Predictive Regression Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2009-01-01

    In regression analysis, the notion of population validity is of theoretical interest for describing the usefulness of the underlying regression model, whereas the presumably more important concept of population cross-validity represents the predictive effectiveness for the regression equation in future research. It appears that the inference…

  5. Cross-validation analysis of bias models in Bayesian multi-model projections of climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttunen, J. M. J.; Räisänen, J.; Nissinen, A.; Lipponen, A.; Kolehmainen, V.

    2016-05-01

    Climate change projections are commonly based on multi-model ensembles of climate simulations. In this paper we consider the choice of bias models in Bayesian multimodel predictions. Buser et al. (Clim Res 44(2-3):227-241, 2010a) introduced a hybrid bias model which combines commonly used constant bias and constant relation bias assumptions. The hybrid model includes a weighting parameter which balances these bias models. In this study, we use a cross-validation approach to study which bias model or bias parameter leads to, in a specific sense, optimal climate change projections. The analysis is carried out for summer and winter season means of 2 m-temperatures spatially averaged over the IPCC SREX regions, using 19 model runs from the CMIP5 data set. The cross-validation approach is applied to calculate optimal bias parameters (in the specific sense) for projecting the temperature change from the control period (1961-2005) to the scenario period (2046-2090). The results are compared to the results of the Buser et al. (Clim Res 44(2-3):227-241, 2010a) method which includes the bias parameter as one of the unknown parameters to be estimated from the data.

  6. Evaluating Processes, Parameters and Observations Using Cross Validation and Computationally Frugal Sensitivity Analysis Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foglia, L.; Mehl, S.; Hill, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Sensitivity analysis methods are used to identify measurements most likely to provide important information for model development and predictions and therefore identify critical processes. Methods range from computationally demanding Monte Carlo and cross-validation methods, to very computationally efficient linear methods. The methods are able to account for interrelations between parameters, but some argue that because linear methods neglect the effects of model nonlinearity, they are not worth considering when examining complex, nonlinear models of environmental systems. However, when faced with computationally demanding models needed to simulate, for example, climate change, the chance of obtaining fundamental insights (such as important and relationships between predictions and parameters) with few model runs is tempting. In the first part of this work, comparisons of local sensitivity analysis and cross-validation are conducted using a nonlinear groundwater model of the Maggia Valley, Southern Switzerland; sensitivity analysis are then applied to an integrated hydrological model of the same system where the impact of more processes and of using different sets of observations on the model results are considered; applicability to models of a variety of situations (climate, water quality, water management) is inferred. Results show that the frugal linear methods produced about 70% of the insight from about 2% of the model runs required by the computationally demanding methods. Regarding important observations, linear methods were not always able to distinguish between moderately and unimportant observations. However, they consistently identified the most important observations which are critical to characterize relationships between parameters and to assess the worth of potential new data collection efforts. Importance both to estimate parameters and predictions of interest was readily identified. The results suggest that it can be advantageous to consider local

  7. The Importance of Evaluating Whether Results Will Generalize: Application of Cross-Validation in Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftin, Lynn B.

    Cross-validation, an economical method for assessing whether sample results will generalize, is discussed in this paper. Cross-validation is an invariance technique that uses two subsets of the data sample to derive discriminant function coefficients. The two sets of coefficients are then used with each data subset to derive discriminant function…

  8. Airborne environmental endotoxin: a cross-validation of sampling and analysis techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Walters, M; Milton, D; Larsson, L; Ford, T

    1994-01-01

    A standard method for measurement of airborne environmental endotoxin was developed and field tested in a fiberglass insulation-manufacturing facility. This method involved sampling with a capillary-pore membrane filter, extraction in buffer using a sonication bath, and analysis by the kinetic-Limulus assay with resistant-parallel-line estimation (KLARE). Cross-validation of the extraction and assay method was performed by comparison with methanolysis of samples followed by 3-hydroxy fatty acid (3-OHFA) analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Direct methanolysis of filter samples and methanolysis of buffer extracts of the filters yielded similar 3-OHFA content (P = 0.72); the average difference was 2.1%. Analysis of buffer extracts for endotoxin content by the KLARE method and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for 3-OHFA content produced similar results (P = 0.23); the average difference was 0.88%. The source of endotoxin was gram-negative bacteria growing in recycled washwater used to clean the insulation-manufacturing equipment. The endotoxin and bacteria become airborne during spray cleaning operations. The types of 3-OHFAs in bacteria cultured from the washwater, present in the washwater and in the air, were similar. Virtually all of the bacteria cultured from air and water were gram negative composed mostly of two species, Deleya aesta and Acinetobacter johnsonii. Airborne countable bacteria correlated well with endotoxin (r2 = 0.64). Replicate sampling showed that results with the standard sampling, extraction, and Limulus assay by the KLARE method were highly reproducible (95% confidence interval for endotoxin measurement +/- 0.28 log10). These results demonstrate the accuracy, precision, and sensitivity of the standard procedure proposed for airborne environmental endotoxin. PMID:8161191

  9. Cross-Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langmuir, Charles R.

    1954-01-01

    Cross-validation in relation to choosing the best tests and selecting the best items in tests is discussed. Cross-validation demonstrated whether a decision derived from one set of data is truly effective when this decision is applied to another independent, but relevant, sample of people. Cross-validation is particularly important after…

  10. Statistical analysis of GeneMark performance by cross-validation.

    PubMed

    Kleffe, J; Hermann, K; Borodovsky, M

    1996-03-01

    We have explored the performance of the GeneMark gene identification method using cross-validation over learning samples of E. coli DNA sequences. The computations gave more accurate estimations of the error rates in comparison with previous results when a sample of non-coding regions was derived from GenBank sequences with many true coding regions unannotated. The error rate components have been classified and delineated. It was shown that the method performs differently on class I, II and III genes. The most frequent errors come from misinterpreting the coding potential of the complementary sequence in the same frame. The effects of stop-codons present in alternative frames were also studied to understand better the main factors contributing to GeneMark performance. PMID:16749185

  11. Cross-validation of the reduced form of the Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait using confirmatory factor analysis

    PubMed Central

    Iani, Luca; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Lombardo, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) is commonly used to assess habitual food cravings among individuals. Previous studies have shown that a brief version of this instrument (FCQ-T-r) has good reliability and validity. This article is the first to use Confirmatory factor analysis to examine the psychometric properties of the FCQ-T-r in a cross-validation study. Method: Habitual food cravings, as well as emotion regulation strategies, affective states, and disordered eating behaviors, were investigated in two independent samples of non-clinical adult volunteers (Sample 1: N = 368; Sample 2: N = 246). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to simultaneously test model fit statistics and dimensionality of the instrument. FCQ-T-r reliability was assessed by computing the composite reliability coefficient. Results: Analysis supported the unidimensional structure of the scale and fit indices were acceptable for both samples. The FCQ-T-r showed excellent reliability and moderate to high correlations with negative affect and disordered eating. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the FCQ-T-r scores can be reliably used to assess habitual cravings in an Italian non-clinical sample of adults. The robustness of these results is tested by a cross-validation of the model using two independent samples. Further research is required to expand on these findings, particularly in children and adolescents. PMID:25918510

  12. Latent Structure and Reliability Analysis of the Measure of Body Apperception: Cross-Validation for Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Fundakowski, Christopher; Perez, Enrique; Jean-Pierre, Shadae E.; Jean-Pierre, Ashley R.; Melillo, Angelica B.; Libby, Rachel; Sargi, Zoukaa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cancer and its treatments are associated with psychological distress that can negatively impact self-perception, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life. Patients with Head and neck cancers (HNC) are particularly susceptible to psychological distress. This study involved a cross-validation of the Measure of Body Apperception (MBA) for HNC patients. Methods One hundred twenty-two English-fluent HNC patients between 20 and 88 years of age completed the MBA on a Likert scale ranging from “1=Disagree” to “4=Agree”. We assessed the latent structure and internal consistency reliability of the MBA using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Cronbach's coefficient alpha (α), respectively. We determined convergent and divergent validities of the MBA using correlations with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), observer disfigurement rating, and patients’ clinical and demographic variables. Results The PCA revealed a coherent set of items that explained 38% of the variance. The Keiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was .73 and the Bartlett's Test of Sphericity was statistically significant (χ2 (28) = 253.64; p < .001), confirming the suitability of the data for dimension reduction analysis. The MBA had good internal consistency reliability (α = .77) and demonstrated adequate convergent and divergent validities based on statistically significant moderate correlations with the HADS (p < .01) and observer rating of disfigurement (p < .026), and non-statistically significant correlations with patients’ clinical and demographic variables: tumor location, age at diagnosis, and birth place (all ps > .05). Conclusions The MBA is a valid and reliable screening measure of body apperception for HNC patients. PMID:22886430

  13. Cross-Validated Bagged Learning

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Maya L.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Sinisi, Sandra E.; van der Laan, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Many applications aim to learn a high dimensional parameter of a data generating distribution based on a sample of independent and identically distributed observations. For example, the goal might be to estimate the conditional mean of an outcome given a list of input variables. In this prediction context, bootstrap aggregating (bagging) has been introduced as a method to reduce the variance of a given estimator at little cost to bias. Bagging involves applying an estimator to multiple bootstrap samples, and averaging the result across bootstrap samples. In order to address the curse of dimensionality, a common practice has been to apply bagging to estimators which themselves use cross-validation, thereby using cross-validation within a bootstrap sample to select fine-tuning parameters trading off bias and variance of the bootstrap sample-specific candidate estimators. In this article we point out that in order to achieve the correct bias variance trade-off for the parameter of interest, one should apply the cross-validation selector externally to candidate bagged estimators indexed by these fine-tuning parameters. We use three simulations to compare the new cross-validated bagging method with bagging of cross-validated estimators and bagging of non-cross-validated estimators. PMID:19255599

  14. Validity Evidence in Scale Development: The Application of Cross Validation and Classification-Sequencing Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Tu¨lin

    2014-01-01

    In literature, it has been observed that many enhanced criteria are limited by factor analysis techniques. Besides examinations of statistical structure and/or psychological structure, such validity studies as cross validation and classification-sequencing studies should be performed frequently. The purpose of this study is to examine cross…

  15. Remote sensing and GIS-based landslide hazard analysis and cross-validation using multivariate logistic regression model on three test areas in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the results of the cross-validation of a multivariate logistic regression model using remote sensing data and GIS for landslide hazard analysis on the Penang, Cameron, and Selangor areas in Malaysia. Landslide locations in the study areas were identified by interpreting aerial photographs and satellite images, supported by field surveys. SPOT 5 and Landsat TM satellite imagery were used to map landcover and vegetation index, respectively. Maps of topography, soil type, lineaments and land cover were constructed from the spatial datasets. Ten factors which influence landslide occurrence, i.e., slope, aspect, curvature, distance from drainage, lithology, distance from lineaments, soil type, landcover, rainfall precipitation, and normalized difference vegetation index (ndvi), were extracted from the spatial database and the logistic regression coefficient of each factor was computed. Then the landslide hazard was analysed using the multivariate logistic regression coefficients derived not only from the data for the respective area but also using the logistic regression coefficients calculated from each of the other two areas (nine hazard maps in all) as a cross-validation of the model. For verification of the model, the results of the analyses were then compared with the field-verified landslide locations. Among the three cases of the application of logistic regression coefficient in the same study area, the case of Selangor based on the Selangor logistic regression coefficients showed the highest accuracy (94%), where as Penang based on the Penang coefficients showed the lowest accuracy (86%). Similarly, among the six cases from the cross application of logistic regression coefficient in other two areas, the case of Selangor based on logistic coefficient of Cameron showed highest (90%) prediction accuracy where as the case of Penang based on the Selangor logistic regression coefficients showed the lowest accuracy (79%). Qualitatively, the cross

  16. Cross-validation of component models: a critical look at current methods.

    PubMed

    Bro, R; Kjeldahl, K; Smilde, A K; Kiers, H A L

    2008-03-01

    In regression, cross-validation is an effective and popular approach that is used to decide, for example, the number of underlying features, and to estimate the average prediction error. The basic principle of cross-validation is to leave out part of the data, build a model, and then predict the left-out samples. While such an approach can also be envisioned for component models such as principal component analysis (PCA), most current implementations do not comply with the essential requirement that the predictions should be independent of the entity being predicted. Further, these methods have not been properly reviewed in the literature. In this paper, we review the most commonly used generic PCA cross-validation schemes and assess how well they work in various scenarios. PMID:18214448

  17. Analysis of Human Innate Immune Responses to PRINT Fabricated Nanoparticles with Cross Validation Using a Humanized Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, GR; Roberts, RA; Guo, H; Reuter, K; Shen, T; Sempowski, GD; McKinnon, Karen P.; Su, L; DeSimone, JM; Ting, JP

    2015-01-01

    Ideal nanoparticle (NP)-based drug and vaccine delivery vectors should be free of inherent cytotoxic or immunostimulatory properties. Therefore, determining baseline immune responses to nanomaterials is of utmost importance when designing human therapeutics. We characterized the response of human immune cells to hydrogel NPs fabricated using Particle Replication in Non-wetting Templates (PRINT) technology. We found preferential NP uptake by primary CD14+ monocytes, which was significantly reduced upon PEGylation of the NP surface. Multiplex cytokine analysis of NP treated primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hu-PBMC) suggests that PRINT based hydrogel NPs do not evoke significant inflammatory responses nor do they induce cytotoxicity or complement activation. We furthered these studies using an in vivo humanized mouse model and similarly found preferential NP uptake by human CD14+ monocytes without systemic inflammatory cytokine responses. These studies suggest that PRINT hydrogel particles form a desirable platform for vaccine and drug delivery as they neither induce inflammation nor toxicity. PMID:25596079

  18. The Performance of Cross-Validation Indices Used to Select among Competing Covariance Structure Models under Multivariate Nonnormality Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Stapleton, Laura M.

    2006-01-01

    Cudeck and Browne (1983) proposed using cross-validation as a model selection technique in structural equation modeling. The purpose of this study is to examine the performance of eight cross-validation indices under conditions not yet examined in the relevant literature, such as nonnormality and cross-validation design. The performance of each…

  19. Cross-Validation, Shrinkage, and Multiple Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Kevin

    One aspect of multiple regression--the shrinkage of the multiple correlation coefficient on cross-validation is reviewed. The paper consists of four sections. In section one, the distinction between a fixed and a random multiple regression model is made explicit. In section two, the cross-validation paradigm and an explanation for the occurrence…

  20. Attrition from an Adolescent Addiction Treatment Program: A Cross Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathisen, Kenneth S.; Meyers, Kathleen

    Treatment attrition is a major problem for programs treating adolescent substance abusers. To isolate and cross validate factors which are predictive of addiction treatment attrition among adolescent substance abusers, screening interview and diagnostic variables from 119 adolescent in-patients were submitted to a discriminant equation analysis.…

  1. Double Cross-Validation in Multiple Regression: A Method of Estimating the Stability of Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, R. Kevin

    In multiple regression analysis, where resulting predictive equation effectiveness is subject to shrinkage, it is especially important to evaluate result replicability. Double cross-validation is an empirical method by which an estimate of invariance or stability can be obtained from research data. A procedure for double cross-validation is…

  2. Multiple dimensions of health locus of control in a representative population sample: ordinal factor analysis and cross-validation of an existing three and a new four factor model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Based on the general approach of locus of control, health locus of control (HLOC) concerns control-beliefs due to illness, sickness and health. HLOC research results provide an improved understanding of health related behaviour and patients' compliance in medical care. HLOC research distinguishes between beliefs due to Internality, Externality powerful Others (POs) and Externality Chance. However, evidences for differentiating the POs dimension were found. Previous factor analyses used selected and predominantly clinical samples, while non-clinical studies are rare. The present study is the first analysis of the HLOC structure based on a large representative general population sample providing important information for non-clinical research and public health care. Methods The standardised German questionnaire which assesses HLOC was used in a representative adult general population sample for a region in Northern Germany (N = 4,075). Data analyses used ordinal factor analyses in LISREL and Mplus. Alternative theory-driven models with one to four latent variables were compared using confirmatory factor analysis. Fit indices, chi-square difference tests, residuals and factor loadings were considered for model comparison. Exploratory factor analysis was used for further model development. Results were cross-validated splitting the total sample randomly and using the cross-validation index. Results A model with four latent variables (Internality, Formal Help, Informal Help and Chance) best represented the HLOC construct (three-dimensional model: normed chi-square = 9.55; RMSEA = 0.066; CFI = 0.931; SRMR = 0.075; four-dimensional model: normed chi-square = 8.65; RMSEA = 0.062; CFI = 0.940; SRMR = 0.071; chi-square difference test: p < 0.001). After excluding one item, the superiority of the four- over the three-dimensional HLOC construct became very obvious (three-dimensional model: normed chi-square = 7.74; RMSEA = 0.059; CFI = 0.950; SRMR = 0.079; four

  3. The Proximal Trajectory Algorithm in SVM Cross Validation.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Annabella; Fuduli, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    We propose a bilevel cross-validation scheme for support vector machine (SVM) model selection based on the construction of the entire regularization path. Since such path is a particular case of the more general proximal trajectory concept from nonsmooth optimization, we propose for its construction an algorithm based on solving a finite number of structured linear programs. Our methodology, differently from other approaches, works directly on the primal form of SVM. Numerical results are presented on binary data sets drawn from literature. PMID:27101080

  4. Direct spectral analysis of tea samples using 266 nm UV pulsed laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and cross validation of LIBS results with ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Gondal, M A; Habibullah, Y B; Baig, Umair; Oloore, L E

    2016-05-15

    Tea is one of the most common and popular beverages spanning vast array of cultures all over the world. The main nutritional benefits of drinking tea are its anti-oxidant properties, presumed protection against certain cancers, inhibition of inflammation and possible protective effects against diabetes. Laser induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) was assembled as a powerful tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of various brands of tea samples using 266 nm pulsed UV laser. LIBS spectra for six brands of tea samples in the wavelength range of 200-900 nm was recorded and all elements present in our tea samples were identified. The major toxic elements detected in several brands of tea samples were bromine, chromium and minerals like iron, calcium, potassium and silicon. The spectral assignment was conducted prior to the determination of concentration of each element. For quantitative analysis, calibration curves were drawn for each element using standard samples prepared in known concentration in the tea matrix. The plasma parameters (electron temperature and electron density) were also determined prior to the tea samples spectroscopic analysis. The concentration of iron, chromium, potassium, bromine, copper, silicon and calcium detected in all tea samples was between 378-656, 96-124, 1421-6785, 99-1476, 17-36, 2-11 and 92-130 mg L(-1) respectively. The limits of detection estimated for Fe, Cr, K, Br, Cu, Si, Ca in tea samples were 22, 12, 14, 11, 6, 1 and 12 mg L(-1) respectively. To further confirm the accuracy of our LIBS results, we determined the concentration of each element present in tea samples by using standard analytical technique like ICP-MS. The concentrations detected with our LIBS system are in excellent agreement with ICP-MS results. The system assembled for spectral analysis in this work could be highly applicable for testing the quality and purity of food and also pharmaceuticals products. PMID:26992530

  5. Cross-validation and evaluation of the performance of methods for the elemental analysis of forensic glass by μ-XRF, ICP-MS, and LA-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Trejos, Tatiana; Koons, Robert; Becker, Stefan; Berman, Ted; Buscaglia, JoAnn; Duecking, Marc; Eckert-Lumsdon, Tiffany; Ernst, Troy; Hanlon, Christopher; Heydon, Alex; Mooney, Kim; Nelson, Randall; Olsson, Kristine; Palenik, Christopher; Pollock, Edward Chip; Rudell, David; Ryland, Scott; Tarifa, Anamary; Valadez, Melissa; Weis, Peter; Almirall, Jose

    2013-06-01

    Elemental analysis of glass was conducted by 16 forensic science laboratories, providing a direct comparison between three analytical methods [micro-x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μ-XRF), solution analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry]. Interlaboratory studies using glass standard reference materials and other glass samples were designed to (a) evaluate the analytical performance between different laboratories using the same method, (b) evaluate the analytical performance of the different methods, (c) evaluate the capabilities of the methods to correctly associate glass that originated from the same source and to correctly discriminate glass samples that do not share the same source, and (d) standardize the methods of analysis and interpretation of results. Reference materials NIST 612, NIST 1831, FGS 1, and FGS 2 were employed to cross-validate these sensitive techniques and to optimize and standardize the analytical protocols. The resulting figures of merit for the ICP-MS methods include repeatability better than 5% RSD, reproducibility between laboratories better than 10% RSD, bias better than 10%, and limits of detection between 0.03 and 9 μg g(-1) for the majority of the elements monitored. The figures of merit for the μ-XRF methods include repeatability better than 11% RSD, reproducibility between laboratories after normalization of the data better than 16% RSD, and limits of detection between 5.8 and 7,400 μg g(-1). The results from this study also compare the analytical performance of different forensic science laboratories conducting elemental analysis of glass evidence fragments using the three analytical methods. PMID:23673570

  6. Reliable Digit Span: A Systematic Review and Cross-Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Ryan W.; Twumasi-Ankrah, Philip; Baade, Lyle E.; Marshall, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Reliable Digit Span (RDS) is a heavily researched symptom validity test with a recent literature review yielding more than 20 studies ranging in dates from 1994 to 2011. Unfortunately, limitations within some of the research minimize clinical generalizability. This systematic review and cross-validation study was conducted to address these…

  7. Cross validation in LASSO and its acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obuchi, Tomoyuki; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    We investigate leave-one-out cross validation (CV) as a determinator of the weight of the penalty term in the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). First, on the basis of the message passing algorithm and a perturbative discussion assuming that the number of observations is sufficiently large, we provide simple formulas for approximately assessing two types of CV errors, which enable us to significantly reduce the necessary cost of computation. These formulas also provide a simple connection of the CV errors to the residual sums of squares between the reconstructed and the given measurements. Second, on the basis of this finding, we analytically evaluate the CV errors when the design matrix is given as a simple random matrix in the large size limit by using the replica method. Finally, these results are compared with those of numerical simulations on finite-size systems and are confirmed to be correct. We also apply the simple formulas of the first type of CV error to an actual dataset of the supernovae.

  8. Formula Estimation of Cross-Validated Multiple Correlation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Neal

    A review of cross-validation shrinkage formulas is presented which focuses on the theoretical and practical problems in the use of various formulas. Practical guidelines for use of both formulas and empirical cross-validation are provided. A comparison of results using these formulas in a range of situations is then presented. The result of these…

  9. International cross-validation of a BOD5 surrogate.

    PubMed

    Muller, Mathieu; Bouguelia, Sihem; Goy, Romy-Alice; Yoris, Alison; Berlin, Jeanne; Meche, Perrine; Rocher, Vincent; Mertens, Sharon; Dudal, Yves

    2014-12-01

    BOD5 dates back to 1912 when the Royal Commission decided to use the mean residence time of water in the rivers of England, 5 days, as a standard to measure the biochemical oxygen demand. Initially designed to protect the quality of river waters from extensive sewage discharge, the use of BOD5 has been quickly extended to waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) to monitor their efficiency on a daily basis. The measurement has been automatized but remains a tedious, time- and resource-consuming analysis. We have cross-validated a surrogate BOD5 method on two sites in France and in the USA with a total of 109 samples. This method uses a fluorescent redox indicator on a 96-well microplate to measure microbial catabolic activity for a large number of samples simultaneously. Three statistical tests were used to compare surrogate and reference methods and showed robust equivalence. PMID:24946712

  10. A K-fold Averaging Cross-validation Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yoonsuh; Hu, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Cross-validation type of methods have been widely used to facilitate model estimation and variable selection. In this work, we suggest a new K-fold cross validation procedure to select a candidate ‘optimal’ model from each hold-out fold and average the K candidate ‘optimal’ models to obtain the ultimate model. Due to the averaging effect, the variance of the proposed estimates can be significantly reduced. This new procedure results in more stable and efficient parameter estimation than the classical K-fold cross validation procedure. In addition, we show the asymptotic equivalence between the proposed and classical cross validation procedures in the linear regression setting. We also demonstrate the broad applicability of the proposed procedure via two examples of parameter sparsity regularization and quantile smoothing splines modeling. We illustrate the promise of the proposed method through simulations and a real data example.

  11. A cross-validation package driving Netica with python

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian networks (BNs) are powerful tools for probabilistically simulating natural systems and emulating process models. Cross validation is a technique to avoid overfitting resulting from overly complex BNs. Overfitting reduces predictive skill. Cross-validation for BNs is known but rarely implemented due partly to a lack of software tools designed to work with available BN packages. CVNetica is open-source, written in Python, and extends the Netica software package to perform cross-validation and read, rebuild, and learn BNs from data. Insights gained from cross-validation and implications on prediction versus description are illustrated with: a data-driven oceanographic application; and a model-emulation application. These examples show that overfitting occurs when BNs become more complex than allowed by supporting data and overfitting incurs computational costs as well as causing a reduction in prediction skill. CVNetica evaluates overfitting using several complexity metrics (we used level of discretization) and its impact on performance metrics (we used skill).

  12. Cross-Validation of the Quick Word Test as an Estimator of Adult Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotelueschen, Arden; McQuarrie, Duncan

    1970-01-01

    This report provides additional evidence that the Quick Word Test (Level 2, Form AM) is valid for estimating adult mental ability as defined by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The validation sample is also described to facilitate use of the conversion table developed in the cross-validation analysis. (Author/LY)

  13. Cross-validating factors associated with discharges against medical advice.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, A J; Fata, M

    1993-05-01

    Between six percent and 35% of psychiatric patients discharge themselves from hospital against medical advice (AMA). The discharges may prevent patients from deriving the full benefit of hospitalization and may result in rapid rehospitalization. We examined sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of 195 irregular discharges from a 237 bed psychiatric hospital over a five year period and found that AMA discharges increased over the study period to a peak of 25% in 1986. There was a strong negative correlation between AMA discharge rates and the willingness of physicians to commit patients involuntarily. Multiple discriminant analysis revealed a set of nine variables that accurately classified 78% of cases into regular or irregular discharge categories. Further analysis revealed that there are two distinct subgroups of patients who discharge themselves AMA: those who repeatedly left the hospital AMA in a regular "revolving back door" pattern and those who left AMA only once. The repeat group exceeded the one-time group in terms of prior admissions, appearances before review boards, and percentage of Natives. The repeat group also spent twice as long in hospital, and 27% were readmitted within one-week of the index AMA discharge. Less than three percent of the one-time AMA group was readmitted within a week. These results were cross-validated on a new sample of irregular discharges and matched controls. PMID:8518982

  14. Comprehensive Assessment of Emotional Disturbance: A Cross-Validation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Emily S.; Doyon, Katie E.; Saldana, Enrique; Allen, Megan Redding

    2007-01-01

    Assessing a student for emotional disturbance is a serious and complex task given the stigma of the label and the ambiguities of the federal definition. One way that school psychologists can be more confident in their assessment results is to cross validate data from different sources using the RIOT approach (Review, Interview, Observe, Test).…

  15. The Cross Validation of the Attitudes toward Mainstreaming Scale (ATMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Joan D.; Neal, W. R. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Reliability and factorial validity of the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale was supported in a cross-validation study with teachers. Three factors emerged: learning capability, general mainstreaming, and traditional limiting disabilities. Factor intercorrelations varied from .42 to .55; correlations between total scores and individual factors…

  16. Cross-validation of interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy and optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Tyler S; Adie, Steven G; Marks, Daniel L; Boppart, Stephen A; Carney, P Scott

    2010-05-15

    Computationally reconstructed interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy is coregistered with optical coherence tomography (OCT) focal plane data to provide quantitative cross validation with OCT. This is accomplished through a qualitative comparison of images and a quantitative analysis of the width of the point-spread function in simulation and experiment. The width of the ISAM point-spread function is seen to be independent of depth, in contrast to OCT. PMID:20479849

  17. A cross-validation scheme for machine learning algorithms in shotgun proteomics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Peptides are routinely identified from mass spectrometry-based proteomics experiments by matching observed spectra to peptides derived from protein databases. The error rates of these identifications can be estimated by target-decoy analysis, which involves matching spectra to shuffled or reversed peptides. Besides estimating error rates, decoy searches can be used by semi-supervised machine learning algorithms to increase the number of confidently identified peptides. As for all machine learning algorithms, however, the results must be validated to avoid issues such as overfitting or biased learning, which would produce unreliable peptide identifications. Here, we discuss how the target-decoy method is employed in machine learning for shotgun proteomics, focusing on how the results can be validated by cross-validation, a frequently used validation scheme in machine learning. We also use simulated data to demonstrate the proposed cross-validation scheme's ability to detect overfitting. PMID:23176259

  18. Benchmarking protein classification algorithms via supervised cross-validation.

    PubMed

    Kertész-Farkas, Attila; Dhir, Somdutta; Sonego, Paolo; Pacurar, Mircea; Netoteia, Sergiu; Nijveen, Harm; Kuzniar, Arnold; Leunissen, Jack A M; Kocsor, András; Pongor, Sándor

    2008-04-24

    Development and testing of protein classification algorithms are hampered by the fact that the protein universe is characterized by groups vastly different in the number of members, in average protein size, similarity within group, etc. Datasets based on traditional cross-validation (k-fold, leave-one-out, etc.) may not give reliable estimates on how an algorithm will generalize to novel, distantly related subtypes of the known protein classes. Supervised cross-validation, i.e., selection of test and train sets according to the known subtypes within a database has been successfully used earlier in conjunction with the SCOP database. Our goal was to extend this principle to other databases and to design standardized benchmark datasets for protein classification. Hierarchical classification trees of protein categories provide a simple and general framework for designing supervised cross-validation strategies for protein classification. Benchmark datasets can be designed at various levels of the concept hierarchy using a simple graph-theoretic distance. A combination of supervised and random sampling was selected to construct reduced size model datasets, suitable for algorithm comparison. Over 3000 new classification tasks were added to our recently established protein classification benchmark collection that currently includes protein sequence (including protein domains and entire proteins), protein structure and reading frame DNA sequence data. We carried out an extensive evaluation based on various machine-learning algorithms such as nearest neighbor, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, random forests and logistic regression, used in conjunction with comparison algorithms, BLAST, Smith-Waterman, Needleman-Wunsch, as well as 3D comparison methods DALI and PRIDE. The resulting datasets provide lower, and in our opinion more realistic estimates of the classifier performance than do random cross-validation schemes. A combination of supervised and

  19. Cost-Benefit Considerations in Choosing among Cross-Validation Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin R.

    There are two general methods of cross-validation: empirical estimation, and formula estimation. In choosing a specific cross-validation procedure, one should consider both costs (e.g., inefficient use of available data in estimating regression parameters) and benefits (e.g., accuracy in estimating population cross-validity). Empirical…

  20. Cross-Validation of Aerobic Capacity Prediction Models in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan Donald; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A; Eisenman, Patricia A; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Greg J; Mahar, Matthew T

    2015-08-01

    Cardiorespiratory endurance is a component of health-related fitness. FITNESSGRAM recommends the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) or One mile Run/Walk (1MRW) to assess cardiorespiratory endurance by estimating VO2 Peak. No research has cross-validated prediction models from both PACER and 1MRW, including the New PACER Model and PACER-Mile Equivalent (PACER-MEQ) using current standards. The purpose of this study was to cross-validate prediction models from PACER and 1MRW against measured VO2 Peak in adolescents. Cardiorespiratory endurance data were collected on 90 adolescents aged 13-16 years (Mean = 14.7 ± 1.3 years; 32 girls, 52 boys) who completed the PACER and 1MRW in addition to a laboratory maximal treadmill test to measure VO2 Peak. Multiple correlations among various models with measured VO2 Peak were considered moderately strong (R = .74-0.78), and prediction error (RMSE) ranged from 5.95 ml·kg⁻¹,min⁻¹ to 8.27 ml·kg⁻¹.min⁻¹. Criterion-referenced agreement into FITNESSGRAM's Healthy Fitness Zones was considered fair-to-good among models (Kappa = 0.31-0.62; Agreement = 75.5-89.9%; F = 0.08-0.65). In conclusion, prediction models demonstrated moderately strong linear relationships with measured VO2 Peak, fair prediction error, and fair-to-good criterion referenced agreement with measured VO2 Peak into FITNESSGRAM's Healthy Fitness Zones. PMID:26186536

  1. Predicting IQ change from brain structure: A cross-validation study

    PubMed Central

    Price, C.J.; Ramsden, S.; Hope, T.M.H.; Friston, K.J.; Seghier, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Procedures that can predict cognitive abilities from brain imaging data are potentially relevant to educational assessments and studies of functional anatomy in the developing brain. Our aim in this work was to quantify the degree to which IQ change in the teenage years could be predicted from structural brain changes. Two well-known k-fold cross-validation analyses were applied to data acquired from 33 healthy teenagers – each tested at Time 1 and Time 2 with a 3.5 year interval. One approach, a Leave-One-Out procedure, predicted IQ change for each subject on the basis of structural change in a brain region that was identified from all other subjects (i.e., independent data). This approach predicted 53% of verbal IQ change and 14% of performance IQ change. The other approach used half the sample, to identify regions for predicting IQ change in the other half (i.e., a Split half approach); however – unlike the Leave-One-Out procedure – regions identified using half the sample were not significant. We discuss how these out-of-sample estimates compare to in-sample estimates; and draw some recommendations for k-fold cross-validation procedures when dealing with small datasets that are typical in the neuroimaging literature. PMID:23567505

  2. Testing alternative ground water models using cross-validation and other methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foglia, L.; Mehl, S.W.; Hill, M.C.; Perona, P.; Burlando, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many methods can be used to test alternative ground water models. Of concern in this work are methods able to (1) rank alternative models (also called model discrimination) and (2) identify observations important to parameter estimates and predictions (equivalent to the purpose served by some types of sensitivity analysis). Some of the measures investigated are computationally efficient; others are computationally demanding. The latter are generally needed to account for model nonlinearity. The efficient model discrimination methods investigated include the information criteria: the corrected Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and generalized cross-validation. The efficient sensitivity analysis measures used are dimensionless scaled sensitivity (DSS), composite scaled sensitivity, and parameter correlation coefficient (PCC); the other statistics are DFBETAS, Cook's D, and observation-prediction statistic. Acronyms are explained in the introduction. Cross-validation (CV) is a computationally intensive nonlinear method that is used for both model discrimination and sensitivity analysis. The methods are tested using up to five alternative parsimoniously constructed models of the ground water system of the Maggia Valley in southern Switzerland. The alternative models differ in their representation of hydraulic conductivity. A new method for graphically representing CV and sensitivity analysis results for complex models is presented and used to evaluate the utility of the efficient statistics. The results indicate that for model selection, the information criteria produce similar results at much smaller computational cost than CV. For identifying important observations, the only obviously inferior linear measure is DSS; the poor performance was expected because DSS does not include the effects of parameter correlation and PCC reveals large parameter correlations. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  3. Investigation of electroforming techniques, literature analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    A literature analysis is presented of reports, specifications, and documented experiences with the use of electroforming to produce copper and nickel structures for aerospace and other engineering applications. The literature period covered is from 1948 to 1974. Specific effort was made to correlate mechanical property data for the electrodeposited material with known electroforming solution compositions and operating conditions. From this survey, electrolytes are suggested for selection to electroform copper and nickel outer shells on regeneratively cooled thrust chamber liners, and other devices subject to thermal and pressure exposure, based on mechanical properties obtainable, performance under various thermal environments, and ease of process control for product reproducibility. Processes of potential value in obtaining sound bonds between electrodeposited copper and nickel and copper alloy substrates are also discussed.

  4. Cost-Benefit Considerations in Choosing among Cross-Validation Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin R.

    1984-01-01

    Outlines costs and benefits associated with different cross-validation strategies; in particular the way in which the study design affects the cost and benefits of different types of cross-validation. Suggests that the choice between empirical estimation methods and formula estimates involves a trade-off between accuracy and simplicity. (JAC)

  5. Multisample cross-validation of a model of childhood posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jason L; Lonigan, Christopher J; Vernberg, Eric M; Greca, Annette M La; Silverman, Wendy K; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2005-12-01

    This study is the latest advancement of our research aimed at best characterizing children's posttraumatic stress reactions. In a previous study, we compared existing nosologic and empirical models of PTSD dimensionality and determined the superior model was a hierarchical one with three symptom clusters (Intrusion/Active Avoidance, Numbing/Passive Avoidance, and Arousal; Anthony, Lonigan, & Hecht, 1999). In this study, we cross-validate this model in two populations. Participants were 396 fifth graders who were exposed to either Hurricane Andrew or Hurricane Hugo. Multisample confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated the model's factorial invariance across populations who experienced traumatic events that differed in severity. These results show the model's robustness to characterize children's posttraumatic stress reactions. Implications for diagnosis, classification criteria, and an empirically supported theory of PTSD are discussed. PMID:16382435

  6. Colonialism and Native American Literature: Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Jack

    1987-01-01

    The literature of the Native Peoples of North America is gaining interest with an increasing number of persons; however, recent articles fail to view this literature holistically and within a realistic cultural, historical, and social context. A history of Native American literature and the impact of colonialism is included. (JMM)

  7. Backward Variable Elimination Canonical Correlation and Canonical Cross-Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Sandra

    This paper suggests that multivariate analysis techniques are very important in educational research, and that one multivariate technique--canonical correlation analysis--may be particularly useful. The logic of canonical analysis is explained. It is suggested that a backward variable elimination strategy can make the method even more powerful, by…

  8. Some psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale with cross validation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Siyang; Freeman, Ruth; Lahti, Satu; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Humphris, Gerry

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the factorial structure and construct validity for the Chinese version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS). Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in March 2006 from adults in the Beijing area. The questionnaire consisted of sections to assess for participants' demographic profile and dental attendance patterns, the Chinese MDAS and the anxiety items from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The analysis was conducted in two stages using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Cross validation was tested with a North West of England comparison sample. Results 783 questionnaires were successfully completed from Beijing, 468 from England. The Chinese MDAS consisted of two factors: anticipatory dental anxiety (ADA) and treatment dental anxiety (TDA). Internal consistency coefficients (tau non-equivalent) were 0.74 and 0.86 respectively. Measurement properties were virtually identical for male and female respondents. Relationships of the Chinese MDAS with gender, age and dental attendance supported predictions. Significant structural parameters between the two sub-scales (negative affectivity and autonomic anxiety) of the HADS anxiety items and the two newly identified factors of the MDAS were confirmed and duplicated in the comparison sample. Conclusion The Chinese version of the MDAS has good psychometric properties and has the ability to assess, briefly, overall dental anxiety and two correlated but distinct aspects. PMID:18364045

  9. Development and cross-validation of prediction equations for estimating resting energy expenditure in severely obese Caucasian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lazzer, Stefano; Agosti, Fiorenza; De Col, Alessandra; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2006-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop and cross-validate new equations for predicting resting energy expenditure (REE) in severely obese children and adolescents, and to determine the accuracy of new equations using the Bland-Altman method. The subjects of the study were 574 obese Caucasian children and adolescents (mean BMI z-score 3.3). REE was determined by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Equations were derived by stepwise multiple regression analysis using a calibration cohort of 287 subjects and the equations were cross-validated in the remaining 287 subjects. Two new specific equations based on anthropometric parameters were generated as follows: (1) REE=(Sex x 892.68)-(Age x 115.93)+(Weight x 54.96)+(Stature x 1816.23)+1484.50 (R(2) 0.66; se 1028.97 kJ); (2) REE=(Sex x 909.12)-(Age x 107.48)+(fat-free mass x 68.39)+(fat mass x 55.19)+3631.23 (R(2) 0.66; se 1034.28 kJ). In the cross-validation group, mean predicted REE values were not significantly different from the mean measured REE for all children and adolescents, as well as for boys and for girls (difference <2 %) and the limits of agreement (+/-2 sd) were +2.06 and -1.77 MJ/d (NS). The new prediction equations allow an accurate estimation of REE in groups of severely obese children and adolescents. These equations might be useful for health care professionals and researchers when estimating REE in severely obese children and adolescents. PMID:17092390

  10. Biased binomial assessment of cross-validated estimation of classification accuracies illustrated in diagnosis predictions

    PubMed Central

    Noirhomme, Quentin; Lesenfants, Damien; Gomez, Francisco; Soddu, Andrea; Schrouff, Jessica; Garraux, Gaëtan; Luxen, André; Phillips, Christophe; Laureys, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate classification is used in neuroimaging studies to infer brain activation or in medical applications to infer diagnosis. Their results are often assessed through either a binomial or a permutation test. Here, we simulated classification results of generated random data to assess the influence of the cross-validation scheme on the significance of results. Distributions built from classification of random data with cross-validation did not follow the binomial distribution. The binomial test is therefore not adapted. On the contrary, the permutation test was unaffected by the cross-validation scheme. The influence of the cross-validation was further illustrated on real-data from a brain–computer interface experiment in patients with disorders of consciousness and from an fMRI study on patients with Parkinson disease. Three out of 16 patients with disorders of consciousness had significant accuracy on binomial testing, but only one showed significant accuracy using permutation testing. In the fMRI experiment, the mental imagery of gait could discriminate significantly between idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients and healthy subjects according to the permutation test but not according to the binomial test. Hence, binomial testing could lead to biased estimation of significance and false positive or negative results. In our view, permutation testing is thus recommended for clinical application of classification with cross-validation. PMID:24936420

  11. Biased binomial assessment of cross-validated estimation of classification accuracies illustrated in diagnosis predictions.

    PubMed

    Noirhomme, Quentin; Lesenfants, Damien; Gomez, Francisco; Soddu, Andrea; Schrouff, Jessica; Garraux, Gaëtan; Luxen, André; Phillips, Christophe; Laureys, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate classification is used in neuroimaging studies to infer brain activation or in medical applications to infer diagnosis. Their results are often assessed through either a binomial or a permutation test. Here, we simulated classification results of generated random data to assess the influence of the cross-validation scheme on the significance of results. Distributions built from classification of random data with cross-validation did not follow the binomial distribution. The binomial test is therefore not adapted. On the contrary, the permutation test was unaffected by the cross-validation scheme. The influence of the cross-validation was further illustrated on real-data from a brain-computer interface experiment in patients with disorders of consciousness and from an fMRI study on patients with Parkinson disease. Three out of 16 patients with disorders of consciousness had significant accuracy on binomial testing, but only one showed significant accuracy using permutation testing. In the fMRI experiment, the mental imagery of gait could discriminate significantly between idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients and healthy subjects according to the permutation test but not according to the binomial test. Hence, binomial testing could lead to biased estimation of significance and false positive or negative results. In our view, permutation testing is thus recommended for clinical application of classification with cross-validation. PMID:24936420

  12. Literature Reviews: Analysis, Planning, and Query Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, William J.; Kaunelis, David

    2005-01-01

    Graduate students, tenured and tenure-track professors, and other professionals conduct scholarly research and have their findings published in recognized journals. Undergraduate and graduate students engage in rudimentary research to gather data relevant to case assignments in order to develop reasoned arguments. A focused literature review helps…

  13. Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verner, Zenobia, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue provides a selection of articles about literature and the teaching of literature. Titles include "Sin, Salvation, and Grace in 'The Scarlet Letter,'""'The Road Not Taken': A Study in Ambiguity,""In Search of Shakespeare: The Essential Years,""Right Deeds for Wrong Reasons: Teaching the Bible as Literature,""A Southern Author's Fight for…

  14. Evaluation and cross-validation of Environmental Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Joseph

    , preliminary analyses should be carried out under the control and authority of an established international professional Organization or Association, before any final political decision is made by ISO to select a specific Environmental Models, like for example IGRF and DGRF. Of course, Commissions responsible for checking the consistency of definitions, methods and algorithms for data processing might consider to delegate specific tasks (e.g. bench-marking the technical tools, the calibration procedures, the methods of data analysis, and the software algorithms employed in building the different types of models, as well as their usage) to private, intergovernmental or international organization/agencies (e.g.: NASA, ESA, AGU, EGU, COSPAR, . . . ); eventually, the latter should report conclusions to the Commissions members appointed by IAGA or any established authority like IUGG.

  15. Cross-Validation of Magnetic Resonance Elastography and Ultrasound-Based Transient Elastography: A Preliminary Phantom Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Glaser, Kevin J; Miette, Véronique; Sandrin, Laurent; Ehman, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To cross-validate two recent noninvasive elastographic techniques, Ultrasound-based Transient Elastography (UTE) and Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE). As potential alternatives to liver biopsy, UTE and MRE are undergoing clinical investigations for liver fibrosis diagnosis and liver disease management around the world. These two techniques use tissue stiffness as a marker for disease state and it is important to do a cross-validation study of both elastographic techniques to determine the consistency with which the two techniques can measure the mechanical properties of materials. Materials and Methods In this paper, 19 well-characterized phantoms with a range of stiffness values were measured by two clinical devices (a Fibroscan and a MRE system based respectively on the UTE and MRE techniques) successively with the operators double-blinded. Results Statistical analysis showed that the correlation coefficient was r2=0.93 between MRE and UTE, and there was no evidence of a systematic difference between them within the range of stiffnesses examined. Conclusion These two noninvasive methods, MRE and UTE, provide clinicians with important new options for improving patient care regarding liver diseases in terms of the diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of fibrosis progression, as well for evaluating the efficacy of treatment. PMID:19856447

  16. Cross-Validation and Extension of the MMPI-A IMM Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Sandra; McCumber, Stacey; Dahlstrom, W. Grant

    1999-01-01

    Cross-validated the IMM scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescents (MMPI-A), a measure of ego level, with 151 college students. Means and standard deviations were obtained on IMM scale from the MMPI-A and another MMPI version for males and females. (SLD)

  17. Cross-Validation of the Risk Matrix 2000 Sexual and Violent Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Leam A.; Beech, Anthony; Browne, Kevin D.

    2006-01-01

    The predictive accuracy of the newly developed actuarial risk measures Risk Matrix 2000 Sexual/Violence (RMS, RMV) were cross validated and compared with two risk assessment measures (SVR-20 and Static-99) in a sample of sexual (n = 85) and nonsex violent (n = 46) offenders. The sexual offense reconviction rate for the sex offender group was 18%…

  18. Cross-validation and calibration of Jackson-Pollock equations with DXA: the TIGER study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Jackson-Pollock (J&P) body composition equations were developed primarily from data on white men and women using hydrostatically determined body density (BD) as the criterion measure. This study cross-validated the J&P equations with ethnically diverse subjects and percent fat (%fat) determined ...

  19. Cross-Validation of FITNESSGRAM® Health-Related Fitness Standards in Hungarian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to cross-validate FITNESSGRAM® aerobic and body composition standards in a representative sample of Hungarian youth. Method: A nationally representative sample (N = 405) of Hungarian adolescents from the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study (ages 12-18.9 years) participated in an aerobic capacity assessment…

  20. Important Literature in Endocrinology: Citation Analysis and Historial Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a study comparing two approaches to the identification of important literature in endocrinology reveals that association between ranking of cited items using the two methods is not statistically significant and use of citation or historical analysis alone will not result in same set of literature. Forty-two sources are appended. (EJS)

  1. Gender Differences in Leadership Style: A Literature Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clisbee, Mary

    2005-01-01

    This analysis of literature explores gender differences in leadership style. As greater numbers of women enter the ranks of leadership and more research is conducted, contradictory findings emerged. Using the qualitative software program Nvivo version 1.2, 36 pieces of qualitative, quantitative, and popular culture literature were summarized,…

  2. Automation literature: A brief review and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D.; Dieterly, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Current thought and research positions which may allow for an improved capability to understand the impact of introducing automation to an existing system are established. The orientation was toward the type of studies which may provide some general insight into automation; specifically, the impact of automation in human performance and the resulting system performance. While an extensive number of articles were reviewed, only those that addressed the issue of automation and human performance were selected to be discussed. The literature is organized along two dimensions: time, Pre-1970, Post-1970; and type of approach, Engineering or Behavioral Science. The conclusions reached are not definitive, but do provide the initial stepping stones in an attempt to begin to bridge the concept of automation in a systematic progression.

  3. Community resilience assessment and literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Weiner, John M; Walsh, John J

    2015-01-01

    Earlier and current disaster-related research emphasised the sociological/behavioural perspective. This led to a significant amount of literature devoted to descriptive context of natural, man-made and technological disasters and sequelae. This paper considers a next step involving a more expanded approach in research methodology. The phases include: (1) the development of a comprehensive database of ideas provided by authors of scholarly and scientific papers; (2) the development of computer-supported algorithms to prepare an array of scenarios representing relationships, gaps and inconsistencies in existing knowledge; (3) a process for evaluating the scenarios to determine a feasible and interesting next research strategy or programmatic action that will provide enhanced description of the problems as well as possible insights to their correction by interventions. The intent is to develop interventions as an essential component for better prevention, mitigation, rehabilitation, reconstruction and problem-solving affected by disaster events. To illustrate this approach, community resilience, a relatively new and important idea was studied. The phrase was used to describe relationships and omissions. The ideas associated with this central idea were considered in the building of a new instrument for evaluation of community vulnerability and readiness. This methodology addresses the time constraints realised by practitioners and investigators. The methods should eliminate tedious, clerical functions and focus on the intellectual functions representing optimal use of human energy. PMID:26420398

  4. A Bibliometric Analysis of Certain Information Science Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Joseph C.

    1972-01-01

    Several bibliometric techniques previously applied to separate scientific literatures were used together in the analysis of a single corpus of journal articles relating to information science. Techniques included were: Bradford Analysis, epidemic analysis, identification of research front, and bibliographic coupling. (16 references) (Author)

  5. Methodology Review: Estimation of Population Validity and Cross-Validity, and the Use of Equal Weights in Prediction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nambury S.; Bilgic, Reyhan; Edwards, Jack E.; Fleer, Paul F.

    1997-01-01

    This review finds that formula-based procedures can be used in place of empirical validation for estimating population validity or in place of empirical cross-validation for estimating population cross-validity. Discusses conditions under which the equal weights procedure is a viable alternative. (SLD)

  6. Cross-Validation of easyCBM Reading Cut Scores in Oregon: 2009-2010. Technical Report #1108

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    This technical report presents results from a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut scores when using easyCBM[R] reading tests in Oregon. The cross-validation study analyzes data from the 2009-2010 academic year for easyCBM[R] reading measures. A sample of approximately 2,000 students per grade, randomly split into two groups of…

  7. A Pattern Analysis of Gene Conversion Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Mark J.; Jiao, Jian; Fan, Weiguo; Zhang, Liqing

    2009-01-01

    Gene conversion is an important biological process that involves the transfer of genetic (sequence) information from one gene to another. This can have a variety of effects on an organism, both short-term and long-term and both positive and detrimental. In an effort to better understand this process, we searched through over 3,000 abstracts that contain research on gene conversions, tagging the important data and performing an analysis on what we extract. Through this we established trends that give a better insight into gene conversion research and genetic research in general. Our results show the importance of the process and the importance of continuing gene conversion research. PMID:20148076

  8. Standardization and cross validation of alloreactive IFNγ ELISPOT assays within the clinical trials in organ transplantation consortium.

    PubMed

    Ashoor, I; Najafian, N; Korin, Y; Reed, E F; Mohanakumar, T; Ikle, D; Heeger, P S; Lin, M

    2013-07-01

    Emerging evidence indicates memory donor-reactive T cells are detrimental to transplant outcome and that quantifying the frequency of IFNγ-producing, donor-reactive PBMCs by ELISPOT has potential utility as an immune monitoring tool. Nonetheless, differences in assay performance among laboratories limit the ability to compare results. In an effort to standardize assays, we prepared a panel of common cellular reagent standards, developed and cross validated a standard operating procedure (SOP) for alloreactive IFNγ ELISPOT assays in several research laboratories supported by the NIH-funded Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation (CTOT) Consortium. We demonstrate that strict adherence to the SOP and centralized data analysis results in high reproducibility with a coefficient of variance (CV) of ≈ 30%. This standardization of IFNγ ELISPOT assay will facilitate interpretation of data from multicenter transplantation research studies and provide the foundation for developing clinical laboratory testing strategies to guide therapeutic decision-making in transplant patients. PMID:23710568

  9. A universal approximate cross-validation criterion for regular risk functions.

    PubMed

    Commenges, Daniel; Proust-Lima, Cécile; Samieri, Cécilia; Liquet, Benoit

    2015-05-01

    Selection of estimators is an essential task in modeling. A general framework is that the estimators of a distribution are obtained by minimizing a function (the estimating function) and assessed using another function (the assessment function). A classical case is that both functions estimate an information risk (specifically cross-entropy); this corresponds to using maximum likelihood estimators and assessing them by Akaike information criterion (AIC). In more general cases, the assessment risk can be estimated by leave-one-out cross-validation. Since leave-one-out cross-validation is computationally very demanding, we propose in this paper a universal approximate cross-validation criterion under regularity conditions (UACVR). This criterion can be adapted to different types of estimators, including penalized likelihood and maximum a posteriori estimators, and also to different assessment risk functions, including information risk functions and continuous rank probability score (CRPS). UACVR reduces to Takeuchi information criterion (TIC) when cross-entropy is the risk for both estimation and assessment. We provide the asymptotic distributions of UACVR and of a difference of UACVR values for two estimators. We validate UACVR using simulations and provide an illustration on real data both in the psychometric context where estimators of the distributions of ordered categorical data derived from threshold models and models based on continuous approximations are compared. PMID:25849800

  10. Cancer Nursing Education: Literature Review and Documentary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Helen; Blunden, Gillian; Hek, Gill

    The knowledge and skills needed by cancer nurses and the content and strategies of England's existing cancer nursing education programs were examined. The study included a comprehensive literature review and an analysis of course documents from selected English National Board-approved post-qualifying cancer nursing and palliative care courses…

  11. Free kick instead of cross-validation in maximum-likelihood refinement of macromolecular crystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pražnikar, Jure; Turk, Dušan

    2014-12-01

    The maximum-likelihood free-kick target, which calculates model error estimates from the work set and a randomly displaced model, proved superior in the accuracy and consistency of refinement of crystal structures compared with the maximum-likelihood cross-validation target, which calculates error estimates from the test set and the unperturbed model. The refinement of a molecular model is a computational procedure by which the atomic model is fitted to the diffraction data. The commonly used target in the refinement of macromolecular structures is the maximum-likelihood (ML) function, which relies on the assessment of model errors. The current ML functions rely on cross-validation. They utilize phase-error estimates that are calculated from a small fraction of diffraction data, called the test set, that are not used to fit the model. An approach has been developed that uses the work set to calculate the phase-error estimates in the ML refinement from simulating the model errors via the random displacement of atomic coordinates. It is called ML free-kick refinement as it uses the ML formulation of the target function and is based on the idea of freeing the model from the model bias imposed by the chemical energy restraints used in refinement. This approach for the calculation of error estimates is superior to the cross-validation approach: it reduces the phase error and increases the accuracy of molecular models, is more robust, provides clearer maps and may use a smaller portion of data for the test set for the calculation of R{sub free} or may leave it out completely.

  12. Variational cross-validation of slow dynamical modes in molecular kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Vijay S.

    2015-01-01

    Markov state models are a widely used method for approximating the eigenspectrum of the molecular dynamics propagator, yielding insight into the long-timescale statistical kinetics and slow dynamical modes of biomolecular systems. However, the lack of a unified theoretical framework for choosing between alternative models has hampered progress, especially for non-experts applying these methods to novel biological systems. Here, we consider cross-validation with a new objective function for estimators of these slow dynamical modes, a generalized matrix Rayleigh quotient (GMRQ), which measures the ability of a rank-m projection operator to capture the slow subspace of the system. It is shown that a variational theorem bounds the GMRQ from above by the sum of the first m eigenvalues of the system’s propagator, but that this bound can be violated when the requisite matrix elements are estimated subject to statistical uncertainty. This overfitting can be detected and avoided through cross-validation. These result make it possible to construct Markov state models for protein dynamics in a way that appropriately captures the tradeoff between systematic and statistical errors. PMID:25833563

  13. Analysis of recent patent literature on drying and dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Mujumdar, A.S.; Wu, J.

    2000-05-01

    A preliminary semi-quantitative analysis is made of the recent patent literature related to drying and dryers. US patents granted in the period January 1998 to June 1999 were examined. For this preliminary study, only the abstracts were used to classify the patents by subject area and arrive at some general conclusions. An in-depth overview covering a larger database and full texts of the patents is required to confirm the results presented.

  14. Recent literature on structural modeling, identification, and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roy R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The literature on the mathematical modeling of large space structures is first reviewed, with attention given to continuum models, model order reduction, substructuring, and computational techniques. System identification and mode verification are then discussed with reference to the verification of mathematical models of large space structures. In connection with analysis, the paper surveys recent research on eigensolvers and dynamic response solvers for large-order finite-element-based models.

  15. Longitudinal analysis of meta-analysis literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Changtai; Jiang, Ting; Cao, Hao; Sun, Wenguang; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    The meta-analysis is regarded as an important evidence for making scientific decision. The database of ISI Web of Science collected a great number of high quality literatures including meta-analysis literatures. However, it is significant to understand the general characteristics of meta-analysis literatures to outline the perspective of meta-analysis. In this present study, we summarized and clarified some features on these literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science. We retrieved the meta-analysis literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science including SCI-E, SSCI, A&HCI, CPCI-S, CPCI-SSH, CCR-E, and IC. The annual growth rate, literature category, language, funding, index citation, agencies and countries/territories of the meta-analysis literatures were analyzed, respectively. A total of 95,719 records, which account for 0.38% (99% CI: 0.38%-0.39%) of all literatures, were found in the database. From 1997 to 2012, the annual growth rate of meta-analysis literatures was 18.18%. The literatures involved in many categories, languages, fundings, citations, publication agencies, and countries/territories. Interestingly, the index citation frequencies of the meta-analysis were significantly higher than that of other type literatures such as multi-centre study, randomize controlled trial, cohort study, case control study, and cases report (P<0.0001). The increasing numbers, intensively global influence and high citations revealed that the meta-analysis has been becoming more and more prominent in recent years. In future, in order to promote the validity of meta-analysis, the CONSORT and PRISMA standard should be continuously popularized in the field of evidence-based medicine. PMID:26064249

  16. Applicability of Monte Carlo cross validation technique for model development and validation using generalised least squares regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Khaled; Rahman, Ataur; A Zaman, Mohammad; Shrestha, Surendra

    2013-03-01

    SummaryIn regional hydrologic regression analysis, model selection and validation are regarded as important steps. Here, the model selection is usually based on some measurements of goodness-of-fit between the model prediction and observed data. In Regional Flood Frequency Analysis (RFFA), leave-one-out (LOO) validation or a fixed percentage leave out validation (e.g., 10%) is commonly adopted to assess the predictive ability of regression-based prediction equations. This paper develops a Monte Carlo Cross Validation (MCCV) technique (which has widely been adopted in Chemometrics and Econometrics) in RFFA using Generalised Least Squares Regression (GLSR) and compares it with the most commonly adopted LOO validation approach. The study uses simulated and regional flood data from the state of New South Wales in Australia. It is found that when developing hydrologic regression models, application of the MCCV is likely to result in a more parsimonious model than the LOO. It has also been found that the MCCV can provide a more realistic estimate of a model's predictive ability when compared with the LOO.

  17. The Bibliometric Analysis Of Literature On Museum Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, C. W.; Yang, Y. H.

    2015-08-01

    Museum studies, is the study of museums, museum curation, and how and why museums developed into their institutional role in education and culture through scientific, social, political and other related forces. The purpose of this study is to shed light on the application trends of the international literature related to museum studies on the SCIE, SSCI, and AHCI databases between 1995 and 2014 using a bibliometric technique and citation analysis. The results of this study reveal that influences of the literature related to museum studies on other subject areas continue to expand. Considering the publication of major countries, subject areas, journal and institutions, the results also discussed that the future trend through analysing most cited articles. Moreover, 12 core journal lists are identified by Bradford's law.

  18. A cross-validation of two differing measures of hypnotic depth.

    PubMed

    Pekala, Ronald J; Maurer, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    Several sets of regression analyses were completed, attempting to predict 2 measures of hypnotic depth: the self-reported hypnotic depth score and hypnoidal state score from variables of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory: Hypnotic Assessment Procedure (PCI-HAP). When attempting to predict self-reported hypnotic depth, an R of .78 with Study 1 participants shrank to an r of .72 with Study 2 participants, suggesting mild shrinkage for this more attributional measure of hypnotic depth. Attempting to predict hypnoidal state (an estimate of trance) using the same procedure, yielded an R of .56, that upon cross-validation shrank to an r of .48. These and other results suggest that, although there is some variance in common, the self-reported hypnotic depth score appears to be tapping a different construct from the hypnoidal state score. PMID:23153387

  19. Error criteria for cross validation in the context of chaotic time series prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Teck Por; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan

    2006-03-01

    The prediction of a chaotic time series over a long horizon is commonly done by iterating one-step-ahead prediction. Prediction can be implemented using machine learning methods, such as radial basis function networks. Typically, cross validation is used to select prediction models based on mean squared error. The bias-variance dilemma dictates that there is an inevitable tradeoff between bias and variance. However, invariants of chaotic systems are unchanged by linear transformations; thus, the bias component may be irrelevant to model selection in the context of chaotic time series prediction. Hence, the use of error variance for model selection, instead of mean squared error, is examined. Clipping is introduced, as a simple way to stabilize iterated predictions. It is shown that using the error variance for model selection, in combination with clipping, may result in better models.

  20. Efficient generalized cross-validation with applications to parametric image restoration and resolution enhancement.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, N; Milanfar, P; Golub, G

    2001-01-01

    In many image restoration/resolution enhancement applications, the blurring process, i.e., point spread function (PSF) of the imaging system, is not known or is known only to within a set of parameters. We estimate these PSF parameters for this ill-posed class of inverse problem from raw data, along with the regularization parameters required to stabilize the solution, using the generalized cross-validation method (GCV). We propose efficient approximation techniques based on the Lanczos algorithm and Gauss quadrature theory, reducing the computational complexity of the GCV. Data-driven PSF and regularization parameter estimation experiments with synthetic and real image sequences are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method. PMID:18255545

  1. Fit-for-purpose bioanalytical cross-validation for LC-MS/MS assays in clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ji, Qin C; Jemal, Mohammed; Gleason, Carol; Shen, Jim X; Stouffer, Bruce; Arnold, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm shift of globalized research and conducting clinical studies at different geographic locations worldwide to access broader patient populations has resulted in increased need of correlating bioanalytical results generated in multiple laboratories, often across national borders. Cross-validations of bioanalytical methods are often implemented to assure the equivalency of the bioanalytical results is demonstrated. Regulatory agencies, such as the US FDA and European Medicines Agency, have included the requirement of cross-validations in their respective bioanalytical validation guidance and guidelines. While those documents provide high-level expectations, the detailed implementation is at the discretion of each individual organization. At Bristol-Myers Squibb, we practice a fit-for-purpose approach for conducting cross-validations for small-molecule bioanalytical methods using LC-MS/MS. A step-by-step proposal on the overall strategy, procedures and technical details for conducting a successful cross-validation is presented herein. A case study utilizing the proposed cross-validation approach to rule out method variability as the potential cause for high variance observed in PK studies is also presented. PMID:23256474

  2. Acceptance of dying: a discourse analysis of palliative care literature.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2012-07-01

    The subject of death denial in the West has been examined extensively in the sociological literature. However, there has not been a similar examination of its "opposite", the acceptance of death. In this study, I use the qualitative method of discourse analysis to examine the use of the term "acceptance" of dying in the palliative care literature from 1970 to 2001. A Medline search was performed by combining the text words "accept or acceptance" with the subject headings "terminal care or palliative care or hospice care", and restricting the search to English language articles in clinical journals discussing acceptance of death in adults. The 40 articles were coded and analysed using a critical discourse analysis method. This paper focuses on the theme of acceptance as integral to palliative care, which had subthemes of acceptance as a goal of care, personal acceptance of healthcare workers, and acceptance as a facilitator of care. For patients and families, death acceptance is a goal that they can be helped to attain; for palliative care staff, acceptance of dying is a personal quality that is a precondition for effective practice. Acceptance not only facilitates the dying process for the patient and family, but also renders care easier. The analysis investigates the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts. From a Foucauldian perspective, I suggest that the discourse on acceptance of dying represents a productive power, which disciplines patients through apparent psychological and spiritual gratification, and encourages participation in a certain way to die. PMID:22513246

  3. Overdiagnosis of Bipolar Disorder: A Critical Analysis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ghouse, Amna A.; Sanches, Marsal; Zunta-Soares, Giovana; Swann, Alan C.; Soares, Jair C.

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is considered one of the most disabling mental conditions, with high rates of morbidity, disability, and premature death from suicide. Although BD is often misdiagnosed as major depressive disorder, some attention has recently been drawn to the possibility that BD could be overdiagnosed in some settings. The present paper focuses on a critical analysis of the overdiagnosis issue among bipolar patients. It includes a review of the available literature findings, followed by some recommendations aiming at optimizing the diagnosis of BD and increasing its reliability. PMID:24348150

  4. Parallel processing of chemical information in a local area network--II. A parallel cross-validation procedure for artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Derks, E P; Beckers, M L; Melssen, W J; Buydens, L M

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a parallel cross-validation (PCV) procedure, for testing the predictive ability of multi-layer feed-forward (MLF) neural networks models, trained by the generalized delta learning rule. The PCV program has been parallelized to operate in a local area computer network. Development and execution of the parallel application was aided by the HYDRA programming environment, which is extensively described in Part I of this paper. A brief theoretical introduction on MLF networks is given and the problems, associated with the validation of predictive abilities, will be discussed. Furthermore, this paper comprises a general outline of the PCV program. Finally, the parallel PCV application is used to validate the predictive ability of an MLF network modeling a chemical non-linear function approximation problem which is described extensively in the literature. PMID:8799999

  5. The next generation of literature analysis: integration of genomic analysis into text mining.

    PubMed

    Scherf, Matthias; Epple, Anton; Werner, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    Text-mining systems are indispensable tools to reduce the increasing flux of information in scientific literature to topics pertinent to a particular interest in focus. Most of the scientific literature is published as unstructured free text, complicating the development of data processing tools, which rely on structured information. To overcome the problems of free text analysis, structured, hand-curated information derived from literature is integrated in text-mining systems to improve precision and recall. In this paper several text-mining approaches are reviewed and the next step in development of text-mining systems, which is based on a concept of multiple lines of evidence, is described: results from literature analysis are combined with evidence from experiments and genome analysis to improve the accuracy of results and to generate additional knowledge beyond what is known solely from literature. PMID:16212776

  6. The German Bight: Preparing for Sentinel-3 wit a Cross Validation of SAR and PLRM CryoSat-2 Altimeter Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Buchhaupt, C.; Dinardo, S.; Scharroo, R.; Benveniste, J.; Becker, M.

    2015-12-01

    As preparatory work for Sentinel-3, we retrieve the three geophysical parameters: sea surface height (SSH), significant wave height (SWH) and wind speed at 10 meters height (U10) from CryoSat-2 data in our validation region in North Sea. The CryoSat-2 SAR echoes are processed with a coherent and an incoherent processing to generate SAR and PLRM data respectively. We derive precision and accuracy at 1 Hz in open ocean, at distances larger than 10 kilometres from the coast. A cross-validation of the SAR and PLRM altimeter data is performed to investigate the differences between the products. Look Up Tables (LUT) are applied in both schemes to correct for approximations applied in both retracking procedures. Additionally a numerical retracker is used in PLRM. The results are validated against in-situ and model data. The analysis is performed for a period of four years, from July 2010 to May 2014. The regional cross-validation analysis confirms the good consistency between PLRM and SAR data. Using LUT the agreement for the sea wave heights increases by 10%.

  7. Credible Intervals for Precision and Recall Based on a K-Fold Cross-Validated Beta Distribution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Li, Jihong

    2016-08-01

    In typical machine learning applications such as information retrieval, precision and recall are two commonly used measures for assessing an algorithm's performance. Symmetrical confidence intervals based on K-fold cross-validated t distributions are widely used for the inference of precision and recall measures. As we confirmed through simulated experiments, however, these confidence intervals often exhibit lower degrees of confidence, which may easily lead to liberal inference results. Thus, it is crucial to construct faithful confidence (credible) intervals for precision and recall with a high degree of confidence and a short interval length. In this study, we propose two posterior credible intervals for precision and recall based on K-fold cross-validated beta distributions. The first credible interval for precision (or recall) is constructed based on the beta posterior distribution inferred by all K data sets corresponding to K confusion matrices from a K-fold cross-validation. Second, considering that each data set corresponding to a confusion matrix from a K-fold cross-validation can be used to infer a beta posterior distribution of precision (or recall), the second proposed credible interval for precision (or recall) is constructed based on the average of K beta posterior distributions. Experimental results on simulated and real data sets demonstrate that the first credible interval proposed in this study almost always resulted in degrees of confidence greater than 95%. With an acceptable degree of confidence, both of our two proposed credible intervals have shorter interval lengths than those based on a corrected K-fold cross-validated t distribution. Meanwhile, the average ranks of these two credible intervals are superior to that of the confidence interval based on a K-fold cross-validated t distribution for the degree of confidence and are superior to that of the confidence interval based on a corrected K-fold cross-validated t distribution for the

  8. Inversion of velocity map ion images using iterative regularization and cross validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renth, F.; Riedel, J.; Temps, F.

    2006-03-01

    Two methods for improved inversion of velocity map images are presented. Both schemes use two-dimensional basis functions to perform the iteratively regularized inversion of the imaging equation in matrix form. The quality of the reconstructions is improved by taking into account the constraints that are derived from prior knowledge about the experimental data, such as non-negativity and noise statistics, using (i) the projected Landweber [Am. J. Math. 73, 615 (1951)] and (ii) the Richardson-Lucy [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 55 (1972); Astron. J. 79, 745 (1974)] algorithms. It is shown that the optimum iteration count, which plays the role of a regularization parameter, can be determined by partitioning the image into quarters or halves and a subsequent cross validation of the inversion results. The methods are tested with various synthetic velocity map images and with velocity map images of the H-atom fragments produced in the photodissociation of HBr at λ =243.1nm using a (2+1) resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) detection scheme. The versatility of the method, which is only determined by the choice of basis functions, is exploited to take into account the photoelectron recoil that leads to a splitting and broadening of the velocity distribution in the two product channels, and to successfully reconstruct the deconvolved velocity distribution. The methods can also be applied to the cases where higher order terms in the Legendre expansion of the angular distribution are present.

  9. Approximate l-fold cross-validation with Least Squares SVM and Kernel Ridge Regression

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Richard E; Zhang, Hao; Parker, Lynne Edwards; New, Joshua Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Kernel methods have difficulties scaling to large modern data sets. The scalability issues are based on computational and memory requirements for working with a large matrix. These requirements have been addressed over the years by using low-rank kernel approximations or by improving the solvers scalability. However, Least Squares Support VectorMachines (LS-SVM), a popular SVM variant, and Kernel Ridge Regression still have several scalability issues. In particular, the O(n^3) computational complexity for solving a single model, and the overall computational complexity associated with tuning hyperparameters are still major problems. We address these problems by introducing an O(n log n) approximate l-fold cross-validation method that uses a multi-level circulant matrix to approximate the kernel. In addition, we prove our algorithm s computational complexity and present empirical runtimes on data sets with approximately 1 million data points. We also validate our approximate method s effectiveness at selecting hyperparameters on real world and standard benchmark data sets. Lastly, we provide experimental results on using a multi-level circulant kernel approximation to solve LS-SVM problems with hyperparameters selected using our method.

  10. How Nonrecidivism Affects Predictive Accuracy: Evidence from a Cross-Validation of the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, N. Zoe; Harris, Grant T.

    2009-01-01

    Prediction effect sizes such as ROC area are important for demonstrating a risk assessment's generalizability and utility. How a study defines recidivism might affect predictive accuracy. Nonrecidivism is problematic when predicting specialized violence (e.g., domestic violence). The present study cross-validates the ability of the Ontario…

  11. A Cross-Validation of easyCBM[R] Mathematics Cut Scores in Oregon: 2009-2010. Technical Report #1104

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    In this technical report, we document the results of a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut-scores for the use of the easyCBM[R] mathematics test in Oregon. A large sample, randomly split into two groups of roughly equal size, was used for this study. Students' performance classification on the Oregon state test was used as the…

  12. Cross-Validating Measures of Technology Integration: A First Step toward Examining Potential Relationships between Technology Integration and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Robert; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    The use of proper measurements of diffusion of information technology as an innovation are essential to determining if progress is being made in state, regional, and national level programs. This project provides a national level cross validation study of several instruments commonly used to assess the effectiveness of technology integration in…

  13. A Cross-Validation of Paulson's Discriminant Function-Derived Scales for Identifying "At Risk" Child-Abusive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Don; And Others

    1984-01-01

    When the six scales were cross-validated on an independent sample from the population of child-abusing parents, significant shrinkage in the accuracy of prediction was found. The use of the special subscales for identifying "at risk" parents in prenatal clinics, pediatric clinics, and mental health centers as originally suggested by Paulson and…

  14. Estimating the Coefficient of Cross-validity in Multiple Regression: A Comparison of Analytical and Empirical Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Hines, Constance V.

    1996-01-01

    The accuracy of three analytical formulas for shrinkage estimation and four empirical techniques were investigated in a Monte Carlo study of the coefficient of cross-validity in multiple regression. Substantial statistical bias was evident for all techniques except the formula of M. W. Brown (1975) and multicross-validation. (SLD)

  15. Population Validity and Cross-Validity: Applications of Distribution Theory for Testing Hypotheses, Setting Confidence Intervals, and Determining Sample Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algina, James; Keselman, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Applications of distribution theory for the squared multiple correlation coefficient and the squared cross-validation coefficient are reviewed, and computer programs for these applications are made available. The applications include confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, and sample size selection. (Contains 2 tables.)

  16. [Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus oral Chinese patent medicine literature metrology analysis].

    PubMed

    Cui, Tong-hua; Li, Yuan-yuan

    2012-09-01

    The CBM, CNKI database 1979-2012 included oral Chinese patent medicine treatment diabetes literature, and the literature published time, periodical distribution, sources of literature and statistical analysis, to explore the treatment of type 2 diabetes medicine clinical literature distribution law and development trend, as in diabetes research related to the clinical and scientific research personnel to provide reference. PMID:23236770

  17. Issues in benchmarking human reliability analysis methods : a literature review.

    SciTech Connect

    Lois, Erasmia; Forester, John Alan; Tran, Tuan Q.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Boring, Ronald L.

    2008-04-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study is currently underway that compares HRA methods with each other and against operator performance in simulator studies. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  18. Issues in Benchmarking Human Reliability Analysis Methods: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; John A. Forester; Tuan Q. Tran; Erasmia Lois

    2010-06-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessments (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study comparing and evaluating HRA methods in assessing operator performance in simulator experiments is currently underway. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  19. Computing fuzzy associations for the analysis of biological literature.

    PubMed

    Perez-Iratxeta, Carolina; Keer, Harindar S; Bork, Peer; Andrade, Miguel A

    2002-06-01

    The increase of information in biology makes it difficult for researchers in any field to keep current with the literature. The MEDLINE database of scientific abstracts can be quickly scanned using electronic mechanisms. Potentially interesting abstracts can be selected by matching words joined by Boolean operators. However this means of selecting documents is not optimal. Nonspecific queries have to be effected, resulting in large numbers of irrelevant abstracts that have to be manually scanned To facilitate this analysis, we have developed a system that compiles a summary of subjects and related documents on the results of a MEDLINE query. For this, we have applied a fuzzy binary relation formalism that deduces relations between words present in a set of abstracts preprocessed with a standard grammatical tagger. Those relations are used to derive ensembles of related words and their associated subsets of abstracts. The algorithm can be used publicly at http:// www.bork.embl-heidelberg.de/xplormed/. PMID:12074170

  20. Ageism in Literature. An Analysis Kit for Teachers and Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Anita E.; Hause, Judith B.

    This kit contains two components which will help teachers and librarians become aware of the problems of ageism in literature and examine materials currently in use. The first component, entitled "Problems of Ageism in Literature," is a brief, but comprehensive, position paper on the particular ways in which literature may adversely affect the…

  1. Initial Factor Analysis and Cross-Validation of the Multicultural Teaching Competencies Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Loreto R.

    2012-01-01

    The Multicultural Teaching Competencies Inventory (MTCI) contains items based on the tri-parte model of cultural competencies established by Sue and associates (Sue et al., 1992, 1982, 2003) that identify multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skill as central characteristics of a culturally sensitive professional. The development and validation…

  2. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Assessment for Living and Learning Scale: A Cross-Validation Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzine, Gypsy M.; Kowalski, Gerard J.

    2002-01-01

    The Assessment for Living and Learning (ALL; G.M. Denzine, 1994, 1996) measures college students' perceptions of the academic climate in their residence hall. Confirmatory factor analyses results reveal that the data did not provide an adequate fit to the measurement model underlying the ALL. A revised model was tested and is recommended for use.…

  3. Meta-analysis of ionic liquid literature and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Heckenbach, Mary E; Romero, Felicia N; Green, Matthew D; Halden, Rolf U

    2016-05-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the total amount of ionic liquid (IL) literature (n = 39,036) to the body of publications dealing with IL toxicity (n = 213) with the goal of establishing the state of knowledge and existing information gaps. Additionally, patent literature pertaining to issued patents utilizing ILs (n = 3358) or dealing with IL toxicity (n = 112) were analyzed. Total publishing activity and patent count served to gauge research activity, industrial usage and toxicology knowledge of ILs. Five of the most commonly studied IL cations were identified and used to establish a relationship between toxicity data and potential of commercial use: imidazolium, ammonium, phosphonium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidinium. Toxicology publications for all IL cations represented 0.55% ± 0.27% of the total publishing activity; compared with other industrial chemicals, these numbers indicate that there is still a paucity of studies on the adverse effects of this class of chemical. Toxicity studies on ILs were dominated by the use of in vitro models (18%) and marine bacteria (15%) as studied biological systems. Whole animal studies (n = 87) comprised 31% of IL toxicity studies, with a subset of in vivo mammalian models consisting of 8%. Human toxicology data were found to be limited to in vitro analyses, indicating substantial knowledge gaps. Risks from long-term and chronic low-level exposure to ILs have not been established yet for any model organisms, reemphasizing the need to fill crucial knowledge gaps concerning human health effects and the environmental safety of ILs. Adding to the existing knowledge of the molecular toxicity characteristics of ILs can help inform the design of greener, less toxic and more benign IL technologies. PMID:26907595

  4. The brief cognitive assessment tool (BCAT): cross-validation in a community dwelling older adult sample.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Elizabeth E; Mansbach, William E; Clark, Kristen; Mace, Ryan A

    2014-08-13

    ABSTRACT Background: Cognitive impairment is underrecognized and misdiagnosed among community-dwelling older adults. At present, there is no consensus about which cognitive screening tool represents the "gold standard." However, one tool that shows promise is the Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool (BCAT), which was originally validated in an assisted living sample and contains a multi-level memory component (e.g. word lists and story recall items) and complex executive functions features (e.g. judgment, set-shifting, and problem-solving). Methods: The present study cross-validated the BCAT in a sample of 75 community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed a short battery of several individually administered cognitive tests, including the BCAT and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Using a very conservative MoCA cut score of <26, the base rate of cognitive impairment in this sample was 35%. Results: Adequate internal consistency and strong evidence of construct validity were found. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated from sensitivity and 1-specificity values for the classification of cognitively impaired versus cognitively unimpaired. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the BCAT was .90, p < 0.001, 95% CI [0.83, 0.97]. A BCAT cut-score of 45 (scores below 45 suggesting cognitive impairment) resulted in the best balance between sensitivity (0.81) and specificity (0.80). Conclusions: A BCAT cut-score can be used for identifying persons to be referred to appropriate healthcare professionals for more comprehensive cognitive assessment. In addition, guidelines are provided for clinicians to interpret separate BCAT memory and executive dysfunction component scores. PMID:25115580

  5. Cross-validation of a composite pain scale for preschool children within 24 hours of surgery.

    PubMed

    Suraseranivongse, S; Santawat, U; Kraiprasit, K; Petcharatana, S; Prakkamodom, S; Muntraporn, N

    2001-09-01

    This study was designed to cross-validate a composite measure of the pain scales CHEOPS (Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale), OPS (Objective Pain Scale, simplified for parent use by replacing blood pressure measurement with observation of body language or posture), TPPPS (Toddler Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale) and FLACC (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability) in 167 Thai children aged 1-5.5 yr. The pain scales were translated and tested for content, construct and concurrent validity, including inter-rater and intra-rater reliabilities. Discriminative validity in immediate and persistent pain for the age groups < or =3 and >3 yr were also studied. The children's behaviour was videotaped before and after surgery, before analgesia had been given in the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU), and on the ward. Four observers then rated pain behaviour from rearranged videotapes. The decision to treat pain was based on routine practice and was made by a researcher unaware of the rating procedure. All tools had acceptable content validity and excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliabilities (intraclass correlation >0.9 and >0.8 respectively). Construct validity was determined by the ability to differentiate the group with no pain before surgery and a high pain level after surgery, before analgesia (P<0.001). The positive correlations among all scales in the PACU and on the ward (r=0.621-0.827, P<0.0001) supported concurrent validity. Use of the kappa statistic indicated that CHEOPS yielded the best agreement with the routine decision to treat pain. The younger and older age groups both yielded very good agreement in the PACU but only moderate agreement on the ward. On the basis of data from this study, we recommend CHEOPS as a valid, reliable and practical tool. PMID:11517123

  6. Primary intramedullary neurocytoma: Case report and literature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Montano, Nicola; Di Bonaventura, Rina; Coli, Antonella; Fernandez, Eduardo; Meglio, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary intramedullary neurocytoma is extremely rare. Due to its rarity, it is difficult to collect a wide series in a single institution to perform a survival analysis and give indications about prognosis and treatment. Case Description: Here, we report on a case of a 37-year-old woman with primary intramedullary neurocytoma and perform a systematic statistical analysis of cases reported in the literature. Of 21 articles found, 15 studies and the present case (22 patients) were eligible for the analysis. We studied the impact of age, sex, number of involved levels (≤2 vs. >2), entity of resection, postoperative radiotherapy (RT), proliferation index (Ki67) on the neurological outcome of patients, and on the recurrence of the tumor. Comparison of categorical variables was performed by the χ2 statistic. The Kaplan–Meier curves were plotted to calculate the progression-free survival (PFS) of these patients. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The 1-year PFS was 95.45% and the 2-year PFS was 86.36%. A gross total resection was associated to a worsening of the neurological function with no impact on the tumor recurrence. Adjuvant RT significantly improved the neurological function. A lower Ki67 was strongly associated with a lower tumor recurrence. Conclusions: We think that the goal of the surgery should be to preserve a good neurological function even if a residual tumor has to be left. Ki67 should be always evaluated due to its impact on the prognosis. Although adjuvant RT significantly improved the neurological function, its role in preventing the tumor recurrence is not clearly defined. PMID:26673057

  7. Literature review of environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables: Literature analysis and appendices. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lofaro, R.; Bowerman, B.; Carbonaro, J.

    1996-04-01

    In support of the US NRC Environmental Qualification (EQ) Research Program, a literature review was performed to identify past relevant work that could be used to help fully or partially resolve issues of interest related to the qualification of low-voltage electric cable. A summary of the literature reviewed is documented in Volume 1 of this report. In this, Volume 2 of the report, dossiers are presented which document the issues selected for investigation in this program, along with recommendations for future work to resolve the issues, when necessary. The dossiers are based on an analysis of the literature reviewed, as well as expert opinions. This analysis includes a critical review of the information available from past and ongoing work in thirteen specific areas related to EQ. The analysis for each area focuses on one or more questions which must be answered to consider a particular issue resolved. Results of the analysis are presented, along with recommendations for future work. The analysis is documented in the form of a dossier for each of the areas analyzed.

  8. Models for Planning. Analysis of Literature and Selected Bibliography. Analysis and Bibliography Series, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    This review analyzes current research trends in the application of planning models to broad educational systems. Planning models reviewed include systems approach models, simulation models, operational gaming, linear programing, Markov chain analysis, dynamic programing, and queuing techniques. A 77-item bibliography of recent literature is…

  9. Embedded Performance Validity Measures with Postdeployment Veterans: Cross-Validation and Efficiency with Multiple Measures.

    PubMed

    Shura, Robert D; Miskey, Holly M; Rowland, Jared A; Yoash-Gantz, Ruth E; Denning, John H

    2016-01-01

    Embedded validity measures support comprehensive assessment of performance validity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of individual embedded measures and to reduce them to the most efficient combination. The sample included 212 postdeployment veterans (average age = 35 years, average education = 14 years). Thirty embedded measures were initially identified as predictors of Green's Word Memory Test (WMT) and were derived from the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), Conners' Continuous Performance Test-Second Edition (CPT-II), Trail Making Test, Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Letter-Number Sequencing, Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT), Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, and the Finger Tapping Test. Eight nonoverlapping measures with the highest area-under-the-curve (AUC) values were retained for entry into a logistic regression analysis. Embedded measure accuracy was also compared to cutoffs found in the existing literature. Twenty-one percent of the sample failed the WMT. Previously developed cutoffs for individual measures showed poor sensitivity (SN) in the current sample except for the CPT-II (Total Errors, SN = .41). The CVLT-II (Trials 1-5 Total) showed the best overall accuracy (AUC = .80). After redundant measures were statistically eliminated, the model included the RCFT (Recognition True Positives), CPT-II (Total Errors), and CVLT-II (Trials 1-5 Total) and increased overall accuracy compared with the CVLT-II alone (AUC = .87). The combination of just 3 measures from the CPT-II, CVLT-II, and RCFT was the most accurate/efficient in predicting WMT performance. PMID:26375185

  10. Qualitative Analysis Techniques for the Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we provide a framework for analyzing and interpreting sources that inform a literature review or, as it is more aptly called, a research synthesis. Specifically, using Leech and Onwuegbuzie's (2007, 2008) frameworks, we delineate how the following four major source types inform research syntheses: talk, observations,…

  11. An Analysis of Contemporary Literature on Strategy in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eacott, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, contemporary literature on strategy in education is examined in an integrative and analytical manner. To achieve this, an empirical investigation on strategy in education was undertaken. As the goal is to understand and propose specific research directions, the findings are both descriptive and analytical. Initially, peer reviewed…

  12. Research on Rural Veterans: An Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, William B.; Wallace, Amy E.; West, Alan N.; Heady, Hilda R.; Hawthorne, Kara

    2008-01-01

    Context: The Veterans Health Administration (VA) provides comprehensive health care services to veterans across the United States. Recently, the VA established an Office of Rural Health to address the health care needs of rural veterans. Purpose: To review the literature on rural veterans' health care needs in order to identify areas for future…

  13. British Literature: Discipline Analysis. Women in the Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Susan

    This essay examines the ways in which British literature, as a discipline, has been influenced by feminist scholarship and research into the areas of gender and sexuality. It reports that feminist literary criticism took definitive shape in the late 1960s as part of the women's liberation movement, and that a central concern of this first…

  14. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Teachers' Views on LGBT Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieble, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a thread of discussion posted to a web-based forum in the context of a children's literature course in one teacher education program in the USA. Participants in the virtual discussion include three preservice elementary teachers and the course instructor (author) on the subject of bringing lesbian, gay, bisexual and…

  15. The Adolescent Religious Coping Scale: Development, Validation, and Cross-Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorck, Jeffrey P.; Braese, Robert W.; Tadie, Joseph T.; Gililland, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Research literature on adolescent coping is growing, but typically such studies have ignored religious coping strategies and their potential impact on functioning. To address this lack, we developed the Adolescent Religious Coping Scale and used its seven subscales to examine the relationship between religious coping and emotional functioning. A…

  16. Citation analysis in the literature of tropical medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Brennen, P W; Davey, W P

    1978-01-01

    A brief historical account of tropical medicine as a science is given, followed by a short survey of the development of the literature in the field. The citations indexed in Tropical Diseases Bulletin for a forty-eight-month period (1972-1975) were analyzed according to the journal in which they were published and the language in which they appeared. The results of the study conformed to Bradford's law of bibliographic distribution. The reference scattering coefficient was determined to be 0.504, which indicated a high concentration of articles in relatively few journal titles. A rank order list of sixty-one journal titles is given in an appendix. The study showed English to be the most important language in the literature in terms of productivity. The results of the study may be used as an acquisition tool for developing a journal collection in tropical medicine. PMID:626794

  17. Vulnerabilities—bibliometric analysis and literature review of evolving concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giupponi, Carlo; Biscaro, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    In this work we analyse the evolution of the vulnerability concept in the research streams of climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR). We combine a traditional literature review with data mining procedures applied to bibliographic databases to reconstruct the history of the concept within various research topics, showing its evolution and convergences over time. To do that, we integrate different methods combining machine learning algorithms with network and cluster analyses to examine a set of 3757 articles, analysing their distinctive features and similarities on the basis of their contents as well as co-authorships. Bibliometric analyses enable the identification of different communities of articles, pinpointing key papers and authors, while literature review makes it possible to assess the concept of vulnerability evolved within and beyond research communities and scientific networks. Moreover, this work examines the role played by documents published by UN institutions (UNDRO, UNISDR, IPCC) in contributing to the evolution of vulnerability and related concepts. Results show that signs of convergence are evident between the two research streams, and that the IPCC reports have played a major role in proposing solutions for unifying definitions of vulnerability. We observe that the phases of preparation of the IPCC reports are very rich in methodological and terminological developments, while after publication, the literature shows evident signs of propagation of the proposed concepts. The DRR research stream developed before the research stream on CCA, but the latter flourished rapidly and became much larger in terms of number of publications. Nevertheless, in terms of contents, adaptation studies and the IPCC have shown increasing adoption of the concepts developed within the disaster research stream, in particular with regard to the interpretation of vulnerability as one of the dimensions of risk.

  18. An Investigation of Distance Education in North American Research Literature Using Co-Word Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Stewart, Michelle; Smith, Patryce; Barron, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    The field of distance education is composed of a multiplicity of topics leading to a vast array of research literature. However, the research does not provide a chronological picture of the topics it addresses, making it difficult to develop an overview of the evolution and trends in the literature. To address this issue, a co-word analysis was…

  19. The Secrets of Scheherazade: Toward a Functional Analysis of Imaginative Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lyle K.

    2005-01-01

    A functional analysis of selected aspects of imaginative literature is presented. Reading imaginative literature is described as a process in which the reader makes indirect contact with the contingencies operating on the behavior of story characters. A functional story grammar is proposed in which the reader's experience with a story is…

  20. The Wartegg Zeichen Test: A Literature Overview and a Meta-Analysis of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soilevuo Gronnerod, Jarna; Gronnerod, Cato

    2012-01-01

    All available studies on the Wartegg Zeichen Test (WZT; Wartegg, 1939) were collected and evaluated through a literature overview and a meta-analysis. The literature overview shows that the history of the WZT reflects the geographical and language-based processes of marginalization where relatively isolated traditions have lived and vanished in…

  1. Can Stylistic Analysis Help the EFL Learner to Read Literature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gower, Roger

    1986-01-01

    Discusses whether the methods of linguistic analysis can help students of English as a second language (ESL) as they struggle with a complex piece of creative writing. Argues that stylistic analysis, instead of aiding an ESL student's reading, actually impedes it because it is alien to the spirit in which persons read. (SED)

  2. Cross-Validation of Levenson's Psychopathy Scale in a Sample of Federal Female Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkley, Chad A.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.; Heigel, Caron P.

    2008-01-01

    Levenson, Kiehl, and Fitzpatrick's Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRPS) is evaluated to determine the factor structure and concurrent validity of the instrument among 430 federal female inmates. Confirmatory factor analysis fails to validate the expected 2-factor structure. Subsequent exploratory factor analysis reveals a 3-factor structure…

  3. Review and bibliometric analysis of published literature citing data produced by the Gap Analysis Program (GAP)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratz, Joan M.; Conk, Shannon J.

    2014-01-01

    The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produces geospatial datasets providing information on land cover, predicted species distributions, stewardship (ownership and conservation status), and an analysis dataset which synthesizes the other three datasets. The intent in providing these datasets is to support the conservation of biodiversity. The datasets are made available at no cost. The initial datasets were created at the state level. More recent datasets have been assembled at regional and national levels. GAP entered an agreement with the Policy Analysis and Science Assistance branch of the USGS to conduct an evaluation to describe the effect that using GAP data has on those who utilize the datasets (GAP users). The evaluation project included multiple components: a discussion regarding use of GAP data conducted with participants at a GAP conference, a literature review of publications that cited use of GAP data, and a survey of GAP users. The findings of the published literature search were used to identify topics to include on the survey. This report summarizes the literature search, the characteristics of the resulting set of publications, the emergent themes from statements made regarding GAP data, and a bibliometric analysis of the publications. We cannot claim that this list includes all publications that have used GAP data. Given the time lapse that is common in the publishing process, more recent datasets may be cited less frequently in this list of publications. Reports or products that used GAP data may be produced but never published in print or released online. In that case, our search strategies would not have located those reports. Authors may have used GAP data but failed to cite it in such a way that the search strategies we used would have located those publications. These are common issues when using a literature search as part of an evaluation project. Although the final list of publications we identified is not

  4. DYSMICROBISM, INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE AND THYROIDITIS: ANALYSIS OF THE LITERATURE.

    PubMed

    Tomasello, G; Tralongo, P; Amoroso, F; Damiani, P; Sinagra, E; Noto, M; Arculeo, V M; Jurjus Zein, R; Saad, W; Jurjus, A; Gerbino, A; Leone, A

    2015-01-01

    The human body is colonized by a large number of microbes that are collectively referred to as the microbiota. They interact with the hosting organism and some do contribute to the physiological maintenance of the general good health thru regulation of some metabolic processes while some others are essential for the synthesis of vitamins and short-chain fatty acids. The abnormal variation, in the quality and/or quantity of individual bacterial species residing in the gastro-intestinal tract, is called “dysmicrobism”. The immune system of the host will respond to these changes at the intestinal mucosa level which could lead to Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). This inflammatory immune response could subsequently extend to other organs and systems outside the digestive tract such as the thyroid, culminating in thyroiditis. The goal of the present study is to review and analyze data reported in the literature about thyroiditis associated with inflammatory bowel diseases such as Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn’s Disease (CD). It was reported that similarities of some molecular bacterial components with molecular components of the host are considered among the factors causing IBD through an autoimmune reaction which could involve other non-immune cell types. The axis dysmicrobism-IBD-autoimmune reaction will be investigated as a possible etiopathogenic mechanism to Autoimmune Thyroiditis. If such is the case, then the employment of specific probiotic strains may represent a useful approach to moderate the immune system. PMID:26122213

  5. Cross validation of gas chromatography-flame photometric detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods for measuring dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphate pesticides in human urine.

    PubMed

    Prapamontol, Tippawan; Sutan, Kunrunya; Laoyang, Sompong; Hongsibsong, Surat; Lee, Grace; Yano, Yukiko; Hunter, Ronald Elton; Ryan, P Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd; Panuwet, Parinya

    2014-01-01

    We report two analytical methods for the measurement of dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites of organophosphate pesticides in human urine. These methods were independently developed/modified and implemented in two separate laboratories and cross validated. The aim was to develop simple, cost effective, and reliable methods that could use available resources and sample matrices in Thailand and the United States. While several methods already exist, we found that direct application of these methods required modification of sample preparation and chromatographic conditions to render accurate, reliable data. The problems encountered with existing methods were attributable to urinary matrix interferences, and differences in the pH of urine samples and reagents used during the extraction and derivatization processes. Thus, we provide information on key parameters that require attention during method modification and execution that affect the ruggedness of the methods. The methods presented here employ gas chromatography (GC) coupled with either flame photometric detection (FPD) or electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry (EI-MS) with isotopic dilution quantification. The limits of detection were reported from 0.10ng/mL urine to 2.5ng/mL urine (for GC-FPD), while the limits of quantification were reported from 0.25ng/mL urine to 2.5ng/mL urine (for GC-MS), for all six common DAP metabolites (i.e., dimethylphosphate, dimethylthiophosphate, dimethyldithiophosphate, diethylphosphate, diethylthiophosphate, and diethyldithiophosphate). Each method showed a relative recovery range of 94-119% (for GC-FPD) and 92-103% (for GC-MS), and relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 20%. Cross-validation was performed on the same set of urine samples (n=46) collected from pregnant women residing in the agricultural areas of northern Thailand. The results from split sample analysis from both laboratories agreed well for each metabolite, suggesting that each method can produce

  6. A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis of the Social Stories Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Test, David W.; Richter, Sharon; Knight, Victoria; Spooner, Fred

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive review of Social Story[TM} literature included (a) a descriptive review, (b) an analysis of research quality, and (c) a meta-analysis using percentage of nonoverlapping data. In the review, 28 studies were included; 18 were included in the meta-analysis. Descriptive results highlighted information on participants, dependent…

  7. Software Engineering as Seen through Its Research Literature: A Study in Co-Word Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Neal; Monarch, Ira; Konda, Suresh

    1998-01-01

    This empirical research demonstrates the effectiveness of content analysis to map the research literature of the software engineering discipline. Co-word analysis, which is related to cocitation analysis, is used to identify associations among indexing terms from the AMC (Association for Computing Machinery) Computing Classification System and to…

  8. Demographic Faultlines: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatcher, Sherry M. B.; Patel, Pankaj C.

    2011-01-01

    We propose and test a theoretical model focusing on antecedents and consequences of demographic faultlines. We also posit contingencies that affect overall team dynamics in the context of demographic faultlines, such as the study setting and performance measurement. Using meta-analysis structural equation modeling with a final data set consisting…

  9. A Bibliometric Analysis of Marriage and Family Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Alan E.

    1982-01-01

    Demonstrated that several quantifiable characteristics of articles in the marriage and family area are substantially related to subsequent impact in the field, based on bibliometric citation analysis. Works published by the more eminent, highly cited scholars are more likely to be cited. Implications of these results are discussed. (Author)

  10. Apparent behaviour of charged and neutral materials with ellipsoidal fibre distributions and cross-validation of finite element implementations.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Thomas; Kelly, Daniel J

    2012-05-01

    Continuous fibre distribution models can be applied to a variety of biological tissues with both charged and neutral extracellular matrices. In particular, ellipsoidal models have been used to describe the complex material behaviour of tissues such as articular cartilage and their engineered tissue equivalents. The choice of material parameters is more difficult than in classical anisotropic models and the impact that changes to these parameters can have on the predictions of such models are poorly understood. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the apparent behaviour of this class of materials over a range of material parameters. We further introduce a scaling approach to overcome certain counter-intuitive aspects related to the choice of anisotropy parameters and outline the integration method used in our implementations. User material codes for the commercial FE software packages Abaqus and MSC Marc are provided for use by other investigators. Cross-validation of our code against similar implementations in FEBio is also presented. PMID:22498290

  11. Topology Analysis of Social Networks Extracted from Literature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In a world where complex networks are an increasingly important part of science, it is interesting to question how the new reading of social realities they provide applies to our cultural background and in particular, popular culture. Are authors of successful novels able to reproduce social networks faithful to the ones found in reality? Is there any common trend connecting an author’s oeuvre, or a genre of fiction? Such an analysis could provide new insight on how we, as a culture, perceive human interactions and consume media. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to define the signature of a novel’s story based on the topological analysis of its social network of characters. For this purpose, an automated tool was built that analyses the dialogs in novels, identifies characters and computes their relationships in a time-dependent manner in order to assess the network’s evolution over the course of the story. PMID:26039072

  12. Topology analysis of social networks extracted from literature.

    PubMed

    Waumans, Michaël C; Nicodème, Thibaut; Bersini, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    In a world where complex networks are an increasingly important part of science, it is interesting to question how the new reading of social realities they provide applies to our cultural background and in particular, popular culture. Are authors of successful novels able to reproduce social networks faithful to the ones found in reality? Is there any common trend connecting an author's oeuvre, or a genre of fiction? Such an analysis could provide new insight on how we, as a culture, perceive human interactions and consume media. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to define the signature of a novel's story based on the topological analysis of its social network of characters. For this purpose, an automated tool was built that analyses the dialogs in novels, identifies characters and computes their relationships in a time-dependent manner in order to assess the network's evolution over the course of the story. PMID:26039072

  13. Cross-Validation of the Norwegian Teacher's Self-Efficacy Scale (NTSES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avanzi, Lorenzo; Miglioretti, Massimo; Velasco, Veronica; Balducci, Cristian; Vecchio, Luca; Fraccaroli, Franco; Skaalvik, Einar M.

    2013-01-01

    The study assesses the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Norwegian Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale--NTSES. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis was used to explore the measurement invariance of the scale across two countries. Analyses performed on Italian and Norwegian samples confirmed a six-factor structure of the scale…

  14. "Hits" (Not "Discussion Posts") Predict Student Success in Online Courses: A Double Cross-Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Cheryl; Yudko, Errol

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of individual components of an online course on positive course outcome was examined via stepwise multiple regression analysis. Outcome was measured as the student's total score on all exams given during the course. The predictors were page hits, discussion posts, and discussion reads. The vast majority of the variance of outcome was…

  15. Repeated holdout Cross-Validation of Model to Estimate Risk of Lyme Disease by Landscape Attributes

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously modeled Lyme disease (LD) risk at the landscape scale; here we evaluate the model's overall goodness-of-fit using holdout validation. Landscapes were characterized within road-bounded analysis units (AU). Observed LD cases (obsLD) were ascertained per AU. Data were ...

  16. Summary measures for clinical gait analysis: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela

    2014-04-01

    Instrumented 3D-gait analysis (3D-GA) is an important method used to obtain information that is crucial for establishing the level of functional limitation due to pathology, observing its evolution over time and evaluating rehabilitative intervention effects. However, a typical 3D-GA evaluation produces a vast amount of data, and despite its objectivity, its use is complicated, and the data interpretation is difficult. It is even more difficult to obtain an overview on patient cohorts for a comparison. Moreover, there is a growing awareness of the need for a concise index, specifically, a single measure of the 'quality' of a particular gait pattern. Several gait summary measures, which have been used in conjunction with 3D-GA, have been proposed to objectify clinical impression, quantify the degree of gait deviation from normal, stratify the severity of pathology, document the changes in gait patterns over time and evaluate interventions. PMID:24613461

  17. Bilateral choroidal melanoma--case analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Joanna; Strzałka, Anna; Markiewicz, Anna; Romanowska-Dixon, Bożena; Bogdali, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular neoplasm in adults. Its bilateral localization is extremely rare. The aim of the paper is analysis of the cases of bilateral uveal melanoma. Five bilateral uveal melanoma patients were diagnosed in the Department of Ophtalmology and Ocular Oncology beetwen 1980 and 2014. Both eyes of four patients were threated with brachytherapy. Final enulcleation of the one eye was performed in three patients. It was the primary treatment in one patient. The presence of uveal melanoma was confirmed by pathological examination in all cases after surgical removal of eyeball and in one after local resection of iris tumor. Metastatic lesions were diagnosed in lungs and liver in two patients. Three patients are still followed-up at our institution. The possibility of bilateral uveal melanoma should considered although it is extremely rare. bilateral uveal melanoma, brachytherapy, enucleation. PMID:26638545

  18. Evidence cross-validation and Bayesian inference of MAST plasma equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Nessi, G. T.; Hole, M. J.; Svensson, J.; Appel, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, current profiles for plasma discharges on the mega-ampere spherical tokamak are directly calculated from pickup coil, flux loop, and motional-Stark effect observations via methods based in the statistical theory of Bayesian analysis. By representing toroidal plasma current as a series of axisymmetric current beams with rectangular cross-section and inferring the current for each one of these beams, flux-surface geometry and q-profiles are subsequently calculated by elementary application of Biot-Savart's law. The use of this plasma model in the context of Bayesian analysis was pioneered by Svensson and Werner on the joint-European tokamak [Svensson and Werner,Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50(8), 085002 (2008)]. In this framework, linear forward models are used to generate diagnostic predictions, and the probability distribution for the currents in the collection of plasma beams was subsequently calculated directly via application of Bayes' formula. In this work, we introduce a new diagnostic technique to identify and remove outlier observations associated with diagnostics falling out of calibration or suffering from an unidentified malfunction. These modifications enable a good agreement between Bayesian inference of the last-closed flux-surface with other corroborating data, such as that from force balance considerations using EFIT++ [Appel et al., "A unified approach to equilibrium reconstruction" Proceedings of the 33rd EPS Conference on Plasma Physics (Rome, Italy, 2006)]. In addition, this analysis also yields errors on the plasma current profile and flux-surface geometry as well as directly predicting the Shafranov shift of the plasma core.

  19. Clinicopathological analysis of salivary gland carcinomas and literature review

    PubMed Central

    SHIGEISHI, HIDEO; OHTA, KOUJI; OKUI, GAKU; SEINO, SAYAKA; HASHIKATA, MIHO; YAMAMOTO, KAZUHIRO; ISHIDA, YOKO; SASAKI, KAZUKI; NARUSE, TAKAKO; RAHMAN, MOHAMMAD ZESHAAN; UETSUKI, RYO; NIMIYA, AKIKO; ONO, SHIGEHIRO; SHIMASUE, HIROSHI; HIGASHIKAWA, KOICHIRO; SUGIYAMA, MASARU; TAKECHI, MASAAKI

    2015-01-01

    Malignant salivary gland tumors are rare and exhibit a broad spectrum of phenotypic heterogeneity. The objective of this study was to investigate prognostic factors in patients with salivary gland carcinomas and review the results in light of other reports. We retrospectively reviewed 40 patients with primary salivary gland carcinomas who were diagnosed and treated at our institution between 1991 and 2014. Of the 40 tumors, 19 (47.5%) were mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 11 (27.5%) were adenoid cystic carcinomas, 7 (17.5%) were acinic cell carcinomas, 2 (5.0%) were myoepithelial carcinomas and 1 (2.5%) was a squamous cell carcinoma. Clinically positive lymph nodes were present in 4 patients (10.0%). As regards clinical stage, 15 cases (37.5%) were stage I, 13 (32.5%) were stage II, 1 (2.5%) was stage III and 11 (27.5%) were stage IVA. The majority of the patients (97.5%) were treated with surgery, of whom 25 (62.5%) received surgery alone and 14 (35.0%) underwent surgery in combination with chemotherapy or chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The median follow-up time for all the patients was 48 months. The disease-specific survival rate at 5 years was 87.1%. We identified a significant correlation between poor survival rate and histological grade (intermediate/high), tumor size (T3/T4), lymph node metastasis (node-positive) and clinical stage (III/IV) using the Kaplan-Meier method (P<0.05 for each). In addition, the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis confirmed that lymph node metastasis and tumor size were independent prognostic factors for disease-specific survival (hazard ratio = 18.7 and 15.1, respectively; P=0.023 and 0.037, respectively). Furthermore, tumor size was found to be a predictive factor regarding recurrence in the multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio = 8.35; P=0.025). Our results suggest that lymph node metastasis and tumor size are significant prognostic factors for patients with salivary gland carcinomas. PMID:25469295

  20. [Chinese medicine adverse reactions' literature statistical analysis in recent five years].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Fei; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2011-10-01

    Since the state food and drug administration (SFDA) issued the first edition of adverse drug reaction(ADR) information in November, 2001, it has 32 edition, reported the drug 66 species of adverse reactions, involving the variety of 12 traditional Chinese medicines, it was effectively reminds all social concern of adverse drug reaction. For statistical analysis in recent years reported adverse drug reaction of prepared Chinese medicine, collected 462 literatures from 2005-09 CNKI Chinese journal full-text database of medicine health directory. In all the collections, about 94 literatures are closely related to adverse drug reaction report of prepared Chinese medicine. But there are only 7 references could identify traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine correctly in 72 literatures with the value of statistical analysis. That means only 8.9% of literatures can correctly identify western medicine and Chinese traditional medicine. So it proved that TCM workers' knowledge of ADR remains to be greatly improved. PMID:22242443

  1. Demographic faultlines: a meta-analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Sherry M B; Patel, Pankaj C

    2011-11-01

    We propose and test a theoretical model focusing on antecedents and consequences of demographic faultlines. We also posit contingencies that affect overall team dynamics in the context of demographic faultlines, such as the study setting and performance measurement. Using meta-analysis structural equation modeling with a final data set consisting of 311 data points (i.e., k [predictor-criterion relationships]), from 39 studies that were obtained from 36 papers with a total sample size of 24,388 individuals in 4,366 teams, we found that sex and racial diversity increased demographic faultline strength more than did diversity on the attributes of functional background, educational background, age, and tenure. Demographic faultline strength was found to increase task and relationship conflict as well as decrease team cohesion. Furthermore, although demographic faultline strength decreased both team satisfaction and team performance, there was a stronger decrease in team performance than in team satisfaction. The strength of these relationships increased when the study was conducted in the lab rather than in the field. We describe the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for advancing the study of faultlines. PMID:21688882

  2. Cross-validation of marker configurations to measure pelvic kinematics in gait.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Lutz; Portscher, Martin; Brettmann, Kirsten; Pfeifer, Klaus; Banzer, Winfried

    2003-12-01

    External tracking of three-dimensional lumbar spine and pelvic oscillations is a method recently used in clinical gait analysis. This investigation validated the use of plate mounted marker configurations overlying the median sacral crest (S1) against single marker sets placed over the anterior and posterior superior iliac spine for the assessment of angular kinematic profiles of the pelvis during treadmill ambulation. Rotational pelvic movements of 12 asymptomatic male subjects were recorded by a 3D-ultrasonic measurement device using four single markers placed over the anterior and posterior superior iliac spine. Additionally, three external ultrasound markers were mounted on a rigid plate placed over S1. No significant differences (P > 0.05) for movement variability or range of motion between marker configurations could be obtained. It could be concluded that trucking of plate-mounted markers overlying S1 seems to be adequate for monitoring rotational pelvic motions in normal gait. PMID:14667951

  3. The Severe Sexual Sadism Scale: cross-validation and scale properties.

    PubMed

    Mokros, Andreas; Schilling, Frank; Eher, Reinhard; Nitschke, Joachim

    2012-09-01

    The Severe Sexual Sadism Scale (SSSS) is a screening device for the file-based assessment of forensically relevant sexual sadism. The SSSS consists of 11 dichotomous (yes/no) items that code behavioral indicators of severe sexual sadism within sexual offenses. Based on an Austrian sample of 105 sexual offenders, the present study replicated the 1-dimensional scale structure of the SSSS, as evidenced by confirmatory factor analysis. More specifically, the scale was commensurate with the 1-parameter logistic test model (Rasch model). Reliability was estimated to be good. Criterion validity for the clinical diagnosis of sexual sadism was good. With a cutoff value of 7 points, sensitivity and specificity were estimated at 56% and 90%, respectively. PMID:22142424

  4. Cerebral gliosarcoma: Analysis of 16 patients and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gajendra; Das, Kuntal K.; Sharma, Pradeep; Guruprasad, B.; Jaiswal, Sushila; Mehrotra, Anant; Srivastava, Arun K.; Sahu, Rabi N.; Jaiswal, Awadhesh K.; Behari, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gliosarcoma (GS), a subtype of glioblastoma (GBM), is a rare primary neoplasm of the central nervous system. Certain features like temporal lobe affinity, tendency for extraneural metastasis and poorer outcome compared to GBM indicate that GS may indeed be a separate clinicopathologic entity. This led us to revisit this entity in our settings. Materials and Methods: Between 2009 and 2014, 16 cases of histologically proven GSs (14 primary, two secondary) were treated. Patient data were retrieved retrospectively. Statistical analysis was performed with? Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 17.0. (Chicago, Illinois, USA). Survival was analyzed by Kaplan–Meier method. Results: GS predominantly affected males in their fifth decade of life. Raised intracranial pressure was the most common mode of clinical presentation. Temporal lobe was the most commonly affected part of the brain and majority of primary and all of secondary GBM were located peripherally. In 7 (43.8%) patients, tumor was radiologically well-demarcated and enhanced strongly and homogenously on contrast as compared to 9 (56.2%) patients where the tumor was ill-defined and showed heterogenous patchy or ring enhancement. Extent of excision was total in seven patients (43.8%), near total in 4 (25%) and subtotal in five patients (31.2%). Median survival was 6 months. Patients with well-demarcated, enhancing mass on imaging intraoperatively had firm tumors with a good plane of cleavage and had a better survival (8 months) compared to those in whom the tumor radiologically and intraoperatively mimicked GBM (2 months). Conclusion: GS is associated with poor survival (median survival 6 months). Radiological and intraoperative findings help categorize these tumors into GBM like GS and meningioma like GS. While the former histologically mimics GBM and has very poor survival (2 months), GS with meningioma like feature tends to have better survival (8 months). PMID:26396606

  5. Storylines about Rural Teachers in the United States: A Narrative Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Megan; Brown, Kara; Johnson, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This narrative literature analysis examines the storylines of rural teachers told through published research on rural teachers. Using a narrative analysis approach, we investigated research published between 1970 and 2010--four decades of rural-oriented education research and policy work. Four storylines emerged from our coding of rural-related…

  6. Characteristics of Education Doctoral Dissertation References: An Inter-Institutional Analysis of Review of Literature Citations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beile, Penny M.; Boote, David N.; Killingsworth, Elizabeth K.

    This study had two purposes: to examine the expertise of doctoral students in their use of the scholarly literature and to investigate the use of citation analysis as a tool for collection development. Analysis of 1,842 coded citations gleaned from 30 education dissertations awarded in 2000 from 3 institutions in the United States revealed that…

  7. Psychosocial factors and adjustment to chronic pain in spinal cord injury: replication and cross-validation.

    PubMed

    Molton, Ivan R; Stoelb, Brenda L; Jensen, Mark P; Ehde, Dawn M; Raichle, Katherine A; Cardenas, Diana D

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have documented the importance of psychological factors in the experience of chronic pain in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). The current study sought to replicate and extend previous work demonstrating associations among specific pain-related beliefs, coping, mental health, and pain outcomes in persons with SCI. A return-by-mail survey assessing psychological functioning and pain was completed by 130 individuals with SCI. Measures included short forms of the Survey of Pain Attitudes and the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory. After factor analysis, multiple regression was used to predict pain outcomes (psychological functioning and pain interference) after controlling for pain intensity. Results indicated that psychological factors, particularly beliefs about pain (including catastrophizing) and pain-related coping strategies (including passive coping), were significant predictors of pain outcomes and accounted for 21% to 25% of unique variance. Zero-order correlations suggested that the specific variables most closely associated with negative pain outcomes were perception of oneself as disabled, perceptions of low control over pain, and tendency to catastrophize. In general, negative attributions and coping were stronger predictors of pain adjustment than were positive ones. Results highlight the importance of psychological factors in understanding chronic pain in persons with SCI and provide further support for the biopsychosocial model. PMID:19533518

  8. Cross-validation of spaceborne radar and ground polarimetric radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolen, Steven Matthew

    of a three-parameter gamma raindrop size distribution (RSD) model is also presented along with analysis of the initial PR RSD model on rain rate estimates. Data is taken from the TExas and FLorida UNderflights (TEFLUN-B) and the TRMM Large-scale Biosphere Atmosphere (LBA) field campaigns. Data from the Kwajalein KPOL radar is also used to validate the algorithms developed.

  9. Cross-Validation of the Recumbent Stepper Submaximal Exercise Test to Predict Peak Oxygen Uptake in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Herda, Ashley A.; Lentz, Angela A.; Mattlage, Anna E.; Sisante, Jason-Flor

    2014-01-01

    Background Submaximal exercise testing can have a greater application in clinical settings because peak exercise testing is generally not available. In previous work, a prediction equation was developed to estimate peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2) using a total body recumbent stepper (TBRS) and the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) protocol in adults who were healthy. Objective The purpose of the present study was to cross-validate the TBRS peak V̇o2 prediction equation in older adults. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted. Methods Thirty participants (22 female, 8 male; mean age=66.8 years, SD=5.52; mean weight=68.51 kg, SD=13.39) who previously completed a peak exercise test and met the inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the cross-validation study. Within 5 days of the peak V̇o2 test, participants completed the TBRS submaximal exercise test. The TBRS submaximal exercise test equation was used to estimate peak V̇o2. The variables in the equation included age, weight, sex, watts (at the end of the submaximal exercise test), and heart rate (at the end of the submaximal exercise test). Results A strong correlation was found between the predicted peak V̇o2 and the measured peak V̇o2. The difference between the values was 0.9 mL·kg−1·min−1, which was not statistically different. The standard error of the estimate was 4.2 mL·kg−1·min−1. Limitations The sample included individuals who volunteered to perform a peak exercise test, which may have biased the results toward those willing to exercise to fatigue. Conclusion The data suggest the TBRS submaximal exercise test and prediction equation can be used to predict peak V̇o2 in older adults. This finding is important for health care professionals wanting to provide information to their patients or clients regarding their fitness level. PMID:24435104

  10. Do different decision-analytic modeling approaches produce different results? A systematic review of cross-validation studies.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Bernice; Goeree, Ron; Jegathisawaran, Jathishinie; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Blackhouse, Gord; O'Reilly, Daria

    2015-06-01

    When choosing a modeling approach for health economic evaluation, certain criteria are often considered (e.g., population resolution, interactivity, time advancement mechanism, resource constraints). However, whether these criteria and their associated modeling approach impacts results remain poorly understood. A systematic review was conducted to identify cross-validation studies (i.e., modeling a problem using different approaches with the same body of evidence) to offer insight on this topic. With respect to population resolution, reviewed studies suggested that both aggregate- and individual-level models will generate comparable results, although a practical trade-off exists between validity and feasibility. In terms of interactivity, infectious-disease models consistently showed that, depending on the assumptions regarding probability of disease exposure, dynamic and static models may produce dissimilar results with opposing policy recommendations. Empirical evidence on the remaining criteria is limited. Greater discussion will therefore be necessary to promote a deeper understanding of the benefits and limits to each modeling approach. PMID:25728942

  11. An Efficient Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation-Based Extreme Learning Machine (ELOO-ELM) With Minimal User Intervention.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhifei; Er, Meng Joo; Wang, Ning

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that the architecture of the extreme learning machine (ELM) significantly affects its performance and how to determine a suitable set of hidden neurons is recognized as a key issue to some extent. The leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO-CV) is usually used to select a model with good generalization performance among potential candidates. The primary reason for using the LOO-CV is that it is unbiased and reliable as long as similar distribution exists in the training and testing data. However, the LOO-CV has rarely been implemented in practice because of its notorious slow execution speed. In this paper, an efficient LOO-CV formula and an efficient LOO-CV-based ELM (ELOO-ELM) algorithm are proposed. The proposed ELOO-ELM algorithm can achieve fast learning speed similar to the original ELM without compromising the reliability feature of the LOO-CV. Furthermore, minimal user intervention is required for the ELOO-ELM, thus it can be easily adopted by nonexperts and implemented in automation processes. Experimentation studies on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed ELOO-ELM algorithm can achieve good generalization with limited user intervention while retaining the efficiency feature. PMID:26259254

  12. Simulating California reservoir operation using the classification and regression-tree algorithm combined with a shuffled cross-validation scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tiantian; Gao, Xiaogang; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Li, Xin

    2016-03-01

    The controlled outflows from a reservoir or dam are highly dependent on the decisions made by the reservoir operators, instead of a natural hydrological process. Difference exists between the natural upstream inflows to reservoirs and the controlled outflows from reservoirs that supply the downstream users. With the decision maker's awareness of changing climate, reservoir management requires adaptable means to incorporate more information into decision making, such as water delivery requirement, environmental constraints, dry/wet conditions, etc. In this paper, a robust reservoir outflow simulation model is presented, which incorporates one of the well-developed data-mining models (Classification and Regression Tree) to predict the complicated human-controlled reservoir outflows and extract the reservoir operation patterns. A shuffled cross-validation approach is further implemented to improve CART's predictive performance. An application study of nine major reservoirs in California is carried out. Results produced by the enhanced CART, original CART, and random forest are compared with observation. The statistical measurements show that the enhanced CART and random forest overperform the CART control run in general, and the enhanced CART algorithm gives a better predictive performance over random forest in simulating the peak flows. The results also show that the proposed model is able to consistently and reasonably predict the expert release decisions. Experiments indicate that the release operation in the Oroville Lake is significantly dominated by SWP allocation amount and reservoirs with low elevation are more sensitive to inflow amount than others.

  13. Accuracy of Population Validity and Cross-Validity Estimation: An Empirical Comparison of Formula-Based, Traditional Empirical, and Equal Weights Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nambury S.; Bilgic, Reyhan; Edwards, Jack E.; Fleer, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    Performed an empirical Monte Carlo study using predictor and criterion data from 84,808 U.S. Air Force enlistees. Compared formula-based, traditional empirical, and equal-weights procedures. Discusses issues for basic research on validation and cross-validation. (SLD)

  14. Cross-Validation of a Recently Published Equation Predicting Energy Expenditure to Run or Walk a Mile in Normal-Weight and Overweight Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Cody E.; Owens, Scott G.; Waddell, Dwight E.; Bass, Martha A.; Bentley, John P.; Loftin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    An equation published by Loftin, Waddell, Robinson, and Owens (2010) was cross-validated using ten normal-weight walkers, ten overweight walkers, and ten distance runners. Energy expenditure was measured at preferred walking (normal-weight walker and overweight walkers) or running pace (distance runners) for 5 min and corrected to a mile. Energy…

  15. A Cross-Validation of easyCBM Mathematics Cut Scores in Washington State: 2009-2010 Test. Technical Report #1105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    In this technical report, we document the results of a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut-scores for the use of the easyCBM[R] mathematics test in the state of Washington. A large sample, randomly split into two groups of roughly equal size, was used for this study. Students' performance classification on the Washington state…

  16. Cross-Validation of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 Youth Version: An Exploration of Strength-Based Latent Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, Michael J.; Sharkey, Jill D.; Boman, Peter; Caldwell, Roslyn

    2007-01-01

    High-quality measurement is a necessary requirement to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of programs that use strength-based principles and strategies. Using independent cross-validation samples, we report two studies that explored the construct validity of the BERS-2 Youth Report, a popular measure designed to assess youth strengths, whose…

  17. Cross-validation of generalised body composition equations with diverse young men and women: the Training Intervention and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generalised skinfold equations developed in the 1970s are commonly used to estimate laboratory-measured percentage fat (BF%). The equations were developed on predominately white individuals using Siri's two-component percentage fat equation (BF%-GEN). We cross-validated the Jackson-Pollock (JP) gene...

  18. A Test and Cross-Validation of the Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire Factor Structure among Western University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Imbrie, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    The Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) is a measure of university students' approach to learning. Original evaluation of the scale's psychometric properties was based on a sample of Hong Kong university students' scores. The purpose of this study was to test and cross-validate the R-SPQ-2F factor structure, based on separate…

  19. The School to Work Transition of Indigenous Australians: A Review of the Literature and Statistical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Mike; Frigo, Tracey; Batten, Margaret

    This report describes the current educational and employment situation of Australian Indigenous youth in terms of their pathways from school to work. A literature review and analysis of statistical data identify barriers to successful transition from school to work, including forms of teaching, curriculum, and assessment that pose greater…

  20. Critical Discourse Analysis in Literacy Education: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca; Schaenen, Inda

    2014-01-01

    This article is a critical, integrative literature review of scholarship in literacy studies from 2004 to 2012 that draws on critical discourse analysis (CDA). We discuss key issues, trends, and criticisms in the field. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases to locate literacy-focused CDA…

  1. Content Analysis of Literature about LGB People of Color: 1998-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yu-Ping; Brewster, Melanie E.; Moradi, Bonnie; Goodman, Melinda B.; Wiseman, Marcie C.; Martin, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a content analysis of the past decade (1998-2007) of psychological scholarship about lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people of color. Findings revealed that literature about LGB people of color is growing. But, findings also highlighted underused methods, underrepresented subpopulations, and understudied topics in the…

  2. Species-level Analysis of Biological Literature for Storage and Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shervis, L. J.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Describes an information retrieval system in entomology which could also be used for other biological literature. With the examples of coding information into the system, a user might get some idea of how to search and what kind of information might be found. No cost analysis for running the program is included. (PS)

  3. Comparative Critical Discourse Analysis of Student and Teacher Editions of Secondary Christian American Literature Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agiro, Christa Preston

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the comparative application of critical discourse analysis to student and teacher editions of the two most widely used high school American literature textbooks by Christian publishers, examining them through the lens of critical theory. The study examined all parts of the student and teacher editions, excepting literary…

  4. Mapping Techno-Literary Spaces: Adapting Multiple Correspondence Analysis for Literature and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paling, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This paper constitutes part of a series of studies intended to establish "Literature and Art Informatics". The paper describes the conceptual background of multiple correspondence analysis and its use in visualizing conceptual spaces to describe the values that motivate the use of information technology by literary authors. An…

  5. Qualitative Research in Distance Education: An Analysis of Journal Literature 2005-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This review study examines the current research literature in distance education for the years 2005 to 2012. The author found 382 research articles published during that time in four prominent peer-reviewed research journals. The articles were classified and coded as quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods. Further analysis found another…

  6. How Does Distance Education Compare with Classroom Instruction? A Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Robert M.; Abrami, Philip C.; Lou, Yiping; Borokhovsk, Evgueni; Wade, Anne; Wozney, Lori; Wallet, Peter Andrew; Fiset, Manon; Huang, Binru

    2004-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the comparative distance education (DE) literature between 1985 and 2002 was conducted. In total, 232 studies containing 688 independent achievement, attitude, and retention outcomes were analyzed. Overall results indicated effect sizes of essentially zero on all three measures and wide variability. This suggests that many…

  7. Redefining Normal: A Critical Analysis of (Dis)ability in Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curwood, Jen Scott

    2013-01-01

    This literary analysis examines constructions of normalcy and disability within contemporary young adult literature, including "Jerk," "California" (Friesen, 2008), "Marcelo in the Real World" (Stork, 2009), and "Five Flavors of Dumb" (John, 2010). As recent winners of the Schneider Family Book Award from the American Library Association, these…

  8. Stepfamilies: A Content Analysis of the Popular Literature, 1961-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagoni, Laurel S.; Cook, Alicia Skinner

    1985-01-01

    A content analysis was performed on 30 stepparenting articles published during the years 1961-1982 in five major parenting magazines. No significant shifts in the number, content, and type of stepparenting articles appearing in the magazines were found. The popular literature dealing with stepparenting may be dependent on professional research for…

  9. Bridging Human Reliability Analysis and Psychology, Part 1: The Psychological Literature Review for the IDHEAS Method

    SciTech Connect

    April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Katya L. Le Blanc; Jing Xing

    2012-06-01

    In response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is sponsoring work to update the technical basis underlying human reliability analysis (HRA) in an effort to improve the robustness of HRA. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a hybrid of existing methods addressing limitations of current HRA models and in particular issues related to intra- and inter-method variabilities and results. This hybrid method is now known as the Integrated Decision-tree Human Event Analysis System (IDHEAS). Existing HRA methods have looked at elements of the psychological literature, but there has not previously been a systematic attempt to translate the complete span of cognition from perception to action into mechanisms that can inform HRA. Therefore, a first step of this effort was to perform a literature search of psychology, cognition, behavioral science, teamwork, and operating performance to incorporate current understanding of human performance in operating environments, thus affording an improved technical foundation for HRA. However, this literature review went one step further by mining the literature findings to establish causal relationships and explicit links between the different types of human failures, performance drivers and associated performance measures ultimately used for quantification. This is the first of two papers that detail the literature review (paper 1) and its product (paper 2). This paper describes the literature review and the high-level architecture used to organize the literature review, and the second paper (Whaley, Hendrickson, Boring, & Xing, these proceedings) describes the resultant cognitive framework.

  10. Citation analysis in journal rankings: medical informatics in the library and information science literature.

    PubMed Central

    Vishwanatham, R

    1998-01-01

    Medical informatics is an interdisciplinary field. Medical informatics articles will be found in the literature of various disciplines including library and information science publications. The purpose of this study was to provide an objectively ranked list of journals that publish medical informatics articles relevant to library and information science. Library Literature, Library and Information Science Abstracts, and Social Science Citation Index were used to identify articles published on the topic of medical informatics and to identify a ranked list of journals. This study also used citation analysis to identify the most frequently cited journals relevant to library and information science. PMID:9803294

  11. Analysis of poetic literature using B. F. Skinner's theoretical framework from verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Nicole M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines Skinner's work on verbal behavior in the context of literature as a particular class of written verbal behavior. It looks at contemporary literary theory and analysis and the contributions that Skinner's theoretical framework can make. Two diverse examples of poetic literature are chosen and analyzed following Skinner's framework, examining the dynamic interplay between the writer and reader that take place within the bounds of the work presented. It is concluded that Skinner's hypotheses about verbal behavior and the functional approach to understanding it have much to offer literary theorists in their efforts to understand literary works and should be more carefully examined.

  12. Visual Analysis and Dissemination of Scientific Literature Collections with SurVis.

    PubMed

    Beck, Fabian; Koch, Sebastian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Bibliographic data such as collections of scientific articles and citation networks have been studied extensively in information visualization and visual analytics research. Powerful systems have been built to support various types of bibliographic analysis, but they require some training and cannot be used to disseminate the insights gained. In contrast, we focused on developing a more accessible visual analytics system, called SurVis, that is ready to disseminate a carefully surveyed literature collection. The authors of a survey may use our Web-based system to structure and analyze their literature database. Later, readers of the survey can obtain an overview, quickly retrieve specific publications, and reproduce or extend the original bibliographic analysis. Our system employs a set of selectors that enable users to filter and browse the literature collection as well as to control interactive visualizations. The versatile selector concept includes selectors for textual search, filtering by keywords and meta-information, selection and clustering of similar publications, and following citation links. Agreement to the selector is represented by word-sized sparkline visualizations seamlessly integrated into the user interface. Based on an analysis of the analytical reasoning process, we derived requirements for the system. We developed the system in a formative way involving other researchers writing literature surveys. A questionnaire study with 14 visual analytics experts confirms that SurVis meets the initially formulated requirements. PMID:26529698

  13. The Strategic Environment Assessment bibliographic network: A quantitative literature review analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Caschili, Simone; De Montis, Andrea; Ganciu, Amedeo; Ledda, Antonio; Barra, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Academic literature has been continuously growing at such a pace that it can be difficult to follow the progression of scientific achievements; hence, the need to dispose of quantitative knowledge support systems to analyze the literature of a subject. In this article we utilize network analysis tools to build a literature review of scientific documents published in the multidisciplinary field of Strategic Environment Assessment (SEA). The proposed approach helps researchers to build unbiased and comprehensive literature reviews. We collect information on 7662 SEA publications and build the SEA Bibliographic Network (SEABN) employing the basic idea that two publications are interconnected if one cites the other. We apply network analysis at macroscopic (network architecture), mesoscopic (sub graph) and microscopic levels (node) in order to i) verify what network structure characterizes the SEA literature, ii) identify the authors, disciplines and journals that are contributing to the international discussion on SEA, and iii) scrutinize the most cited and important publications in the field. Results show that the SEA is a multidisciplinary subject; the SEABN belongs to the class of real small world networks with a dominance of publications in Environmental studies over a total of 12 scientific sectors. Christopher Wood, Olivia Bina, Matthew Cashmore, and Andrew Jordan are found to be the leading authors while Environmental Impact Assessment Review is by far the scientific journal with the highest number of publications in SEA studies. - Highlights: • We utilize network analysis to analyze scientific documents in the SEA field. • We build the SEA Bibliographic Network (SEABN) of 7662 publications. • We apply network analysis at macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic network levels. • We identify SEABN architecture, relevant publications, authors, subjects and journals.

  14. The Secrets of Scheherazade: Toward a Functional Analysis of Imaginative Literature

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Lyle K

    2005-01-01

    A functional analysis of selected aspects of imaginative literature is presented. Reading imaginative literature is described as a process in which the reader makes indirect contact with the contingencies operating on the behavior of story characters. A functional story grammar is proposed in which the reader's experience with a story is interpreted in terms of escape contingencies in which the author initially introduces an establishing operation consisting of a source of tension, which is resolved in some way by the outcome of the story. Although escape contingencies represent the functional basis for the structure of stories, they are to be understood in a context of many other reinforcers for reading fiction. Other contingencies that maintain reading are discussed. Functional analyses of imaginative literature have much to offer, both in improving literary education and in understanding the behavioral processes that occur on the part of the reader. PMID:22477324

  15. Cross Validation and Generalization of a Content Analysis of the Narrative Sections of Navy Performance Evaluation for Senior Enlisted Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey-Klee, Diane M.; Richman, Vivian

    In an earlier pilot study of the narrative sections of Navy performance evaluations for senior enlisted personnel in pay grade E-7, it was determined by content analytic techniques that it is possible to differentiate between the performance of typical and superlative chief petty officers based on the narrative content of Evaluation Reports. A…

  16. Predicting Chinese Children and Youth's Energy Expenditure Using ActiGraph Accelerometers: A Calibration and Cross-Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Zheng; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and cross-validate an equation based on ActiGraph accelerometer GT3X output to predict children and youth's energy expenditure (EE) of physical activity (PA). Method: Participants were 367 Chinese children and youth (179 boys and 188 girls, aged 9 to 17 years old) who wore 1 ActiGraph GT3X…

  17. Development and cross-validation of prognostic models to assess the treatment effect of cisplatin/pemetrexed chemotherapy in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Mou, Wenjun; Liu, Zhaoqi; Luo, Yuan; Zou, Meng; Ren, Chao; Zhang, Chunyan; Wen, Xinyu; Wang, Yong; Tian, Yaping

    2014-09-01

    Better understanding of the treatment effect of cisplatin/pemetrexed chemotherapy on lung adenocarcinoma patients is needed to facilitate chemotherapy planning and patient care. In this retrospective study, we will develop prognostic models by the cross-validation method using clinical and serum factors to predict outcomes of cisplatin/pemetrexed chemotherapy in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Lung adenocarcinoma patients admitted between 2008 and 2013 were enrolled. 29 serum parameters of laboratory tests and 14 clinical factors were analyzed to develop the prognostic models. First, the stepwise selection and five-fold cross-validation were performed to identify candidate prognostic factors. Then a classification of all patients based on the number of metastatic sites resulted in four distinct subsets. In each subset, a prognostic model was fitted with the most accurate prognostic factors from the candidate prognostic factors. Categorical survival prediction was estimated using a log-rank test and visualized with Kaplan-Meier method. 227 lung adenocarcinoma patients were enrolled. Twenty candidate prognostic factors evaluated using the five-fold cross-validation method were total protein, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, creatine kinase, age, smoking index, neuron-specific enolase, bone metastasis, total triglyceride, albumin, gender, uric acid, CYFRA21-1, lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis, lactate dehydrogenase, CA153, peritoneal metastasis, CA125, and CA199. From these 20 candidate prognostic factors, the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model with the highest prognostic accuracy in each subset was identified by the stepwise forward selection method, which generated significant prognostic stratifications in Kaplan-Meier survival analyses (all log-rank p < 0.01). Generally, the prognostic models using five-fold cross-validation achieve a good prediction performance. The prognostic models can be administered safely to lung adenocarcinoma patients treated

  18. Mosaic small supernumerary marker chromosome 1 at amniocentesis: prenatal diagnosis, molecular genetic analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Chen, Ming; Su, Yi-Ning; Huang, Jian-Pei; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Su, Jun-Wei; Chang, Shun-Ping; Chen, Yu-Ting; Lee, Chen-Chi; Chen, Li-Feng; Pan, Chen-Wen; Wang, Wayseen

    2013-10-15

    We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic analysis of mosaic small supernumerary marker chromosome 1 [sSMC(1)]. We review the literature of sSMC(1) at amniocentesis and chromosome 1p21.1-p12 duplication syndrome. We discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation of the involved genes of ALX3, RBM15, NTNG1, SLC25A24, GPSM2, TBX15 and NOTCH2 in this case. PMID:23933412

  19. The Gender Analysis Tools Applied in Natural Disasters Management: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Tourani, Sogand; Khankeh, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although natural disasters have caused considerable damages around the world, and gender analysis can improve community disaster preparedness or mitigation, there is little research about the gendered analytical tools and methods in communities exposed to natural disasters and hazards. These tools evaluate gender vulnerability and capacity in pre-disaster and post-disaster phases of the disaster management cycle. Objectives: Identifying the analytical gender tools and the strengths and limitations of them as well as determining gender analysis studies which had emphasized on the importance of using gender analysis in disasters. Methods: The literature search was conducted in June 2013 using PubMed, Web of Sciences, ProQuest Research Library, World Health Organization Library, Gender and Disaster Network (GDN) archive. All articles, guidelines, fact sheets and other materials that provided an analytical framework for a gender analysis approach in disasters were included and the non-English documents as well as gender studies of non-disasters area were excluded. Analysis of the included studies was done separately by descriptive and thematic analyses. Results: A total of 207 documents were retrieved, of which only nine references were included. Of these, 45% were in form of checklist, 33% case study report, and the remaining 22% were article. All selected papers were published within the period 1994-2012. Conclusions: A focus on women’s vulnerability in the related research and the lack of valid and reliable gender analysis tools were considerable issues identified by the literature review. Although non-English literatures with English abstract were included in the study, the possible exclusion of non-English ones was found as the limitation of this study. PMID:24678441

  20. Introducing Pre-university Students to Primary Scientific Literature Through Argumentation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using (adapted) scientific publications, some for secondary education, but none of these strategies focused specifically on scientific argumentation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a strategy for teaching pre-university students to read unadapted primary scientific literature, translated into students' native language, based on a new argumentation analysis framework. This framework encompasses seven types of argumentative elements: motive, objective, main conclusion, implication, support, counterargument and refutation. During the intervention, students studied two research articles. We monitored students' reading comprehension and their opinion on the articles and activities. After the intervention, we measured students' ability to identify the argumentative elements in a third unadapted and translated research article. The presented framework enabled students to analyse the article by identifying the motive, objective, main conclusion and implication and part of the supports. Students stated that they found these activities useful. Most students understood the text on paragraph level and were able to read the article with some help for its vocabulary. We suggest that primary scientific literature has the potential to show students important aspects of the scientific process and to learn scientific vocabulary in an authentic context.

  1. The development of the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS)*

    PubMed Central

    Dee, Cheryl Rae

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The research provides a chronology of the US National Library of Medicine's (NLM's) contribution to access to the world's biomedical literature through its computerization of biomedical indexes, particularly the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS). Method: Using material gathered from NLM's archives and from personal interviews with people associated with developing MEDLARS and its associated systems, the author discusses key events in the history of MEDLARS. Discussion: From the development of the early mechanized bibliographic retrieval systems of the 1940s and to the beginnings of online, interactive computerized bibliographic search systems of the early 1970s chronicled here, NLM's contributions to automation and bibliographic retrieval have been extensive. Conclusion: As NLM's technological experience and expertise grew, innovative bibliographic storage and retrieval systems emerged. NLM's accomplishments regarding MEDLARS were cutting edge, placing the library at the forefront of incorporating mechanization and technologies into medical information systems. PMID:17971889

  2. Clinical trials with herbal medicinal products in children: a literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, Peter; Kaft, Karin; Nieber, Karen

    2015-06-01

    Herbal medicinal products have been used since several decades for the health care of children. Nevertheless, well-controlled clinical studies with herbal medicinal products for children are rare. The authors' objective therefore was to evaluate clinical trials with herbal medicinal products in children, based on a literature search in PubMed and Web of Science. A total of 133 trials were identified. 90 studies were randomized, 32.2% were randomized and double-blinded. Most studies were performed in China, in the age group 6-12 years, and in children with respiratory diseases, most often herbal medicinal products with Hedera helix were tested. The analysis revealed that studies on herbal medicinal products were feasible in children. Although clinical trials have been found, this literature search have limitations and did not cover all studies performed. However, only few clinical trials of high quality were identified. Further studies therefore are urgently needed to support the good empirical findings. PMID:26183729

  3. Analysis of the Team-Based Learning Literature: TBL Comes of Age

    PubMed Central

    Haidet, Paul; Kubitz, Karla; McCormack, Wayne T.

    2015-01-01

    Team-based learning, or TBL, is an application-oriented teaching method that combines small- and large-group learning by incorporating multiple small groups into a large group setting. It has been increasingly used in postsecondary and professional education over the past two decades. Given this increasing usage, many faculty wonder about the effects TBL has on learning outcomes. The authors performed a review and synthesis on the educational literature with respect to TBL to examine the quality of their descriptions of core TBL elements, then constructed narrative summaries of these selected articles. Their analysis demonstrated early evidence of positive educational outcomes in terms of knowledge acquisition, participation and engagement, and team performance. The authors conclude that the TBL literature is at an important maturation point, where more rigorous testing and study of additional questions relating to the method are needed, as well as more accurate reporting of TBL implementation. PMID:26568668

  4. Quantification of rainfall prediction uncertainties using a cross-validation based technique. Methodology description and experimental validation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Ignacio; Cea, Luis; Puertas, Jerónimo; Salsón, Santiago; Petazzi, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology to compute rainfall fields including the quantification of predictions uncertainties using raingauge network data. The proposed methodology comprises two steps. Firstly, the ordinary krigging technique is used to determine the estimated rainfall depth in every point of the study area. Then multiple equi-probable errors fields, which comprise both interpolation and measuring uncertainties, are added to the krigged field resulting in multiple rainfall predictions. To compute these error fields first the standard deviation of the krigging estimation is determined following the cross-validation based procedure described in Delrieu et al. (2014). Then, the standard deviation field is sampled using non-conditioned Gaussian random fields. The proposed methodology was applied to study 7 rain events in a 60x60 km area of the west coast of Galicia, in the Northwest of Spain. Due to its location at the junction between tropical and polar regions, the study area suffers from frequent intense rainfalls characterized by a great variability in terms of both space and time. Rainfall data from the tipping bucket raingauge network operated by MeteoGalicia were used to estimate the rainfall fields using the proposed methodology. The obtained predictions were then validated using rainfall data from 3 additional rain gauges installed within the CAPRI project (Probabilistic flood prediction with high resolution hydrologic models from radar rainfall estimates, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. Reference CGL2013-46245-R.). Results show that both the mean hyetographs and the peak intensities are correctly predicted. The computed hyetographs present a good fit to the experimental data and most of the measured values fall within the 95% confidence intervals. Also, most of the experimental values outside the confidence bounds correspond to time periods of low rainfall depths, where the inaccuracy of the measuring devices

  5. Demonstrations of Agency in Contemporary International Children's Literature: An Exploratory Critical Content Analysis across Personal, Social, and Cultural Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Janelle B.

    2015-01-01

    International children's literature has the potential to create global experiences and cultural insights for young people confronted with limited and biased images of the world offered by media. The current inquiry was designed to explore, through a critical content analysis approach, international children's literature in which characters…

  6. Women's Ways of Leading: A Qualitative Content Analysis to Determine Leadership Messages Contained in Literature of National Panhellenic Conference Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fechner, Andrea M.

    2000-01-01

    This study documented the leadership messages sent to women in 16 of the National Panhellenic Conference groups' official literature. The purpose of the study was to provide detailed descriptive analysis using excerpts from the official literature to show both traditional and non-traditional (women's ways of leading) theoretical themes as well as…

  7. Forensic psychiatric nursing: a literature review and thematic analysis of staff-patient interaction.

    PubMed

    Gildberg, F A; Elverdam, B; Hounsgaard, L

    2010-05-01

    In Denmark the increasing number of forensic mental health patients has led to prioritized services, including the area of nursing; however, this field is subject to sparse research. The aim of this study was to review existing research literature and in doing so investigate what characterizes forensic mental health staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and furthermore to investigate what significance these staff characteristics have for the inpatients. The literature review spans the period September 1997 to January 2009 and was based on a systematic keyword combination search in the following databases: CINAHL, CSB, PsycINFO, Scopus, Pubmed, MEDLINE and Sociological Abstracts. The articles were categorized using a literature matrix and analysed using content analysis. Seventeen quantitative and qualitative research studies were analysed. The results show that the interaction between forensic staff and forensic inpatients is characterized by two overriding themes: parentalistic & behaviour-changing care and relational & personal quality-dependent care. Only a few of the findings represent a clear account of how the interactional characteristics impact on the forensic inpatient. The conclusion is that no clear account of the patient impact issue can be reached at this point and that further investigation needs to take place. PMID:20529188

  8. Bibliometric analysis of scientific literature on intestinal parasites in Argentina during the period 1985-2014.

    PubMed

    Basualdo, Juan A; Grenóvero, María S; Bertucci, Evangelina; Molina, Nora B

    2016-01-01

    The study of scientific production is a good indicator of the progress in research and knowledge generation. Bibliometrics is a scientific discipline that uses a set of indicators to quantitatively express the bibliographic characteristics of scientific publications. The scientific literature on the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in Argentina is scattered in numerous sources, hindering access and visibility to the scientific community. Our purpose was to perform a quantitative, bibliometric study of the scientific literature on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published in the period 1985-2014. This bibliometric analysis showed an increase in the number of articles on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published over the past 30 years. Those articles showed a collaboration index similar to that of the literature, with a high index of institutionality for national institutions and a very low one for international collaboration. The original articles were published in scientific journals in the American Continent, Europe and Asia. The use of bibliometric indicators can provide a solid tool for the diagnosis and survey of the research on epidemiology of intestinal parasites and contributes to the dissemination and visibility of information on the scientific production developed in Argentina. PMID:27282076

  9. Literature review and meta-analysis of translaminar pressure difference in open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Siaudvytyte, L; Januleviciene, I; Daveckaite, A; Ragauskas, A; Bartusis, L; Kucinoviene, J; Siesky, B; Harris, A

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence in the literature regarding translaminar pressure difference's (TPD) role in the pathophysiology of glaucoma. The optic nerve is exposed not only to intraocular pressure in the eye, but also to intracranial pressure (ICP), as it is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space. Although pilot studies have identified the potential importance of TPD in glaucoma, limited available data currently prevent a comprehensive description of the role that TPD may have in glaucomatous pathophysiology. In this review, we present all available qualified data from a systematic review of the literature of the role of TPD in open-angle glaucoma (OAG). PubMed (Medline), OVID Medline, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, and all available library databases were reviewed and subsequent meta-analysis of pooled mean differences are presented where appropriate. Five papers including 396 patients met criteria for inclusion to the analysis. Importantly, we included all observational studies despite differences in ICP measurement methods, as there is no consensus regarding best-practice ICP measurements in glaucoma. Our results show that not only TPD is higher in glaucoma patients compared with healthy subjects, it is related to structural glaucomatous changes of the optic disc. Our analysis suggests further longitudinal prospective studies are needed to investigate the influence of TPD in OAG, with a goal of overcoming methodological weaknesses of previous studies. PMID:26183286

  10. Bibliometric Analysis of Orthopedic Literature on Total Knee Arthroplasty in Asian Countries: A 10-year Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Sang Hwa; Bamne, Ankur B.; Chowdhry, Madhav; Chae, Ihn Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to determine the quantity and quality of research output of selected Asian countries in the field of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the last 10 years. Materials and Methods Top 15 Asian countries were selected according to their gross domestic product. The Science Citation Index Expanded database was used to search for the literature published between 2004 and 2013 using "Total Knee Arthroplasty". The numbers of articles, journals and citations and the contribution of each country were analyzed. The articles were classified according to the type of study and the relative proportion of each type was analyzed. Results Asian surgeons have increasingly contributed to orthopedic literature on TKA for the past 10 years, but the dominant contribution came from only a few countries. The total number of articles published by Asian countries increased by 261%, with Japan producing most of the studies and China showing the maximum growth rate. The majority of studies were published in low impact factor journals. Korea published the highest proportion of articles in high impact factor journals. Clinical papers were most frequent. Conclusions Our identification of research productivity pertaining to TKA among Asian countries gives a unique insight into the level of academic research in the field of TKA in these countries. There is a need to improve the quality of research to enhance the publishing power in high impact journals as well as the need for more basic research and epidemiological studies considering the unique differences among Asian patients undergoing TKA. PMID:26389067

  11. Review of literature on herbicides, including phenoxy herbicides and associated dioxins. Volume 13: Analysis of recent literature on health effects and Volume 14: Annotated bibliography of recent literature on health effects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-15

    The report consists of a bibliography and critical review of scientific literature that became available during 1988 on the health effects of the herbicides (including impurities) used as defoliants in the Vietnam conflict. An attempt has been made to identify all scientific literature (including unpublished reports) relevant to the potential human health effects of the herbicidal preparation commonly referred to as Agent Orange, the herbicidal active ingredients 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichloroacetic acid and their esters, as well as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, henceforth referred to as TCDD, known to be contaminating impurities of some phenoxy herbicide preparations, an the herbicides, picloram and cacodylic acid. The scope of the review does not include literature dealing exclusively with the chemistry, analysis, or environmental fate and effects of these compounds.

  12. Isokinetic and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstrings or patella tendon graft: analysis of literature.

    PubMed

    Dauty, M; Tortellier, L; Rochcongar, P

    2005-09-01

    We report isokinetic results of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring graft from the literature analysis. The literature was defined from two search "textwords": Isokinetic and Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and from three databases: Medline, Pascal, and Herasmus. Two independent physicians (Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation) carried out an analysis according to the French National Accreditation and Health Evaluation Agency recommendations. Fifty-three studies were selected: 29 reported isokinetic results after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon graft, 15 reported isokinetic results after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring graft, and 9 studies compared the two surgical procedures. After discussing different bias and in reference to prospective randomised and comparative studies, the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon graft involves a knee extensors deficit during several months. The hamstring surgical procedure involves a less important knee extensor deficit (from 6 to 19 % against 8 to 21 %). Knee sprain and intra-articular surgery involve a long-lasting knee extensors deficit. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstrings graft involves a knee flexors deficit over several months. The patellar tendon surgical procedure involves a less important knee flexors deficit (from 1 to 15 % against 5 to 17 %). In reference to isokinetic parameters, no difference between the two surgical procedures (patellar tendon graft or hamstring graft) is shown after more than twenty-four post-surgical months. PMID:16195995

  13. The use of Skype in analysis and training: a research and literature review.

    PubMed

    Merchant, John

    2016-06-01

    Of recent years there has not only been an increasing use of Skype in analytic treatment, supervision and teaching, but also a number of writers have been endeavouring to assess its effectiveness. Whilst it is generally agreed that Skype can facilitate an analytic encounter where distance prohibits a face-to-face process, where continuity needs to be maintained and where analysands are in areas far from specialized centres, there is divergence in the literature as to whether analysis, as opposed to psychotherapy, can be successful using Skype. This paper reviews the literature and concludes that the essentials of a genuine analytic process are not necessarily precluded by Skype. One central reason is because there exists a cross-modal communication channel between the human senses (underpinned by audiovisual mirror neurons) in addition to the recently discovered instinct for communication and interpersonal understanding, and these can override the need for physical proximity of the participants. The essentials of an analytic frame can thus be maintained, and the continuity that Skype enables means that containment is also facilitated and this counters the negative aspects of shuttle analysis. The critical issues for the profession then become the professional development for practitioners in the use of Skype and suggestions are listed. PMID:27192366

  14. Denial of impending death: a discourse analysis of the palliative care literature.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2004-10-01

    Terminally ill patients and their families are often referred to as being "in denial" of impending death. This study uses the qualitative method of discourse analysis to investigate the usage of the term "denial" in the contemporary hospice and palliative care literature. A Medline search (1970-2001) was performed combining the text words "deny" and "denial" with the subject headings "terminal care", "palliative care" and "hospice care," and restricted to English articles discussing death denial in adults. The 30 articles were analysed using a constant comparison technique and emerging themes regarding the meaning and usage of the words "deny" and "denial" identified. This paper focusses on the theme of denial as an individual psychological process. Three dominant subthemes were distinguished: denial as an unconscious "defence mechanism", denial as "healthy" and denial as temporary. The analysis focusses on the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts on the denial of death. Elements of the psychoanalytic definition of denial as an unconscious defence mechanism are retained in the literature but are interwoven with new themes on patient choice. The result is an overall discourse that is conflictual and at times self-contradictory but overall consistent with the biomedical model of illness. I suggest that the representation of death denial elaborated in these articles may be related to a larger discourse on dying in contemporary Western society, which both invites patients to participate in the planning of their death and labels those who do not comply. PMID:15279932

  15. Nurse-sensitive health care outcomes in acute care settings: an integrative analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pierce, S F

    1997-04-01

    With the advent of profit maximization in health care came an increased focus on defining quality through outcomes achieved. The article describes an analysis of the nursing literature from 1974 to 1996 using Donabedian's structure-process-outcome framework and the specific indicators identified by the American Nurses Association report card, the Institute of Medicine, and the nursing-sensitive outcomes classification. Although evidence exists documenting nursing's positive impact on patient outcomes, this analysis suggests a real need to integrate our clinical and administrative studies and to employ a more comprehensive, longitudinal, multifacility approach if we are to answer the scientific question regarding which nursing structures and processes truly produce the best health outcomes. PMID:9097521

  16. Listener estimations of talker age: A meta-analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Eric J; Ferguson, Sarah Hargus; Newman, Catherine Anne

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies, most of them cross-sectional studies using one sample per talker, have demonstrated that listeners make relatively accurate age judgments from hearing talkers' voices. The current study analyzed the results of several such direct age estimation studies to characterize better the perception of talker age over a larger number of individuals. A review of the direct age estimation literature was performed. Data sets from seven papers were reconstituted, and an analysis of the combined data (meta-analysis) including 530 data points was conducted. The reconstituted and combined data included talkers aged 10-90. Listeners appeared to overestimate age when talkers were younger and to underestimate it when talkers were older. PMID:26079468

  17. Ontology-based Brucella vaccine literature indexing and systematic analysis of gene-vaccine association network

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vaccine literature indexing is poorly performed in PubMed due to limited hierarchy of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) annotation in the vaccine field. Vaccine Ontology (VO) is a community-based biomedical ontology that represents various vaccines and their relations. SciMiner is an in-house literature mining system that supports literature indexing and gene name tagging. We hypothesize that application of VO in SciMiner will aid vaccine literature indexing and mining of vaccine-gene interaction networks. As a test case, we have examined vaccines for Brucella, the causative agent of brucellosis in humans and animals. Results The VO-based SciMiner (VO-SciMiner) was developed to incorporate a total of 67 Brucella vaccine terms. A set of rules for term expansion of VO terms were learned from training data, consisting of 90 biomedical articles related to Brucella vaccine terms. VO-SciMiner demonstrated high recall (91%) and precision (99%) from testing a separate set of 100 manually selected biomedical articles. VO-SciMiner indexing exhibited superior performance in retrieving Brucella vaccine-related papers over that obtained with MeSH-based PubMed literature search. For example, a VO-SciMiner search of "live attenuated Brucella vaccine" returned 922 hits as of April 20, 2011, while a PubMed search of the same query resulted in only 74 hits. Using the abstracts of 14,947 Brucella-related papers, VO-SciMiner identified 140 Brucella genes associated with Brucella vaccines. These genes included known protective antigens, virulence factors, and genes closely related to Brucella vaccines. These VO-interacting Brucella genes were significantly over-represented in biological functional categories, including metabolite transport and metabolism, replication and repair, cell wall biogenesis, intracellular trafficking and secretion, posttranslational modification, and chaperones. Furthermore, a comprehensive interaction network of Brucella vaccines and genes were

  18. New directions in evidence-based policy research: a critical analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Kathryn; Lorenc, Theo; Innvær, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Despite 40 years of research into evidence-based policy (EBP) and a continued drive from both policymakers and researchers to increase research uptake in policy, barriers to the use of evidence are persistently identified in the literature. However, it is not clear what explains this persistence - whether they represent real factors, or if they are artefacts of approaches used to study EBP. Based on an updated review, this paper analyses this literature to explain persistent barriers and facilitators. We critically describe the literature in terms of its theoretical underpinnings, definitions of 'evidence', methods, and underlying assumptions of research in the field, and aim to illuminate the EBP discourse by comparison with approaches from other fields. Much of the research in this area is theoretically naive, focusing primarily on the uptake of research evidence as opposed to evidence defined more broadly, and privileging academics' research priorities over those of policymakers. Little empirical data analysing the processes or impact of evidence use in policy is available to inform researchers or decision-makers. EBP research often assumes that policymakers do not use evidence and that more evidence - meaning research evidence - use would benefit policymakers and populations. We argue that these assumptions are unsupported, biasing much of EBP research. The agenda of 'getting evidence into policy' has side-lined the empirical description and analysis of how research and policy actually interact in vivo. Rather than asking how research evidence can be made more influential, academics should aim to understand what influences and constitutes policy, and produce more critically and theoretically informed studies of decision-making. We question the main assumptions made by EBP researchers, explore the implications of doing so, and propose new directions for EBP research, and health policy. PMID:25023520

  19. A Retrospective Analysis of Dissemination Biases in the Brief Alcohol Intervention Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Polanin, Joshua R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined dissemination and reporting biases in the brief alcohol intervention literature. We used retrospective data from 179 controlled trials included in a meta-analysis on brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults. We examined whether the magnitude and direction of effect sizes were associated with publication type, identification source, language, funding, time lag between intervention and publication, number of reports, journal impact factor, and subsequent citations. Results indicated that effect sizes were larger for studies that had been funded (b = 0.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.04, 0.23]), had a shorter time lag between intervention and publication (b = −0.03, 95% CI [−0.05, −.001]), and cited more frequently (b = 0.01, 95% CI [+0.00, 0.01]). Studies that were cited more frequently by other authors also had greater odds of reporting positive effects (odds ratio = 1.10, 95% CI [1.02, 1.18]). Results indicated that time lag bias has increased recently: larger and positive effect sizes were published more quickly in recent years. We found no evidence, however, that the magnitude or direction of effects was associated with location source, language, or journal impact factor. We conclude that dissemination biases may indeed occur in the social and behavioral science literature, as has been consistently documented in the medical literature. As such, primary researchers, journal reviewers, editors, systematic reviewers, and meta-analysts must be cognizant of the causes and consequences of these biases, and commit to engage in ethical research practices that attempt to minimize them. PMID:25134044

  20. New directions in evidence-based policy research: a critical analysis of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Despite 40 years of research into evidence-based policy (EBP) and a continued drive from both policymakers and researchers to increase research uptake in policy, barriers to the use of evidence are persistently identified in the literature. However, it is not clear what explains this persistence – whether they represent real factors, or if they are artefacts of approaches used to study EBP. Based on an updated review, this paper analyses this literature to explain persistent barriers and facilitators. We critically describe the literature in terms of its theoretical underpinnings, definitions of ‘evidence’, methods, and underlying assumptions of research in the field, and aim to illuminate the EBP discourse by comparison with approaches from other fields. Much of the research in this area is theoretically naive, focusing primarily on the uptake of research evidence as opposed to evidence defined more broadly, and privileging academics’ research priorities over those of policymakers. Little empirical data analysing the processes or impact of evidence use in policy is available to inform researchers or decision-makers. EBP research often assumes that policymakers do not use evidence and that more evidence – meaning research evidence – use would benefit policymakers and populations. We argue that these assumptions are unsupported, biasing much of EBP research. The agenda of ‘getting evidence into policy’ has side-lined the empirical description and analysis of how research and policy actually interact in vivo. Rather than asking how research evidence can be made more influential, academics should aim to understand what influences and constitutes policy, and produce more critically and theoretically informed studies of decision-making. We question the main assumptions made by EBP researchers, explore the implications of doing so, and propose new directions for EBP research, and health policy. PMID:25023520

  1. Derivation and Cross-Validation of Cutoff Scores for Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders on WAIS-IV Digit Span-Based Performance Validity Measures.

    PubMed

    Glassmire, David M; Toofanian Ross, Parnian; Kinney, Dominique I; Nitch, Stephen R

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify and cross-validate cutoff scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Digit Span-based embedded performance validity (PV) measures for individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In Study 1, normative scores were identified on Digit Span-embedded PV measures among a sample of patients (n = 84) with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses who had no known incentive to perform poorly and who put forth valid effort on external PV tests. Previously identified cutoff scores resulted in unacceptable false positive rates and lower cutoff scores were adopted to maintain specificity levels ≥90%. In Study 2, the revised cutoff scores were cross-validated within a sample of schizophrenia spectrum patients (n = 96) committed as incompetent to stand trial. Performance on Digit Span PV measures was significantly related to Full Scale IQ in both studies, indicating the need to consider the intellectual functioning of examinees with psychotic spectrum disorders when interpreting scores on Digit Span PV measures. PMID:25997434

  2. A meta-analysis of the published literature on the effectiveness of antimicrobial soaps.

    PubMed

    Montville, Rebecca; Schaffner, Donald W

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this research was to conduct a systematic quantitative analysis of the existing data in the literature in order to determine if there is a difference between antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soaps and to identify the methodological factors that might affect this difference. Data on hand washing efficacy and experimental conditions (sample size, wash duration, soap quantity, challenge organism, inoculum size, and neutralization method) from published studies were compiled and transferred to a relational database. A total of 25 publications, containing 374 observations, met the study selection criteria. The majority of the studies included fewer than 15 observations with each treatment and included a direct comparison between nonantimicrobial soap and antimicrobial soap. Although differences in efficacy between antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soap were small (∼0.5-log CFU reduction difference), antimicrobial soap produced consistently statistically significantly greater reductions. This difference was true for any of the antimicrobial compounds investigated where n was >20 (chlorhexidine gluconate, iodophor, triclosan, or povidone). Average log reductions were statistically significantly greater (∼2 log CFU) when either gram-positive or gram-negative transient organisms were deliberately added to hands compared with experiments done with resident hand flora (∼0.5 log CFU). Our findings support the importance of using a high initial inoculum on the hands, well above the detection limit. The inherent variability in hand washing seen in the published literature underscores the importance of using a sufficiently large sample size to detect differences when they occur. PMID:22054188

  3. Determination of snow avalanche return periods using a tree-ring based reconstruction in the French Alps: cross validation with the predictions of a statistical-dynamical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schläppy, Romain; Eckert, Nicolas; Jomelli, Vincent; Grancher, Delphine; Brunstein, Daniel; Stoffel, Markus; Naaim, Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    rare events, i.e. to the tail of the local runout distance distribution. Furthermore, a good agreement exists with the statistical-numerical model's prediction, i.e. a 10-40 m difference for return periods ranging between 10 and 300 years, which is rather small with regards to the uncertainty levels to be considered in avalanche probabilistic modeling and dendrochronological reconstructions. It is important to note that such a cross validation on independent extreme predictions has never been undertaken before. It suggest that i) dendrochronological reconstruction can provide valuable information for anticipating future extreme avalanche events in the context of risk management, and, in turn, that ii) the statistical-numerical model, while properly calibrated, can be used with reasonable confidence to refine these predictions, with for instance evaluation of pressure and flow depth distributions at each position of the runout zone. A strong sensitivity to the determination of local avalanche and dendrological record frequencies is however highlighted, indicating that this step is an essential step for an accurate probabilistic characterization of large-extent events.

  4. Assessment of Student Skills for Critiquing Published Primary Scientific Literature Using a Primary Trait Analysis Scale

    PubMed Central

    VARELA, MANUEL F.; LUTNESKY, MARVIN M. F.; OSGOOD, MARCY P.

    2005-01-01

    Instructor evaluation of progressive student skills in the analysis of primary literature is critical for the development of these skills in young scientists. Students in a senior or graduate-level one-semester course in Immunology at a Masters-level comprehensive university were assessed for abilities (primary traits) to recognize and evaluate the following elements of a scientific paper: Hypothesis and Rationale, Significance, Methods, Results, Critical Thinking and Analysis, and Conclusions. We tested the hypotheses that average recognition scores vary among elements and that scores change with time differently by trait. Recognition scores (scaled 1 to 5), and differences in scores were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), regression, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) (n = 10 papers over 103 days). By multiple comparisons testing, we found that recognition scores statistically fell into two groups: high scores (for Hypothesis and Rationale, Significance, Methods, and Conclusions) and low scores (for Results and Critical Thinking and Analysis). Recognition scores only significantly changed with time (increased) for Hypothesis and Rationale and Results. ANCOVA showed that changes in recognition scores for these elements were not significantly different in slope (F1,16 = 0.254, P = 0.621) but the Results trait was significantly lower in elevation (F1,17 = 12.456, P = 0.003). Thus, students improved with similar trajectories, but starting and ending with lower Results scores. We conclude that students have greatest difficulty evaluating Results and critically evaluating scientific validity. Our findings show extant student skills, and the significant increase in some traits shows learning. This study demonstrates that students start with variable recognition skills and that student skills may be learned at differential rates. Faculty can use these findings or the primary trait analysis scoring scale to focus on specific paper elements for which they desire

  5. Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected colorectal cancer metastases: Literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brandi, Giovanni; De Lorenzo, Stefania; Nannini, Margherita; Curti, Stefania; Ottone, Marta; Dall’Olio, Filippo Gustavo; Barbera, Maria Aurelia; Pantaleo, Maria Abbondanza; Biasco, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection is the only option of cure for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the risk of recurrence within 18 mo after metastasectomy is around 75% and the liver is the most frequent site of relapse. The current international guidelines recommend an adjuvant therapy after surgical resection of CRC metastases despite the lower level of evidence (based on the quality of studies in this setting). However, there is still no standard treatment and the effective role of an adjuvant therapy remains controversial. The aim of this review is to report the state-of-art of systemic chemotherapy and regional chemotherapy with hepatic arterial infusion in the management of patients after resection of metastases from CRC, with a literature review and meta-analysis of the relevant randomized controlled trials. PMID:26811604

  6. The Historical Necessity for--and Difficulties with--New Historical Analysis in Introductory Literature Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Brook

    1987-01-01

    Reflects on the role of New Historicism in teaching literature and remarks on the lack of historical awareness in students today. Offers suggestions for connecting history, as well as other disciplines, to literature to combat currently fragmented college educations. (JC)

  7. Arteriovenous malformations of the corpus callosum: Pooled analysis and systematic review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Pabaney, Aqueel H.; Ali, Rushna; Kole, Maximillian; Malik, Ghaus M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the corpus callosum (CC) are rare entities. We performed a systematic review of the available literature to better define the natural history, patient characteristics, and treatment options for these lesions. Methods: A MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and The Cochrane Library search were performed for studies published through June 2015. Data from all eligible studies were used to examine epidemiology, natural history, clinical features, treatment strategies, and outcomes of patients with CC-AVMs. A systematic review and pooled analysis of the literature were performed. Results: Our search yielded 37 reports and 230 patients. Mean age at presentation was 26.8 years (±13.12 years). AVMs were most commonly located in the splenium (43%), followed by the body (31%), and then the genu (23%) of the CC. A Spetzler-Martin grade of III was the most common (37%). One hundred eighty-seven (81.3%) patients presented with hemorrhage, 91 (40%) underwent microsurgical excision, and 87 (38%) underwent endovascular embolization. Radiosurgery was performed on 57 (25%) patients. Complete obliteration of the AVM was achieved in 102 (48.1%) patients and approximately twice as often when microsurgery was performed alone or in combination with other treatment modalities (94% vs. 49%; P < 0.001). Mean modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at presentation was 1.54 and mean mRS at last follow-up was 1.31. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.35). Conclusion: We present an analysis of the pooled data in the form of a systematic review focusing on management of CC-AVMs. This review aims to provide a valuable tool to aid in decision making when dealing with this particular subtype of AVM. PMID:27127713

  8. A critical analysis of the literature on the Internet and consumer health information.

    PubMed

    Powell, J A; Lowe, P; Griffiths, F E; Thorogood, M

    2005-01-01

    A critical review of the published literature investigating the Internet and consumer health information was undertaken in order to inform further research and policy. A qualitative, narrative method was used, consisting of a three-stage process of identification and collation, thematic coding, and critical analysis. This analysis identified five main themes in the research in this area: (1) the quality of online health information for consumers; (2) consumer use of the Internet for health information; (3) the effect of e-health on the practitioner-patient relationship; (4) virtual communities and online social support and (5) the electronic delivery of information-based interventions. Analysis of these themes revealed more about the concerns of health professionals than about the effect of the Internet on users. Much of the existing work has concentrated on quantifying characteristics of the Internet: for example, measuring the quality of online information, or describing the numbers of users in different health-care settings. There is a lack of qualitative research that explores how citizens are actually using the Internet for health care. PMID:16035990

  9. A Systematic Approach to Conducting a Non-statistical Meta-analysis of Research Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Carole J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A rigorous approach to conducting nonstatistical meta-analyses of research literature is presented and illustrated in a study of literature on primary care medical specialty choice. The approach described includes model development, literature retrieval and coding, quality rating, annotation of high-quality references, and synthesizing the subset…

  10. The Representation of Asian Americans in Children's Literature: A Content Analysis of Texas Reading Basals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Agnes C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's literature serves as mirrors and windows for the students we teach today. Through literature, children should be able to see their own reflections as well as the world around them. Yet despite their long history in the United States, Asian Americans have not always been represented in children's literature. This study analyzed the…

  11. A Systematic Review of Perennial Staple Crops Literature Using Topic Modeling and Bibliometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Research on perennial staple crops has increased in the past ten years due to their potential to improve ecosystem services in agricultural systems. However, multiple past breeding efforts as well as research on traditional ratoon systems mean there is already a broad body of literature on perennial crops. In this review, we compare the development of research on perennial staple crops, including wheat, rice, rye, sorghum, and pigeon pea. We utilized the advanced search capabilities of Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Agricola to gather a library of 914 articles published from 1930 to the present. We analyzed the metadata in the entire library and in collections of literature on each crop to understand trends in research and publishing. In addition, we applied topic modeling to the article abstracts, a type of text analysis that identifies frequently co-occurring terms and latent topics. We found: 1.) Research on perennials is increasing overall, but individual crops have each seen periods of heightened interest and research activity; 2.) Specialist journals play an important role in supporting early research efforts. Research often begins within communities of specialists or breeders for the individual crop before transitioning to a more general scientific audience; 3.) Existing perennial agricultural systems and their domesticated crop material, such as ratoon rice systems, can provide a useful foundation for breeding efforts, accelerating the development of truly perennial crops and farming systems; 4.) Primary research is lacking for crops that are produced on a smaller scale globally, such as pigeon pea and sorghum, and on the ecosystem service benefits of perennial agricultural systems. PMID:27213283

  12. Self-expandable metal stents for malignant gastric outlet obstruction: A pooled analysis of prospective literature

    PubMed Central

    van Halsema, Emo E; Rauws, Erik AJ; Fockens, Paul; van Hooft, Jeanin E

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To provide an overview of the clinical outcomes of self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (MGOO). METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed of the literature published between January 2009 and March 2015. Only prospective studies that reported on the clinical success of stent placement for MGOO were included. The primary endpoint was clinical success, defined according to the definition used in the original article. Data were pooled and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Subgroup analyses were performed for partially covered SEMSs (PCSEMSs) and uncovered SEMSs (UCSEMSs) using Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS: A total of 19 studies, including 1281 patients, were included in the final analysis. Gastric (42%) and pancreatic (37%) cancer were the main causes of MGOO. UCSEMSs were used in 76% of patients and PCSEMSs in 24%. The overall pooled technical success rate was 97.3% and the clinical success rate was 85.7%. Stent dysfunction occurred in 19.6% of patients, mainly caused by re-obstruction (12.6%) and stent migration (4.3%), and was comparable between PCSEMSs and UCSEMSs (21.2% vs 19.1%, respectively, P = 0.412). Re-obstruction was more common with UCSEMSs (14.9% vs 5.1%, P < 0.001) and stent migration was more frequent after PCSEMS placement (10.9% vs 2.2%, P < 0.001). The overall perforation rate was 1.2%. Bleeding was reported in 4.1% of patients, including major bleeding in 0.8%. The median stent patency ranged from 68 to 307 d in five studies. The median overall survival ranged from 49 to 183 d in 13 studies. CONCLUSION: The clinical outcomes in this large population showed that enteral stent placement was feasible, effective and safe. Therefore, stent placement is a valid treatment option for the palliation of MGOO. PMID:26604654

  13. A Systematic Review of Perennial Staple Crops Literature Using Topic Modeling and Bibliometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kane, Daniel A; Rogé, Paul; Snapp, Sieglinde S

    2016-01-01

    Research on perennial staple crops has increased in the past ten years due to their potential to improve ecosystem services in agricultural systems. However, multiple past breeding efforts as well as research on traditional ratoon systems mean there is already a broad body of literature on perennial crops. In this review, we compare the development of research on perennial staple crops, including wheat, rice, rye, sorghum, and pigeon pea. We utilized the advanced search capabilities of Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Agricola to gather a library of 914 articles published from 1930 to the present. We analyzed the metadata in the entire library and in collections of literature on each crop to understand trends in research and publishing. In addition, we applied topic modeling to the article abstracts, a type of text analysis that identifies frequently co-occurring terms and latent topics. We found: 1.) Research on perennials is increasing overall, but individual crops have each seen periods of heightened interest and research activity; 2.) Specialist journals play an important role in supporting early research efforts. Research often begins within communities of specialists or breeders for the individual crop before transitioning to a more general scientific audience; 3.) Existing perennial agricultural systems and their domesticated crop material, such as ratoon rice systems, can provide a useful foundation for breeding efforts, accelerating the development of truly perennial crops and farming systems; 4.) Primary research is lacking for crops that are produced on a smaller scale globally, such as pigeon pea and sorghum, and on the ecosystem service benefits of perennial agricultural systems. PMID:27213283

  14. Improved enteral tolerance following step procedure: systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Melissa A; Usatin, Danielle; Allen, Isabel E; Rhee, Sue; Vu, Lan

    2016-10-01

    Surgical management of children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) changed with the introduction of the serial transverse enteroplasty procedure (STEP). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis using MEDLINE and SCOPUS to determine if children with SBS had improved enteral tolerance following STEP. Studies were included if information about a child's pre- and post-STEP enteral tolerance was provided. A random effects meta-analysis provided a summary estimate of the proportion of children with enteral tolerance increase following STEP. From 766 abstracts, seven case series involving 86 children were included. Mean percent tolerance of enteral nutrition improved from 35.1 to 69.5. Sixteen children had no enteral improvement following STEP. A summary estimate showed that 87 % (95 % CI 77-95 %) of children who underwent STEP had an increase in enteral tolerance. Compilation of the literature supports the belief that SBS subjects' enteral tolerance improves following STEP. Enteral nutritional tolerance is a measure of efficacy of STEP and should be presented as a primary or secondary outcome. By standardizing data collection on children undergoing STEP procedure, better determination of nutritional benefit from STEP can be ascertained. PMID:27461428

  15. Accuracy of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction: systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ciro Martins; Mazin, Suleimy Cristina; dos Santos, Elisa Raphael; Cesetti, Mariana Vicente; Bächtold, Guilherme Albergaria Brízida; Cordeiro, João Henrique de Freitas; Theodoro, Fabrício Claudino Estrela Terra; Damasco, Fabiana dos Santos; Carranza, Sebastián Andrés Vernal; Santos, Adriana de Oliveira; Roselino, Ana Maria; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is hampered by the absence of a gold standard. An accurate diagnosis is essential because of the high toxicity of the medications for the disease. This study aimed to assess the ability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MCL and to compare these results with clinical research recently published by the authors. A systematic literature review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA Statement was performed using comprehensive search criteria and communication with the authors. A meta-analysis considering the estimates of the univariate and bivariate models was performed. Specificity near 100% was common among the papers. The primary reason for accuracy differences was sensitivity. The meta-analysis, which was only possible for PCR samples of lesion fragments, revealed a sensitivity of 71% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.59; 0.81] and a specificity of 93% (95% CI = 0.83; 0.98) in the bivariate model. The search for measures that could increase the sensitivity of PCR should be encouraged. The quality of the collected material and the optimisation of the amplification of genetic material should be prioritised. PMID:25946238

  16. Breast volumetric analysis for aesthetic planning in breast reconstruction: a literature review of techniques

    PubMed Central

    Rozen, Warren Matthew; Spychal, Robert T.; Hunter-Smith, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate volumetric analysis is an essential component of preoperative planning in both reconstructive and aesthetic breast procedures towards achieving symmetrization and patient-satisfactory outcome. Numerous comparative studies and reviews of individual techniques have been reported. However, a unifying review of all techniques comparing their accuracy, reliability, and practicality has been lacking. Methods A review of the published English literature dating from 1950 to 2015 using databases, such as PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and EMBASE, was undertaken. Results Since Bouman’s first description of water displacement method, a range of volumetric assessment techniques have been described: thermoplastic casting, direct anthropomorphic measurement, two-dimensional (2D) imaging, and computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. However, most have been unreliable, difficult to execute and demonstrate limited practicability. Introduction of 3D surface imaging has revolutionized the field due to its ease of use, fast speed, accuracy, and reliability. However, its widespread use has been limited by its high cost and lack of high level of evidence. Recent developments have unveiled the first web-based 3D surface imaging program, 4D imaging, and 3D printing. Conclusions Despite its importance, an accurate, reliable, and simple breast volumetric analysis tool has been elusive until the introduction of 3D surface imaging technology. However, its high cost has limited its wide usage. Novel adjunct technologies, such as web-based 3D surface imaging program, 4D imaging, and 3D printing, appear promising. PMID:27047788

  17. Gastroesophageal reflux/laryngopharyngeal reflux disease: a critical analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kotby, M N; Hassan, O; El-Makhzangy, Aly M N; Farahat, M; Milad, P

    2010-02-01

    Despite the wealth of publications on the topic of gastroesophageal reflux and its variants, there are still many unsettled questions before one accepts the prevalent cult of "reflux disease". This study is summarizing the results of the critical analysis of the literature, 436 articles,during the last 30 years. The golden test to identify the patient group suffering from this rather common phenomenon is still lacking. The claimed extra-esophageal manifestations especially in the larynx are non-specific and may be caused by other factors well-known within the domain of vocology. The response to therapeutic intervention still lacks serious well-controlled studies to allow drawing reasonable conclusions. An outstanding feature of the publications is that most of them fall in the category of "review". It seems that there is a tendency to perpetuate the concept without objective criticism. Following the analysis, a recommendation for anew plan of original well-controlled multi-center studies is highlighted. PMID:20033194

  18. Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. I. Cross Validation of Polarization Measurements by Impedance Spectroscopy and Current-Potential Sweep

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiao Dong; Pederson, Larry R.; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2009-12-09

    The aim of this paper is to address three issues in solid oxide fuel cells: (1) cross-validation of the polarization of a single cell measured using both dc and ac approaches, (2) the precise determination of the total areal specific resistance (ASR), and (3) understanding cathode polarization with LSCF cathodes. The ASR of a solid oxide fuel cell is a dynamic property, meaning that it changes with current density. The ASR measured using ac impedance spectroscopy (low frequency interception with real Z´ axis of ac impedance spectrum) matches with that measured from a dc IV sweep (the tangent of dc i-V curve). Due to the dynamic nature of ASR, we found that an ac impedance spectrum measured under open circuit voltage or on a half cell may not represent cathode performance under real operating conditions, particularly at high current density. In this work, the electrode polarization was governed by the cathode activation polarization; the anode contribution was negligible.

  19. Robustness of two single-item self-esteem measures: cross-validation with a measure of stigma in a sample of psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Christopher

    2005-08-01

    Robins' Single-item Self-esteem Inventory was compared with a single item from the Coopersmith Self-esteem. Although a new scoring format was used, there was good evidence of cross-validation in 83 current and former psychiatric patients who completed Harvey's adapted measure of stigma felt and experienced by users of mental health services. Scores on the two single-item self-esteem measures correlated .76 (p < .001), .76 and .71 with scores on the longer scales from which they were taken, and .58 and .53, respectively, with Harvey's adapted stigma scale. Complex and perhaps competing models may explain links between felt stigma and poorer self-esteem in users of mental health services. PMID:16350637

  20. Determinants of exposure to metalworking fluid aerosols: a literature review and analysis of reported measurements.

    PubMed

    Park, Donguk; Stewart, Patrica A; Coble, Joseph B

    2009-04-01

    An extensive literature review of published metalworking fluid (MWF) aerosol measurement data was conducted to identify the major determinants that may affect exposure to aerosol fractions (total or inhalable, thoracic and respirable) and mass median diameters (MMDs). The identification of determinants was conducted through published studies and analysis of published measurement levels. For the latter, weighted arithmetic means (WAMs) by number of measurements were calculated and compared using analysis of variance and t-tests. The literature review found that the major factors affecting aerosol exposure levels were, primarily, decade, type of industry, operation and fluid and engineering control measures. Our analysis of total aerosol levels found a significant decline in measured levels from an average of 5.36 mg m(-3) prior to the 1970s and 2.52 mg m(-3) in the 1970s to 1.21 mg m(-3) in the 1980s, 0.50 mg m(-3) in the 1990s and 0.55 mg m(-3) in the 2000s. Significant declines from the 1990s to the 2000s also were found in thoracic fraction levels (0.48 versus 0.40 mg m(-3)), but not for the respirable fraction. The WAMs for the auto (1.47 mg m(-3)) and auto parts manufacturing industry (1.83 mg m(-3)) were significantly higher than that for small-job machine shops (0.68 mg m(-3)). In addition, a significant difference in the thoracic WAM was found between the automotive industry (0.46 mg m(-3)) and small-job machine shops (0.32 mg m(-3)). Operation type, in particular, grinding, was a significant factor affecting the total aerosol fraction [grinding operations (1.75 mg m(-3)) versus other machining (0.95 mg m(-3))], but the levels associated with these operations were not statistically different for either the thoracic or the respirable fractions. Across all decades, the total aerosol fraction for straight oils (1.49 mg m(-3)) was higher than for other fluid types (soluble = 1.08 mg m(-3), synthetic = 0.52 mg m(-3) and semisynthetic = 0.50 mg m(-3)). Fluid type

  1. Determinants of Exposure to Metalworking Fluid Aerosols: A Literature Review and Analysis of Reported Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Park, Donguk; Stewart, Patrica A.; Coble, Joseph B.

    2009-01-01

    An extensive literature review of published metalworking fluid (MWF) aerosol measurement data was conducted to identify the major determinants that may affect exposure to aerosol fractions (total or inhalable, thoracic and respirable) and mass median diameters (MMDs). The identification of determinants was conducted through published studies and analysis of published measurement levels. For the latter, weighted arithmetic means (WAMs) by number of measurements were calculated and compared using analysis of variance and t-tests. The literature review found that the major factors affecting aerosol exposure levels were, primarily, decade, type of industry, operation and fluid and engineering control measures. Our analysis of total aerosol levels found a significant decline in measured levels from an average of 5.36 mg m−3 prior to the 1970s and 2.52 mg m−3 in the 1970s to 1.21 mg m−3 in the 1980s, 0.50 mg m−3 in the 1990s and 0.55 mg m−3 in the 2000s. Significant declines from the 1990s to the 2000s also were found in thoracic fraction levels (0.48 versus 0.40 mg m−3), but not for the respirable fraction. The WAMs for the auto (1.47 mg m−3) and auto parts manufacturing industry (1.83 mg m−3) were significantly higher than that for small-job machine shops (0.68 mg m−3). In addition, a significant difference in the thoracic WAM was found between the automotive industry (0.46 mg m−3) and small-job machine shops (0.32 mg m−3). Operation type, in particular, grinding, was a significant factor affecting the total aerosol fraction [grinding operations (1.75 mg m−3) versus other machining (0.95 mg m−3)], but the levels associated with these operations were not statistically different for either the thoracic or the respirable fractions. Across all decades, the total aerosol fraction for straight oils (1.49 mg m−3) was higher than for other fluid types (soluble = 1.08 mg m−3, synthetic = 0.52 mg m−3 and semisynthetic = 0.50 mg m−3

  2. SILAC-Pulse Proteolysis: A Mass Spectrometry-Based Method for Discovery and Cross-Validation in Proteome-Wide Studies of Ligand Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Jagat; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2014-12-01

    Reported here is the use of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and pulse proteolysis (PP) for detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions on the proteomic scale. The incorporation of SILAC into PP enables the PP technique to be used for the unbiased detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions in complex biological mixtures (e.g., cell lysates) without the need for prefractionation. The SILAC-PP technique is demonstrated in two proof-of-principle experiments using proteins in a yeast cell lysate and two test ligands including a well-characterized drug, cyclosporine A (CsA), and a non-hydrolyzable adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analogue, adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). The well-known tight-binding interaction between CsA and cyclophilin A was successfully detected and quantified in replicate analyses, and a total of 33 proteins from a yeast cell lysate were found to have AMP-PNP-induced stability changes. In control experiments, the method's false positive rate of protein target discovery was found to be in the range of 2.1% to 3.6%. SILAC-PP and the previously reported stability of protein from rates of oxidation (SPROX) technique both report on the same thermodynamic properties of proteins and protein-ligand complexes. However, they employ different probes and mass spectrometry-based readouts. This creates the opportunity to cross-validate SPROX results with SILAC-PP results, and vice-versa. As part of this work, the SILAC-PP results obtained here were cross-validated with previously reported SPROX results on the same model systems to help differentiate true positives from false positives in the two experiments.

  3. "Demographic faultlines: A meta-analysis of the literature": Retraction of Thatcher and Patel (2011).

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Reports the retraction of "Demographic faultlines: A meta-analysis of the literature" by Sherry M. B. Thatcher and Pankaj C. Patel (, 2011[Nov], Vol 96[6], 1119-1139). At the request of the editor and in consultation with the American Psychological Association, the article is being retracted. This action is a result of a review by the editor and two additional experts that determined that there are significant errors in Tables 1, 2, and 3 which may affect the overall conclusions of the article. Co-author Pankaj C. Patel led the analysis, and both authors acknowledge that inaccuracies were made. The retraction of this article does not preclude resubmission of a new article that addresses the issues noted in the retraction. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record .) We propose and test a theoretical model focusing on antecedents and consequences of demographic faultlines. We also posit contingencies that affect overall team dynamics in the context of demographic faultlines, such as the study setting and performance measurement. Using meta-analysis structural equation modeling with a final data set consisting of 311 data points (i.e., [predictor-criterion relationships]), from 39 studies that were obtained from 36 papers with a total sample size of 24,388 individuals in 4,366 teams, we found that sex and racial diversity increased demographic faultline strength more than did diversity on the attributes of functional background, educational background, age, and tenure. Demographic faultline strength was found to increase task and relationship conflict as well as decrease team cohesion. Furthermore, although demographic faultline strength decreased both team satisfaction and team performance, there was a stronger decrease in team performance than in team satisfaction. The strength of these relationships increased when the study was conducted in the lab rather than in the field. We describe the theoretical and practical implications of these

  4. Association between diabetes mellitus and osteoarthritis: systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Louati, Karine; Vidal, Céline; Berenbaum, Francis; Sellam, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and prevalence of DM in patients with OA and whether OA and DM are associated. Design A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. We included cohort, case–control and cross-sectional studies assessing the number of patients with DM and/or OA. The mean prevalence of OA among patients with DM and DM among patients with OA was calculated. Data from trials assessing an association of diabetes and OA were pooled and results are presented as unadjusted OR and 95% CI. Results From the 299 publications, we included 49 studies in the analysis, including 28 cross-sectional studies, 11 cohort studies and 10 case–control studies. In all, 21, 5 and 23 articles involved patients with OA exclusively, patients with DM and the general population, respectively. For 5788 patients with DM, the mean OA prevalence was 29.5±1.2%. For 645 089 patients with OA, the prevalence of DM was 14.4±0.1%. The risk of OA was greater in the DM than non-DM population (OR=1.46 (1.08 to 1.96), p=0.01), as was DM in the OA than non-OA population (OR=1.41 (1.21 to 1.65), p<0.00 001). Among the 12 studies reporting an OR adjusted on at least the body mass index, 5 showed no association of DM and OA and 7 identified DM as an independent risk factor. Conclusions This meta-analysis highlights a high frequency of OA in patients with DM and an association between both diseases, representing a further step towards the individualisation of DM-related OA within a metabolic OA phenotype. PMID:26535137

  5. A bayesian cross-validation approach to evaluate genetic baselines and forecast the necessary number of informative single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixed stock analysis (MSA) is a powerful tool used in the management and conservation of numerous species. Its function is to estimate the sources of contributions in a mixture of populations of a species, as well as to estimate the probabilities that individuals originated at a source. Considerable...

  6. Evaluating the Replicability of Multivariate Assessment and Evaluation Results: A Review of Various Applications of the Cross-Validation Logic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Susan L.; Thompson, Bruce

    Selected methods for evaluating the stability of research results empirically are described, especially with regard to multivariate analysis. It is critically important to evaluate the influences of sampling error on obtained results; statistical significance testing does not inform judgment regarding the probable replicability or the sampling…

  7. Cost-benefit analysis of drug treatment services: review of the literature*

    PubMed

    Cartwright, William S.

    2000-03-01

    BACKGROUND: How valuable is public investment in treatment for drug abuse and dependency in the real world of everyday practice? Does drug abuse treatment provide benefits and how are they valued? What are the costs of obtaining outcomes and benefits? Cost-benefit analysis attempts to answer these questions in a standard analytic framework. AIMS: This paper reviews cost-benefit analyses with scientific merit so that analysts will have a current picture of the state of the research. It will also give public decision-makers information with regards to the available evidence for policy purposes. METHOD: Bibliographic searches were performed. Studies were obtained through the assistance of the Parklawn Health Library system, a component of the US Public Health Service. Selected studies were from the scientific literature with the exception of eight studies published as governmental reports. RESULTS: Cost-benefit studies have fallen into the following categories: (i) planning models for delivery systems in states and cities; (ii) short-term follow-up studies of individuals, (iii) single individual programs and (iv) state system's monitoring of outcomes. In 18 cost-benefit studies, a persistent finding is that benefits exceed costs, even when not all benefits are accounted for in the analysis. Much variation is found in the implementation of cost-benefit methods, and this is detailed across discussions of effectiveness, benefits and costs. Studies have emphasized the cost savings to society from the reduction in external costs created by the behavioral consequences of addiction and drug use. DISCUSSION: Economic analysis of drug treatment requires sophisticated conceptualization and measurement. Cost-benefit analysis of drug treatment has been a significant analytical exercise since the early 1970s when the public drug treatment system was founded in the United States. CONCLUSION: Drug abuse treatment services may be considered as contributing positive economic returns

  8. 5-ALA Fluorescence Image Guided Resection of Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Eljamel, Samy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most deadly cancers in humans. Despite recent advances in anti-cancer therapies, most patients with GBM die from local disease progression. Fluorescence image guided surgical resection (FIGR) was recently advocated to enhance local control of GBM. This is meta-analyses of 5-aminolevulinic (5-ALA) induced FIGR. Materials: Review of the literature produced 503 potential publications; only 20 of these fulfilled the inclusion criteria of this analysis, including a total of 565 patients treated with 5-ALA-FIGR reporting on its outcomes and 800 histological samples reporting 5-ALA-FIGR sensitivity and specificity. Results: The mean gross total resection (GTR) rate was 75.4% (95% CI: 67.4–83.5, p < 0.001). The mean time to tumor progression (TTP) was 8.1 months (95% CI: 4.7–12, p < 0.001). The mean overall survival gain reported was 6.2 months (95% CI: −1–13, p < 0.001). The specificity was 88.9% (95% CI: 83.9–93.9, p < 0.001) and the sensitivity was 82.6% (95% CI: 73.9–91.9, p < 0.001). Conclusion: 5-ALA-FIGR in GBM is highly sensitive and specific, and imparts significant benefits to patients in terms of improved GTR and TTP. PMID:25961952

  9. A meta-analysis of the RTI literature for children at risk for reading disabilities.

    PubMed

    Tran, Loan; Sanchez, Tori; Arellano, Brenda; Lee Swanson, H

    2011-01-01

    This article synthesizes the literature comparing at-risk children designated as responders and low responders to interventions in reading. The central question addressed in this review is whether individual differences in reading-related skills at pretest predict responders at posttest across a variety of interventions and sets of criteria for determining responding and low responding. A total of 13 studies met criteria for the meta-analysis, yielding 107 weighted effect sizes (ESs) at posttest (M = .76, SE = .03, 95% confidence interval [CI] =.71, .81) and 108 weighted ESs at pretest (M = 1.02, SE = .03, CI = 1.02, 1.13). The results showed that the magnitude of ES between responders and low responders increased from pretest to posttest on measures of reading (e.g., real word identification = 1.06 vs. 1.53, word attack = 1.10 vs. 1.28, and passage comprehension, 0.45 vs. 1.43). Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that overall posttest ESs were significantly moderated by pretest scores as well as the type of measure administered, whereas no significant moderating effects were found for number of weeks of intervention, length of sessions, number of sessions, type of intervention (one-to-one vs. small group instruction), and criteria for defining responders (cutoff, scores, discrepancy, benchmark). Overall, the synthesis suggested that regardless of type of treatment and identification criteria, response-to-intervention (RTI) conditions were not effective in mitigating learner characteristics related to pretest conditions. PMID:21521870

  10. Economic Evaluation in Global Perspective: A Bibliometric Analysis of the Recent Literature.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Catherine; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara

    2016-02-01

    We present a bibliometric analysis of recently published full economic evaluations of health interventions and reflect critically on the implications of our findings for this growing field. We created a database drawing on 14 health, economic, and/or general literature databases for articles published between 1 January 2012 and 3 May 2014 and identified 2844 economic evaluations meeting our criteria. We present findings regarding the sensitivity, specificity, and added value of searches in the different databases. We examine the distribution of publications between countries, regions, and health areas studied and compare the relative volume of research with disease burden. We analyse authors' country and institutional affiliations, journals and journal type, language, and type of economic evaluation conducted. More than 1200 economic evaluations were published annually, of which 4% addressed low-income countries, 4% lower-middle-income countries, 14% upper-middle-income countries, and 83% high-income countries. Across country income levels, 53, 54, 86, and 100% of articles, respectively, included an author based in a country within the income level studied. Biomedical journals published 74% of economic evaluations. The volume of research across health areas correlates more closely with disease burden in high-income than in low-income and middle-income countries. Our findings provide an empirical basis for further study on methods, research prioritization, and capacity development in health economic evaluation. PMID:26804359

  11. Reading disabilities in children: A selective meta-analysis of the cognitive literature.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Milagros F; Lussier, Cathy M; Swanson, H Lee

    2015-05-01

    This article synthesizes literature that compares the academic, cognitive, and behavioral performance of children with and without reading disabilities (RD). Forty-eight studies met the criteria for the meta-analysis, yielding 735 effect sizes (ESs) with an overall weighted ES of 0.98. Small to high ESs in favor of children without RD emerged on measures of cognition (rapid naming [ES = 0.89], phonological awareness [ES = 1.00], verbal working memory [ES = 0.79], short-term memory [ES = 0.56], visual-spatial memory [ES = 0.48], and executive processing [ES = 0.67]), academic achievement (pseudoword reading [ES = 1.85], math [ES = 1.20], vocabulary [ES = 0.83], spelling [ES = 1.25], and writing [ES = 1.20]), and behavior skills (ES = 0.80). Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that specific cognitive process measures (verbal working memory, visual-spatial memory, executive processing, and short-term memory) and intelligence measures (general and verbal intelligence) significantly moderated overall group effect size differences. Overall, the results supported the assumption that cognitive deficits in children with RD are persistent. PMID:25725389

  12. Development of ADOCS controllers and control laws. Volume 2: Literature review and preliminary analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Kenneth H.; Glusman, Steven I.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Cockpit Controls/Advanced Flight Control System (ACC/AFCS) study was conducted by the Boeing Vertol Company as part of the Army's Advanced Digital/Optical Control System (ADOCS) program. Specifically, the ACC/AFCS investigation was aimed at developing the flight control laws for the ADOCS demonstrator aircraft which will provide satisfactory handling qualities for an attack helicopter mission. The three major elements of design considered are as follows: Pilot's integrated Side-Stick Controller (SSC) -- Number of axes controlled; force/displacement characteristics; ergonomic design. Stability and Control Augmentation System (SCAS)--Digital flight control laws for the various mission phases; SCAS mode switching logic. Pilot's Displays--For night/adverse weather conditions, the dynamics of the superimposed symbology presented to the pilot in a format similar to the Advanced Attack Helicopter (AAH) Pilot Night Vision System (PNVS) for each mission phase as a function of ACAS characteristics; display mode switching logic. Findings from the literature review and the analysis and synthesis of desired control laws are reported in Volume 2. Conclusions drawn from pilot rating data and commentary were used to formulate recommendations for the ADOCS demonstrator flight control system design. The ACC/AFCS simulation data also provide an extensive data base to aid the development of advanced flight control system design for future V/STOL aircraft.

  13. Swallowing sounds in speech therapy practice: a critical analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, Juliana Lopes; Mangilli, Laura Davison; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; Limongi, Suelly Cecilia Olivan; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate international scientific papers published on the subject of cervical auscultation and its use in speech therapy. The study involved a qualitative review of the literature spanning the last 10 years. Articles were selected from the PubMed database using the following keywords: cervical auscultation, swallowing and swallowing disorders. Research was included that was conducted on adult humans (over 18 years of age) and was written in English. Each citation retrieved from the database was analyzed independently by each of the study researchers to ascertain its relevance for inclusion in the study. The methodology involved formulating the research question, locating and selecting studies and critically evaluating the articles according to the precepts of the Cochrane Handbook. As a result, 35 studies were identified; 13 articles were analyzed because they allowed access to the full text and were related directly to the subject. We found that the studies were performed with groups of healthy subjects and subjects with different types of base pathology. Some studies compared the patterns found in the different groups. Some of the research sought to study the pattern of swallowing sounds with different factors - evaluator experience, the specificity and sensitivity of the method and how to improve the technique of cervical auscultation through the use of instruments other than the stethoscope. The conclusion of this critical analysis is that cervical auscultation is an important tool to be used in conjunction with other assessment methods in the routine clinical evaluation of swallowing. PMID:24488399

  14. Does benzene cause multiple myeloma? An analysis of the published case-control literature

    SciTech Connect

    Bezabeh, S.; Engel, A.; Morris, C.B.; Lamm, S.H.

    1996-12-01

    Two case series and two epidemiological studies in the 1970s and 1980s suggested that benzene exposure might be a risk factor for multiple myeloma. An analysis has now been conducted of the published population-based and hospital-based case-control studies published through mid-1995 that permit examination of the relationship between multiple myeloma and benzene exposure or surrogates for benzene exposure. No increased association was found between multiple myeloma and benzene exposure or exposure to chemical groups that included benzene. The odds ratios from these analyses approximated 1.0. Exposures to petroleum products and employment in petroleum-related occupations did not appear to be risk factors for multiple myeloma. Cigarette smoking, as a surrogate of benzene exposure, was not found to be associated with multiple myeloma, while some studies of products of combustion described as {open_quotes}engine exhaust{close_quotes} did show a significant association with multiple myeloma. In toto, the population-based and hospital-based case-control literature indicated that benzene exposure was not a likely causal factor for multiple myeloma. 28 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Unhealthy diets, obesity and time discounting: a systematic literature review and network analysis.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Pepita; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Galea, Gauden; Stuckler, David

    2016-09-01

    There is an increasing policy commitment to address the avoidable burdens of unhealthy diet, overweight and obesity. However, to design effective policies, it is important to understand why people make unhealthy dietary choices. Research from behavioural economics suggests a critical role for time discounting, which describes how people's value of a reward, such as better health, decreases with delay to its receipt. We systematically reviewed the literature on the relationship of time discounting with unhealthy diets, overweight and obesity in Web of Science and PubMed. We identified 41 studies that met our inclusion criteria as they examined the association between time discount rates and (i) unhealthy food consumption; (ii) overweight and (iii) response to dietary and weight loss interventions. Nineteen out of 25 cross-sectional studies found time discount rates positively associated with overweight, obesity and unhealthy diets. Experimental studies indicated that lower time discounting was associated with greater weight loss. Findings varied by how time discount rates were measured; stronger results were observed for food than monetary-based measurements. Network co-citation analysis revealed a concentration of research in nutrition journals. Overall, there is moderate evidence that high time discounting is a significant risk factor for unhealthy diets, overweight and obesity and may serve as an important target for intervention. © 2016 The Authors Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO). PMID:27256685

  16. Unhealthy diets, obesity and time discounting: a systematic literature review and network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Galea, Gauden; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Summary There is an increasing policy commitment to address the avoidable burdens of unhealthy diet, overweight and obesity. However, to design effective policies, it is important to understand why people make unhealthy dietary choices. Research from behavioural economics suggests a critical role for time discounting, which describes how people's value of a reward, such as better health, decreases with delay to its receipt. We systematically reviewed the literature on the relationship of time discounting with unhealthy diets, overweight and obesity in Web of Science and PubMed. We identified 41 studies that met our inclusion criteria as they examined the association between time discount rates and (i) unhealthy food consumption; (ii) overweight and (iii) response to dietary and weight loss interventions. Nineteen out of 25 cross‐sectional studies found time discount rates positively associated with overweight, obesity and unhealthy diets. Experimental studies indicated that lower time discounting was associated with greater weight loss. Findings varied by how time discount rates were measured; stronger results were observed for food than monetary‐based measurements. Network co‐citation analysis revealed a concentration of research in nutrition journals. Overall, there is moderate evidence that high time discounting is a significant risk factor for unhealthy diets, overweight and obesity and may serve as an important target for intervention. © 2016 The Authors Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO) PMID:27256685

  17. Homonormativity in Children's Literature: An Intersectional Analysis of Queer-Themed Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jasmine Z.

    2014-01-01

    Effective social justice movements, including those at the level of children's literature, address the ways different forms of oppression intersect and affect the experiences of diverse queer identities. Children's literature can help combat heteronormative discourse by instilling at a young age the inherent value of all people.…

  18. Introducing Pre-University Students to Primary Scientific Literature through Argumentation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using (adapted) scientific publications, some for…

  19. A Quasi Meta-Analysis of the God Concept Literature from 1970 to 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesbrecht, Norman

    This literature review examines the "God concept," defined as the "cognitive or affective internal psychological representation of God." Most religions have a conception of God. In this review relevant literature focused on: (1) conceptual representations of God; (2) factors related to or predictive of these representations; and/or (3) development…

  20. The Constitution of Outdoor Education Groups: An Analysis of the Literature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zink, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    Groups are ubiquitous in outdoor education and while there is a lot of literature on groups, there is limited examination of the assumptions made about groups and the effects these assumptions have on the practices of outdoor education. I utilise some of Michel Foucault's (1992) tools to investigate literature on outdoor education groups.…

  1. Corporal Punishment in the Care of Children: A Literature Review and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Rosalie; And Others

    The literature on the use of corporal punishment with children is reviewed, legal opinions on the issue are cited, and research on the social and behavioral aspects of corporal punishment are discussed. The literature is noted to focus on guidelines for administering corporal punishment, the importance of the relationship between the adult and…

  2. Coping with Male Mid-Life: A Systematic Analysis Using Literature as a Data Source.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan

    This paper uses twentieth century American fictional literature to examine middle-age male development. Two historical periods, post World War I and post World War II, were chosen to provide a wide data base which could be analyzed over time. With seven American literature professors' aid, works of literary merit with a middle-aged male…

  3. Drug repositioning in SLE: crowd-sourcing, literature-mining and Big Data analysis.

    PubMed

    Grammer, A C; Ryals, M M; Heuer, S E; Robl, R D; Madamanchi, S; Davis, L S; Lauwerys, B; Catalina, M D; Lipsky, P E

    2016-09-01

    Lupus patients are in need of modern drugs to treat specific manifestations of their disease effectively and safely. In the past half century, only one new treatment has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In 2014-2015, the FDA approved 71 new drugs, only one of which targeted a rheumatic disease and none of which was approved for use in SLE. Repositioning/repurposing drugs approved for other diseases using multiple approaches is one possible means to find new treatment options for lupus patients. "Big Data" analysis approaches this challenge from an unbiased standpoint whereas literature mining and crowd sourcing for candidates assessed by the CoLTs (Combined Lupus Treatment Scoring) system provide a hypothesis-based approach to rank potential therapeutic candidates for possible clinical application. Both approaches mitigate risk since the candidates assessed have largely been extensively tested in clinical trials for other indications. The usefulness of a multi-pronged approach to drug repositioning in lupus is highlighted by orthogonal confirmation of hypothesis-based drug repositioning predictions by "Big Data" analysis of differentially expressed genes from lupus patient samples. The goal is to identify novel therapies that have the potential to affect disease processes specifically. Involvement of SLE patients and the scientists that study this disease in thinking about new drugs that may be effective in lupus though crowd-sourcing sites such as LRxL-STAT (www.linkedin.com/in/lrxlstat) is important in stimulating the momentum needed to test these novel drug targets for efficacy in lupus rapidly in small, proof-of-concept trials conducted by LuCIN, the Lupus Clinical Investigators Network (www.linkedin.com/in/lucinstat). PMID:27497259

  4. Qualitative Environmental Health Research: An Analysis of the Literature, 1991–2008

    PubMed Central

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent articles have advocated for the use of qualitative methods in environmental health research. Qualitative research uses nonnumeric data to understand people’s opinions, motives, understanding, and beliefs about events or phenomena. Objective In this analysis of the literature, I report the use of qualitative methods and data in the study of the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Data sources A primary search on ISI Web of Knowledge/Web of Science for peer-reviewed journal articles dated from 1991 through 2008 included the following three terms: qualitative, environ*, and health. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are described. Data extraction Searches resulted in 3,155 records. Data were extracted and findings of articles analyzed to determine where and by whom qualitative environmental health research is conducted and published, the types of methods and analyses used in qualitative studies of environmental health, and the types of information qualitative data contribute to environmental health. Data synthesis Ninety-one articles met inclusion criteria. These articles were published in 58 different journals, with a maximum of eight for a single journal. The results highlight a diversity of disciplines and techniques among researchers who used qualitative methods to study environmental health, with most studies relying on one-on-one interviews. Details of the analyses were absent from a large number of studies. Nearly all of the studies identified increased scientific understanding of lay perceptions of environmental health exposures. Discussion and conclusions Qualitative data are published in traditionally quantitative environmental health studies to a limited extent. However, this analysis demonstrates the potential of qualitative data to improve understanding of complex exposure pathways, including the influence of social factors on environmental health, and health outcomes. PMID:20421191

  5. Health, Climate Change and Sustainability: A systematic Review and Thematic Analysis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, A.; Maynard, V.; Goodman, B.; Richardson, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Evidence of climate change and its impact continues to be accumulated, and it is argued that the consequences of climate change are likely to result in an increased demand on health services. It has been claimed that climate change presents new challenges for health services and that strategies should be adopted to address these challenges. Aim: The aim of this systematic review was to map published literature on health, climate change and sustainability by categorising papers according to their focus on effects, strategy and actions, and to provide a thematic analysis of their content. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted via a range of healthcare related databases i.e. Pubmed, Medline, CINAHL, AMED, ASSIA, IBSS and ISI Web of Knowledge. Searches focussed upon papers published in English between 1998 and 2008. Retrieved papers were studied by the authors in order to inform the thematic analysis of their content. Results: A total of 114 publications were retrieved, of which 36 met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. These 36 publications were categorised and are discussed according to their focus on: effects/impacts, strategy/policy, action/examples. Conclusions: A number of papers report the potential health effects of climate change while others report policies and strategies to tackle these effects. However there is an urgent need to identify and report on the implementation of strategies to mitigate and adapt to these challenges and to publish real examples of actions. Actions that are taken need to be evidence/policy based, and implementations monitored, evaluated and published. PMID:20508757

  6. ADHD and Achievement: Meta-Analysis of the Child, Adolescent, and Adult Literatures and a Concomitant Study with College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Glutting, Joseph J.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents results from two interrelated studies. The first study conducted a meta-analysis of the published literature since 1990 to determine the magnitude of achievement problems associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Effect sizes were significantly different between participants with and without ADHD…

  7. Integrating Language and Literature: Teaching Textual Analysis with Input and Output Activities and an Input-to-Output Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber-Feve, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    The Modern Language Association report and "Profession" issue from summer 2007 (Geisler et al., 2007) are highly indicative of the increasingly debated concerns in the profession surrounding (1) the traditional division of foreign language curriculum between "language" and "literature" and (2) the instruction of textual analysis (or practice of…

  8. Acquisition and Generalization of Word Decoding in Students with Reading Disabilities by Integrating Vowel Pattern Analysis and Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, E. Judith; Brady, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a reading intervention that integrated vowel pattern analysis and children's literature on the word decoding performance of second graders with reading disabilities. The intervention evaluated students' abilities to decode a set of training words using 3 common vowel patterns (syllable types), in isolation…

  9. Therapies for children with cerebral palsy: A Web of Science-based literature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yaping; Li, Na; Guan, Lijun; Wang, Chunnan; Shang, Shuyun; Wang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Netherlands, the United States of America, and Australia; those publishing on constraint-induced movement therapy are mostly in Australia and the United States of America; and those publishing on acupuncture are mostly in China, Sweden and the United States of America. CONCLUSION: Analysis of literature and research trends indicated that there was no one specific therapy to cure cerebral palsy. Further studies are still necessary. PMID:25368640

  10. Breast Microsurgery in Plastic Surgery Literature: A 21-Year Analysis of Publication Trends.

    PubMed

    Daly, Lauren Tracy; Mowlds, Donald; Brodsky, Merrick A; Abrouk, Michael; Gandy, Jessica R; Wirth, Garrett A

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Microsurgical reconstruction of the breast represents an area of continual evolution, as new autologous flaps are introduced and principles are refined. This progression can be demonstrated by bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature. Methods The top 10 plastic surgery journals were determined by impact factor (IF). Each issue of every journal from 1993 to 2013 was accessed directly, and all articles discussing microsurgery on the female breast were classified by authors' geographic location, study design, and level of evidence (LOE, I-V). The productivity index and productivity share of each geographic region was calculated based on number of articles published and IF. Results A total of 706 breast microsurgery articles were analyzed. There was a significant increase in microsurgical breast research (p < 0.01), with an average 33.6 ± 31.1 articles per year and a mean increase of 4.4 articles per year. Most research was of lower LOE, with level I constituting 0.14% and level II constituting 5.21% of all articles. United States contributed the most research with 336.4 articles, followed by Western Europe with 242.2. However, Western Europe experienced the greatest increase in productivity share, with + 0.50 ± 0.29 growth, while United States demonstrated the greatest decrease in productivity share with - 1.23 ± 0.31 growth. Among autologous flaps, transverse rectus abdominis muscle research had the greatest yearly publication volume until 2002, when overtaken by deep inferior epigastric perforator flap research. Conclusion Over the 21-year study period, the United States not only contributed the greatest volume of research on female breast microsurgery but also demonstrated the greatest decline in research productivity. Efforts should be made to increase the LOE in breast microsurgery research. PMID:26645157

  11. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis: analysis of 14 patients and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng-Wei; Li, Man-Hui; Li, Jiang-Xiong; Tao, Ru-Jia; Xu, Jin-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is an orphan disease in respiratory medicine, which most affects adult smokers. The purpose of this article was to discuss the clinical features, especially the radiologic features of PLCH patients during their hospitalization through a retrospective analysis on clinical data. Furthermore, the current literature was also reviewed. Methods Between December 2008 and June 2012, 14 patients with PLCH were assessed at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Among these patients, seven patients were diagnosed through tissue biopsy from the lung and one patient from enlarged cervical lymph nodes; the rest of six patients were diagnosed based on the clinical-radiological data. The data consisting of demographics, clinical presentation, smoking habits, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and radiographic image from the medical records was analyzed retrospectively. Results The average age of patients (11 males and 3 females) was 42.79 (±13.71) years old. All male patients and one female patient had a long smoking history. The common manifestations were cough and exertional dyspnea. Spontaneous pneumothorax was found in three patients. Varieties of pulmonary shadows such as nodular, cystic, patch-like and cord-like were revealed by chest computed tomography (CT) examination. Large Langerhans cells (LCs) were discovered in biopsy tissue by immunohistochemical stains. Conclusions PLCH is still an orphan disease and maybe related to smoking. Clinical symptoms such as cough and exertional dyspnea are non-specific. We shall pay attention to recurrent pneumothorax as clinically it is associated with PLCH. The characteristic radiological manifestation is cystic or nodular shadow in the lungs, which plays crucial roles in diagnosing PLCH. PMID:27293848

  12. FDDS: A Cross Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Judy Parsons

    The Family Drawing Depression Scale (FDDS) was created by Wright and McIntyre to provide a clear and reliable scoring method for the Kinetic Family Drawing as a procedure for detecting depression. A study was conducted to confirm the value of the FDDS as a systematic tool for interpreting family drawings with populations of depressed individuals.…

  13. Quantitative corpus-based analysis of the chiropractic literature – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Neil; Budgell, Brian S.; Kwong, Alice

    2011-01-01

    In this pilot study, a collection of peer-reviewed articles from the Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association was analyzed by computer to identify the more commonly occurring words and phrases. The results were compared to a reference collection of general English in order to identify the vocabulary which is distinctive of chiropractic. From texts with a combined word count in excess of 280,000, it was possible to identify almost 2,500 words which were over-represented in the chiropractic literature and therefore likely to hold special importance within this domain. Additionally, readability statistics were calculated and suggest that the peer-reviewed chiropractic literature is approximately as challenging to read as that of nursing, public health and midwifery. Certain words widely considered to be of importance to the profession, for example “subluxation and adjustment,” were not particularly prevalent in the literature surveyed. PMID:21403783

  14. Cross-validation of IFN-γ Elispot assay for measuring alloreactive memory/effector T cell responses in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Bestard, O; Crespo, E; Stein, M; Lúcia, M; Roelen, D L; de Vaal, Y J; Hernandez-Fuentes, M P; Chatenoud, L; Wood, K J; Claas, F H; Cruzado, J M; Grinyó, J M; Volk, H D; Reinke, P

    2013-07-01

    Assessment of donor-specific alloreactive memory/effector T cell responses using an IFN-γ Elispot assay has been suggested to be a novel immune-monitoring tool for evaluating the cellular immune risk in renal transplantation. Here, we report the cross-validation data of the IFN-γ Elispot assay performed within different European laboratories taking part of the EU RISET consortium. For this purpose, development of a standard operating procedure (SOP), comparisons of lectures of IFN-γ plates assessing intra- and interlaboratory assay variability of allogeneic or peptide stimuli in both healthy and kidney transplant individuals have been the main objectives. We show that the use of a same SOP and count-settings of the Elispot bioreader allow low coefficient variation between laboratories. Frozen and shipped samples display slightly lower detectable IFN-γ frequencies than fresh samples. Importantly, a close correlation between different laboratories is obtained when measuring high frequencies of antigen-specific primed/memory T cell alloresponses. Interestingly, significant high donor-specific alloreactive T cell responses can be similarly detected among different laboratories in kidney transplant patients displaying histological patterns of acute T cell mediated rejection. In conclusion, assessment of circulating alloreactive memory/effector T cells using an INF-γ Elispot assay can be accurately achieved using the same SOP, Elispot bioreader and experienced technicians in kidney transplantation. PMID:23763435

  15. Improving the accuracy of NMR structures of RNA by means of conformational database potentials of mean force as assessed by complete dipolar coupling cross-validation.

    PubMed

    Clore, G Marius; Kuszewski, John

    2003-02-12

    The description of the nonbonded contact terms used in simulated annealing refinement can have a major impact on nucleic acid structures generated from NMR data. Using complete dipolar coupling cross-validation, we demonstrate that substantial improvements in coordinate accuracy of NMR structures of RNA can be obtained by making use of two conformational database potentials of mean force: a nucleic acid torsion angle database potential consisting of various multidimensional torsion angle correlations; and an RNA specific base-base positioning potential that provides a simple geometric, statistically based, description of sequential and nonsequential base-base interactions. The former is based on 416 nucleic acid crystal structures solved at a resolution of

  16. Sediment transport patterns in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System from cross-validation of bedform asymmetry and modeled residual flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Dartnell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of ~ 45,000 bedforms from 13 multibeam bathymetry surveys was used as a proxy for identifying net bedload sediment transport directions and pathways throughout the San Francisco Bay estuary and adjacent outer coast. The spatially-averaged shape asymmetry of the bedforms reveals distinct pathways of ebb and flood transport. Additionally, the region-wide, ebb-oriented asymmetry of 5% suggests net seaward-directed transport within the estuarine-coastal system, with significant seaward asymmetry at the mouth of San Francisco Bay (11%), through the northern reaches of the Bay (7-8%), and among the largest bedforms (21% for λ > 50 m). This general indication for the net transport of sand to the open coast strongly suggests that anthropogenic removal of sediment from the estuary, particularly along clearly defined seaward transport pathways, will limit the supply of sand to chronically eroding, open-coast beaches. The bedform asymmetry measurements significantly agree (up to ~ 76%) with modeled annual residual transport directions derived from a hydrodynamically-calibrated numerical model, and the orientation of adjacent, flow-sculpted seafloor features such as mega-flute structures, providing a comprehensive validation of the technique. The methods described in this paper to determine well-defined, cross-validated sediment transport pathways can be applied to estuarine-coastal systems globally where bedforms are present. The results can inform and improve regional sediment management practices to more efficiently utilize often limited sediment resources and mitigate current and future sediment supply-related impacts.

  17. Sediment transport patterns in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System from cross-validation of bedform asymmetry and modeled residual flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Dartnell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of ~ 45,000 bedforms from 13 multibeam bathymetry surveys was used as a proxy for identifying net bedload sediment transport directions and pathways throughout the San Francisco Bay estuary and adjacent outer coast. The spatially-averaged shape asymmetry of the bedforms reveals distinct pathways of ebb and flood transport. Additionally, the region-wide, ebb-oriented asymmetry of 5% suggests net seaward-directed transport within the estuarine-coastal system, with significant seaward asymmetry at the mouth of San Francisco Bay (11%), through the northern reaches of the Bay (7–8%), and among the largest bedforms (21% for λ > 50 m). This general indication for the net transport of sand to the open coast strongly suggests that anthropogenic removal of sediment from the estuary, particularly along clearly defined seaward transport pathways, will limit the supply of sand to chronically eroding, open-coast beaches. The bedform asymmetry measurements significantly agree (up to ~ 76%) with modeled annual residual transport directions derived from a hydrodynamically-calibrated numerical model, and the orientation of adjacent, flow-sculpted seafloor features such as mega-flute structures, providing a comprehensive validation of the technique. The methods described in this paper to determine well-defined, cross-validated sediment transport pathways can be applied to estuarine-coastal systems globally where bedforms are present. The results can inform and improve regional sediment management practices to more efficiently utilize often limited sediment resources and mitigate current and future sediment supply-related impacts.

  18. Scientific literature on infectious diseases affecting livestock animals, longitudinal worldwide bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Christian; Gautret, Marjolaine; Pineau, Thierry; Jestin, André

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature were to describe the research subjects and the international collaborations in the field of research on infectious diseases in livestock animals including fishes and honeybees. It was based on articles published worldwide from 2006 through 2013. The source of data was the Web of Science, Core collection(®) and only papers fully written in English were considered. Queries were built that combined 130 descriptors related to animal species and 1213 descriptors related to diseases and pathogens. To refine and assess the accuracy of the extracted database, supplementary filters were applied to discard non-specific terms and neighbouring topics, and numerous tests were carried out on samples. For pathogens, annotation was done using a thematic terminology established to link each disease with its corresponding pathogen, which was in turn classified according to its family. A total of 62,754 articles were published in this field during this 8-year period. The average annual growth rate of the number of papers was 5%. This represents the reference data to which we compared the average annual growth rate of articles produced in each of the sub-categories that we defined. Thirty-seven percent of the papers were dedicated to ruminant diseases. Poultry, pigs and fishes were covered by respectively 21, 13 and 14% of the total. Thirty-seven percent of papers concerned bacteria, 33% viruses, 19% parasites, 2% prions, the remaining being multi-pathogens. Research on virology, especially on pigs and poultry, is increasing faster than the average. There also is increasing interest in monogastric species, fish and bees. The average annual growth rate for Asia was 10%, which is high compared to 3% for Europe and 2% for the Americas, indicating that Asia is currently playing a leading role in this field. There is a well established network of international collaborations. For 75% of the papers, the co

  19. Raising critical issues in the analysis of gender and science in children's literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina A.

    2009-12-01

    Trevor Owens' paper provides a critique of the role of gender and authority in selected children's books that presented biographies of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie. In the context of discussing Trevor's (2009) article about children's literature, this forum explores issues related to the (a) representation and construction of gender, science, and childhood in literature for children; (b) the need to consider socio/historical/cultural contexts in analytical and theoretical frameworks; and (c) the importance of fostering critical literacy perspectives in pre- and in-service science teachers and the children whom they teach.

  20. Linking Nurses with Evidence-Based Information via Social Media Tools: An Analysis of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Carter-Templeton, Heather; Krishnamurthy, Mangala; Nelson, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    Many health professional believe that social media tools can play a pivotal role in sharing and facilitating the use of evidence-based information with patients and other healthcare providers. By understanding how social media tools function, healthcare professionals can capitalize on these interactive platforms to improve the health of others. However, limited information exists to guide nurse educators in preparing healthcare professionals to engage patients or share evidence-based information among peers. The purpose of this literature review was to determine the extent to which professional development programs using social media for sharing evidence-based information have reported their research and/or experience in the published literature. PMID:27332455

  1. Hepatocellular carcinoma in the elderly: Meta-analysis and systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Annie K; Guy, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a meta-analysis to investigate the clinical outcomes of surgical resection and locoregional treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in elderly patients defined as aged 70 years or more. METHODS: Literature documenting a comparison of clinical outcomes for elderly and non elderly patients with hepatocellular carcinoma was identified by searching PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases, for those from inception to March 2015 with no limits. Dichotomous outcomes and standard meta-analysis techniques were used. Heterogeneity was tested by the Cochrane Q statistic. Pooled estimates were measured using the fixed or random effect model. RESULTS: Twenty three studies were included with a total of 12482 patients. Of these patients, 6341 were treated with surgical resection, 3138 were treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and 3003 were treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Of the patients who underwent surgical resection, the elderly had significantly more respiratory co-morbidities than the younger group, with both groups having a similar proportion of cardiovascular co-morbidities and diabetes. After 1 year, the elderly group had significantly increased survival rates after surgical resection compared to the younger group (OR = 0.762, 95%CI: 0.583-0.994, P = 0.045). However, the 3-year and 5-year survival outcomes with surgical resection between the two groups were similar (OR = 0.947, 95%CI: 0.777-1.154, P = 0.67 for the third year; and OR = 1.131, 95%CI: 0.895-1.430, P = 0.304 for the fifth year). Postoperative treatment complications were similar between the elderly and younger group. The elderly group and younger group had similar survival outcomes for the first and third year after RFA (OR = 1.5, 95%CI: 0.788-2.885, P = 0.217 and OR = 1.352, 95%CI: 0.940-1.944, P = 0.104). For the fifth year, the elderly group had significantly worse survival rates compared to the younger group after RFA (OR = 1.379, 95

  2. Why farmers adopt best management practice in the United States: A meta-analysis of the adoption literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumgart-Getz, Adam; Stalker Prokopy, Linda; Floress, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis of both published and unpublished studies assesses factors believed to influence adoption of agricultural Best Management Practices in the United States. Using an established statistical technique to summarize the adoption literature in the United States, we identified the following variables as having the largest impact on adoption: access to and quality of information, financial capacity, and being connected to agency or local networks of farmers or watershed groups. This study shows that various approaches to data collection affect the results and comparability of adoption studies. In particular, environmental awareness and farmer attitudes have been inconsistently used and measured across the literature. This meta-analysis concludes with suggestions regarding the future direction of adoption studies, along with guidelines for how data should be presented to enhance the adoption of conservation practices and guide research.

  3. Group Investigation as a Cooperative Learning Strategy: An Integrated Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Mitzi G.; Montgomery, Hilary; Holder, Michelle; Stuart, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The cooperative learning strategy of group investigation has been used extensively in elementary and high school classrooms. Whereas this learning strategy seems to benefit low- and middle-achieving students, the performance of high-achieving students seems to change little. This article examines the literature on group investigation as a…

  4. "What Could I Say?" A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Construction of Race in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca; Christian, June

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes the construction of Whiteness in children's literature that intentionally brings Whiteness to the surface. We wondered: do the authors re-center Whiteness in their attempts to racialize White people? What literary strategies and linguistic techniques do the authors call on to present Whiteness and, subsequently, Blackness?…

  5. Ascertaining Activities in a Subject Area Through Bibliometric Analysis; Application to "Library Literature"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracevic, Tefko; Perk, Lawrence J.

    1973-01-01

    A combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques were used to analize the journal articles indexed in one volume of Library Literature.'' This approach, merging bibliometrics and classification, yielded results in such areas as dispersion of articles among journals, frequency of article type and types of subjects covered. (16 references)…

  6. Breaking the Discrepancy Code: A Meta-Analysis of the Specific Learning Disability Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachmeier, Randy J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous "selective" meta-analyses of the literature relating to the IQ-achievement discrepancy model of specific learning disability identification have concluded that "underachieving" and "low-achieving" poor readers do not differ in any educationally meaningful way. Underachievers are those poor readers who qualify as learning disabled using an…

  7. Analogies in the Teaching of Chemical Equilibrium: A Synthesis/Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raviolo, Andres; Garritz, Andoni

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a thorough literature review of the analogies used to teach chemical equilibrium. The main objective is to compile all the analogies that have been found to be of service to the teacher and the student. Additionally, we categorize and analyze analogies in relation to the following aspects: representation of the dynamic nature…

  8. Understanding System Utilization as a Limitation Associated with Cybersecurity Laboratories--A Literature Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The use of laboratories as part of cybersecurity education is well evidenced in the existing literature. We are informed about the benefits, different types of laboratories and, in addition, underlying learning theories therein. Existing research also demonstrates that the success of employing cybersecurity laboratory exercises relies upon…

  9. A Systematic Analysis and Synthesis of the Empirical MOOC Literature Published in 2013-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Shepherdson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A deluge of empirical research became available on MOOCs in 2013-2015 and this research is available in disparate sources. This paper addresses a number of gaps in the scholarly understanding of MOOCs and presents a comprehensive picture of the literature by examining the geographic distribution, publication outlets, citations, data collection and…

  10. The Emergence and Evolution of School Psychology Literature: A Scientometric Analysis from 1907 through 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shuyan; Oakland, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this current study is to identify the growth and development of scholarly literature that specifically references the term "school psychology" in the Science Citation Index from 1907 through 2014. Documents from Web of Science were accessed and analyzed through the use of scientometric analyses, including HistCite and…

  11. Concept Analysis of Gender, Feminist, and Women's Studies Research in the Communication Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephen, Timothy

    2000-01-01

    Examines the accuracy of historical arguments about gender, feminism, and women's studies-related research (GFWS) scholarship. Provides a response to requests by some scholars working in the area for a thorough survey of the dimensions of the GFWS literature. Supports the idea that GFWS scholarship is represented by a unique constellation of…

  12. Sexual Intimacy in Psychotherapy: A Review and Analysis of the Empirical Literature and Theoretical Assumptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Steven Merrill

    A review of the literature on sexual intimacy in psychotherapy revealed that male therapists were involved in sexual intimacies significantly more than were female therapists (approximately nine percent versus two percent). The research clearly shows that the overall effects of sexual intimacy are negative, ranging from clients experiencing…

  13. A Content Analysis of Acculturation Research in the Career Development Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Matthew J.; Kerlow-Myers, Andrew E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to highlight the importance of acculturation as an explanatory variable in career development and to provide an empirical review of acculturation research in the career development literature. Acculturation is a cultural variable that has been linked to a number of important career development outcomes for…

  14. Plastic Surgery and the Breast: A Citation Analysis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Kenneth M.; Sugrue, Conor M.; Kelly, John C.; Carroll, Sean M.; Kerin, Michael J.; Kelly, Jack L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A large proportion of the plastic surgery literature is dedicated to the breast. It is one of the most common topics in our specialty, yet it is unclear which articles have been the most influential. The purpose of this study was to identify the top 100 most-cited articles on breast in the plastic surgery literature and examine the characteristics of each individual article. Methods: Using an electronic database through the Web of Science, we were able to determine the 6 journals that contributed to the 100 most-cited articles on breast in the plastic surgery literature. Results: Each article was examined individually looking at characteristics such as subject matter, article type, country of origin, institution, authorship, and year of publication. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery contributed the most articles to the top 100 with 81 articles including the most-cited article which has been referenced 673 times to date. The United States produced 73% of the top 100 articles, and the most prolific institution was the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center with 15 articles. Conclusions: This study has identified the most influential articles on breast in the plastic surgery literature over the past 68 years and highlighted many important scientific breakthroughs and landmarks that have occurred during this time. PMID:25506534

  15. College-Readiness in Math: A Conceptual Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Reni A.; Slate, John R.; Saxon, D. Patrick; Barnes, Wally

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examined the extant literature regarding college-readiness in math for students entering community colleges. Included in this review are the following topics: (a) the role of community colleges between secondary and postsecondary institutions; (b) national initiatives for college-readiness standards in math; (c) Texas…

  16. Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndromes for Essential Hypertension: A Literature Analysis of 13,272 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background. To simplify traditional Chinese medicine syndrome differentiation and allow researchers to master syndrome differentiation for hypertension, this paper retrospectively studied the literature and analyzed syndrome elements corresponding to hypertension syndromes. Methods. Six databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data were searched from 1/January/2003 to 30/October/2013. We included all clinical literature testing hypertension syndromes and retrospectively studied the hypertension literature published from 2003 to 2013. Descriptive statistics calculated frequencies and percentages. Results. 13,272 patients with essential hypertension were included. Clinical features of hypertension could be attributed to 11 kinds of syndrome factors. Among them, seven syndrome factors were excess, while four syndrome factors were deficient. Syndrome targets were mainly in the liver and related to the kidney and spleen. There were 33 combination syndromes. Frequency of single-factor syndromes was 31.77% and frequency of two-factor syndromes was 62.26%. Conclusions. Excess syndrome factors of hypertension patients include yang hyperactivity, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, internal dampness, and internal fire. Deficient syndrome factors of hypertension patients are yin deficiency and yang deficiency. Yin deficiency with yang hyperactivity, phlegm-dampness retention, and deficiency of both yin and yang were the three most common syndromes in clinical combination. PMID:24660016

  17. Raising Critical Issues in the Analysis of Gender and Science in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    Trevor Owens' paper provides a critique of the role of gender and authority in selected children's books that presented biographies of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie. In the context of discussing Trevor's (2009) article about children's literature, this forum explores issues related to the (a) representation and construction of gender, science,…

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

  19. Representations of the Moon in Children's Literature: An Analysis of Written and Visual Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Troland, Thomas H.; Pritchard, T. Gail

    2008-01-01

    This review focused on the written and visual representation of the moon in 80 children's books, including Caldecott Medal and Honor books over the past 20 years. Results revealed that many of these books misrepresent the moon and even reinforce misconceptions about lunar phases. Teachers who use children's literature that misrepresents the moon…

  20. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE SEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S....

  1. Experimental Intervention Studies on Word Problem Solving and Math Disabilities: A Selective Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Xinhua; Flynn, Lindsay J.; Swanson, H. Lee

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a quantitative synthesis of the published literature on word problem solving intervention studies for children with math disabilities (MD). Seven group and eight single-subject design studies met inclusion criteria. Mean effect sizes ("ES"s) for solution accuracy for group design studies were 0.95 (SE = 0.19) for children…

  2. Sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems: Summary of literature survey and concept analysis, task 3 report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennethum, W. H.; Sherwood, L. T.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a literature survey and concept analysis related to sensing techniques for measuring of surface temperature, strain, and heat flux for (non-specific) ceramic materials exposed to elevated temperatures (to 2200 K) are summarized. Concepts capable of functioning in a gas turbine hot section environment are favored but others are reviewed also. Recommendation are made for sensor development in each of the three areas.

  3. Bibliometric analysis of the literature from the mainland of China on animal-derived regenerative implantable medical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-Man; Li, Fu-Yao

    2014-12-01

    Choosing animal-derived regenerative implantable medical devices based on tissue engineering technology as a research theme, this paper presents bibliometric analysis of relative literature from the mainland of China to understand such data as publication year and journal preference, authors' geographic location, research topics and core expertise to predict the research trends and provide an informed basis of decision making for researchers and clinicians.

  4. Grounding a new information technology implementation framework in behavioral science: a systematic analysis of the literature on IT use.

    PubMed

    Kukafka, Rita; Johnson, Stephen B; Linfante, Allison; Allegrante, John P

    2003-06-01

    Many interventions to improve the success of information technology (IT) implementations are grounded in behavioral science, using theories, and models to identify conditions and determinants of successful use. However, each model in the IT literature has evolved to address specific theoretical problems of particular disciplinary concerns, and each model has been tested and has evolved using, in most cases, a more or less restricted set of IT implementation procedures. Functionally, this limits the perspective for taking into account the multiple factors at the individual, group, and organizational levels that influence use behavior. While a rich body of literature has emerged, employing prominent models such as the Technology Adoption Model, Social-Cognitive Theory, and Diffusion of Innovation Theory, the complexity of defining a suitable multi-level intervention has largely been overlooked. A gap exists between the implementation of IT and the integration of theories and models that can be utilized to develop multi-level approaches to identify factors that impede usage behavior. We present a novel framework that is intended to guide synthesis of more than one theoretical perspective for the purpose of planning multi-level interventions to enhance IT use. This integrative framework is adapted from PRECEDE/PROCEDE, a conceptual framework used by health planners in hundreds of published studies to direct interventions that account for the multiple determinants of behavior. Since we claim that the literature on IT use behavior does not now include a multi-level approach, we undertook a systematic literature analysis to confirm this assertion. Our framework facilitated organizing this literature synthesis and our analysis was aimed at determining if the IT implementation approaches in the published literature were characterized by an approach that considered at least two levels of IT usage determinants. We found that while 61% of studies mentioned or referred to

  5. Elastic analysis procedures: an incurable (but preventable) problem in the fertility effect literature. Comment on Gildersleeve, Haselton, and Fales (2014).

    PubMed

    Harris, Christine R; Pashler, Harold; Mickes, Laura

    2014-09-01

    Gildersleeve, Haselton, and Fales (2014) presented a meta-analysis of the effects of fertility on mate preferences in women. Research in this area has categorized fertility using a great variety of methods, chiefly based on self-reported cycle length and time since last menses. We argue that this literature is particularly prone to hidden experimenter degrees of freedom. Studies vary greatly in the duration and timing of windows used to define fertile versus nonfertile phases, criteria for excluding subjects, and the choice of what moderator variables to include, as well as other variables. These issues raise the concern that many or perhaps all results may have been created by exploitation of unacknowledged degrees of freedom ("p-hacking"). Gildersleeve et al. sought to dismiss such concerns, but we contend that their arguments rest upon statistical and logical errors. The possibility that positive results in this literature may have been created, or at least greatly amplified, by p-hacking receives additional support from the fact that recent attempts at exact replication of fertility results have mostly failed. Our concerns are also supported by findings of another recent review of the literature (Wood, Kressel, Joshi, & Louie, 2014). We conclude on a positive note, arguing that if fertility-effect researchers take advantage of the rapidly emerging opportunities for study preregistration, the validity of this literature can be rapidly clarified. PMID:25180803

  6. Analysis Tools for Sizing and Placement of Energy Storage for Grid Applications - A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Michael G.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sadovsky, Artyom; DeSteese, John G.

    2010-09-24

    The purpose of this report was to review pertinent literature and studies that might reveal models capable of optimizing the siting, sizing and economic value of energy storage in the future smart grid infrastructure. Energy storage technology and utility system deployment have been subjects of intense research and development for over three decades. During this time, many models have been developed that consider energy storage implementation in the electric power industry and other applications. Nevertheless, this review of literature discovered no actual models and only a few software tools that relate specifically to the application environment and expected requirements of the evolving smart grid infrastructure. This report indicates the existing need for such a model and describes a pathway for developing it.

  7. TREND: a tool for rapid online research literature analysis and quantification.

    PubMed

    Landers, Richard N

    2008-08-01

    The Research Explicator for oNline Databases (TREND) tool was developed out of a need to quantify large research literatures rapidly and objectively on the basis of online research database output. By parsing such output with TREND, a researcher can in minutes extract the most commonly cited articles, the most frequently published authors, a distribution of publication dates, and a variety of other information from a research literature several thousand articles in size. This tool thus enables an increase in productivity both for researchers venturing into new areas of interest and for advisors and instructors putting together core reading lists. The processing of citations from articles represents a unique challenge, however, because deviations from strict APA formatting cause problems that are sometimes difficult to correct mechanically. A case study of one particularly troublesome citation (Baron & Kenny, 1986) is presented. Usage and implications are discussed. PMID:18697661

  8. Dealing With Major Life Events and Transitions: A Systematic Literature Review on and Occupational Analysis of Spirituality.

    PubMed

    Maley, Christine M; Pagana, Nicole K; Velenger, Christa A; Humbert, Tamera Keiter

    2016-01-01

    This systematic literature review analyzed the construct of spirituality as perceived by people who have experienced or are experiencing a major life event or transition. The researchers investigated studies that used narrative analysis or a phenomenological methodology related to the topic. Thematic analysis resulted in three major themes: (1) avenues to and through spirituality, (2) the experience of spirituality, and (3) the meaning of spirituality. The results provide insights into the intersection of spirituality, meaning, and occupational engagement as understood by people experiencing a major life event or transition and suggest further research that addresses spirituality in occupational therapy and interdisciplinary intervention. PMID:27294990

  9. Thyroid and Aging or the Aging Thyroid? An Evidence-Based Analysis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone production, metabolism, and action change with aging. The reference ranges for serum thyrotropin and thyroid hormones are derived mainly from younger populations. Thus, the prevalence of subclinical thyroid dysfunction is increased greatly in the elderly. However, it is unclear whether mild thyroid dysfunction in the elderly is associated with adverse outcomes. In this review, we discuss current evidence-based literature on thyroid function in the elderly and whether subclinical thyroid dysfunction in the elderly should be treated. PMID:24106641

  10. Follicular thyroid carcinoma with insular component: a retrospective case study, immunohistochemical analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Htwe, T T; Karim, N; Lam, A K

    2012-03-01

    This is a retrospective case study of a 61-year-old woman diagnosed with follicular thyroid carcinoma. The patient underwent thyroidectomy for the treatment of goitre after being admitted for shortness of breath. Microscopic and immunohistochemical studies were performed, which confirmed follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with an insular component. We also conducted a review of the literature on this uncommon entity. PMID:22434304

  11. Chinese herbs for memory disorders: a review and systematic analysis of classical herbal literature.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Lu, Yubo; Zhang, Anthony L; Xue, Charlie C L

    2013-02-01

    Text mining and other literature-based investigations can assist in identifying natural products for experimental and clinical research. This article details a method for systematically analyzing data derived from the classical Chinese medical literature. We present the results of electronic searches of Zhong Hua Yi Dian ("Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine"), a CD of 1000 premodern (before 1950) medical books, for single herbs, and other natural products used for dementia, memory disorders, and memory improvement. This review explores how the terminology for these disorders has changed over time and which herbs have been used more or less frequently, and compares the results from the premodern literature with the herbs indexed for memory disorders in a modern pharmacopoeia. The searches located 731 citations deriving from 127 different books written between ca. 188 ad and ca. 1920. Of the 110 different natural products identified, those most frequently cited for forgetfulness were yuan zhi (Polygala tenuifolia), fu shen (Poria cocos), and chang pu (Acorus spp.), all of which have been cited repeatedly over the past 1800 years and appear among the 31 herbs indexed in a modern pharmacopoeia. By providing a complete, hierarchically organized list of herbs for a specific disorder, this approach can assist researchers in selecting herbs for research. PMID:23433049

  12. [Safety and risk factor analysis on Polygoni Multiflori Radix base on ancient traditional Chinese medicine literatures].

    PubMed

    Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Guo, Xiao-xin; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Pang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Polygoni Multiflori Radix is dried roots of Polygonaceae Polygortum multiflorum Thunb. Its clinical application records were first discovered in literatures of the Tang dynasty. The origins, efficacy, toxicity, processing and taboos of Polygoni Multiflori Radix have been discussed in many ancient herb literatures. In recent years, with the increase in the public awareness in health, Polygoni Multiflori Radix admits preparations have been more widely applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, there have been more and more reports about Polygoni Multiflori Radix induced liver injury, the safety of Polygoni Multiflori Radix has increasingly attracted attention of the society. In this paper, the authors summarized and analyzed the toxicity and medication risk factors of Polygoni Multiflori Radix recorded in ancient herb literatures, and proposed that more attention shall be given to the effect of the planting and processing methods on the components and toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in safety studies, which provides clues for the further studies. PMID:26087568

  13. An intercomparison of a large ensemble of statistical downscaling methods for Europe: Overall results from the VALUE perfect predictor cross-validation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Jose Manuel; Maraun, Douglas; Widmann, Martin; Huth, Radan; Hertig, Elke; Benestad, Rasmus; Roessler, Ole; Wibig, Joanna; Wilcke, Renate; Kotlarski, Sven

    2016-04-01

    VALUE is an open European network to validate and compare downscaling methods for climate change research (http://www.value-cost.eu). A key deliverable of VALUE is the development of a systematic validation framework to enable the assessment and comparison of both dynamical and statistical downscaling methods. This framework is based on a user-focused validation tree, guiding the selection of relevant validation indices and performance measures for different aspects of the validation (marginal, temporal, spatial, multi-variable). Moreover, several experiments have been designed to isolate specific points in the downscaling procedure where problems may occur (assessment of intrinsic performance, effect of errors inherited from the global models, effect of non-stationarity, etc.). The list of downscaling experiments includes 1) cross-validation with perfect predictors, 2) GCM predictors -aligned with EURO-CORDEX experiment- and 3) pseudo reality predictors (see Maraun et al. 2015, Earth's Future, 3, doi:10.1002/2014EF000259, for more details). The results of these experiments are gathered, validated and publicly distributed through the VALUE validation portal, allowing for a comprehensive community-open downscaling intercomparison study. In this contribution we describe the overall results from Experiment 1), consisting of a European wide 5-fold cross-validation (with consecutive 6-year periods from 1979 to 2008) using predictors from ERA-Interim to downscale precipitation and temperatures (minimum and maximum) over a set of 86 ECA&D stations representative of the main geographical and climatic regions in Europe. As a result of the open call for contribution to this experiment (closed in Dec. 2015), over 40 methods representative of the main approaches (MOS and Perfect Prognosis, PP) and techniques (linear scaling, quantile mapping, analogs, weather typing, linear and generalized regression, weather generators, etc.) were submitted, including information both data

  14. Methane cross-validation between three Fourier transform spectrometers: SCISAT ACE-FTS, GOSAT TANSO-FTS, and ground-based FTS measurements in the Canadian high Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, Gerrit; Walker, Kaley A.; Conway, Stephanie; Saitoh, Naoko; Boone, Chris D.; Strong, Kimberly; Drummond, James R.

    2016-05-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing measurements of methane profiles in the Canadian high Arctic. Accurate and precise measurements of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. Here, we show a cross-validation between three data sets: two from spaceborne instruments and one from a ground-based instrument. All are Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs). We consider the Canadian SCISAT Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)-FTS, a solar occultation infrared spectrometer operating since 2004, and the thermal infrared band of the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO)-FTS, a nadir/off-nadir scanning FTS instrument operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker 125HR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) Ridge Laboratory at Eureka, Nunavut (80° N, 86° W) since 2006. For each pair of instruments, measurements are collocated within 500 km and 24 h. An additional collocation criterion based on potential vorticity values was found not to significantly affect differences between measurements. Profiles are regridded to a common vertical grid for each comparison set. To account for differing vertical resolutions, ACE-FTS measurements are smoothed to the resolution of either PEARL-FTS or TANSO-FTS, and PEARL-FTS measurements are smoothed to the TANSO-FTS resolution. Differences for each pair are examined in terms of profile and partial columns. During the period considered, the number of collocations for each pair is large enough to obtain a good sample size (from several hundred to tens of thousands depending on pair and configuration). Considering full profiles, the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) are between 0.2 and 0.7 for TANSO-FTS and

  15. Methane cross-validation between three Fourier Transform Spectrometers: SCISAT ACE-FTS, GOSAT TANSO-FTS, and ground-based FTS measurements in the Canadian high Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, G.; Walker, K. A.; Conway, S.; Saitoh, N.; Boone, C. D.; Strong, K.; Drummond, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing measurements of methane profiles in the Canadian high Arctic. Accurate and precise measurements of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. Here, we show a cross-validation between three datasets: two from spaceborne instruments and one from a ground-based instrument. All are Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTSs). We consider the Canadian SCISAT Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)-FTS, a solar occultation infrared spectrometer operating since 2004, and the thermal infrared band of the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO)-FTS, a nadir/off-nadir scanning FTS instrument operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker 125HR Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) Ridge Lab at Eureka, Nunavut (80° N, 86° W) since 2006. For each pair of instruments, measurements are collocated within 500 km and 24 h. An additional criterion based on potential vorticity values was found not to significantly affect differences between measurements. Profiles are regridded to a common vertical grid for each comparison set. To account for differing vertical resolutions, ACE-FTS measurements are smoothed to the resolution of either PEARL-FTS or TANSO-FTS, and PEARL-FTS measurements are smoothed to the TANSO-FTS resolution. Differences for each pair are examined in terms of profile and partial columns. During the period considered, the number of collocations for each pair is large enough to obtain a good sample size (from several hundred to tens of thousands depending on pair and configuration). Considering full profiles, the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) are between 0.2 and 0.7 for TANSO-FTS and between 1.5 and 3

  16. What do we tell patients about elective total hip replacement in the UK? An analysis of patient literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although hip information literature is given to people following total hip replacement (THR) almost routinely, little evaluation has been conducted on it to date. Our aim was therefore to analyse and evaluate the literature provided to patients by occupational therapists concerning elective hip surgery in the UK. Methods This was a pragmatic, descriptive analysis of information leaflets routinely given to patients undergoing primary total hip replacement (THR). The literature was collected as part of a national survey of occupational therapy practice. In the absence of a suitable evaluation tool, the patient leaflets were compared using a checklist devised by the researchers. The three areas of interest were: accessibility including presentation of information, breadth of information covered and specific activities of daily living described. Results 111 information leaflets and booklets were examined. These ranged from hospital publications which were professionally printed to those produced by individual departments. There was a variation in the readability of the leaflets ranging from 13% to 83%; the mean was 45% (SD 15). There was also variation in the content ranging from those covering surgery and possible complications, to those including diet and hip exercises. The most commonly covered activity of daily living was advice on sitting (99; 89%); the least commonly covered was work (26; 23%). Only 3 (2.7%) booklets had involved patients in their production and only 22 (20%) signposted obtaining information in another language or in Braille. Conclusions There was a range of literature in terms of presentation and content given to people who had a total hip replacement (THR). Although some booklets and leaflets scored highly, some did not meet basic standards such as providing contact details for help, using good quality diagrams, suggesting further reading or involving patients in their design. These results highlight important and fundamental

  17. Perioperative mortality after pneumonectomy: analysis of risk factors and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Daniel E.; Lachapelle, Kevin; Sampalis, John; Mulder, David S.; Chiu, Ray C.-J.; Wilson, James

    1997-01-01

    Objective To determine risk factors for perioperative death associated with pneumonectomy. Design A retrospective case-control study in which a perioperative death group was compared with a survivor group, and a review of the English literature on the subject. Setting The Montreal General Hospital, a tertiary-care teaching institution. Patients and intervention Ninety-two consecutive patients who underwent pneumonectomy between April 1989 and 1994. Main outcome measures The effects of age, sex, smoking history, tumour size, type and stage, pulmonary function, cardiovascular risks, comorbidity, preoperative blood values and volume of fluids administered perioperatively. Values from the literature were reported for comparison. Results The perioperative death rate was 10.9%. Selection bias and in-hospital values reported in the literature have underestimated the death rate, with actual rates ranging from 7% to 11%. Age (odds ratio 2.48, p = 0.04), the presence of 1 or more comorbid diseases (odds ratio 7.92, p = 0.05) and amount of fluids given in the first 12 hours postoperatively (odds ratio 2.21, p = 0.06) were found to be significant risk factors for death. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that the volume of fluids given remains an independent risk factor whereas age and comorbid disease are dependent variables. Conclusions The results were consistent with previously reported death rates and risk factors. Patient age and concomitant disease are not modifiable risk factors, but perioperative fluid administration and other means to prevent postpneumonectomy pulmonary edema may reduce the perioperative death rate. PMID:9416253

  18. Aortic Valve Repair: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Published Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fok, Matthew; Shaw, Matthew; Sancho, Elena; Abello, David; Bashir, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is widely accepted that aortic valve disease is surgically managed with aortic valve replacement (AVR) using different available prostheses. The long-term survival, durability of the valve, and freedom from reoperation after AVR are well established in published literature. Over the past two decades, aortic valve repair (AVr) has evolved into an accepted surgical option for patients with aortic valve disease. We review and analyze the published literature on AVr. Methods: A systematic review of the current literature was performed through three electronic databases from inception to August 2013 to identify all relevant studies relating to aortic valve repair. Articles selected were chosen by two reviewers. Articles were excluded if they contained a pediatric population or if the patient number was less than 50. Results: Twenty-four studies conformed to the inclusion criteria for inclusion in the systematic review. In total, 4986 patients underwent aortic valve repair. 7 studies represented bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) repair, 5 studies represented cusp prolapse, and 3 studies represented valve repair with root dilation or aneurysm. Overall weighted in-hospital mortality for all studies was low (1.46% ± 1.21). Preoperative aortic insufficiency (AI) ≥ 2+ did not correlate to reoperation for valve failure (Pearson's Rs 0.2705, P = 0.2585). AI at discharge was reported in 9 studies with a mean AI ≥ 2+ in 6.1% of patients. Weighted average percentage for valve reoperation following BAV repair was 10.23% ± 3.2. Weighted average reoperation following cusp prolapse repair was 3.83 ± 1.96. Weighted average reoperation in aortic valve sparing procedures with root replacement was 4.25% ± 2.46. Although there are limitations and complications of prosthetic valves, especially for younger individuals, there is ample published literature that confers strong evidence for AVR. On the contrary, aortic valve repair may be a useful option for selected patients

  19. Managing Fire in the Northern Chihuahuan Desert: A Review and Analysis of the Literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebow, Brooke S.; Halvorson, William L.

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary This report began as a literature review (Gebow and Halvorson 2001) conducted for fire planners at Carlsbad Caverns National Park who were seeking information about (1) the natural state of park vegetation, (2) northern Chihuahuan Desert natural fire regimes, and (3) fire effects on park plant species. It is the goal of managers there to continue to refine the wildland and prescribed fire program as they learn more about the ecosystems at the park.The park has a history of grazing and then fire suppression in the 20th century. The current effort revisits questions asked by earlier workers at the park, Walter Kittams and Gary Ahlstrand, who began fire studies in the 1970s. This document addresses ecosystems and historical change to those systems in Chihuahuan Desert areas of southeast Arizona, southern New Mexico, west Texas, or in neighboring regions that share the same plant species. It examines fire literature for situations possibly analogous to those at Carlsbad Caverns. It also includes papers that offer advice on extrapolating future ecological trends from past ones (Swetnam et al. 1999) and on resource management decision-making (Grumbine 1997), and other pieces that address broader aspects of fire or landscape change (Goldman 1994; Marston 1996; Mutch 1994, 1995). These more philosophical works were included in the original review at the park's request and have been retained here because they discuss other issues relevant to fire management. Individual reviews of 35 papers, as requested originally by Carlsbad Caverns, appear in Appendix 1. The results section-summary of key findings-discusses historical changes to plant communities then focuses on burn intervals observed or recommended by workers for particular plant communities. Results from a search of the USDA Forest Service's Fire Effects Information System (www.fs.fed.us/database/feis) are also included in this report, supplemented with information from a review conducted by Ahlstrand

  20. Malignant transformation of aneurysmal bone cyst, with an analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kyriakos, M; Hardy, D

    1991-10-15

    An 11-year-old girl had a lytic, benign-appearing, expansive lesion of the distal tibia radiologically interpreted as an aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). Tissue from two extensive curettage procedures was also histologically diagnosed as ABC. Approximately 50 months after the onset of symptoms, and 28 months after her last curettage, a highly pleomorphic osteosarcoma developed. The patient had not received prior radiation therapy. The cases in the literature of possible malignant transformation of ABC are reviewed. The authors separate their case from telangiectatic osteosarcoma, and from "aneurysmal bone cyst-like osteosarcoma." PMID:1913522

  1. Trends in the growth of literature of telemedicine: A bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Ting; Iqbal, Usman; Ching, Jack Horn-Yu; Ting, Jonathan Bee-Shen; Chiu, Hsien-Tsai; Tamashiro, Hiko; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa

    2015-12-01

    Over the past two decades, the use of telemedicine as a way to provide medical services has grown as communication technologies advance and patients seek more convenient ways to receive care. Because developments within this field are still rapidly evolving, identifying trends within telemedicine literature is an important task to help delineate future directions of telemedicine research. In this study, we analyzed 7960 telemedicine-related publication records found in the Science Citations Index - Expanded database between 1993 and 2012. Bibliometric analyses revealed that while the total growth in telemedicine literature has been significant in the last twenty years, the publication activity per country and over time has been variable. While the United States led the world in the cumulative number of telemedicine publications, Norway ranked highest when we ordered countries by publications per capita. We also saw that the growth in the number of publications per year has been inconsistent over the past two decades. Our results identified that neuroscience neurology and nursing as two fields of research in telemedicine that have seen considerable growth in interest in this field, and are poised to be the focus of research activity in the near future. PMID:26415760

  2. Unusual histopathological findings in appendectomy specimens: A retrospective analysis and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Akbulut, Sami; Tas, Mahmut; Sogutcu, Nilgun; Arikanoglu, Zulfu; Basbug, Murat; Ulku, Abdullah; Semur, Heybet; Yagmur, Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To document unusual findings in appendectomy specimens. METHODS: The clinicopathological data of 5262 patients who underwent appendectomies for presumed acute appendicitis from January 2006 to October 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Appendectomies performed as incidental procedures during some other operation were excluded. We focused on 54 patients who had unusual findings in their appendectomy specimens. We conducted a literature review via the PubMed and Google Scholar databases of English language studies published between 2000 and 2010 on unusual findings in appendectomy specimens. RESULTS: Unusual findings were determined in 54 (1%) cases by histopathology. Thirty were male and 24 were female with ages ranging from 15 to 84 years (median, 32.2 ± 15.1 years). Final pathology revealed 37 cases of enterobiasis, five cases of carcinoids, four mucinous cystadenomas, two eosinophilic infiltrations, two mucoceles, two tuberculosis, one goblet-cell carcinoid, and one neurogenic hyperplasia. While 52 patients underwent a standard appendectomy, two patients who were diagnosed with tuberculous appendicitis underwent a right hemicolectomy. All tumors were located at the distal part of the appendix with a mean diameter of 6.8 mm (range, 4-10 mm). All patients with tumors were alive and disease-free during a mean follow-up of 17.8 mo. A review of 1366 cases reported in the English literature is also discussed. CONCLUSION: Although unusual pathological findings are seldom seen during an appendectomy, all appendectomy specimens should be sent for routine histopathological examination. PMID:21528073

  3. Ophthalmic artery originating from the anterior cerebral artery: anatomo-radiological study, histological analysis, and literature review.

    PubMed

    Belotti, Francesco; Ferrari, Marco; Doglietto, Francesco; Cocchi, Marco Angelo; Lancini, Davide; Buffoli, Barbara; Nicolai, Piero; Fontanella, Marco Maria; Maroldi, Roberto; Tschabitscher, Manfred; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    The ophthalmic artery has an anomalous origin in 2-3 % of cases and rarely arises from the anterior cerebral artery. Herein, we provide the first anatomical, radiological, and histological description of such an anomalous origin, together with a literature review. During the anatomical dissection of an 81-year-old Caucasian male, the absence of the right ophthalmic artery in its usual location was evident from an endonasal transsphenoidal perspective. The specimen was then studied in detail, through multiple dissections, corrosion casting, high-resolution CT, and histological analysis. The English literature on anomalous origins of the ophthalmic artery was reviewed, together with reported associated pathologies. Anatomo-radiological analysis documented that the right ophthalmic artery arose from the inferior surface of A1 tract of the anterior cerebral artery (A1) and passed over the optic nerve in its subarachnoid tract. A meningo-ophthalmic artery was evident on the same side and reached the orbit through the superior orbital fissure. Histological examination of both internal carotid artery (ICA) walls documented a significantly decreased thickness of the tunica media and adventitia on the side of the anomalous ophthalmic artery, with a significantly different content of collagen types I and III. The literature review documented an association of aneurysms and anomalous ophthalmic arteries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first anatomical report that includes a radiological and arterial wall analysis of a persistent ventral ophthalmic artery. The latter provides histological data that support the clinical evidence of a higher association of aneurysms with anomalous origins of the ophthalmic artery. PMID:27048359

  4. Levels of Evidence in the Plastic Surgery Literature: A Citation Analysis of the Top 50 'Classic' Papers

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Cormac W; Kelly, John C; Kelly, Jack L; Carroll, Sean M

    2015-01-01

    Background The plastic surgery literature is vast, consisting of a plethora of diverse articles written by a myriad of illustrious authors. Despite this considerable archive of published material, it remains nebulous as to which precise papers have had the greatest impact on our specialty. The aim of this study was to identify the most cited papers in the plastic surgery literature and perform a citation analysis paying particular attention to the evidence levels of the clinical studies. Methods We identified the 50 most cited papers published in the 20 highest impact plastic surgery journals through the Web of Science. The articles were ranked in order of number of citations acquired and level of evidence assessed. Results The top 50 cited papers were published in six different journals between the years 1957 and 2007. Forty-two of the papers in the top 50 were considered as level IV or V evidence. No level I or II evidence was present in the top 50 list. The average level of evidence of the top 50 papers was 4.28. Conclusions In the plastic surgery literature, no positive correlation exists between a high number of citations and a high level of evidence. Anatomical reconstructive challenges tend to be the main focus of plastic surgery rather than pathologic diseases and consequently, papers with lower levels of evidence are relatively more valuable in plastic surgery than many other specialties. PMID:26217560

  5. Aphasia in polyglots: report of two cases and analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mastronardi, L; Ferrante, L; Celli, P; Acqui, M; Fortuna, A

    1991-10-01

    Two cases of aphasia in polyglot patients who experienced different symptoms in each of the languages they knew are reported. The authors discuss the problem and analyze the available literature in an attempt to formulate a pathogenetic hypothesis of the different involvement of the known idioms sometimes observed in aphasic polyglots. In particular, when time has elapsed between the learning of the mother tongue and other languages, and all the known languages are, consequently, functionally independent, it is possible that the two or more known idioms have distinct anatomical representations, probably localized separately in the two hemispheres. This could explain why, in some polyglots, aphasia affects one of the known languages preferentially. In subjects in whom the different known idioms were learned during early childhood, the anatomical representation of the languages is similar, which explains why, in this kind of polyglot, all the known languages can be equally affected by cerebral damage that causes aphasia. PMID:1944849

  6. Scorpion stings in pregnant women: an analysis of 11 cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kaplanoglu, M; Helvaci, M R

    2015-01-01

    Scorpion sting is one of the most important public health problem in many regions of the world. But there is not enough medical data about scorpion stings in pregnant women in the literature. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical findings and treatment modalities of scorpion stings in pregnant women. This study was performed in the Southeast Region of Turkey, retrospectively. Eleven pregnants were studied, totally. All of the patients were detected as class I according to the scorpion envenomization system. They were in different weeks of gestation. Local pain, hyperemia, swelling, and itching were the most frequent complaint in these cases. None of our patients received antivenom, and all of them were treated, symptomatically. Complication of pregnancy was observed in none of them. PMID:26054125

  7. Visualizing context through theory deconstruction: a content analysis of three bodies of evaluation theory literature.

    PubMed

    Vo, Anne T

    2013-06-01

    While the evaluation field collectively agrees that contextual factors bear on evaluation practice and related scholarly endeavors, the discipline does not yet have an explicit framework for understanding evaluation context. To address this gap in the knowledge base, this paper explores the ways in which evaluation context has been addressed in the practical-participatory, values-engaged, and emergent realist evaluation literatures. Five primary dimensions that constitute evaluation context were identified for this purpose: (1) stakeholder; (2) program; (3) organization; (4) historical/political; and (5) evaluator. Journal articles, book chapters, and conference papers rooted in the selected evaluation approaches were compared along these dimensions in order to explore points of convergence and divergence in the theories. Study results suggest that the selected prescriptive theories most clearly explicate stakeholder and evaluator contexts. Programmatic, organizational, and historical/political contexts, on the other hand, require further clarification. PMID:22469338

  8. Material Models and Properties in the Finite Element Analysis of Knee Ligaments: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Galbusera, Fabio; Freutel, Maren; Dürselen, Lutz; D’Aiuto, Marta; Croce, Davide; Villa, Tomaso; Sansone, Valerio; Innocenti, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Knee ligaments are elastic bands of soft tissue with a complex microstructure and biomechanics, which are critical to determine the kinematics as well as the stress bearing behavior of the knee joint. Their correct implementation in terms of material models and properties is therefore necessary in the development of finite element models of the knee, which has been performed for decades for the investigation of both its basic biomechanics and the development of replacement implants and repair strategies for degenerative and traumatic pathologies. Indeed, a wide range of element types and material models has been used to represent knee ligaments, ranging from elastic unidimensional elements to complex hyperelastic three-dimensional structures with anatomically realistic shapes. This paper systematically reviews literature studies, which described finite element models of the knee, and summarizes the approaches, which have been used to model the ligaments highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25478560

  9. Management of Mesh Complications after SUI and POP Repair: Review and Analysis of the Current Literature

    PubMed Central

    Deng, D. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the surgical treatment concepts for the complications related to the implantation of mesh material for urogynecological indications. Materials and Methods. A review of the current literature on PubMed was performed. Results. Only retrospective studies were detected. The rate of mesh-related complications is about 15–25% and mesh erosion is up to 10% for POP and SUI repair. Mesh explantation is necessary in about 1-2% of patients due to complications. The initial approach appears to be an early surgical treatment with partial or complete mesh resection. Vaginal and endoscopic access for mesh resection is favored. Prior to recurrent surgeries, a careful examination and planning for the operation strategy are crucial. Conclusions. The data on the management of mesh complication is scarce. Revisions should be performed by an experienced surgeon and a proper follow-up with prospective documentation is essential for a good outcome. PMID:25973425

  10. Thermal distribution in small buildings: A review and analysis of recent literature

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.; Modera, M.P.

    1992-09-01

    This report reviews and analyzes recent technical literature on two subjects relating to thermal distribution in small buildings: energy losses in ductwork and the energy consequences of zone control. Energy losses in ductwork stem from three factors: fan-induced infiltration, duct leakage, and conductive heat losses through duct walls. The first two mechanisms are intertwined, and together account for about half of all duct losses. Ducted forced-air distribution systems are found, on average, to be 60%--70% efficient. Zone control, that is, the ability to operate different zones of a building at different temperatures, is potentially an energy-conserving strategy, but field results suggest that the energy savings are far from automatic.

  11. Mindfulness-Based Mobile Applications: Literature Review and Analysis of Current Features

    PubMed Central

    Plaza, Inmaculada; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in mindfulness has increased exponentially, particularly in the fields of psychology and medicine. The trait or state of mindfulness is significantly related to several indicators of psychological health, and mindfulness-based therapies are effective at preventing and treating many chronic diseases. Interest in mobile applications for health promotion and disease self-management is also growing. Despite the explosion of interest, research on both the design and potential uses of mindfulness-based mobile applications (MBMAs) is scarce. Objective Our main objective was to study the features and functionalities of current MBMAs and compare them to current evidence-based literature in the health and clinical setting. Methods We searched online vendor markets, scientific journal databases, and grey literature related to MBMAs. We included mobile applications that featured a mindfulness-based component related to training or daily practice of mindfulness techniques. We excluded opinion-based articles from the literature. Results The literature search resulted in 11 eligible matches, two of which completely met our selection criteria–a pilot study designed to evaluate the feasibility of a MBMA to train the practice of “walking meditation,” and an exploratory study of an application consisting of mood reporting scales and mindfulness-based mobile therapies. The online market search eventually analyzed 50 available MBMAs. Of these, 8% (4/50) did not work, thus we only gathered information about language, downloads, or prices. The most common operating system was Android. Of the analyzed apps, 30% (15/50) have both a free and paid version. MBMAs were devoted to daily meditation practice (27/46, 59%), mindfulness training (6/46, 13%), assessments or tests (5/46, 11%), attention focus (4/46, 9%), and mixed objectives (4/46, 9%). We found 108 different resources, of which the most used were reminders, alarms, or bells (21/108, 19.4%), statistics tools

  12. Epidemiological Trends of Dengue Disease in Mexico (2000–2011): A Systematic Literature Search and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dantés, Héctor Gómez; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; Sarti, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    This systematic literature review describes the epidemiology of dengue disease in Mexico (2000–2011). The annual number of uncomplicated dengue cases reported increased from 1,714 in 2000 to 15,424 in 2011 (incidence rates of 1.72 and 14.12 per 100,000 population, respectively). Peaks were observed in 2002, 2007, and 2009. Coastal states were most affected by dengue disease. The age distribution pattern showed an increasing number of cases during childhood, a peak at 10–20 years, and a gradual decline during adulthood. All four dengue virus serotypes were detected. Although national surveillance is in place, there are knowledge gaps relating to asymptomatic cases, primary/secondary infections, and seroprevalence rates of infection in all age strata. Under-reporting of the clinical spectrum of the disease is also problematic. Dengue disease remains a serious public health problem in Mexico. PMID:25375162

  13. BDNF DNA methylation changes as a biomarker of psychiatric disorders: literature review and open access database analysis.

    PubMed

    Zheleznyakova, Galina Y; Cao, Hao; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in nervous system development and function and it is well established that BDNF is involved in the pathogenesis of a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Recently, numerous studies have associated the DNA methylation level of BDNF promoters with certain psychiatric phenotypes. In this review, we summarize data from current literature as well as from our own analysis with respect to the correlation of BDNF methylation changes with psychiatric disorders and address questions about whether DNA methylation related to the BDNF can be useful as biomarker for specific neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27267954

  14. Cultural variances in composition of biological and supernatural concepts of death: a content analysis of children's literature.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Seong; Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Younyoung; Koo, Ja Hyouk

    2014-01-01

    Children's reasoning about the afterlife emerges naturally as a developmental regularity. Although a biological understanding of death increases in accordance with cognitive development, biological and supernatural explanations of death may coexist in a complementary manner, being deeply imbedded in cultural contexts. This study conducted a content analysis of 40 children's death-themed picture books in Western Europe and East Asia. It can be inferred that causality and non-functionality are highly integrated with the naturalistic and supernatural understanding of death in Western Europe, whereas the literature in East Asia seems to rely on naturalistic aspects of death and focuses on causal explanations. PMID:24738761

  15. Analysis of duration of risk behaviour for key populations: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Fazito, Erika; Cuchi, Paloma; Mahy, Mary; Brown, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this paper is to review literature in order to calculate regional estimates of the average duration of time individuals maintain a specific high-risk behaviour. Methods The review targeted the key populations of female sex workers (FSW), male clients of female sex workers (MCFSW), people who inject drugs (injecting drug users (IDU)) and high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). To be included in the review the study had to provide information on (1) the time a person spent at risk until death or cessation of the risk behaviour, (2) the percentage of the sample who initiated the risk behaviour in less than a year or (3) the mean or median duration of the behaviour from a representative sample. Results 49 papers were found for the FSW population describing the period of time FSW stay in sex work to be between 2.9 years (Asia) and 12 years (Latin America). Eight papers were found for MCFSW showing the duration of the risk behaviour in this category varying from 4.6 years in Africa to 32 years in Asia. 86 papers were reviewed for the population of IDU showing that the average time a person injects illegal drugs varies from 5.6 years (Africa) to 21 years (South America). No information was found for duration of high-risk behaviour among MSM; instead, the definitions found in the literature for high- and low-risk behaviour among MSM were described. Conclusions There is high variability of estimates of duration of high-risk behaviours at regional level. More research is needed to inform models and prevention programmes on the average duration of time individuals maintain a specific high-risk behaviour. PMID:23172343

  16. RegulonDB v8.0: omics data sets, evolutionary conservation, regulatory phrases, cross-validated gold standards and more

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Heladia; Peralta-Gil, Martin; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Muñiz-Rascado, Luis; García-Sotelo, Jair S.; Weiss, Verena; Solano-Lira, Hilda; Martínez-Flores, Irma; Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Salgado-Osorio, Gerardo; Alquicira-Hernández, Shirley; Alquicira-Hernández, Kevin; López-Fuentes, Alejandra; Porrón-Sotelo, Liliana; Huerta, Araceli M.; Bonavides-Martínez, César; Balderas-Martínez, Yalbi I.; Pannier, Lucia; Olvera, Maricela; Labastida, Aurora; Jiménez-Jacinto, Verónica; Vega-Alvarado, Leticia; del Moral-Chávez, Victor; Hernández-Alvarez, Alfredo; Morett, Enrique; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes our progress with RegulonDB (http://regulondb.ccg.unam.mx/) during the past 2 years. We have kept up-to-date the knowledge from the published literature regarding transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli K-12. We have maintained and expanded our curation efforts to improve the breadth and quality of the encoded experimental knowledge, and we have implemented criteria for the quality of our computational predictions. Regulatory phrases now provide high-level descriptions of regulatory regions. We expanded the assignment of quality to various sources of evidence, particularly for knowledge generated through high-throughput (HT) technology. Based on our analysis of most relevant methods, we defined rules for determining the quality of evidence when multiple independent sources support an entry. With this latest release of RegulonDB, we present a new highly reliable larger collection of transcription start sites, a result of our experimental HT genome-wide efforts. These improvements, together with several novel enhancements (the tracks display, uploading format and curational guidelines), address the challenges of incorporating HT-generated knowledge into RegulonDB. Information on the evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements is also available now. Altogether, RegulonDB version 8.0 is a much better home for integrating knowledge on gene regulation from the sources of information currently available. PMID:23203884

  17. Web 2.0 in the Professional LIS Literature: An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical descriptive analysis and a thorough content analysis of descriptors and journal titles extracted from the Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA) database, focusing on the subject of Web 2.0 and its main applications: blog, wiki, social network and tags.The primary research questions include: whether the…

  18. Bilateral Diffuse Uveal Melanocytic Proliferation: Molecular Genetic Analysis of a Case and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Ruchi; Cherepanoff, Svetlana; Thornton, Sophie; Kalirai, Helen; Damato, Bertil; Coupland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study To describe the clinicopathological features, mutational and chromosomal copy number analysis, and 8-year follow-up of a case of bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP) associated with clear-cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Methods Histological evaluation, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis and GNAQ/11 mutational analysis were performed in a 67-year-old female patient with the diagnosis of BDUMP. Results Histological evaluation revealed proliferation of bland spindle cells, diffusely replacing the uveal tract, which showed a proliferation index of less than 1%. There was absence of mutations involving the codon 209 and 183 of GNAQ, and of GNA11. MLPA analysis showed disomy 3 with polysomy 8q for both eyes. The patient died 8 years later of an unrelated condition. Conclusions Although BDUMP is considered to be a benign proliferative disease, copy number alterations of unknown significance may occur in these lesions. PMID:27171825

  19. Comprehensive literature review and statistical considerations for microarray meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, George C.; Ghosh, Debashis; Feingold, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid advances of various high-throughput technologies, generation of ‘-omics’ data is commonplace in almost every biomedical field. Effective data management and analytical approaches are essential to fully decipher the biological knowledge contained in the tremendous amount of experimental data. Meta-analysis, a set of statistical tools for combining multiple studies of a related hypothesis, has become popular in genomic research. Here, we perform a systematic search from PubMed and manual collection to obtain 620 genomic meta-analysis papers, of which 333 microarray meta-analysis papers are summarized as the basis of this paper and the other 249 GWAS meta-analysis papers are discussed in the next companion paper. The review in the present paper focuses on various biological purposes of microarray meta-analysis, databases and software and related statistical procedures. Statistical considerations of such an analysis are further scrutinized and illustrated by a case study. Finally, several open questions are listed and discussed. PMID:22262733

  20. The Preclose Technique in Percutaneous Endovascular Aortic Repair: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffan, Abdel Aziz A.; Prince, Ethan A.; Hampson, Christopher O.; Murphy, Timothy P.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To establish the efficacy and safety of the preclose technique in total percutaneous endovascular aortic repair (PEVAR).MethodsA systematic literature search of Medline database was conducted for series on PEVAR published between January 1999 and January 2012.ResultsThirty-six articles comprising 2,257 patients and 3,606 arterial accesses were included. Anatomical criteria used to exclude patients from undergoing PEVAR were not uniform across all series. The technical success rate was 94 % per arterial access. Failure was unilateral in the majority (93 %) of the 133 failed PEVAR cases. The groin complication rate in PEVAR was 3.6 %; a minority (1.6 %) of these groin complications required open surgery. The groin complication rate in failed PEVAR cases converted to groin cutdown was 6.1 %. A significantly higher technical success rate was achieved when arterial access was performed via ultrasound guidance. Technical failure rate was significantly higher with larger sheath size ({>=}20F). Conclusion. The preclose technique in PEVAR has a high technical success rate and a low groin complication rate. Technical success tends to increase with ultrasound-guided arterial access and decrease with larger access. When failure occurs, it is unilateral in the majority of cases, and conversion to surgical cutdown does not appear to increase the operative risk.

  1. The emergence and evolution of school psychology literature: A scientometric analysis from 1907 through 2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuyan; Oakland, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this current study is to identify the growth and development of scholarly literature that specifically references the term 'school psychology' in the Science Citation Index from 1907 through 2014. Documents from Web of Science were accessed and analyzed through the use of scientometric analyses, including HistCite and Pajek software, resulting in the identification of 4,806 scholars who contributed 3,260 articles in 311 journals. Whereas the database included journals from around the world, most articles were published by authors in the United States and in 20 journals, including the Journal of School Psychology, Psychology in the Schools, School Psychology Review, School Psychology International, and School Psychology Quarterly. Analyses of the database from the past century revealed that 20 of the most prolific scholars contributed 14% of all articles. Contributions from faculty and students at University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, University of South Carolina, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and University of Texas-Austin represented 10% of all articles including the term school psychology in the Science Citation Index. Relationships among some of the most highly cited articles are also described. Collectively, the series of analyses reported herein contribute to our understanding of scholarship in school psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26752010

  2. Biofuels: network analysis of the literature reveals key environmental and economic unknowns.

    PubMed

    Ridley, Caroline E; Clark, Christopher M; Leduc, Stephen D; Bierwagen, Britta G; Lin, Brenda B; Mehl, Adrea; Tobias, David A

    2012-02-01

    Despite rapid growth in biofuel production worldwide, it is uncertain whether decision-makers possess sufficient information to fully evaluate the impacts of the industry and avoid unintended consequences. Doing so requires rigorous peer-reviewed data and analyses across the entire range of direct and indirect effects. To assess the coverage of scientific research, we analyzed over 1600 peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and 2009 that addressed 23 biofuels-related topics within four thematic areas: environment and human well-being, economics, technology, and geography. Greenhouse gases, fuel production, and feedstock production were well-represented in the literature, while trade, biodiversity, and human health were not. Gaps were especially striking across topics in the Southern Hemisphere, where the greatest potential socio-economic benefits, as well as environmental damages, may co-occur. There was strong asymmetry in the connectedness of research topics; greenhouse gases articles were twice as often connected to other topics as biodiversity articles. This could undermine the ability of scientific and economic analyses to adequately evaluate impacts and avoid significant unintended consequences. At the least, our review suggests caution in this developing industry and the need to pursue more interdisciplinary research to assess complex trade-offs and feedbacks inherent to an industry with wide-reaching potential impacts. PMID:22229835

  3. [Laparocele: a review of the literature and analysis of case histories].

    PubMed

    Lasagna, B; Resegotti, A; Garino, M; Balbo, G

    1990-01-01

    We analyze a group of 64 laparoceles from which it emerges a per cent distribution in the different regions and a correlation between the dimensions of the lesion and the relative regions in agreement with the data usually given in the literature. Furthermore we point out a clear dependence on pathogenetic factors of general and local order. Is therefore recognized the necessity of preventing their insurgence and reducing the risk of relapses through appropriate laparotomy incisions, with adoption of a suitable surgical technique and the correction of systemic diseases. The voluminous laparoceles are responsible of cardiac, respiratory, coagulative diseases, that must be scrupulously judged for an appropriate therapeutical approach. The surgical treatment, as well as for the cases of bigger dimensions, has mostly availed itself of an elementary technique (simple approach, apposition "en paletot" splitting of the fasciae). In the necessity of strengthening weak parietal tissues or of replacing vast losses of matter, we have limitedly resorted to autologous grafts, while good results have been observed with the lyophilized dura mater. PMID:2100109

  4. Waging modern war: An analysis of the moral literature on the nuclear arms debate

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer-Fernandez, G.F.

    1992-01-01

    The primary aim was to examine the dominant views on the subject of deterrence and the use of nuclear weapons, to compare them with each other, and to consider objections that have or might be made against them. A second, more controversial and substantive, aim was to show that nuclear weapons and war-fighting plans engender some disturbing moral dilemmas that call into question fundamental ways of thinking about morality and some of the common intuitions on the relation of intentions and actions. The author examines the moral literature, both religious and secular, on nuclear arms policy written between the early 1960s and the late 1980s. Three different schools of thought, or parties,' are identified. To establish the differences among these parties, the author shows the various ways in which judgments on the use of nuclear weapons and on deterrence are linked either by a prohibitive moral principle which draws a moral equivalence going from action to intention or by a factual assumption about the nature of nuclear weapons. He concludes with the suggestion that the dilemmas that arise in the moral evaluation of nuclear deterrence represent a profound and much wider problem in moral theory between the ideals of character and the moral claims of politics.

  5. Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-02-01

    Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods.

  6. How bone forms in large cancellous defects: critical analysis based on experimental work and literature.

    PubMed

    Draenert, K; Draenert, M; Erler, M; Draenert, A; Draenert, Y

    2011-09-01

    The behaviour of physiological biomaterials, β-tricalciumphosphate and hydroxyapatite, is analysed based on current literature and our own experimental work. The properties of graft substitutes based on ceramic materials are clearly defined according to their scientific efficiency. The strength of the materials and their biodegradability are still not fully evaluated. Strength and degradability have a direct proportional relationship and are considered the most efficient way to be adapted by their properties to the needs for the treatment of bone defects. New technologies for the manufacturing process are presented that increase those properties and thus open up new indications and easier application of the ceramic materials. The implantation process as well is carefully validated by animal experiments to avoid failures. Based on the experiments, a completely new approach is defined as to how primary bone formation with osteoconductive ceramics can be achieved. The milestones in that approach comprise a synthetically manufactured replica of the bone marrow spaces as osteoconductive ladder, whereas the bead is defined as bone-forming element. As a result, materials are available with high strength if the ceramic is solid or highly porous and possesses a micro-structure. The injection moulding process allows for the combination of high strength of the material with high porosity. Based on the strong capillary forces, micro-chambered beads fulfil most expectations for primary bone formation in cancellous bone defects, including drug delivery, mechanical strengthening if necessary, and stable implantation in situ by coagulation of the blood and bone marrow suctioned in. PMID:21742327

  7. Biofuels: Network Analysis of the Literature Reveals Key Environmental and Economic Unknowns

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Despite rapid growth in biofuel production worldwide, it is uncertain whether decision-makers possess sufficient information to fully evaluate the impacts of the industry and avoid unintended consequences. Doing so requires rigorous peer-reviewed data and analyses across the entire range of direct and indirect effects. To assess the coverage of scientific research, we analyzed over 1600 peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and 2009 that addressed 23 biofuels-related topics within four thematic areas: environment and human well-being, economics, technology, and geography. Greenhouse gases, fuel production, and feedstock production were well-represented in the literature, while trade, biodiversity, and human health were not. Gaps were especially striking across topics in the Southern Hemisphere, where the greatest potential socio-economic benefits, as well as environmental damages, may co-occur. There was strong asymmetry in the connectedness of research topics; greenhouse gases articles were twice as often connected to other topics as biodiversity articles. This could undermine the ability of scientific and economic analyses to adequately evaluate impacts and avoid significant unintended consequences. At the least, our review suggests caution in this developing industry and the need to pursue more interdisciplinary research to assess complex trade-offs and feedbacks inherent to an industry with wide-reaching potential impacts. PMID:22229835

  8. Expectations in the field of the internet and health: an analysis of claims about social networking sites in clinical literature.

    PubMed

    Koteyko, Nelya; Hunt, Daniel; Gunter, Barrie

    2015-03-01

    This article adopts a critical sociological perspective to examine the expectations surrounding the uses of social networking sites (SNSs) articulated in the domain of clinical literature. This emerging body of articles and commentaries responds to the recent significant growth in SNS use, and constitutes a venue in which the meanings of SNSs and their relation to health are negotiated. Our analysis indicates how clinical writing configures the role of SNSs in health care through a range of metaphorical constructions that frame SNSs as a tool, a conduit for information and a traversable space. The use of such metaphors serves not only to describe the new affordances offered by SNSs but also posits distinct lay and professional practices, while reviving a range of celebratory claims about the Internet and health critiqued in sociological literature. These metaphorical descriptions characterise SNS content as essentially controllable by autonomous users while reiterating existing arguments that e-health is both inherently empowering and risky. Our analysis calls for a close attention to these understandings of SNSs as they have the potential to shape future online initiatives, most notably by anticipating successful professional interventions while marginalising the factors that influence users' online and offline practices and contexts. PMID:25847533

  9. Expectations in the field of the Internet and health: an analysis of claims about social networking sites in clinical literature

    PubMed Central

    Koteyko, Nelya; Hunt, Daniel; Gunter, Barrie

    2015-01-01

    This article adopts a critical sociological perspective to examine the expectations surrounding the uses of social networking sites (SNSs) articulated in the domain of clinical literature. This emerging body of articles and commentaries responds to the recent significant growth in SNS use, and constitutes a venue in which the meanings of SNSs and their relation to health are negotiated. Our analysis indicates how clinical writing configures the role of SNSs in health care through a range of metaphorical constructions that frame SNSs as a tool, a conduit for information and a traversable space. The use of such metaphors serves not only to describe the new affordances offered by SNSs but also posits distinct lay and professional practices, while reviving a range of celebratory claims about the Internet and health critiqued in sociological literature. These metaphorical descriptions characterise SNS content as essentially controllable by autonomous users while reiterating existing arguments that e-health is both inherently empowering and risky. Our analysis calls for a close attention to these understandings of SNSs as they have the potential to shape future online initiatives, most notably by anticipating successful professional interventions while marginalising the factors that influence users’ online and offline practices and contexts. PMID:25847533

  10. Team situation awareness in nuclear power plant process control: A literature review, task analysis and future research

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, R.; Kaber, D. B.; Jones, J. M.; Starkey, R. L.

    2006-07-01

    Operator achievement and maintenance of situation awareness (SA) in nuclear power plant (NPP) process control has emerged as an important concept in defining effective relationships between humans and automation in this complex system. A literature review on factors influencing SA revealed several variables to be important to team SA, including the overall task and team goals, individual tasks, team member roles, and the team members themselves. Team SA can also be adversely affected by a range of factors, including stress, mental over- or under-loading, system design (including human-machine interface design), complexity, human error in perception, and automation. Our research focused on the analysis of 'shared' SA and team SA among an assumed three-person, main-control-room team. Shared SA requirements represent the knowledge that is held in common by NPP operators, and team SA represents the collective, unique knowledge of all operators. The paper describes an approach to goal-directed task analysis (GDTA) applied to NPP main control room operations. In general, the GDTA method reveals critical operator decision and information requirements. It identifies operator SA requirements relevant to performing complex systems control. The GDTA can reveal requirements at various levels of cognitive processing, including perception, comprehension and projection, in NPP process control. Based on the literature review and GDTA approach, a number of potential research issues are proposed with an aim toward understanding and facilitating team SA in NPP process control. (authors)

  11. Does AL amyloidosis have a unique genomic profile? Gene expression profiling meta-analysis and literature overview.

    PubMed

    Kryukov, Fedor; Kryukova, Elena; Brozova, Lucie; Kufova, Zuzana; Filipova, Jana; Growkova, Katerina; Sevcikova, Tereza; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Hajek, Roman

    2016-10-15

    Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (ALA) is a plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by deposition of amyloid fibrils in various organs and tissues. The current paper is devoted to clarify if ALA has a unique gene expression profile and to its pathogenetic argumentation. The meta-analysis of ALA patients vs. healthy donors, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering and multiple myeloma patients' cohorts have revealed molecular signature of ALA consists of 256 genes representing mostly ribosomal proteins and immunoglobulin regions. This signature appears pathogenetically supported and elucidates for the first time the role of ribosome dysfunction in ALA. In summary of our findings with literature overview, we hypothesize that ALA development is associated not only with changes in genes, coding amyloidogenic protein itself, but with post-transcriptional disbalance as well. Based on our data analysis in ALA, ribosome machinery is impaired and the affected link mainly involves translational initiation, elongation and co-translational protein folding. PMID:27288311

  12. Decision analysis in the clinical neurosciences: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dippel, D W; Habbema, J D

    1995-12-01

    Clinical decision analysis can be a useful scientific tool for individual patient management, for planning of clinical research and for reaching consensus about clinical problems. We systematically reviewed the decision analytic studies in the clinical neurosciences that were published between 1975 and July 1994. All studies were assessed on aspects of clinical applicability: presence of case and context description, completeness of the analysed strategies from a clinical point of view, extendibility of the analyses to different patient profiles, and up-to-date-ness. Fifty-nine decision analyses of twenty-eight different clinical problems were identified. Twenty-eight analyses were based on the theory of subjective expected utility, twelve on cost-effectiveness analysis. Four studies used ROC analysis, and fifteen were risk-, or risk-benefit analyses. At least six studies could have been improved by more elaborately disclosing the context of the clinical problem that was addressed. In eleven studies, the effect of different, yet plausible assumptions was not explored, and in eighteen studies the reader was not informed how to extend the results of the analysis to patients with (slightly) different clinical characterisitics. All studies had, by nature, the potential to promote insight into the clinical problem and focus the discussion on clinically important aspects, and gave clinically useful advice. We conclude that clinical decision analysis, as an explicit, quantitative approach to uncertainty in decision making in the clinical neurosciences will fulfill a growing need in the near future. PMID:24283779

  13. Literature-aided meta-analysis of microarray data: a compendium study on muscle development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Jelier, Rob; 't Hoen, Peter AC; Sterrenburg, Ellen; den Dunnen, Johan T; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Kors, Jan A; Mons, Barend

    2008-01-01

    Background Comparative analysis of expression microarray studies is difficult due to the large influence of technical factors on experimental outcome. Still, the identified differentially expressed genes may hint at the same biological processes. However, manually curated assignment of genes to biological processes, such as pursued by the Gene Ontology (GO) consortium, is incomplete and limited. We hypothesised that automatic association of genes with biological processes through thesaurus-controlled mining of Medline abstracts would be more effective. Therefore, we developed a novel algorithm (LAMA: Literature-Aided Meta-Analysis) to quantify the similarity between transcriptomics studies. We evaluated our algorithm on a large compendium of 102 microarray studies published in the field of muscle development and disease, and compared it to similarity measures based on gene overlap and over-representation of biological processes assigned by GO. Results While the overlap in both genes and overrepresented GO-terms was poor, LAMA retrieved many more biologically meaningful links between studies, with substantially lower influence of technical factors. LAMA correctly grouped muscular dystrophy, regeneration and myositis studies, and linked patient and corresponding mouse model studies. LAMA also retrieves the connecting biological concepts. Among other new discoveries, we associated cullin proteins, a class of ubiquitinylation proteins, with genes down-regulated during muscle regeneration, whereas ubiquitinylation was previously reported to be activated during the inverse process: muscle atrophy. Conclusion Our literature-based association analysis is capable of finding hidden common biological denominators in microarray studies, and circumvents the need for raw data analysis or curated gene annotation databases. PMID:18577208

  14. American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Caroline, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Published bimonthly by the National Endowment for the Humanities, this edition of "Humanities" focuses on issues in American literature. Articles and their authors consist of: (1) "Conversations about Literature" (an interview with Cleanth Brooks and Willie Morris about writing and writers in America); (2) "The Spine of Literature" (an interview…

  15. Literature review of baseline study for risk analysis - the landfill leachate case.

    PubMed

    Butt, T E; Gouda, H M; Baloch, M I; Paul, P; Javadi, A A; Alam, A

    2014-02-01

    There is growing awareness and public concern about environmental impacts of waste management and disposal. Environmental policy instruments have been strengthened and associated governmental programmes have increased in recent years, resulting in high level strategies for waste management. Risk assessment is now an essential tool in the prioritisation of environmental and human health protection. However, regulators need to compare the full range of risks on a sound and consistent basis. Comparing risks from such diverse sources poses a significant challenge, and traditional hazard and risk assessments are no longer sufficient. Consideration now needs to be given to a much wider range of factors if risk assessment is to be used as an aid to more integrated decision-making process. For this purpose, baseline study - the foundation of risk assessment - can play a crucial role. To date limited research has been conducted on the need, parameters, requirements, and constituents of baseline study particularly in the context of how, why, and what information is to be collated in order to render risk assessments more appropriately integrated and complete. To establish the 'state-of-the-art' of baseline study, this paper comprehensively reviews the literature regarding environmental risk assessment in general terms, and then proceeds to review work that is specifically related to landfills and landfill leachate, thereby identifying knowledge gaps and shortfall areas. This review concludes that a holistic baseline study procedure for waste disposal sites, which risk assessors could use for carrying out risk analyses specifically for landfill leachate, does not as yet exist. PMID:24295846

  16. Global reported endophthalmitis risk following intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF: a literature review and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sigford, Douglas K; Reddy, Shivani; Mollineaux, Christine; Schaal, Shlomit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report on endophthalmitis occurrence and associated risk factors following the intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF agents based on a review of published literature. Materials and methods A Medline search was performed using the terms “bevacizumab” and “ranibizumab”. A total of 534 English-language articles of varying design and published from 2006 to November 2013 were analyzed for endophthalmitis occurrence and contributing perioperative factors. Results A total of 445,503 injections were counted. There were 103 cases of postinjection endophthalmitis in 176,124 injections (0.058%) with bevacizumab (Avastin) versus 79 cases in 269,379 injections (0.029%) with ranibizumab (Lucentis). This difference was due to a significantly higher occurrence of culture-negative endophthalmitis associated with bevacizumab injections. Culture-positive risk was not statistically different between the two drugs. The reported use of postinjection topical antibiotics increased the risk of culture-positive endophthalmitis. No association was found with the use of povidone iodine, a lid speculum, a mask, or an operating room. Streptococcus spp. were the most prevalent causative organism, accounting for nine of 54 (17%) of all culture-positive cases. Conclusion Reported postinjection endophthalmitis occurred significantly more in patients treated with bevacizumab than those treated with ranibizumab. However, culture-positive occurrence was similar. Despite the potential for contamination at the time of drug compounding, bevacizumab does not appear to confer a higher risk of culture-positive endophthalmitis than ranibizumab. This study also suggests antibiotic use may increase endophthalmitis occurrence. PMID:25999685

  17. 3D cephalometric analysis obtained from computed tomography. Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rossini, Giulia; Cavallini, Costanza; Cassetta, Michele; Barbato, Ersilia

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction The aim of this systematic review is to estimate accuracy and reproducibility of craniometric measurements and reliability of landmarks identified with computed tomography (CT) techniques in 3D cephalometric analysis. Methods Computerized and manual searches were conducted up to 2011 for studies that addressed these objectives. The selection criteria were: (1) the use of human specimen; (2) the comparison between 2D and 3D cephalometric analysis; (3) the assessment of accuracy, reproducibility of measurements and reliability of landmark identification with CT images compared with two-dimensional conventional radiographs. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions was used as the guideline for this article. Results Twenty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. Most of them demonstrated high measurements accuracy and reproducibility, and landmarks reliability, but their cephalometric analysis methodology varied widely. Conclusion These differencies among the studies in making measurements don’t permit a direct comparison between them. The future developments in the knowledge of these techniques should provide a standardized method to conduct the 3D CT cephalometric analysis. PMID:22545187

  18. Siblings and Child Development: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis of the Literature on Only Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polit, Denise F.; Falbo, Toni

    The present study involved a meta-analysis of 157 studies in which only children were compared with individuals raised with siblings. Findings failed to confirm the persistent negative stereotype of only children as maladjusted and disadvantaged. In fact, results suggested that only children are advantaged with respect to intelligence, educational…

  19. Using a Thematic Analysis of Literature to Survey Subfields within Communication Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Johny T.; Ragland, J. Parker

    2015-01-01

    The activity described by the authors here is a thematic analysis of published articles in a broad area of study. Students search for articles relating to the topic of study in different academic journals that fall in a specific date range. Students record details about the topics covered and theories/methods used. The class then assembles to…

  20. How Will DSM-5 Affect Autism Diagnosis? A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulage, Kristine M.; Smaldone, Arlene M.; Cohn, Elizabeth G.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explore policy implications. We identified 418 studies; 14 met inclusion criteria. Studies consistently reported decreases in ASD diagnosis (range 7.3-68.4%) using DSM-5…

  1. Ikeda Research in China and Taiwan: Critical Analysis of the Chinese Language Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inukai, Nozomi

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first attempt to conduct a critical analysis of the research on Ikeda's educational philosophy published in mainland China and Taiwan. The study employed a combination of archival research and responses to an online questionnaire by professors and doctorate students studying Ikeda's educational philosophy. The study analyzed the…

  2. Like a Hurricane: A Citation Analysis of Emergency Management Scholarly Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noe, Jennifer; Furay, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This bibliometric study used citation analysis to uncover citing characteristics in the burgeoning academic field of emergency management. Of the 281 degree programs listed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency nationwide, those at community colleges accounted for 17% of the total. Using the interdisciplinary database of Academic Search…

  3. Paradigmatic Drift: A Bibliographic Review of the Spread of Economic Analysis in the Literature of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kurt M.; Gandy, Oscar H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the presentation of economic arguments in 351 articles (from 1965 to 1988) that focused on some economic aspect of communication in three core journals in communications. Uses citation analysis to identify core referents for these articles. Finds that communications scholars cite other communication journals more than economic journals.…

  4. An Integrative Literature Review of Student Affairs Competencies: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herdlein, Richard; Riefler, Laurel; Mrowka, Kaleigh

    2013-01-01

    The study reviewed 17 years of research extending the work of Lovell and Kosten (2000) on student affairs competencies important for professional preparation and practice. A meta-analysis was used to organize and present data on 22 articles concerned with knowledge, skills, dispositions, curriculum, multicultural competency, and professional…

  5. A Critical Analysis of Literature on Social Justice Curriculum: Avoiding Historical Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlep, Nicholas D., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this critical analysis is to gain quantitatively greater statistical accuracy synthesizing past empirical studies conducted on the topic of social justice curriculum (hereafter SJC) with similar research foci, but dissimilar research questions. Currently there is a clarion call for further quantitative research to be conducted on…

  6. A Mixed Methods Content Analysis of the Research Literature in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schram, Asta B.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, more and more researchers in science education have been turning to the practice of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in the same study. This approach of using mixed methods creates possibilities to study the various issues that science educators encounter in more depth. In this content analysis, I evaluated 18…

  7. Cyberbullying: A Research-Based Content Analysis of the Psychological Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Research on the topic of cyber-bullying has proliferated over the past decade, particularly on its impact on children through adolescents. Thus, it would be of interest to examine the scope and extent of research interest on the topic in scholarly publications. This paper reports on a reference citation analysis of the database PsycINFO, using the…

  8. The First Century of Disability Portrayal in Film: An Analysis of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an interdisciplinary review of portrayal of disability in film by integrating resources from film history, the social sciences, rehabilitation, mass communication, psychology, psychiatry, and education. Analysis addresses the quality of cinematic representations of disability and the politics of film. Psychiatric disorders were most…

  9. The Relationship between Pay and Job Satisfaction: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Timothy A.; Piccolo, Ronald F.; Podsakoff, Nathan P.; Shaw, John C.; Rich, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the motivational aspects of pay are well-documented, the notion that high pay leads to high levels of satisfaction is not without debate. The current study used meta-analysis to estimate the population correlation between pay level and measures of pay and job satisfaction. Cumulating across 115 correlations from 92 independent samples,…

  10. Macroeconomics of Natural Disasters: Strengths and Weaknesses of Meta-Analysis Versus Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    A G van Bergeijk, Peter; Lazzaroni, Sara

    2015-06-01

    We use the case of the macroeconomic impact of natural disasters to analyze strengths and weaknesses of meta-analysis in an emerging research field. Macroeconomists have published on this issue since 2002 (we identified 60 studies to date). The results of the studies are contradictory and therefore the need to synthesize the available research is evident. Meta-analysis is a useful method in this field. An important aim of our article is to show how one can use the identified methodological characteristics to better understand the robustness and importance of new findings. To provide a comparative perspective, we contrast our meta-analysis and its findings with the major influential research synthesis in the field: the IPCC's 2012 special report Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. We show that the IPCC could have been more confident about the negative economic impact of disasters and more transparent on inclusion and qualification of studies, if it had been complemented by a meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis shows that, controlling for modeling strategies and data set, the impact of disasters is significantly negative. The evidence is strongest for direct costs studies where we see no difference between our larger sample and the studies included in the IPCC report. Direct cost studies and indirect cost studies differ significantly, both in terms of the confidence that can be attached to a negative impact of natural disasters and in terms of the sources of heterogeneity of the findings reported in the primary studies. PMID:25847486

  11. Ovarian complete hydatidiform mole: case study with molecular analysis and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sehn, Jennifer K; Kuroki, Lindsay M; Hopeman, Margaret M; Longman, Ryan E; McNicholas, Colleen P; Huettner, Phyllis C

    2013-12-01

    Ectopic complete molar pregnancy in the ovary is an exceptionally rare event. Here we present a case of ovarian complete hydatidiform mole in a 20-year-old gravida 2 para 1 woman. At presentation, the patient underwent excision of a hemorrhagic left ovarian cyst, with routine sections demonstrating a hemorrhagic corpus luteum with a single microscopic focus of detached atypical trophoblast, without chorionic villi. Subsequent left salpingo-oophorectomy for persistently elevated human chorionic gonadotropin led to a final diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole arising in the ovary. The fallopian tube was unremarkable. Zygosity was determined using short tandem repeat analysis, confirming the diagnosis of monospermic complete mole. In the clinical setting of a markedly elevated human chorionic gonadotropin level and an ovarian mass, histopathologic examination is critical in distinguishing ectopic pregnancy from choriocarcinoma. Short tandem repeat analysis can be a useful adjunct to histologic diagnosis in challenging cases. PMID:24134929

  12. Do therapists address gender and power in infidelity? A feminist analysis of the treatment literature.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kirstee; Knudson-Martin, Carmen

    2013-07-01

    Sociocontextual factors such as gender and power play an important role in the etiology of affairs and in recovery from them, yet it is unclear how current treatment models address these issues. Drawing on feminist epistemology, this study utilized a grounded theory analysis of 29 scholarly articles and books on infidelity treatment published between 2000 and 2010 to identify the circumstances under which gender and power issues were or were not part of treatment. We found five conditions that limit attention to gender and power: (a) speaking (or assuming) as though partners are equal, (b) reframing infidelity as a relationship problem, (c) limiting discussion of societal context to background, (d) not considering how societal gender and power patterns impact relationship dynamics, and (e) limiting discussion of ethics on how to position around infidelity. Analysis explored how each occurred across three phases of couple therapy. The findings provide a useful foundation for a sociocontextual framework for infidelity treatment. PMID:25059296

  13. Hit Identification and Optimization in Virtual Screening: Practical Recommendations Based Upon a Critical Literature Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tian; Cao, Shuyi; Su, Pin-Chih; Patel, Ram; Shah, Darshan; Chokshi, Heta B.; Szukala, Richard; Johnson, Michael E.; Hevener, Kirk E.

    2013-01-01

    A critical analysis of virtual screening results published between 2007 and 2011 was performed. The activity of reported hit compounds from over 400 studies was compared to their hit identification criteria. Hit rates and ligand efficiencies were calculated to assist in these analyses and the results were compared with factors such as the size of the virtual library and the number of compounds tested. A series of promiscuity, drug-like, and ADMET filters were applied to the reported hits to assess the quality of compounds reported and a careful analysis of a subset of the studies which presented hit optimization was performed. This data allowed us to make several practical recommendations with respect to selection of compounds for experimental testing, defining hit identification criteria, and general virtual screening hit criteria to allow for realistic hit optimization. A key recommendation is the use of size-targeted ligand efficiency values as hit identification criteria. PMID:23688234

  14. The behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia: An analysis of the literature and a case report.

    PubMed

    Birkhoff, Jutta Maria; Garberi, Cesare; Re, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to underline the importance of possible legal consequences of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). This disease is associated with antisocial behavior, impulse control disorder and cognitive and personality impairment, which are often the earliest manifestations of the bvFTD. One of the antisocial behaviors possibly associated with this neurodegenerative disease is pathological stealing. This case report is about a 50-year-old Italian man who had a regular life until 2010. In 2010 and 2011, some critical events occurred: he lost his job, his father-in-law, to whom he was particularly close, died, and his wife had a serious illness. He began to show symptoms of depression, a significant weight loss, apathy, poor self-care, and lack of interest in the activities of his family. He became disengaged from his prior activities, emotionally detached from his family and developed compulsive hoarding. Moreover, he had uninhibited behaviors, a memory retrieval deficit, executive dysfunctions and impulsive behaviors. In January 2012, the subject began stealing objects, particularly components of computer, without premeditation or concern for resulting legal actions. He was then diagnosed affected by bvFTD. He was charged with theft and attempted theft and the Court asked for a psychiatric evaluation, in order to analyze the effect of the neurodegenerative disease on his behavior. To answer to the Court, the Authors analyzed his history of life and made a mental examination. The subject was considered mentally insane at the time of his crimes. This is an example of the practical application in judicial cases of the latest knowledge and evidence in the literature about the frontotemporal dementia, a disease associated with antisocial behaviors that could create tensions with the criminal law. The focus of the paper is to explain how the behavioral symptoms of bvFTD can have legal implications and how to deal with legal

  15. Literature Mining and Ontology based Analysis of Host-Brucella Gene–Gene Interaction Network

    PubMed Central

    Karadeniz, İlknur; Hur, Junguk; He, Yongqun; Özgür, Arzucan

    2015-01-01

    represented. Our results show that the introduced literature mining and ontology-based modeling approach are effective in retrieving and analyzing host–pathogen gene–gene interaction networks. PMID:26696993

  16. The Stability of IQ in People with Low Intellectual Ability: An Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Simon

    2008-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the stability of low IQ (IQ less than 80) was performed on IQ tests that have been commonly used--tests that were derived by D. Wechsler (1949, 1955, 1974, 1981, 1991, 1997) and those based on the Binet scales (L. M. Terman, 1960; L. M. Terman & Merrill, 1972). Weighted-mean stability coefficients of 0.77 and 0.78 were found for…

  17. Bibliometric profile of neurogenic bladder in the literature: a 20-year bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuan; Qu, Bo; Shen, Yan; Su, Xiao-jing; Dong, Xiao-yan; Chen, Xue-mei; Zhou, Yu-hong; Pi, Hong-ying

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic bladder is a dysfunction of the lower urinary tract caused by nervous system disorder. We investigated the trends in publication of articles under the topic “neurogenic bladder” using bibliometric analysis. Articles on neurogenic bladder, published between 1995 and 2014, were retrieved from the ISI Web of Science citation database. We analyzed the search results for authors, countries, institutions, journals, and top-cited papers. A total of 1,904 articles were retrieved. There was a small increase in the number of articles on neurogenic bladder from 1995 (n = 43) to 2014 (n = 117). The USA was the leading country in the total number of articles (n = 598). However, the number of publications from China has rapidly increased, and China was ranked second in 2014. Emmanuel Chartier-Kastler (n = 65) was the most productive author, and University of Paris VI (Paris 6) (n = 61) was the most productive institution. The Journal of Urology published the greatest number of articles on this topic (n = 285). Articles on neurogenic bladder were often published in a professional journal under the category Urology & Nephrology, Neurosciences & Neurology, or Rehabilitation. Visualization analysis based on co-citation networks was conducted using CiteSpace III. Visualization analysis revealed that the hot spots in neurogenic bladder were botulinum toxin-A, prazosin, bethanechol, and afferent pathways. These findings provide new insight into the publication trends and hot spots in neurogenic bladder. PMID:26109957

  18. Prognostic value of MGMT methylation in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanliang; Lyu, Zhongchuan; Zhao, Lixin; Cheng, Hong; Zhu, Dongyuan; Gao, Yongsheng; Shang, Xiuwan; Shi, Huaijie

    2015-03-01

    The development of colorectal cancer (CRC) spans about 5-10 years, making early detection and prevention beneficial to the survival of CRC patients. To address inconsistencies in evidence regarding O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation as a potential prognostic factor in CRC, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate MGMT methylation in CRC patients. Fourteen studies were included in the meta-analysis after screening 120 articles. The following items were collected from each study: author, published year, country, patient gender, MGMT methylation status, and patients' disease progression. Pooled hazard ratios and odd ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed or random effect models depending on the heterogeneity between studies. The overall survival of CRC patients was found not to be significantly associated with MGMT methylation. Further subgroup analysis showed that the frequency of MGMT methylation was significantly higher in CRC than in normal tissues (p < 0.00001). MGMT promoter in CRC patients was more frequently methylated than in adenoma patients. In addition, MGMT methylation was significantly increased in adenoma than in normal tissues (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, MGMT methylation is central to the development of cancer that involves a stepwise carcinogenesis of normal adenoma carcinoma cascade. However, MGMT methylation is not associated with the prognosis of CRC. PMID:25596081

  19. The terrain of health policy analysis in low and middle income countries: a review of published literature 1994–2007

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, Lucy; Raphaely, Nika

    2008-01-01

    This article provides the first ever review of literature analysing the health policy processes of low and middle income countries (LMICs). Based on a systematic search of published literature using two leading international databases, the article maps the terrain of work published between 1994 and 2007, in terms of policy topics, lines of inquiry and geographical base, as well as critically evaluating its strengths and weaknesses. The overall objective of the review is to provide a platform for the further development of this field of work. From an initial set of several thousand articles, only 391 were identified as relevant to the focus of inquiry. Of these, 164 were selected for detailed review because they present empirical analyses of health policy change processes within LMIC settings. Examination of these articles clearly shows that LMIC health policy analysis is still in its infancy. There are only small numbers of such analyses, whilst the diversity of policy areas, topics and analytical issues that have been addressed across a large number of country settings results in a limited depth of coverage within this body of work. In addition, the majority of articles are largely descriptive in nature, limiting understanding of policy change processes within or across countries. Nonetheless, the broad features of experience that can be identified from these articles clearly confirm the importance of integrating concern for politics, process and power into the study of health policy. By generating understanding of the factors influencing the experience and results of policy change, such analysis can inform action to strengthen future policy development and implementation. This article, finally, outlines five key actions needed to strengthen the field of health policy analysis within LMICs, including capacity development and efforts to generate systematic and coherent bodies of work underpinned by both the intent to undertake rigorous analytical work and concern

  20. The clinicopathological significance and drug target potential of FHIT in breast cancer, a meta-analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Su, Yunshu; Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Jun; Xu, Junming; Xu, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    FHIT is a bona fide tumor-suppressor gene and its loss contributes to tumorigenesis of epithelial cancers including breast cancer (BC). However, the association and clinicopathological significance between FHIT promoter hypermethylation and BC remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis and literature review to investigate the clinicopathological significance of FHIT methylation in BC. A detailed literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. The data were extracted and assessed by two reviewers independently. Odds ratios with 95% corresponding confidence intervals were calculated. A total of seven relevant articles were available for meta-analysis, which included 985 patients. The frequency of FHIT hypermethylation was significantly increased in invasive ductal carcinoma compared to benign breast disease, the pooled odds ratio was 8.43, P<0.00001. The rate of FHIT hypermethylation was not significantly different between stage I/II and stage III/IV, odds ratio was 2.98, P=0.06. In addition, FHIT hypermethylation was not significantly associated with ER and PR status. FHIT hypermethylation was not significantly correlated with premenopausal and postmenopausal patients with invasive ductal carcinoma. In summary, our meta-analysis indicated that the frequency of FHIT hypermethylation was significantly increased in BC compared to benign breast disease. The rate of FHIT hypermethylation in advanced stages of BC was higher than in earlier stages; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Our data suggested that FHIT methylation could be a diagnostic biomarker of BC carcinogenesis. FHIT is a potential drug target for development of demethylation treatment for patients with BC. PMID:26491255

  1. Type 1 Diabetes and Risk for Fracture: Meta-analysis and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Viral N; Shah, Chirag S.; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K

    2016-01-01

    Background Fracture risk in men and women with type 1 diabetes (type 1 DM) has not been studied in a large prospective well designed cohort. Objective A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies were conducted to assess the association between type 1 DM and fractures. Data source Data were selected from Medline and Embase and abstract from annual scientific meeting of various diabetes and bone and mineral societies. Study selection Published studies reporting fracture risk in subjects with type 1 DM in comparison with subjects without diabetes between 1990 and July, 2014 and abstracts from various annual meeting (2005 onwards) were included for this meta-analysis. Data extraction Data were extracted from text of included publication or abstract of conferences. Data synthesis Fourteen studies that met inclusion criteria reported 2,066 fracture events among 27,300 subjects with type 1 DM (7.6%) and 136,579 fracture events among 4,364,125 subjects without diabetes (3.1%). The pooled relative risk (RR) of any fracture in subjects with type 1 DM was 3.16 (95% CI 1.51–6.63, p=0.002). Women and men with type 1 DM had four and two times higher risk for any fractures, respectively, compared to subjects without diabetes. The pooled RR of hip fractures and spinal fractures were 3.78 (95%CI; 2.05–6.98, p<0.001) and 2.88 (1.71–4.82, p<0.001), respectively, among subjects with type 1 DM. Conclusion Our meta-analysis suggests that both men and women with type 1 DM might have an increased risk for any fractures. A large prospective epidemiological study is needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26096918

  2. A meta-analysis of literature data relating to the relationships between cadmium intake and toxicity indicators in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Omarova, A.; Phillips, C.J.C. . E-mail: c.phillips@uq.edu.au

    2007-03-15

    The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between cadmium (Cd) intake and cadmium toxicity indicators by meta-analysis of literature data, in particular {beta}2-microglobulin ({beta}2MC), and to compare the results with the current Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) set by FAO/WHO. The literature survey identified 79 feeding trials involving 27,537 people that were suitable for extraction of cadmium intake, levels in blood and urine and {beta}2-microglobulin in urine. There was an exponential increase in {beta}2-microglobulin with increases in cadmium intake above 302 {mu}g/day, which corresponds to a PTWI of 3.02 {mu}g/kg of body weight, when a safety margin of 10 is included. This compares with the current level set by FAO/WHO of 7 {mu}g/kg of body weight. Cadmium in blood and urine were also positively related to cadmium intake and participants' age. There were two principal components of variation in the data set, first: cadmium intake, concentrations of cadmium in blood, urine and {beta}2-microglobulin in urine, and second: duration and age of exposure.

  3. Are We Missing Something Pertinent? A Bias Analysis of Unmeasured Confounding in the Firearm-Suicide Literature.

    PubMed

    Miller, M; Swanson, S A; Azrael, D

    2016-01-01

    Despite the magnitude and consistency of risk estimates in the peer-reviewed literature linking firearm availability and suicide, inferring causality has been questioned on the theoretical basis that existing studies may have failed to account for the possibility that members of households with firearms differ from members of households without firearms in important ways related to suicide risk. The current bias analysis directly addresses this concern by describing the salient characteristics that such an unmeasured confounder would need to possess in order to yield the associations between firearm availability and suicide observed in the literature when, in fact, the causal effect is null. Four US studies, published between 1992 and 2003, met our eligibility criteria. We find that any such unmeasured confounder would need to possess an untenable combination of characteristics, such as being not only 1) as potent a suicide risk factor as the psychiatric disorders most tightly linked to suicide (e.g., major depressive and substance use disorders) but also 2) an order of magnitude more imbalanced across households with versus without firearms than is any known risk factor. No such confounder has been found or even suggested. The current study strongly suggests that unmeasured confounding alone is unlikely to explain the association between firearms and suicide. PMID:26769723

  4. Indoor exposure to airborne endotoxin: a review of the literature on sampling and analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Paba, Emilia; Tranfo, Giovanna; Corsetti, Federica; Marcelloni, Anna Maria; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of exposure to airborne endotoxins has been studied for several years, especially in occupational environments, but a large number of procedures are used for sampling and analysis. This lack of standardization makes it very difficult to compare results and set internationally accepted threshold limit values (TLVs) or occupational exposure limits (OELs) for endotoxin exposure. This paper reviews the methods reported, using advanced bibliographical search techniques: 82 papers published from 2004 to the present were selected to analyze methods for the assessment of human exposure to airborne endotoxins, with particular reference to occupational settings, and to examine their performance and critical points. Only few studies have focused on the standardization of sampling and analysis methods. The European Committee for Standardization Guidelines coincide with the procedures most frequently applied, but this does not guarantee the best results in terms of recovery and reproducibility. The factor that mainly affects endotoxin measurements is the extraction method, the main concern being the presence in the samples of a fraction insoluble in aqueous media. If substantial differences in the proportions of this fraction in different environments are confirmed in the future, the contribution of insoluble endotoxins cannot be neglected. PMID:23385433

  5. How will DSM-5 affect autism diagnosis? A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kulage, Kristine M; Smaldone, Arlene M; Cohn, Elizabeth G

    2014-08-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explore policy implications. We identified 418 studies; 14 met inclusion criteria. Studies consistently reported decreases in ASD diagnosis (range 7.3-68.4%) using DSM-5 criteria. There were statistically significant pooled decreases in ASD [31% (20-44), p = 0.006] and DSM-IV-TR subgroups of Autistic disorder [22% (16-29), p < 0.001] and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) [70% (55-82), p = 0.01]; however, Asperger's disorder pooled decrease was not significant [70% (26-94), p = 0.38]. DSM-5 will likely decrease the number of individuals diagnosed with ASD, particularly the PDD-NOS subgroup. Research is needed on policies regarding services for individuals lacking diagnosis but requiring assistance. PMID:24531932

  6. Carbothermic Synthesis of 820 m UN Kernels: Literature Review, Thermodynamics, Analysis, and Related Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemer, Terrence; Voit, Stewart L; Silva, Chinthaka M; Besmann, Theodore M; Hunt, Rodney Dale

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is considering a new nuclear fuel that would be less susceptible to ruptures during a loss-of-coolant accident. The fuel would consist of tristructural isotropic coated particles with large, dense uranium nitride (UN) kernels. This effort explores many factors involved in using gel-derived uranium oxide-carbon microspheres to make large UN kernels. Analysis of recent studies with sufficient experimental details is provided. Extensive thermodynamic calculations are used to predict carbon monoxide and other pressures for several different reactions that may be involved in conversion of uranium oxides and carbides to UN. Experimentally, the method for making the gel-derived microspheres is described. These were used in a microbalance with an attached mass spectrometer to determine details of carbothermic conversion in argon, nitrogen, or vacuum. A quantitative model is derived from experiments for vacuum conversion to an uranium oxide-carbide kernel.

  7. Managing menopause: a qualitative analysis of self-help literature for women at midlife.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Antonia C; Griffin, Christine

    2003-04-01

    This article reports on a qualitative social constructionist analysis that aims to examine the ways in which menopause and women's bodies are represented in self-help texts. In particular, we aim to compare texts with a more traditional 'medical' approach and others taking a more 'woman-centred' perspective. Four diverse self-help books on menopause and HRT available in England were analysed to examine the ways in which women, menopause and midlife were portrayed, and to investigate the construction of notions of knowledge, expertise and responsibility. The selected texts were published between 1992 and 1996 and covered a range of perspectives, including medical, alternative and feminist. Results showed that menopause was constructed as a 'deficiency disease' in all four texts, although in three of the texts this 'disease' discourse was counterposed by the simultaneous use of a 'menopause as natural' discourse. Menopause was also constructed as inherently complex and confusing, as were women's bodies. A discourse of 'change' was drawn upon in which menopause was portrayed as only one of the stressful events women must cope with at midlife. Finally, most of the texts drew on a discourse of 'management' rather than one of 'treatment' or 'cure' when discussing how menopause, and women's relationship to menopause should be handled. The medical profession was constructed as the primary source of expertise on menopause and women's bodies, although responsibility for the 'management' of menopause as a chronic condition lay solely with individual women. Although there were a number of differences in representations of menopause in medically oriented self-help texts and those adopting a more woman-centred perspective, our analysis also revealed several areas of similarity and overlap with regard to the construction of menopause and its 'management'. The implications of these findings for the construction of menopause in self-help texts for women are discussed. PMID:12639580

  8. Statistical analysis of clinical prediction rules for rehabilitation interventions: current state of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lubetzky-Vilnai, Anat; Ciol, Marcia; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

    2014-01-01

    Deriving clinical prediction rules (CPRs) to identify specific characteristics of patients who would likely respond to certain interventions has become a research priority in physical rehabilitation. Understanding the appropriate statistical principles and methods of analyses underlying the derivation of CPRs is important for future rehabilitation research and clinical applications. In this article, we aimed to provide an overview of statistical techniques used for the derivation of CPRs to predict success following physical therapy interventions and to generate recommendations for improvements in CPR derivation research and statistical analysis in rehabilitation. We have summarized the current state of CPR intervention-related research by reviewing 26 studies. A common technique was found in most studies and included univariate association of factors with treatment success, stepwise logistic regression to determine the most parsimonious set of predictors for success, and calculation of accuracy statistics (focusing on positive likelihood ratios). We identified several shortcomings related to inadequate ratio of events by number of predictors, lack of standardization regarding acceptable interobserver reliability of predictors, questionable handling of predictors including reliance on univariate analysis and early categorization, and not accounting for dependence and collinearity of predictors in multivariable model construction. Interpretation of the derived CPRs was found to be difficult due to lack of precision of estimates and paradoxical findings when a subset of the predictors yielded a larger positive likelihood ratio than did the full set of predictors. Finally, we make recommendations regarding how to strengthen the use of statistical principles and methods to create consistency across rehabilitation research for CPR derivations. PMID:24036159

  9. The pharmacoepigenetics of drug metabolism and transport in breast cancer: review of the literature and in silico analysis.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Rihab; Sleiman, Fatima; Awada, Zeinab; Zgheib, Natalie K

    2016-09-01

    The focus of this manuscript is on DNA methylation and miRNA regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters involved in the disposition of drugs commonly used in breast cancer. We start with a review of the available scant literature and follow with an in silico analysis of the CpG islands and miRNA binding sites of genes of interest. We make the case that there is room for further research to include more genes and miRNAs despite the extensive sharing of miRNA targets by candidate genes of interest. We also stress on the role of peripheral blood as a source of pharmacoepigenetic biomarkers, and point out the lack of toxicoepigenetic studies in breast cancer. PMID:27561648

  10. Pharmaceuticals and the Environment (PiE): Evolution and impact of the published literature revealed by bibliometric analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The evolution and impact of the published literature surrounding the transdisciplinary, multifaceted topic of pharmaceuticals as contaminants in the environment is examined for the first time in an historical context. The preponderance of literature cited in this examination repr...

  11. Are Metals Emitted from Electronic Cigarettes a Reason for Health Concern? A Risk-Assessment Analysis of Currently Available Literature

    PubMed Central

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E.; Voudris, Vassilis; Poulas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies have found that metals are emitted to the electronic cigarette (EC) aerosol. However, the potential health impact of exposure to such metals has not been adequately defined. The purpose of this study was to perform a risk assessment analysis, evaluating the exposure of electronic cigarette (EC) users to metal emissions based on findings from the published literature. Methods: Two studies were found in the literature, measuring metals emitted to the aerosol from 13 EC products. We estimated that users take on average 600 EC puffs per day, but we evaluated the daily exposure from 1200 puffs. Estimates of exposure were compared with the chronic Permissible Daily Exposure (PDE) from inhalational medications defined by the U.S. Pharmacopeia (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nickel), the Minimal Risk Level (MRL) defined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (manganese) and the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (aluminum, barium, iron, tin, titanium, zinc and zirconium). Results: The average daily exposure from 13 EC products was 2.6 to 387 times lower than the safety cut-off point of PDEs, 325 times lower than the safety limit of MRL and 665 to 77,514 times lower than the safety cut-off point of RELs. Only one of the 13 products was found to result in exposure 10% higher than PDE for one metal (cadmium) at the extreme daily use of 1200 puffs. Significant differences in emissions between products were observed. Conclusions: Based on currently available data, overall exposure to metals from EC use is not expected to be of significant health concern for smokers switching to EC use, but is an unnecessary source of exposure for never-smokers. Metal analysis should be expanded to more products and exposure can be further reduced through improvements in product quality and appropriate choice of materials. PMID:25988311

  12. Centrality and Flow Vergence gradient based Path analysis of scientific literature: A case study of Biotechnology for Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathabai, Hiran H.; Prabhakaran, Thara; Changat, Manoj

    2015-07-01

    Biotechnology, ever since its inception has had a huge impact on the society and its various applications have been intricately woven into the human web of life. Its evolution amidst all the other research realms vital to mankind is remarkable. In this paper, we intend to identify the radical innovations in Biotechnology for Engineering using network analyses. Centrality analysis and Path analysis are used for identifying important works. Existence of Flow Vergence effect in the scientific literature is revealed. Flow Vergence gradient, an arc metric derived from FV model, is utilised for Path analysis which detects pivotal papers of paradigm shift more accurately. A major paradigm shift has been identified in the business models of Biotechnology for Engineering - 'Capability to Connectivity' model. Evidence towards the adoption of business practices in BT firms by nanotechnology start-ups is also identified. The notion of critical divergence is introduced and the exhibition of interdisciplinary interaction in emerging fields due to critical divergence is discussed. Implications of above analyses which target: (i) Science and technology policy makers, (ii) industrialists and investors, (iii) researchers in academia as well as industry, are also discussed.

  13. Extraction and clean-up of contaminants and toxicants from food for mass spectrometric analysis--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Reid, W J

    1986-01-01

    This report presents a review of the literature on the extraction and clean-up procedures used prior to the analysis, by mass spectrometry, of organic contaminants and toxicants in foods and food-related materials. It includes a brief description of the uses of a mass spectrometer and shows how the mode of operation of the machine can influence the amount of clean-up necessary before a sample is presented for analysis. The review covers a variety of contaminants of different compound types in a wide range of foods and not only discusses sample preparation techniques that have been used for contaminant analysis by mass spectrometry but also considers some that could be used. The most commonly used techniques involve solvent extraction followed by a clean-up using liquid-liquid partition or column chromatography or both, although a number of newer methods being evolved are moving towards the ideal of a single-step extraction and clean-up process. PMID:3514283

  14. A Literature Review of the Numerical Analysis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Treated with Endovascular Stent Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Roy, David; Kauffmann, Claude; Delorme, Sébastien; Lerouge, Sophie; Cloutier, Guy; Soulez, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the basic principles and relevant advances in the computational modeling of abdominal aortic aneurysms and endovascular aneurysm repair, providing the community with up-to-date state of the art in terms of numerical analysis and biomechanics. Frameworks describing the mechanical behavior of the aortic wall already exist. However, intraluminal thrombus nonhomogeneous structure and porosity still need to be well characterized. Also, although the morphology and mechanical properties of calcifications have been investigated, their effects on wall stresses remain controversial. Computational fluid dynamics usually assumes a rigid artery wall, whereas fluid-structure interaction accounts for artery compliance but is still challenging since arteries and blood have similar densities. We discuss alternatives to fluid-structure interaction based on dynamic medical images that address patient-specific hemodynamics and geometries. We describe initial stresses, elastic boundary conditions, and statistical strength for rupture risk assessment. Special emphasis is accorded to workflow development, from the conversion of medical images into finite element models, to the simulation of catheter-aorta interactions and stent-graft deployment. Our purpose is also to elaborate the key ingredients leading to virtual stenting and endovascular repair planning that could improve the procedure and stent-grafts. PMID:22997538

  15. Liver cell adenoma: A case report with clonal analysis and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Li; Su, Qin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Ai-Ning; Zhu, Shao-Jun; Feng, Ying-Ming

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of liver cell adenoma (LCA) in a 33-year-old female patient with special respect to its clonality status, pathogenic factors and differential diagnosis. The case was examined by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and a clonality assay based on X-chromosomal inactivation mosaicism in female somatic tissues and polymorphism at androgen receptor focus. The clinicopathological features of the reported cases from China and other countries were compared. The lesion was spherical, sizing 2 cm in its maximal dimension. Histologically, it was composed of cells arranged in cords, most of which were two-cell-thick and separated by sinusoids. Focal fatty change and excessive glycogen storage were observed. The tumor cells were round or polygonal in shape, resembling the surrounding parenchymal cells. Mitosis was not found. No portal tract, central vein or ductule was found within the lesion. The tumor tissue showed a positive reaction for cytokeratin (CK) 18, but not for CK19, vimentin, estrogen and progesterone receptors. Monoclonality was demonstrated for the lesion, confirming the diagnosis of an LCA. Clonality analysis is helpful for its distinction from focal nodular hyperplasia. PMID:16610069

  16. A comprehensive comparative analysis of articles retracted in 2012 and 2013 from the scholarly literature

    PubMed Central

    Damineni, Ravi Sankar; Sardiwal, Kapil Kumar; Waghle, Sita Ram; Dakshyani, M.B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Science is a dynamic subject with ever-changing concepts and is said to be self-correcting. One of the major mechanisms of self-correction is retraction of flawed work. Aim: To study the various parameters associated with retraction of scientific articles in 2012 and 2013 and discuss the current trends in article retraction over the period of 2 years. Materials and Methods: Data were retrieved from MEDLINE (via PubMed) using the keywords retraction of articles, retraction notice, and withdrawal of article in January 2014, and analysis of articles published in 2012 and 2013 was carried out. Results: A total of 155 articles in 2012 and 182 in 2013 were retracted, and original articles followed by case reports constituted major part of it. The most cited reasons for retraction were mistakes, plagiarism, and duplicate submission, and the time interval between submission and retraction had reduced in 2013. Conclusion: Although retracted articles constitute the tip of an iceberg, they are still a matter of major concern in the scientific world. So, editors should follow the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines and make an effective strategy in order to reduce such misconduct, as it reflects very adversely not only in the scientific community but also in the general public. PMID:25767762

  17. Shockwave treatment for musculoskeletal diseases and bone consolidation: qualitative analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kertzman, Paulo; Lenza, Mario; Pedrinelli, André; Ejnisman, Benno

    2015-01-01

    Shockwave treatment is an option within orthopedics. The exact mechanism through which shockwaves function for treating musculoskeletal diseases is unknown. The aim of this study was to make a qualitative analysis on the effectiveness of shockwave treatment among patients with musculoskeletal pathological conditions and pseudarthrosis. Searches were conducted in the Cochrane Library, Medline and Lilacs databases. Thirty-nine studies that reported using shockwave treatment for musculoskeletal diseases were found. Their results varied greatly, as did the types of protocol used. The studies that evaluated the effectiveness of shockwave treatment for lateral epicondylitis, shoulder tendinopathy, knee osteoarthrosis, femoral head osteonecrosis and trochanteric bursitis reported inconsistent results for most of their patients. Those that evaluated patients with calcifying tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinopathy, patellar tendinopathy and pseudarthrosis showed benefits. Shockwave treatment is a safe and non-invasive method for chronic cases in which conventional techniques have been unsatisfactory and should be used in association with other treatment methods for tendinopathy. Further quality studies are needed. PMID:26229889

  18. Epistemology of Contaminants of Emerging Concern and Literature Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Halden, Rolf U.

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to inform the epistemology, or theory of knowledge, of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). The CEC terminology acknowledges the existence of harmful environmental agents whose identities, occurrences, hazards, and effects are not sufficiently understood. Here, data on publishing activity were analyzed for 12 CECs, revealing a common pattern of emergence, suitable for identifying past years of peak concern and forecasting future ones: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT; 1972, 2008), trichloroacetic acid (TCAA; 1972, 2009), nitrosodimethylamine (1984), methyl tert-butyl ether (2001), trichloroethylene (2005), perchlorate (2006), 1,4-dioxane (2009), prions (2009), triclocarban (2010), triclosan (2012), nanomaterials (by 2016), and microplastics (2022 ± 4). CECs were found to emerge from obscurity to the height of concern in 14.1 ± 3.6 years, and subside to a new baseline level of concern in 14.5 ± 4.5 years. CECs can emerge more than once (e.g., TCAA, DDT) and the multifactorial process of emergence may be driven by inception of novel scientific methods (e.g., ion chromatography, mass spectrometry and nanometrology), scientific paradigm shifts (discovery of infectious proteins), and the development, marketing and mass consumption of novel products (antimicrobial personal care products, microplastics and nanomaterials). Publishing activity and U.S. regulatory actions were correlated for several CECs investigated. PMID:25294779

  19. Coronectomy of impacted mandibular third molars: A meta-analysis and systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Cervera-Espert*, Juan; Pérez-Martínez*, Sara; Cervera-Ballester, Juan; Penarrocha-Oltra, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronectomy is an alternative to complete removal of an impacted mandibular third molar. Most authors have recommended coronectomy to prevent damage to the inferior alveolar nerve during surgical extraction of lower third molars. The present study offers a systematic review and metaanalysis of the coronectomy technique. Material and Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed based on a PubMed and Cochrane databases search for articles published from 2014 and involving coronectomy of mandibular third molars located near the inferior alveolar nerve canal, with a minimum of 10 cases and a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. After application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 12 articles were included in the study. Results and Discussion Coronectomy results in significantly lesser loss of sensitivity of the inferior alveolar nerve and prevents the occurrence of dry socket. No statistically significant differences were observed in the incidence of pain and infection between coronectomy and complete surgical extraction. After coronectomy, the remaining tooth fragment migrates an average of 2 mm within two years. Conclusions Coronectomy is indicated when the mandibular third molar is in contact with the inferior alveolar nerve and complete removal of the tooth may cause nerve damage. Key words:Coronectomy, included third molar, inferior alveolar nerve injury. PMID:27031064

  20. A Mixed Methods Content Analysis of the Research Literature in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schram, Asta B.

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, more and more researchers in science education have been turning to the practice of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in the same study. This approach of using mixed methods creates possibilities to study the various issues that science educators encounter in more depth. In this content analysis, I evaluated 18 studies from science education journals as they relate to the definition, design, and overall practice of using mixed methods. I scrutinized a purposeful sample, derived from 3 journals (the International Journal of Science Education, the Journal of Research in Science Teaching, and the Research in Science Education) in terms of the type of data collected, timing, priority, design, the mixing of the 2 data strands in the studies, and the justifications authors provide for using mixed methods. Furthermore, the articles were evaluated in terms of how well they met contemporary definitions for mixed methods research. The studies varied considerably in the use and understanding of mixed methods. A systematic evaluation of the employment of mixed methods methodology was used to identify the studies that best reflected contemporary definitions. A comparison to earlier content analyses of mixed methods research indicates that researchers' knowledge of mixed methods methodology may be increasing. The use of this strategy in science education research calls, however, for an improved methodology, especially concerning the practice of mixing. Suggestions are given on how to best use this approach.

  1. Sulodexide therapy for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, a meta-analysis and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Xing, Jing; Mu, Xaojing; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Sulodexide is a heterogeneous group of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) that is mainly composed of low-molecular-weight heparin. Clinical studies have demonstrated that sulodexide is capable of reducing urinary albumin excretion rates in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, suggesting that sulodexide has renal protection. However, this efficacy remains inconclusive. In this article, we used meta-analysis to summarize the clinical results of all prospective clinical studies in order to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of sulodexide in diabetic patients with nephropathy. Overall, sulodexide therapy was associated with a significant reduction in urinary protein excretion. In the sulodexide group, 220 (17.7%) achieved at least a 50% decrease in albumin excretion rate compared with only 141 (11.5%) in the placebo. The odds ratio comparing proportions of patients with therapeutic success between the sulodexide and placebo groups was 3.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.34–8.06; P=0.01). These data suggest a renoprotective benefit of sulodexide in patients with diabetes and micro- and macroalbuminuria, which will provide important information for clinical use of this drug as a potential modality for diabetic nephropathy, specifically, the prevention of end-stage renal disease that is often caused by diabetes. PMID:26664049

  2. Epistemology of contaminants of emerging concern and literature meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Halden, Rolf U

    2015-01-23

    A meta-analysis was conducted to inform the epistemology, or theory of knowledge, of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). The CEC terminology acknowledges the existence of harmful environmental agents whose identities, occurrences, hazards, and effects are not sufficiently understood. Here, data on publishing activity were analyzed for 12 CECs, revealing a common pattern of emergence, suitable for identifying past years of peak concern and forecasting future ones: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT; 1972, 2008), trichloroacetic acid (TCAA; 1972, 2009), nitrosodimethylamine (1984), methyl tert-butyl ether (2001), trichloroethylene (2005), perchlorate (2006), 1,4-dioxane (2009), prions (2009), triclocarban (2010), triclosan (2012), nanomaterials (by 2016), and microplastics (2022 ± 4). CECs were found to emerge from obscurity to the height of concern in 14.1 ± 3.6 years, and subside to a new baseline level of concern in 14.5 ± 4.5 years. CECs can emerge more than once (e.g., TCAA, DDT) and the multifactorial process of emergence may be driven by inception of novel scientific methods (e.g., ion chromatography, mass spectrometry and nanometrology), scientific paradigm shifts (discovery of infectious proteins), and the development, marketing and mass consumption of novel products (antimicrobial personal care products, microplastics and nanomaterials). Publishing activity and U.S. regulatory actions were correlated for several CECs investigated. PMID:25294779

  3. Composition differences between organic and conventional meat: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Średnicka-Tober, Dominika; Barański, Marcin; Seal, Chris; Sanderson, Roy; Benbrook, Charles; Steinshamn, Håvard; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Eyre, Mick; Cozzi, Giulio; Krogh Larsen, Mette; Jordon, Teresa; Niggli, Urs; Sakowski, Tomasz; Calder, Philip C; Burdge, Graham C; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Yolcu, Halil; Stergiadis, Sokratis; Chatzidimitriou, Eleni; Butler, Gillian; Stewart, Gavin; Leifert, Carlo

    2016-03-28

    Demand for organic meat is partially driven by consumer perceptions that organic foods are more nutritious than non-organic foods. However, there have been no systematic reviews comparing specifically the nutrient content of organic and conventionally produced meat. In this study, we report results of a meta-analysis based on sixty-seven published studies comparing the composition of organic and non-organic meat products. For many nutritionally relevant compounds (e.g. minerals, antioxidants and most individual fatty acids (FA)), the evidence base was too weak for meaningful meta-analyses. However, significant differences in FA profiles were detected when data from all livestock species were pooled. Concentrations of SFA and MUFA were similar or slightly lower, respectively, in organic compared with conventional meat. Larger differences were detected for total PUFA and n-3 PUFA, which were an estimated 23 (95 % CI 11, 35) % and 47 (95 % CI 10, 84) % higher in organic meat, respectively. However, for these and many other composition parameters, for which meta-analyses found significant differences, heterogeneity was high, and this could be explained by differences between animal species/meat types. Evidence from controlled experimental studies indicates that the high grazing/forage-based diets prescribed under organic farming standards may be the main reason for differences in FA profiles. Further studies are required to enable meta-analyses for a wider range of parameters (e.g. antioxidant, vitamin and mineral concentrations) and to improve both precision and consistency of results for FA profiles for all species. Potential impacts of composition differences on human health are discussed. PMID:26878675

  4. A Bibliometric Analysis of PubMed Literature on Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengting; Chen, Yongdi; Cai, Gaofeng; Jiang, Zhenggang; Liu, Kui; Chen, Bin; Jiang, Jianmin; Gu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), a pandemic threat to human beings, has aroused huge concern worldwide, but no bibliometric studies have been conducted on MERS research. The aim of this study was to map research productivity on the disease based on the articles indexed in PubMed. The articles related to MERS dated from 2012 to 2015 were retrieved from PubMed. The articles were classified into three categories according to their focus. Publication outputs were assessed and frequently used terms were mapped using the VOS viewer software. A total of 443 articles were included for analysis. They were published in 162 journals, with Journal of Virology being the most productive (44 articles; 9.9%) and by six types of organizations, with universities being the most productive (276 articles; 62.4%).The largest proportion of the articles focused on basic medical sciences and clinical studies (47.2%) and those on prevention and control ranked third (26.2%), with those on other focuses coming in between (26.6%). The articles on prevention and control had the highest mean rank for impact factor (IF) (226.34), followed by those on basic medical sciences and clinical studies (180.23) and those on other focuses (168.03). The mean rank differences were statistically significant (p = 0.000). Besides, “conronavirus”, “case”, “transmission” and “detection” were found to be the most frequently used terms. The findings of this first bibliometric study on MERS suggest that the prevention and control of the disease has become a big concern and related research should be strengthened. PMID:27304963

  5. A Bibliometric Analysis of PubMed Literature on Middle East Respiratory Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengting; Chen, Yongdi; Cai, Gaofeng; Jiang, Zhenggang; Liu, Kui; Chen, Bin; Jiang, Jianmin; Gu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), a pandemic threat to human beings, has aroused huge concern worldwide, but no bibliometric studies have been conducted on MERS research. The aim of this study was to map research productivity on the disease based on the articles indexed in PubMed. The articles related to MERS dated from 2012 to 2015 were retrieved from PubMed. The articles were classified into three categories according to their focus. Publication outputs were assessed and frequently used terms were mapped using the VOS viewer software. A total of 443 articles were included for analysis. They were published in 162 journals, with Journal of Virology being the most productive (44 articles; 9.9%) and by six types of organizations, with universities being the most productive (276 articles; 62.4%).The largest proportion of the articles focused on basic medical sciences and clinical studies (47.2%) and those on prevention and control ranked third (26.2%), with those on other focuses coming in between (26.6%). The articles on prevention and control had the highest mean rank for impact factor (IF) (226.34), followed by those on basic medical sciences and clinical studies (180.23) and those on other focuses (168.03). The mean rank differences were statistically significant (p = 0.000). Besides, "conronavirus", "case", "transmission" and "detection" were found to be the most frequently used terms. The findings of this first bibliometric study on MERS suggest that the prevention and control of the disease has become a big concern and related research should be strengthened. PMID:27304963

  6. Art, Meet Chemistry; Chemistry, Meet Art: Case Studies, Current Literature, and Instrumental Methods Combined to Create a Hands-On Experience for Nonmajors and Instrumental Analysis Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nivens, Delana A.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Chase, Jeffery M.; Verges, Katie J.; Jamieson, Deborah S.

    2010-01-01

    Case studies and current literature are combined with spectroscopic analysis to provide a unique chemistry experience for art history students and to provide a unique inquiry-based laboratory experiment for analytical chemistry students. The XRF analysis method was used to demonstrate to nonscience majors (art history students) a powerful…

  7. Chinese Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Kai-yu

    The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

  8. AB061. Clinical analysis of small cell carcinoma of the bladder: 9 cases report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi; Liu, Qingquan; Chen, Ruibao; Liu, Zhuo; Li, Mingchao; Ling, Qing; Wu, Licheng; Yang, Jun; Liu, Xiaming; Wang, Tao; Wang, Shaogang; Yang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To present our experience with nine patients with small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) who were treated with different modalities and review the literature for patients with SCCB who have been reported in 56 literatures. SCCB is a rare, highly aggressive tumor that presents in an advanced stage and has a propensity for early metastasis. Hematuria is the main clinical manifestations. Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, either alone or as part of combined therapy have been used for treatment. Methods We retrospectively evaluated nine patients with SCCB by medical record review between February 1980 and January 2014 at Tongji Hospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. In order to better understand the clinical features of SCCB, 56 literatures were concerned (from January 1979 to March 2014). The general characteristics, clinical manifestation, the pathological and immunohistochemical characteristics, treatment options and prognostication in those eligible manuscripts are analyzed, a retrospective analysis is performed. Results All the nine cases in Tongji hospital were successfully operated and tissue samples were carried on pathological examination. All the tumor tissue contained small cell carcinoma components, there were four cases coexisting with other histologic types of bladder cancers, and 2 of the 9 cases have three different cell components. All patients had muscle-invasive disease at presentation, 4 cases showed lymph nodes metastasis, 3 cases showed invasion of the surrounding seminal vesicle or uterus, and 1 case greatly suspected the liver metastasis. Specimens of all cases underwent immunohistochemistry examination showed that NSE, PCK, Syn, and CD56 were all positive, but LCA was negative. After operation, 3 patients underwent chemotherapy and only one patient received post operational radiotherapy. Patients were followed up range between 3 to 84 months and the median survival time was 33 months. The main reasons of

  9. Botany in children's literature: A content analysis of plant-centered children's picture books that have a plot and characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goins, Sheila Lewis

    This content analysis study examined 36 plant-centered children's science picture books that have a plot and characters published from 1950 to present. Botanical subject matter and learning opportunities offered by these books were analyzed, along with the range and frequency of the National Science Education Standards-consistent and age-appropriate plant science concepts and principles. The science graphics, artistic innovations, and story plot of these books were also examined. Rubrics and research-based recommendations were developed to offer parents, teachers, and librarians assistance in identifying, evaluating, and using such books to help children of ages 4--8 learn about plants and enjoy plant science. This genre of children's literature was identified and selected primarily through extensive research at four major, nationally recognized children's literature collections: The Kerlan Collection, The de Grummond Collection, The Center for Children's Books, and The Central Children's Room at the Donnell Library. This study determined that there was a substantial increase in the number of books written in this genre of children's literature from 1990 to 2000. Botanical subject-matter knowledge and learning opportunities offered by these books include biodiversity of plants; characteristics of plants; life cycles of plants; economic botany, ecology, and ethnobotany. The range and frequency of National Standards-consistent and age-appropriate plant science concepts and principles identified within these books, in part, though not exclusively, included the emergent categories of the process of photosynthesis; basic needs of plants; plant structures; external signals affecting plant growth; environmental stress to plants; biodiversity of plants; plants as animal habitats; and common uses of plants. With regard to plant science graphics, 13 books were identified as presenting some type of science graphic, beyond simple illustrations. The most frequently used

  10. Frequency of the CCR5-delta32 allele in Brazilian populations: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva-Carvalho, Wlisses Henrique Veloso; de Moura, Ronald Rodrigues; Coelho, Antonio Victor Campos; Crovella, Sergio; Guimarães, Rafael Lima

    2016-09-01

    The CCR5 is a chemokine receptor widely expressed by several immune cells that are engaged in inflammatory responses. Some populations have individuals exhibiting a 32bp deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5-delta32) that produces a truncated non-functional protein not expressed on the cell surface. This polymorphism, known to be associated with susceptibility to infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as osteomyelitis, pre-eclampsia, systemic lupus erythematous, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and HIV/AIDS, is more commonly found in European populations with average frequency of 10%. However, it is also possible to observe a significant frequency in other world populations, such as the Brazilian one. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of CCR5-delta32 genetic association studies in Brazilian populations throughout the country to estimate the frequency of this polymorphism. We also compared CCR5-delta32 frequencies across Brazilian regions. The systematic literature reviewed studies involving delta32 allele in Brazilian populations published from 1995 to 2015. Among the reviewed literature, 25 studies including 30 Brazilian populations distributed between the North, Northeast, South and Southeast regions were included in our meta-analysis. We observed an overall allelic frequency of 4% (95%-CI, 0.03-0.05), that was considered moderate and, notably, higher than some European populations, such as Cyprus (2.8%), Italy (3%) and Greece (2.4%). Regarding the regional frequency comparisons between North-Northeast (N-NE) and South-Southeast (S-SE) regions, we observed an allelic frequency of 3% (95%-CI, 0.02-0.04) and 4% (95%-CI, 0.03-0.05), respectively. The populations from S-SE regions had a slightly higher CCR5-delta32 frequency than N-NE regions (OR=1.41, p=0.002). Although there are several studies about the CCR5-delta32 polymorphism and its effect on the immune response of some infectious diseases, this report is the first meta-analysis

  11. Is Europe Open to a Student-Oriented Framework for Literature? A Comparative Analysis of the Formal Literature Curriculum in Six European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Theo; Sâmihaian, Florentina

    2013-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of literary curricula in six European countries and is part of the project LiFT-2, funded by Comenius' Life Long Learning Programme of the European Commission. The result of this project, that involved almost 4,500 teachers, is a European literary framework for secondary education which can be described as a…

  12. Relationship between progression-free survival and overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a literature-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beauchemin, C.; Johnston, J.B.; Lapierre, M.È.; Aissa, F.; Lachaine, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The endpoints of progression-free survival (pfs) and time-to-progression (ttp) are frequently used to evaluate the clinical benefit of anticancer drugs. However, the surrogacy of those endpoints for overall survival (os) is not validated in all cancer settings. In the present study, we used a trial-based approach to assess the relationship between median pfs or ttp and median os in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (cll). Methods The pico (population, interventions, comparators, outcomes) method was used to conduct a systematic review of the literature. The population consisted of patients with cll; the interventions and comparators were standard therapies for cll; and the outcomes were median pfs, ttp, and os. Two independent reviewers screened titles, abstracts, and full papers for eligibility and then extracted data from selected studies. Correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the relationship between median pfs or ttp and median os. Subgroup correlation analyses were also conducted according to the characteristics of the selected studies (such as line of treatment and type of treatment under investigation). Results Of the 1263 potentially relevant articles identified during the literature search, twenty-three were included. On average, median pfs or ttp was 16.0 months (standard deviation: 12.4 months) and median os was 43.5 months (standard deviation: 31.2 months). Results of the correlation analysis indicated that median pfs or ttp is highly correlated with median os (Spearman correlation coefficient: 0.813; p ≤ 0.001). A significant correlation between median pfs or ttp and median os was observed in second- and subsequent-line therapies, but not in the first-line setting. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a strong correlation between median pfs or ttp and median os in previously treated cll, which reinforce the hypothesis that pfs and ttp could be adequate surrogate endpoints for os in this cancer setting. PMID:26089725

  13. Complications and Reinterventions in Uterine Artery Embolization for Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids: A Literature Review and Meta Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jason Bhanot, Kunal; Athreya, Sriharsha

    2013-04-15

    To perform a literature review of the spectrum of complications associated with UAE relative to surgery and compare the risk of reintervention as well as minor, major, and overall complications. Literature review was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases, and meta-analysis was performed. In randomized clinical trials, common complications were discharge and fever (4.00 %), bilateral uterine artery embolization (UAE) failure (4.00 %), and postembolization syndrome (2.86 %). Two trials showed a significantly decreased risk in major complications with UAE, with odds ratios (ORs) of 0.07143 (0.009426-0.5413) and 0.5196 (0.279-0.9678). None of the trials showed a significant difference in OR for minor complications of UAE. None of the trials showed a significant difference in risk for overall complications of UAE. Three trials showed a significantly increased risk for reintervention with UAE with ORs of 10.45 (2.654-41.14), 2.679 (1.289-5.564), and 9.096 (1.269-65.18). In 76 nonrandomized studies, common complications were amenorrhea (4.26 %), pain (3.59 %), and discharge and fever (3.37 %). In 41 case studies, common complications were discharge and fever (n = 22 cases), repeat UAE (n = 6 cases), and fibroid expulsion (n = 5 cases). Overall, UAE has a significantly lower rate of major complications relative to surgery, but it comes at the cost of increased risk of reintervention in the future. Educating patients about the rate and types of complications of UAE versus surgery, as well as the potential for reintervention, should help the patient and clinician come to a reasoned decision.

  14. Adopting public values and climate change adaptation strategies in urban forest management: A review and analysis of the relevant literature.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez Barona, Camilo

    2015-12-01

    Urban trees are a dominant natural element in cities; they provide important ecosystem services to urban citizens and help urban areas adapt to climate change. Many rationales have been proposed to provide a purpose for urban forest management, some of which have been ineffective in addressing important ecological and social management themes. Among these rationales we find a values-based perspective, which sees management as a process where the desires of urban dwellers are met. Another perspective is climate change adaptation, which sees management as a process where urban forest vulnerability to climate change is reduced and resilience enhanced. Both these rationales have the advantage of complementing, enhancing, and broadening urban forest management objectives. A critical analysis of the literature on public values related to urban forests and climate change adaptation in the context of urban forests is undertaken to discuss what it means to adopt these two issues in urban forest management. The analysis suggests that by seeing urban forest management as a process by which public values are satisfied and urban-forest vulnerabilities to climate change are reduced, we can place issues such as naturalization, adaptive management, and engaging people in management at the centre of urban forest management. Focusing urban forest management on these issues may help ensure the success of programs focused on planting more trees and increasing citizen participation in urban forest management. PMID:26410091

  15. Longitudinal Photogrammetric Analysis of Soft Tissue Facial Changes: A Systematic Review of the Literature and a Summary of Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yi Feng; Wong, Hai Ming; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-09-01

    Human faces are under a constant state of change throughout the entirety of one's lifetime. Photogrammetry has been advocated for use in large epidemiological studies investigating facial characteristics. This study aimed to review existing longitudinal photogrammetric studies in terms of the measurements selected and the observed facial changes overtime. A comprehensive literature search was performed in 4 databases, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, and Scopus, which was supplemented by hand search. No limitations were set as to the language, dates, or status of publication. The records were assessed for the eligibility and rated for the risk of bias by 2 independent reviewers. Data regarding study characteristics, measurements selected and the outcomes reported, were extracted for analysis. An initial search identified 5127 studies. After 2 rounds of study screening, 6 eligible studies informed this review. The risk of bias of the studies ranged from 41.7% to 80.8%. Only 1 study performed sample size calculation, and only 17% of the studies had a sample size of over 30 subjects. Confidence interval was reported by none of the studies. The facial features assessed varied among the studies, and some studies focused on only specific regions of the face. Photogrammetry has been used by a limited number of studies in the analysis of longitudinal soft tissue facial changes. Moreover, these studies are heterogeneous with respect to their levels of risk of bias and the facial features assessed. Recommendations are provided to improve the qualities of future photogrammetric studies. PMID:26147033

  16. Analysis of clinical features and prognosis of malignant triton tumor: A report of two cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    LI, GUO; LIU, CHAO; LIU, YONG; XU, FANG; SU, ZHONGWU; WANG, YUNYUN; REN, SHULING; DENG, TENGBO; HUANG, DONGHAI; TIAN, YONGQUAN; QIU, YUANZHENG

    2015-01-01

    Malignant triton tumor (MTT) is a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. The prognosis of patients is poor, and due to its rarity, large case studies are lacking. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features and identify potential prognostic factors. Two patients with MTT in the head and neck treated at our department are reported. A literature search revealed another 198 published cases. All of these cases then went through a retrospective analysis. The ratio of male-to-female incidence was 1.5:1, and the median age at diagnosis was 29 years. In 41.7% of cases it occurred in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. The five-year survival of MTT was found to be just 35%. Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that complete resection (hazard ratio, 0.396; P=0.032) and metastases (hazard ratio, 3.188; P=0.004) were associated with mortality, indicating that complete resection may lead to a longer life span, and that the existence of metastasis suggested a worse prognosis for patients with MTT. PMID:26788168

  17. Botanical identity of plant sources of Daśamūla drugs through an analysis of published literature

    PubMed Central

    Aparna, S.; Ved, Devendra Kumar; Lalitha, S.; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2012-01-01

    Background: Daśamūla (DM) is a top-traded group of medicinal plants used by the Ayurvedic industry. Through literature survey and analysis, this article has enlisted the botanical sources of DM, as correlated by several scholars. Such a list is not available from any single, earlier publication. It brings to light the confusion that exists in terms of botanical sources correlated to Ayurvedic entities. There is quite a bit of difference in the botanical correlation, parts, and substitutes reported in the different scholarly works, particularly for Pṛṣṇiparṇī, and Agnimantha. For e.g., is Uraria picta the original intended Pṛṣṇiparṇī, as the Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFI) stipulates or is it U. lagopoidiodes or Desmodium gangeticum as other scholars report? While AFI provides two botanical correlations to Agnimantha in its two editions, namely Premna integrifolia and Clerodendrum phlomidis, other scholars correlate it to other Premna and Clerodendrum species. Why has AFI provided stem bark and whole plant as substitutes for roots of DM? Are substitutes recommended by AFI only for ecological or practical convenience or is there an Ayurvedic or pharmacological explanation for the same? Aim: There are many species used in the name of Daśamūla,, in this article all the species are listed out to find the differences in the usage of the drugs. Materials and Methods: Ayurveda texts and lexicons along with the texts which have done correlation work were considered to arrive at a list of various species used as Dasmula. Results and Conclusion: Since neither the methodology nor the logic behind the correlation have been discussed in these scholarly works, including the AFI, the same is not available for analysis or scrutiny. Such a list as provided in this article can form an essential base for a much needed systematic approach at etymological analysis, botanical correlation, and further scientific work to establish legitimacy of substitutes

  18. Post-operative gait analysis in total hip replacement patients-a review of current literature and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ewen, Alistair M; Stewart, Su; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Kashyap, Shankar N; Caplan, Nick

    2012-05-01

    Gait analysis has been used to measure gait adaptations following total hip replacement (THR) for many years. In this time, advances have been made in implant technology and surgical procedure. However, gait adaptations persist after surgery. This review of seven published studies, where gait characteristics were compared between post-operative THR patients and healthy controls, had the objective of investigating current practice in gait analysis of this patient population and to determine if there is a consensus on post-operative gait changes associated with THR. Levels of methodological quality and study design were found to be variable. Meta-analyses were performed on all gait variables reported by at least three studies to determine overall Cohen's d effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals. Reductions in walking velocity (d=-0.79; CI=-1.54, -0.04), stride length (d=-1.06; CI=-1.62, -0.49) and sagittal hip range of motion (d=-1.58; CI=-2.12, -1.04) were observed. Increases in peak hip flexion (d=0.52; CI=-0.01, 1.09) and extension (d=0.54; CI=-0.10, 1.09) moments were found, although these were likely to be of less clinical significance. Reduced peak hip abduction was also observed (d=-0.58; CI=-1.09, -0.06). Future developments in THR technology and surgical methods should therefore aim to reduce the differences between patients and controls in terms of walking velocity, stride length, hip range of motion and hip abduction moments. PMID:22410129

  19. Other side of the coin for personalised medicine and healthcare: content analysis of ‘personalised’ practices in the literature

    PubMed Central

    Cesuroglu, Tomris; Syurina, Elena; Feron, Frans; Krumeich, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Various terms and definitions are used to describe personalised approaches to medicine and healthcare, but in ambiguous and inconsistent ways. They mostly have been defined in a top-down manner. However, actual practices might take different paths. Here, we aimed to provide a ‘practice-based’ perspective on the debate by analysing the content of ‘personalised’ practices published in the literature. Methods The search in PubMed and EMBASE (April 2014) using the terms frequently used for personalised approaches resulted in 5333 records. 2 independent researchers used different strategies for screening, resulting in 157 articles describing 88 ‘personalised’ practices that were implemented/presented on at least 1 individual/patient case. The content analysis was grounded on these data and did not have a priori analytical frameworks. Results ‘Personalised medicine/healthcare’ can be a commodity in the healthcare market, a way how health services are provided, or a keyword for emerging applications. It can help individuals/patients to gain control of their health, health professionals to provide better services, healthcare organisations to increase effectiveness and efficiency, or national health systems to increase performance. Country examples indicated that for integration of practices into health services, attitude towards innovations and health system and policy context is important. Categorisation based on the terms or the technologies used, if any, was not possible. Conclusions This study is the first to provide a comprehensive content analysis of the ‘personalised’ practices in the literature. Unlike the top-down definitions, our findings highlighted not the technologies but real-life issues faced by the practices. ‘Personalised medicine’ and ‘personalised healthcare’ can be differentiated by using the former for specific tools available and the latter for health services with a holistic approach, implemented in certain

  20. Cross-validation of a mass spectrometric-based method for the therapeutic drug monitoring of irinotecan: implementation of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry in pharmacokinetic measurements.

    PubMed

    Calandra, Eleonora; Posocco, Bianca; Crotti, Sara; Marangon, Elena; Giodini, Luciana; Nitti, Donato; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Traldi, Pietro; Agostini, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Irinotecan is a widely used antineoplastic drug, mostly employed for the treatment of colorectal cancer. This drug is a feasible candidate for therapeutic drug monitoring due to the presence of a wide inter-individual variability in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters. In order to determine the drug concentration during the administration protocol, we developed a quantitative MALDI-MS method using CHCA as MALDI matrix. Here, we demonstrate that MALDI-TOF can be applied in a routine setting for therapeutic drug monitoring in humans offering quick and accurate results. To reach this aim, we cross validated, according to FDA and EMA guidelines, the MALDI-TOF method in comparison with a standard LC-MS/MS method, applying it for the quantification of 108 patients' plasma samples from a clinical trial. Standard curves for irinotecan were linear (R (2) ≥ 0.9842) over the concentration ranges between 300 and 10,000 ng/mL and showed good back-calculated accuracy and precision. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy, determined on three quality control levels were always <12.8 % and between 90.1 and 106.9 %, respectively. The cross-validation procedure showed a good reproducibility between the two methods, the percentage differences within 20 % in more than 70 % of the total amount of clinical samples analysed. PMID:27235158

  1. CoMFA, CoMSIA, HQSAR and Molecular Docking Analysis of Ionone-based Chalcone Derivatives as Antiprostate Cancer Activity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R; Dhingra, N; Patil, S

    2016-01-01

    Androgen receptor has been proved to be effective site for treatment of prostate cancer. Molecular modeling methods performed on forty-three ionone based chalcones derivatives as anti-prostate cancer activity. The designed comparative molecular field analysis, comparative similarity indices analysis and hologram quantitative structure activity relationship models produced statistically significant results with the cross-validated correlation coefficients (q(2)) of 0.527, 0.550 and 0.670, non-cross-validated correlation coefficients (r(2)) 0.636, 0.671 and 0.746 and predicted r(2) (Pred r(2)) of 0.621, 0.563 and 0.732, respectively. Furthermore, bioactive conformation was explored and explained by docking of the potent compound 25 into the binding site of androgen receptor. Present study deals with comparative molecular field analysis, comparative similarity indices analysis and hologram quantitative structure activity relationship and molecular docking studies of the ionone-based chalcones and their derivatives, obtained from literature. The model obtained could be effectively used as a channeling tool for further structure modification and designing of some novel potent anti-prostate cancer compounds. PMID:27168682

  2. CoMFA, CoMSIA, HQSAR and Molecular Docking Analysis of Ionone-based Chalcone Derivatives as Antiprostate Cancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, R.; Dhingra, N.; Patil, S.

    2016-01-01

    Androgen receptor has been proved to be effective site for treatment of prostate cancer. Molecular modeling methods performed on forty-three ionone based chalcones derivatives as anti-prostate cancer activity. The designed comparative molecular field analysis, comparative similarity indices analysis and hologram quantitative structure activity relationship models produced statistically significant results with the cross-validated correlation coefficients (q2) of 0.527, 0.550 and 0.670, non-cross-validated correlation coefficients (r2) 0.636, 0.671 and 0.746 and predicted r2 (Pred r2) of 0.621, 0.563 and 0.732, respectively. Furthermore, bioactive conformation was explored and explained by docking of the potent compound 25 into the binding site of androgen receptor. Present study deals with comparative molecular field analysis, comparative similarity indices analysis and hologram quantitative structure activity relationship and molecular docking studies of the ionone-based chalcones and their derivatives, obtained from literature. The model obtained could be effectively used as a channeling tool for further structure modification and designing of some novel potent anti-prostate cancer compounds. PMID:27168682

  3. Micronutrient Fortified Condiments and Noodles to Reduce Anemia in Children and Adults—A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Sascha; Tecklenburg, Linda; Eichler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies impose a considerable burden of disease on many middle and low income countries. Several strategies have been shown to be effective in improving micronutrient deficiencies. However, the impact of fortified condiments as well as fortified noodles is less well documented. We aimed to investigate existing evidence on the impact of micronutrient fortified condiments and noodles on hemoglobin, anemia, and functional outcomes in children and adults (age: 5 to 50 years). We conducted a literature review in electronic databases. In addition, we screened the homepages of relevant organizations and journals. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT). Of 1046 retrieved studies, 14 RCT provided data for the meta-analysis. Micronutrient fortification of condiments and noodles increased hemoglobin concentrations by 0.74 g/dL (95%-confidence intervals (95%-CI): 0.56 to 0.93; 12 studies) and 0.3 g/dL (95%-CI: 0.12 to 0.48; 1 study), respectively. Micronutrient fortification also led to a reduced risk of having anemia (risk ratio 0.59 (95%-CI 0.44 to 0.80)). Ferritin concentrations increased with fortified condiments. Functional outcomes were rarely assessed and showed mixed results. The use of micronutrient fortified condiments can be a strategy to reduce anemia in children and adults due to micronutrient deficiencies. The effect of fortified noodles seems to be smaller. PMID:26891319

  4. Micronutrient Fortified Condiments and Noodles to Reduce Anemia in Children and Adults--A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hess, Sascha; Tecklenburg, Linda; Eichler, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies impose a considerable burden of disease on many middle and low income countries. Several strategies have been shown to be effective in improving micronutrient deficiencies. However, the impact of fortified condiments as well as fortified noodles is less well documented. We aimed to investigate existing evidence on the impact of micronutrient fortified condiments and noodles on hemoglobin, anemia, and functional outcomes in children and adults (age: 5 to 50 years). We conducted a literature review in electronic databases. In addition, we screened the homepages of relevant organizations and journals. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT). Of 1046 retrieved studies, 14 RCT provided data for the meta-analysis. Micronutrient fortification of condiments and noodles increased hemoglobin concentrations by 0.74 g/dL (95%-confidence intervals (95%-CI): 0.56 to 0.93; 12 studies) and 0.3 g/dL (95%-CI: 0.12 to 0.48; 1 study), respectively. Micronutrient fortification also led to a reduced risk of having anemia (risk ratio 0.59 (95%-CI 0.44 to 0.80)). Ferritin concentrations increased with fortified condiments. Functional outcomes were rarely assessed and showed mixed results. The use of micronutrient fortified condiments can be a strategy to reduce anemia in children and adults due to micronutrient deficiencies. The effect of fortified noodles seems to be smaller. PMID:26891319

  5. Analysis of laser therapy and assessment methods in the rehabilitation of temporomandibular disorder: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Herpich, Carolina Marciela; Amaral, Ana Paula; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Tosato, Juliana de Paiva; Gomes, Cid Andre Fidelis de Paula; Arruda, Éric Edmur Camargo; Glória, Igor Phillip dos Santos; Garcia, Marilia Barbosa Santos; Barbosa, Bruno Roberto Borges; Rodrigues, Monique Sampaio; Silva, Katiane Lima; El Hage, Yasmin; Politti, Fabiano; Gonzalez, Tabajara de Oliveira; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the effects of low-level laser therapy in the treatment of TMD, and to analyze the use of different assessment tools. [Subjects and Methods] Searches were carried out of the BIREME, MEDLINE, PubMed and SciELO electronic databases by two independent researchers for papers published in English and Portuguese using the terms: “temporomandibular joint laser therapy” and “TMJ laser treatment”. [Results] Following the application of the eligibility criteria, 11 papers were selected for in-depth analysis. The papers analyzed exhibited considerable methodological differences, especially with regard to the number of sessions, anatomic site and duration of low-level laser therapy irradiation, as well as irradiation parameters, diagnostic criteria and assessment tools. [Conclusion] Further studies are needed, especially randomized clinical trials, to establish the exact dose and ideal parameters for low-level laser therapy and define the best assessment tools in this promising field of research that may benefit individuals with signs and symptoms of TMD. PMID:25642095

  6. A Comprehensive Analysis of Articles Retracted Between 2004 and 2013 from Biomedical Literature – A Call for Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Mahendra, Ashish; Yadav, Bhupender; Singh, Harpreet; Arora, Nitin; Arora, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Science is a dynamic subject and it was never free of misconduct or bad research. Indeed, the scientific method itself is intended to overcome mistakes and misdeeds. So, we aimed to assess various factors associated with retraction of scientific articles from 2004 to 2013. Data were retrieved from PubMed and Medline using the keywords retraction of articles, retraction notice, and withdrawal of article in April 2014 to detect articles retracted from 2004 to 2013. Statistical analysis was carried out using t-test and Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results showed that a total of 2343 articles were retracted between 2004 and 2013, and original articles followed by case reports constituted major part of it. Time interval between submission and retraction of article has reduced in recent times. Impact factor and retraction do not have any significant correlation. We conclude that although retraction of articles is a rare event, its constant rise in scientific literature is quite worrisome. It is still unclear whether misconduct/mistakes in articles are increasing hastily or the articles are retracted at a rapid rate in recent times. So, it should be considered as an urgent issue and it is the responsibility of journal editors to track misconduct by following Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines and making an effective strategy. PMID:25161916

  7. A comprehensive analysis of articles retracted between 2004 and 2013 from biomedical literature - a call for reforms.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Mahendra, Ashish; Yadav, Bhupender; Singh, Harpreet; Arora, Nitin; Arora, Monika

    2014-07-01

    Science is a dynamic subject and it was never free of misconduct or bad research. Indeed, the scientific method itself is intended to overcome mistakes and misdeeds. So, we aimed to assess various factors associated with retraction of scientific articles from 2004 to 2013. Data were retrieved from PubMed and Medline using the keywords retraction of articles, retraction notice, and withdrawal of article in April 2014 to detect articles retracted from 2004 to 2013. Statistical analysis was carried out using t-test and Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results showed that a total of 2343 articles were retracted between 2004 and 2013, and original articles followed by case reports constituted major part of it. Time interval between submission and retraction of article has reduced in recent times. Impact factor and retraction do not have any significant correlation. We conclude that although retraction of articles is a rare event, its constant rise in scientific literature is quite worrisome. It is still unclear whether misconduct/mistakes in articles are increasing hastily or the articles are retracted at a rapid rate in recent times. So, it should be considered as an urgent issue and it is the responsibility of journal editors to track misconduct by following Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines and making an effective strategy. PMID:25161916

  8. Organic Contaminants in Chinese Sewage Sludge: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature of the Past 30 Years.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Venkatesan, Arjun K; Ni, Yi-Lin; Steele, Joshua C; Wu, Ling-Ling; Bignert, Anders; Bergman, Åke; Halden, Rolf U

    2016-06-01

    The production of sewage sludge is increasing in China but with unsafe disposal practices, causing potential risk to human health and the environment. Using literature from the past 30 years (N = 159), we conducted a meta-analysis of organic contaminants (OCs) in Chinese sludge. Most data were available from developed and populated regions, and no data were found for Tibet. Since 1987, 35 classes of chemicals consisting of 749 individual compounds and 1 mixture have been analyzed, in which antibiotics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the most targeted analytes. For 13 classes of principal OCs (defined as chemicals detected in over five studies) in sludge, the median (expressed in nanograms per gram dry weight) was the highest for phthalate esters (27 900), followed by alkylphenol polyethoxylates (12 000), synthetic musks (5800), antibiotics (4240), PAHs (3490), ultraviolet stabilizers (670), bisphenol analogs (160), organochlorine pesticides (110), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (100), pharmaceuticals (84), hormones (69), perfluorinated compounds (21), and polychlorinated biphenyls (15). Concentrations of PAHs in sludges collected between 1998 and 2012 showed a decreasing trend. Study findings suggest the need for a Chinese national sewage sludge survey to identify and regulate toxic OCs, ideally employing both targeted as well as nontargeted screening approaches. PMID:27144960

  9. The Burden of Healthcare-Associated Infections in Southeast Asia: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ling, Moi Lin; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Madriaga, Gilbert

    2015-06-01

    A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in Southeast Asia was performed on 41 studies out of the initially identified 14 089 records. The pooled prevalence of overall HAIs was 9.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2%-10.8%), whereas the pooled incidence density of HAI was 20 cases per 1000 intensive care unit-days. The pooled incidence density of ventilator-associated pneumonia, central line-associated bloodstream infection, and catheter-associated urinary tract infection was 14.7 per 1000 ventilator-days (95% CI, 11.7-17.7), 4.7 per 1000 catheter-days (95% CI, 2.9-6.5), and 8.9 per 1000 catheter-days (95% CI, 6.2-11.7), respectively. The pooled incidence of surgical site infection was 7.8% (95% CI, 6.3%-9.3%). The attributed mortality and excess length of stay in hospitals of infected patients ranged from 7% to 46% and 5 to 21 days, respectively. PMID:25676799

  10. Cheminformatics Analysis of Assertions Mined from Literature that Describe Drug-Induced Liver Injury in Different Species

    PubMed Central

    Fourches, D.; Barnes, J. C.; Day, N. C.; Bradley, P.; Reed, J.Z.; Tropsha, A.

    2009-01-01

    shown good predictive power assessed by external five-fold cross validation procedures. The external predictive power of binary QSAR models was further confirmed by their application to compounds that were retrieved or studied after the model was developed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study for chemical toxicity prediction that applied QSAR modeling and other cheminformatics techniques to observational data generated by the means of automated text mining with limited manual curation, opening up new opportunities for generating and modeling chemical toxicology data. PMID:20014752

  11. Literature Use in Engineering and Computer Science Research: An Analysis of Works Cited in Dissertations and Theses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fransen, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Any engineering librarian will tell you that their researchers' literature needs differ from researchers in other disciplines: Books are used less, and conference papers more, than in humanities disciplines. This study analyzes literature cited in theses and dissertations submitted over a three-year period by students in three departments of…

  12. 8-Hydroxy-2-Deoxyguanosine Levels and Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Turnu, Linda; Porro, Benedetta; Squellerio, Isabella; Cavalca, Viviana; Tremoli, Elena; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Significance: 8-Hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is generated after the repair of ROS-mediated DNA damages and, thus, is one of the most widely recognized biomarkers of oxidative damage of DNA because guanosine is the most oxidized among the DNA nucleobases. In several pathological conditions, high urinary levels of oxidized DNA-derived metabolites have been reported (e.g., cancer, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes). Recent Advances: Even if published studies have shown that DNA damage is significantly associated with the development of atherosclerosis, the exact role of this damage in the onset and progression of this pathology is not fully understood, and the association of oxidative damage to DNA with cardiovascular disease (CVD) still needs to be more extensively investigated. We performed a meta-analysis of the literature to investigate the association among 8-OHdG levels and CVD. Critical Issues: Fourteen studies (810 CVD patients and 1106 controls) were included in the analysis. We found that CVD patients showed higher 8-OHdG levels than controls (SMD: 1.04, 95%CI: 0.61, 1.47, p < 0.001, I2 = 94%, p < 0.001). The difference was confirmed both in studies in which 8-OHdG levels were assessed in urine (MD: 4.43, 95%CI: 1.71, 7.15, p = 0.001) and in blood samples (MD: 1.42, 95%CI: 0.64, 2.21, p = 0.0004). Meta-regression models showed that age, hypertension, and male gender significantly impacted on the difference in 8-OHdG levels among CVD patients and controls. Future Directions: 8-OHdG levels are higher in patients with CVD than in controls. However, larger prospective studies are needed to test 8-OHdG as a predictor of CVD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 548–555. PMID:26650622

  13. Implementing a Grant Proposal Writing Exercise in Undergraduate Science Courses to Incorporate Real-World Applications and Critical Analysis of Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Kathryn E.; Inada, Maki; Smith, Andrew M.; Haaf, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Writing is an essential part of a successful career in science. As such, many undergraduate science courses have begun to implement writing assignments that reflect "real-world" applications and focus on a critical analysis of current literature; these assignments are often in the form of a review or a research proposal. The…

  14. The Nature and Severity of Cognitive Impairment Associated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Women with Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of the Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falleti, Marina G.; Sanfilippo, Antonietta; Maruff, Paul; Weih, LeAnn; Phillips, Kelly-Anne

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Several studies have identified that adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer is associated with cognitive impairment; however, the magnitude of this impairment is unclear. This study assessed the severity and nature of cognitive impairment associated with adjuvant chemotherapy by conducting a meta-analysis of the published literature to…

  15. The Evolution of Recent Research on Catalan Literature through the Production of PhD Theses: A Bibliometric and Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardanuy, Jordi; Urbano, Cristobal; Quintana, Lluis

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This paper studies the situation of research on Catalan literature between 1976 and 2003 by carrying out a bibliometric and social network analysis of PhD theses defended in Spain. It has a dual aim: to present interesting results for the discipline and to demonstrate the methodological efficacy of scientometric tools in the…

  16. Training Teachers to Follow a Task Analysis to Engage Middle School Students with Moderate and Severe Developmental Disabilities in Grade-Appropriate Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Diane M.; Trela, Katherine; Jimenez, Bree

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to train teachers to follow a task analysis to teach a story-based literacy lesson using adapted, grade-appropriate middle school literature to students with moderate and severe developmental disabilities. A multiple-probe-across-participants design was used to examine the effects of training teachers to follow a…

  17. CREATE Cornerstone: Introduction to Scientific Thinking, a New Course for STEM-Interested Freshmen, Demystifies Scientific Thinking through Analysis of Scientific Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottesman, Alan J.; Hoskins, Sally G.

    2013-01-01

    The Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment (CREATE) strategy for teaching and learning uses intensive analysis of primary literature to improve students' critical-thinking and content integration abilities, as well as their self-rated science attitudes, understanding, and confidence. CREATE…

  18. The CREATE Strategy for Intensive Analysis of Primary Literature Can Be Used Effectively by Newly Trained Faculty to Produce Multiple Gains in Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Leslie M.; Hoskins, Sally G.

    2014-01-01

    The CREATE (Consider Read, Elucidate the hypotheses, Analyze and interpret the data, and Think of the next Experiment) strategy aims to demystify scientific research and scientists while building critical thinking, reading/analytical skills, and improved science attitudes through intensive analysis of primary literature. CREATE was developed and…

  19. The Chicano Literary World--1974. The National Symposium on Chicano Literature and Critical Analysis (1st, Las Vegas, New Mexico, November 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortego, Felipe, Comp.; Conde, David, Comp.

    Over 200 participants from 10 states and 17 universities attended "The First National Symposium on Chicano Literature and Critical Analysis." Five of the papers presented at the symposium are given in this publication. The papers cover Chicano poetry, novel, drama, and popular folklore humor. "National Character vs Universality in Chicano Poetry"…

  20. Brain GABA levels across psychiatric disorders: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of (1) H-MRS studies.

    PubMed

    Schür, Remmelt R; Draisma, Luc W R; Wijnen, Jannie P; Boks, Marco P; Koevoets, Martijn G J C; Joëls, Marian; Klomp, Dennis W; Kahn, René S; Vinkers, Christiaan H

    2016-09-01

    The inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system is involved in the etiology of most psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). It is therefore not surprising that proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) is increasingly used to investigate in vivo brain GABA levels. However, integration of the evidence for altered in vivo GABA levels across psychiatric disorders is lacking. We therefore systematically searched the clinical (1) H-MRS literature and performed a meta-analysis. A total of 40 studies (N = 1,591) in seven different psychiatric disorders were included in the meta-analysis: MDD (N = 437), schizophrenia (N = 517), ASD (N = 150), bipolar disorder (N = 129), panic disorder (N = 81), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (N = 104), and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (N = 173). Brain GABA levels were lower in ASD (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -0.74, P = 0.001) and in depressed MDD patients (SMD = -0.52, P = 0.005), but not in remitted MDD patients (SMD = -0.24, P = 0.310) compared with controls. In schizophrenia this finding did not reach statistical significance (SMD = -0.23, P = 0.089). No significant differences in GABA levels were found in bipolar disorder, panic disorder, PTSD, and ADHD compared with controls. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provided evidence for lower brain GABA levels in ASD and in depressed (but not remitted) MDD patients compared with healthy controls. Findings in schizophrenia were more equivocal. Even though future (1) H-MRS studies could greatly benefit from a longitudinal design and consensus on the preferred analytical approach, it is apparent that (1) H-MRS studies have great potential in advancing our understanding of the role of the GABA system in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3337-3352, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals

  1. Impact of reducing dosing frequency on adherence to oral therapies: a literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Kunal; Arora, Anamika; Kataria, Aditi; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Sadosky, Alesia; Peterson, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the impact of reduced frequency of oral therapies from multiple-dosing schedules to a once-daily (OD) dosing schedule on adherence, compliance, persistence, and associated economic impact. Methods A meta-analysis was performed based on relevant articles identified from a comprehensive literature review using MEDLINE® and Embase®. The review included studies assessing adherence with OD, twice-daily (BID), thrice-daily (TID), and four-times daily (QID) dosing schedules and costs associated with optimal/suboptimal adherence among patients with acute and chronic diseases. Effect estimates across studies were pooled and analyzed using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effect model. Results Forty-three studies met inclusion criteria, and meta-analyzable data were available from 13 studies. The overall results indicated that OD schedules were associated with higher adherence rates (odds ratio [OR] 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.80–5.23; P < 0.001 for OD versus > OD dosing) and compliance rates (OR 3.50, 95% CI 1.73–7.08; P < 0.001 for OD versus > OD dosing); persistence rates showed the same direction but were not statistically significant (OR 1.43, 95% CI 0.62–3.29; P = 0.405 for OD versus BID dosing). Results for each of the conditions were consistent with those observed overall with respect to showing the benefits of less frequent dosing. From a health economic perspective, higher adherence rates with OD relative to multiple dosing in a number of conditions were consistently associated with corresponding lower costs of health care resources utilization. Conclusion Current meta-analyses suggested that across acute and chronic disease states, reducing dosage frequency from multiple dosing to OD dosing may improve adherence to therapies among patients. Improving adherence may result in subsequent decreases in health care costs. PMID:23737662

  2. Korean Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pihl, Marshall R.

    While Chinese was, by and large, the formal and public literary language of the Korean court and aristocracy, native Korean literature survived as an oral tradition in the more informal and private realms of life. The Yi Dynasty which lasted until the Japanese annexation of 1910, produced and recorded a rich treasury of Chinese and Korean…

  3. Women's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.; Quinn, Laura, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The articles in this focused journal issue discuss women authors and examine female images in English and American literature. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Margaret Fuller and Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Rhetoric and the Shape of Learning" (Susan Lundvall Brodie); (2) "Feminist Psychology through Feminist…

  4. Teacher Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemanich, Donald, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    Three articles are included in this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Form Is Not Enough: Thinking the Unthinkable about Teaching Literature," John Milstead recommends a reading program for high school English courses which emphasizes the quantity (rather than quality) of reading material according to individual student interest so…

  5. Literature Ink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geyer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Using images in the classroom to help students find meaning in literature is not new. Although composition teachers have long used the visual arts as a source for stimulating student engagement, sometimes the subject matter can fail to achieve the desired result. Too often, students lack the vocabulary or frame of reference to be engaged in a work…

  6. Methane Cross-Validation Between Spaceborne Solar Occultation Observations from ACE-FTS, Spaceborne Nadir Sounding from Gosat, and Ground-Based Solar Absorption Measurements, at a High Arctic Site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, G.; Walker, K. A.; Conway, S. A.; Saitoh, N.; Boone, C. D.; Strong, K.; Drummond, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing observations of methane profiles in the Canadian High Arctic. Methane is the third most important greenhouse gas on Earth, and second only to carbon dioxide in its contribution to anthropogenic global warming. Accurate and precise observations of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. The Arctic is a particular region of concern, as melting permafrost and disappearing sea ice might lead to accelerated release of methane into the atmosphere. Global observations require spaceborne instruments, in particular in the Arctic, where surface measurements are sparse and expensive to perform. Satellite-based remote sensing is an underconstrained problem, and specific validation under Arctic circumstances is required. Here, we show a cross-validation between two spaceborne instruments and ground-based measurements, all Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS). We consider the Canadian SCISAT ACE-FTS, a solar occultation spectrometer operating since 2004, and the Japanese GOSAT TANSO-FTS, a nadir-pointing FTS operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environmental and Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka, Nunavut (80°N, 86°W) since 2006. Measurements are collocated considering temporal, spatial, and geophysical criteria and regridded to a common vertical grid. We perform smoothing on the higher-resolution instrument results to account for different vertical resolutions. Then, profiles of differences for each pair of instruments are examined. Any bias between instruments, or any accuracy that is worse than expected, needs to be understood prior to using the data. The results of the study will serve as a guideline on how to use the vertically resolved methane products from ACE and

  7. Pharmaceuticals and the Environment (PiE): Evolution and impact of the published literature revealed by bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Daughton, Christian G

    2016-08-15

    The evolution and impact of the published literature surrounding the transdisciplinary, multifaceted topic of pharmaceuticals as contaminants in the environment is examined for the first time in an historical context. The preponderance of literature cited in this examination represents the earlier works. As an historical chronology, the focus is on the emergence of key, specific aspects of the overall topic (often termed PiE) in the published literature and on the most highly cited works. This examination is not a conventional, technical review of the literature; as such, little attention was devoted to the more recent literature. The many dimensions involved with PiE span over 70years of published literature. Some articles began to appear in published works in the 1940s and earlier, while others only began to receive attention in the 1990s and later. Decades of early research on what at the time seemed to be disconnected topics eventually coalesced in the mid-to-late 1990s around a number of interconnected concerns and issues that now comprise PiE. Major objectives are to provide a new perspective to the topic, to facilitate more efficient and effective review of the literature by others, and to recognize the more significant, seminal contributions to the advancement of PiE as a field of research. Some of the most highly cited articles in all of environmental science now involve PiE. As of April 2015, a core group of 385 PiE articles had each received at least 200 citations; one had received 5424 citations. But hundreds of additional articles also played important roles in the evolution and advancement of the field. PMID:27104492

  8. Cross-validation of the factorial structure of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A) assess perceived environmental attributes believed to influence physical activity. A multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) conducted on a sample from Seattle, WA, showed that, at the respondent level, th...

  9. Cross-validation study using item response theory: the health-related quality of life for eating disorders questionnaire-short version.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, Amaia; Las Hayas, Carlota; Forero, Carlos G; Padierna, Angel; Martin, Josune; Quintana, José M

    2014-08-01

    The Health-Related Quality of Life for Eating Disorder-Short questionnaire is one of the most suitable existing instruments for measuring quality of life in patients with eating disorders. The objective of the study was to evaluate its reliability, validity, and responsiveness in a cohort of 377 patients. A comprehensive validation process was performed, including confirmatory factor analysis and a graded response model, and assessments of reliability and responsiveness at 1 year of follow-up. The confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two second-order latent traits, social maladjustment, and mental health and functionality. The graded response model results showed that all items were good for discriminating their respective latent traits. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were high, and responsiveness parameters showed moderate changes. In conclusion, this short questionnaire has good psychometric properties. Its simplicity and ease of application further enhance its acceptability and usefulness in clinical research and trials, as well as in routine practice. PMID:24235177

  10. The health effects of the global financial crisis: can we reconcile the differing views? A network analysis of literature across disciplines.

    PubMed

    Stuckler, David; Reeves, Aaron; Karanikolos, Marina; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Why are researchers studying the health effects of economic change reaching markedly varying conclusions? To understand these differences, we first systematically searched Web of Science for the literature on recessions and health yielding 461 articles and 14,401 cited documents. We then undertook a network analysis of co-citation pattern by disciplines, journals and backgrounds of the authors, followed by a chronological review of the literature, to trace the evolution of ideas. We then examined the extent to which earlier literature predicted what has happened in the 2007-2012 crisis. Our analysis finds the literature is dominated by disciplinary silos, with economics studies predominantly citing each other and relative isolation of psychiatry and substance abuse journals. Different philosophical approaches to assessing causality appear to contribute to varying interpretations, a tendency that is unlikely to be resolved without a shift in research norms. We conclude by calling for more inter-disciplinary research that combines empirical findings with a search for plausible mechanisms. This approach would evaluate not only the effects of economic shocks but also the mechanisms that offer protection against them. PMID:25662198

  11. Cross-Validation of the Spanish HP-Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Confirmed with Some Cross-Cultural Differences

    PubMed Central

    Alcorta-Garza, Adelina; San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Soler-González, Jorge; Roig, Helena; Vivanco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Context: Medical educators agree that empathy is essential for physicians' professionalism. The Health Professional Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE-HP) was developed in response to a need for a psychometrically sound instrument to measure empathy in the context of patient care. Although extensive support for its validity and reliability is available, the authors recognize the necessity to examine psychometrics of the JSE-HP in different socio-cultural contexts to assure the psychometric soundness of this instrument. The first aim of this study was to confirm its psychometric properties in the cross-cultural context of Spain and Latin American countries. The second aim was to measure the influence of social and cultural factors on the development of medical empathy in health practitioners. Methods: The original English version of the JSE-HP was translated into International Spanish using back-translation procedures. The Spanish version of the JSE-HP was administered to 896 physicians from Spain and 13 Latin American countries. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation (promax) to allow for correlation among the resulting factors, followed by a second analysis, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two theoretical models, one based on the English JSE-HP and another on the first Spanish student version of the JSE (JSE-S), were tested. Demographic variables were compared using group comparisons. Results: A total of 715 (80%) surveys were returned fully completed. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the JSE for the entire sample was 0.84. The psychometric properties of the Spanish JSE-HP matched those of the original English JSE-HP. However, the Spanish JSE-S model proved more appropriate than the original English model for the sample in this study. Group comparisons among physicians classified by gender, medical specialties, cultural and cross-cultural backgrounds yielded

  12. The Effect of Performance Feedback on Teachers' Treatment Integrity: A Meta-Analysis of the Single-Case Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Benjamin G.; Klein, Suzanne A.; Politylo, Bethany C.

    2012-01-01

    Performance feedback (PF) has become popular in the school-based literature as a method to increase the treatment integrity of prescribed interventions. The current study extracted and aggregated data from single-case studies that used PF in school settings to increase teachers' use of classroom-based interventions. Results suggest PF is…

  13. Review and Analysis of Literature on Self-Management Interventions to Promote Appropriate Classroom Behaviors (1988-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briesch, Amy M.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1980s, J. W. Fantuzzo and colleagues conducted a review of the self-management literature in order to better define the characteristics of this class of interventions. Results indicated that many interventions were minimally student-directed despite the title "self-managed" and that student-managed interventions demonstrated…

  14. Teaching for Diversity: A Literature Overview and an Analysis of the Curriculum of a Teacher Training College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severiens, Sabine; Wolff, Rick; van Herpen, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    This article starts with an overview of the literature aiming to answer the question of what the knowledge aspect of teacher competence entails in urban schools. The conclusion of the overview identifies five areas of expertise as the most significant: (1) language development; (2) pedagogy; (3) social interaction and identity; (4) parental…

  15. Alternative Careers for Graduates of LIS Schools: The North American Perspective--An Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weech, Terry L.; Konieczny, Alison M.

    2007-01-01

    Schools of Library and Information Science (LIS) have often promoted alternative careers as a marketing tool and some students enrol in LIS schools specifically to explore alternative careers. The literature on LIS career patterns continues to suggest that those non-traditional careers are desirable and viable alternatives. Yet the survey research…

  16. Fictions, Nation-Building and Ideologies of Belonging in Children's Literature: An Analysis of "Tunzi the Faithful Shadow"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagwirei, Cuthbeth

    2013-01-01

    This article demonstrates, through Michael Gascoigne's "Tunzi the Faithful Shadow" (1988), that literature for children is sometimes employed by the government into the service of propagating dominant state ideologies in Zimbabwean schools. Such texts disseminate issues of inclusion and exclusion that characterise all nation building projects. I…

  17. A Linguistic Analysis of Certain Stylistic Elements of Selected Works of Literature for Children and Their Relationship to Readability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moir, Leo Hughes

    This study related the style of writing found in literature for children and the relative level of readability of this material. Cloze tests of readability on 10 passages from five juvenile biographies of Lincoln were given in 1 week to a hemogeneously grouped upper elementary school reading class (n=28) in suburban Detroit. The mean T-unit…

  18. What Are They Asking? An Analysis of the Questions Planned by Prospective Teachers When Integrating Literature in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdum-Cassidy, Barbara; Nesmith, Suzanne; Meyer, Rachelle D.; Cooper, Sandi

    2015-01-01

    Questioning is considered a powerful tool in mediating students' knowledge construction and conceptual understanding. In this qualitative study, the mathematics-focused lesson plans of elementary education prospective teachers provided data to determine the ways that the approach of literature integration in mathematics influenced prospective…

  19. Female Leadership Capacity and Effectiveness: A Critical Analysis of the Literature on Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alomair, Miznah O.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the progressive changes occurring in Saudi Arabia, developing female leadership capacity and effectiveness in the country's higher education is vital. This literature review examines the scholarship and research on female leadership in higher education in Saudi Arabia, describes the major barriers for female leaders, and provides a…

  20. The Role of Electronic Preprints in Chemical Communication: Analysis of Citation, Usage, and Acceptance in the Journal Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cecelia

    2003-01-01

    Characterizes the use and acceptance of electronic preprints in chemistry literature based on a survey of authors of preprints appearing in the Chemistry Preprint Server (CPS). Shows that preprints are convenient for disseminating research findings and for receiving feedback before submitting to a peer-review journal, but that reception of…

  1. Corporate Universities: An Historical Perspective with an Analysis and Comparison of Development Models in the Literature and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Catherine A.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the history of workforce education, corporate university development models in both literature and practice, and the evolution of the next generation of corporate universities. It traces workforce education from indentured servants in Europe during the Middle Ages, to the sophisticated corporate universities that…

  2. Literature Circles Go Digital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Karen; Faughnan, Michelle; Ham, Susan; Miller, Melissa; Armstrong, Traci; Crandall, Cassandra; Garrison, Julia; Marrone, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a literature circle of seven pre-service teacher education students who read "Al Capone Shines My Shoes" (G. Choldenko, 2009). Students used the Internet to complete their roles, shared what they learned as they discussed the book, and then wrote about the digital experience. Four themes emerged from an analysis of…

  3. Cross-Validation of Suspended Sediment Concentrations Derived from Satellite Imagery and Numerical Modeling of the 1997 New Year's Flood on the Feather River, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilham, N. E.

    2009-12-01

    Image analysis was applied to assess suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) predicted by a numerical model of 2D hydraulics and sediment transport (Telemac-2D), coupled to a solver for the advection-diffusion equation (SISYPHE) and representing 18 days of flooding over 70 kilometers of the lower Feather-Yuba Rivers. Sisyphe treats the suspended load as a tracer, removed from the flow if the bed shear velocity, u* is lower than an empirically derived threshold (ud* = 7.8E-3 m s-1). Agreement between model (D50 = 0.03 mm) and image-derived SSC (mg L-1) suggests that image interpretation could prove to be a viable approach for verifying spatially-distributed models of floodplain sediment transport if imagery is acquired for a particular flood and at a sufficient spatial and radiometric resolution. However, remotely derived SSC represents the integrated concentration of suspended sediment at the water surface. Hence, comparing SSC magnitudes derived from imagery and numerical modeling requires that a relationship is first established between the total suspended load and the portion of this load suspended within the optical range of the sensor (e.g., Aalto, 1995). Using the optical depth (0.5 m) determined from radiative transfer modeling, surface SSC measured from a 1/14/97 Landsat TM5 image (30 m) were converted to depth-integrated SSC with the Rouse (1937) equation. Surface concentrations were derived using a look-up table for the sensor to convert endmember fractions obtained from a spectral mixture analysis of the image. A two-endmember model (2.0 and 203 mg L-1) was used, with synthetic endmembers derived from optical and radiative transfer modeling and inversion of field spectra collected from the Sacramento and Feather Rivers and matched to measured SSC values. Remotely sensed SSC patterns were then compared to the Telemac results for the same day and time. Modeled concentrations are a function of both the rating curve boundary conditions, and the transport and

  4. Spinal Cystic Echinococcosis – A Systematic Analysis and Review of the Literature: Part 2. Treatment, Follow-up and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Neumayr, Andreas; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Goblirsch, Sam; Blum, Johannes; Brunetti, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Bone involvement in human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is rare, but affects the spine in approximately 50% of cases. Despite significant advances in diagnostic imaging techniques, surgical treatment and introduction of pharmacological therapy, spinal echinococcosis remains associated with a high degree of morbidity, disability and mortality. We systematically reviewed the published literature of the last five decades to update and summarize the currently existing data on treatment, follow-up and outcome of spinal CE. PMID:24069501

  5. Correlation of the BACH1 Pro919Ser polymorphism with breast cancer risk: A literature-based meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    SHI, JING; TONG, JIANHUA; CAI, SHUANG; QU, XIUJUAN; LIU, YUNPENG

    2013-01-01

    Recent investigations have suggested that common genetic polymorphisms in BRCA1-associated C-terminal helicase 1 (BACH1) are important in the development of breast cancer. However, individually published studies and previous meta-analyses have demonstrated inconclusive results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to derive a more precise estimation of the correlation between a common polymorphism [proline (Pro) 919 serine (Ser); rs4986764 C>T] in the BACH1 gene and susceptibility to breast cancer. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Chinese BioMedicine (CBM) databases was conducted on articles published prior to March 1, 2013. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Eleven case-control studies were included with a total of 6,903 breast cancer cases and 8,154 healthy controls. The meta-analysis results revealed that the BACH1 919Ser polymorphism may be correlated with a decreased risk of breast cancer among Caucasian populations (Ser allele versus Pro allele: OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.86–0.95; Pro/Ser + Ser/Ser versus Pro/Pro: OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.84–0.98; Ser/Ser versus Pro/Pro + Pro/Ser: OR=0.84, 95% CI=0.76–0.92; Ser/Ser versus Pro/Pro: OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.73–0.91; Ser/Ser versus Pro/Ser: OR=0.86, 95% CI=0.78–0.95), although not among Asian populations. Further subgroup analyses indicated that there were significant correlations between the BACH1 919Ser polymorphism and a decreased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal females, females with a family history of breast cancer and females without BRCA1/2 mutations. Univariate and multivariate meta-regression analyses revealed that none of the factors explained the heterogeneity (all P>0.05). The present meta-analysis suggested that the BACH1 919Ser polymorphism may decrease the risk of breast cancer among Caucasian populations, particularly in postmenopausal females with a family history of breast cancer and without BRCA1/2 mutations. PMID:24137204

  6. Manual for Modal Profile Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Harvey A.; Lei, Hau

    Modal Profile Analysis (MPA) is a Fortran IV program for the identification and cross validation of relatively homogenous subgroups within a dimensional or ordination space. This classification approach is designed for use with several samples in a multiple replication design. The program consists of three stages: (1) identification of preliminary…

  7. Precision Efficacy Analysis for Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gordon P.

    When multiple linear regression is used to develop a prediction model, sample size must be large enough to ensure stable coefficients. If the derivation sample size is inadequate, the model may not predict well for future subjects. The precision efficacy analysis for regression (PEAR) method uses a cross- validity approach to select sample sizes…

  8. A comparative analysis of media reports of U.S. parricide cases with officially reported national crime data and the psychiatric and psychological literature.

    PubMed

    Heide, Kathleen M; Boots, Denise Paquette

    2007-12-01

    This article is a content analysis of 150 unique cases of children killing parents in the United States as reported in the electronic news media. The accuracy of online coverage of U.S. parricide incidents is assessed using two types of resources: officially reported national statistics on known parricidal incidents and the psychological and psychiatric literature on matricide and patricide. Comparisons of news accounts of media-reported U.S. parricide cases with Supplementary Homicide Report data indicate that electronic media coverage of parricide cases focused on the more sensational and unusual parricides. Analyses of these media accounts by offender age found 13 significant differences between juvenile and adult offenders. Ten of these 13 differences related to motive and Heide's parricide offender types (severely abused, severely mentally ill, and dangerously antisocial) and were consistent with the mental health-related literature in this area. The limitations and directions for future research are discussed at length. PMID:17615430

  9. Possible Biases of Researchers’ Attitudes Toward Video Games: Publication Trends Analysis of the Medical Literature (1980–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Rovner, Mitchell; Appel, David Ian; Abrams, Aaron W; Rotem, Michal; Bloch, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    Background The study of video games is expanding, and so is the debate regarding their possible positive and deleterious effects. As controversies continue, several researchers have expressed their concerns about substantial biases existing in the field, which might lead to the creation of a skewed picture, both in the professional and in the lay literature. However, no study has tried to examine this issue quantitatively. Objective The objective of our study was to examine possible systematic biases in the literature, by analyzing the publication trends of the medical and life sciences literature regarding video games. Methods We performed a complete and systematic PubMed search up to December 31, 2013. We assessed all 1927 articles deemed relevant for their attitude toward video games according to the focus, hypothesis, and authors’ interpretation of the study results, using a 3-category outcome (positive, negative, and neutral). We assessed the prevalence of different attitudes for possible association with year of publication, location of researchers, academic discipline, methodological research, and centrality of the publishing journals. Results The attitude toward video games presented in publications varied by year of publication, location, academic discipline, and methodological research applied (P<.001 for all). Moreover, representation of different attitudes differed according to centrality of the journals, as measured by their impact factor (P<.001). Conclusions The results suggest that context, whether scientific or social, is related to researchers’ attitudes toward video games. Readers, both lay and professional, should weigh these contextual variables when interpreting studies’ results, in light of the possible bias they carry. The results also support a need for a more balanced, open-minded approach toward video games, as it is likely that this complex phenomenon carries novel opportunities as well as new hazards. PMID:27430187

  10. Impact of medical academic genealogy on publication patterns: An analysis of the literature for surgical resection in brain tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Hirshman, Brian R; Tang, Jessica A; Jones, Laurie A; Proudfoot, James A; Carley, Kathleen M; Marshall, Lawrence; Carter, Bob S; Chen, Clark C

    2016-02-01

    "Academic genealogy" refers to the linking of scientists and scholars based on their dissertation supervisors. We propose that this concept can be applied to medical training and that this "medical academic genealogy" may influence the landscape of the peer-reviewed literature. We performed a comprehensive PubMed search to identify US authors who have contributed peer-reviewed articles on a neurosurgery topic that remains controversial: the value of maximal resection for high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Training information for each key author (defined as the first or last author of an article) was collected (eg, author's medical school, residency, and fellowship training). Authors were recursively linked to faculty mentors to form genealogies. Correlations between genealogy and publication result were examined. Our search identified 108 articles with 160 unique key authors. Authors who were members of 2 genealogies (14% of key authors) contributed to 38% of all articles. If an article contained an authorship contribution from the first genealogy, its results were more likely to support maximal resection (log odds ratio = 2.74, p < 0.028) relative to articles without such contribution. In contrast, if an article contained an authorship contribution from the second genealogy, it was less likely to support maximal resection (log odds ratio = -1.74, p < 0.026). We conclude that the literature on surgical resection for HGGs is influenced by medical academic genealogies, and that articles contributed by authors of select genealogies share common results. These findings have important implications for the interpretation of scientific literature, design of medical training, and health care policy. PMID:26727354

  11. Psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma: an analysis of 2 cases affecting the mandible with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tolentino, Elen S; Centurion, Bruna Stuchi; Tjioe, Kellen Cristine; Casaroto, Ana Regina; Tobouti, Priscila Lie; Frederigue Junior, Ulisses; Lara, Vanessa Soares; Damante, José Humberto; Sant'ana, Eduardo; Gonçales, Eduardo Sanches

    2012-06-01

    Juvenile ossifying fibroma (JOF) is a rare fibro-osseous neoplasm, defined as a variant of the ossifying fibroma that arises within the craniofacial bones. Two subgroups, juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma (PsJOF) and juvenile trabecular ossifying fibroma, have been delineated by their histology. PsJOF occurs predominantly in the sinonasal and orbital bones. This work reports on 2 cases of extensive PsJOF in the body of the right mandible as well as reviews the literature regarding the radiographic and histologic features, treatment, and prognosis of PsJOF of the jaws. PMID:22668716

  12. ACTN3 Genotype, Athletic Status, and Life Course Physical Capability: Meta-Analysis of the Published Literature and Findings from Nine Studies

    PubMed Central

    Alfred, Tamuno; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Cooper, Rachel; Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Cyrus; Deary, Ian J; Gunnell, David; Harris, Sarah E; Kumari, Meena; Martin, Richard M; Moran, Colin N; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Ring, Susan M; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Smith, George Davey; Starr, John M; Kuh, Diana; Day, Ian NM

    2011-01-01

    The ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) genotype has been associated with athletic status and muscle phenotypes, although not consistently. Our objective was to conduct a meta-analysis of the published literature on athletic status and investigate its associations with physical capability in several new population-based studies. Relevant data were extracted from studies in the literature, comparing genotype frequencies between controls and sprint/power and endurance athletes. For life course physical capability, data were used from two studies of adolescents and seven studies in the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) collaborative research program, involving individuals aged between 53 and 90+ years. We found evidence from the published literature to support the hypothesis that in Europeans the RR genotype is more common among sprint/power athletes compared with their controls. There is currently no evidence that the X allele is advantageous to endurance athleticism. We found no association between R577X and grip strength (P = 0.09, n = 7,672 in males; P = 0.90, n = 7,839 in females), standing balance, timed get up and go, or chair rises in our studies of physical capability. The ACTN3 R577X genotype is associated with sprint/power athletic status in Europeans, but does not appear to be associated with objective measures of physical capability in the general population. Hum Mutat 32:1–11, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21542061

  13. Critical Analysis of Primary Literature in a Master’s-Level Class: Effects on Self-Efficacy and Science-Process Skills

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Christopher; Parris, Julian; Lie, Richard; Guzdar, Amy; Tour, Ella

    2015-01-01

    The ability to think analytically and creatively is crucial for success in the modern workforce, particularly for graduate students, who often aim to become physicians or researchers. Analysis of the primary literature provides an excellent opportunity to practice these skills. We describe a course that includes a structured analysis of four research papers from diverse fields of biology and group exercises in proposing experiments that would follow up on these papers. To facilitate a critical approach to primary literature, we included a paper with questionable data interpretation and two papers investigating the same biological question yet reaching opposite conclusions. We report a significant increase in students’ self-efficacy in analyzing data from research papers, evaluating authors’ conclusions, and designing experiments. Using our science-process skills test, we observe a statistically significant increase in students’ ability to propose an experiment that matches the goal of investigation. We also detect gains in interpretation of controls and quantitative analysis of data. No statistically significant changes were observed in questions that tested the skills of interpretation, inference, and evaluation. PMID:26250564

  14. Critical Analysis of Primary Literature in a Master's-Level Class: Effects on Self-Efficacy and Science-Process Skills.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Christopher; Parris, Julian; Lie, Richard; Guzdar, Amy; Tour, Ella

    2015-01-01

    The ability to think analytically and creatively is crucial for success in the modern workforce, particularly for graduate students, who often aim to become physicians or researchers. Analysis of the primary literature provides an excellent opportunity to practice these skills. We describe a course that includes a structured analysis of four research papers from diverse fields of biology and group exercises in proposing experiments that would follow up on these papers. To facilitate a critical approach to primary literature, we included a paper with questionable data interpretation and two papers investigating the same biological question yet reaching opposite conclusions. We report a significant increase in students' self-efficacy in analyzing data from research papers, evaluating authors' conclusions, and designing experiments. Using our science-process skills test, we observe a statistically significant increase in students' ability to propose an experiment that matches the goal of investigation. We also detect gains in interpretation of controls and quantitative analysis of data. No statistically significant changes were observed in questions that tested the skills of interpretation, inference, and evaluation. PMID:26250564

  15. Methods used in studies of drink-drive control efforts: a meta-analysis of the literature from 1960 to 1991.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, A C; Zobeck, T S; Williams, G D; Hingson, R

    1995-06-01

    We searched the drink-drive control literature over the past three decades, finding over six thousand documents. After detailed review of the abstracts and papers, 125 studies contained separate empirical evaluations of the effects of 12 DWI control policies and enforcement efforts (administrative license suspension, illegal per se, implied consent, preliminary breath test, mandatory jail sentence, mandatory community service, mandatory license suspension, limits on plea bargaining, mandatory fines, selective enforcement patrols, regular police patrols, and sobriety checkpoints). The 125 studies contained 664 distinct analyses that formed the basis for meta-analysis. All of the DWI control efforts were associated with reductions in drink-driving and traffic crashes. The DWI control literature is limited by the preponderance of weak study designs and reports that often fail to include basic data required for meta-analysis. Because of the poor quality of much extant research, we were limited to simple gain scores or percent change estimates in the current study. Further research that does not include appropriate research designs and analytic methods will be of limited utility. We recommend that all future reports include effect estimates and standard error estimates, minimum data required for effective meta-analysis. PMID:7639915

  16. Comparative Analysis of CNV Calling Algorithms: Literature Survey and a Case Study Using Bovine High-Density SNP Data

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lingyang; Hou, Yali; Bickhart, Derek M.; Song, Jiuzhou; Liu, George E.

    2013-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are gains and losses of genomic sequence between two individuals of a species when compared to a reference genome. The data from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays are now routinely used for genotyping, but they also can be utilized for copy number detection. Substantial progress has been made in array design and CNV calling algorithms and at least 10 comparison studies in humans have been published to assess them. In this review, we first survey the literature on existing microarray platforms and CNV calling algorithms. We then examine a number of CNV calling tools to evaluate their impacts using bovine high-density SNP data. Large incongruities in the results from different CNV calling tools highlight the need for standardizing array data collection, quality assessment and experimental validation. Only after careful experimental design and rigorous data filtering can the impacts of CNVs on both normal phenotypic variability and disease susceptibility be fully revealed.

  17. A case of very late-onset systemic lupus erythematosus and updated pooled analysis of late-onset cases in the literature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Guochun; Lin, Bing; Wang, Liying

    2012-10-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus predominantly affects young women during childbearing age. It is rare after the age of 90, and there is no report of very late onset in persons over 90 in China. Here, we reported a case of a female patient, the onset age of whom was 90, analyzing her clinical features and treatments. And when conducting a pooled analysis of late-onset cases in the literature, we found that the organ damages and severity of lupus disease of old-onset SLE were not benign, and considering their ages, comorbidities and high rate of mortalities, appropriate interventions and close follow-up for this age group are needed. PMID:21898064

  18. The histamine H4-receptor and the central and peripheral nervous system: A critical analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Erich H; Seifert, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Expression and function of histamine H4R in central and peripheral nervous system have been a matter of controversy for more than a decade. The scientific discussion is often limited to a few publications postulating the presence of functional H4R on neurons of the central and peripheral nervous system, but the even larger number of reports showing negative data is often neglected. In this article, we critically review the existing literature on H4R in central and peripheral nervous system and discuss the weak points often overlooked by the community. We identified as most important problems (i) insufficient validation or quality of antibodies, (ii) missing knockout controls, (iii) uncritical interpretation of RT-PCR results instead of qPCR experiments, (iv) insufficient controls to confirm specificity of pharmacological tools, (v) uncritical reliance on results produced by a single method and (vi) uncritical reliance on results not reproduced by independent research groups. Additionally, there may be a publication as well as a citation bias favoring the awareness of positive results, but neglecting negative data. We conclude that H4R expression on neurons of the brain is not convincingly supported by the current literature, at least as long as the positive data are not reproduced by independent research groups. Expression and function of H4R on peripheral neurons or non-neuronal cells of the nervous system, specifically on microglia is an interesting alternative hypothesis that, however, requires further verification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Histamine Receptors'. PMID:25986697

  19. Predictors of flares in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Preventive therapeutic intervention based on serial anti-dsDNA antibodies assessment. Analysis of a monocentric cohort and literature review.

    PubMed

    Floris, Alberto; Piga, Matteo; Cauli, Alberto; Mathieu, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) may experience flare of disease activity. The aim of this study was to assess incidence, clinical features and predictors of flares, focusing on the relationship with serially assessed anti-double stranded DNA antibodies (anti-dsDNA) serum levels by Farr assay and pre-emptive therapeutic approaches of flares, through the analysis of a monocentric cohort of SLE patients and a literature review. Clinical and laboratory data of 120 out of 334 SLE patients, fulfilling inclusion criteria for enrolment and followed up between 1997 and 2012, were retrospectively collected. For the purposes of the study, a flare was defined as any new SLE manifestation or worsening of a pre-existing manifestation resulting in change of therapy. A review of the literature was performed searching for articles published between 1980 and 2015. Over a median (IQR) follow-up of 5.9 (3.0-8.9) years, 87 flares were recorded in 59 (49%) patients. The estimated incidence rate was 0.11 flare per patient-year, at the low-end of values reported in literature (0.19-1.76 patient-year). In our cohort, fluctuating anti-dsDNA serum levels were associated with flare development whereas precautionary change of therapy in presence of increased anti-dsDNA levels >50% was effective in preventing flares (p<0.05). Results from literature review highlighted that increasing anti-dsDNA and precautionary change of therapy were predictive and pre-emptive of flares, respectively, in some studies but not in others. Differences in laboratory methods and patient selection, in terms of ethnicity, disease duration, and background therapy are likely to be crucial in determining discordant results. PMID:26921641

  20. Varieties and Trends in Music Analysis: A Commentary on the Literature. Technical Note 3-72-14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Michael

    This commentary examines the primary types of music analysis. Although the study focuses mainly upon individual trends and schools of thought, some attention is given to the evolution of ideas within the field. Methodologies are considered in the light of their applicability to individual or classroom analysis by students. From the most…

  1. Literature classification for semi-automated updating of biological knowledgebases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As the output of biological assays increase in resolution and volume, the body of specialized biological data, such as functional annotations of gene and protein sequences, enables extraction of higher-level knowledge needed for practical application in bioinformatics. Whereas common types of biological data, such as sequence data, are extensively stored in biological databases, functional annotations, such as immunological epitopes, are found primarily in semi-structured formats or free text embedded in primary scientific literature. Results We defined and applied a machine learning approach for literature classification to support updating of TANTIGEN, a knowledgebase of tumor T-cell antigens. Abstracts from PubMed were downloaded and classified as either "relevant" or "irrelevant" for database update. Training and five-fold cross-validation of a k-NN classifier on 310 abstracts yielded classification accuracy of 0.95, thus showing significant value in support of data extraction from the literature. Conclusion We here propose a conceptual framework for semi-automated extraction of epitope data embedded in scientific literature using principles from text mining and machine learning. The addition of such data will aid in the transition of biological databases to knowledgebases. PMID:24564403

  2. Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods for select space propulsion system components (PSAM). Volume 3: Literature surveys and technical reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The technical effort and computer code developed during the first year are summarized. Several formulations for Probabilistic Finite Element Analysis (PFEA) are described with emphasis on the selected formulation. The strategies being implemented in the first-version computer code to perform linear, elastic PFEA is described. The results of a series of select Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) component surveys are presented. These results identify the critical components and provide the information necessary for probabilistic structural analysis.

  3. Clinicopathological analysis of non-gestational ovarian choriocarcinoma: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    WANG, QIONG; GUO, CHAO; ZOU, LINGFENG; WANG, YUN; SONG, XIN; MA, YAQI; LIU, AIJUN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinicopathological features of two cases of non-gestational ovarian choriocarcinoma (NGCO). The histopathological, immunohistochemical and clinical features of two cases of NGCO in the left ovaries of two 13 year-old female patients were investigated and the relevant literature was reviewed. In both cases, the tumor masses exhibited cribriform, papillary and nested cellular growth patterns, and hemorrhage and necrosis were evident. In case one, the patient also exhibited a sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTAT) in the right ovary. To the best of our knowledge, the synchronous occurrence of these two tumor types has not been reported previously. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells of choriocarcinoma in both cases were positive for human chorionic gonadotropin and cytokeratin, while those of SCTAT were positive for CD56 and CD99. NGCO is an extremely rare germ cell tumor of high-grade malignancy, and STCAT is even rarer. Early metastasis of NGCO is common and the disease has a poor prognosis. In the present study, one patient succumbed within 4 months of diagnosis with NGCO and the other patient was lost to follow-up after 12 months. PMID:27073524

  4. Features of Mobile Diabetes Applications: Review of the Literature and Analysis of Current Applications Compared Against Evidence-Based Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Årsand, Eirik; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Background Interest in mobile health (mHealth) applications for self-management of diabetes is growing. In July 2009, we found 60 diabetes applications on iTunes for iPhone; by February 2011 the number had increased by more than 400% to 260. Other mobile platforms reflect a similar trend. Despite the growth, research on both the design and the use of diabetes mHealth applications is scarce. Furthermore, the potential influence of social media on diabetes mHealth applications is largely unexplored. Objective Our objective was to study the salient features of mobile applications for diabetes care, in contrast to clinical guideline recommendations for diabetes self-management. These clinical guidelines are published by health authorities or associations such as the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the United Kingdom and the American Diabetes Association. Methods We searched online vendor markets (online stores for Apple iPhone, Google Android, BlackBerry, and Nokia Symbian), journal databases, and gray literature related to diabetes mobile applications. We included applications that featured a component for self-monitoring of blood glucose and excluded applications without English-language user interfaces, as well as those intended exclusively for health care professionals. We surveyed the following features: (1) self-monitoring: (1.1) blood glucose, (1.2) weight, (1.3) physical activity, (1.4) diet, (1.5) insulin and medication, and (1.6) blood pressure, (2) education, (3) disease-related alerts and reminders, (4) integration of social media functions, (5) disease-related data export and communication, and (6) synchronization with personal health record (PHR) systems or patient portals. We then contrasted the prevalence of these features with guideline recommendations. Results The search resulted in 973 matches, of which 137 met the selection criteria. The four most prevalent features of the applications available on the online markets (n

  5. The Global Burden of Snakebite: A Literature Analysis and Modelling Based on Regional Estimates of Envenoming and Deaths

    PubMed Central

    Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; de Silva, Nilanthi; Gunawardena, N. Kithsiri; Pathmeswaran, Arunasalam; Premaratna, Ranjan; Savioli, Lorenzo; Lalloo, David G; de Silva, H. Janaka

    2008-01-01

    Background Envenoming resulting from snakebites is an important public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries. Few attempts have been made to quantify the burden, and recent estimates all suffer from the lack of an objective and reproducible methodology. In an attempt to provide an accurate, up-to-date estimate of the scale of the global problem, we developed a new method to estimate the disease burden due to snakebites. Methods and Findings The global estimates were based on regional estimates that were, in turn, derived from data available for countries within a defined region. Three main strategies were used to obtain primary data: electronic searching for publications on snakebite, extraction of relevant country-specific mortality data from databases maintained by United Nations organizations, and identification of grey literature by discussion with key informants. Countries were grouped into 21 distinct geographic regions that are as epidemiologically homogenous as possible, in line with the Global Burden of Disease 2005 study (Global Burden Project of the World Bank). Incidence rates for envenoming were extracted from publications and used to estimate the number of envenomings for individual countries; if no data were available for a particular country, the lowest incidence rate within a neighbouring country was used. Where death registration data were reliable, reported deaths from snakebite were used; in other countries, deaths were estimated on the basis of observed mortality rates and the at-risk population. We estimate that, globally, at least 421,000 envenomings and 20,000 deaths occur each year due to snakebite. These figures may be as high as 1,841,000 envenomings and 94,000 deaths. Based on the fact that envenoming occurs in about one in every four snakebites, between 1.2 million and 5.5 million snakebites could occur annually. Conclusions Snakebites cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. The highest burden exists in

  6. Bifocal Intracranial Germinoma: A Retrospective Analysis of Treatment Outcomes in 20 Patients and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Weksberg, David C.; Shibamoto, Yuta; Paulino, Arnold C.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Bifocal germinoma (BFG) is a rare intracranial neoplasm for which the choice of radiation therapy (RT) field is controversial. Some believe that BFG represents disseminated disease requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI), whereas others believe that BFG represents localized disease and advocate for more limited fields. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 20 BFG patients at our institutions with classic bifocal lesions (pineal gland and suprasellar region). In addition, we identified 60 BFG patients from the literature. The RT fields, use of chemotherapy and extent of disease were recorded and analyzed for each patient. Results: There were 55 patients with bifocal lesions only (Group I), and 25 with bifocal lesions plus ventricular and/or CSF positive disease (Group II). The 5-year progression-free survival was 95% for Group I and 80% for Group II. In Group I, there were no failures in patients receiving CSI (n = 11), two spinal failures in those treated with more limited RT fields without chemotherapy (n = 17), and one spinal failure with chemotherapy (n = 23). In Group II, there were no failures in patients receiving CSI (n = 11), but four spinal failures were observed in patients receiving more limited RT fields with chemotherapy (n = 13); 1 patient who received whole-brain RT without chemotherapy experienced failure in the spine and brain. Conclusions: CSI is associated with excellent PFS in BFG. In Group I BFG patients, omission of spinal irradiation appears to be a reasonable approach, especially when chemotherapy is used. Patients with Group II BFG are best treated with CSI.

  7. A bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature on Internet, video games, and cell phone addiction*†

    PubMed Central

    Guardiola, Elena; Beranuy, Marta; Bellés, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to locate the scientific literature dealing with addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to characterize the pattern of publications in these areas. Methods: One hundred seventy-nine valid articles were retrieved from PubMed and PsycINFO between 1996 and 2005 related to pathological Internet, cell phone, or video game use. Results: The years with the highest numbers of articles published were 2004 (n = 42) and 2005 (n = 40). The most productive countries, in terms of number of articles published, were the United States (n = 52), China (n = 23), the United Kingdom (n = 17), Taiwan (n = 13), and South Korea (n = 9). The most commonly used language was English (65.4%), followed by Chinese (12.8%) and Spanish (4.5%). Articles were published in 96 different journals, of which 22 published 2 or more articles. The journal that published the most articles was Cyberpsychology & Behavior (n = 41). Addiction to the Internet was the most intensely studied (85.3%), followed by addiction to video games (13.6%) and cell phones (2.1%). Conclusions: The number of publications in this area is growing, but it is difficult to conduct precise searches due to a lack of clear terminology. To facilitate retrieval, bibliographic databases should include descriptor terms referring specifically to Internet, video games, and cell phone addiction as well as to more general addictions involving communications and information technologies and other behavioral addictions. PMID:19404500

  8. Evolution of the “Drivers” of Translational Cancer Epidemiology: Analysis of Funded Grants and the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tram Kim; Chang, Christine Q.; Rogers, Scott D.; Khoury, Muin J.; Schully, Sheri D.

    2015-01-01

    Concurrently with a workshop sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, we identified key “drivers” for accelerating cancer epidemiology across the translational research continuum in the 21st century: emerging technologies, a multilevel approach, knowledge integration, and team science. To map the evolution of these “drivers” and translational phases (T0–T4) in the past decade, we analyzed cancer epidemiology grants funded by the National Cancer Institute and published literature for 2000, 2005, and 2010. For each year, we evaluated the aims of all new/competing grants and abstracts of randomly selected PubMed articles. Compared with grants based on a single institution, consortium-based grants were more likely to incorporate contemporary technologies (P = 0.012), engage in multilevel analyses (P = 0.010), and incorporate elements of knowledge integration (P = 0.036). Approximately 74% of analyzed grants and publications involved discovery (T0) or characterization (T1) research, suggesting a need for more translational (T2–T4) research. Our evaluation indicated limited research in 1) a multilevel approach that incorporates molecular, individual, social, and environmental determinants and 2) knowledge integration that evaluates the robustness of scientific evidence. Cancer epidemiology is at the cusp of a paradigm shift, and the field will need to accelerate the pace of translating scientific discoveries in order to impart population health benefits. While multi-institutional and technology-driven collaboration is happening, concerted efforts to incorporate other key elements are warranted for the discipline to meet future challenges. PMID:25767265

  9. Foot orthoses and gait: a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature pertaining to potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mills, Kathryn; Blanch, Peter; Chapman, Andrew R; McPoil, Thomas G; Vicenzino, Bill

    2010-11-01

    This article systematically reviews the available literature to improve our understanding of the physiological basis for orthoses under the kinematic, shock attenuation and neuromotor control paradigms. The propositions made under these three paradigms have not been systematically reviewed collectively, and as such, there is no single-point synthesis of this clinically relevant body of evidence and somewhat disparate findings. Our comprehensive search strategy yielded 22 papers. Under each paradigm, the role of orthoses with different design features including combinations of posting, moulding and density was analysed. Where possible, data have been pooled to provide an increased level of confidence in findings. The main findings in the kinematic paradigm were that posted non-moulded orthoses systematically reduced peak rearfoot eversion (2.12° (95% CI 0.72 to 3.53)) and tibial internal rotation (1.33° (0.12 to 2.53)) in non-injured cohorts. In the shock attenuation paradigm, it was found that non-posted moulded and posted moulded orthoses produced large reductions in loading rate and vertical impact force when compared with a control and to a posted non-moulded orthosis. The neuromotor control paradigm seems to be the least conclusive in its outcome. Based on our review, this paper concludes with rudimentary guidelines for the prescription of orthosis, that sports medicine practitioners may use in their clinical decision-making process. The need for further research focusing on the role of injury, particularly in neuromotor control modification and long-term adaptation to orthoses, was highlighted. PMID:19996330

  10. Work and Family Research in IO/OB: Content Analysis and Review of the Literature (1980-2002)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eby, Lillian T.; Casper, Wendy J.; Lockwood, Angie; Bordeaux, Chris; Brinley, Andi

    2005-01-01

    This monograph reviews 190 work-family studies published in IO/OB journals from 1980 to 2002. The results of a content analysis are presented which catalog these articles with respect to the study focus, nature and direction of the proposed effects, and predictor, criterion, and mediator variables examined. Then a narrative review of the articles…

  11. Do Extra-Curricular Activities in Schools Improve Educational Outcomes? A Critical Review and Meta-Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz

    2010-01-01

    Secondary schools tend to sponsor a large number of extra-curricular activities (ECA) yet little is known about their contribution to students' educational outcomes. This meta-analysis aims to determine what it is about ECA participation that supports positive educational outcomes. Furthermore, this study challenges the theoretical assumptions…

  12. Where Is the Phonics? A Review of the Literature on the Use of Phonetic Analysis with Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, L.M.; Seery, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review studies conducted in the last 12 years that consisted of examining the use of phonetic analysis strategies and/or phonics instruction with students with mental retardation. We conducted computer databased searches and a manual search of 15 journals published from 1990 to 2002. Only 7 studies emerged that…

  13. Artificial neural network analysis for predicting human percutaneous absorption taking account of vehicle properties.

    PubMed

    Atobe, Tomomi; Mori, Masaaki; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru; Kouzuki, Hirokazu

    2015-04-01

    An in silico method for predicting percutaneous absorption of cosmetic ingredients was developed by using artificial neural network (ANN) analysis to predict the human skin permeability coefficient (log Kp), taking account of the physicochemical properties of the vehicle, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (log D). Molecular weight and octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) of chemicals, and log P of the vehicles, were used as molecular descriptors for predicting log Kp and log D of 359 samples, for which literature values of either or both of log Kp and log D were available. Adaptivity of the ANN model was evaluated in comparison with a multiple linear regression model (MLR) by calculating the root-mean-square (RMS) errors. Accuracy and robustness were confirmed by 10-fold cross-validation. The predictive RMS errors of the ANN model were smaller than those of the MLR model (log Kp; 0.675 vs 0.887, log D; 0.553 vs 0.658), indicating superior performance. The predictive RMS errors for log Kp and log D with the ANN model after 10-fold cross-validation analysis were 0.723 and 0.606, respectively. Moreover, we estimated the cumulative amounts of chemicals permeated into the skin during 24 hr (Q24hr) from the values of log Kp and log D by applying Fick's law of diffusion. Our results suggest that this newly established ANN analysis method, taking account of the property of the vehicle, could contribute to non-animal risk assessment of cosmetic ingredients by providing a tool for calculating Q24hr, which is required for evaluating the margin of safety. PMID:25786531

  14. Corticospinal activity during dual tasking: a systematic review and meta-analysis of TMS literature from 1995 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Corp, Daniel T; Lum, Jarrad A G; Tooley, Gregory A; Pearce, Alan J

    2014-06-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted across studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate corticospinal excitability and inhibition in response to a dual task (DT). Quantitative analysis was performed on eleven controlled studies that had included healthy participants over the age of 18 years. Results showed a small effect size for increased corticospinal excitability for DT conditions (SMD=0.207; p=.217, and a small effect size (SMD=-0.253) demonstrating a significant decrease in corticospinal inhibition for DT conditions (p=.019). Meta-regression demonstrated that neither age, task type, or task prioritisation accounted for the high variability in effect sizes between studies. A number of possible sources of within study bias are identified, which reduced the level of evidence for study findings. The results show overall changes in corticospinal responses between ST and DT conditions; however further research is necessary to investigate variables that could account for differences in corticospinal responses between studies. PMID:24705270

  15. Inventory and Analysis of Definitions of Social Participation Found in the Aging Literature: Proposed Taxonomy of Social Activities

    PubMed Central

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Richard, Lucie; Gauvin, Lise; Raymond, Émilie

    2012-01-01

    Social participation is a key determinant of successful and healthy aging and therefore an important emerging intervention goal for health professionals. Despite the interest shown in the concept of social participation over the last decade, there is no agreement on its definition and underlying dimensions. This paper provides an inventory and content analysis of definitions of social participation in older adults. Based on these results, a taxonomy of social activities is proposed. Four databases (Medline, CINAHL, AgeLine and PsycInfo) were searched with relevant keywords (Aging OR Ageing OR Elderly OR Older OR Seniors AND Community involvement/participation OR Social engagement/involvement/participation) resulting in the identification of 43 definitions. Using content analysis, definitions were deconstructed as a function of who, how, what, where, with whom, when, and why dimensions. Then, using activity analysis, we explored the typical contexts, demands and potential meanings of activities (main dimension). Content analysis showed that social participation definitions (n=43) mostly focused on the person’s involvement in activities providing interactions with others in society or the community. Depending on the main goal of these social activities, six proximal to distal levels of involvement of the individual with others were identified: 1) doing an activity in preparation for connecting with others, 2) being with others, 3) interacting with others without doing a specific activity with them, 4) doing an activity with others, 5) helping others, and 6) contributing to society. These levels are discussed in a continuum that can help distinguish social participation (levels 3 through 6) from parallel but different concepts such as participation (levels 1 through 6) and social engagement (levels 5 and 6). This taxonomy might be useful in pinpointing the focus of future investigations and clarifying dimensions specific to social participation. PMID:21044812

  16. The clinicopathological significance of FHIT hypermethylation in non-small cell lung cancer, a meta-analysis and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wei; Xu, Ning; Han, Xiang; Zhou, Xiao-ming; He, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that FHIT is a candidate tumor suppressor in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the correlation between FHIT hypermethylation and clinicopathological characteristics of NSCLC remains unclear. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the effects of FHIT hypermethylation on the incidence of NSCLC and clinicopathological characteristics. Final analysis of 1717 NSCLC patients from 16 eligible studies was performed. FHIT hypermethylation was found to be significantly higher in NSCLC than in normal lung tissue, the pooled OR from 8 studies including 735 NSCLC and 708 normal lung tissue, OR = 5.45, 95% CI = 2.15–13.79, p = 0.0003. FHIT hypermethylation was also correlated with sex status, smoking status, as well as pathological types. We did not find that FHIT hypermethylation was correlated with the differentiated types or clinical stages in NSCLC patients. However, patients with FHIT hypermethylation had a lower survival rate than those without, HR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.10–2.71, p  = 0.02. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that FHIT hypermethylation is associated with an increased risk and worsen survival in NSCLC patients. FHIT hypermethylation, which induces the inactivation of FHIT gene, plays an important role in the carcinogenesis and clinical outcome and may serve as a potential drug target of NSCLC. PMID:26796853

  17. Basal Cell Adenoma-Clinicopathological, Immunohistochemical Analysis and Surgical Considerations of a Rare Salivary Gland Tumor with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat Singh, AD; Majumdar, Swapan; Ghosh, Amal Kanti; Gandi, Lakshmi; Choudaha, Nidhi; Sharma, Ipsita; Pal, SP

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Basal cell adenoma (BCA) of the salivary glands is a rare benign salivary gland tumour. Differentiation of BCA from varied entities involving maxillofacial area is mandatory. Aim: To analyze the clinicopathological, histopathologic features, immunohistochemcal analysis and surgical considerations of this rare entity. Materials and Methods: This study included 12 cases of BCA from archives of department reported over the period of 13 years. All the pertaining clinicopathologic features such as incidence, age, sex and site of lesions were assessed. Tissue sections were stained by using panel of immunohistochemical markers, i.e. Pan CK, CK 5/6 and S100, Calponin, p63, CD 117 and smooth muscle actin. Results: BCA was observed in 26-52 years age group (mean age, 38.75 years) with female propensity of 7:5 male to female ratio. It is seen more commonly in parotid gland, followed by upper lip, buccal mucosa and palate. Solid type is the most common histopathologic type followed by tubular, membranous and trabecular. Only one case of membranous type of BCA showed recurrence. Pan CK, CK 5/6 showed strong immunoreactivity, calponin showed moderate staining, p63 and Ki-67 mild staining, whereas CD 117 and SMA showed negative immunostaining. Conclusion: Vigilant comprehensive analysis of all the pertaining clinicopathologic and histopathologic features and immunohistochemical analysis are required for differentiating from other lesions with basaloid differentiation having varying prognosis. PMID:25838763

  18. Extraneural metastases in glioblastoma patients: two cases with YKL-40-positive glioblastomas and a meta-analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Anghileri, Elena; Elena, Anghileri; Castiglione, Melina; Melina, Castiglione; Nunziata, Raffaele; Raffaele, Nunziata; Boffano, Carlo; Carlo, Boffano; Nazzi, Vittoria; Vittoria, Nazzi; Acerbi, Francesco; Francesco, Acerbi; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Gaetano, Finocchiaro; Eoli, Marica; Marica, Eoli

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) are high-grade gliomas that severely impact on overall survival (OS). GBM cell motility and the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier could favor GBM cell communication with the systemic circulation. In spite of this, extracranial GBM metastases are rare. Here, we describe two YKL-40-positive GBM patients with extra-CNS (central nervous system) metastases, and we present a meta-analysis of 94 cases. The analysis concluded that extra-CNS metastases occurred 8.5 months after first GBM diagnosis and OS was 12 months; surgical GBM excision was associated at a longer interval to extra-CNS metastasis than biopsy only, and even longer if followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Both our case reports were adult males who developed extra-CNS, YKL-40-positive metastases at lymph nodes, lung and subcutaneous sites, after 86 and 24 months from initial diagnosis of GBM. At first GBM local recurrence, they were treated with bevacizumab (BV), an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody. They died after 4 and 1 month from the occurrence of metastases. Both cases expressed YKL-40 and lacked EGFR amplification, suggesting a mesenchymal phenotype, and maintained such profile at extra-CNS recurrence; they did not show MGMT promoter methylation, IDH1/2 mutations, or c-Met upregulation. Our two cases and the meta-analysis support the idea that prolonged survival of GBM patients increases the probability of GBM cells shedding to lymphatic and hematic system. Interestingly, the present two cases showed the features of mesenchymal profile, usually related with worst prognosis that was maintained in extracranial metastases. PMID:26212701

  19. Prognostic impact of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea on premenopausal breast cancer: a meta-analysis of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiong; Yin, Wenjin; Du, Yueyao; Shen, Zhenzhou; Lu, Jingsong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: We conducted this meta-analysis of published data to assess the exact prognostic value of adjuvant chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) as a prognostic factor for premenopausal breast cancer. Methods: We searched for all relevant studies published before May 2014 in the PubMed, OVID, and EMBASE databases. Relative risks (RRs) were used to estimate the association between CIA and various survival outcomes, including disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: This meta-analysis identified 13 eligible studies including 5,513 cases and 2,008 controls for DFS and 5 eligible studies including 2,331 cases and 776 controls for OS. Results demonstrated that CIA is associated with improved DFS (RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.61-0.74; P < 0.001) and OS (RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.50-0.72; P < 0.001). In subgroup analyses, CIA was found to affect DFS (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61-0.88; P = 0.001) in estrogen receptor (ER)–positive patients; however, similar results were not observed in ER-negative patients (for DFS: RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.66-1.41; P = 0.858). Participants with CIA achieved a significantly better prognosis than participants without CIA, irrespective of nodal status, chemotherapy regimen, endocrine therapy, or publication year. Conclusions: This meta-analysis clarifies that CIA contributes to improved prognosis in premenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer and is at least partially responsible for the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy in these women, which induce chemical castration. PMID:25783467

  20. CREATE cornerstone: introduction to scientific thinking, a new course for STEM-interested freshmen, demystifies scientific thinking through analysis of scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Gottesman, Alan J; Hoskins, Sally G

    2013-01-01

    The Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment (CREATE) strategy for teaching and learning uses intensive analysis of primary literature to improve students' critical-thinking and content integration abilities, as well as their self-rated science attitudes, understanding, and confidence. CREATE also supports maturation of undergraduates' epistemological beliefs about science. This approach, originally tested with upper-level students, has been adapted in Introduction to Scientific Thinking, a new course for freshmen. Results from this course's initial semesters indicate that freshmen in a one-semester introductory course that uses a narrowly focused set of readings to promote development of analytical skills made significant gains in critical-thinking and experimental design abilities. Students also reported significant gains in their ability to think scientifically and understand primary literature. Their perceptions and understanding of science improved, and multiple aspects of their epistemological beliefs about science gained sophistication. The course has no laboratory component, is relatively inexpensive to run, and could be adapted to any area of scientific study. PMID:23463229

  1. CREATE Cornerstone: Introduction to Scientific Thinking, a New Course for STEM-Interested Freshmen, Demystifies Scientific Thinking through Analysis of Scientific Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gottesman, Alan J.; Hoskins, Sally G.

    2013-01-01

    The Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment (CREATE) strategy for teaching and learning uses intensive analysis of primary literature to improve students’ critical-thinking and content integration abilities, as well as their self-rated science attitudes, understanding, and confidence. CREATE also supports maturation of undergraduates’ epistemological beliefs about science. This approach, originally tested with upper-level students, has been adapted in Introduction to Scientific Thinking, a new course for freshmen. Results from this course's initial semesters indicate that freshmen in a one-semester introductory course that uses a narrowly focused set of readings to promote development of analytical skills made significant gains in critical-thinking and experimental design abilities. Students also reported significant gains in their ability to think scientifically and understand primary literature. Their perceptions and understanding of science improved, and multiple aspects of their epistemological beliefs about science gained sophistication. The course has no laboratory component, is relatively inexpensive to run, and could be adapted to any area of scientific study. PMID:23463229

  2. Scientific collaboration: a social network analysis based on literature of animal-derived regenerative implantable medical devices.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shu-Yang; Wang, Hong-Man

    2016-09-01

    The collaboration network of English publications on animal-derived regenerative implantable medical devices based on tissue engineering technology and its evolving processes and current states were mapped in this paper. A total of 10 159 English papers published before 1 January 2015 were obtained in eight databases. Social network analysis was conducted on these papers by utilizing UCINET software and Statistical Analysis Software for Informatics researched and developed by Peking University. The collaboration network has evolved from scattered formation to single-core dominated, and then to a core-edge one; collaboration has become more frequent and wider; network density and centrality have decreased; USA, UK and China are the top three countries with Wake Forest University, Harvard University and Tufts University being the top three contributing institutions cooperated mostly during the period between 2010 and 2014; plenty of edge institutes exist. In conclusion, more collaboration among different institutions and countries is needed; Edge institutions and developing countries should expand their scope of collaboration. PMID:27252889

  3. The association between phosphatase and tensin homolog hypermethylation and patients with breast cancer, a meta-analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Min; Cheng, Feng; Teng, Li-Song

    2016-01-01

    The Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein is a negative regulator of the Akt pathway, leading to suppression of apoptois and increased cell survival. Its role as a tumor-suppressor gene has been adequately substantiated, and PTEN hypermethylation has been demonstrated in familial and sporadic cancers. However, the association and clinical significance between PTEN hypermethylation and breast cancer remains unclear. In this study, we systematically reviewed studies of PTEN hypermethylation and breast cancer and quantify the association between PTEN hypermethylation and breast cancer using meta-analysis methods. The pooled OR, 22.30, 95% confidential intervals, CI = 1.98-251.51, P = 0.01, which demonstrates that loss of PTEN expression by hypermethylation plays a critical role in the early tumorigenesis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). In addition, PTEN hypermethylation also is detected in invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) and is significantly higher than in normal controls, OR = 23.32, 95% CI = 10.43-52.13, P < 0.00001. Further analysis did not show significant correlation between PTEN hypermethylation and the progression of breast cancer, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), as well as HER2 status. These results indicate the PTEN hypermethylation is significantly associated with both DCIS and IDCs. The detection of PTEN hypermethylation could be an early tumorigenesis marker for breast cancer patients. PMID:27620353

  4. Can Serum Glypican-3 Be a Biomarker for Effective Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma? A Meta-Analysis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sheng-Li; Fang, Xiefan; Huang, Zao-Zao; Liu, Xiang-Jie; Xiong, Zhi-Fan; Liu, Ping; Yao, Hong-Yi; Li, Chang-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This review is to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum GPC3 for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) due to conflicting results reported. Methods. NCBI PubMed and Embase were comprehensively searched for studies that have used serum GPC3 level as a diagnostic index for HCC. The quality of the included studies was assessed. Subgroup analyses were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of GPC3 as a HCC marker. Statistical analysis was performed with the software STATA version 12.0. Results. A total of 22 studies were included. The qualities of included studies were relatively poor. Among them, 18 studies have shown that serum GPC3 is a specific biomarker for HCC, and the pooled sensitivity and specificity of these studies were 69 and 93%, respectively. The other 4 studies have reported conflicting results, which were not caused by races, infection status of HBV and HCV, or assay reagents but due to one common experimental design of enrolling liver cirrhosis patients as control subjects. Conclusions. This meta-analysis indicates that serum GPC3 is elevated in HCC patients compared with healthy individuals, but more studies are needed to evaluate its effectiveness to differentially diagnose HCC and liver cirrhosis. PMID:25378766

  5. Scientific collaboration: a social network analysis based on literature of animal-derived regenerative implantable medical devices

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shu-Yang; Wang, Hong-Man

    2016-01-01

    The collaboration network of English publications on animal-derived regenerative implantable medical devices based on tissue engineering technology and its evolving processes and current states were mapped in this paper. A total of 10 159 English papers published before 1 January 2015 were obtained in eight databases. Social network analysis was conducted on these papers by utilizing UCINET software and Statistical Analysis Software for Informatics researched and developed by Peking University. The collaboration network has evolved from scattered formation to single-core dominated, and then to a core-edge one; collaboration has become more frequent and wider; network density and centrality have decreased; USA, UK and China are the top three countries with Wake Forest University, Harvard University and Tufts University being the top three contributing institutions cooperated mostly during the period between 2010 and 2014; plenty of edge institutes exist. In conclusion, more collaboration among different institutions and countries is needed; Edge institutions and developing countries should expand their scope of collaboration. PMID:27252889

  6. Alcohol Use Predicts Sexual Decision-Making: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Experimental Literature.

    PubMed

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Kate B; Cunningham, Karlene; Johnson, Blair T; Carey, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is associated with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections through increased sexual risk-taking behavior. Establishing a causal link between alcohol and sexual behavior has been challenging due to methodological limitations (e.g., reliance on cross-sectional designs). Experimental methods can be used to establish causality. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on unprotected sex intentions. We searched electronic bibliographic databases for records with relevant keywords; 26 manuscripts (k = 30 studies) met inclusion criteria. Results indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with greater intentions to engage in unprotected sex (d +s = 0.24, 0.35). The effect of alcohol on unprotected sex intentions was greater when sexual arousal was heightened. Alcohol consumption is causally linked to theoretical antecedents of sexual risk behavior, consistent with the alcohol myopia model. Addressing alcohol consumption as a determinant of unprotected sex intentions may lead to more effective HIV interventions. PMID:26080689

  7. The effects of Mozart's music on interictal activity in epileptic patients: systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dastgheib, Samaneh Sadat; Layegh, Parvaneh; Sadeghi, Ramin; Foroughipur, Mohsen; Shoeibi, Ali; Gorji, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Mozart's music has been shown to have promising effects on nervous system functions. In this study, the effects of Mozart's work on epilepsy were reviewed. Articles were obtained from a variety of sources. The results of 12 studies were extracted. Three different meta-analyses were performed to examine (i) the percentage of patients who had changes in their interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) by music therapy; and the changes of IEDs (ii) during and (iii) after exposure to Mozart's music. Data analysis indicated that 84% of patients listening to Mozart's music showed a significant decrease in IEDs. In addition, IEDs were decreased during (31.24%) and after (23.74%) listening to Mozart's compositions. A noteworthy response to music therapy in patients with a higher intelligence quotient, generalized or central discharges, and idiopathic epilepsy was demonstrated. The effect of Mozart's music on epilepsy seems to be significant. However, more randomized control studies are needed to determine its clinical efficacy. PMID:24272274

  8. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in patients without hard metal exposure: analysis of 3 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Khoor, Andras; Roden, Anja C; Colby, Thomas V; Roggli, Victor L; Elrefaei, Mohamed; Alvarez, Francisco; Erasmus, David B; Mallea, Jorge M; Murray, David L; Keller, Cesar A

    2016-04-01

    Giant cell interstitial pneumonia is a rare lung disease and is considered pathognomonic for hard metal lung disease, although some cases with no apparent hard metal (tungsten carbide cobalt) exposure have been reported. We aimed to explore the association between giant cell interstitial pneumonia and hard metal exposure. Surgical pathology files from 2001 to 2004 were searched for explanted lungs with the histopathologic diagnosis of giant cell interstitial pneumonia, and we reviewed the associated clinical histories. Mass spectrometry, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and human leukocyte antigen typing data were evaluated. Of the 455 lung transplants, 3 met the histologic criteria for giant cell interstitial pneumonia. Patient 1 was a 36-year-old firefighter, patient 2 was a 58-year-old welder, and patient 3 was a 45-year-old environmental inspector. None reported exposure to hard metal or cobalt dust. Patients 1 and 2 received double lung transplants; patient 3 received a left single-lung transplant. Histologically, giant cell interstitial pneumonia presented as chronic interstitial pneumonia with fibrosis, alveolar macrophage accumulation, and multinucleated giant cells of both alveolar macrophage and type 2 cell origin. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis revealed no cobalt or tungsten particles in samples from the explanted lungs. None of the samples had detectable tungsten levels, and only patient 2 had elevated cobalt levels. The lack of appropriate inhalation history and negative analytical findings in the tissue from 2 of the 3 patients suggests that giant cell interstitial pneumonia is not limited to individuals with hard metal exposure, and other environmental factors may elicit the same histologic reaction. PMID:26997453

  9. Building and evaluating an informatics tool to facilitate analysis of a biomedical literature search service in an academic medical center library.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Elizabeth G; Oelschlegel, Sandra; Vaughn, Cynthia J; Lindsay, J Michael; Hurst, Sachiko M; Earl, Martha

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes an informatics tool to analyze a robust literature search service in an academic medical center library. Structured interviews with librarians were conducted focusing on the benefits of such a tool, expectations for performance, and visual layout preferences. The resulting application utilizes Microsoft SQL Server and .Net Framework 3.5 technologies, allowing for the use of a web interface. Customer tables and MeSH terms are included. The National Library of Medicine MeSH database and entry terms for each heading are incorporated, resulting in functionality similar to searching the MeSH database through PubMed. Data reports will facilitate analysis of the search service. PMID:23869631

  10. Morphological and Morphometrical Study of the Human Ossicular Chain: A Review of the Literature and a Meta-Analysis of Experience Over 50 Years

    PubMed Central

    Noussios, George; Chouridis, Pantelis; Kostretzis, Lazaros; Natsis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    The ossicular chain has been known for 500 years and yet there are a small number of morphometrical studies. We reviewed the whole literature that is available online regarding the human ossicular chain from an anatomist perspective and correlated the data from all the papers that showed any relevance. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed a priori. A thorough description of all ossicular differences has been made and we present their variations in dimensions trying to associate measurements obtained with race. This research included papers spreading on a horizon of over 50 years of worldwide experience. Statistical analysis revealed that there is a great difference in measurements and the results cannot be sufficiently associated. The explanation of this variation in the measurements obtained might be due to errors in the procedure. We conclude that ossicular chain reveals a great variety, and propose that a measurement protocol for auditory ossicles must be widely performed. PMID:26767074

  11. Estimating the supply and demand for deep geologic CO2 storage capacity over the course of the 21st Century: A meta-analysis of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2013-08-05

    Whether there is sufficient geologic CO2 storage capacity to allow CCS to play a significant role in mitigating climate change has been the subject of debate since the 1990s. This paper presents a meta- analysis of a large body of recently published literature to derive updated estimates of the global deep geologic storage resource as well as the potential demand for this geologic CO2 storage resource over the course of this century. This analysis reveals that, for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation scenarios that have end-of-century atmospheric CO2 concentrations of between 350 ppmv and 725 ppmv, the average demand for deep geologic CO2 storage over the course of this century is between 410 GtCO2 and 1,670 GtCO2. The literature summarized here suggests that -- depending on the stringency of criteria applied to calculate storage capacity – global geologic CO2 storage capacity could be: 35,300 GtCO2 of “theoretical” capacity; 13,500 GtCO2 of “effective” capacity; 3,900 GtCO2, of “practical” capacity; and 290 GtCO2 of “matched” capacity for the few regions where this narrow definition of capacity has been calculated. The cumulative demand for geologic CO2 storage is likely quite small compared to global estimates of the deep geologic CO2 storage capacity, and therefore, a “lack” of deep geologic CO2 storage capacity is unlikely to be an impediment for the commercial adoption of CCS technologies in this century.

  12. Thermal-optical analysis for the measurement of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in ambient air a literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanasiou, A.; Minguillón, M. C.; Viana, M.; Alastuey, A.; Putaud, J.-P.; Maenhaut, W.; Panteliadis, P.; Močnik, G.; Favez, O.; Kuhlbusch, T. A. J.

    2015-09-01

    Thermal-optical analysis is currently under consideration by the European standardization body (CEN) as the reference method to quantitatively determine organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in ambient air. This paper presents an overview of the critical parameters related to the thermal-optical analysis including thermal protocols, critical factors and interferences of the methods examined, method inter-comparisons, inter-laboratory exercises, biases and artifacts, and reference materials. The most commonly used thermal protocols include NIOSH-like, IMPROVEA and EUSAAR2 protocols either with light transmittance or reflectance correction for charring. All thermal evolution protocols are comparable for total carbon (TC) concentrations but the results vary significantly concerning OC and especially EC concentrations. Thermal protocols with a rather low peak temperature in the inert mode like IMPROVEA and EUSAAR2 tend to classify more carbon as EC compared to NIOSH-like protocols, while charring correction based on transmittance usually leads to smaller EC values compared to reflectance. The difference between reflectance and transmittance correction tends to be larger than the difference between different thermal protocols. Nevertheless, thermal protocols seem to correlate better when reflectance is used as charring correction method. The difference between EC values as determined by the different protocols is not only dependent on the optical pyrolysis correction method, but also on the chemical properties of the samples due to different contributions from various sources. The overall conclusion from this literature review is that it is not possible to identify the "best" thermal-optical protocol based on literature data only, although differences attributed to the methods have been quantified when possible.

  13. Research progress in hepatic encephalopathy in recent 10 years: A Web of Science-based literature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze international research trends in hepatic encephalopathy and examine the role of neuroelectrophysiology and neuroimaging in diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy. DATA RETRIEVAL: We performed a bibliometric analysis of studies on hepatic encephalopathy published during 2002–2011 retrieved from Web of Science. SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria: (1) peer-reviewed published articles on hepatic encephalopathy; (2) original article, review, meeting abstract, proceedings paper, book chapter, editorial material, news items, and (3) published during 2002–2011. Exclusion criteria: (1) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (2) documents that were not published in the public domain; and (3) corrected papers from the total number of articles. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Annual publication output; (2) type of publication; (3) publication by research field; (4) publication by journal; (5) publication by author; (6) publication by institution; (7) publication by country; (8) publication by institution in China; (9) most-cited papers. RESULTS: A total of 3 233 papers regarding hepatic encephalopathy were retrieved during 2002–2011. The number of papers gradually increased over the 10-year study period and was highest in 2010. Most papers appeared in journals with a focus on gastroenterology and hepatology. Among the included journals, Hepatology published the greatest number of papers regarding hepatic encephalopathy, and the published studies were highly cited. Thus, Hepatology appears to represent a key journal publishing papers on hepatic encephalopathy. Regarding distribution by country for publications on hepatic encephalopathy indexed in Web of Science during 2002–2011, the United States published highest number of papers, with China ranked ninth. As per distribution by institute for publications, the University of Montreal in Canada published the highest number of papers (n = 111). Among the Chinese institutes, Zhejiang

  14. Circulating C-Reactive Protein and Breast Cancer Risk-Systematic Literature Review and Meta-analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Chan, Doris S M; Bandera, Elisa V; Greenwood, Darren C; Norat, Teresa

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review to explore the association between circulating C-reactive protein (CRP), a low-grade inflammation biomarker, and breast cancer risk. Relevant prospective studies in women were identified in PubMed and Web of Science until February 2015. Random-effects dose-response meta-analysis was conducted, overall and in postmenopausal women. Twelve out of 15 studies identified were included in the meta-analysis on any breast cancers (3,522 cases; 69,610 women) and nine on postmenopausal breast cancer (2,516 cases; 36,847 women). For each doubling of CRP concentration, a 7% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2%-12%] and 6% (95% CI, 1%-11%) increased risk was observed (I(2) = 47% and 32%; Pheterogeneity = 0.04 and 0.17), respectively. The association was linear over most of the range of CRP concentrations. Positive associations remained in the studies that examined the exclusion of early years of follow-up. Associations were attenuated in studies adjusted for lifestyle factors, which partly explained the significant heterogeneity between studies in the overall analysis. On average, the associations in studies adjusted or not adjusted for body mass index were similar. Low-grade inflammation may have a role in breast cancer development. Additional prospective studies are needed to better understand confounding and effect modification from lifestyle factors. PMID:26224798

  15. Association between Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Reduction and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yuan; Shen, Jun; Ran, Zhi Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background. Laboratory data suggests a reduction of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (F. prausnitzii) is confirmed both in fecal samples in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Numerous observational studies have suspected dysbiosis, an imbalance between protective and harmful bacteria to be relevant to the etiology and pathogenesis of IBD. Methods. Medline, EMBASE, Pubmed, and others. were searched by 2 independent reviewers. Of 48 abstracts reviewed, 11 studies met our inclusion criteria (subject N = 1180). Meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.2. Results. The bacterial count of F. prausnitzii in IBD patients was significantly lower (6.7888 ± 1.8875) log10 CFU/g feces than healthy controls (7.5791 ± 1.5812) log10 CFU/g feces; P < 0.0001. The Standardization Mean Difference of F. prausnitzii in IBD patients was −0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −1.07–−0.80). Subgroup analyses revealed a trend toward a greater effect for CD (SMD: −1.13, 95% CI: −1.32–−0.94) when compared to UC (SMD: −0.78, 95% CI: −0.97–−0.60). Conclusions. The abundance of F. prausnitzii was decreased in IBD patients compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, the reduction of F. prausnitzii and misbalance of the intestinal microbiota are particularly higher in CD patients with ileal involvement. PMID:24799893

  16. Shaping the future of prevention in social work: an analysis of the professional literature from 2000 through 2010.

    PubMed

    Ruth, Betty J; Velásquez, Esther E; Marshall, Jamie Wyatt; Ziperstein, Dory

    2015-04-01

    In light of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's goals of better patient care, cost control, and improved population outcomes, prevention has emerged as an important component of health reform. Social work, with its extensive involvement in the health system and deep roots in public health, can benefit from a better understanding of its role in prevention. This study builds on the Social Work Interest in Prevention Study (SWIPS), which evaluated extent, type, and levels of prevention content in nine social work journals from 2000 to 2005. The goal of the expanded study, the SWIPS-Expansion, was to assess whether interest in prevention increased over the years in which health reform was enacted. Of the 3,745 articles reviewed, 9.0 percent (n = 336) met the criteria for "prevention articles." Between 2000 and 2010, prevention articles rose from 4.1 percent to 14.3 percent of all articles. A secondary analysis focused on topics within social work prevention, with violence, aging, and disease as primary focal areas. The findings suggest that although prevention interest appears to be growing, it remains a minority focus in the profession's journals. A national conversation on prevention can help expand the profession's role in health reform at this critical time. PMID:25929010

  17. Prognosis and management of adult wild type gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs): A pooled analysis and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, N R; Collins, D; Crotty, P; Ridgway, P F

    2016-09-01

    A pooled review was performed to determine survival in adult WT GIST (Wild Type GastroIntestinal Stromal Tumours) and compare the same with pediatric WT GISTs. Electronic databases were searched using the terms "Wild type" AND "GIST". Eighty-two adult patients from 14 studies were included in the pooled analysis. Cumulative survival was greater than 50% in both age groups, hence medial survival could not be computed. Mean survival in adults was 15.7 years ± 0.78 and in children was 18.8 years ± 1.3 (p = 0.241). Median disease free survival in adults was 10 years while 5-year overall survival was 88%. There was no statistically significant difference in the survival between the two groups (p = 0.241). Overall survival in adults with WT GISTs is favourable compared to other adult GIST subtypes likely reflects a common molecular pathway similar to pediatric GIST. PMID:27566016

  18. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor: Dynamic CT, MRI and clinicopathological characteristics - analysis of 36 cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yan; Zhang, Hui; Ma, Guo-lin; Xiao, En-hua; Wang, Xiao-chun

    2014-01-01

    Background The peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) is a rare malignant tumor originating from neuroectoderm. The accurate diagnosis is essential for the treatment of pPNET. Methods we performed the largest cases of retrospective analysis thus far to review the unique computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and clinicopathological features of pPNET. The tumor location, morphological features, signal intensity, contrast enhancement characteristics, and involvement of local soft tissues of 36 pPNETs were assessed. Results Our results showed that there were more men (25/36) than women pPNETs patients. Unenhanced MRI (16 cases) showed that 14 cases were isointense and 2 cases were hypointense on T1WI. Nine cases were isointense and 7 were hyperintense on T2WI. Most pPNETs had heterogeneous signal intensity with small necrosis (CT: 31/36; MRI: 14/16) as well as heterogeneous enhancement (CT: 34/30; MRI: 15/16). The tumors usually had ill-defined borders and irregular shapes (CT: 30/36; MRI: 15/16). Pathologic exam showed small areas of necrosis in all tumors. Conclusions The diagnosis of pPNET should be suggested in young men when the imaging depicts a single large ill-defined solid mass with small area of necrosis, especially for those whose images show iso-intense on T1WI and T2WI and have heterogeneous enhancement. PMID:25587032

  19. Carbothermic synthesis of 820 μm uranium nitride kernels: Literature review, thermodynamics, analysis, and related experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemer, T. B.; Voit, S. L.; Silva, C. M.; Besmann, T. M.; Hunt, R. D.

    2014-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing a new nuclear fuel that would be less susceptible to ruptures during a loss-of-coolant accident. The fuel would consist of tristructural isotropic coated particles with uranium nitride (UN) kernels with diameters near 825 μm. This effort explores factors involved in the conversion of uranium oxide-carbon microspheres into UN kernels. An analysis of previous studies with sufficient experimental details is provided. Thermodynamic calculations were made to predict pressures of carbon monoxide and other relevant gases for several reactions that can be involved in the conversion of uranium oxides and carbides into UN. Uranium oxide-carbon microspheres were heated in a microbalance with an attached mass spectrometer to determine details of calcining and carbothermic conversion in argon, nitrogen, and vacuum. A model was derived from experiments on the vacuum conversion to uranium oxide-carbide kernels. UN-containing kernels were fabricated using this vacuum conversion as part of the overall process. Carbonitride kernels of ∼89% of theoretical density were produced along with several observations concerning the different stages of the process.

  20. The Brain Basis of Positive and Negative Affect: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis of the Human Neuroimaging Literature.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Kristen A; Satpute, Ajay B; Wager, Tor D; Weber, Jochen; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-05-01

    The ability to experience pleasant or unpleasant feelings or to represent objects as "positive" or "negative" is known as representing hedonic "valence." Although scientists overwhelmingly agree that valence is a basic psychological phenomenon, debate continues about how to best conceptualize it scientifically. We used a meta-analysis of 397 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography studies (containing 914 experimental contrasts and 6827 participants) to test 3 competing hypotheses about the brain basis of valence: the bipolarity hypothesis that positive and negative affect are supported by a brain system that monotonically increases and/or decreases along the valence dimension, the bivalent hypothesis that positive and negative affect are supported by independent brain systems, and the affective workspace hypothesis that positive and negative affect are supported by a flexible set of valence-general regions. We found little evidence for the bipolar or bivalent hypotheses. Findings instead supported the hypothesis that, at the level of brain activity measurable by fMRI, valence is flexibly implemented across instances by a set of valence-general limbic and paralimbic brain regions. PMID:25631056