Science.gov

Sample records for literature review aspectos

  1. Elementary Science Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Brenda; MacDonald, Dougal; d'Entremont, Yvette

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a literature review of elementary science and design technology education research. The review is intended to provide direction to the elementary science working groups charged with the responsibility to revise the "Alberta Elementary Science Program" (1996) by reflecting current ideas reported in research literature. The…

  2. Homework. Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    Although homework is assigned for a variety of academic and non-academic purposes, there is disagreement within the educational community about the value of homework and the amount of homework students should be assigned. This Literature Review summarizes the benefits and drawbacks of homework and examines how much time students should and…

  3. Lysimeter literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R.D.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.

    1993-08-01

    Many reports have been published concerning the use of lysimeters to obtain data on the performance of buried radioactive waste. This document presents a review of some of those reports. This review includes lysimeter studies using radioactive waste forms at Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory; radionuclide tracer studies at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Los Alamos National Laboratory; and water movement studies at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Beltsville, Maryland site, at the Hanford Site, and at New Mexico State University. The tests, results, and conclusions of each report are summarized, and conclusions concerning lysimeter technology are presented from an overall analysis of the literature. 38 refs., 44 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. CROSSFLOW FILTRATON: LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Filtration task EM-31, WP-2.3.6, which is a joint effort between Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), tests were planned to evaluate crossflow filtration in order to the improve the use of existing hardware in the waste treatment plants at both the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford Site. These tests included experiments to try different operating conditions and additives, such as filter aids, in order to create a more permeable filter cake and improve the permeate flux. To plan the SRNL tests a literature review was performed to provide information on previous experiments performed by DOE laboratories, and by academia. This report compliments PNNL report (Daniel, et al 2010), and is an attempt to try and capture crossflow filtration work performed in the past that provide a basis for future testing. However, not all sources on crossflow filtration could be reviewed due to the shear volume of information available. In this report various references were examined and a representative group was chosen to present the major factors that affect crossflow filtration. The information summarized in this review contains previous operating conditions studied and their influence on the rate of filtration. Besides operating conditions, other attempted improvements include the use of filter aids, a pre-filtration leaching process, the backpulse system, and various types of filter tubes and filter coatings. The results from past research can be used as a starting point for further experimentation that can result in the improvement in the performance of the crossflow filtration. The literature reviewed in this report indicates how complex the crossflow issues are with the results of some studies appearing to conflict results from other studies. This complexity implies that filtration of mobilized stored waste cannot be explained in a simple generic sense; meaning an empirical

  5. Literature Review of Multicultural Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarraj, Huda; Carter, Stacy; Burley, Hansel

    2015-01-01

    Demographic changes at the national level emphasize a critical need for multicultural education to be included as part of undergraduate education. This critical review of the literature examines 10 multicultural instruments that are suitable for use in K-12 or higher education institutions. This is a novel literature review in that it is the first…

  6. [Literature review of pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    1999-08-01

    This review focuses on the following: the measurement and monitoring of pollutants; treatment systems, including physicochemical processes, as well as biological processes; industrial wastes (management); hazardous wastes (waste management as well as remediation); and the fate and effects of pollutants.

  7. Environmental audits: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, P; Atkinson, S F

    1987-05-01

    This paper presents a literature review focused on predictive technique audits, one of the types of audit considered to have the greatest potential role in improving environmental impact assessment practice. The literature review is limited to US literature with the exception of a few UK audits, one undertaken by Tomlinson at the University of Aberdeen. The authors are, however, aware that literature from other countries exists on this subject, for example from Canada and South Africa.In the review, predictive technique audits performed for or by the US Bureau of Land Management, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the US Corps of Engineers, together with the Wisconsin Power Plant Impact Study are described. In addition, articles describing the auditing of models designed to predict environmental change are reviewed, before details of auditing activity in the UK are presented. PMID:24253996

  8. Reviews of Professional Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, David; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reviews "DEC Recommended Practices," a publication of the Division for Exceptional Children; "Empowering At-Risk Families during the Early Childhood Years" (Swick and Groves); "Developing Home-School Partnerships" (Swap); "Parent-Teacher Conferencing in Early Childhood Education" (Lawler); and the video "Jumpstart: How to Become Your Child's Best…

  9. Review of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    Offers a critical review of eight articles and two journal issues dealing with school indicators of student success or failure; state models for school improvement and accountability; teacher burnout as an outcome of paperwork burdens; the impact of reform efforts; class size; trends in educational evaluation; mastery testing; departmentalization…

  10. Sentence Combining: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sylvia E.

    Sentence combining--a technique of putting strings of sentence kernels together in a variety of ways so that completed sentences possess greater syntactic maturity--is a method offering much promise in the teaching of writing and composition. The purpose of this document is to provide a literature review of this procedure. After defining the term…

  11. Writing Integrative Literature Reviews: Guidelines and Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torraco, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    The integrative literature review is a distinctive form of research that generates new knowledge about the topic reviewed. Little guidance is available on how to write an integrative literature review. This article discusses how to organize and write an integrative literature review and cites examples of published integrative literature reviews…

  12. Fuel cell applications literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nochumson, D. H.; Altseimer, J. H.; Williamson, K. D., Jr.; Frank, J. A.; Peaslee, A. T.; Martinez, A. J.; Stroup, C. A.

    1985-03-01

    The fuel cell applications literature is reviewed and evaluated. The purpose is to identify those applications that show promise. Over 40 computerized data bases were queried, and over 4000 abstracts were screened, resulting in the selection of over 600 pertinent documents that were entered into a fuel cell applications computerized data base. These documents were reviewed and evaluated. Fuel cells will need to be manufactured at low cost in order to compete against internal combustion engines for land transportation applications. Further study is recommended to evaluate fuel cell use in both fixed applications (industrial, institutional, and military) and mobile applications (marine, aircraft, space, and military land transportation). In addition to the recommendations of this report, a computerized data base of literature covering fuel cell uses and applications has been established and is available for use.

  13. Football injury: a literature review *

    PubMed Central

    Kos, John J.

    1979-01-01

    A great deal of concern is recently being expressed relative to the playing of tackle football by adolescent Canadians. The purpose of this literature review is to try to summarize the important data from the available world literature. Very few Canadian statistics are available. Most of the data comes from United States experience. Tackle football injury is examined from various perspectives: 1. Equipment 2. Mechanisms of injury 3. Types of injury, with some emphasis on epiphyseal injury 4. Prevention 5. Comparison with other sports Although no “hard and fast” conclusion is drawn, the paper tends to show that: 1. Football is dangerous 2. Football is damaging to many body systems 3. Prevention of injury is difficult under present conditions 4. Alternate games, such as soccer and rugby seem to provide the same benefits with less catastrophic injuries

  14. REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2009-11-12

    A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for

  15. Literature Reviews and the Hermeneutic Circle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boell, Sebastian K.; Cecez-Kecmanovic, Dubravka

    2010-01-01

    Conducting a literature review is a vital part of any research. Library and information science (LIS) professionals often play a central role in supporting academics in their efforts to locate relevant publications and in teaching novice researchers skills associated with literature reviews. This paper examines literature review processes with the…

  16. Titanium Allergy: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Goutam, Manish; Giriyapura, Chandu; Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Siddharth

    2014-01-01

    Titanium has gained immense popularity and has successfully established itself as the material of choice for dental implants. In both medical and dental fields, titanium and its alloys have demonstrated success as biomedical devices. Owing to its high resistance to corrosion in a physiological environment and the excellent biocompatibility that gives it a passive, stable oxide film, titanium is considered the material of choice for intraosseous use. There are certain studies which show titanium as an allergen but the resources to diagnose titanium sensivity are very limited. Attention is needed towards the development of new and precise method for early diagnosis of titanium allergy and also to find out the alternative biomaterial which can be used in place of titanium. A review of available articles from the Medline and PubMed database was done to find literature available regarding titanium allergy, its diagnosis and new alternative material for titanium. PMID:25484409

  17. Resilon: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Mehrdad; Ghasemi, Negin; Rahimi, Saeed; Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Shahidi, Atabak

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. An ideal root canal filling material should completely seal the entire root canal space and block communication between the root canal system and its surrounding tissues; it should also be nontoxic, noncarcinogenic, non-genotoxic, biocompatible, insoluble in tissue fluids and dimensionally stable. Bonding to dentin is a promising property, which can prevent leakage and improve the sealing ability of root canal filling materials. Resilon was developed and rec-ommended initially because the existing rootcanal filling materials did not bond to root canal dentin. Since its introduction in 2004, numerous reports have been published regarding various aspects of this material. The aim of this literature review is to present investigations regarding Resilon’s physical and chemical properties and leakage studies. Materials and methods. A review of the literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for Resilon from May 2004 to April 2012. Results. There are many published reports regarding Resilon. The searchshowed that Resilon is composed of a parent polymer, polycaprolactone or Tone, which is a biodegradable aliphatic polyester, with filler particles consisting of bioactive glass, bismuth oxychloride and barium sulfate. It possesses some antibacterial and antifungal properties. It is a promising material for root canal filling. Despite the presence of numerous case reports and case series regarding these applications, there are few designed research studies on clinical applications of this material. Resilon has some drawbacks such as high cost. Conclusion. Resilon seals well and is a biocompatible material. However, more clinical studies are needed to confirm its efficacy compared with other materials. PMID:24082982

  18. Supernumerary premolars: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Solares, Roberto; Romero, Maria Isabel

    2004-01-01

    Supernumerary premolars appear to be more common than previously estimated. The purpose of this report was to review most of the cases published in the dental literature since 1932. The authors found that supernumerary premolars occur 3 times more in males than in females, indicating a possible sex-linked inheritance, with the highest frequency of occurrence in the mandibular premolar region (74%). They are also the most common supernumerary teeth in the mandibular arch (7%), and their incidence is 1% (1 in 157)-much higher than previously reported. Maxillary supernumerary premolars were found to occur at a lower rate (26%). The possible mechanisms of development are described, with a localized hyperactivity of the dental lamina being the most widely accepted theory. Recurrence of supernumerary premolars after being surgically removed has been reported in 8% of the cases reviewed. Patients with a previous history of anterior conical or tuberculated supernumerary teeth at an early age have a 24% possibility of developing single or multiple supernumerary premolars at a later age. Early diagnosis and appropriate follow-up with panoramic radiographs is extremely important. Various treatment recommendations are also discussed. PMID:15460302

  19. Hyperemesis gravidarum, a literature review.

    PubMed

    Verberg, M F G; Gillott, D J; Al-Fardan, N; Grudzinskas, J G

    2005-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a condition causing severe nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy often resulting in hospital admission. The incidence of HG is approximately 0.5% of live births, said to be higher in multiple pregnancies, hydatidiform mole and other conditions associated with increased pregnancy hormone levels. Both the aetiology and pathogenesis of HG remain unknown. We conducted a literature review (1966-now) to summarize the current evidence on the aetiology and pathogenesis of HG. The potential role of pregnancy-related hormones such as progesterone, estrogen and HCG has been widely studied; however, various other hormones such as leptin, placental growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid and adrenal cortical hormones have been implicated in the aetiology of HG. In addition to endocrinological hypotheses, the rationale and evidence considering infectious, immunological, psychological, metabolic and anatomical causes for HG have been analysed here. Many studies suffer from the low number of patients included, the variable definition used for HG and varying assay methodology used in studies of hormone measurement. This review highlights the need for more extensive studies addressing the pathogenesis and aetiology of HG. PMID:16006438

  20. Job Search: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangum, Stephen L.

    This review focuses on what the literature can tell about the appropriate content and conduct of a job search training program. The chapters correspond to the four bodies of literature concerning job searches that were reviewed. The chapter on the theoretical literature of the scholarly journals examines the basic model of job search, trade-off…

  1. Geopressured habitat: A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-de Wys, Jane

    1992-09-01

    A literature review of the geopressured-geothermal habitat is summarized. Findings are presented and discussed with respect to the principal topics: Casual agents are both geological and geochemical; they include disequilibrium compaction of sediments, clay diagenesis, aquathermal pressuring, hydrocarbon generation, and lateral tectonic compression. The overall physical and chemical characteristics of the habitats are dictated by varying combinations of sedimentation rates, alteration mineralogy, permeability, porosity and pressure, temperature, fluid content and chemistry, and hydrodynamic flow. Habitat pressure seals are considered in terms of their formation processes, geologic characteristics, and physical behavior, including pressure release and reservoir pressure recharge on a geologic time scale. World-wide occurrence of geopressured-geothermal habitats is noted. The main thrust of this topic concerns the U.S.A. and Canada; in addition, reference is made to occurrences in China and indications from deep-sea vents, as well as the contribution of paleo-overpressure to habitat initiation and maintenance. Identification and assessment of the habitat is addressed in relation to use of hydrogeologic, geophysical, geochemical, and geothermic techniques, as well as well-logging and drill-stem-test data. Conclusions concerning the adequacy of the current state of knowledge and its applicability to resource exploration and development are set forth, together with recommendations for the thrust of future work.

  2. Rural Medical Education: Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Vernon R.; Bornstein, Stephen; Jong, Michael; Fleet, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    (Purpose) This report summarizes a synthesis of the literature related to the evidence, initiatives and approaches to rural/northern medical education, particularly its role in strengthening the medical workforce in rural areas. (Methodology) A literature review was conducted involving the literature databases MEDLINE (January 1990-March 2003),…

  3. Medical literature review: Search or perish

    PubMed Central

    Skaik, Younis

    2013-01-01

    Literature review is a cascading process of searching, reading, analyzing, and summing up of the materials about a specific topic. However, searching the literature is like searching “a needle in a haystack”, and hence has been called “Cinderella”.1 Therefore, skills and effective pathways of searching the literature are needed to achieve high sensitive and specific results. PMID:24353606

  4. Literacy Transfer: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Larry; And Others

    A literature review was conducted to determine the nature and extent of the transfer of literacy learned in one situation to other situations and to identify ways of facilitating literacy transfer. The literature review focused on studies and analyses dealing with three areas: the definition and scope of intelligence, differences between experts…

  5. Teaching Spirituality in Nursing: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstreet, Wendy M.

    1999-01-01

    This literature review addresses the following questions: "What is spirituality?"; How is it defined in a nursing context?"; and "What should be taught in nursing and how?" It emphasizes spirituality as a broad concept, not equated with any religion. (SK)

  6. Literature Review of Japanese Contrastive Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Brett

    2012-01-01

    This literature review serves to inform the reader on current literature on Contrastive Rhetoric (CR), with specific reference to teaching writing to Japanese students of English. It will examine the historical developments of CR and its present significance before then looking at possible reasons for unique characteristics of Japanese L2 writers…

  7. Stepfamily Strengths: A Review of Popular Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marilyn; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reviewed popular literature (self-help books, magazines, adolescent fiction) that identified stepfamily strengths. Potential strengths of stepfamily life were identified in all three sources. The primary focus of self-help literature and magazine articles, however, was on stepfamily problems. Concludes that adolescent fiction may be used to good…

  8. Science in Afterschool Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkenberg, Karen; McClure, Patricia; McComb, Errin M.

    2006-01-01

    In considering science in afterschool, research was reviewed and is presented in this document on how students learn science; how science is assessed, particularly inquiry science; recommended practices for afterschool science; and current afterschool science programs. Databases such as ERIC, Wilson Web, and PsychINFO were searched using…

  9. Family Day Care Internationally: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deller, June

    This literature review provides information on the status of family day care around the world. The three chapters of Part 1 introduce the report. Chapter 1 includes an outline of the organization, an explanation of the terminology, and a description of the methodology used in the review. Chapter 2 presents a policy framework which can be used to…

  10. Review of Family Literacy Programming Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Vickie S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on current and past literature as it relates to family literacy. Reviews that related to models of literacy programming that include a library instruction component were considered as part of this review. Overall, researchers perceived that there are transformative long term benefits for the participating…

  11. Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health…

  12. Reflective Journals: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindroth, James T.

    2015-01-01

    The use of reflective journals has been identified as an effective tool to promote reflection in preservice teachers. This review of literature provides the reader with an understanding of the various ways journals are used and assessed in teacher education programs. The findings of this review outline the use of reflective journals on topics such…

  13. Cyberbullying: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon; Roden, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The article is a literature review on cyberbullying from 2007-2013. Topics covered in the review have been categorized starting with definition of cyberbullying; roles of persons involved and statistics of who is being targeted; reasons for cyberbullying; differences between traditional bullying and cyberbullying; and gender comparisons related to…

  14. Vapour Intrusion into Buildings - A Literature Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides a review of recent research on vapour intrusion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings. The chapter builds on a report from Tillman and Weaver (2005) which reviewed the literature on vapour intrusion through 2005. Firstly, the term ‘vapour intru...

  15. Phenomenology: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randles, Clint

    2012-01-01

    This article is a review of relevant literature on the use of phenomenology as a research methodology in education research, with a focus on music education research. The review is organized as follows: (a) general education, (b) music research, (c) music education research, (d) dissertations, (e) important figures, (f) themes, and (g) the future.…

  16. Resilience in aging: literature review.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Arlete Portella; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2015-05-01

    Psychological resilience is comprised of an adaptive functioning standard before the current and accumulated risks of life. Furthermore, it has a comprehensive range of psychological resources which are essential to overcome adversities, such as personal competences, self-beliefs and interpersonal control which interact with the social networks support. The objectives are to show the concepts of psychological resilience in elderly, relative to dominant theoretical models and the main data about psychological resilience in aging, found in an international and Brazilian review from 2007 to 2013. The descriptors "resilience, psychological resilience and aging", "resiliência e envelhecimento, velhice e velho", were used in PubMed, PsychInfo, SciELO and Pepsic databases. Fifty three international and eleven national articles were selected. The international articles were classified in four categories: psychological and social coping resources, emotional regulation before stressing experiences, successful resilience and aging and correlates, and resilience measures. The Brazilian articles were grouped in three: psychological and social resources, resilience in carers and theory review. Articles on psychological resources and on emotional regulation prevailed as key factors associated with psychological resilience in aging. PMID:26017950

  17. Reviewing the literature, how systematic is systematic?

    PubMed

    MacLure, Katie; Paudyal, Vibhu; Stewart, Derek

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Professor Archibald Cochrane, after whom the Cochrane Collaboration is named, was influential in promoting evidence-based clinical practice. He called for "relevant, valid research" to underpin all aspects of healthcare. Systematic reviews of the literature are regarded as a high quality source of cumulative evidence but it is unclear how truly systematic they, or other review articles, are or 'how systematic is systematic?' Today's evidence-based review industry is a burgeoning mix of specialist terminology, collaborations and foundations, databases, portals, handbooks, tools, criteria and training courses. Aim of the review This study aims to identify uses and types of reviews, key issues in planning, conducting, reporting and critiquing reviews, and factors which limit claims to be systematic. Method A rapid review of review articles published in IJCP. Results This rapid review identified 17 review articles published in IJCP between 2010 and 2015 inclusive. It explored the use of different types of review article, the variation and widely available range of guidelines, checklists and criteria which, through systematic application, aim to promote best practice. It also identified common pitfalls in endeavouring to conduct reviews of the literature systematically. Discussion Although a limited set of IJCP reviews were identified, there is clear evidence of the variation in adoption and application of systematic methods. The burgeoning evidence industry offers the tools and guidelines required to conduct systematic reviews, and other types of review, systematically. This rapid review was limited to the database of one journal over a period of 6 years. Although this review was conducted systematically, it is not presented as a systematic review. Conclusion As a research community we have yet to fully engage with readily available guidelines and tools which would help to avoid the common pitfalls. Therefore the question remains, of not just IJCP but

  18. Review literature on uterine carcinosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajendra

    2014-01-01

    Carcinosarcoma of the uterus is a rare gynaecological neoplasm, which is also known as malignant mixed mesodermal tumor. Traditionally this tumour has been regarded as a subtype of uterine sarcoma, and its origin remains controversial. The exact nature and prognosis was not clear in the past. It is believed that uterine carcinosarcoma have a Mullerian duct origin and have a capacity to differentiate into various mesenchymal and epithelial components. Regarding the histogensis, various theories have been given; of which 'conversion theory' was broadly accepted. Carcinosarcoma are mostly of monoclonal origin with the carcinomatous component being the driving force. This type of tumor is broadly divided into two groups, homologous and heterologous, depending on the characteristics of the stroma or mesenchymal components of endometrial tissue. It is more frequent in black women and postmenopausal women. Radiation is a possible etiological factor but the exact etiology is not known yet. However, tamoxifen may induce carcinogenesis in some patients. Its clinical feature is very similar to endometrial carcinoma i.e. postmenopausal vaginal bleeding, have a very aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis. This pelvic malignancy is treated by multimodality therapy including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Here we are reviewing old concepts about the disease and modern understandings of the origin, classification, pathogenesis and recent advances in the treatment of the uterine carcinosarcoma. PMID:25313723

  19. TRANSPORT THROUGH CRACKED CONCRETE: LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.

    2012-05-11

    Concrete containment structures and cement-based fills and waste forms are used at the Savannah River Site to enhance the performance of shallow land disposal systems designed for containment of low-level radioactive waste. Understanding and measuring transport through cracked concrete is important for describing the initial condition of radioactive waste containment structures at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and for predicting performance of these structures over time. This report transmits the results of a literature review on transport through cracked concrete which was performed by Professor Jason Weiss, Purdue University per SRR0000678 (RFP-RQ00001029-WY). This review complements the NRC-sponsored literature review and assessment of factors relevant to performance of grouted systems for radioactive waste disposal. This review was performed by The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX, and The University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Scotland and was focused on tank closure. The objective of the literature review on transport through cracked concrete was to identify information in the open literature which can be applied to SRS transport models for cementitious containment structures, fills, and waste forms. In addition, the literature review was intended to: (1) Provide a framework for describing and classifying cracks in containment structures and cementitious materials used in radioactive waste disposal, (2) Document the state of knowledge and research related to transport through cracks in concrete for various exposure conditions, (3) Provide information or methodology for answering several specific questions related to cracking and transport in concrete, and (4) Provide information that can be used to design experiments on transport through cracked samples and actual structures.

  20. A Literature Review of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panitch, Melanie

    This review of the literature on early childhood intervention with special needs children provides a Canadian perspective on theory, models, program development, effects, and training. After an introductory chapter, the second chapter identifies theoretical influences on early childhood intervention, including the work of Piaget, Bronfenbrenner,…

  1. Academic Integrity: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Bruce; Zhang, Jingjing; Pun, Annie

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a literature review on academic integrity, which encompasses the values, behaviour and conduct of academics in all aspects of their practice. This is a growing area of academic research as a result of the expansion of higher education on a global basis and concerns about standards of professional conduct. The article maps the…

  2. Making Listening Instruction Meaningful: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Jennifer R.; Mishra, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Listening to, analyzing, and describing music, is perhaps the most difficult standard to present effectively in allotted classroom time. The purpose of this literature review is to better understand what constitutes effective listening instruction by examining students' listening practices, receptiveness, attentiveness, and activities that lead to…

  3. Research Methods for Comprehensive Science Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barry N.

    2009-01-01

    Finding some information on most topics is easy. There are abundant sources of information readily available. However, completing a comprehensive literature review on a particular topic is often difficult, laborious, and time intensive; the project requires organization, persistence, and an understanding of the scholarly communication and…

  4. Disease and Stigma: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Michele L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a review of literature pertaining to disease and stigma. Specifically, a definition of stigma is provided along with an historical overview of disease and stigma and research trends related to three public health perils-AIDS, mental illness, and obesity.

  5. Training Transfer: An Integrative Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lisa A.; Hutchins, Holly M.

    2007-01-01

    Given the proliferation of training transfer studies in various disciplines, we provide an integrative and analytical review of factors impacting transfer of training. Relevant empirical research for transfer across the management, human resource development (HRD), training, adult learning, performance improvement, and psychology literatures is…

  6. Pair Programming in Education: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanks, Brian; Fitzgerald, Sue; McCauley, Renee; Murphy, Laurie; Zander, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a review of educational research literature focused on pair programming in the undergraduate computer science curriculum. Research suggests that the benefits of pair programming include increased success rates in introductory courses, increased retention in the major, higher quality software, higher student confidence in…

  7. Educational Aspirations, What Matters? A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deosaran, Ramesh

    The literature review attempted to identify: 1) what we know and don't know about post-secondary aspirations, expectations, and access; and 2) where and how it is possible for us to embark on solutions or further investigation. The research in this area has been heavily sociological. Socio-economic background, family size, community origins,…

  8. Rural Gifted Education: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Barbara Kent

    2009-01-01

    This review of literature about gifted rural education reveals not only important information but the need for further work. The concepts presented have applicability that is not exclusively rural, but they derive from studies done with rural students and take rural culture, history, and circumstances into account. Understanding the context of…

  9. Secondary Schools Included: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vroey, Annet; Struyf, Elke; Petry, Katja

    2016-01-01

    For over a decade, inclusive discourse comprises the development of a school for all, both in primary and in secondary education. Facing long-standing barriers for effective comprehensive education, secondary schools show specific interests, strengths and needs in a school-wide movement towards inclusion. Reviewing literature of recent research in…

  10. Cracked Teeth: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lubisich, Erinne B.; Hilton, Thomas J.; FERRACANE, JACK

    2013-01-01

    Although cracked teeth are a common problem for patients and dentists, there is a dearth of evidence-based guidelines on how to prevent, diagnose, and treat cracks in teeth. The purpose of this article is to review the literature to establish what evidence exists regarding the risk factors for cracked teeth and their prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:20590967

  11. The Complexity of Transdisciplinary Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montuori, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    The transdisciplinary literature review is an opportunity to situate the inquirer in an ecology of ideas. This article explores how we might approach this process from a perspective of complexity, and addresses some of the key challenges and opportunities. Four main dimensions are considered: (a) inquiry-based rather than discipline-based; (b)…

  12. Resilience and Deaf Children: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Alys; Green, Lorraine; Rogers, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    The theoretical frameworks encompassed by resilience have scarcely been applied to an understanding of the experiences of deaf children and their families, nor to specific interventions in relation to this group. This article critically reviews mainstream (i.e. non-deaf-related) resilience literature to analyse its intersection with the concerns…

  13. Effective Preparation Program Features: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Gary M.; Whiteman, Rodney S.

    2016-01-01

    This article is a summary of a report prepared for the University Council for Educational Administration Program Improvement Project for the Wallace Foundation. This explores the research base for educational leadership preparation programs, specifically examining literature on program features. The review covers context, candidates, faculty,…

  14. Literature Reviews: Analysis, Planning, and Query Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, William J.; Kaunelis, David

    2005-01-01

    Graduate students, tenured and tenure-track professors, and other professionals conduct scholarly research and have their findings published in recognized journals. Undergraduate and graduate students engage in rudimentary research to gather data relevant to case assignments in order to develop reasoned arguments. A focused literature review helps…

  15. Managing boxer's fracture: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Boxer's fractures are commonly seen in emergency departments (EDs) but how these injuries are managed varies widely. This article reports on the results of a literature review of management strategies and the development of a boxer's fracture care pathway in a London ED. PMID:24024723

  16. Business Involvement in Education: Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols Education Consulting Group, Edmonton (Alberta).

    The literature on business involvement in education in Canada, the United States, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, Japan, the United Kingdom, and other European countries was reviewed. Special attention was paid to the following topics: workplace trends/changes; skill requirements/deficits; youth employment/unemployment; integration versus…

  17. Faculty Collective Bargaining. A Selective Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronsard, Donald R.

    This literature review and historical overview of academic collective bargaining in American higher education, with special emphasis on public higher education in Connecticut, is part of a Ph.D. dissertation entitled "A Development, Comparison, and Contrast of Selected Faculty Administration Consensuses Regarding Collective Bargaining Contracts in…

  18. Cognitive Rest: An Integrated Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Kathleen H.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive rest has been suggested as a treatment for school athletes who have sustained a concussion, but the concept has rarely been defined. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive definition of cognitive rest, based on an integrative literature review. The method of synthesis was guided by Avant and Walker's concept analysis…

  19. Defining professional nursing accountability: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Krautscheid, Lorretta C

    2014-01-01

    Professional nursing accountability is described by both professional nursing organizations and nursing education credentialing agencies as a core aspect that underpins professional nursing practice. Although accountability is foundational to professional practice, a review of the literature revealed no consistent language or definition regarding professional nursing accountability. Instead, the literature itself reveals that professional nursing accountability is challenging to both describe and define. The ambiguity surrounding how to define professional nursing accountability contributes to challenges associated with both teaching and evaluating student nurse accountability within nursing education curricula. This article provides a reliable and comprehensive definition of professional nursing accountability derived from a synthesis of the literature. Recommendations for nursing education practice and recommendations for nursing education research are proposed. PMID:24503314

  20. Pair programming in education: a literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanks, Brian; Fitzgerald, Sue; McCauley, Renée; Murphy, Laurie; Zander, Carol

    2011-06-01

    This article provides a review of educational research literature focused on pair programming in the undergraduate computer science curriculum. Research suggests that the benefits of pair programming include increased success rates in introductory courses, increased retention in the major, higher quality software, higher student confidence in solutions, and improvement in learning outcomes. Moreover, there is some evidence that women, in particular, benefit from pair programming. The literature also provides evidence that the transition from paired to solo programming is easy for students. The greatest challenges for paired students appear to concern scheduling and partner compatibility. This review also considers practical issues such as assigning partners, teaching students to work in pairs, and assessing individual contributions, and concludes with a discussion of open research questions.

  1. Nipple Shields: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    McKechnie, Anne Chevalier

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Nipple shields have become commonplace in the United States for a wide range of breastfeeding problems. This article is a summary of the current literature describing the evidence for nipple shield use. The authors reviewed all available articles on nipple shields and selected 13 studies for inclusion. The studies were organized into three categories: physiologic responses, premature infants, and mothers' experiences. This review concludes that current published research does not provide evidence for safety or effectiveness of contemporary nipple shield use. PMID:20807104

  2. Human responses to electricity: A literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, H. S.

    1972-01-01

    An extensive review of literature on research concerning biomedical sensors is presented for establishing standards for current limiting devices. The physiological and pathological responses of the human, when exposed to electricity are reported including the thresholds: for perception of electricity, pain by electric current, induction of muscular contraction by electric shock, and ventricular fibrillation. The passive electrical properties of cells and tissues are also reported.

  3. Telangiectatic osteosarcoma: a review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun-jian; Liu, Shen; Wang, Jian-guang; Zhu, Wei; Hua, Ying-qi; Sun, Wei; Cai, Zheng-dong

    2013-01-01

    Telangiectatic osteosarcoma is a rare variant of osteosarcoma and hence its occurrence, presentation, and prognosis are poorly understood. With advancements in technology and available treatment options, the scenario of its diagnosis, management, and outcome has changed. Chemotherapy with surgery was challenged previously, but has now been proved to be beneficial. We reviewed the available literature and compared results to define the characteristics of the disease, its presentation, radiographic and pathologic features, optimal treatment, and prognosis. PMID:23745051

  4. Acremonium Pneumonia: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Fakharian, Atefeh; Dorudinia, Atosa; Mansouri, Davood; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Acremonium spp. cause human superficial infections including mycetoma, onychomycosis and keratitis. There are a few reports of systemic involvement in immunocompromised patients. However, isolated pulmonary infection in otherwise healthy hosts has never been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a 59 year-old diabetic man with non-resolving pneumonia due to Acremonium spp. and provide a consensus review of the published clinical cases of systemic and respiratory tract infections. PMID:26528372

  5. [Management of neuroendocrine prostate carcinoma: Literature review].

    PubMed

    Yossi, S; Brahmi, T; Enachescu, C; Selmaji, I; Lapierre, A; Samlali, H; Chapet, O

    2016-06-01

    Neuroendocrine prostate carcinoma is a rare entity causing both diagnostic and therapeutic issues. There are basically four histological forms (adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, carcinoid tumors, small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas), which can be pure or mixed associated with prostatic carcinoma. There is no consensus on the management or the prognosis of these various tumor subtypes. We conducted a literature review aiming to determine the potential therapeutic implications. PMID:27340027

  6. Scoping Review of the Zika Virus Literature.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Lisa A; Greig, Judy D

    2016-01-01

    The global primary literature on Zika virus (ZIKV) (n = 233 studies and reports, up to March 1, 2016) has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. Our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on ZIKV has been published since 2011. The articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of ZIKV (surveillance and outbreak investigations) 56.6% (132/233), pathogenesis of ZIKV (case symptoms/ outcomes and diagnosis) 38.2% (89/233) and ZIKV studies (molecular characterisation and in vitro evaluation of the virus) 18.5% (43/233). There has been little reported in the primary literature on ZIKV vectors (12/233), surveillance for ZIKV (13/233), diagnostic tests (12/233) and transmission (10/233). Three papers reported on ZIKV prevention/control strategies, one investigated knowledge and attitudes of health professionals and two vector mapping studies were reported. The majority of studies used observational study designs, 89.7% (209/233), of which 62/233 were case studies or case series, while fewer (24/233) used experimental study designs. Several knowledge gaps were identified by this review with respect to ZIKV epidemiology, the importance of potential non-human primates and other hosts in the transmission cycle, the burden of disease in humans, and complications related to human infection with ZIKV. Historically there has been little research on ZIKV; however, given its current spread through Australasia and the Americas, research resources are now being allocated to close many of the knowledge gaps identified in this scoping review. Future updates of this project will probably demonstrate enhanced evidence and understanding of ZIKV and its impact on public health. PMID:27244249

  7. Scoping Review of the Zika Virus Literature

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The global primary literature on Zika virus (ZIKV) (n = 233 studies and reports, up to March 1, 2016) has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. Our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on ZIKV has been published since 2011. The articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of ZIKV (surveillance and outbreak investigations) 56.6% (132/233), pathogenesis of ZIKV (case symptoms/ outcomes and diagnosis) 38.2% (89/233) and ZIKV studies (molecular characterisation and in vitro evaluation of the virus) 18.5% (43/233). There has been little reported in the primary literature on ZIKV vectors (12/233), surveillance for ZIKV (13/233), diagnostic tests (12/233) and transmission (10/233). Three papers reported on ZIKV prevention/control strategies, one investigated knowledge and attitudes of health professionals and two vector mapping studies were reported. The majority of studies used observational study designs, 89.7% (209/233), of which 62/233 were case studies or case series, while fewer (24/233) used experimental study designs. Several knowledge gaps were identified by this review with respect to ZIKV epidemiology, the importance of potential non-human primates and other hosts in the transmission cycle, the burden of disease in humans, and complications related to human infection with ZIKV. Historically there has been little research on ZIKV; however, given its current spread through Australasia and the Americas, research resources are now being allocated to close many of the knowledge gaps identified in this scoping review. Future updates of this project will probably demonstrate enhanced evidence and understanding of ZIKV and its impact on public health. PMID:27244249

  8. A Guide to Writing the Dissertation Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Justus J.

    2009-01-01

    Writing a faulty literature review is one of many ways to derail a dissertation. This article summarizes some pivotal information on how to write a high-quality dissertation literature review. It begins with a discussion of the purposes of a review, presents taxonomy of literature reviews, and then discusses the steps in conducting a quantitative…

  9. Borderline intellectual functioning: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-12-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health problems. When adults with BIF were compared with the general population, they held lower-skilled jobs and earned less money. Although some risk factors (e.g., low birth weight) and preventive factors (e.g., education) were reported, they were not specific to BIF. The review finds that, despite the obvious everyday problems, BIF is almost invisible in the field of research. More research, societal discussion, and flexible support systems are needed. PMID:25409130

  10. MERALGIA PARESTHETICA: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    PubMed Central

    Kolber, Morey J.; Salamh, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Meralgia Paresthetica (MP) is a nerve entrapment which may cause pain, paresthesias, and sensory loss within the distribution of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh. When the differential diagnosis of lateral or anterolateral thigh pain is inconclusive, MP should be considered as a potential source. MP produces similar signs and symptoms as those associated with more common diagnoses such as lumbar spine pathology. This clinical commentary will review the most relevant literature on MP with an emphasis on recognition and management of this condition. Description of Topic with Related Evidence: The authors reviewed the most relevant published literature on MP from 1970 to 2013 located using the databases PubMed, CINAHL, and Proquest. Discussion/Relation to Clinical Practice: MP still remains a diagnostic challenge since it can mimic other common diagnoses. Understanding the current literature surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of MP is essential for clinicians practicing in the outpatient environment. The consensus on the most effective non‐surgical and surgical interventions is still limited, as is the research on physical therapy interventions for this condition. Perhaps the lack of research and global consensus represents a knowledge deficit that makes MP a challenge to diagnose and successfully treat. Future collaborative studies are needed to improve the clinical diagnostics and understanding of interventions for this pathology. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24377074

  11. Participation in research bronchoscopy: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Martinsen, Einar Marius Hjellestad; Leiten, Elise Orvedal; Bakke, Per Sigvald; Eagan, Tomas Mikal Lind; Grønseth, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoscopy is the preferred method for collecting biological samples from the lower airways of subjects in clinical research. However, ensuring participation in clinical research can be challenging when the research includes an invasive procedure. For this report we reviewed the literature to look for information on participation in research bronchoscopy studies to better design our own study, the Bergen COPD Microbiome study (MicroCOPD). We performed a systematic literature search on participation in research bronchoscopy studies in February 2014 using the search engines of PubMed and EMBASE. The literature search resulted in seven relevant papers. Motivation was an end point in six of the seven papers, but reasons for declining participation and recruitment strategies also seemed important. Human subjects participate in research bronchoscopy studies for personal benefit and altruistic reasons. Inconvenience associated with research, in addition to fear of procedures, is considered a barrier. Radio, especially news stations, generated the most inquiries for a clinical study involving bronchoscopy. There is a lack of information on participation in research bronchoscopy studies in the literature. A bronchoscopy study has been initiated at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, to examine the role of the microbiome in COPD, and participation will be explored as a substudy. PMID:26847517

  12. Participation in research bronchoscopy: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, Einar Marius Hjellestad; Leiten, Elise Orvedal; Bakke, Per Sigvald; Eagan, Tomas Mikal Lind; Grønseth, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoscopy is the preferred method for collecting biological samples from the lower airways of subjects in clinical research. However, ensuring participation in clinical research can be challenging when the research includes an invasive procedure. For this report we reviewed the literature to look for information on participation in research bronchoscopy studies to better design our own study, the Bergen COPD Microbiome study (MicroCOPD). We performed a systematic literature search on participation in research bronchoscopy studies in February 2014 using the search engines of PubMed and EMBASE. The literature search resulted in seven relevant papers. Motivation was an end point in six of the seven papers, but reasons for declining participation and recruitment strategies also seemed important. Human subjects participate in research bronchoscopy studies for personal benefit and altruistic reasons. Inconvenience associated with research, in addition to fear of procedures, is considered a barrier. Radio, especially news stations, generated the most inquiries for a clinical study involving bronchoscopy. There is a lack of information on participation in research bronchoscopy studies in the literature. A bronchoscopy study has been initiated at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, to examine the role of the microbiome in COPD, and participation will be explored as a substudy. PMID:26847517

  13. Mammary myofibrosarcoma: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Stark, Matthew; Hoffmann, Andrew; Xiong, Zhenggang

    2011-01-01

    A case of myofibrosarcoma of breast is reported. A female patient aged 81 years presented with a mammary mass lesion. Histologically, the tumor consisted of neoplastic spindle cells arranged in fascicles and with variably cellularity and hyalinization. Immunohistochemical studies showed expression of vimentin, smooth-muscle actin, and Bcl-2, but not desmin, S-100, C-kit, or CD34. Proliferative index identified by Ki67 was approximately 30%. Electron microscopy revealed variable amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum, myofilaments, fibronexus junctions, and fibronectin fibrils. The histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features of this tumor were consistent with myofibrosarcoma. This case will be one of the very few cases of ultrastructurally confirmed mammary myofibrosarcoma reported in the literature and contributes to the recognition of this rare mammary malignant neoplasm. The literature on mammary myofibrosarcoma and its differential diagnosis is also reviewed. PMID:21545434

  14. Nonhuman primate dermatology: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Joseph A.; Didier, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    In general, veterinary dermatologists do not have extensive clinical experience of nonhuman primate (NHP) dermatoses. The bulk of the published literature does not provide an organized evidence-based approach to the NHP dermatologic case. The veterinary dermatologist is left to extract information from both human and veterinary dermatology, an approach that can be problematic as it forces the clinician to make diagnostic and therapeutic decisions based on two very disparate bodies of literature. A more cohesive approach to NHP dermatology – without relying on assumptions that NHP pathology most commonly behaves similarly to other veterinary and human disease – is required. This review of the dermatology of NHP species includes discussions of primary dermatoses, as well as diseases where dermatologic signs represent a significant secondary component, provides a first step towards encouraging the veterinary community to study and report the dermatologic diseases of nonhuman primates. PMID:19490576

  15. Inducible urticaria: Case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Daniel; Sánchez, Andrés; Sánchez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Inducible urticaria is a heterogeneous group of skin disorders characterized by the appearance of wheals, pruritus and/or angioedema, sometimes accompanied by systemic symptoms caused by innocuous stimuli (cold, heat, pressure, etc.). This group of disorders compromises people's quality of life and most of the literature in this regard comes from case reports and case series since its epidemiology has been poorly studied and some cases are very rare. The aim of this review is to show an up-to-date overview of the available literature for various types of inducible urticarias, always beginning with an illustrative case and then describing their pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical manifestations, and treatment. PMID:27622434

  16. Literature Review on Dynamic Cellular Manufacturing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri Houshyar, A.; Leman, Z.; Pakzad Moghadam, H.; Ariffin, M. K. A. M.; Ismail, N.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2014-06-01

    In previous decades, manufacturers faced a lot of challenges because of globalization and high competition in markets. These problems arise from shortening product life cycle, rapid variation in demand of products, and also rapid changes in manufcaturing technologies. Nowadays most manufacturing companies expend considerable attention for improving flexibility and responsiveness in order to overcome these kinds of problems and also meet customer's needs. By considering the trend toward the shorter product life cycle, the manufacturing environment is towards manufacturing a wide variety of parts in small batches [1]. One of the major techniques which are applied for improving manufacturing competitiveness is Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS). CMS is type of manufacturing system which tries to combine flexibility of job shop and also productivity of flow shop. In addition, Dynamic cellular manufacturing system which considers different time periods for the manufacturing system becomes an important topic and attracts a lot of attention to itself. Therefore, this paper made attempt to have a brief review on this issue and focused on all published paper on this subject. Although, this topic gains a lot of attention to itself during these years, none of previous researchers focused on reviewing the literature of that which can be helpful and useful for other researchers who intend to do the research on this topic. Therefore, this paper is the first study which has focused and reviewed the literature of dynamic cellular manufacturing system.

  17. Social Marketing and Breastfeeding: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Through the review of relevant literature this study illuminates the concepts of social marketing and breastfeeding. It specifically discusses the positioning of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding within different fields of study and develops a theoretical framework that tries to bridge the gap between those disciplines. Method: Various electronic databases were used and through systematic selection 11 scientific articles were identified that this literature review is based on. Results: The review indicates that the relationship between social marketing and breastfeeding is complex. There are indications that this relationship is being investigated within three distinct fields of research: psychology/education, public health and marketing. Depending on the research field the emphasis is put on either breastfeeding or social marketing as well as on the other concepts that were discovered to be of importance within this relationship. Namely, group and individual demography as well as behaviour were revealed to be important elements of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding. Conclusions: Based on the results this study concludes that a more multidimensional view on the relationship between the concepts under study is needed since the focus of previous studies is very one-sided and limited to just one element when all elements should be integrated equally. PMID:23618478

  18. A literature review of safety culture.

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Kerstan Suzanne; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Wenner, Caren A.

    2013-03-01

    Workplace safety has been historically neglected by organizations in order to enhance profitability. Over the past 30 years, safety concerns and attention to safety have increased due to a series of disastrous events occurring across many different industries (e.g., Chernobyl, Upper Big-Branch Mine, Davis-Besse etc.). Many organizations have focused on promoting a healthy safety culture as a way to understand past incidents, and to prevent future disasters. There is an extensive academic literature devoted to safety culture, and the Department of Energy has also published a significant number of documents related to safety culture. The purpose of the current endeavor was to conduct a review of the safety culture literature in order to understand definitions, methodologies, models, and successful interventions for improving safety culture. After reviewing the literature, we observed four emerging themes. First, it was apparent that although safety culture is a valuable construct, it has some inherent weaknesses. For example, there is no common definition of safety culture and no standard way for assessing the construct. Second, it is apparent that researchers know how to measure particular components of safety culture, with specific focus on individual and organizational factors. Such existing methodologies can be leveraged for future assessments. Third, based on the published literature, the relationship between safety culture and performance is tenuous at best. There are few empirical studies that examine the relationship between safety culture and safety performance metrics. Further, most of these studies do not include a description of the implementation of interventions to improve safety culture, or do not measure the effect of these interventions on safety culture or performance. Fourth, safety culture is best viewed as a dynamic, multi-faceted overall system composed of individual, engineered and organizational models. By addressing all three components of

  19. [Diagnostics of approximal caries - literature review].

    PubMed

    Berczyński, Paweł; Gmerek, Anna; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga

    2015-01-01

    The most important issue in modern cariology is the early diagnostics of carious lesions, because only early detected lesions can be treated with as little intervention as possible. This is extremely difficult on approximal surfaces because of their anatomy, late onset of pain, and very few clinical symptoms. Modern diagnostic methods make dentists' everyday work easier, often detecting lesions unseen during visual examination. This work presents a review of the literature on the subject of modern diagnostic methods that can be used to detect approximal caries. PMID:27344873

  20. [The abused child: review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Scherer, E A; Scherer, Z A

    2000-08-01

    Assisting abused children may cause discomfort and raise doubts. The present literature review, which includes periodicals, books and the Child's and Adolescent's Statute, was conducted to serve as reference to professionals and researchers involved with the child abuse problem. The authors introduce the subject of abuse, present its legal and ethical implications, the difficulties to diagnose it, its effects, the necessity to understand and treat its perpetrator as well as the role and background of the professionals who assist children victimized by abuse. As final considerations, the authors suggest preventive steps as well as the improvement of formal systematic research on abused children. PMID:11235234

  1. Military parachuting injuries: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Bricknell, M C; Craig, S C

    1999-01-01

    This article is a literature review of the aspects of military parachuting related to occupational medicine and focuses on 'conventional' military static line parachuting using a round parachute. The analysis of injuries resulting from military parachuting provide an excellent example of military occupational medicine practice. The techniques of military parachuting are described in order to illustrate the potential mechanisms of injury, and a number of 'classical' parachuting injuries are described. Finally some recommendations are made for the recording of parachute injuries which would assist in the international comparison of injury rates and anatomical distribution. PMID:10451583

  2. A Review of Forensic Science Management Literature.

    PubMed

    Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B

    2015-01-01

    The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at interpol.int. PMID:26227138

  3. Dorsal wrist ganglion: Current review of literature.

    PubMed

    Meena, Sanjay; Gupta, Ajay

    2014-06-01

    Ganglion cyst is the most common soft tissue tumour of hand. Sixty to seventy percent of ganglion cysts are found in the dorsal aspect of the wrist. They may affect any age group; however they are more common in the twenties to forties. Its origin and pathogenesis remains enigmatic. Non-surgical treatment is unreliable with a high recurrence rates. Open surgical excision leads to unsightly scar and poor outcome. Arthroscopy excision has shown very promising result with very low recurrence rate. We reviewed the current literature available on dorsal wrist ganglion. PMID:25983472

  4. Dorsal wrist ganglion: Current review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Sanjay; Gupta, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Ganglion cyst is the most common soft tissue tumour of hand. Sixty to seventy percent of ganglion cysts are found in the dorsal aspect of the wrist. They may affect any age group; however they are more common in the twenties to forties. Its origin and pathogenesis remains enigmatic. Non-surgical treatment is unreliable with a high recurrence rates. Open surgical excision leads to unsightly scar and poor outcome. Arthroscopy excision has shown very promising result with very low recurrence rate. We reviewed the current literature available on dorsal wrist ganglion. PMID:25983472

  5. [Montessori method applied to dementia - literature review].

    PubMed

    Brandão, Daniela Filipa Soares; Martín, José Ignacio

    2012-06-01

    The Montessori method was initially applied to children, but now it has also been applied to people with dementia. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the research on the effectiveness of this method using Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline) with the keywords dementia and Montessori method. We selected lo studies, in which there were significant improvements in participation and constructive engagement, and reduction of negative affects and passive engagement. Nevertheless, systematic reviews about this non-pharmacological intervention in dementia rate this method as weak in terms of effectiveness. This apparent discrepancy can be explained because the Montessori method may have, in fact, a small influence on dimensions such as behavioral problems, or because there is no research about this method with high levels of control, such as the presence of several control groups or a double-blind study. PMID:23155599

  6. [Bariatric surgery and pregnancy: literature review].

    PubMed

    Ferrand Miranda, Pedro; Contreras Rivas, Tomas; Leigh Pacciarini, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has currently reached epidemic proportions, both in Chile and in the world. This condition is associated to a variety of maternal complications in all stages of the vital cycle and during pregnancy. Medical treatment has not proved successful thus resulting in an increase in bariatric surgery in recent years, even when it is not first line treatment. This literature review aims to report updated results of surgical treatment for obesity before and during pregnancy with respect to fertility, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension. It also looks into the possible effects of surgery on fetal development, and its relation to premature delivery, fetal macrosomy, low birth weight and neural tube defects, as well as effects on maternal and fetal outcomes, mainly in nutrition. Lastly, we suggest some recommendations that arise from this review on the role of contraception, nutrition and time between surgery and pregnancy. PMID:25192021

  7. Families in transition: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Dierckx, Myrte; Motmans, Joz; Mortelmans, Dimitri; T'sjoen, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Research on the transgender population is often limited to their medical care, and in particular to their mental well-being. The social and family environment in which a social gender role transition takes place is often overlooked. Although research is limited, this article reviews the existing literature on the family aspect of a gender transition. Articles regarding three different aspects were selected for this review: first, the issue of parenthood during transition and the experiences of children with a transgender parent, second, the experiences of partners and ex-partners of transgender individuals, and third, the experiences of parents with a gender variant child. Articles were restricted to those with a focus on family members and situations during transition. For all three contexts, several mediating factors, both individual and social, were distinguished. Various challenges for future research were identified. PMID:26618401

  8. Pathogenesis of Apical Periodontitis: a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lodiene, Greta; Maciulskiene, Vita

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This review article discusses the host response in apical periodontitis with the main focus on cytokines, produced under this pathological condition and contributing to the degradation of periradicular tissues. The pace of research in this field has greatly accelerated in the last decade. Here we provide an analysis of studies published in this area during this period. Material and methods Literature was selected through a search of PubMed electronic database. The keywords used for search were pathogenesis of apical periodontitis cytokines, periapical granuloma cytokines, inflammatory infiltrate apical periodontitis. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1999 to December 2010. Additionally, a manual search in the cytokine production, cytokine functions and periapical tissue destruction in the journals and books was performed. Results In total, 97 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The topics covered in this article include cellular composition of an inflammatory infiltrate in the periapical lesions, mechanisms of the formation of the innate and specific immune response. Studies which investigated cytokine secretion and functions were identified and cellular and molecular interactions in the course of apical periodontitis described. Conclusions The abundance and interactions of various inflammatory and anti-inflammatory molecules can influence and alter the state and progression of the disease. Therefore, periapical inflammatory response offers a model, suited for the study of many facets of pathogenesis, biocompatibility of different materials to periapical tissues and development of novel treatment methods, based on the regulation of cytokines expression PMID:24421998

  9. Zirconia in fixed prosthesis. A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Román-Rodríguez, Juan L.; Ferreiroa, Alberto; Solá-Ruíz, María F.; Fons-Font, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Statement of problem: Evidence is limited on the efficacy of zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses. Objective: To carry out a literature review of the behavior of zirconium oxide dental restorations. Material and Methods: This literature review searched the Pubmed, Scopus, Medline and Cochrane Library databases using key search words “zirconium oxide,” “zirconia,” “non-metal restorations,” “ceramic oxides,” “veneering ceramic,” “zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses”. Both in vivo and in vitro studies into zirconia-based prosthodontic restoration behavior were included. Results: Clinical studies have revealed a high rate of fracture for porcelain-veneered zirconia-based restorations that varies between 6% and 15% over a 3- to 5-year period, while for ceramo-metallic restorations the fracture rate ranges between 4 and 10% over ten years. These results provoke uncertainty as to the long-term prognosis for this material in the oral medium. The cause of veneering porcelain fractures is unknown but hypothetically they could be associated with bond failure between the veneer material and the zirconia sub-structure. Key words:Veneering ceramic, zirconia-based ceramic restoration, crown, zirconia, tooth-supported fixed prosthesis. PMID:24596638

  10. Imagery in Dance: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Pavlik, Katherine; Nordin-Bates, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Dance imagery is a consciously created mental representation of an experience, either real or imaginary, that may affect the dancer and her or his movement. In this study, imagery research in dance was reviewed in order to: 1. describe the themes and ideas that the current literature has attempted to illuminate and 2. discover the extent to which this literature fits the Revised Applied Model of Deliberate Imagery Use. A systematic search was performed, and 43 articles from 24 journals were found to fit the inclusion criteria. The articles were reviewed, analyzed, and categorized. The findings from the articles were then reported using the Revised Applied Model as a framework. Detailed descriptions of Who, What, When and Where, Why, How, and Imagery Ability were provided, along with comparisons to the field of sports imagery. Limitations within the field, such as the use of non-dance-specific and study-specific measurements, make comparisons and clear conclusions difficult to formulate. Future research can address these problems through the creation of dance-specific measurements, higher participant rates, and consistent methodologies between studies. PMID:27245944

  11. Harmful effects of shisha: literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality across the world. A recently infamous way of smoking tobacco is shisha. Shisha smoking is also known as water pipe, hookah and Narghile smoking. The percentage of shisha smokers is on the rise rapidly spanning the globe. A literature review was conducted to identify all evidence on the epidemiological variations and health effects of shisha smoking. “Pub med” is used as a searching tool to identify all relevant empirical studies conducted worldwide. A qualitative overview of evidence is presented. Exposure to Shisha smoking is significantly associated with low infant weight, heart rate variations, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Increased risk of carcinoma is also leagued with it including carcinomas of the pancreas and lung being at the forefront. In conclusion, this review identifies grounds of several adverse conditions being associated with the habit of shisha smoking. It also evaluates the relevant epidemiological variations around the globe. The review culminates in the importance of enlightening shisha smokers regarding its deleterious effects. PMID:24708750

  12. Process mining in healthcare: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Eric; Munoz-Gama, Jorge; Sepúlveda, Marcos; Capurro, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Process Mining focuses on extracting knowledge from data generated and stored in corporate information systems in order to analyze executed processes. In the healthcare domain, process mining has been used in different case studies, with promising results. Accordingly, we have conducted a literature review of the usage of process mining in healthcare. The scope of this review covers 74 papers with associated case studies, all of which were analyzed according to eleven main aspects, including: process and data types; frequently posed questions; process mining techniques, perspectives and tools; methodologies; implementation and analysis strategies; geographical analysis; and medical fields. The most commonly used categories and emerging topics have been identified, as well as future trends, such as enhancing Hospital Information Systems to become process-aware. This review can: (i) provide a useful overview of the current work being undertaken in this field; (ii) help researchers to choose process mining algorithms, techniques, tools, methodologies and approaches for their own applications; and (iii) highlight the use of process mining to improve healthcare processes. PMID:27109932

  13. Harmful effects of shisha: literature review.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Saleem, Shafaq; German, Sidra; Qureshi, Wardah Asif

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality across the world. A recently infamous way of smoking tobacco is shisha. Shisha smoking is also known as water pipe, hookah and Narghile smoking. The percentage of shisha smokers is on the rise rapidly spanning the globe. A literature review was conducted to identify all evidence on the epidemiological variations and health effects of shisha smoking. "Pub med" is used as a searching tool to identify all relevant empirical studies conducted worldwide. A qualitative overview of evidence is presented. Exposure to Shisha smoking is significantly associated with low infant weight, heart rate variations, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Increased risk of carcinoma is also leagued with it including carcinomas of the pancreas and lung being at the forefront. In conclusion, this review identifies grounds of several adverse conditions being associated with the habit of shisha smoking. It also evaluates the relevant epidemiological variations around the globe. The review culminates in the importance of enlightening shisha smokers regarding its deleterious effects. PMID:24708750

  14. Reviewing Literature to Inform Policy: Some Complexities and Tensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menter, Ian; Hulme, Moira

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the experience of carrying out a literature review commissioned to support the Review of Teacher Education in Scotland, this paper discusses the role of literature reviews within the movement for "evidence-based policy" making. The first part of the paper discusses the purposes of such reviews and some of the misconceptions that may be…

  15. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O'Connor, W

    2015-01-01

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  16. Black Feminism: An Integrated Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Love, Katie L

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a systematic literature review exploring the uses and potential benefits of Black Feminism in nursing research. Black Feminism may benefit knowledge development for nursing in a variety of ways, such as illuminating the multifaceted factors of Black women's identities in helping scholars move away from generalization of experiences, to improve understanding of health disparities, and making such changes by broadening the social consciousness of the nurse researchers, who are predominantly White. Discrimination in health disparities may be deconstructed if the focus is placed on asking different research questions and offering different interventions with the social structures that contributes to such actions. When Black Feminism guides the research method (including research questions and analysis), the accuracy of representing the experiences of Black women is increased. In this research, Black Feminism highlights experience, coping mechanisms, spiritual values, a tradition of strength, and a holistic view of identity. PMID:26930767

  17. Electronic whiteboards: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Randell, Rebecca; Greenhalgh, Joanne; Wyatt, Jeremy; Gardner, Peter; Pearman, Alan; Honey, Stephanie; Dowding, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Electronic whiteboards are being introduced into hospitals to communicate real-time patient information instantly to staff. This paper provides a preliminary review of the current state of evidence for the effect of electronic whiteboards on care processes and patient outcomes. A literature search was performed for the dates 1996 to 2014 on MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEEE Xplore, Science Direct, and the ACM Digital Library. Thirteen papers, describing 11 studies, meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. The majority of studies took place in the Emergency Department. While studies looked at the impact of electronic whiteboards on the process of care, there is an absence of evidence concerning impact on patient outcomes. There is a need for robust research measuring the impact of electronic whiteboards on inpatient care. PMID:25991172

  18. The value of nursing: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Horton, Khim; Tschudin, Verena; Forget, Armorel

    2007-11-01

    This article is part of a wider study entitled Value of Nursing, and contains the literature search from electronic databases. Key words for the search included 'values of nursing', 'values in nursing', 'organisational values' and 'professional identity'. Thirty-two primary reports published in English between 2000 and 2006 were identified. The findings highlight the importance of understanding values and their relevance in nursing and how values are constructed. The value of nursing is seen to be influenced by cultural change, globalization, and advancement in technology and medicine. These factors are crucial in providing a more structured and measured view of what nursing is, which will result in greater job satisfaction among nurses, better nurse retention and enhanced patient care within a supportive and harmonious organization. The findings of this review have implications for policy makers in recruitment and retention in determining the global value of nursing. PMID:17901183

  19. Levosimendan in Critical Illness: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Pierrakos, Charalampos; Velissaris, Dimitrios; Franchi, Federico; Muzzi, Luigi; Karanikolas, Menelaos; Scolletta, Sabino

    2014-01-01

    Levosimendan, the active enantiomer of simendan, is a calcium sensitizer developed for treatment of decompensated heart failure, exerts its effects independently of the beta adrenergic receptor and seems beneficial in cases of severe, intractable heart failure. Levosimendan is usually administered as 24-h infusion, with or without a loading dose, but dosing needs adjustment in patients with severe liver or renal dysfunction. Despite several promising reports, the role of levosimendan in critical illness has not been thoroughly evaluated. Available evidence suggests that levosimendan is a safe treatment option in critically ill patients and may reduce mortality from cardiac failure. However, data from well-designed randomized controlled trials in critically ill patients are needed to validate or refute these preliminary conclusions. This literature review is an attempt to synthesize available evidence on the role and possible benefits of levosimendan in critically ill patients with severe heart failure. PMID:24578748

  20. Sexual Function Following Burn Injuries: Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Atisha A; Corkill, Helen A; Goutos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Sexual function is a profound facet of the human personality. Burns due their sudden and devastating nature can have longstanding effects on intimate function by virtue of physical sequelae as well as alterations in body image and perceived desirability. A considerable number of patients encounter problems with intimate function in burns rehabilitation; nevertheless, the topic appears to be poorly addressed in specialist centers worldwide. Review of the literature suggests that a number of parameters can affect the quality of sexual life following burn injuries including age at the time of injury, location, and severity of the burn as well as coping mechanisms employed by the individual survivor. Addressing issues of intimacy relies on awareness, education, and a holistic approach on behalf of the multidisciplinary team members and, to this effect, recommendations are made on managing sexual function concerns in burns rehabilitation. PMID:25423439

  1. [Nursing audit: systematic review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Dias, Teresa Cristina Lyporage; Santos, José Luís Guedes dos; Cordenuzzi, Onélia da Costa Pedro; Prochnow, Adelina Giacomelli

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the scientific production about audit in nursing, published in national papers, between 1998 and 2008. A systematic review of the literature was conducted, with articles being searched in the databases LILACS and SciELO, from the key words: audit, nursing, quality health care and nursing supervision. The sample consisted of ten works. The analyzed publications describe the main distortions and non-conformities found in nursing records, relating them mainly with the quality of nursing care and with the financial damage to the institutions. The publications also include the administrative role of the nurse, especially her/his leadership role in the team of nursing; and nursing audit as an educational process. PMID:22460497

  2. A review of recent literature on plague

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1960-01-01

    In his comprehensive monograph on plague, published by WHO in 1954, Dr Pollitzer pointed out that despite the marked drop in the incidence of this disease in recent years, he considered it impossible for various reasons to be complacent about the situation. Since this monograph appeared, plague has shown a truly spectacular decrease, but in case this is partly the outcome of a natural periodicity of the infection, the author still feels that the disease ”should be given continued attention by those interested in global public health”. To this end he summarizes here the latest information on the subject, his review covering not only works published since 1954, but also some earlier literature (particularly from the USSR) which was not available to him at the time of preparation of his monograph. PMID:13736873

  3. Automation literature: A brief review and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D.; Dieterly, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Current thought and research positions which may allow for an improved capability to understand the impact of introducing automation to an existing system are established. The orientation was toward the type of studies which may provide some general insight into automation; specifically, the impact of automation in human performance and the resulting system performance. While an extensive number of articles were reviewed, only those that addressed the issue of automation and human performance were selected to be discussed. The literature is organized along two dimensions: time, Pre-1970, Post-1970; and type of approach, Engineering or Behavioral Science. The conclusions reached are not definitive, but do provide the initial stepping stones in an attempt to begin to bridge the concept of automation in a systematic progression.

  4. Cognitive Rest: An Integrated Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kathleen H

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive rest has been suggested as a treatment for school athletes who have sustained a concussion, but the concept has rarely been defined. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive definition of cognitive rest, based on an integrative literature review. The method of synthesis was guided by Avant and Walker's concept analysis format. The importance of rest is discussed as a nursing intervention, and model cases are presented to clarify the concept. Three defining attributes of cognitive rest are established: freedom from physical or mental discomfort, abstinence from mental exertion, and mental and emotional balance. Empirical referents are given as well as a suggested protocol to enable school nurses to form cognitive rest and return-to-classroom protocols that can be adapted to individual school settings. PMID:26442958

  5. Value Streams in Microgrids: A literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Gonçalo; Mashayekh, Salman; Forget, Thibault; DeForest, Nicholas; Agarwal, Ankit; Schönbein, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Microgrids are an increasingly common component of the evolving electricity grids with the potential to improve local reliability, reduce costs, and increase penetration rates for distributed renewable generation. The additional complexity of microgrids often leads to increased investment costs, creating a barrier for widespread adoption. These costs may result directly from specific needs for islanding detection, protection systems and power quality assurance that would otherwise be avoided in simpler system configurations. However, microgrids also facilitate additional value streams that may make up for their increased costs and improve the economic viability of microgrid deployment. This paper analyses the literature currently available on research relevant to value streams occurring in microgrids that may contribute to offset the increased investment costs. A review on research related to specific microgrid requirements is also presented.

  6. Transportation Shock and Vibration Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Lahti, Erik A.; Ross, Steven B.

    2013-06-06

    This report fulfills the M4 milestone M4FT-13OR08220112, "Report Documenting Experimental Activities." The purpose of this report is to document the results of a literature review conducted of studies related to the vibration and shock associated with the normal conditions of transport for rail shipments of used nuclear fuel from commercial light-water reactors. As discussed in Adkins (2013), the objective of this report is to determine if adequate data exist that would enable the impacts of the shock and vibration associated with the normal conditions of transport on commercial light-water reactor used nuclear fuel shipped in current generation rail transportation casks to be realistically modeled.

  7. Public humanization policies: integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Márcia Adriana Dias Meirelles; Lustosa, Abdon Moreira; Dutra, Fernando; Barros, Eveline de Oliveira; Batista, Jaqueline Brito Vidal; Duarte, Marcella Costa Souto

    2015-10-01

    The study aimed to investigate the scientific literature on Public Humanization Policies, available in online periodicals, from 2009 to 2012, in the health field. This is an integrative literature review conducted in the Virtual Health Library databases: Latin-America and Caribbean Health Sciences (Lilacs) and the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and Portal Capes. Data were collected in July 2013. To this end, the following Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) were used: "Humanization of Care," "Public Policies," "National Humanization Policy". The sample consisted of 27 articles about the investigated theme. From the publications selected for the research, three categories emerged according to their respective approaches: National Human-ization Policy: history and processes involved in its implementation; National Humanization Policy: health professionals contribution; Humanization and in the care process. The study showed that the National Humanization Policy is an important benchmark in the development of health practices. For this reason, there is a pressing multiplication of related reflections on ways to promote human-ization in health services. PMID:26465863

  8. Artificial tears potpourri: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Moshirfar, Majid; Pierson, Kasey; Hanamaikai, Kamalani; Santiago-Caban, Luis; Muthappan, Valliammai; Passi, Samuel F

    2014-01-01

    Numerous brands and types of artificial tears are available on the market for the treatment of dysfunctional tear syndrome. Past literature has focused on comparing the components of these products on patient's clinical improvement. The wide array of products on the market presents challenges to both clinicians and patients when trying to choose between available tear replacement therapies. Different formulations affect patients based on etiology and severity of disease. In order to provide an unbiased comparison between available tear replacement therapies, we conducted a literature review of existing studies and National Institutes of Health clinical trials on commercially available, brand name artificial tears. Outcomes evaluated in each study, as well as the percent of patients showing clinical and symptomatic improvement, were analyzed. Fifty-one studies evaluating different brands of artificial tears, and their efficacy were identified. Out of the 51 studies, 18 were comparison studies testing brand name artificial tears directly against each other. Nearly all formulations of artificial tears provided significant benefit to patients with dysfunctional tear syndrome, but some proved superior to others. From the study data, a recommended treatment flowchart was derived. PMID:25114502

  9. Artificial tears potpourri: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Moshirfar, Majid; Pierson, Kasey; Hanamaikai, Kamalani; Santiago-Caban, Luis; Muthappan, Valliammai; Passi, Samuel F

    2014-01-01

    Numerous brands and types of artificial tears are available on the market for the treatment of dysfunctional tear syndrome. Past literature has focused on comparing the components of these products on patient’s clinical improvement. The wide array of products on the market presents challenges to both clinicians and patients when trying to choose between available tear replacement therapies. Different formulations affect patients based on etiology and severity of disease. In order to provide an unbiased comparison between available tear replacement therapies, we conducted a literature review of existing studies and National Institutes of Health clinical trials on commercially available, brand name artificial tears. Outcomes evaluated in each study, as well as the percent of patients showing clinical and symptomatic improvement, were analyzed. Fifty-one studies evaluating different brands of artificial tears, and their efficacy were identified. Out of the 51 studies, 18 were comparison studies testing brand name artificial tears directly against each other. Nearly all formulations of artificial tears provided significant benefit to patients with dysfunctional tear syndrome, but some proved superior to others. From the study data, a recommended treatment flowchart was derived. PMID:25114502

  10. Nocardia Arthritis: 3 Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chaussade, Hélène; Lebeaux, David; Gras, Guillaume; Catherinot, Emilie; Rammaert, Blandine; Poiree, Sylvain; Lecuyer, Hervé; Zeller, Valérie; Bernard, Louis; Lortholary, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nocardia are Gram-positive filamentous bacteria responsible for infections ranging from opportunistic life-threatening disseminated diseases to chronic skin and soft-tissue infections. Even if virtually all organs can be infected, articular involvement is rare. Therefore, we report 3 recent cases and performed a literature review of cases of Nocardia arthritis in order to describe clinical features, therapeutic challenges, and outcome of these patients. Among 34 patients (31 in the literature plus our 3 cases), 21 (62%) were due to hematogenous dissemination, 9 (26%) were due to direct bacterial inoculation through the skin, and in 4 cases, the mechanism of infection was unknown. Four out of these 34 cases occurred on prosthetic joints. Whereas hematogenous infections mostly occurred in immunocompromised hosts (17 of 21, 81%), direct inoculation was mostly seen in immunocompetent patients. Eighty-two percent of patients (28 out of 34) received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-containing regimens and median antibiotic treatment duration was 24 weeks (range, 12–120) for hematogenous infections and 12 weeks (range, 6–24) for direct inoculations. Outcome was favorable in 27 cases despite unsystematic surgical management (17 cases) without sequelae in 70% of the cases. Nocardia arthritis is rare but its management is complex and should rely on a combined approach with rheumatologist, infectious diseases expert, and surgeon. PMID:26496274

  11. Biomechanical research in dance: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Krasnow, Donna; Wilmerding, M Virginia; Stecyk, Shane; Wyon, Matthew; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2011-03-01

    The authors reviewed the literature, published from 1970 through December 2009, on biomechanical research in dance. To identify articles, the authors used search engines, including PubMed and Web of Science, five previous review articles, the Dance Medicine and Science Bibliography, and reference lists of theses, dissertations, and articles being reviewed. Any dance research articles (English language) involving the use of electromyography, forceplates, motion analysis using photography, cinematography or videography, and/or physics analysis were included. A total of 89 papers, theses/dissertations, and abstracts were identified and reviewed, grouped by the movement concept or specialized movements being studied: alignment (n = 8), plié (8), relevé (8), passé (3), degagé (3), développé (7), rond de jambe (3), grand battement (4), arm movements (1), forward stepping (3), turns (6), elevation work (28), falls (1), and dance-specific motor strategies (6). Several recurring themes emerged from these studies: that elite dancers demonstrate different and superior motor strategies than novices or nondancers; that dancers perform differently when using a barre as opposed to without a barre, both in terms of muscle activation patterns and weight shift strategies; that while skilled dancers tend to be more consistent across multiple trials of a task, considerable variability is seen among participants, even when matched for background, years of training, body type, and other variables; and that dance teachers recommend methods of achieving movement skills that are inconsistent with optimal biomechanical function, as well as inconsistent with strategies employed by elite dancers. Measurement tools and the efficacy of study methodologies are also discussed. PMID:21442132

  12. Burnout During Residency Training: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    IsHak, Waguih William; Lederer, Sara; Mandili, Carla; Nikravesh, Rose; Seligman, Laurie; Vasa, Monisha; Ogunyemi, Dotun; Bernstein, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Burnout is a state of mental and physical exhaustion related to work or care giving activities. Burnout during residency training has gained significant attention secondary to concerns regarding job performance and patient care. This article reviews the relevant literature on burnout in order to provide information to educators about its prevalence, features, impact, and potential interventions. Methods Studies were identified through a Medline and PsychInfo search from 1974 to 2009. Fifty-one studies were identified. Definition and description of burnout and measurement methods are presented followed by a thorough review of the studies. Results An examination of the burnout literature reveals that it is prevalent in medical students (28%–45%), residents (27%–75%, depending on specialty), as well as practicing physicians. Psychological distress and physical symptoms can impact work performance and patient safety. Distress during medical school can lead to burnout, which in turn can result in negative consequences as a working physician. Burnout also poses significant challenges during early training years in residency. Time demands, lack of control, work planning, work organization, inherently difficult job situations, and interpersonal relationships, are considered factors contributing to residents' burnout. Potential interventions include workplace-driven and individual-driven measures. Workplace interventions include education about burnout, workload modifications, increasing the diversity of work duties, stress management training, mentoring, emotional intelligence training, and wellness workshops. Individual-driven behavioral, social, and physical activities include promoting interpersonal professional relations, meditation, counseling, and exercise. Conclusions Educators need to develop an active awareness of burnout and ought to consider incorporating relevant instruction and interventions during the process of training resident physicians

  13. Survivin and gliomas: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Varughese, Rosilin Kotakkathu; Torp, Sverre Helge

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumor, the diagnosis of which is challenging. In this respect, the use of immunohistochemical proliferation markers may aid diagnosis; survivin, also known as Baculoviral IAP Repeat Containing 5, is one such marker. Survivin is a unique member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein gene family, and is known for its dual function as an apoptosis inhibitor and mitosis regulator. Furthermore, survivin has been demonstrated to be overexpressed in a number of malignancies. The purpose of the present literature review was to gain an overview of studies published on the diagnostic and/or prognostic use of survivin in gliomas. Using PubMed, 19 studies matching the inclusion criteria were ultimately included in the present review. The majority of the studies identified revealed that survivin was significantly associated with other proliferation markers, histological malignancy grade, and inversely associated with prognosis. However, there were a number of inconsistencies between studies, which suggests a requirement for standardization of immunohistochemical procedures. PMID:27588117

  14. Complications of otoplasty: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Limandjaja, G C; Breugem, C C; Mink van der Molen, A B; Kon, M

    2009-01-01

    Over 200 otoplasty techniques have been described in the current literature. However, relatively few articles focus on the associated complication rates. The goal of this review is to examine the incidence of complication rates associated with otoplasty procedures. An electronic search of the Pubmed database yielded 205 articles with significant overlap in search results. Twenty articles published between 2000 and 2007 adhered to our inclusion criteria. Early complications included in this review were haematoma, bleeding, infection, skin necrosis and wound dehiscence; late complications included suture extrusion, scarring, hypersensitivity, asymmetry and inaesthetic results. The cumulative incidence of early complications was low and varied from 0% to 8.4%, with the exception of two outliers. Although cumulative late complication incidences varied greatly from 0% to 47.3%, complication rates on the higher end of the spectrum were not accompanied with revision rates of the same magnitude. Comparison of the different articles was made difficult by the lack of a uniform calculation method for complication incidence, variable follow-up length and data collection, inconsistent use of operation technique and publication bias. Recommendations for future studies include: consistent use of operative technique or at least differentiate between the used surgical techniques when presenting complication rates, inclusion of only patients with bilateral primary procedures, considering each operated ear as an independent variable when calculating complication incidence and a minimum follow-up period of 2 years, with both objective and subjective data collection. PMID:18952516

  15. Living with mesothelioma. A literature review.

    PubMed

    Moore, S; Darlison, L; Tod, A M

    2010-07-01

    Mesothelioma is an asbestos-related cancer that affects mainly the pleura. World-wide incidence is increasing and set to rise for some time particularly in developing countries. Mesothelioma is uniformly fatal and often associated with difficult symptoms. The purpose of this review is to identify what is known about the experience of people living with mesothelioma. A literature search identified 13 papers covering qualitative studies, patient-reported quality of life data collected as part of a clinical trial, symptoms and survey of patients and carers. The findings suggest the impact of mesothelioma is multidimensional on: physical symptoms (especially pain, breathlessness, fatigue, cough, sleep disturbance, appetite loss and sweating), emotional functioning (anxiety, depression, fear and isolation), social consequences (changes in roles and relationships) and interventions (the necessity of frequent anti-cancer treatments and admissions for symptom control). The impact on family members is significant also. Although limited, these findings provide an important insight into the impact of mesothelioma on patients and family members and suggest areas where service provision may fail to meet their needs. Finally, the review highlights an urgent need for further research to more fully understand the experience of living with mesothelioma and identify the specific needs of patients and family members. PMID:19832887

  16. URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOWS LITERATURE REVIEW 2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper is an urban wet weather flow (WWF) literature reviews for the year of 1999. The reviews were originally published in the annual literature review issues of Water Environment Research. Over the past year, many people were involved in preparing these urban wet weather f...

  17. Cuboid Syndrome: a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to inform all medical health care professionals about cuboid syndrome, which has been described as difficult to recognize and is commonly misdiagnosed, by explaining the etiology of this syndrome, its clinical diagnosis in relation to differential diagnoses, commonly administered treatment techniques, and patient outcomes. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature was conducted with MEDLINE, EBSCO, and PubMed (1960 - Present) using the key words cuboid, cuboid syndrome, foot anatomy, tarsal bones, manual therapy, and manipulation. Medical professionals must be aware that any lateral foot and ankle pain may be the result of cuboid syndrome. Once properly diagnosed, cuboid syndrome responds exceptionally well to conservative treatment involving specific cuboid manipulation techniques. Other methods of conservative treatment including therapeutic modalities, therapeutic exercises, padding, and low dye taping techniques are used as adjuncts in the treatment of this syndrome. Immediately after the manipulation is performed, the patient may note a decrease or a complete cessation of their symptoms. Occasionally, if the patient has had symptoms for a longer duration, several manipulations may be warranted throughout the course of time. Due to the fact radiographic imaging is of little value, the diagnosis is largely based on the patient’s history and a collection of signs and symptoms associated with the condition. Additionally, an understanding of the etiology behind this syndrome is essential, aiding the clinician in the diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome. After the correct diagnosis is made and a proper treatment regimen is utilized, the prognosis is excellent. Key Points Define the poorly understood condition of cuboid syndrome. Provide an understanding of the anatomical structures involved. Provide an explanation as to the cause of this syndrome. Demonstrate ways to evaluate by making a differential diagnosis. To inform

  18. Cesium and Strontium Separation Technologies Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Todd; T. A. Todd; J. D. Law; R. S. Herbst

    2004-03-01

    Integral to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program’s proposed closed nuclear fuel cycle, the fission products cesium and strontium in the dissolved spent nuclear fuel stream are to be separated and managed separately. A comprehensive literature survey is presented to identify cesium and strontium separation technologies that have the highest potential and to focus research and development efforts on these technologies. Removal of these high-heat-emitting fission products reduces the radiation fields in subsequent fuel cycle reprocessing streams and provides a significant short-term (100 yr) heat source reduction in the repository. This, along with separation of actinides, may provide a substantial future improvement in the amount of fuel that could be stored in a geologic repository. The survey and review of the candidate cesium and strontium separation technologies are presented herein. Because the AFCI program intends to manage cesium and strontium together, technologies that simultaneously separate both elements are of the greatest interest, relative to technologies that separate only one of the two elements.

  19. Naringenin and atherosclerosis: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ilkay E; Nabavi, Seyed F; Daglia, Maria; Tenore, Gian C; Mansouri, Kowsar; Nabavi, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease mainly caused by deposition of low-density lipoprotein (LD) cholesterol in macrophages of arterial walls. Atherosclerosis leads to heart attacks as well as stroke. Epidemiological studies showed that there is an inverse correlation between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of atherosclerosis. The promising effect of high vegetable and fruit containing diet on atherosclerosis is approved by several experimental studies on isolated phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Flavonoids are known to up-regulate endogenous antioxidant system, suppress oxidative and nitrosative stress, decrease macrophage oxidative stress through cellular oxygenase inhibition as well as interaction with several signal transduction pathways and from these ways, have therapeutic effects against atherosclerosis. Naringenin is a well known flavonoid belonging to the chemical class of flavanones. It is especially abundant in citrus fruits, especially grapefruits. A plethora of evidences ascribes to naringenin antiatherosclerotic effects. Naringenin abilities to decrease LDL and triglycerides as well as inhibit glucose uptake; increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL); co-oxidation of NADH; suppress protein oxidation; protect against intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1); suppress macrophage inflammation; inhibit leukotriene B4, monocyte adhesion and foam cell formation; induce of HO-1 and G 0/G 1 cell cycle arrest in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and down regulate atherosclerosis related genes are believed to have crucial role in the promising role against atherosclerosis. In the present review, we have summarized the available literature data on the anti-atherosclerotic effects of naringenin and its possible mechanisms of action. PMID:25483717

  20. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily /sup 210/Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report.

  1. [ATTENUATED PSYCHOSIS SYNDROME: A LITERATURE REVIEW].

    PubMed

    Szmulewicz, Alejandro; Smith, José M; Valerio, Marina P

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent findings on the treatment of schizophrenia, it is an illness still associated with high morbidity and incapacity in social and work domains. There is a growing interest in examining the phases prior to the development of the illness so as to make early interventions that would potentially change its devastating course. The attenuated psychosis syndrome was included in the section III of the last version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as a condition in which a patient exhibits mild psychotic symptoms, an intact reality testing and certain degree of social or occupational impairment. The present work is a review of the available literature on this subject. The main findings were: the risk of conversion to a psychotic disorder is relatively low and there are some variables (social withdrawal, negative symptoms, neurocognitive impairment, poor global functioning and certain neuroimaging findings) that increase this risk. Those people diagnosed with attenuated psychosis syndrome had one or more other current psychiatric comorbid conditions and these are the main reason to warrant medical attention. Regarding to the treatment of this condition, there are available evidence on atypical antipsychotics, cognitive-behavioral therapy and omega 3 fatty acid. PMID:26650554

  2. Djenkolism: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Bunawan, Nur C; Rastegar, Asghar; White, Kathleen P; Wang, Nancy E

    2014-01-01

    Djenkolism is an uncommon but important cause of acute kidney injury. It sporadically occurs after an ingestion of the djenkol bean (Archidendron pauciflorum), which is native to Southeast Asia. The clinical features defining djenkolism include: spasmodic suprapubic and/or flank pain; urinary obstruction; and acute kidney injury. The precise pathogenesis of acute kidney injury following djenkol ingestion remains unknown. However, it is proposed that an interaction between the characteristics of the ingested beans and the host factors causes hypersaturation of djenkolic acid crystals within the urinary system, resulting in subsequent obstructive nephropathy with sludge, stones, or possible spasms. We report a case of djenkolism from our rural clinic in Borneo, Indonesia. Our systematic literature review identified 96 reported cases of djenkolism. The majority of patients recovered with hydration, bicarbonate therapy, and pain medication. Three patients required surgical intervention; one patient required ureteral stenting for the obstructing djenkolic acid stones. Four of the 96 reported patients died from acute kidney failure. We stress the importance of awareness of djenkolism to guide medical practitioners in the treatment of this rare disease in resource-poor areas in Southeast Asia. PMID:24790471

  3. Superstitious behavior in sport: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Dömötör, Zsuzsanna; Ruíz-Barquín, Roberto; Szabo, Attila

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this first literature review, in this area, is to unveil the current status of knowledge on superstition in sport. Its outcome reveals that superstitious behaviors vary with the type of sport, athletic level, as well as athletic role. In agreement with past theories, they increase with the level of challenge, as reflected by the importance of the competition, as well as with the level of uncertainty. Cultural factors, in conjunction with the education level, as well as gender, have a strong influence on superstitious behaviors in sports. Based on current thoughts, religiosity and superstition are different psychological constructs used as psychological aids by several athletes. Personality factors appear to mediate the manifestation of the behavior. Elite athletes are clearly more superstitious than non-elite athletes, An interaction between athletic skill and task-difficulty emerges to be another strong predictor of superstition in sport. It is evident that a set of complex personal and situational factors interact in the manifestation of superstitious behavior in sport that is used for the regulation of emotions in a quest for optimal performance. It is concluded that the objective benefits (i.e., success) of superstition in sport may be ascribed to the placebo effect that yields an increased sense of control and mental reassurance in unpredictable contest situations. PMID:27373872

  4. Chemoradiation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Roy, Rajarshi; Maraveyas, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the exocrine pancreas has an annual incidence of 7,400 cases in the U.K. In comparison with other common cancers of solid organs, namely, breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer has a high morbidity and mortality. Radical resection is possible in only 15%-20% of patients, and only 3%-4% of all patients presenting with this condition achieve long-term control and cure. Various strategies in the form of neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment have been employed over the years to improve outcome, with limited success. Systemic chemotherapy remains the gold standard in the metastatic setting in good performance status patients, and adjuvant chemotherapy after resection of localized and locally advanced cancer has been found to improve outcome. The role of radiotherapy, however, remains controversial and is an area that merits further investigation in well-conducted multicenter trials at various stages of the disease in combination with systemic agents and exploiting recent advances in the delivery of radiotherapy. In this article, we review the published literature on the use of chemoradiation as a modality in various stages of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and highlight areas that future trials in this field should target for a way forward in this malignancy. PMID:20203172

  5. Hand Injury in Rock Climbing: Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, A; Pivato, G; Pegoli, L

    2016-02-01

    With the amazing increasing in number of participants, rock climbing has become a popular sport in the last decade. A growing number of participants, with different skill level, inevitably leads to an increased number of injuries related to this practice. The kind of lesions that can be observed in rock-climbers is very specific and often involves the hand. For this reason is very important for any hand surgeon that is exposed to sport injuries to know which and the most common injuries related to this sport and which are the basic principles for the treatment of those. The aim of this article is to review the literature that has been published in the last ten year in this topic. On the NCBI database 22 articles where found that where related to rock climbing lesion affecting the hand or the whole body. Differences where found according to kind of rock climbing activity that was analyzed, alpine climb leads to more serious injuries, often affecting the lower limb, while in sport and recreational rock climbing the upper limb and the hand are definitely the most affected parts. Flexor pulley lesions, followed by fractures and strains are the most common lesions affecting the hand that are related to this practice. PMID:27454496

  6. Gastric sarcoidosis: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Liang, David B; Price, Jennifer Cohen; Ahmed, Haitham; Farmer, Nicole; Montgomery, Elizabeth A; Giday, Samuel A

    2010-04-01

    Sarcoidosis involving the gastrointestinal tract is extremely rare. Clinically recognizable gastrointestinal system involvement occurs in 0.1% to 0.9% of patients with sarcoidosis. We encountered a 22-year-old African American female admitted to Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore, Maryland) for a 2-week history of fever, chills, eye pain, and abdominal pain. Her abdominal CT scan showed multiple subcentimeter retroperitoneal lymph nodes. An upper endoscopy was performed and discovered an antral nodule that measured about 7 mm and antral gastritis in which biopsies showed active chronic necrotizing granulomatous gastritis. Biopsies of the antral polyp showed focal intestinal metaplasia and active chronic necrotizing granulomatous pattern. Stains for Helicobacter pylori, acid fast, and fungi were negative. A small-bowel series showed no abnormality. Ophthalmologic evaluation revealed panuveitis with bilateral optic disc edema. The patient was later prescribed 60 mg of prednisone by mouth once a day and subsequently her abdominal pain and fever resolved during follow-up 2 months later. This literature review demonstrates the importance in the diagnosis, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, types of gastric sarcoidosis, major endoscopic findings, and management of gastric sarcoidosis. PMID:20437743

  7. Suicide in deaf populations: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Oliver; Windfuhr, Kirsten; Kapur, Navneet

    2007-01-01

    Background Studies have found that deaf individuals have higher rates of psychiatric disorder than those who are hearing, while at the same time encountering difficulties in accessing mental health services. These factors might increase the risk of suicide. However, the burden of suicidal behaviour in deaf people is currently unknown. The aim of the present review was to provide a summary of literature on suicidal behaviour with specific reference to deaf individuals. The objectives of the review were to establish the incidence and prevalence of suicidal behaviour in deaf populations; describe risk factors for suicidal behaviour in deaf populations; describe approaches to intervention and suicide prevention that have been used in deaf populations. Methods A number of electronic databases (e.g. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, Dissertation Abstracts International, Web of Science, ComDisDome, ASSIA, Education Sage Full Text, Google Scholar, and the grey literature databases FADE and SIGLE) were explored using a combination of key words and medical subject headings as search terms. Reference lists of papers were also searched. The Science and Social Sciences Citation Index electronic databases were used to identify studies that had cited key papers. We also contacted experts and organisations with an interest in the field. Results Very few studies focussed specifically on suicide in deaf populations. Those studies that were included (n = 13) generally involved small and unrepresentative samples. There were limited data on the rate of suicidal behaviour in deaf people. One study reported evidence of hearing impairment in 0.2% of all suicide deaths. Another found that individuals with tinnitus seen in specialist clinics had an elevated rate of suicide compared to the general population. The rates of attempted suicide in deaf school and college students during the previous year ranged from 1.7% to 18%, with lifetime rates as high as 30%. Little evidence was found to

  8. LITERATURE REVIEW OF BORIC ACID SOLUBILITY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Crapse, K.; Kyser, E.

    2011-09-22

    A new solvent system is being evaluated for use in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and in the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The new system replaces the current dilute nitric acid strip solution with 0.01 M boric acid. This literature study is performed to determine if there is a potential for boric acid to crystallize in the lines with emphasis on the transfer lines to the Defense Waste Processing Facility. This report focuses on the aqueous phase chemistry of boric acid under conditions relevant to MCU and SWPF. Operating and transfer conditions examined for the purpose of this review include temperatures between 13 C (McLeskey, 2008) and 45 C (Fondeur, 2007) and concentrations from 0 to 3M in nitric acid as well as exposure of small amounts of entrained boric acid in the organic phase to the sodium hydroxide caustic wash stream. Experiments were also conducted to observe any chemical reactions and off-gas generation that could occur when 0.01 M boric acid solution mixes with 3 M nitric acid solution and vice versa. Based on the low concentration (0.01M) of boric acid in the MCU/SWPF strip acid and the moderate operating temperatures (13 C to 45 C), it is unlikely that crystallization of boric acid will occur in the acid strip solution under process or transfer conditions. Mixing experiments of boric and nitric acid show no measurable gas generation (< 1 cc of gas per liter of solution) under similar process conditions.

  9. Cryptococcosis in Colombian children and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lizarazo, Jairo; Escandón, Patricia; Agudelo, Clara Inés; Castañeda, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Cryptococcosis is reported in adults and is often acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated; however, its frequency in children is low. Based on the National Survey on Cryptococcosis conducted in Colombia, an epidemiological and clinical analysis was performed on cases of the disease observed in children less than 16 years old between 1993-2010. We found 41 affected children (2.6% prevalence) from the 1,578 surveys received. The country mean annual incidence rate was 0.017 cases/100,000 children under 16 years, while in Norte de Santander the incidence rate was 0.122 cases/100,000 (p < 0.0001). The average age of infected children was 8.4 and 58.5% were male. In 46.3% of cases, a risk factor was not identified, while 24.4% had AIDS. The most frequent clinical manifestations were headache (78.1%), fever (68.8%), nausea and vomiting (65.6%), confusion (50%) and meningeal signs (37.5%). Meningitis was the most frequent clinical presentation (87.8%). Amphotericin B was given to 93.5% of patients as an initial treatment. Positive microbiological identification was accomplished by India ink (94.7%), latex in cerebrospinal fluid (100%) and culture (89.5%). Out of 34 isolates studied, Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (VNI 85.3%, VNII 8.8%) was isolated in 94.1% of cases and Cryptococcus gattii (VGII) was isolated in 5.9% of cases. These data are complemented by a literature review, which overall suggests that cryptococcosis in children is an unusual event worldwide. PMID:25317708

  10. Microalgae harvesting and processing: a literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Shelef, G.; Sukenik, A.; Green, M.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to present a discussion of the literature review performed on methods of harvesting microalgae. There is no single best method of harvesting microalgae. The choice of preferable harvesting technology depends on algae species, growth medium, algae production, end product, and production cost benefit. Algae size is an important factor since low-cost filtration procedures are presently applicable only for harvesting fairly large microalgae. Small microalgae should be flocculated into larger bodies that can be harvested by one of the methods mentioned above. However, the cells' mobility affects the flocculation process, and addition of nonresidual oxidants to stop the mobility should be considered to aid flocculation. The decision between sedimentation or flotation methods depends on the density difference between the algae cell and the growth medium. For oil-laden algae with low cell density, flotation technologies should be considered. Moreover, oxygen release from algae cells and oxygen supersaturation conditions in growth medium support the use of flotation methods. If high-quality algae are to be produced for human consumption, continuous harvesting by solid ejecting or nozzle-type disc centrifuges is recommended. These centrifuges can easily be cleaned and sterilized. They are suitable for all types of microalgae, but their high operating costs should be compared with the benefits from their use. Another basic criterion for selecting the suitable harvesting procedure is the final algae paste concentration required for the next process. Solids requirements up to 30% can be attained by established dewatering processes. For more concentrated solids, drying methods are required. The various systems for algae drying differ both in the extent of capital investment and the energy requirements. Selection of the drying method depends on the scale of operation and the use for which the dried product is intended.

  11. Cryptococcosis in Colombian children and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Lizarazo, Jairo; Escandón, Patricia; Agudelo, Clara Inés; Castañeda, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is reported in adults and is often acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated; however, its frequency in children is low. Based on the National Survey on Cryptococcosis conducted in Colombia, an epidemiological and clinical analysis was performed on cases of the disease observed in children less than 16 years old between 1993-2010. We found 41 affected children (2.6% prevalence) from the 1,578 surveys received. The country mean annual incidence rate was 0.017 cases/100,000 children under 16 years, while in Norte de Santander the incidence rate was 0.122 cases/100,000 (p < 0.0001). The average age of infected children was 8.4 and 58.5% were male. In 46.3% of cases, a risk factor was not identified, while 24.4% had AIDS. The most frequent clinical manifestations were headache (78.1%), fever (68.8%), nausea and vomiting (65.6%), confusion (50%) and meningeal signs (37.5%). Meningitis was the most frequent clinical presentation (87.8%). Amphotericin B was given to 93.5% of patients as an initial treatment. Positive microbiological identification was accomplished by India ink (94.7%), latex in cerebrospinal fluid (100%) and culture (89.5%). Out of 34 isolates studied, Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (VNI 85.3%, VNII 8.8%) was isolated in 94.1% of cases and Cryptococcus gattii (VGII) was isolated in 5.9% of cases. These data are complemented by a literature review, which overall suggests that cryptococcosis in children is an unusual event worldwide. PMID:25317708

  12. Improving the Writing of Literature Reviews through a Literature Integration Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorn, Ted; Campbell, Nittaya

    2006-01-01

    Students are often required to write literature reviews in advanced business communication courses, especially as part of a research project. Likewise, in the workplace, business communicators may need to review the literature in analyzing a problem or proposing a solution. However, instructors often find that even students who otherwise write…

  13. Situating Disability within Comparative Education: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alisha M. B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an inquiry into where the topic of disability falls within the vast field of comparative education research. It explores the extent to which disability is present in comparative education literature, and in what ways it is represented. A review of literature across the core comparative education peer-reviewed journals was conducted.…

  14. Creative Learning Environments in Education--A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Collier, Chris; Digby, Rebecca; Hay, Penny; Howe, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic review of 210 pieces of educational research, policy and professional literature relating to creative environments for learning in schools, commissioned by Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS). Despite the volume of academic literature in this field, the team of six reviewers found comparatively few empirical…

  15. Literature Review on Learning through Recreation. CPRN Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauvais, Caroline

    This review of primarily Canadian literature summarizes what is known about the access of youth age 10-15 years to structured recreational activities and the effects of these activities. Data come from literature reviews and reference documents on the subject of recreation, leisure, or physical activity as well as books on the subject. Researchers…

  16. Do Literature Review Skills Transfer from One Course to Another?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kathleen E.; Murowchick, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Creating literature reviews encompasses skills that are central to psychology students' academic and professional lives, yet writing them consistently challenges students. Research shows that instruction leads to improvement in students' literature reviews within courses (Boscolo, Arfé, & Quarisa, 2007; Granello, 2001), but little work…

  17. Academic dishonesty in schools of nursing: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Klocko, Marilyn N

    2014-03-01

    Academic dishonesty in schools of nursing is surprisingly common. The following literature review defines academic dishonesty, describes the scope of the problem, and sheds light on factors that affect student behaviors that lead to academic dishonesty in schools of nursing. Finally, barriers to and best practices for solutions to the problem will be reviewed as they appear within the literature. PMID:24495578

  18. Role of Social Software Tools in Education: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minocha, Shailey

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of literature on the role of Web 2.0 or social software tools in education. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is a critical and comprehensive review of a range of literature sources (until January 2009) addressing the various issues related to the educator's perspective of pedagogical…

  19. Literature and Practice: A Critical Review of MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappe-Laverde, Andres; Hine, Nicolas; Martínez-Silva, Jose Andres

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on a review of both literature and practical experiences concerning MOOCs. The literature analyzed was published in peer-reviewed journals between 2007 and 2013. 268 items were selected for this study, of which 100 were analyzed in detail. The issues raised by this analysis were used as the criteria for the analysis of 10…

  20. A Review of Literature on Teacher Efficacy and Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibapile, Waitshega Tefo Smitta

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the literature on teacher efficacy and classroom management. The conceptual framework of this paper was based on the theories of Rotter (1966) and Bandura (1977). The review of literature indicated that teacher efficacy helps teachers plan effective instructional strategies, increases performance, and…

  1. A Critical Review of the Literature for Sales Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Shannon; Peltier, James W.; Erffmeyer, Robert; Whalen, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The "Journal of Marketing Education" is publishing a special issue on Sales Education and Training in August 2014. In this article, we review the sales education literature from four primary journals and the business literature at large. The four primary journals are the "Journal of Marketing Education," "Marketing Education Review," "Journal of…

  2. The Evolving Military Learner Population: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Kate; Vignare, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This literature review examines the evolving online military learner population with emphasis on current generation military learners, who are most frequently Post-9/11 veterans. The review synthesizes recent scholarly and grey literature on military learner demographics and attributes, college experiences, and academic outcomes against a backdrop…

  3. A Widening Circle: Preservation Literature Review, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewes, Jeanne M.

    1993-01-01

    Examines preservation literature from 1992 that focused on the integration of preservation strategies within the organization. Highlights include foreign preservation programs; collection development and preservation; government programs; deacidification; paper requirements; disaster recovery techniques; mutilation; microform issues; nonbook…

  4. Building State Capacity in Dissemination: Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Ernest W.

    This review was developed by and principally for the National Testing Service (NTS) Dissemination Project Staff. It is one of eight activities being used by NTS to develop a design for an evaluation of the State Capacity Building Program. The review is in two parts. The first part provides background information, evaluation methodologies and…

  5. Laryngeal complications by orotracheal intubation: Literature review

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Luiz Alberto Alves; de Cavalho, Glauber Barbosa; Brito, Valeska Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Sumamry Introduction: The injuries caused for the orotracheal intubation are common in our way and widely told by literature. Generally the pipe rank of or consequence of its permanence in the aerial ways of the patient is caused by accidents in. It has diverse types of larynx injuries, caused for multiple mechanisms. Objective: To verify, in literature, the main causes of laryngeal complications after- orotracheal intubation and its mechanisms of injury. Revision of Literature: The searched databases had been LILACS, BIREME and SCIELO. Were updated, books and theses had been used, delimiting itself the period enters 1953 the 2009. The keywords used for the search of articles had been: complications, injuries, larynx, intubation, endotracheal, orotracheal, granulomas, stenosis. 59 references had been selected. The used criteria of inclusion for the choice of articles had been the ones that had shown to the diverse types of injuries caused for the orotracheal intubation and its pathophysiology. Final Considerations: This revision of literature was motivated by the comment in the practical clinic of a great number of laryngeal sequels in patients submitted to the orotracheal intubation. Of that is ahead important the knowledge, for the professionals of the area of health, the types of complications and its causes, with intention to prevent them, adopting measured of prevention of these injuries. PMID:25991942

  6. Children and Literature: Views and Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Virginia

    This book is a collection of essays, criticism, and statements of trends in the world of children's books intended for those concerned with the creation, distribution, and reading of children's books. Chapters 1 through 5 deal with the history of children's literature and basic issues, such as what makes a classic, what children read, how and why…

  7. Grief Counseling: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneker, Darlene; Cashwell, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Grief counseling has grown over the past two decades to become a well respected specialty within the field of counseling. This article examines books, articles, and literature developed by leading agencies in the field. Grief counseling is an interdisciplinary field focusing on the clinical aspects of working with individuals involved in dying and…

  8. Organizational Behavior: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbitt, H. Randolph, Jr.; Behling, Orlando C.

    1981-01-01

    Organizational behavior is defined and its micro and macro subdivisions described. Leavitt's model for organizational change (task, technology, structure, and people) is employed to extract meanings from the organizational behavior literature. A diagnostic approach is suggested for applying organizational behavior to the practice of higher…

  9. Mentoring Together: A Literature Review of Group Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huizing, Russell L.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have shown the benefits of mentoring in both personal and professional growth. It would seem that group mentoring would only enhance those benefits. This work represents a literature review of peer-reviewed articles and dissertations that contribute to the theory and research of group mentoring. This work reviews the articles that…

  10. LITERATURE REVIEW OF REMEDIATION METHODS FOR PCBS IN BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This literature review contains a description and analysis of existing methods for management of PCBs in construction materials. Information on the strengths and limitations, efficacy, cost, and byproducts of each remediation method is presented, where available. The report is ba...

  11. Musical Obsessions: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Aneja, Jitender; Nebhinani, Naresh; Grover, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of musical obsessions is scantly researched and poorly established. Here we present a case with musical obsessions in addition to body dysmorphophia and severe depression and review the available literature for musical obsessions. PMID:25722524

  12. AIR INFILTRATION MEASUREMENTS USING TRACER GASES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature review of air filtration measurements using tracer gases, including sulfur hexafluoride, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and radioactive argon and krypton. Sulfur hexafluoride is the commonest tracer gas of choice...

  13. Runaway Children in America: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, William H.; Burkhead, E. Jane

    1989-01-01

    The paper reviews the literature regarding runaway children, defines runaway youth, and discusses predisposing factors. Suggestions are offered for further research on the etiology and treatment of runaway behavior. (JDD)

  14. Leadership in Education: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Pat (Meadley)

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the literature concerned with leadership in education. Topics addressed include trait theories of leadership; behavioral theories; situational leadership; instructional leadership; transformational leadership; value-added leadership; community of leaders; women as leaders; and organizational leadership. (Contains 44 references.) (LRW)

  15. Preoperative patient assessment: a review of the literature and recommendations.

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, N. A.; Williams, R. W.; Spencer, E. M.

    1994-01-01

    The aims of preoperative assessment of patients are outlined, and the role of clinical and laboratory testing is defined. Following a review of the literature, guidelines for requesting such investigations are suggested. PMID:7979066

  16. The Burden of Influenza B: A Structured Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Paul Glezen, W.; Kuehn, Carrie M.; Ryan, Kellie J.; Oxford, John

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, disease severity, and economic burden of influenza B as reported in the peer-reviewed published literature. We used MEDLINE to perform a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed, English-language literature published between 1995 and 2010. Widely variable frequency data were reported. Clinical presentation of influenza B was similar to that of influenza A, although we observed conflicting reports. Influenza B–specific data on hospitalization rates, length of stay, and economic outcomes were limited but demonstrated that the burden of influenza B can be significant. The medical literature demonstrates that influenza B can pose a significant burden to the global population. The comprehensiveness and quality of reporting on influenza B, however, could be substantially improved. Few articles described complications. Additional data regarding the incidence, clinical burden, and economic impact of influenza B would augment our understanding of the disease and assist in vaccine development. PMID:23327249

  17. A literature review of lasers and articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Vangsness, C T; Ghaderi, B

    1993-05-01

    Articles from the English literature concerning lasers and articular cartilage were reviewed. Different experimental methods and laser systems were analyzed. Many studies lacked scientific validity. Future investigations with sound biologic foundations are recommended. PMID:8327386

  18. Review of Literature for Model Assisted Probability of Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Crawford, Susan L.; Lareau, John P.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2014-09-30

    This is a draft technical letter report for NRC client documenting a literature review of model assisted probability of detection (MAPOD) for potential application to nuclear power plant components for improvement of field NDE performance estimations.

  19. Lymphomas and chylous ascites: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Almakdisi, Tony; Massoud, Samuel; Makdisi, George

    2005-09-01

    Chylous ascites is a rare and challenging clinical condition that occurs as a result of disruption of the abdominal lymphatics. We include a review of the literature describing the etiology, diagnosis, and therapy of chylous ascites. PMID:16177287

  20. VENTILATION RESEARCH: A REVIEW OF RECENT INDOOR AIR QUALITY LITERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature review, conducted to survey and summarize recent and ongoing engineering research into building ventilation, air exchange rate, pollutant distribution and dispersion, and other effects of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) s...

  1. Rett Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Adrienne

    1991-01-01

    This nontechnical review of the literature on Rett Syndrome, a developmental disability found only in females, examines the syndrome's history, diagnostic criteria, clinical stages, incidence, differential diagnosis, etiology, genetics, treatment approaches, and prognosis. (Author/DB)

  2. Strategically Reviewing the Research Literature in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.; Cooper, Robin; Desir, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Reviewing literature in qualitative research can be challenging in terms of why, when, where, and how we should access third-party sources in our work, especially for novice qualitative researchers. As a pragmatic solution, we suggest qualitative researchers utilize research literature in four functional ways: (a) define the phenomenon in…

  3. Considerations of the Concept of Infant Health: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almqvist-Tangen, Gerd; Axelsson, Asa

    2006-01-01

    This study examined a wide range of literature in order to describe factors associated with the concept of infant health. The design of the study is a literature review examining 21 research studies, written in the English language. The study explored which factors were found to exert an influence on the concept of infant health. The result showed…

  4. Effective Leadership in Higher Education: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryman, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This article is a review of the literature concerned with leadership effectiveness in higher education at departmental level. The literature derives from publications from three countries: the UK, the USA and Australia. Surprisingly little systematic research has been conducted on the question of which forms of leadership are associated with…

  5. Defining Spiritual Health: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensley, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Literature review explores various components of spiritual health, defining and categorizing existing definitions identified in the literature into six perspectives: sense of fulfillment in life; values and beliefs of community and self; wholeness in life; a factor in well-being; a controlling higher power; and human/spiritual interaction. (SM)

  6. Teacher Competencies and Teacher Education: A Descriptive Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimons, Patrick; Fenwick, Penny

    This literature review compares international and New Zealand research and international program information on teacher competencies and preservice and inservice teacher education, addressing two issues: (1) what literature identifies as key competencies required by quality beginning and practicing teachers in the current social, economic, and…

  7. Corporate Advocacy: A Selected Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dionisopoulos, George N.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    This paper provides a selected review of the literature pertaining to corporate advocacy (non-product advertising by corporations, addressing political or social issues). More specifically, the paper examines research from the communication, business, public relations, and advertising literature dealing with justifications for the practice of…

  8. LITERATURE REVIEW AND REPORT: SURFACE-SEDIMENT SAMPLER DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A literature review was conducted to identify available surface sediment sampling technologies with an ability to collect undisturbed sediments to depths of up to 1 meter below the water sediment interface. This survey was conducted using published literature and references, Envi...

  9. Human Resource Development Practices in Russia: A Structured Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.

    2005-01-01

    This literature review aimed to investigate the literature on HRD in Russian enterprises, U.S. firms in Russia, or U.S.-Russian joint ventures to determine the role and function of HRD practitioners in creating a successful economic transition. Thirty-three articles were selected through a database search and examined using content analysis. Three…

  10. Ethical Decision-Making Models: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottone, R. Rocco; Claus, Ronald E.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a review of literature on ethical decision-making models in counseling, beginning in the fall of 1984 through the summer of 1998. Surveys theoretically or philosophically based, practice-based, and specialty-relevant approaches. Results indicate the literature is rich with decision-making model descriptions, although few have been…

  11. Review of the medical and legal literature on restraint chairs.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Edward M; Coyne, Christopher J; Chan, Theodore C; Hall, Christine A; Vilke, Gary M

    2015-07-01

    Use of restraint chairs by law enforcement for violent individuals has generated controversy and a source of litigation because of reported injuries and deaths of restrained subjects. The purpose of this study is to review the available medical and legal literature and to allow the development of evidence-based, best practice recommendations to inform the further development of restraint chair policies. This is a structured literature review of four databases, two medical and two legal. The medical review focus was on the restraint chair with additional review of materials regarding other restraint methods and options. The legal review focused on litigation cases involving the restraint chair. The review of the medical literature revealed 21 peer-reviewed studies investigating the physiological or psychological effects of using a restraint chair on humans or primates. Of these studies, 20 were performed on primates. The single human study revealed no clinically significant effects from the restraint chair on test subjects. The legal literature review revealed very few cases where the restraint chair was either a major or minor focus. The overall issues relating to the restraint chair cases involved deviations from set protocols and rarely involved issues with the chair itself. The available medical literature reveals that the restraint chair poses little to no medical risk. Additionally, when used appropriately, the restraint chair alone carries little legal liability. With proper monitoring and adherence to set protocols, the restraint chair is a safe and appropriate device for use in restraining violent individuals. PMID:26048505

  12. Job satisfaction among nurses: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; While, Alison E; Barriball, K Louise

    2005-02-01

    The current nursing shortage and high turnover is of great concern in many countries because of its impact upon the efficiency and effectiveness of any health-care delivery system. Recruitment and retention of nurses are persistent problems associated with job satisfaction. This paper analyses the growing literature relating to job satisfaction among nurses and concludes that more research is required to understand the relative importance of the many identified factors to job satisfaction. It is argued that the absence of a robust causal model incorporating organizational, professional and personal variables is undermining the development of interventions to improve nurse retention. PMID:15680619

  13. Solid fuel grindability: a literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, L.

    2007-07-01

    The most commonly used measurement of coal grindability is the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) however, many solid fuels do not exhibit the grinding performance predicted by this index. Parameters which can influence grindability and possibly lead to inaccurate prediction of grindability as determined by HGI include: composition and texture, mineral components, brittleness, and rank (which establishes carbon, volatile matter, and moisture contents). Descriptions of these parameters are provided. Alternative measurements of grindability from literature are presented. The most promising may be a revision on the standard HGI, in which a mill capacity factor is derived from the number of mill rotations to crush coal to a specific fineness. 88 refs.

  14. Multivariate Outliers. Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Michele G.

    Research in the area of multivariate outliers is reviewed, emphasizing the problems associated with definition and identification. Treatment of the problem can be traced to 1777 and the work of D. Bernoulli. Most of the many procedures developed for identifying outliers proceed sequentially starting with the most aberrant observation, or proceed…

  15. ARCC Teacher Compensation Initiative: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia Regional Comprehensive Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In February 2014, the Tennessee State Board of Education (SBE) requested that the Appalachia Regional Comprehensive Center (ARCC) provide assistance to the SBE's Basic Education Program (BEP) Review Committee. The SBE requested additional information on the use and effectiveness of market-based teacher compensation and market-based incentives by…

  16. Family Caregiver Identity: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eifert, Elise K.; Adams, Rebecca; Dudley, William; Perko, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the multitude of available resources, family caregivers of those with chronic disease continually underutilize support services to cope with the demands of caregiving. Several studies have linked self-identification as a caregiver to the increased likelihood of support service use. Purpose: The present study reviewed the…

  17. Technology Integration: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Cheryl A.; Bolick, Cheryl Mason

    2007-01-01

    Technology has been viewed as a lodestone for improving student academic performance and for increasing the flexibility of public schools. This review provides a synthesis that addresses the effect of technology on teaching and learning and analyzes these effects through the lens of diffusion theory. This synthesis examines the historical trends…

  18. [Gingival retraction methods. A literature review].

    PubMed

    Tosches, Nino A; Salvi, Giovanni E

    2009-01-01

    The exposure of the preparation margin and the control of the hemorrhage in the gingival sulcus are prerequisites for precise impressions and thereby improving the quality of indirectly fabricated restorations. The purpose of this review article is to summarize available evidence with respect to current methods of gingival retraction and to provide the clinician with practical tips. PMID:19306598

  19. Testing Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Context Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. Objective This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. Method We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. Results We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Conclusions Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques. PMID:25125798

  20. [Afterschool physical activity programs: Literature review].

    PubMed

    Reloba-Martínez, Sergio; Martín-Tamayo, Ignacio; Martínez-López, Emilio José; Guerrero-Almeida, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to analyze the scientific production about extra-curricular physical activity (PA) in western children of 6-12 years. Medline / Pub-Med, Scopus and Google Scholar were used. This search collects articles published between January 1990 and May 2013. A total of 104 publications were analyzed. The body composition parameters are best used to assess the results of the studies, followed by those which estimate the maximum aerobic capacity. Articles of intervention are presented with very heterogeneous methodological features but there are clear trends in the use of certain aspects. As for the reviews, most are systematic and include meta-analysis. In this studies, body mass index (BMI) is the most used parameter. PMID:26679320

  1. All about compression: A literature review.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Magali Rezende; de Andrade, Isabelle Silveira; de Abreu, Alcione Matos; Leite Ribeiro, Andrea Pinto; Peixoto, Bruno Utzeri; de Oliveira, Beatriz Guitton Renaud Baptista

    2016-06-01

    Lower extremity ulcers represent a significant public health problem as they frequently progress to chronicity, significantly impact daily activities and comfort, and represent a huge financial burden to the patient and the health system. The aim of this review was to discuss the best approach for venous leg ulcers (VLUs). Online searches were conducted in Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL, and reference lists and official guidelines. Keywords considered for this review were VLU, leg ulcer, varicose ulcer, compressive therapy, compression, and stocking. A complete assessment of the patient's overall health should be performed by a trained practitioner, focusing on history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dietetic habits, medications, and practice of physical exercises, followed by a thorough assessment of both legs. Compressive therapy is the gold standard treatment for VLUs, and the ankle-brachial index should be measured in all patients before compression application. PMID:27210451

  2. Intramuscular Lipoma: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    McTighe, Shane; Chernev, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Lipomas are the most common type of soft tissue mesenchymal tumors. They are typically located subcutaneously and consist of mature fatty tissue. When they occur under the enclosing fascia, they are called deep-seated lipomas. Infrequently, lipomas can arise inside the muscle and are called intramuscular lipomas. Intramuscular lipomas have been commonly investigated and categorized in the same group as other deep-seated and superficial lipomatous lesions. Their clinical, histological and imaging characteristics may resemble well-differentiated liposarcomas, further adding to the difficulties in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes the available literature and describes the typical epidemiological, pathological and clinical features of intramuscular lipomas, as well as delineating their treatment and prognosis. PMID:25568733

  3. Dupuytren's Disease: Review of the Current Literature

    PubMed Central

    Khashan, Morsi; Smitham, Peter J; Khan, Wasim S; Goddard, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Dupuytren’s disease is one of the most common condition seen by hand surgeons. It is not only prevalent but can also be a most debilitating condition resulting in significant loss of function of the fingers involved. The cause of this disease, however still remains largely unknown although some recent evidence suggests a stem cell etiology. This review article summarizes the current known knowledge of Dupuytren’s as well as the clinical findings, investigations and treatments available. PMID:21886694

  4. Livedo reticularis: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sajjan, Vijaya Veeranna; Lunge, Snehal; Swamy, Manjunathswamy Basavapuruda; Pandit, Ashok Maharudrayya

    2015-01-01

    Livedo reticularis (LR) is a cutaneous physical sign characterized by transient or persistent, blotchy, reddish-blue to purple, net-like cyanotic pattern. LR is a benign disorder affecting mainly middle-aged females, whereas livedo racemosa (LRC) is pathologic, commonly associated with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. This article aims to review the causes of LR and LRC along with the evaluation and management. PMID:26500860

  5. Livedo reticularis: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sajjan, Vijaya Veeranna; Lunge, Snehal; Swamy, Manjunathswamy Basavapuruda; Pandit, Ashok Maharudrayya

    2015-01-01

    Livedo reticularis (LR) is a cutaneous physical sign characterized by transient or persistent, blotchy, reddish-blue to purple, net-like cyanotic pattern. LR is a benign disorder affecting mainly middle-aged females, whereas livedo racemosa (LRC) is pathologic, commonly associated with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. This article aims to review the causes of LR and LRC along with the evaluation and management. PMID:26500860

  6. Cellulite treatment: a comprehensive literature review.

    PubMed

    Zerini, Irene; Sisti, Andrea; Cuomo, Roberto; Ciappi, Serena; Russo, Francesco; Brandi, Cesare; D'Aniello, Carlo; Nisi, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    An effective and long-term treatment of cellulite has not been well established. To our knowledge, no review has analyzed the whole range of treatments for this condition. We conducted a review of in vivo studies on humans adopting the key words "cellulite" and "treatment." The studies were included according to eligibility criteria. We performed an analysis to estimate the overall effect of cellulite treatments from clinical studies. Medline library was screened up to December 2014 to identify eligible studies. We included 73 original studies in the present review. All of them were clinical studies, in most of them, only women were recruited. Above the studies searched up, 66 tested the effectiveness of an exclusive treatment performed without the association to other procedures: 11 topical agents, 10 shock-wave therapy, 10 radio frequency, eight laser therapy, five oral therapy, four manual massage therapy, three carbon dioxide therapy, two compressive therapy, two infrared therapy, one dermabrasion, and 11 devices that use an association of multiple treatments. Seven papers tested a combination of two or more treatments. The mean difference of clinical morphologic features and ultrastructural changes between the treated group and the controlled showed significant heterogeneity between studies. It is still difficult to indicate an exclusive and effective single treatment for this condition. Our analysis purposed to obtain a complete overview of the available treatments in cellulite reduction. PMID:26147372

  7. Compulsive Sexual Behavior: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Derbyshire, Katherine L.; Grant, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is a common disorder featuring repetitive, intrusive and distressing sexual thoughts, urges and behaviors that negatively affect many aspects of an individual’s life. This article reviews the clinical characteristics of CSB, cognitive aspects of the behaviors, and treatment options. Methods We reviewed the literature regarding the clinical aspects of CSB and treatment approaches. Results The literature review of the clinical aspects of CSB demonstrates that there is likely a substantial heterogeneity within the disorder. In addition, the treatment literature lacks sufficient evidence-based approaches to develop a clear treatment algorithm. Conclusions Although discussed in the psychological literature for years, CSB continues to defy easy categorization within mental health. Further research needs to be completed to understand where CSB falls within the psychiatric nosology. PMID:26014671

  8. Living on the edge: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    PetersonLund, Robin R

    2013-10-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature of the universal experience of living on the edge is discussed. Literature was reviewed from biology, criminology, ecology, economics, ethics, finance, fine arts, historical biography, medicine, nursing, philosophy, physiology, psychology, sociology, and theology. Three themes emerged with this literature review: living on the edge as a sacred place one travels to or where one lives, living on the edge as a choice in taking risks and surviving danger, and living on the edge as engaging with health experiences in which persons and nurses coparticipate. Living on the edge is a visionary quest into a new frontier that holds illimitable possibilities that transform the world. The literature is discussed according to theoretical and research findings. PMID:24085664

  9. [Antimicrobial peptide in dentisty. Literature review].

    PubMed

    Sato, F Simain; Rompen, E; Heinen, E

    2009-12-01

    The use of antimicrobial substances has contributed to the development of multiple antimicrobial resistances (1), challenging the pharmaceutical industry to develop with new, innovative, and effective molecules. Discovered around 1980, molecules called natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) appear to hold great potential for the treatment of infections. These cationic peptides are able to stop the bacterial development and to control infections. The purpose of this review is to help improve the understanding of the way AMPs operate in the context of the development of new cures against viruses, bacteria, and mushrooms found in the human body in general and in the oral cavity in particular. PMID:20143750

  10. Systematic literature review for clinical practice guideline development.

    PubMed

    O'Day, D M; Steinberg, E P; Dickersin, K

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the quality and scope of the published literature on functional impairment due to cataract in adults as reviewed for the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Clinical Practice Guideline. We examined the method of literature retrieved and analysis performed in the course of development of literature-based recommendations for the guideline panel. To collect data, we reviewed the process of literature acquisition and identification and the quality assessments made by reviewers of 14 individual topics composed of 77 issues related to the guideline. We collated this information to provide an assessment of the quality and scope of the relevant literature. Less than 4% (310) of the approximately 8,000 articles initially identified as potentially relevant to the guideline were ultimately used. The majority covered three topics (surgery and complication, 100; Nd:YAG capsulotomy, 77; and potential vision testing, 40). Three other topics--indications for surgery, preoperative medical evaluation, and rehabilitation--were devoid of articles meeting inclusion criteria. For 43 issues, there was no identifiable relevant literature. With few exceptions, the quality of the literature was rated fair to poor owing to major flaws in experimental design. Case series (256 reports) of one type or another accounted for the majority of the included literature. There were 17 random controlled trials. This review revealed a sparse and generally low-quality literature relevant to the management of functional impairment due to cataract, despite a relatively large data base in reputable peer-reviewed journals. PMID:8140702

  11. Inclusion in Physical Education: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jing; Ha, Amy S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to analyse empirical studies on inclusion in physical education (PE) over the past 20 years and then propose recommendations for future research. A systematic process was used to search the literature for this review. First, a total of 75 research-based articles from computerised education databases were included in…

  12. Gender and Instrument Associations, Stereotypes, and Stratification: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wych, Gina M. F.

    2012-01-01

    This literature review examines and synthesizes 30 years of research into the relationship between gender and musical instruments. Specifically, the review focuses on how this relationship affects instrument selection by grade school students entering a school music program. Topics include the gender typing of musical instruments, instrument…

  13. METAL BIOACCUMULATION IN FISHES AND AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Literature concerning the bioaccumulation of metals by freshwater and marine fishes and invertebrates has been reviewed; metal residue levels are also reported for a few mammals and plants. Twenty-one metals are considered in individual sections of the review and a bibliography o...

  14. Organizational Culture and Internationalization: A Brief Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaumer, Alison

    2013-01-01

    This brief literature review introduces an area of emerging research about the impact of organizational culture on institutional strategies for internationalization. The review begins by introducing the concept of organizational culture, particularly within higher education. Five articles published between 2003 and 2012 are examined that introduce…

  15. Library Science Literature, 1965/1969; A Selective Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musiker, Reuben

    This selective review of the library science literature of the five-year period 1965-1969 aims to provide library science teachers and libraries with a checklist of material pinpointing the more significant works in each major area. The selection has been limited to 150 works from various parts of the world in order to keep the review within…

  16. The State of the Nation in CPD: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A recent literature review in support of the "State of the Nation" (SoN) investigation into CPD in England indicated a number of limitations both in how researchers see CPD and how schools themselves participate and register this participation in such activities. The SoN review was conducted in the period from late 2007 to early 2008, but was…

  17. Employer Perceptions of Online Degrees: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbaro, Norina L.; Monaghan, Catherine H.

    2009-01-01

    This literature review explores research regarding the perception of potential employers or "gatekeepers" about online degrees in comparison with those earned in a traditional format. This review contributes to the field of knowledge because higher education can benefit from understanding how these perceptions affect students' employment…

  18. Quality in Distance Education: A Preliminary Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Edna Q.; Dooley, Kim E.

    2005-01-01

    With the increase use of the Internet, distance education will continue to provide a vehicle for instruction and/or training. Traditional methods for measuring quality instruction and training may need to be reviewed for their applicability and use with current technological methods of instructional delivery. This paper reviews literature on the…

  19. Truancy Interventions: A Review of the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutphen, Richard D.; Ford, Janet P.; Flaherty, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a systematic review of the literature on evaluative studies of truancy interventions. Method: Included studies evaluating truancy interventions appearing in peer-reviewed academic journals from 1990 to 2007. Findings: In total, 16 studies were assessed. Eight studies used group comparison designs and eight studies…

  20. Functional Impairment of Bipolar Disorder: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanisch, Laura J.

    A critical review of neuropsychological results for subjects with bipolar disorder was compared to magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) findings. Studies containing both neuropsychological and MRI outcomes were limited. Therefore, the neuropsychological literature was independently critiqued, then compared to the MRI results from a prior review by…

  1. Ereaders in Academic Libraries--A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tees, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    This literature review describes the experiences of universities in their use of ereaders as textbook replacements and of academic libraries and their lending of ereaders. Information gained from this review will inform Southern Cross University (SCU) Library's forthcoming Ereader Project, which will trial the lending of ereaders as leisure…

  2. Teaching Chemical Technique: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMeo, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Determines through an historical review of the literature some of the most effective ways to teach manipulative skills in chemistry. Reviews chemical education journals, laboratory manuals, early American chemistry textbooks, analytical chemistry texts, and science education textbooks and journals that address instructional methods for teaching…

  3. Training Paraprofessionals to Support Students with Disabilities: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Virginia L.; Smith, Carol G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to describe intervention research studies in which paraprofessionals received training applicable to student with disabilities. Thirty studies were systematically reviewed to identify (a) characteristics of study participants and settings, (b) characteristics of paraprofessional training and…

  4. Modes of Modelling Assessment--A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frejd, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a critical review of literature investigating assessment of mathematical modelling. Written tests, projects, hands-on tests, portfolio and contests are modes of modelling assessment identified in this study. The written tests found in the reviewed papers draw on an atomistic view on modelling competencies, whereas projects are…

  5. Retirement Financial Planning and the RN: An Integrative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Keele, Shanna; Alpert, Patricia T

    2015-10-01

    This integrative literature review examined the current research on RN retirement. The review identified 3 critical gaps in knowledge: (a) minimal knowledge regarding the economic impact on RN retirement, (b) incomplete information regarding the demographics of RN retirement, and (c) a scarcity of prospective longitudinal RN workforce studies. Future research must address these gaps to better address RN workforce sustainability. PMID:26426132

  6. Disruptive Students in the Classroom: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Daisy F.; Kirkpatrick, Caroline

    This literature review explores the issue of disruptive students in the classroom and offers suggestions and possible solutions to the problem. The review was divided into three major areas: (1) definitions and characteristics of disruptive students; (2) reasons why students misbehave; and (3) suggestions and solutions for solving the problem. The…

  7. Berberine and neurodegeneration: A review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Touqeer; Gilani, Anwar-Ul-Hassan; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    The excessive production of reactive oxygen species in nervous tissues is considered one of the major risk factors of neurodegenerative diseases. During the last two decades, much attention has been paid to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of natural products and compounds isolated from natural products which are often characterized by high efficacy and low adverse effects. Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid, widely present in different medicinal herbs, especially in the genus Berberis. It is mainly used as antidiarrhoeal, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiprotozoal agent. However, current research has focused on its beneficial role in neurodegenerative diseases, mainly due to its powerful antioxidant effect. The therapeutic potential of Berberine in different neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and Huntington disease has been brought to evidence by numerous studies. However, a limited number of reviews focus on the beneficial role of Berberine against neurodegeneration. The main objective of this review is to discuss the role of oxidative stress in neurodegeneration and the potential role of antioxidant compounds, in particular Berberine which is analyzed in its chemical structure, source, bioavailability, therapeutic potential, with special attention to its mechanism of action at a molecular level. PMID:26398393

  8. Adnexal torsion: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kirsten J; Miller, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Adnexal torsion is one of a few gynecologic surgical emergencies. Misdiagnosis or delay in treatment can have permanent sequelae including loss of an ovary with effect on future fertility, peritonitis, and even death. A PubMed search was performed between 1985 and 2012 for reviews, comparative studies, and case reports to provide a review of the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, common laboratory and imaging findings, and treatments of adnexal torsion. Common symptoms of torsion include pain, nausea, and vomiting, with associated abdominal or pelvic tenderness, and may differ in premenarchal and pregnant patients. Laboratory and imaging findings including ultrasound with Doppler analysis, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging can assist in making the diagnosis but should not trump clinical judgment; normal Doppler flow can be observed in up to 60% of adnexal torsion cases. Treatment depends on the individual patient but commonly includes detorsion, even if the adnexae initially seem necrotic, with removal of any associated cysts or salpingo-oophorectomy, because recurrence rates are higher with detorsion alone or detorsion with only cyst aspiration. PMID:24126258

  9. Literature review of teaching skills programs for junior medical officers

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Heryanto; Schoo, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this review was to assess the current evidence regarding the efficacy of teaching skills programs for junior medical officers.  We aimed to compare and contrast these results with findings from previous literature reviews, the last of which were published in 2009. Methods In order to capture studies since the last published literature reviews, five databases and grey literature were searched for publications from January 2008 to January 2015. A search for literature reviews without using the timeframe limitation was also performed. Results The search from January 2008 to January 2015 resulted in the inclusion of 12 studies. Five systematic reviews of the topic were found which included 39 individual studies that were also analysed. Nearly all studies reported positive effects. Twenty nine studies reported change in attitudes, 28 reported modification in knowledge, 28 reported change in behaviour, 6 reported change in the organisation and two reported change in program participant’s students. There were substantial threats of bias present. Conclusions The literature reviewed demonstrated many positive effects of teaching skills programs, which supports their utilization. However, high level outcomes need to be evaluated over longer periods of time to establish their true impact. An organisation specific approach to these programs needs to occur using sound course design principles, and they need to be reported in evaluation trials that are designed with robust methodology. PMID:26826798

  10. Managing COPD using pulmonary rehabilitation: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Mukundu, Lowina; Matiti, Milika Ruth

    2015-12-01

    This article presents a literature review of the benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pulmonary rehabilitation has been shown to decrease patient mortality and hospital admissions. The literature search resulted in 13 articles being selected for review. Three themes were identified: improvement in exercise tolerance, improvement in breathlessness and improvement in health-related quality of life. This review enhances our knowledge of the mechanisms through which pulmonary rehabilitation benefits patients and provides an evidence base to guide nursing decisions regarding patient education, health promotion and psychological support. PMID:26639292

  11. Nail psoriasis: a review of the literature*

    PubMed Central

    Schons, Karen Regina Rosso; Knob, Cristiane Faccin; Murussi, Nádia; Beber, André Avelino Costa; Neumaier, Walter; Monticielo, Odirlei André

    2014-01-01

    Nails are considered epidermal appendages, and as such, are commonly affected in patients with psoriasis, 80% of whom are likely to develop nail psoriasis as a result of their condition. Two patterns of nail disorders have been shown to be caused by psoriasis. Nail matrix involvement can result in features such as leukonychia, pitting (punctures or cupuliform depressions), red spots in the lunula and crumbling. Nail bed involvement, on the other hand, can cause onycholysis, salmon or oil-drop patches, subungual hyperkeratosis and splinter hemorrhages. Nail disease causes aesthetic and functional impairment, and is indicative of more severe forms of psoriasis as well as of joint involvement. The treatment for nail psoriasis involves behavioral interventions, topical medications, or systemic therapy in case of extensive skin or joint involvement. This article presents a review of the main features of nail psoriasis, its clinical presentation, diagnostic and assessment methods, clinical repercussions, and of its available treatment options. PMID:24770509

  12. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Molton, P.M.

    1987-10-01

    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Gaucher disease: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingyi; Wang, Jun

    2008-05-01

    We present a brief review of Gaucher disease, the most common lysosomal storage disease. Gaucher disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by defective function of the catabolic enzyme beta-glucocerebrosidase, leading to an accumulation of its substrate, glucocerebroside, in the mononuclear phagocyte system, especially histiocytes in the spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow; Kupffer cells in the liver; osteoclasts in bone; microglia in the central nervous system; alveolar macrophages in the lungs; and histiocytes in the gastrointestinal tracts, genitourinary tracts, and the peritoneum. Clinical signs and symptoms include neurologic dysfunctions, bone infarcts and malformations, hepatosplenomegaly and hypersplenism leading to anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant glucocerebrosidase is the mainstay of treatment for Gaucher disease, which became the first successfully managed lipid storage disease. Future treatments may include oral enzyme replacement and/or gene therapy interventions. PMID:18466035

  14. Radiation therapy for breast cancer: Literature review.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Karunakaran; Subramanian, Balaji; Yadav, Poonam; Anu Radha, Chandrasekaran; Ramasubramanian, Velayudham

    2016-01-01

    Concave shape with variable size target volume makes treatment planning for the breast/chest wall a challenge. Conventional techniques used for the breast/chest wall cancer treatment provided better sparing of organs at risk (OARs), with poor conformity and uniformity to the target volume. Advanced technologies such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) improve the target coverage at the cost of higher low dose volumes to OARs. Novel hybrid techniques present promising results in breast/chest wall irradiation in terms of target coverage as well as OARs sparing. Several published data compared these technologies for the benefit of the breast/chest wall with or without nodal volumes. The aim of this article is to review relevant data and identify the scope for further research in developing optimal treatment plan for breast/chest wall cancer treatment. PMID:27545009

  15. Stemless shoulder arthroplasty: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    PETRICCIOLI, DARIO; BERTONE, CELESTE; MARCHI, GIACOMO

    2015-01-01

    The design of humeral implants for shoulder arthroplasty has evolved over the years. The new-generation modular shoulder prostheses have an anatomical humeral stem that replicates the three-dimensional parameters of the proximal humerus. An anatomical reconstruction is the best way to restore stability and mobility of the prosthetic shoulder and improve implant durability. However, a perfect anatomical match is not always possible in, for example, patients with post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the shoulder and deformities in the metaphyseal region. To avoid stem-related complications while retaining the advantages of the fourth generation of shoulder implants, different stemless implants have been developed. The stemless shoulder prosthesis is a new concept in shoulder arthroplasty. The authors review the indications, surgical technique, clinical and radiological midterm results, and complications of these humeral implants. PMID:26151038

  16. West Nile Virus: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Lyle R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Nasci, Roger S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Since its introduction in North America in 1999,West Nile virus has produced the 3 largest arboviral neuroinvasive disease outbreaks ever recorded in the United States. OBJECTIVE To review the ecology, virology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, prevention, and control of West Nile virus, with an emphasis on North America. EVIDENCE REVIEW PubMed electronic database was searched through February 5, 2013. United States national surveillance data were gathered from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. FINDINGS West Nile virus is now endemic throughout the contiguous United States, with 16 196 human neuroinvasive disease cases and 1549 deaths reported since 1999. More than 780 000 illnesses have likely occurred. To date, incidence is highest in the Midwest from mid-July to early September. West Nile fever develops in approximately 25% of those infected, varies greatly in clinical severity, and symptoms may be prolonged. Neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis) develops in less than 1% but carries a fatality rate of approximately 10%. Encephalitis has a highly variable clinical course but often is associated with considerable long-term morbidity. Approximately two-thirds of those with paralysis remain with significant weakness in affected limbs. Diagnosis usually rests on detection of IgM antibody in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment is supportive; no licensed human vaccine exists. Prevention uses an integrated pest management approach, which focuses on surveillance, elimination of mosquito breeding sites, and larval and adult mosquito management using pesticides to keep mosquito populations low. During outbreaks or impending outbreaks, emphasis shifts to aggressive adult mosquito control to reduce the abundance of infected, biting mosquitoes. Pesticide exposure and adverse human health events following adult mosquito control operations for West Nile virus appear negligible. CONCLUSIONS AND

  17. [Beauty judgment: review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Faure, Jacques; Bolender, Yves

    2014-03-01

    Esthetic judgments are surely subjective, but as surely, that does not preclude them being studied objectively through rigorous scientific methods. The factual basis of a science of esthetics is not to settle whether some person or image is "objectively beautiful" but rather to determine whether some representative set or sets of individuals judge or experience him/her/it as beautiful or unattractive. The aim of this paper is to review the definitional, theoretical and methodological aspects pertaining to the perception of facial/dental attractiveness by a group of representative individuals. The first part lays down the basic principles of the perception of facial/dental attractiveness: the perception involves a jury, a field of investigation and a test providing quantitative data; the following general determinants of beauty perception are reviewed: the average morphology, the judge's cultural background, the numerology, the judge's ethnical origin. Indirect determinants are the dentition, the osseous architecture and the muscular envelope. Some disruptive factors might alter the judges' facial perception. They might be qualified as either peripheral to the face or psycho-social factors. Peripheral factors include hair style and color, skin hue, wrinkles, lips color... Psycho-social factors cover the personality of the subject being evaluated, his/her intelligence or behavior. The second part deals specifically with the methodology used to determine facial attractiveness and to correlate this latter with a specific morphology. Typically such a study aims to determine average esthetic preferences for some set of visual displays among a particular jury, given a specific task to judge esthetic quality or qualities. The sample being studied, the displays, the jury or jurys, the rating procedure must all be specified prior to collecting data. A specific emphasis will be given to the rating process and the associated morphometrics, the ultimate goal being to

  18. Trachoma survey methods: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Reacher, Mark; Matthews, Fiona; Brayne, Carol; Emerson, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Reliable population-based prevalence data are essential for planning, monitoring and evaluating trachoma control programmes and understanding the scale of the problem, yet they are not currently available for 22 out of 56 trachoma-endemic countries. Three survey methods have been advocated for trachoma: cluster random sampling (CRS); trachoma rapid assessment (TRA); and acceptance sampling trachoma rapid assessment (ASTRA). Our review highlights the benefits of CRS being simple, efficient, repeatable and giving population-based prevalence estimates of all signs of trachoma. There are limitations to TRA, which include: non-representative sampling; does not estimate prevalence; and lacks consistency and accuracy. ASTRA advocates small sample sizes but it is relatively complex, may result in imprecise prevalence estimates and does not estimate cicatricial signs of trachoma. We conclude that CRS should therefore remain the “gold” standard for trachoma surveys. However, among the CRS surveys reviewed, we also found several methodological deficiencies of sample-size calculations, standardization of trachoma graders, reporting of confidence intervals of prevalence estimates, variability of age groups for presentation of age-specific prevalence, and lack of estimation of district prevalence estimates. Properly conducted surveys will be crucial if the objective of global elimination of blinding trachoma is to be charted and realized. Harmonization of survey methods will enhance the conduct and comparability of trachoma surveys needed for reliable mapping of prevalence within endemic countries. Consistent with WHO recommendations, we advocate for continued use of CRS as the survey design of choice for trachoma control programmes and propose ways of improving future surveys based on this method. PMID:19274367

  19. Reviewing Literature in Bioethics Research: Increasing Rigour in Non-Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-09-01

    The recent interest in systematic review methods in bioethics has highlighted the need for greater transparency in all literature review processes undertaken in bioethics projects. In this article, I articulate features of a good bioethics literature review that does not aim to be systematic, but rather to capture and analyse the key ideas relevant to a research question. I call this a critical interpretive literature review. I begin by sketching and comparing three different types of literature review conducted in bioethics scholarship. Then, drawing on Dixon-Wood's concept of critical interpretive synthesis, I put forward six features of a good critical interpretive literature review in bioethics: answering a research question, capturing the key ideas relevant to the research question, analysing the literature as a whole, generating theory, not excluding papers based on rigid quality assessment criteria, and reporting the search strategy. PMID:25655982

  20. Toxocariasis in Cuba: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A.

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies. PMID:22389726

  1. Complex ankle arthrodesis: Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, Remy V; Haleem, Amgad M; Rozbruch, S Robert

    2015-01-01

    Complex ankle arthrodesis is defined as an ankle fusion that is at high risk of delayed and nonunion secondary to patient comorbidities and/or local ankle/hindfoot factors. Risk factors that contribute to defining this group of patients can be divided into systemic factors and local factors pertaining to co-existing ankle or hindfoot pathology. Orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of these risk factors and their association with patients’ outcomes after complex ankle fusions. Both external and internal fixations have demonstrated positive outcomes with regards to achieving stable fixation and minimizing infection. Recent innovations in the application of biophysical agents and devices have shown promising results as adjuncts for healing. Both osteoconductive and osteoinductive agents have been effectively utilized as biological adjuncts for bone healing with low complication rates. Devices such as pulsed electromagnetic field bone stimulators, internal direct current stimulators and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound bone stimulators have been associated with faster bone healing and improved outcomes scores when compared with controls. The aim of this review article is to present a comprehensive approach to the management of complex ankle fusions, including the use of biophysical adjuncts for healing and a proposed algorithm for their treatment. PMID:26396936

  2. Cockayne's syndrome: a case report. Literature review.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Sordo, María de la Luz; Hernández-Zamora, Edgar; Montoya-Pérez, Luis Alberto; Aldape-Barrios, Beatriz Catalina

    2006-05-01

    Cockayne s syndrome is a genetic disorder with a recessive autosomal inheritance, described first by Cockayne in 1936. Patients with this syndrome present failure to thrive, short stature, premature aging, neurological alterations, photosensitivity, delayed eruption of the primary teeth, congenitally absent of some permanent teeth, partial macrodontia, atrophy of the alveolar process and caries. It could be caused by two gene mutations, CNK1 (ERCC8) and ERCC6, located on the 5 and 10 chromosomes respectively, causing two variations of Cockayne s syndrome, CS-A, secondary to a ERCC8 mutation and CS-B with ERCC6 mutation, the last one causes hypersensitivity to the ultraviolet light secondary to a DNA repair defect. The syndrome is also associated with mutations of the XPB, XPD and XPG genes. In this report we present a 9 year and 4 month old patient. He had a height of 94 cm, weight of 8.6 Kg, head circumference of 42 cm. and blood pressure of 120/80. Cachectic habitus, kyphosis, microcephaly, oval face, sunken eyes, a thin and beaklike nose, lack of subcutaneous facial fat (especially in the middle of the face), and large ears give the patient a birdlike appearance. It is notorious the photosensitivity in all the sun-exposed skin. The patient also displays delayed psychomotor skills and mental retardation. In the oral cavity we found deficient hygiene, gingivitis, cervical caries, enamel hipoplasia, abnormal position of the upper and inferior lateral incisors, macrodontia of the upper central teeth, the left one presented a caries. In the x-ray we observed congenital absence of 14, 23 and 24 teeth and mandibular hipoplasia. The aim of this review is to show the dentistry community the characteristics of the Cockayne s syndrome by means of a clinical case. PMID:16648759

  3. Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kopáčová, Marcela; Urban, Ondřej; Cyrany, Jiří; Laco, Jan; Bureš, Jan; Bártová, Jolana; Tachecí, Ilja

    2013-01-01

    Cronkhite-Canada syndrome is a rare disease characterised by diffuse polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract, diarrhoea, weight loss, abdominal pain, cutaneous hyperpigmentation, dystrophic changes of fingernails, and alopecia. The etiology is probably autoimmune and diagnosis is based on history, physical examination, endoscopic findings of gastrointestinal polyposis, and histology. The disease is very rare; about 450 cases have been described in the literature so far. We present a review of the literature with our own picture documentation of this rare condition. PMID:24369458

  4. Unilateral Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Nagihan; Çağırankaya, L. Berna; Akkaya, Nursel

    2014-01-01

    Congenital absence of maxillary permanent canines is an extremely rare condition, which may appear as part of a syndrome or as a nonsyndromic form. Nonsyndromic canine agenesis combined with other types of tooth agenesis has occasionally been described in the literature but isolated cases are rarely observed. This report presents an isolated case of maxillary permanent canine agenesis in a healthy 18-year-old female patient and a literature review on the prevalence, etiology, and differential diagnosis of the condition. PMID:25177502

  5. Childbirth Education Outcomes: An Integrative Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Koehn, Mary L.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to identify and describe recent empirical studies of childbirth education outcomes and to identify areas for further study. The search produced 63 studies; only 12 met the inclusion criteria. The literature demonstrated inconclusive evidence regarding the effectiveness of childbirth education. None of the studies used a theoretical framework that proposed multiple factors, as opposed to childbirth education alone, that impact the outcomes. Health-focused versus illness-focused outcomes were also addressed. PMID:17273304

  6. Solutions in radiology services management: a literature review*

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Aline Garcia; Vergara, Lizandra Garcia Lupi; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz; Wagner, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at reviewing the literature to identify solutions for problems observed in radiology services. Materials and Methods Basic, qualitative, exploratory literature review at Scopus and SciELO databases, utilizing the Mendeley and Illustrator CC Adobe softwares. Results In the databases, 565 papers – 120 out of them, pdf free – were identified. Problems observed in the radiology sector are related to procedures scheduling, humanization, lack of training, poor knowledge and use of management techniques, and interaction with users. The design management provides the services with interesting solutions such as Benchmarking, CRM, Lean Approach, ServiceBlueprinting, continued education, among others. Conclusion Literature review is an important tool to identify problems and respective solutions. However, considering the small number of studies approaching management of radiology services, this is a great field of research for the development of deeper studies. PMID:26543281

  7. Safety signal detection: the relevance of literature review.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Helena; Clément, Mallorie; Rollason, Victoria

    2014-07-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) represent an important risk for patients and have a significant economic impact on health systems. ADRs are the fifth most common cause of hospital death, with a burden estimated at 197,000 deaths per year in the EU. This has a societal cost of 79 billion per year. Because of this strong impact in public health, regulatory authorities (RAs) worldwide are implementing new pharmacovigilance legislation to promote and protect public health by reducing the burden of ADRs through the detection of safety signals. Although, traditionally, signal detection activities have mainly been performed based on spontaneous reporting from healthcare professionals and national health RAs, the new pharmacovigilance legislation underlines the relevance of other sources of information (such as scientific literature) for the evaluation of the benefit-risk balance of a certain product. This review aims to highlight the relevance of periodic scientific literature screening in the safety signal detection process. The authors present four practical examples where a safety signal that was detected from a literature report had an impact on the lifecycle of a drug. In addition, based on practical experience of the screening of medical and scientific literature for safety purposes, this article analyses the requirements of the new pharmacovigilance guidelines on literature screening and highlights the need for the implementation of a literature review procedure and the main challenges encountered when performing literature screening for safety aspects. PMID:24895178

  8. Strategic groups in health care: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Martha M; Rivers, Patrick A

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the literature that discusses the relationship between strategic group membership and performance in the nursing home industry. This literature review examines the relationship between organizational structure and performance in the nursing home industry. Results from these studies suggest industry stability of segmentation; limitation of strategic choice due to high mobility barriers (as represented by facility, staffing and location variables); quality is controlled by the existing combinations of industry regulation and market competition; and the existence of performance differences among strategic groups. PMID:21840900

  9. A review of gear housing dynamics and acoustics literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Teik Chin; Singh, Rajendra

    1989-01-01

    A review of the available literature on gear housing vibration and noise radiation is presented. Analytical and experimental methodologies used for bearing dynamics, housing vibration and noise, mounts and suspensions, and the overall gear and housing system are discussed. Typical design guidelines, as outlined by various investigators, are also included. Results of this review indicate that although many attempts were made to characterize the dynamics of gearbox system components, no comprehensive set of design criteria currently exist. Moreover, the literature contains conflicting reports concerning relevant design guidelines.

  10. A palliative approach to neurological care: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Gofton, Teneille E; Jog, Mandar S; Schulz, Valerie

    2009-05-01

    This review assesses the current opinion towards early palliative care in neurology and discusses the existing evidence base. A comprehensive literature search resulted in 714 publications with 53 being directly relevant to the scope of this review. The current literature reflects primarily expert opinion and describes a growing interest in the early introduction of palliative principles into neurological care. Early initiation of palliative interventions has the potential to improve quality of life, enhance symptom management and assist in advance care planning. Further data is required to determine whether this shift in philosophy has a positive impact on patient care. PMID:19534328

  11. Use of wildlife webcams - Literature review and annotated bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratz, Joan M.; Conk, Shannon J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Conservation Training Center requested a literature review product that would serve as a resource to natural resource professionals interested in using webcams to connect people with nature. The literature review focused on the effects on the public of viewing wildlife through webcams and on information regarding installation and use of webcams. We searched the peer reviewed, published literature for three topics: wildlife cameras, virtual tourism, and technological nature. Very few publications directly addressed the effect of viewing wildlife webcams. The review of information on installation and use of cameras yielded information about many aspects of the use of remote photography, but not much specifically regarding webcams. Aspects of wildlife camera use covered in the literature review include: camera options, image retrieval, system maintenance and monitoring, time to assemble, power source, light source, camera mount, frequency of image recording, consequences for animals, and equipment security. Webcam technology is relatively new and more publication regarding the use of the technology is needed. Future research should specifically study the effect that viewing wildlife through webcams has on the viewers' conservation attitudes, behaviors, and sense of connectedness to nature.

  12. Selective Guide to Literature on Software Review Sources. Engineering Literature Guides, Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Margaret H., Ed.

    This selective literature guide serves as a directory to software evaluation sources for all sizes of microcomputers. Information is provided on review sources and guides which deal with a variety of applications such as library, engineering, school, and business as well as a variety of systems, including DOS and CP/M. This document is intended to…

  13. TNF inhibitors: a review of the recent patent literature.

    PubMed

    Watson, Bob

    2002-12-01

    Overproduction of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is implicated in a wide range of pathological conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis and stroke. This review focuses on recent developments in the patent literature, which are aimed principally at the suppression of TNF release. The review will separately detail the development of biological agents, such as soluble TNF receptors and engineered antibodies, and small molecules, which primarily target TNF. PMID:12800056

  14. Text mining applications in psychiatry: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Abbe, Adeline; Grouin, Cyril; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Falissard, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    The expansion of biomedical literature is creating the need for efficient tools to keep pace with increasing volumes of information. Text mining (TM) approaches are becoming essential to facilitate the automated extraction of useful biomedical information from unstructured text. We reviewed the applications of TM in psychiatry, and explored its advantages and limitations. A systematic review of the literature was carried out using the CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases. In this review, 1103 papers were screened, and 38 were included as applications of TM in psychiatric research. Using TM and content analysis, we identified four major areas of application: (1) Psychopathology (i.e. observational studies focusing on mental illnesses) (2) the Patient perspective (i.e. patients' thoughts and opinions), (3) Medical records (i.e. safety issues, quality of care and description of treatments), and (4) Medical literature (i.e. identification of new scientific information in the literature). The information sources were qualitative studies, Internet postings, medical records and biomedical literature. Our work demonstrates that TM can contribute to complex research tasks in psychiatry. We discuss the benefits, limits, and further applications of this tool in the future. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26184780

  15. Transverse sacral fractures: case series and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Miriam Y.; Reidy, Declan P.; Nolan, Paul C.; Finkelstein, Joel A.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To report experience with transverse sacral fracture, an uncommon injury frequently associated with neurologic deficit, and to perform a meta-analysis of the literature in order to define the role of decompression for the management of sacral fractures. Design A review of 7 cases. Setting A university-affiliated tertiary care centre. Patients Seven patients with transverse fractures of the sacrum. The mean follow-up was 13 months. Interventions A review of the clinical data and a search of the literature for studies that reported on 4 or more patients with a transverse sacral fracture. Main outcome measures Mechanism of injury, type of neurologic deficit and its management. Results The most common mechanism in the 7 study patients was a fall from a height. Six patients had neurologic deficits, mostly in the form of bowel or bladder disturbance. Five of these were treated with surgical decompression, and 4 of them had an improvement in neurologic function. The 7 original studies from the literature dealt with a total of 55 patients. As in the study patients, falls from a height and motor vehicle accidents predominated as the mechanisms of injury. In contrast to patients in this study, 20 of 48 patients in the literature review with neurologic deficits were treated conservatively. Conclusions The outcomes in this study are similar to those reported in the literature. The place of surgical decompression for patients with neurologic deficit cannot be clearly determined from the evidence currently available. PMID:11603749

  16. Liver tumor characterization--review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, C F; Maddalena, M E; Cui, X W; Schreiber-Dietrich, D; Ignee, A

    2012-07-01

    Multicenter trials to assess contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for the imaging of focal liver lesions (FLLs) have included more than 1000 patients. This article reviews the published literature pertaining to these trials to determine the role of CEUS in the characterization of FLL. PMID:22723026

  17. The Literature Review: Six Steps to Success. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machi, Lawrence A.; McEvoy, Brenda T.

    2012-01-01

    This new edition of the best-selling book offers graduate students in education and the social sciences a road map to developing and writing an effective literature review for a research project, thesis, or dissertation. Organized around a proven six-step model and incorporating technology into all of the steps, the book provides examples,…

  18. [Remineralizing methods in early caries lesions - review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Berczyński, Paweł; Gmerek, Anna; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of early caries lesions are the basic tenets of minimally invasive dentistry. One of the key elements of a biological approach is the usage of remineralizing agents, which are great alternative to surgical intervention. This article shows a review of the literature concering materials used for the treatment of early caries lesions. PMID:27116859

  19. Cancer Nursing Education: Literature Review and Documentary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Helen; Blunden, Gillian; Hek, Gill

    The knowledge and skills needed by cancer nurses and the content and strategies of England's existing cancer nursing education programs were examined. The study included a comprehensive literature review and an analysis of course documents from selected English National Board-approved post-qualifying cancer nursing and palliative care courses…

  20. Preparing Regular Classroom Students for Mainstreaming: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Stacey; And Others

    The paper is a product of the 3-year project, "Functional Mainstreaming for Success," designed to develop a model for instructional mainstreaming of handicapped children (3-6 years old) in community settings. The literature review examines activities and methods to prepare nonhandicapped children for the mainstreaming of handicapped children.…

  1. The Development of Assistant Principals: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleszewski, Ashley; Shoho, Alan; Barnett, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to add to the discussion of assistant principals (APs), a position that has been under-represented in the professional literature. Design/methodology/approach: An extensive search was undertaken on assistant principals, vice principals, and deputy head teachers from various sources, including journals,…

  2. Medicare Prospective Reimbursement for Mental Health Services: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, William R.; Thompson, Warren A.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews literature evaluating appropriateness of Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) through Diagnostic-Related Groups (DRGs), since its implementation in 1983, for psychiatric care. Cites shortcomings that make the system untenable for mental health care, including lack of homogeneity of DRGs, inability to predict length of stay, and…

  3. Professional Identity Development: A Review of the Higher Education Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Franziska; Macklin, Rob; Bridges, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extant higher education literature on the development of professional identities. Through a systematic review approach 20 articles were identified that discussed in some way professional identity development in higher education journals. These articles drew on varied theories, pedagogies and learning strategies; however,…

  4. A Strategy for Improving Literature Reviews in Psychology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Retta E.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests an intervention method designed to teach undergraduates how to write literature review papers. Develops a series of exercises addressing typical student difficulties in completing assignments. Provides a sequence of assignments designed to teach students to formulate a topic, summarize articles, and integrate findings. (Author/NL)

  5. The State of ICT Education in China: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jianhua; Xu, Fuyin

    2010-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education has made significant progress in China in the last two decades and this paper provides an overall presentation of its prevalence and usage. In this paper, a literature review has been conducted based on the research in the field of ICT in education. Eleven major issues have been…

  6. Qualitative Analysis Techniques for the Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we provide a framework for analyzing and interpreting sources that inform a literature review or, as it is more aptly called, a research synthesis. Specifically, using Leech and Onwuegbuzie's (2007, 2008) frameworks, we delineate how the following four major source types inform research syntheses: talk, observations,…

  7. Arts Integration Frameworks, Research & Practice. A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaford, Gail

    2007-01-01

    This literature review is an essential resource for anyone involved in the research, theories, or methods and practices of arts integration. It covers what has been written between 1995 and 2007 in the U.S. and abroad and includes an historical overview, definitions and theoretical frameworks for arts integration, research and evaluation studies…

  8. The Process of Technological Innovation: Reviewing the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This review of literature concerned with technological innovation and innovation process research is divided into five general parts. Part I defines basic concepts and terms and outlines major analytical themes. Part II develops the individual and organizational dimensions within which innovative activities take place. In Part III, the sequence of…

  9. Indoor-Outdoor Air Pollution Relationship: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Ferris B.; And Others

    While extensive measurements have been and are being made of outdoor pollution, relatively few data have been gathered on indoor pollution. The data that are available are compiled and analyzed in the report. Based on a review of the literature, it was possible to infer relationships between indoor and outdoor pollution and to identify factors…

  10. Teenage Pregnancy and Motherhood: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps-Yonas, Susan

    1980-01-01

    The literature is reviewed in terms of medical studies: who becomes pregnant, teenagers who choose to abort, psychological considerations, contraceptive utilization, attitudes of male adolescents, and the children of adolescents. The effectiveness of special programs for pregnant adolescents and their offspring and implications for policy and…

  11. Challenges Confronting Beginning Researchers in Conducting Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Der-Thanq; Wang, Yu-Mei; Lee, Wei Ching

    2016-01-01

    Conducting literature review is a complicated, sometimes confusing and laborious process that beginning educational researchers, especially graduate students, often find challenging. However, in the past these challenges were hardly considered, but in more recent times they have been increasingly considered by various faculties and graduate…

  12. Measuring High School Graduation Rates: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savich, Carl

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviewed the research literature on graduation rates in U.S. high schools to evaluate and assess the findings. The methodology employed was to determine the measuring method that researchers used in reaching their findings. The strengths and weaknesses of the method employed were then analyzed. Flaws and inaccuracies were examined and…

  13. Job Satisfaction of Academic Librarians: A Review of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirfakhrai, Mohammad H.

    This literature review on job satisfaction of academic librarians is divided into two sections. The first section deals with the conceptual framework which includes two theoretical approaches to job satisfaction. These theories include Maslow's Needs Hierarchy Theory and Herzberg's Two-Factor (Motivation/Hygiene) Theory. Criticisms of these…

  14. A Review of the Literature on College Administrators and Administrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, George; Uhse, Stefan

    A review of the extensive literature on college administration and college administrators reveals there are relatively few empirical studies in the field. It was also observed that: there is widespread agreement on a few broad principles; there has been a heavy emphasis on human relations and proper administrative procedures; there are fundamental…

  15. Health Status of Migrant Farmworkers: A Literature Review and Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, George S.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the medical literature on the health status of migrant farmworkers. Finds adequate coverage of dental health, nutrition, and childhood health, as well as several disease categories. Finds that more research is needed on population estimates, basic health status indicators, and the prevalence rates of the most common causes of death. (FMW)

  16. Keloidal Atypical Fibroxanthoma: Case and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tongdee, Emily; Touloei, Khasha; Shitabata, Paul K.; Shareef, Shahjahan; Maranda, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    Keloidal atypical fibroxanthoma (KAF) has recently been categorized as a variant of atypical fibroxanthoma. This paper will emphasize the importance of including KAF in both clinical and histological differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions which exhibit keloidal collagen and will also review the current literature on epidemiology, pathogenesis, histology, immunochemistry and treatments. PMID:27462224

  17. A review of gear housing dynamics and acoustics literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Rajendra; Lim, Teik Chin

    1988-01-01

    A review of the available literature on gear housing vibration and noise reduction is presented. Analytical and experimental methodologies used for bearing dynamics, housing vibration and noise, mounts and suspensions, and the overall geared and housing system are discussed. Typical design guidelines as outlined by various investigators are given.

  18. The Effectiveness of Intensive Interaction, A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Nick; Bodicoat, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intensive Interaction is an approach used for communicating with people with profound and multiple intellectual disabilities [PMID] or autism. It has gained increased recognition as a helpful technique, but the evidence has not been systematically reviewed. Method: Computerized and hand searches of the literature were conducted using…

  19. One-to-One Mobile Computing. Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This literature review is intended to provide practical information; lessons learned and promising practices which have been drawn from recent Kindergarten to Grade 12 (K-12) one-to-one mobile computing research reports and related articles. The information is presented in the form of answers to the following questions: (1) How is one-to-one…

  20. Teacher Educators' Identity: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izadinia, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that the development of a teacher educator identity is a central process in becoming a teacher educator. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the concept of teacher identity. However, teacher educator identity seems to be still under-researched. In this article, a review of literature on teacher educator identity is…

  1. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  2. Review of the Evaluative Literature on Open Admissions at CUNY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piesco, Judith; And Others

    This review summarizes the literature concerning evaluations of the Open Admissions Policy at CUNY from September 1970, when it was initially implemented, to Aguust 1974. The summaries are categorized under six headings: (1) research reports, containing data on the impact of the open admissions policy on students; (2) research reports, containing…

  3. High School Capstone Courses: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannapel, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    This literature review on high school capstone courses found that, while the idea of such courses has been around since the 1990s, such courses have not been widely implemented and virtually no research exists on their effectiveness. Nevertheless, several high schools around the country have implemented senior culminating projects in which high…

  4. The Socialization of Music Teachers: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Many institutions provide an undergraduate experience that can lead to professional certification to teach music. Each institution provides a unique socialization experience in the music teaching profession. In this literature review, studies are presented that provide information on the decision to become a music teacher, the early socialization…

  5. Bilateral nasolabial cysts - case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Aruna R; Singh, Abhinav Pratap; Nandikoor, Shrivalli; Meganathan, Prabhu

    2016-01-01

    Nasolabial cyst is a non-odontogenic, extraosseous, soft tissue cyst, commonly unilateral, located in the nasolabial fold. Bilateral nasolabial cysts are of rare occurrence. This case report describes the multimodality imaging appearance of bilateral nasolabial cysts with a review of literature.

  6. Teachers' Attitudes toward Computers: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupagne, Michel; Krendl, Kathy A.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the literature from the mid-1980s to the present on teachers' attitudes toward computers in the following areas: (1) perceptions of computers; (2) impact of computer use on attitude; and (3) impact of personal and learning environment characteristics. A generally positive attitude is noted as well as several concerns about computers in the…

  7. CBT and Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincade, Sharon R.; McBride, Dawn Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    The overall intention of this project was to enhance awareness, for those involved with persons on the autism spectrum, of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) strategies for treating persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The project involved a literature review on autism and the use of CBT strategies for people with autism spectrum disorders…

  8. Role modeling in undergraduate nursing education: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Adele; Mills, Jane; Birks, Melanie; Budden, Lea

    2014-06-01

    The transition of nursing education from the hospital setting to the university sector over recent decades has opened dialog about who is guiding the development of nursing students' professional identity. In addition, there is ongoing debate over real or perceived gaps between nursing student learning in the university and the clinical area, how this translates into professional behaviors and how well students make the transition between the two settings. This paper presents the findings of an integrative literature review into the topic of role modeling in undergraduate nursing education. This review was conducted to identify and appraise research findings about role modeling of professional behaviors for undergraduate nursing students. Literature reviewed from 2000 onwards assesses what is currently known about role modeling of undergraduate nursing students. A systematic search of the databases of CINAHL, Scopus and PubMed from 2000 onwards resulted in the selection of 33 articles for deeper analysis. Two clear themes emerged from the literature, the first relating to nurse clinicians as role models for students during clinical placements and the second relating to nurse academics as role models in the academic setting. Findings from this integrative literature review show an imbalance in the recognition of the role modeling of professional behaviors in the clinical versus the academic setting. Nurses in academic settings have more contact with the students over their period of study and as such, the significance of nurse academics as student role models requires further investigation. PMID:24411579

  9. Extended School Year Programs for Handicapped Children: Literature Review Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy Research Associates, Wills Point, TX.

    A review of available literature on extended school year (ESY) programming (1972-1988) is structured around an exploration of 11 questions developed by special education administrative personnel. Issues addressed include how regression/recoupment (R/R) is measured; the related concepts of generalization and maintenance; how R/R is related to…

  10. A Closer World: A Review of Acquisitions Literature, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German, Lisa

    1993-01-01

    Reviews literature from 1992 that focused on issues concerning acquisitions. Highlights include acquisitions organization; conference reports; pricing issues and budgetary concerns; vendor performance; electronic publishing; automation; and acquisitions abroad. Issues of access versus ownership, copyright, and storage of electronic media are…

  11. A Review of the Literature Related to the Cloze Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fram, Ralph D.

    This review of the literature related to the cloze procedure includes most of the studies reported from 1953 to 1971. One hundred ninety-eight documents are included and are divided into four categories, studies in which the cloze procedure has been applied (1) as a measure of readability, (2) as a measure of comprehension, (3) as a measure of…

  12. Female Coaches and Job Stress: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradford, Shelley H.; Keshock, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies on job satisfaction for females in the coaching profession have indicated many specific factors that can lead to job transfers, attrition, or burnout. This article reviews empirically-based studies from the extant literature that sheds some light on these critical concerns in the field. The focus is on the central issues of problems…

  13. Learning in Communities of Inquiry: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, Liam; Kanuka, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate learning in communities of inquiry (CoI) as the terms are defined in Garrison, Anderson, and Archer's (2000) framework. We identified 252 reports from 2000-2008 that referenced the framework, and we reviewed them using Ogawan and Malen's (1991) strategy for synthesizing multi-vocal bodies of literature.…

  14. Motivation to Transfer Training: An Integrative Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Veermans, Koen; Festner, Dagmar; Gruber, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Motivation to transfer is essential for the transfer of training. Without motivation, newly acquired knowledge and skills will not be applied at work. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to summarize, critique, and synthesize past transfer motivation research and to offer directions for future investigations. First, seven…

  15. A Review of the Literature on Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, John; Roy, Sylvie; Harmel, Sandra; Jesney, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This review of the current literature on second language learning was to inform the following four questions: (1) what are the effects of learning a second language on the first language? (2) What is the role of content instruction in offering a second language? (3) What are the effects of learning a second language on students with special needs?…

  16. Veterans as Students: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Barre, Allan A.

    The literature reviewed in this paper depicts the veteran as an older student who performs better academically than the nonveteran. This is accomplished despite lower aptitude scores and a lower high school percentile rank. The veteran is career-oriented, committed to the educational process, and better able to use the education once it is…

  17. International Service Learning: Analytical Review of Published Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Brett

    2015-01-01

    International service learning (ISL) is an emerging area of international education. This paper summarizes academic journal articles on ISL programs and organizes the relevant publications by academic disciplines, service learning project areas, and other topics. The basis for this review is relevant literature from full-text scholarly peer…

  18. Influences on Learning in Early Childhood: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Raymond S.; And Others

    This paper is an interdisciplinary review of literature related to early childhood education over the past five years. Although some references to infancy and toddlerhood are included, the emphasis is on children's learning and education in the preschool and primary grades (age 3 through age 9-10). Chapter I, The Early Childhood Problem, is an…

  19. Individualised Educational Programmes. Part I: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Alan; Baynes, Anne; Dyson, Alan; Riddell, Sheila; Banks, Pauline; Kane, Jean; Wilson, Alastair

    2002-01-01

    The first of two articles on individualized education programs (IEPs) reviews the literature. It traces the origins of IEPs and compares and contrasts their use in different educational systems. Issues in IEPs in the United Kingdom, other European countries, the United States, and Australia are analyzed and general implications for policy and…

  20. Terminology of Sexuality Expressions that Exclude Penetration: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menn, Mindy; Goodson, Patricia; Pruitt, Buzz; Peck-Parrott, Kelli

    2011-01-01

    Precise terminology is paramount in sexuality education. Most sexuality research focuses on the dichotomous concepts of sexual intercourse and virginity, yet there are many expressions of sexuality classified as neither. The purpose of this literature review is to identify and examine the various terms and definitions describing sexuality…

  1. [Urachus adenocarcinoma case report and review of literature].

    PubMed

    Thibaudeau, E; Venara, A; Brassart, E; Azzouzi, A R; Arnaud, J-P; Dubois, F

    2011-05-01

    This article describes the case of a 38-year-old patient with a urachus tumor treated surgically by resection and chemotherapy. When the chemotherapy was stopped, a peritoneal carcinomatosis appeared. We are conducting a review of the literature regarding the diagnosis and treatment of urachus tumors. PMID:21514541

  2. Literature Review: Reported Educator Concerns Regarding Cyberspace Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czubaj, Camilia Anne

    2004-01-01

    Researchers and educators have expressed many concerns regarding cyberspace curricula. In this review of the literature, it was found that articles dealing with educator concerns regarding cyberspace curricula reported five major categorical concerns: insufficient teacher training, insufficient educator involvement in the technology development…

  3. Successful Leadership: A Review of the International Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Christopher; Sammons, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    School leaders are under considerable pressure to demonstrate the contribution of their work to school improvement, which has resulted in the creation of a wide range of literature which addresses leadership in the context of school improvement. This review pays particular attention to issues including transformational leadership,…

  4. Residential Segregation: A Review of the Literature. Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Douglas B.

    A review of the literature on residential segregation reveals that Blacks remain the most segregated group in American cities, despite the more recent arrival of Hispanic and Asian groups. By one measure--the index of dissimilarity with respect to Whites--Blacks are 1.6 times more segregated than Hispanics, and twice as segregated as Asians. Race…

  5. Mindfully Teaching in the Classroom: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Nicole J.; Albrecht, Patricia M.; Cohen, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The practice of mindfulness is being used with increased frequency in schools around the world. In the current literature review we outline some of the core concepts and practices associated with mindfulness and discuss studies analysing the process of mindfulness teacher training. Preliminary research in this emerging field suggests that…

  6. ADHD with Comorbid Anxiety: A Review of the Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, David Beck; Rostain, Anthony L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective/Method: ADHD is often comorbid with anxiety disorders, with rates approaching 25% in many samples. This current review's goal is to examine the literature on ADHD with comorbid anxiety from 1998 to the present. Results: Recent studies indicate that anxiety in ADHD may a) partially inhibit the impulsivity and response inhibition deficits,…

  7. Investigating the Problem of Skill Generalization: Literature Review III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haring, Norris

    The third in a series of literature reviews, this monograph presents three articles on skill generalization among individuals with severe disabilities. Kathleen A. Liberty analyzes the results of 15 studies to determine how teaching self-control affected students' performance in training and generalization, "Behavior-Control of Stimulus Events to…

  8. Depression in Down Syndrome: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, J. C.; Dosen, A.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Janzing, J. G. E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Depression has been frequently reported in individuals with Down Syndrome (DS). The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive, critical review of the clinically relevant literature concerning depression in DS, with a focus on epidemiology, potential risk factors, diagnosis, course characteristics and treatment. Methods: We…

  9. A Review of "Suicidal Intent" within the Existing Suicide Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasley, Joseph P.; Ghosh, Biswadip; Huggins, Joseph; Bell, Missy R.; Adler, Lawrence E.; Shroyer, A. Laurie W.

    2008-01-01

    The results of a systematic literature review that investigated suicide intent are presented. Of the 44 relevant articles identified, 17 investigated the relationships between various suicide risk factors and suicide intent and 25 publications investigated the relationships between suicide intent and various suicide outcomes. Despite recent…

  10. Attrition of Student Affairs Professionals: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Nancy J.

    1988-01-01

    Found in a review of the literature on attrition from the student affairs department that student affairs professionals know little about the extent and causes of the attrition problem. Suggests environmental redesign and personal and professional strategies for addressing this issue. (Author/ABL)

  11. Breakpoint: left main stent fracture--review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tizón-Marcos, Helena; De Larochellière, Robert; Larose, Eric

    2009-08-01

    The incidence and morbidity associated with stent fracture are unknown. Recommendations and evidence-based treatment are lacking. We report a case of symptomatic fracture of a sirolimus-eluting stent advancing from the left main into the circumflex coronary artery, forming an acute angle with calcifications at the hinge point; the literature is reviewed and treatment options are discussed. PMID:19689660

  12. Endometrial Osseous Metaplasia: Case Report with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Patil, SB; Narchal, S; Paricharak, DG; More, SS

    2013-01-01

    Endometrial osseous metaplasia is a rare pathological condition with mature bone in the endometrium and can be a cause for menorrhagia and infertility as bone in the endometrium acts like intrauterine contraceptive device. We report one such case with brief review of literature in a 28-year-old woman presenting with history of menorrhagia. PMID:24349836

  13. Integrated Programs for Science and Mathematics: Review of Related Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Kursat; Pehlivan, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a review of literature on the integration of science and mathematics, focusing on the dominant trends in the related studies. Majority of the studies conclude that the concept of the integration between science and mathematics is still vogue. On the other hand, there are various methods, techniques and models to achieve this…

  14. Child Health Assessment; Part I: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Kathryn E., Ed.; Douglas, Helen Bee, Ed.

    Presented are 13 papers describing the Seattle Project and reviewing the literature relevant to the project's purpose of developing and testing an assessment format to enable nurses to better identify health and developmental problems in children. Six papers pertaining to predictor variables cover the areas of prenatal and perinatal factors,…

  15. Focus-on-Form Instruction: A Review of Related Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahani, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In this literature review I have first provided an introduction in which I've clarified the meaning of focus on form issue and some debates about its advantages and disadvantages and the needed degree of focus on form in teaching structures in classroom. Then I have stated some features of focus on form and the ways that focus on form can…

  16. Adolescents' Views of Helping Professionals: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freake, Helen; Barley, Val; Kent, Gerry

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews 54 papers exploring adolescents' own views of their interactions with doctors, mental health workers and other "helping professionals". Twelve global themes emerge repeatedly in the qualitative literature, where adolescents are asked to talk about their preferences or their experiences of receiving help from such professionals.…

  17. Remote sensing of natural resources: Quarterly literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A quarterly review of technical literature concerning remote sensing techniques is presented. The format contains indexed and abstracted materials with emphasis on data gathering techniques performed or obtained remotely from space, aircraft, or ground-based stations. Remote sensor applications including the remote sensing of natural resources are presented.

  18. Gender Equity in Education: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucidi, Alison Danielle

    This document reviews literature on gender equity in U.S. schools. The paper reports that there is an unconscious ignorance on the growing achievement gap between male and female students. Young women in the United States today still are not participating equally in the education system. A 1992 report found that girls do not receive equitable…

  19. Ethical Business Cultures: A Literature Review and Implications for HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Jondle, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    This literature review identifies characteristics of ethical business cultures, describes factors, considered to be important in developing such cultures, describes current practices of developing ethical culture programs, and discusses the role of HRD in developing ethical business cultures. We argue that ethical thinking and behavior can be…

  20. Understanding Aggressive Girls in Canada: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artz, Sibylle; Nicholson, Diana

    This review of the literature on aggression and violence in girls, especially girls in Canada, begins with data showing increasing rates of assault and other violent crimes by Canadian girls, although the rate for girls continues to be much less than for boys (a fact possibly responsible for the small amount of research on this population). The…

  1. Research Perspectives on Core French: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on core French in three main areas: student diversity, delivery models for the core French program, and instructional approaches. These topics are put into context through a discussion of studies on community attitudes to French as a second language (FSL), dissatisfaction with core French outcomes and…

  2. Approximating the Practice of Writing the Dissertation Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucan, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article is an attempt to join the conversation about doctoral preparation that has been a persistent but intermittent topic of interest in educational journals. Previous articles have focused on the format of the dissertation, the purpose of the literature review, and approaches to supporting doctoral students in acquiring professional…

  3. Counselors' Attitudes toward Homosexuality: A Selective Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, James

    1988-01-01

    Presents review of counselors' and psychotherapists' attitudes toward homosexuality. Reports analysis of the patterns emerging from published survey literature which revealed considerable division and contradiction in the attitudes reported. Proposes the source of such inconsistency to be the mixed messages mental health personnel receive from…

  4. A Literature Review of the Psychosocial Development of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to examine existing models of psychosocial development of older adults especially framed around human mortality as a point of discussion that informs all aspects of human development in older adulthood. Well known, in addition to burgeoning, human psychosocial development models that considered older…

  5. Early Childhood Discipline: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Castle, Sally L.

    2008-01-01

    In this literature review concerning early childhood discipline we particularly highlight American children's discipline with respect to historical perspectives, generational theories, gender issues, parental styles, methods of discipline, and corporal punishment. We also address corporal punishment's history, the debate among experts, beliefs and…

  6. Dropouts: A Review of Literature. Project Talent Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Timothy C.

    This report reviews the research literature from 1975-1983 on potential secondary school dropouts and strategies for effective dropout prevention programs. The information provided is intended to help communities in modifying and/or constructing treatment programs for potential dropouts. The report is divided into three sections. In the first…

  7. Music's Representation in Early Childhood Education Journals: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Vanessa L.

    2012-01-01

    In this review of literature, the author explored the representation of music in early childhood education researcher and practitioner journal articles. Thirty-eight pertinent journal articles were identified in a keyword search for "music" in eight journals. The search was limited to a 5-year period, 2005-2010. Article summaries were categorized…

  8. Collaborative Learning in Music Education: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luce, David W.

    2001-01-01

    States that collaborative learning has been absent from the field of music education. Presents a literature review on collaborative learning, focusing on issues such as the issue of student achievement and the difference between cooperative and collaborative learning. Explores research on collaborative learning in music education. Includes…

  9. Debugging: A Review of the Literature from an Educational Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Renee; Fitzgerald, Sue; Lewandowski, Gary; Murphy, Laurie; Simon, Beth; Thomas, Lynda; Zander, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature related to the learning and teaching of debugging computer programs. Debugging is an important skill that continues to be both difficult for novice programmers to learn and challenging for computer science educators to teach. These challenges persist despite a wealth of important research on the subject dating…

  10. Literacy and the New Work Order. An International Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Chris; Frank, Fiona; Cooke, Tony

    This book is an international review of the literature on literacy and the new work order. The book begins with an overview examining the following topics: the history of workplace literacy education, the changing nature of work, the problem of illiteracy, and literacy in the context of the workplace. Part 1 presents texts critiquing or supporting…

  11. Children Who Witness Domestic Violence: A Review of Empirical Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolbo, Jerome R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents a review of the empirical literature examining the initial effects of witnessing domestic violence on children's functioning. Although results are somewhat inconclusive regarding children's social, cognitive, and physical development, findings of recently conducted investigations, when combined and compared with the previously reviewed…

  12. Aquatics for the Handicapped--A Review of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Irene

    1985-01-01

    The author reviews the literature on aquatic activity for the disabled, discussing the physical, physiological, psychological, and sociological benefits of swimming and water safety activities. Unique properties of water and legal requirements regarding physical education of the handicapped, specifically citing the development of skills in…

  13. A Review of Literature: Training and the Change Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, Maurice

    This document is a review of literature on the educational change process; it is designed to detail the role of training in the process of dissemination in a changing climate of education. To do this, it gives attention to defining educational change. The document is divided into five chapters. Chapter one, entitled "Defining the Change…

  14. Working Together: A Literature Review of Campus Information Technology Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exline, Eleta

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the recent literature about the essential but often uneasy alliances made between content experts (archivists and librarians) and technology experts. Differing professional cultures, misunderstandings of one another, limited abilities to envision change, and lack of support from top-level administrators are the most often…

  15. A Review of Literature on Employability Skill Needs in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markes, Imren

    2006-01-01

    Encouraging skills development is a key part of the UK Government's strategy. This emphasis on skills has led to changes in Higher Education, where there is an increasing recognition of the need to enhance students' employability. This paper reviews the data on the type of employer skill needs available in the existing literature with a particular…

  16. The Bookmark Standard-Setting Method: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karantonis, Ana; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2006-01-01

    The Bookmark method for setting standards on educational tests is currently one of the most popular standard-setting methods. However, research to support the method is scarce. In this report, we review the published and unpublished literature on this method as well as some seminal work in the area of evaluating standard-setting studies. Our…

  17. Preschool Teacher Well-Being: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Bullough, Robert V.; MacKay, Kathryn Lake; Marshall, Esther E.

    2014-01-01

    Much is changing in preschool education. Current reform primarily emphasizes standardized practice, academic outcomes, and accountability. Little attention has been given to how these changes are impacting the well-being of teachers. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature on preschool teacher well-being and identify…

  18. Teacher Wellbeing in Neoliberal Contexts: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acton, Renae; Glasgow, Patti

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that the wellbeing of a workforce is an important consideration in any organisation. Within the context of education, possibilities for supporting teacher wellbeing are mediated by neoliberal policy technologies that are incongruent with key aspects of wellness. Reviewing the literature, it appears there is value…

  19. Genetic and Medical Considerations of Autism: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Kathi O.

    This literature review, from 1990 to the present, discusses the characteristics of autism and the comorbidity of mental retardation and autism. Specific medical syndromes that complement the heterogeneity concept are described, including epilepsy, fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, and Asperger syndrome. The paper presents some…

  20. Child Abuse and the Educator: A Review of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Thomas

    The literature review examines issues of child abuse and neglect, attempts to define child abuse, and gives information on: incidence figures; symptoms of abuse; characteristics of the abused and their families; knowledge level of educators; and the role of the schools in preventing, detecting, and reporting abuse or neglect. Teachers often do not…

  1. 76 FR 77543 - Quantitative Summary of the Benefits and Risks of Prescription Drugs: A Literature Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft report entitled ``Quantitative Summary of the Benefits and Risks of Prescription Drugs: A Literature Review'' (literature review report). A literature review was conducted to address a requirement of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act). FDA is publishing the literature review......

  2. Carrier-based root canal filling materials: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Al-Kahtani, Ahmed Mubarak

    2013-01-01

    A review of the literature on the use of carrier based obturation materials focusing on Thermafil and Resilon based obturator (RealSeal 1) are presented in this article. The review addressed the history, apical leakage, coronal leakage, biocompatibility, sealing ability and clinical success of Thermafil and RealSeal 1. Based on the studies gathered, this review concluded that both treatment techniques (Thermafil and RealSeal 1) did not provide excellent apical sealing ability. More research should be done to try to overcome their main drawback, its sealing ability. PMID:24309366

  3. A scoping review of interprofessional education within Canadian nursing literature.

    PubMed

    Grant, Rachel Elizabeth; Goldman, Joanne; LeGrow, Karen; MacMillan, Kathleen M; van Soeren, Mary; Kitto, Simon

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this scoping review is to examine the nature of the interprofessional education (IPE) discussion that the Canadian nursing profession is having within the Canadian peer-reviewed nursing literature. An electronic database search of CINAHL was conducted using a modified Arksey & O'Malley scoping review framework. Peer-reviewed, English-language articles published in Canadian nursing journals from January 1981 to February 2016 were retrieved. Articles were included if they discussed IPE, or described an educational activity that met our conceptual definition of IPE. A total of 88 articles were screened, and 11 articles were eligible for analysis. Analysis revealed that this body of literature does not seem to be purposefully engaging Canadian nurses in a critical discourse about the role of IPE. The majority of articles located were reflective or commentaries. At the time of this review, there was a paucity of theoretically informed empirical research articles on IPE in the nursing literature. While IPE may be viewed by some critical scholars as a means of shifting the control of healthcare delivery traditionally held by medicine to other professions, our results suggest that this may not be the case in the Canadian nursing profession. PMID:27352001

  4. Laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Biagi, Roberto; Cossellu, Gianguido; Sarcina, Michele; Pizzamiglio, Ilaria Tina; Farronato, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the effectiveness of the laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. A review with inclusion and exclusion criteria was performed from January 2009 to December 2014 with electronic data-bases: MedLine via PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Library. Research of paper magazines by hand was not considered. Forty-three articles were selected between literature reviews, in vitro studies, clinical trials, pilot and preliminary studies. The items were divided into laser-used groups for an accurate description, and then the reading of results into various typologies. Laser-assisted treatment reduces dentinal hypersensitivity-related pain, but also a psychosomatic component must be considered, so further studies and more suitable follow-ups are necessary. PMID:26941892

  5. Injury associated with methamphetamine use: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Janie; Bennett, Sara; Coggan, Carolyn; Wheeler, Amanda; McMillan, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature exploring issues around methamphetamine and injury. There was a paucity of peer reviewed quantitative research and a lack of large scale epidemiological studies. Further sources described cases and others described injury risk as part of an overall review of methamphetamine misuse. Thus, a number of limitations and potential biases exist within the literature. The main areas where associations were noted or extrapolated with methamphetamine use and injury were around driving and violence. Other associations with injury related to methamphetamine manufacture. There was also circumstantial evidence for third party injury (that is injury to those not specifically involved in drug use or drug manufacture); however, the available data are inadequate to confirm these associations/risks. PMID:16571134

  6. Laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Biagi, Roberto; Cossellu, Gianguido; Sarcina, Michele; Pizzamiglio, Ilaria Tina; Farronato, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the effectiveness of the laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. A review with inclusion and exclusion criteria was performed from January 2009 to December 2014 with electronic data-bases: MedLine via PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Library. Research of paper magazines by hand was not considered. Forty-three articles were selected between literature reviews, in vitro studies, clinical trials, pilot and preliminary studies. The items were divided into laser-used groups for an accurate description, and then the reading of results into various typologies. Laser-assisted treatment reduces dentinal hypersensitivity-related pain, but also a psychosomatic component must be considered, so further studies and more suitable follow-ups are necessary. PMID:26941892

  7. Integrative Literature Review: Methods in Identifying Exemplary Performance--A Review of the Literature and Implications for HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Terri Freeman

    2008-01-01

    This literature review provides an analysis of relevant ASTD (American Society for Training & Development) competency studies in Workplace Learning and Performance (WLP) and other research findings related to the methodology used in identifying exemplary and average performers. These findings helped create the research model and methods used in…

  8. Radiologists as Educators: A Narrative Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Linaker, Kathleen L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine literature on how radiologists are trained to be effective educators for both residents and undergraduates in the health professions. Methods A review of the literature was performed using relevant key words. Articles were retrieved through from 1990 through December 2012 using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ERIC, Proquest, and ICL databases along with a manual review of references. Results Of the 4716 unique abstracts reviewed by the author, 51 were found to be relevant to the purpose of this study. Faculty teaching skills seem to be solidified during residency. This may be due to a failure to include scholarship of teaching and learning in education and faculty development. Preliminary research shows that creating opportunity for faculty development is beneficial with much of this literature focused on explaining educational concepts to radiologists. Conclusion The literature examining faculty training in the area of radiology education is sparse. Several articles address the need for more academic radiologists and the need for better training of academic radiologists. The few articles aimed at providing insight to radiologists in this area introduce basic educational concepts such as lecture creation, examination writing, and learning styles or simply delineating what makes an effective educator. PMID:26770175

  9. Supratentorial hemangioblastomas: three case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    She, D J; Xing, Z; Liu, Y; Cao, D R

    2013-09-01

    Hemangioblastoma (HBL) within the central nervous system is a benign vascular neoplasm that usually occurs in the cerebellum. Supratentorial occurrence of HBL is an extremely rare event. Till date, approximately 129 cases of supratentorial HBL have been reported in the literature. Here, we present three new cases of supratentorial hemangioblatomas, one of which was found to have the lesions in a unique location of the choroidal fissure. The clinical, histopathological, and neuroradiological characteristics, as well as management of this rare disease are discussed with a review of the pertinent literature. PMID:23207666

  10. Laryngeal myofibroblastic tumor: case series and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Alhumaid, Humaid; Bukhari, Manal; Rikabi, Ammar; Farahat, Mohamad; Mesallam, Tamer A.; Malki, Khalid H.; Aldkhyyal, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) or (plasma cell granuloma) of the larynx is a rare benign lesion that usually involves the lungs and broncopulmonary tree, as well as abdominal viscera. Overall this kind of tumor represents less than 1% of all tumors in the lung and respiratory tract with only 31 cases reported to date in the English language literature of laryngeal IMT. We report the first 2 cases in Saudia Arabia of IMT of the larynx treated at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) with literature review. PMID:23267296

  11. Odontogenic Myxoma in Children: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Dalbo Contrera Toro, Mariana; Siqueira Barreto, Icléia; Amstalden, Eliane Maria Ingrid; Takahiro Chone, Carlos; Nizam Pfeilsticker, Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    Benign odontogenic lesions are rare entities but are very important due to their locally aggressive nature. Odontogenic myxoma is even rarer in children than in adults. There is no evidence in the literature in regard to the best treatment approach, in terms of conservative or aggressive surgery, for this type of tumor. This paper reports a case of odontogenic myxoma in a child treated with a compromised approach through bone osteotomies and a review of the literature about this disease, especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27064694

  12. Odontogenic Myxoma in Children: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Dalbo Contrera Toro, Mariana; Siqueira Barreto, Icléia; Amstalden, Eliane Maria Ingrid; Takahiro Chone, Carlos; Nizam Pfeilsticker, Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    Benign odontogenic lesions are rare entities but are very important due to their locally aggressive nature. Odontogenic myxoma is even rarer in children than in adults. There is no evidence in the literature in regard to the best treatment approach, in terms of conservative or aggressive surgery, for this type of tumor. This paper reports a case of odontogenic myxoma in a child treated with a compromised approach through bone osteotomies and a review of the literature about this disease, especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27064694

  13. Antenatal Depression in East Asia: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, David Beck; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2012-01-01

    This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature, although certain studies showed slightly decreased rates. Many of the risk factors for AD were the same in the Eastern and Western literature. These risk factors included demographic factors such as younger age, smoking, low education and income, and unemployment. Other risk factors were physical symptoms such as menstrual pains and nausea. Finally, psychological factors such as a poor response to the pregnancy, poor spousal support, and poor family support were associated with AD. With regard to treatment, there were no studies examining the administration of psychotropic medications for AD. The literature from East Asia both confirmed many Western findings and made unique contributions to the literature on AD. The treatment of AD in East Asia appears to be an entity which, despite its morbidity, has not been adequately studied. PMID:22707960

  14. Antenatal depression in East Asia: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schatz, David Beck; Hsiao, Mei-Chun; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2012-06-01

    This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature, although certain studies showed slightly decreased rates. Many of the risk factors for AD were the same in the Eastern and Western literature. These risk factors included demographic factors such as younger age, smoking, low education and income, and unemployment. Other risk factors were physical symptoms such as menstrual pains and nausea. Finally, psychological factors such as a poor response to the pregnancy, poor spousal support, and poor family support were associated with AD. With regard to treatment, there were no studies examining the administration of psychotropic medications for AD. The literature from East Asia both confirmed many Western findings and made unique contributions to the literature on AD. The treatment of AD in East Asia appears to be an entity which, despite its morbidity, has not been adequately studied. PMID:22707960

  15. Strength of zirconia fixed partial dentures: review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    GARGARI, M.; GLORIA, F.; CAPPELLO, A.; OTTRIA, L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective The aim of this study is a systematic review of the literature on the strength and long-term behavior of zirconia FPDs. Methods The literature search was performed using as the primary source the Medline database. Were also imposed a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria in order to narrow the search to differentiate the two distinct parts in which it was structured the review. In addition, MeSH terms were applied to further refine the choice of articles more relevant to the review. In the part of the review concerning the long-term behavior of zirconia fixed partial dentures were considered useful only those studies with a minimum follow-up of one year. Results The search provided a total of 813 articles, but only 25 were considered for the review because they were the only ones who satisfied search criteria. In particular, 13 items relate to the mechanical strength of zirconia prostheses and 12 regarding the long term behavior of zirconia FPDs. The resistance values also exceed the 2000 N while the survival rate reaches to almost 94%. Conclusions Based on this review, Zirconia FPDs can be considered reliable products in both the anterior and posterior fields with survival rates comparable to traditional metal-ceramic prostheses. PMID:23285392

  16. Cigarette ignition of soft furnishings: A literature review with commentary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasny, John F.

    1987-04-01

    Literature pertinent to the ignition by smoldering cigarettes of upholstered furniture and mattresses (soft furnishings) was searched through early 1986. This included literature on the smoldering behavior of cigarettes in air; their behavior on a variety of substrates simulating soft furnishings; mechanism of smoldering in substrates; relative cigarette ignition resistance of substrates; and relative propensity of commercial cigarette packings to ignite substrates. According to the reviewed literature, the smoldering behavior of cigarettes on substrates differs from that of cigarettes burning in air: on substrates, cigarette temperatures tend to be lower, and burning rates slower. These differences seem to be larger for substrates which ignite than for those which self-extinguish after the cigarette burns out. The characteristics of soft furnishings which insure resistance to cigarette ignition have been established, but those of cigarettes with low propensity to ignite furnishings have not. No mathematical model has been reported for the interaction of cigarette and substrate, but some empirical data do exist.

  17. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Plastic Surgery: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Sergio; Valdes, Jorge; Salama, Moises

    2016-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major health concern because it increases morbidity and mortality after a surgical procedure. A number of well-defined, evidence-based guidelines are available delineating suitable use of prophylaxis to prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Despite the available literature, there are clear gaps between recommendations and clinical practice, affecting the incidence of VTE. Plastic surgeons underuse the substantiated literature and risk stratification tools that are available to decrease the incidence of VTE in the office-based surgical setting because of fear of bleeding or hematoma complications postoperatively. Venous thromboembolism creates an economic burden on both the patient and the healthcare system. The intent of this literature review is to determine existing VTE risk using assessment models available to aid in the implementation of protocols for VTE prevention, specifically for high-risk cosmetic surgical patients in office-based settings. PMID:27501651

  18. Hypodermoclysis: a literature review to assist in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Vanessa Galuppo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the information available in the literature about the drugs that can be administered through hypodermoclysis and the resulting impact that this information may have on the routine of the pharmacist working at a hospital. The study was based on a review of the literature. The results showed positive points of the procedure, but little specific information about medications such as routes of administration, standard dilutions, optimal doses, etc. Thus, it was possible to verify that there is no definite information as to the correct way to administer the drugs in this route, even though this is an effective and safe option, according to the literature. The lack of information has a negative impact on the support provided by the pharmacist to the nursing staff to ensure that the drug actually reaches its therapeutic goals safely. PMID:25807246

  19. [Dentists and National Socialism. Systematic Literature Review and Research Questions].

    PubMed

    Schwanke, Enno; Krischel, Matthis; Gross, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the rich literature on Nazi medicine in general, the connection between dentists and National Socialism is less well documented. Neither the elites of the field from this era nor those excluded from the profession are catalogued in a systematic manner. The aims of this contribution are to assemble and review the relevant literature and show how German dentistry organizations have handled this chapter of their professional history. Trends in the literature since the 1980s are examined and it is pointed out, which areas have received some attention and which have not yet been addressed. Thus, this contribution will serve as both the basis and the starting point for new research into the field. PMID:27141725

  20. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C. A.

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  1. Attachment systems for implant retained overdentures: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Trakas, Theodoros; Michalakis, Konstantinos; Kang, Kiho; Hirayama, Hiroshi

    2006-03-01

    This article presents a comparison between different attachment systems used to retain and support maxillary and mandibular overdentures in completely edentulous patients. A literature review based on a MEDLINE search limited to English-language articles published from 1988 to the present was performed, and a large number of attachments available in the dental market were reviewed with regard to several factors, including: (1) implant survival rate, (2) marginal bone loss, (3) soft tissue complications, (4) retention, (5) stress distribution, (6) space requirements, (7) maintenance complications, and (8) patient satisfaction. These factors are considered essential for the successful outcome and good long-term prognosis of the prostheses. Selection criteria previously published in the literature are discussed as well. Product names and manufacturers are mentioned only if related to attachment systems, as they are cited in the original articles. PMID:16569958

  2. Palliative care for people with dementia: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lillyman, Sue; Bruce, Mary

    2016-02-01

    With growing numbers of people dying with, and from, dementia there is a need for professionals and health-care organisations to review the access to and provision of palliative care. This literature review has identified several key themes in relation to the person dying with dementia including: diagnosis of the dying phase, appropriate timing of referral to specialist palliative care services; ethical decisions in relation to medication and nutrition; the environment; undertreatment especially, for pain relief; over and burdensome treatment interventions; carer involvement; collaborative working and advance decision making. PMID:26926347

  3. [Problematic online gaming. A review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Pápay, Orsolya; Urbán, Róbert; Farkas, Judit; Kun, Bernadette; Griffiths, Mark; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with the increasing popularity of online games, researchers have reported an increasing number of problematic users. For this reason there is a growing amount of literature analyzing the effects of online games. The present review described the evolution of online games as well as their types and specific characteristics of these types. This review examines (i) the question of definition, (ii) symptoms of problematic use, (iii) the measurement instruments (iv) prevalence data, (v) issues of etiology, (vi) the results of comorbidity, and (vii) the main trends and results in the area of prevention and treatment. PMID:23880511

  4. Impact of rape on female sexuality: review of selected literature.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Terri L

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews the medical and psychologic literature on the impact of rape on female sexuality. Studies documented moderately high rates of genital injuries and moderate rates of sexually transmitted infections postrape and significantly greater difficulties with aspects of reproductive/sexual functioning, including dyspareunia, endometriosis, menstrual irregularities, and chronic pelvic pain for raped compared with nonraped women. Raped women also engaged in significantly more high-risk sexual behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder emerged as an important mediator of sexual victimization and sexual health. An integrative model outlining interrelated physical, psychologic, biologic, and behavioral factors postrape was presented to assimilate review findings. PMID:20393422

  5. Systemic lupus erythematosus and atherosclerosis: Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Frieri, Marianne; Stampfl, Heather

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to extensively review the literature related to systemic lupus erythematosus and atherosclerosis. The conclusion of this review has covered accelerated atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus, the role of complement, interferon in premature atherosclerosis, inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, leukocytes, innate and adaptive immunity, hydrolytic enzymes, reactive oxygen species, vascular endothelial growth factor, toll receptors in lupus nephritis, several specific anti-inflammatory pharmacological therapies, and potential prevention strategies for atherothrombotic events, interferons and the inflammasome. It is important for allergist-immunologists, rheumatologists both in academic institutions and in practice to understand this important disorder. PMID:26299985

  6. Idiopathic Gingival Fibromatosis: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yen Chen K; Farr, Jeffrey B; Yoon, Angela; Philipone, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Gingival fibromatosis (GF) is a condition characterized by a progressive, normal colored enlargement of the gingiva caused by an increase in the size of submucosal connective tissue. Both familial and idiopathic variants of the condition exist. The authors present a case report of a 38-year-old African American man who presented with an impressive overgrowth of the maxillary and mandibular gingivae, subsequently diagnosed as idiopathic GF. In this report, the authors will review the etiologies, treatment, and clinical and histological findings of GF, review similar cases found in the literature, and discuss the differential diagnosis for diffuse gingival enlargements. PMID:27043333

  7. Glovebox stripper system tritium capture efficiency-literature review

    SciTech Connect

    James, D. W.; Poore, A. S.

    2015-09-28

    Glovebox Stripper Systems (GBSS) are intended to minimize tritium emissions from glovebox confinement systems in Tritium facilities. A question was raised to determine if an assumed 99% stripping (decontamination) efficiency in the design of a GBBS was appropriate. A literature review showed the stated 99% tritium capture efficiency used for design of the GBSS is reasonable. Four scenarios were indicated for GBSSs. These include release with a single or dual stage setup which utilizes either single-pass or recirculation for stripping purposes. Examples of single-pass as well as recirculation stripper systems are presented and reviewed in this document.

  8. Assessing scrub practitioner non-technical skills: a literature review.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A review by Catchpole et al (2009) into the causes and types of harm experienced by the surgical patient emphasised the high risk nature of the perioperative period. Investigations into recent failures at NHS organisations have emphasised the relevance of non-technical skills education in improving clinical performance and patient outcomes. However, scrub practitioner non-technical skills are often developed on a tacit basis, making assessment of performance difficult. This literature review identifies strategies that facilitate assessment of non-technical skills during surgery. Recommendations are made that will assist scrub practitioners in using a validated scrub practitioner non-technical skills assessment framework reliably. PMID:26016259

  9. Descemet's membrane detachment in horses; case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Matas Riera, Màrian; Donaldson, David; Priestnall, Simon Lawrence

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this article was to describe Descemet's membrane detachment (DMD) following phacoemulsification in five equine eyes and to review the human literature on this topic. In the last decade, there has been increased reporting of DMD in the human literature, in particular following cataract surgery. The natural history of DMD remains unknown and although various medical and surgical treatments have been advocated there is no recognized 'gold standard' treatment for DMD. This case series reports the diagnosis of DMD in four horses (5 eyes) in association with phacoemulsification surgery. The diagnosis of DMD in these patients was made intra-operatively, postoperatively or on subsequent histopathological examination. The surgical reports, photographic or video recordings, and ultrasound data were evaluated and possible factors associated with the pathophysiology of DMD are discussed. This is the first description of DMD in the veterinary literature, and the authors believe that DMD might hitherto have been overlooked in veterinary ophthalmology due to a lack of awareness of the condition. The possible causes, clinical signs, and treatment of DMD as described in the human literature are also reviewed. PMID:25180582

  10. Detecting Deception within Small Groups: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Vernham, Zarah; Granhag, Pär-Anders; Mac Giolla, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Investigators often have multiple suspects to interview in order to determine whether they are guilty or innocent of a crime. Nevertheless, co-offending has been significantly neglected within the deception detection literature. The current review is the first of its kind to discuss co-offending and the importance of examining the detection of deception within groups. Groups of suspects can be interviewed separately (individual interviewing) or simultaneously (collective interviewing) and these differing interviewing styles are assessed throughout the review. The review emphasizes the differences between lone individuals and groups. It focuses on the theoretical implications of group deceit and the reasons why groups need to be understood in terms of investigative interviewing and deception detection if all types of crime-related incidents are to be recognized and dealt with appropriately. Group strategies, consistency within- and between-statements, joint memory, and group dynamics are referred to throughout the review and the importance of developing interview protocols specifically for groups is discussed. The review concludes by identifying the gaps in the literature and suggesting ideas for future research, highlighting that more research is required if we are to obtain a true understanding of the deception occurring within groups and how best to detect it. PMID:27445957

  11. Literature Review: ADHD in Adults--A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Megan A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: ADHD presents significant challenges to adults. The current review's goals are (a) to critically examine the current state of knowledge regarding ADHD in adults and (b) to provide clinicians with practice-friendly information regarding assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. Method: Searches of PsycINFO and Medline were conducted, and…

  12. Clostridial orthopedic infections: case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lazzarini, L; Conti, E; Ditri, L; Turi, G; de Lalla, F

    2004-02-01

    Clostridia are anaerobic Gram-positive bacilli that can be isolated from the soil and the intestinal tract of humans. These microorganisms are recognized as the cause of devastating soft tissue infections, such as cellulitis, myositis, and gas gangrene. However, such bacteria may also be involved in various postoperative orthopedic infections, including prosthetic joint infection. We present three clinical cases of clostridial orthopedic infection and review the related medical literature. PMID:15078006

  13. Intracerebral fibroma: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Stephen E.; McGinity, Michael J.; Henry, James M.; Vecil, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral fibromas are among the most rare neoplasms found in the central nervous system. Ten previously reported cases have been documented in the literature including only two reported cases since 1985. As a result, little is known about these uncommon intracerebral fibrous tumors. We report a case of an intracerebral fibroma without dural or leptomeningeal attachment, discuss the pertinent diagnostic findings and briefly review all prior reports of this entity. PMID:27194681

  14. Black youth suicide: literature review with a focus on prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, F. M.

    1990-01-01

    The national rates of completed suicide in the black population between 1950 and 1981 are presented, including age-adjusted rates. Specific studies of black suicide attempters and completed suicides by blacks in several cities are discussed. Methodological problems with existing studies and national suicide statistics are presented. Proposed theories of black suicide are reviewed. Based on a summary of the characteristics of black suicide attempters reported by the literature, preventive strategies--primary, secondary, and tertiary--are presented. PMID:2204709

  15. Shotgun slug injuries: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Gestring, M L; Geller, E R; Akkad, N; Bongiovanni, P J

    1996-04-01

    Shotguns are usually used to fire multiple pellets; however, they are capable of firing a single projectile in the form of a slug. Although rare, shotgun slug injuries are severe, producing wounds comparable to those inflicted by high-velocity weapons with the potential for even more tissue destruction because of the slug's size and mass. We report the first survivor of a close range shotgun slug injury, with a review of this weapon's unique projectile ballistics and the relevant literature. PMID:8614051

  16. Climate Change Impacts in the Amazon. Review of scientific literature

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-15

    The Amazon's hydrological cycle is a key driver of global climate, and global climate is therefore sensitive to changes in the Amazon. Climate change threatens to substantially affect the Amazon region, which in turn is expected to alter global climate and increase the risk of biodiversity loss. In this literature review the following subjects can be distinguished: Observed Climatic Change and Variability, Predicted Climatic Change, Impacts, Forests, Freshwater, Agriculture, Health, and Sea Level Rise.

  17. Natal teeth: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Mathad, Sudha V

    2009-01-01

    The presence of teeth at birth or within a month post-delivery is a rare condition. A newborn, a 2 days old female, with two mandibular incisor natal teeth was examined. The teeth were mobile and were extracted because of the fear of aspiration and refusal to feed. The purpose of this report is to review the literature related to natal teeth epidemiology and discuss their possible etiology and treatment. PMID:21886998

  18. Compound Odontoma: Differential Diagnosis and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Gedik, R; Müftüoğlu, S

    2014-12-01

    Odontomas are the most common odontogenic tumours. They are usually asymptomatic and are often discovered during routine radiography. Compound odontomas are regularly calcified tissue that bear similarity to teeth or appear as a collection of small teeth. We report a rare case of compound odontoma in the mandible of an adult patient with clinical and radiological features and a review of the literature. PMID:25867569

  19. Compound Odontoma: Differential Diagnosis and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gedik, R; Müftüoğlu, S

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Odontomas are the most common odontogenic tumours. They are usually asymptomatic and are often discovered during routine radiography. Compound odontomas are regularly calcified tissue that bear similarity to teeth or appear as a collection of small teeth. We report a rare case of compound odontoma in the mandible of an adult patient with clinical and radiological features and a review of the literature. PMID:25867569

  20. Condylar hyperplasia: An updated review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zacharias, Joseph; Pierce, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a rare disorder characterized by excessive bone growth that almost always presents unilaterally, resulting in facial asymmetry. Classification of the different types of CH can differ depending on the authors. Correct diagnosis is critical in determining the proper treatments and timing. This paper is a review of the recent literature on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, classification, and surgical treatments of CH. PMID:26629479

  1. Condylar hyperplasia: An updated review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luis Eduardo; Zacharias, Joseph; Pierce, Sean

    2015-11-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a rare disorder characterized by excessive bone growth that almost always presents unilaterally, resulting in facial asymmetry. Classification of the different types of CH can differ depending on the authors. Correct diagnosis is critical in determining the proper treatments and timing. This paper is a review of the recent literature on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, classification, and surgical treatments of CH. PMID:26629479

  2. A literature review of air medical work hazards and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    An increased percentage of miscarriages among coworkers at one air medical transport company in 2008 prompted a literature review of selected hazards relevant to the profession of rotor wing air medical flight crew. Because of a lack of known research specific to this population, relevant studies from 1990 to 2008 were chosen to investigate pregnancy risks associated with exposure to vibration, jet fuel, noise, altitude, and fatigue in other occupations. Findings were summarized and recommendations made for future research. PMID:20123310

  3. Intracerebral fibroma: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Stephen E; McGinity, Michael J; Henry, James M; Vecil, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral fibromas are among the most rare neoplasms found in the central nervous system. Ten previously reported cases have been documented in the literature including only two reported cases since 1985. As a result, little is known about these uncommon intracerebral fibrous tumors. We report a case of an intracerebral fibroma without dural or leptomeningeal attachment, discuss the pertinent diagnostic findings and briefly review all prior reports of this entity. PMID:27194681

  4. [Duodenal varices. Review of the literature apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Boutboul, R; Le Treut, Y P; Maurin, B; Ezraty, A; Castro, R; Bricot, R

    1984-01-01

    The authors report a case of digestive hemorrhage secondary to isolated duodenal varicosities, in a patient with ethylic cirrhosis. The diagnosis done through optical fibroscope was confirmed by arteriography. The evolution was unfavorable. Lesions were corroborated by autopsy. A review of the literature is done, about the 22 cases already published. With the help of these cases to authors stress the points that can lead to the good diagnosis and what therapeutical management should be done. PMID:6335644

  5. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus for General Practitioners: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Karrar, Ali; AI-Dalaan, Abdullah

    1994-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disease of unknown etiology or etiologies. The disease may be acute or chronic. A wide clinicopathological spectrum is expressed in each organ involved which is induced through multiple antibodies that result in. imnunologically mediated tissue injury. In this literature review, the clinical and pathological features as well as laboratory abnormalities, measures /or diagnosis, outlines of management, and prognosis are discussed. PMID:23008531

  6. Malarial pancreatitis: Case report and systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Inderpaul Singh; Agarwal, Ritesh; Behera, Digambar; Dhooria, Sahajal

    2015-01-01

    Malaria can cause a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from uncomplicated febrile illness to multiorgan failure. Pancreatitis is a rare complication of malaria with only a few reported cases. Herein, we describe a case of acute pancreatitis with multiorgan failure due to Plasmodium falciparum managed successfully with antimalarials and conservative treatment. We also perform a systematic review of literature for reports of acute pancreatitis due to Plasmodium infection. PMID:26816452

  7. HISTOPLASMOSIS MYOSITIS: A CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Nimitvilai, S; Thammaprasert, W; Vinyuvat, S

    2015-07-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis is an AIDS-defining illness that can affect multiple organ systems. Myositis due to histoplasmosis is rare in HIV infected patients. We report here an HIV-infected patient who presented with myositis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. Her HIV was under poor control and her CD4 cell count was only 11 cells/mm3. She responded well to treatment but later succumbed to another opportunistic infection. The literature on disseminated histoplasmosis is reviewed. PMID:26867394

  8. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bharathi, Saravana C.; Senthilnathan, S.; Kumar, Lokesh D.; Mohan, Anand C. S.; Taranath, M.

    2014-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is (CH) an uncommon malformation of the mandible involving change in size and morphology of the condylar neck and head. CH is an anomaly that usually occurs unilaterally and equally affects in both men and women. Hyperplasia of the condyle ‘differentiated into hemimandibular hyperplasia, hemimandibular elongation and CH. Here, we are presenting a case of 17-year-old male patient with unilateral CH and its review of the literature. PMID:24818099

  9. Seafarers' fatigue: a review of the recent literature.

    PubMed

    Allen, Paul; Wadsworth, Emma; Smith, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue has been noticeably under-researched in the maritime domain compared to other transport sectors. In a review of the literature 11 databases were searched in order to assess recent developments in the field and distil those issues of greatest concern and challenge to the seafaring community. Whilst diversity in the seafaring population has the potential to make global fatigue estimates meaningless, evidence of mis-recorded working hours shows how cultural and commercial pressures are universally shared. PMID:19227741

  10. Failure to immunize children under 5 years: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lochhead, Y J

    1991-02-01

    This paper aims to provide a critical review of the current literature related to immunization default in children under 5 years of age. The author has used a health belief model as the framework for analysis, examining each area in detail. The principle recommendations for practice are addressed and critically evaluated with a concluding summary of the main points raised and the author's recommendation for practice. PMID:2013653

  11. Toxic multinodular goitre. Personal case histories and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sturniolo, Gia; Gagliano, E; Tonante, A; Taranto, F; Vermiglio, F; Sturniolo, Gio

    2013-01-01

    The authors reviewed their own case histories of surgical thyreopathy over the last 20 years in order to establish how many multinodular goitre (MNG) patients developed hyperthyroidism during the follow-up period. In agreement with the findings reported in literature, the authors observed that 220 out of 1117 patients with MNG developed hyperthyroidism caused by the appearance of hyperfunctioning nodules after 6-18 years from the initial diagnosis of MNG. PMID:24629810

  12. Shared Communications: Volume 1. A Summary and Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Franzese, O

    2004-09-22

    This paper provides a review of examples from the literature of shared communication resources and of agencies and/or organizations that share communication resources. The primary emphasis is on rural, intelligent transportation system communications involving transit. Citations will not be limited, however, to rural activities, or to ITS implementation, or even to transit. In addition, the term ''communication'' will be broadly applied to include all information resources. Literature references to issues that contribute to both successful and failed efforts at sharing communication resources are reviewed. The findings of this literature review indicate that: (1) The most frequently shared communication resources are information/data resources, (2) Telecommunications infrastructure and technologies are the next most frequently shared resources, (3) When resources are successfully shared, all parties benefit, (4) A few unsuccessful attempts of sharing resources have been recorded, along with lessons learned, (5) Impediments to sharing include security issues, concerns over system availability and reliability, service quality and performance, and institutional barriers, (6) Advantages of sharing include financial benefits to agencies from using shared resources and benefits to the public in terms of congestion mitigation, information transfer (e.g., traveler information systems), mobility (e.g., welfare-to-work paratransit), and safety (e.g., speed of incident response, incident avoidance), (7) Technology-based solutions exist to address technology-based concerns, and (8) Institutional issues can be addressed through leadership, enhanced knowledge and skills, open communication, responsiveness, and attractive pricing structures.

  13. Locked doors in acute inpatient psychiatry: a literature review.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, M; Bowers, L; Jones, J; Simpson, A; Haglund, K

    2009-04-01

    Many acute inpatient psychiatric wards in the UK are permanently locked, although this is contrary to the current Mental Health Act Code of Practice. To conduct a literature review of empirical articles concerning locked doors in acute psychiatric inpatient wards, an extensive literature search was performed in SAGE Journals Online, EBM Reviews, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, EMBASE Psychiatry, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Google, using the search terms 'open$', 'close$', '$lock$', 'door', 'ward', 'hospital', 'psychiatr', 'mental health', 'inpatient' and 'asylum'. A total of 11 empirical papers were included in the review. Both staff and patients reported advantages (e.g. preventing illegal substances from entering the ward and preventing patients from absconding and harming themselves or others) and disadvantages (e.g. making patients feel depressed, confined and creating extra work for staff) regarding locked doors. Locked wards were associated with increased patient aggression, poorer satisfaction with treatment and more severe symptoms. The limited literature available showed the urgent need for research to determine the real effects of locked doors in inpatient psychiatry. PMID:19291159

  14. Sexual Abuse of Older Nursing Home Residents: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Malmedal, Wenche; Iversen, Maria Helen; Kilvik, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Despite an increasing literature related to elder abuse, sexual abuse of older persons in general and of vulnerable adults living in nursing homes in particular is still sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to assess the state of knowledge on the subject of sexual abuse against older nursing home residents through a literature review. Systematic searches in reference databases including Cinahl, Medline, OVID Nursing Database, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and SveMed + were conducted. Through several phases of selection of the articles, using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, six articles were chosen for a deeper examination. Findings from the review show that sexual abuse occurs in nursing homes and that both older women and men are victims of sexual abuse. Perpetrators appear mainly to be staff and other residents and mainly to be men, but also women abuse both older men and older women. Findings from the literature review show that there is a need for knowledge and further research on the topic of sexual abuse against older residents in nursing homes. Furthermore, there is a need for good policies and reporting systems, as an important step in seriously addressing sexual abuse against older persons. PMID:25642347

  15. Pelvic organ prolapse: a review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    South, M; Amundsen, C L

    2007-12-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse has afflicted women since the beginning of mankind. Even though we have been faced with this problem for so many centuries, we still have not found a way to overcome gravity and prevent prolapse. We continue to make efforts to manage prolapse, modifying our techniques based on burgeoning research. This knowledge helps us to avoid repetitive complications from surgery and to improve techniques to prevent recurrent prolapse. In addition, we are constantly adapting our methods depending on available technology. With an aging population, the demand for physicians and surgeons trained in management of pelvic organ prolapse will increase. The rapidly evolving literature on pelvic organ prolapse makes a comprehensive review difficult. However, based on the current literature, randomized controlled trials are needed to compare new prolapse repair techniques to traditional techniques. Physicians specializing in surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse will need to work together to complete quality clinical trials. The primary focus of this review will be on the recent research concerning the epidemiology, etiology, presenting symptoms, and diagnosis of pelvic organ prolapse. We will also discuss the different types of prolapse by compartments of the vagina in which they occur and how each of these types of prolapse can be managed. Finally, we will review recent literature evaluating surgical repairs using transvaginal mesh kits. PMID:18043574

  16. Painful Ejaculation with Cyclobenzaprine: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Wie, Christopher S.; Gorlin, Andrew W.; Wisenbaugh, Eric S.; Rosenfeld, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Sexual dysfunction is a well‐known side effect of antidepressants. Painful ejaculation is a rare side effect that has been reported with the use of some psychiatric drugs such as triclyclic antidepressants. Cyclobenzaprine is a muscle relaxant that is structurally similar to tricyclic antidepressants. It is the most commonly prescribed muscle relaxant in the United States and accounts for 18% of all prescriptions written for chronic back pain. Methods A 55‐year‐old man was referred to our pain medicine clinic for evaluation and treatment of pain with ejaculation. Main outcome Measure The main outcome measure was to review the current published literature and case reports on painful ejaculation from medication use, in particular tricyclic antidepressants. Results After discontinuation of cyclobenzaprine, our patient's sexual dysfunction resolved. This result was consistent with the literature reviewed on the topic. Conclusion Painful ejaculation is likely an underreported side effect of tricyclic antidepressants and cyclobenzaprine use. Fortunately, these symptoms are reversible and discontinuation of these medications is typically an effective cure. K raus MB , W ie CS , G orlin AW , W isenbaugh ES , and R osenfeld DM . Painful ejaculation with cyclobenzaprine: A case report and literature review. S ex M ed 2015;3:343–345. PMID:26797071

  17. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor mushroom improved survival and

  18. Epidemiology of concussion in sport: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Michael B.; Glover, Kari L.; Lowe, Duane T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to summarize sport concussion incidence data, identify sports that present higher injury frequency, reveal the degree of risk in some lesser-known sports, and outline specific details within the sports literature that raise additional concerns, such as helmet-to-helmet contact and player positions that experience frequent impact. Methods A systematic literature review of Pub Med using keyword search on injury, concussion, and sports was performed through May 2012. Abstracts were identified, selections were made based upon inclusion criteria, and full-length articles were obtained. Additional articles were considered following review of reference sections. Articles were reviewed and tabulated according to sport. Results Two hundred eighty-nine articles were screened, and 62 articles were reviewed. The overall incidence of concussion in sport ranged from 0.1 to 21.5 per 1000 athletic exposures. The lowest incidence was reported in swimming and diving. Concussion incidence was highest in Canadian junior ice hockey, but elevated incidence in American football remains a concern because of the large number of participants. Conclusions The literature reviewed included incidence of concussion on the field of play under real-world conditions and influenced by the current culture of sport. The studies examined in this article show that there is risk of concussion in nearly every sport. Some sports have higher concussion frequency than others, which may depend upon the forces and roles of the positions played in these sports. Younger athletes have a higher incidence of concussion, and female incidence is greater than male in many comparable sports. Headgear may reduce concussion in some sports but may also give athletes a false sense of protection. PMID:24396326

  19. Social capital and health: Does egalitarianism matter? A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M Kamrul; Merlo, Juan; Kawachi, Ichiro; Lindström, Martin; Gerdtham, Ulf-G

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to critically review the notion of social capital and review empirical literature on the association between social capital and health across countries. The methodology used for the review includes a systematic search on electronic databases for peer-reviewed published literature. We categorize studies according to level of analysis (single and multilevel) and examine whether studies reveal a significant health impact of individual and area level social capital. We compare the study conclusions according to the country's degrees of economic egalitarianism. Regardless of study design, our findings indicate that a positive association (fixed effect) exists between social capital and better health irrespective of countries degree of egalitarianism. However, we find that the between-area variance (random effect) in health tends to be lower in more egalitarian countries than in less egalitarian countries. Our tentative conclusion is that an association between social capital and health at the individual level is robust with respect to the degree of egalitarianism within a country. Area level or contextual social capital may be less salient in egalitarian countries in explaining health differences across places. PMID:16597324

  20. A literature review: polypharmacy protocol for primary care.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to critically evaluate published protocols on polypharmacy in adults ages 65 and older that are currently used in primary care settings that may potentially lead to fewer adverse drug events. A review of OVID, CINAHL, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, Medline, and PubMed databases was completed using the following key words: protocol, guideline, geriatrics, elderly, older adult, polypharmacy, and primary care. Inclusion criteria were: articles in medical, nursing, and pharmacology journals with an intervention, protocol, or guideline addressing polypharmacy that lead to fewer adverse drug events. Qualitative and quantitative studies were included. Exclusion criteria were: publications prior to the year 1992. A gap exists in the literature. No standardized protocol for addressing polypharmacy in the primary care setting was found. Mnemonics, algorithms, clinical practice guidelines, and clinical strategies for addressing polypharmacy in a variety of health care settings were found throughout the literature. Several screening instruments for use in primary care to assess potentially inappropriate prescription of medications in the elderly, such as the Beers Criteria and the STOPP screening tool, were identified. However, these screening instruments were not included in a standardized protocol to manage polypharmacy in primary care. Polypharmacy in the elderly is a critical problem that may result in adverse drug events such as falls, hospitalizations, and increased expenditures for both the patient and the health care system. No standardized protocols to address polypharmacy specific to the primary care setting were identified in this review of the literature. Given the growing population of elderly in this country and the high number of medications they consume, it is critical to focus on the utilization of a standardized protocol to address the potential harm of polypharmacy in the primary care setting and evaluate its effects on

  1. Rehabilitation of Glossectomy Cases with Tongue Prosthesis: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Muthu Kumar; Chidambaranathan, Ahila Singaravel; Shanmugam, Gokul; Tah, Rajdeep

    2016-02-01

    Tongue is the only movable muscular organ without any bone in the human body. It has very important role in perception of taste and sensations like touch, pressure, heat and cold. The purpose of the article is to review various types of tongue prosthesis and their clinical applications. This review helps the clinician to choose the appropriate type of tongue prosthesis for different clinical situations, retention of tongue prosthesis and material selection for each type of prosthesis. A broad search of published literature was performed using the keyword glossectomy, glossal prosthesis and tongue prosthesis from 1980 to 2014 in Medline, Google scholar, internet and text book. This review gives basic knowledge of glossal prosthesis and selection of the same for various clinical conditions. PMID:27042596

  2. Periocular granuloma annulare: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Katherine; Bhalla, Rohan; Mesinkovska, Natasha A; Piliang, Melissa P; Tamburro, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a granulomatous dermatosis that rarely presents on the face and is extremely uncommon in the periocular region. We report our experience with the presentation and management of GA lesions on the eyelids of a 17-year-old girl. We performed a review of published literature and identified 13 cases of pediatric periocular GA. One additional case was identified upon review of all pediatric GA cases at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. Review of these cases suggests that periocular GA is a benign condition that spontaneously regresses within a few months. GA nodules have a predilection for the upper eyelids. A greater incidence is noted in African American children. Awareness of the self-resolving nature of this condition can prevent unnecessary surgical excisions in affected children. PMID:23551387

  3. Families of children with congenital heart disease: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Wei, Holly; Roscigno, Cecelia I; Hanson, Cherissa C; Swanson, Kristen M

    2015-01-01

    In 2000 and 2002, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute launched two initiatives to encourage treatment innovations and research on children with heart disease and their families. Since then, no systematic reviews have examined the evidence regarding the impacts of having a child with congenital heart disease (CHD) on families. This review synthesized key findings regarding families of children with CHD, critiqued research methods, described what has been done, and provided recommendations for future inquiry. Databases searched included PubMed, CINAHL, Family & Society Studies Worldwide, Women's Studies International, and PsycINFO. The literature search followed the PRISMA guidelines. As a result, ninety-four articles were reviewed. Four major themes were derived: parents' psychological health, family life, parenting challenges, and family-focused interventions. In conclusion, while they found parents having psychological symptoms, researchers did not explore parents' appraisals of what led to their symptoms. Research is needed to explore parents' experiences and expectations. PMID:26404115

  4. Rehabilitation of Glossectomy Cases with Tongue Prosthesis: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramaniam, Muthu Kumar; Shanmugam, Gokul; Tah, Rajdeep

    2016-01-01

    Tongue is the only movable muscular organ without any bone in the human body. It has very important role in perception of taste and sensations like touch, pressure, heat and cold. The purpose of the article is to review various types of tongue prosthesis and their clinical applications. This review helps the clinician to choose the appropriate type of tongue prosthesis for different clinical situations, retention of tongue prosthesis and material selection for each type of prosthesis. A broad search of published literature was performed using the keyword glossectomy, glossal prosthesis and tongue prosthesis from 1980 to 2014 in Medline, Google scholar, internet and text book. This review gives basic knowledge of glossal prosthesis and selection of the same for various clinical conditions. PMID:27042596

  5. Health effects and wind turbines: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Wind power has been harnessed as a source of power around the world. Debate is ongoing with respect to the relationship between reported health effects and wind turbines, specifically in terms of audible and inaudible noise. As a result, minimum setback distances have been established world-wide to reduce or avoid potential complaints from, or potential effects to, people living in proximity to wind turbines. People interested in this debate turn to two sources of information to make informed decisions: scientific peer-reviewed studies published in scientific journals and the popular literature and internet. Methods The purpose of this paper is to review the peer-reviewed scientific literature, government agency reports, and the most prominent information found in the popular literature. Combinations of key words were entered into the Thomson Reuters Web of KnowledgeSM and the internet search engine Google. The review was conducted in the spirit of the evaluation process outlined in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Results Conclusions of the peer reviewed literature differ in some ways from those in the popular literature. In peer reviewed studies, wind turbine annoyance has been statistically associated with wind turbine noise, but found to be more strongly related to visual impact, attitude to wind turbines and sensitivity to noise. To date, no peer reviewed articles demonstrate a direct causal link between people living in proximity to modern wind turbines, the noise they emit and resulting physiological health effects. If anything, reported health effects are likely attributed to a number of environmental stressors that result in an annoyed/stressed state in a segment of the population. In the popular literature, self-reported health outcomes are related to distance from turbines and the claim is made that infrasound is the causative factor for the reported effects, even though sound pressure levels are not measured

  6. Landslide Susceptibility Statistical Methods: A Critical and Systematic Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihir, Monika; Malamud, Bruce; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment, the subject of this systematic review, is aimed at understanding the spatial probability of slope failures under a set of geomorphological and environmental conditions. It is estimated that about 375 landslides that occur globally each year are fatal, with around 4600 people killed per year. Past studies have brought out the increasing cost of landslide damages which primarily can be attributed to human occupation and increased human activities in the vulnerable environments. Many scientists, to evaluate and reduce landslide risk, have made an effort to efficiently map landslide susceptibility using different statistical methods. In this paper, we do a critical and systematic landslide susceptibility literature review, in terms of the different statistical methods used. For each of a broad set of studies reviewed we note: (i) study geography region and areal extent, (ii) landslide types, (iii) inventory type and temporal period covered, (iv) mapping technique (v) thematic variables used (vi) statistical models, (vii) assessment of model skill, (viii) uncertainty assessment methods, (ix) validation methods. We then pulled out broad trends within our review of landslide susceptibility, particularly regarding the statistical methods. We found that the most common statistical methods used in the study of landslide susceptibility include logistic regression, artificial neural network, discriminant analysis and weight of evidence. Although most of the studies we reviewed assessed the model skill, very few assessed model uncertainty. In terms of geographic extent, the largest number of landslide susceptibility zonations were in Turkey, Korea, Spain, Italy and Malaysia. However, there are also many landslides and fatalities in other localities, particularly India, China, Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia, Guatemala, and Pakistan, where there are much fewer landslide susceptibility studies available in the peer-review literature. This

  7. Adjacent Segment Disease Perspective and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra-Pozo, Fanor M.; Deusdara, Renato A. M.; Benzel, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease has become a common topic in spine surgery circles because of the significant increase in fusion surgery in recent years and the development of motion preservation technologies that theoretically should lead to a decrease in this pathology. The purpose of this review is to organize the evidence available in the current literature on this subject. Methods For this literature review, a search was conducted in PubMed with the following keywords: adjacent segment degeneration and disease. Selection, review, and analysis of the literature were completed according to level of evidence. Results The PubMed search identified 850 articles, from which 41 articles were selected and reviewed. The incidence of adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine is close to 3% without a significant statistical difference between surgical techniques (fusion vs arthroplasty). Authors report the incidence of adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine to range from 2% to 14%. Damage to the posterior ligamentous complex and sagittal imbalances are important risk factors for both degeneration and disease. Conclusion Insufficient evidence exists at this point to support the idea that total disc arthroplasty is superior to fusion procedures in minimizing the incidence of adjacent segment disease. The etiology is most likely multifactorial but it is becoming abundantly clear that adjacent segment disease is not caused by motion segment fusion alone. Fusion plus the presence of abnormal end-fusion alignment appears to be a major factor in creating end-fusion stresses that result in adjacent segment degeneration and subsequent disease. The data presented cast further doubt on previously established rationales for total disc arthroplasty, at least with regard to the effect of total disc arthroplasty on adjacent segment degeneration pathology. PMID:24688337

  8. Absconding: A review of the literature 1996-2008.

    PubMed

    Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Mosel, Krista A

    2008-10-01

    Absconding is a significant problem with potential for harm to patients or the general public. The consequences of absconding include physical harm, prolonged treatment time, and substantial economic costs. The aim of this systematic literature review is to synthesize quality literature about absconding from psychiatric facilities, identify gaps in knowledge, and make recommendations for practice. An electronic search yielded 39 journal articles that met the review criteria. Findings demonstrate that a single definition of absconding remains elusive, making the prevalence of absconding difficult to establish. Absconding events are multifactorial, with environmental, psychosocial, and organic aspects. Negative consequences exist including violence, aggression, and self-neglect and harm to self and others. Papers are clustered around the following themes: harm and risk, absconder profiles, absconding rates, and perceptions of nurses and patients. Nursing interventions designed to decrease absconding have been implemented with success, but only in a few studies and in Australia, none have been reported in the literature to date. Further research is required to identify appropriate nursing-based interventions that may prove useful in reducing the risk of absconding. PMID:18789047

  9. Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma: a case series and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pathiraja, P; Dhar, S; Haldar, K

    2013-01-01

    Background Minimal uterine serous cancer (MUSC) or serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC) has been described by many different names since 1998. There have been very few cases reported in literature since EIC/MUSC was recognized as a separate entity. The World health Organization (WHO) Classification favors the term serous EIC. Although serous EIC is confined to the uterine endometrium at initial histology diagnosis, a significant number of patients could have distal metastasis at diagnosis, without symptoms. Serous EIC is considered as being the precursor of uterine serous cancer (USC), but pure serous EIC also has an aggressive behavior similar to USC. It is therefore prudent to have an accurate diagnosis and appropriate surgical staging. There are very few published articles in literature that discuss the pure form of serous EIC. The aim of this series is to share our experience and review evidence for optimum management of serous EIC. Patients and methods We report a series of five women treated in our institute in the last 3 years. We reviewed the relevant literature on serous EIC and various management strategies, to recommend best clinical practice. Conclusion Pure serous EIC is a difficult histopathological diagnosis, which requires ancillary immunohistochemical staining. It can have an aggressive clinical behavior with early recurrence and poor survival. Optimum surgical staging, with appropriate adjuvant treatment, should be discussed when treating these patients. PMID:23861597

  10. Voice Rest versus Exercise: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Keiko; Thibeault, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Voice rest is commonly prescribed after vocal fold surgery to promote wound healing of the vocal fold. Currently, there is no standard protocol that is established based on biological evidence. In orthopedic rehabilitation, long-term rest is found to be less effective for connective tissue healing than exercise. Connective tissue healing is also an important factor for successful voice rehabilitation; however, whether this concept can be extrapolated to voice rehabilitation is unknown. The purpose of this article is to review current clinical and basic science literature to examine the effect of voice rest in post-surgical rehabilitation. First, we present a summary of clinical literature that pertains to voice rest. Second, description of connective tissue that are involved in orthopedic and voice rehabilitation, specifically, ligament and lamina propria, respectively, and their wound healing process are offered. Third, a summary of the literature from orthopedic research on the effect of rest versus exercise is presented. Lastly, it summarizes in vitro and in vivo studies that examined the effect of mechanical stress on vocal fold tissue. Current literature suggests that there is a lack of clinical evidence that supports a specific type and duration of voice rest, and extrapolation of the findings from orthopedic research may be unreasonable due to the morphological and biochemical difference between the tissues. In order to determine the effect of voice rest, further elucidation of vocal fold wound healing process and the effect of mechanical stress on vocal fold tissue remodeling are needed. PMID:19660903

  11. Ethnic diversity in the nurse workforce: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Otto, Laureen A; Gurney, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    In the 2000-2003 New York State Nurses Association Strategic Plan, the Board of Directors called for an assessment of the progress made toward achieving an ethnically diverse nursing workforce as reflected in the literature. In this paper the authors have responded to that request and offer a snapshot of progress as well as standstills in the journey toward diversity. Although the literature has tended to focus on cultural competency of the healthcare worker, and includes numerous calls for action to diversify the nurse workforce, very little scholarly work has been conducted that rigorously evaluates such diversification activities. The purpose of this literature review is to explore existing scholarly work in ethnic diversity at three levels: in the general workforce, the healthcare workforce, and the nursing workforce. The authors explored the literature as it addresses two aspects: academic and career factors influencing diversity; and recruitment, retention, and other strategies employed to diversify the workforce. By exploring the existing research, gaps can be identified in order to either direct further research, or target funding to recruitment strategies to effectively enhance a more ethnically diverse nurse workforce. PMID:17665538

  12. Gynecomastia and psychological functioning: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ordaz, D Luis; Thompson, J Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as excess glandular growth of breast tissue in males. It is a noticeable physical difference that commonly affects males in adolescence and old age. While often transient in nature, gynecomastia persists indefinitely in 10% of cases. Much of the literature on gynecomastia has focused on etiology and management. Little research has been done regarding the impact of gynecomastia on one's mental health and quality of life; however, some studies have suggested various psychosocial and psychological consequences related to gynecomastia. These consequences include but are not limited to depression, anxiety, disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, and reduced self-esteem. The aims of this paper are to review the current gynecomastia literature, bring awareness to an understudied but troubled population, and discuss directions for future work, including offering extant models of body image to guide researchers. PMID:26408934

  13. Culture change in care homes: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Wild, Deirdre; Kydd, Angela

    2016-08-01

    This article is the first of a two-part series that explores a programme of culture change in care homes. A UK care home company sought the authors' expertise to design and facilitate an independent programme of learning to encourage and support staff in two of its homes to become the architects of their own quality improvement. The article reviews the literature that was an essential information base for the authors in their dual roles as designers of the learning programme and facilitators of its delivery to participant staff. The literature is necessarily broad in reflecting the nature and context of care homes, residents' needs and wants from care, and the particular challenges that might be faced by care home staff and managers when making quality improvements. In the second article, the reality of running the programme in the two homes is described. PMID:27573965

  14. Biomarkers in psoriatic arthritis: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Generali, Elena; Scirè, Carlo A; Favalli, Ennio G; Selmi, Carlo

    2016-06-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is characterized by chronic inflammation of peripheral joints and axial skeleton, associated with a strong genetic background. Clinics include enthesitis or dactylitis and extra-articular involvement as uveitis or inflammatory bowel disease, while treatment options range from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to biologics, targeting TNF α or Th17. No serum autoantibody is associated with PsA, while other biomarkers have been proposed for early diagnosis or to predict treatment response. To better discuss this area of growing interest we performed a systematic review of the literature on biomarkers in PsA. Our research retrieved 408 papers, and 38 were included in the analysis. Based on the available literature, we draw some recommendations for the use of biomarkers in the management of patients with PsA. PMID:26821681

  15. Primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    ZOU, ZHEN-YU; NING, NING; LI, SONG-YAN; LI, JIE; DU, XIAO-HUI; LI, RONG

    2016-01-01

    Primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is an extremely rare soft tissue cancer; only 22 cases have been reported in the literature to date. In the current study, the case of an 83-year-old male patient who presented with a neck mass that had grown rapidly over the previous 3 months is reported. The patient underwent thyroid lobectomy twice and two cycles of immunotherapy for the treatment of primary thyroid LMS; however, he succumbed to the disease 5 months after the second surgery. An accurate diagnosis of primary thyroid LMS is difficult, as the disease is often misdiagnosed as anaplastic carcinoma, and requires the combined assessment of clinical, imaging and pathological data. Diagnosis of the current patient with primary thyroid LMS and a comprehensive review of the relevant literature are presented herein. PMID:27313727

  16. Nontechnical Barriers to Solar Energy Use: Review of Recent Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, R.; Zuboy, J.

    2006-09-01

    This paper reviews the nontechnical barriers to solar energy use, drawing on recent literature to help identify key barriers that must be addressed as part of the Technology Acceptance efforts under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar America Initiative. A broad literature search yielded more than 400 references, which were narrowed to 19 recent documents on nontechnical barriers to the use of solar energy and other energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) technologies. Some of the most frequently identified barriers included lack of government policy supporting EE/RE, lack of information dissemination and consumer awareness about energy and EE/RE, high cost of solar and other EE/RE technologies compared with conventional energy, and inadequate financing options for EE/RE projects.

  17. Transtympanic Facial Nerve Paralysis: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Nathan; O’Donohue, Peter; French, Heath; Griffin, Aaron; Gochee, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Facial nerve paralysis because of penetrating trauma through the external auditory canal is extremely rare, with a paucity of published literature. The objective of this study is to review the literature on transtympanic facial nerve paralysis and increase physician awareness of this uncommon injury through discussion of its clinical presentation, management and prognosis. We also aim to improve patient outcomes in those that have sustained this type of injury by suggesting an optimal management plan. In this case report, we present the case of a 46-year-old white woman who sustained a unilateral facial nerve paresis because of a garfish penetrating her tympanic membrane and causing direct damage to the tympanic portion of her facial nerve. On follow-up after 12 months, her facial nerve function has largely returned to normal. Transtympanic facial nerve paralysis is a rare injury but can have a favorable prognosis if managed effectively. PMID:26090278

  18. Ethical Community-Engaged Research: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Bromley, Elizabeth; Khodyakov, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    Health research has relied on ethical principles, such as those of the Belmont Report, to protect the rights and well-being of research participants. Community-based participatory research (CBPR), however, must also consider the rights and well-being of communities. This requires additional ethical considerations that have been extensively discussed but not synthesized in the CBPR literature. We conducted a comprehensive thematic literature review and summarized empirically grounded discussions of ethics in CBPR, with a focus on the value of the Belmont principles in CBPR, additional essential components of ethical CBPR, the ethical challenges CBPR practitioners face, and strategies to ensure that CBPR meets ethical standards. Our study provides a foundation for developing a working definition and a conceptual model of ethical CBPR. PMID:24134352

  19. Endotracheal suctioning in intubated newborns: an integrative literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Roberta Lins; Tsuzuki, Lucila Midori; Carvalho, Marcos Giovanni Santos

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based practices search for the best available scientific evidence to support problem solving and decision making. Because of the complexity and amount of information related to health care, the results of methodologically sound scientific papers must be integrated by performing literature reviews. Although endotracheal suctioning is the most frequently performed invasive procedure in intubated newborns in neonatal intensive care units, few Brazilian studies of good methodological quality have examined this practice, and a national consensus or standardization of this technique is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review secondary studies on the subject to establish recommendations for endotracheal suctioning in intubated newborns and promote the adoption of best-practice concepts when conducting this procedure. An integrative literature review was performed, and the recommendations of this study are to only perform endotracheal suctioning in newborns when there are signs of tracheal secretions and to avoid routinely performing the procedure. In addition, endotracheal suctioning should be conducted by at least two people, the suctioning time should be less than 15 seconds, the negative suction pressure should be below 100 mmHg, and hyperoxygenation should not be used on a routine basis. If indicated, oxygenation is recommended with an inspired oxygen fraction value that is 10 to 20% greater than the value of the previous fraction, and it should be performed 30 to 60 seconds before, during and 1 minute after the procedure. Saline instillation should not be performed routinely, and the standards for invasive procedures must be respected. PMID:26465249

  20. Nursing ethical values and definitions: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Shahriari, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Eesa; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Bahrami, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ethical values offer a framework for behavior assessment, and nursing values influence nurses’ goals, strategies, and actions. A literature review was adopted in order to determine and define ethical values for nurses. Materials and Methods: This literature review was conducted based on the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidelines. The key words used to search relevant sources were nursing, ethics, ethical values, and nursing values. The search of articles in English was carried out in Medline, CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, and Proquest databases. The search of articles in Persian was conducted in databases of Magiran, SID, and Irandoc publications. After assessing and analyzing the obtained data, 17 articles which had a distinct definition of ethical values were chosen and subjected to a thorough study. Results: The search yielded 10 nursing ethical values: Human dignity, privacy, justice, autonomy in decision making, precision and accuracy in caring, commitment, human relationship, sympathy, honesty, and individual and professional competency. Conclusions: This study showed that common ethical values are generally shared within the global community. However, in several areas, influences of social, cultural, and economical status and religious beliefs on values result in a different definition of these values. This study revealed that based on humanistic nature of nursing, common values in nursing protect human dignity and respect to the patients. Recognizing and definition of ethical values can help to improve nursing practice and develop codes of ethics. PMID:23983720

  1. Physician Dual Practice: A Descriptive Mapping Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    MOGHRI, Javad; ARAB, Mohammad; RASHIDIAN, Arash; AKBARI SARI, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physician dual practice is a common phenomenon in almost all countries throughout the world, which could potential impacts on access, equity and quality of services. This paper aims to review studies in physician dual practice and categorize them in order to their main objectives and purposes. Methods: Comprehensive literature searches were undertaken in order to obtain main papers and documents in the field of physician dual practice. Systematic searches in Medline and Embase from 1960 to 2013, and general searches in some popular search engines were carried out in this way. After that, descriptive mapping review methods were utilized to categorize eligible studies in this area. Results: The searches obtained 404 titles, of which 81 full texts were assessed. Finally, 24 studies were eligible for inclusion in our review. These studies were categorized into four groups - “motivation and forces behind dual practice”, “consequences of dual practice”, “dual practice Policies and their impacts”, and “other studies” - based on their main objectives. Our findings showed a dearth of scientifically reliable literature in some areas of dual practice, like the prevalence of the phenomenon, the real consequences of it, and the impacts of the implemented policy measures. Conclusion: Rigorous empirical and evaluative studies should be designed to detect the real consequences of DP and assess the effects of interventions and regulations, which governments have implemented in this field. PMID:27141489

  2. The Health Effect of Psychostimulants: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Favrod-Coune, Thierry; Broers, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of psychostimulant use is high, and raising in several countries. Nicotine is the legal stimulant causing the most important public health impact. Cocaine ranks among the most used illicit substances after cannabis. Stimulant medications are frequently misused. Psychostimulants can lead to addiction, have physical, psychological and social health consequences and can induce a great disease burden. The aim of the present article is to provide a literature review on the health effects of stimulants as potential drugs of abuse. It will cover essentially cocaine, amphetamines and its derivatives (including methamphetamines and 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy), nicotine, caffeine and khat, and touch upon the issues of prescribed substances (anti-depressants, weight control medications, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder medications, hypersomniac disorder). Their pharmacology, addictive potential, health consequences and treatment will be discussed. We used Medline for the literature review from 1990 to the date of this review, and mention the findings of human and animal studies (the latter only if they are of clinical relevance).

  3. Endotracheal suctioning in intubated newborns: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Roberta Lins; Tsuzuki, Lucila Midori; Carvalho, Marcos Giovanni Santos

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based practices search for the best available scientific evidence to support problem solving and decision making. Because of the complexity and amount of information related to health care, the results of methodologically sound scientific papers must be integrated by performing literature reviews. Although endotracheal suctioning is the most frequently performed invasive procedure in intubated newborns in neonatal intensive care units, few Brazilian studies of good methodological quality have examined this practice, and a national consensus or standardization of this technique is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review secondary studies on the subject to establish recommendations for endotracheal suctioning in intubated newborns and promote the adoption of best-practice concepts when conducting this procedure. An integrative literature review was performed, and the recommendations of this study are to only perform endotracheal suctioning in newborns when there are signs of tracheal secretions and to avoid routinely performing the procedure. In addition, endotracheal suctioning should be conducted by at least two people, the suctioning time should be less than 15 seconds, the negative suction pressure should be below 100 mmHg, and hyperoxygenation should not be used on a routine basis. If indicated, oxygenation is recommended with an inspired oxygen fraction value that is 10 to 20% greater than the value of the previous fraction, and it should be performed 30 to 60 seconds before, during and 1 minute after the procedure. Saline instillation should not be performed routinely, and the standards for invasive procedures must be respected. PMID:26465249

  4. Laparoscopic 5-mm Trocar Site Herniation and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Minikel, Laura; Zaritsky, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the evidence for fascial closure of 5-mm laparoscopic trocar sites. Methods: We conducted electronic database searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library for articles published between November 2008 and December 2010. We used the keywords trocar hernia, trocar-site hernia, laparoscopic hernia, trocar port-site hernia, laparoscopic port-site hernia. Prospective and retrospective case series, randomized trials, literature reviews, and randomized animal studies of trocar hernias on abdominal wall defects from gynecologic, urologic, and general surgery literature were reviewed. The Cochrane Database was reviewed for pertinent studies. Metaanalysis was not possible due to the significant heterogeneity between studies and lack of randomized trials large enough to assess the incidence of this rare complication. Results: Trocar-site hernias are a rare but known complication of laparoscopic surgery. Trocar size ≥10mm is associated with an increased rate of hernia development. Currently, the accepted gynecologic surgical practice is closure of fascial incisions ≥10mm, while incisions <10mm do not require closure. However, large prospective and retrospective case series reports from general surgery and urology literature support nonclosure of blunt or radially dilating trocars in paramedian sites. Expert opinion and small case reports suggest that in cases of prolonged manipulation of 5-mm trocar sites the surgeon should consider fascial closure, because extension of the initial incision may have occurred. Conclusion: There is no evidence to recommend routine closure of 5-mm trocar incisions; the choice should continue to be left to the discretion of the individual surgeon. PMID:21902958

  5. Drug therapy in cardiac arrest: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Andreas; Djärv, Therese; Engdahl, Johan; Hollenberg, Jacob; Nordberg, Per; Ravn-Fischer, Annika; Ringh, Mattias; Rysz, Susanne; Svensson, Leif; Herlitz, Johan; Lundgren, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the literature on human studies of drug therapy in cardiac arrest during the last 25 years. In May 2015, a systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and CRD databases. Prospective interventional and observational studies evaluating a specified drug therapy in human cardiac arrest reporting a clinical endpoint [i.e. return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or survival] and published in English 1990 or later were included, whereas animal studies, case series and reports, studies of drug administration, drug pharmacology, non-specified drug therapies, preventive drug therapy, drug administration after ROSC, studies with primarily physiological endpoints, and studies of traumatic cardiac arrest were excluded. The literature search identified a total of 8936 articles. Eighty-eight articles met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review. We identified no human study in which drug therapy, compared with placebo, improved long-term survival. Regarding adrenaline and amiodarone, the drugs currently recommended in cardiac arrest, two prospective randomized placebo-controlled trials, were identified for adrenaline, and one for amiodarone, but they were all underpowered to detect differences in survival to hospital discharge. Of all reviewed studies, only one recent prospective study demonstrated improved neurological outcome with one therapy over another using a combination of vasopressin, steroids, and adrenaline as the intervention compared with standard adrenaline administration. The evidence base for drug therapy in cardiac arrest is scarce. However, many human studies on drug therapy in cardiac arrest have not been powered to identify differences in important clinical outcomes such as survival to hospital discharge and favourable neurological outcome. Efforts are needed to initiate large multicentre prospective randomized clinical trials to evaluate both currently recommended and

  6. Occupational stress in nursing: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Clegg, A

    2001-03-01

    The management and reduction of occupational stress are recognized as key factors in promoting employee well-being. Nursing is one of the many disciplines contributing to a huge body of research into the causes and effect of the ill-defined phenomenon of occupational stress. This literature review considers the ontological contribution of a number of disciplines to a growing body of knowledge on the subject of stress. The paper examines the complex issue of stress management, highlighting the impact of organizational culture and transformational leadership style on staff satisfaction levels. PMID:11879452

  7. Neuromyelitis optica in children: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Derle, Eda; Güneş, H Nalan; Konuşkan, Bahadır; Tuncer-Kurne, Aslı

    2014-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare and severe inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), which constitutes up to 5% of pediatric aquired demyelinating diseases. The optic nerves and the spinal cord are the most affected sites. The discovery of an autoantibody called NMO-IgG, which targets aquaporin-4, the main water channel in the CNS, gave a new direction to understanding the underlying immunologic mechanisms. This specific biomarker also helps to distinguish the disease from other demyelinating disorders. Here, we review the clinical and paraclinical features, immunological properties and treatment options of the disease as reported in the literature. PMID:26388586

  8. [Waardenburg Syndrome: a review of literature and case reports].

    PubMed

    Salvatore, S; Carnevale, C; Infussi, R; Arrico, L; Mafrici, M; Plateroti, A M; Vingolo, E M

    2012-01-01

    Waadernburg syndrome (WS) is an autosomal dominant disease clinically and genetically heterogeneous. It is characterized by non-progressive sensorineuronal hearing loss of variable degree and anomalous pigmentation (of the eyes, skin and stria vascularis of cochlear duct) caused by melanocytes absence. The syndrome is caused by mutations in genes that regulate the melanocytes differentiation from the neural crest during embriogenetic development. This study will review the literature on WS and explain more in detail the ocular findings in WS, while reporting new findings on two newly diagnosed cases. PMID:22555841

  9. Stress injury of the acromion: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Atul Kumar; Negromonte, Francisco Pires; Skaf, Abdalla

    2013-11-01

    We report a case of stress injury of the acromion related to golf practicing in a 40-year-old male. Fractures of the scapula are unusual, with stress injury of the acromion being even rarer. The probable mechanism would be a strong contraction of posterior fibers of the deltoid during golf swing. There are few published reports of similar injuries, and to our knowledge, this is the first to demonstrate its features by magnetic resonance imaging. A review of the literature is also presented. PMID:23412322

  10. Dentin hypersensitivity: etiology, diagnosis and treatment; a literature review.

    PubMed

    Davari, Ar; Ataei, E; Assarzadeh, H

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this review is to inform practitioners about dentin hypersensitivity (DH); to provide a brief overview of the diagnosis, etiology and clinical management of dentin hypersensitivity and to discuss technical approaches to relieve sensitivity. This clinical information is described in the context of the underlying biology. The author used PUBMED to find relevant English-language literature published in the period 1999 to 2010. The author used combinations of the search terms "dentin*", "tooth", "teeth", "hypersensit*", "desensitiz*". Abstracts and also full text articles to identify studies describing etiology, prevalence, clinical features, controlled clinical trials of treatments and relevant laboratory research on mechanisms of action were used. PMID:24724135

  11. Kawasaki syndrome during pregnancy: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Lefkou, Eleftheria; Mahadeva, Ula; Jones, Andy; Hancock, Jane; Hunt, Beverley J

    2008-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is characterized by persistent fever, mucous membrane hyperaemia, cervical lymph node enlargement, exanthema and periungual desquamation. It is seen mainly in children, with <60 cases reported in adults. We present the case, the first to the best of our knowledge, of a 17-year-woman who developed KD during the second trimester of pregnancy and died 47 days postpartum from cardiac arrest due to acute myocardial infarction. The case, the medical history, the clinical outcome and the postmortem findings are discussed, and we review the literature on adult KD.

  12. Dorsal extradural meningioma: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Dehcordi, Soheila Raysi; Ricci, Alessandro; Chiominto, Alessandro; De Paulis, Danilo; Di Vitantonio, Hambra; Galzio, Renato J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Extradural spinal mass lesions are most commonly metastatic tumors. Extradural meningiomas are rare, accounting for approximately 2.5–3.5% of spinal meningiomas; intraoperatively, they are easily mistaken for malignant tumors, especially in the en plaque variety, resulting in inadequate surgical treatment. Case Description: Our case is one of the first to describe a patient with two purely extradural meningiomas, one each between D3–D4 and between D5–D6 vertebral levels. Surgical resection was radical, and pathologically both lesions were meningothelialmeningiomas. Conclusions: Reviewing the literature, we discuss the pathogenesis, treatment strategies, and long-term behavior of these uncommon lesions.

  13. Sundown syndrome: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yevchak, Andrea M; Steis, Melinda R; Evans, Lois K

    2012-10-01

    The label sundown syndrome continues to be frequently used in long-term and acute care settings without consistent meaning. This study adds to the understanding of this label by synthesizing findings from research published since 1987 linked to sundown syndrome. The purpose of this systematic review is to describe, synthesize, and critique the theoretical definitions, operational definitions and measurement methods, prevalence, antecedent and precipitating factors and consequences, and effectiveness of interventions for sundown syndrome found in the published literature. Implications for research and practice are presented. PMID:22998659

  14. Feline Hyperthyroidism: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Daniel J.

    1986-01-01

    A sixteen year old cat was examined because of polyphagia and weight loss. On the basis of elevated thyroxine levels and the clinical presentation a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was made. The cat was treated presurgically with propylthiouracil and propranolol. Surgical excision of the grossly affected thyroid lobe, and partial excision of the apparently normal contralateral lobe was carried out. The cat improved clinically after the surgery but elevated thyroxine levels persisted. This case and the literature review, which is presented also, stress the necessity to either demonstrate unilateral involvement via extensive presurgical work-up, or to do bilateral, or staged bilateral thyroidectomies in cases of feline hyperthyroidism. ImagesFigure 1.

  15. Intracranial taser dart penetration: Literature review and surgical management

    PubMed Central

    Kaloostian, PE; Tran, H

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a fourteen-year-old female who obtained TASER dart penetration to her right parietal region. She was neurologically intact with headache. CT scan of the head demonstrated TASER penetration intracranially without hemorrhage. Attempts were made at sterile removal of TASER at bedside under sedation. This caused the TASER to break at multiple points leaving only an intracranial component. She was urgently taken to the operating room for craniectomy for TASER removal. After reviewing the literature of an additional two patients, we suggest patients should not have attempts at removing device at bedside and should be taken to the operating room for adequate removal and washout. PMID:24960679

  16. A Case of Primary Hepatic Lymphoma and Related Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yonghua; Jiang, Jinhong; Wu, Qinli; Zhang, Qiaolei; Xu, Yehui; Qu, Zhigang; Ma, Guangli; Wang, Xiaoqiu; Wang, Xiaoli; Jin, Weimei; Fang, Bingmu

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Primary hepatic lymphoma is a rare disease. And the clinical manifestations of this disease are nonspecific. The objective of this paper is to improve clinicians' understanding of this disease. Methods. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of a case of primary hepatic lymphoma in association with hepatitis B virus infection and reviewed the literature. Conclusion. The clinical manifestations of primary hepatic lymphoma are nonspecific. And it is easily misdiagnosed. Postoperative radiotherapy of patients with early stage was previously speculated to achieve favorable improvement. The application of targeted therapeutic drugs, chemotherapy, or combined local radiotherapy has become the first-line treatment strategy. PMID:27403354

  17. Massive localized lymphedema: A case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Evans, Robin James; Scilley, Chris

    2011-01-01

    A large, deep, soft tissue mass is often malignant in nature; however, a recent study described a large soft tissue mass present in morbidly obese patients that was found to be benign. Massive localized lymphedema (MLL) is a large pedunculated lymphadematous mass found in the lower extremity of morbidly obese patients. MLL often enlarges over many years and may interfere with mobility. Although histologically similar to well-differentiated liposarcoma, MLL has recently emerged as a separate, benign clinical entity. The pathophysiology of MLL is yet to be understood. A literature review, and the authors' experiences are discussed to assist in clinical decision making. PMID:22942667

  18. Fabry's Disease: Case Series and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Muzaffar Maqsood; Khan, Imran; Bhat, Riyaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Muzaffar

    2016-01-01

    Fabry's disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A enzyme with the progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide in vascular endothelial cells leading to cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal, neuropathic, lenticular, and dermatological manifestations. It is a rare cause of end-stage renal disease. It classically affects males whereas 10–15% of female heterozygote carriers are affected depending on localization. Both the FD and its association with ESRD is rare. With this background, this case series of five patient's along with the review of literature is presented here. PMID:27398254

  19. Quarterly literature review of the remote sensing of natural resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fears, C. B. (Editor); Inglis, M. H. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The Technology Application Center reviewed abstracted literature sources, and selected document data and data gathering techniques which were performed or obtained remotely from space, aircraft or groundbased stations. All of the documentation was related to remote sensing sensors or the remote sensing of the natural resources. Sensors were primarily those operating within the 10 to the minus 8 power to 1 meter wavelength band. Included are NASA Tech Briefs, ARAC Industrial Applications Reports, U.S. Navy Technical Reports, U.S. Patent reports, and other technical articles and reports.

  20. Lingual Osseous Choristoma Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Benamer, Mohamed H.; Elmangoush, Arej M.

    2007-01-01

    Lingual osseous choristoma is an extremely rare condition, of which only 61 cases have been reported. Monserrat in 1913 was the first to report this bony lesion on the dorsum of the tongue and it was labelled as lingual osteoma, the term that normally describes neoplastic pathology. Krolls et al changed this term later to osseous choristoma, which means normal tissue in an abnormal location. The aetiology and pathogenesis of lingual osseous choristoma remain debatable. We report a case of lingual osseous choristoma and review the literature. PMID:21503232

  1. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended. PMID:23445372

  2. Ocular Lyme disease: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Kauffmann, D J; Wormser, G P

    1990-01-01

    Lyme disease is an emerging new spirochaetal disease in which ocular complications may arise. We have seen a 45-year-old woman who developed unilateral endophthalmitis leading to blindness during the course of this disease. Ocular tissue showed the characteristic spirochete. A literature review shows that the commonest ocular manifestation of Lyme disease is a mild conjunctivitis, but other symptoms may include periorbital oedema, oculomotor palsies, uveitis, papilloedema, papillitis, interstitial keratitis, and others. Ophthalmologists treating patients from Lyme disease endemic areas need to be aware of the protean clinical manifestation of this disease. PMID:2198927

  3. Child sexual abuse and the media: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Weatherred, Jane Long

    2015-01-01

    The media play an important role in practice, policy, and public perception of child sexual abuse, in part by the way in which news stories are framed. Child sexual abuse media coverage over the past 50 years can be divided into five time periods based on the types of stories that garnered news coverage and the ways in which public policy was changed. This systematic literature review of research on child sexual abuse media coverage across disciplines and geographic boundaries examines 16 studies published in the English language from 1995 to 2012. A seminal work is identified, citation network analysis is applied, and a framework model is developed. PMID:25635896

  4. Tailgut cyst: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Haydar, Mazen; Griepentrog, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tailgut cysts are rare diseases but can be challenging to manage. Presentation of case This is a case report of a tailgut cyst, in a 42 year old female. The cyst was incidentally detected on imaging, and treated with Kraske surgical approach. Discussion Hereby, we review the relevant information present in the medical literature about the incidence, methods of diagnosis, treatment options and management plans. Conclusion Surgical management should be tailored individually for each patient, based on the advantages and disadvantages of each surgical approach. PMID:25853843

  5. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in native Americans: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J L; Campos-Outcalt, D

    1994-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become the leading cause of death for Native Americans and Alaska Natives. CVD risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle) have been studied in a number of Native American tribes, and such studies are increasing as the CVD mortality rate rises. This article reviews the literature between 1980 and 1991 concerning the prevalence of CVD risk factors in this population. In addition to summarizing the data, we describe limitations inherent in comparison and address the need for standardization of methodology in future studies. PMID:7848673

  6. Sororicide in preteen girls. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Adam, B S; Livingston, R

    1993-01-01

    All means of exploring the psychological and environmental antecedents of murder by a child should be used toward preventing lethal outcomes in future. The authors present the case of a ten year old girl who killed her sister with details of the sisters' relationship, the perpetrator's psychological characteristics and the family situation. Sibling-rivalry, family stressors, and the perpetrator's compulsive and narcissistic traits and preoccupation with a violent television fantasy are discussed. A literature review and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:8517161

  7. Online Technologies for Health Information and Education: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Harkiran K.; Gill, Navkiranjit; Young, Sean D.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of research focused on the use of social media and Internet technologies for health education and information sharing. The authors reviewed literature on this topic, with a specific focus on the benefits and concerns associated with using online social technologies as health education and communication tools. Studies suggest that social media technologies have the potential to safely and effectively deliver health education, if privacy concerns are addressed. Utility of social media-based health education and communication will improve as technology developers and public health officials determine ways to improve information accuracy and address privacy concerns. PMID:24465171

  8. Intracranial Rhabdomyoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Dieppa, David R; Zhou, Tianzan; Jones, Karra A; Chen, James Y; Hansen, Lawrence; U, Hoi Sang

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old male presented with eight months of increasingly severe frontal headaches, decreased right facial sensation, and periodic vertigo. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a heterogeneously contrast-enhancing mass involving and expanding the right foramen ovale.  A biopsy of the lesion was performed, and the final pathologic diagnosis revealed a neoplastic rhabdomyoma. To date, only five cases of intracranial rhabdomyoma have been reported, and a rhabdomyoma involving the trigeminal nerve has never been described in an adult. This manuscript reviews the available literature and highlights the clinical, imaging, pathologic characteristics, and surgical management of these exceedingly rare lesions. PMID:27335706

  9. Myofibroblastoma of the Breast: Literature Review and Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Magdi; Carr, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Myofibroblastoma of the breast is a rare benign spindle cell tumor. The main aim of this study is to review the literature of this rare tumor. We present a case of a mammary myofibroblastoma occurring in an 82-year-old man, emphasizing the clinical, radiological, and pathological features. The tumor was successfully identified and managed in our hospital. We would like to draw the attention of clinicians to myofibroblastoma as a rare possibility in the differential diagnosis of a breast mass. PMID:27525142

  10. [Relationship between malocclusion and TMJ dysfunction. Literature review].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Sequeros, O; Royo-Villanova Perez, M L

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss some current concepts of maloclusion and TMJ Syndrome by reviewing the most significative literature. This analysis the great differences between well-knowing authors about very important subjects in occlusion, as the condylar position in centric relation and in TMJ Syndrome, or what kind of malocclusion (morphologic and functional, skeletal or dental) was the cause of TMJ Syndrome. The theory of emotional stress would be useful to explain some of the discrepancies, by reducing the occlusal disharmony to predisposal factors depending on the personal adaptation to stress. PMID:1867734

  11. Platelet-rich fibrin application in dentistry: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Borie, Eduardo; Oliví, Daniel García; Orsi, Iara Augusta; Garlet, Katia; Weber, Benjamín; Beltrán, Víctor; Fuentes, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The development of bioactive surgical additives to regulate the inflammation and increase the speed of healing process is one of the great challenges in clinical research. In this sense, platelet rich fibrin (PRF) appears as a natural and satisfactory alternative with favorable results and low risks. The following review attempts to summarize the relevant literature regarding the technique of using PRF, focusing on its preparation, advantages, and disadvantages of using it in clinical applications. PRF alone or in combination with other biomaterials seems to have several advantages and indications both for medicine and dentistry, due it is a minimally invasive technique with low risks and satisfactory clinical results. PMID:26221349

  12. [Epidural extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma. Case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Rafael; Bernal-García, Luis Miguel; Pineda-Palomo, Manuel; Botana-Fernández, Marcos; Gilete-Tejero, Ignacio Javier; Cabezudo-Artero, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is a malignant tumour of the bone that sometimes presents extraskeletal involvement, with the epidural location being rare. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with paresthesia, paresis and urinary retention. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an epidural mass from C6 to D3. Laminectomy from C7 to D2 and partial resection of the lesion was performed. Pathological analysis was consistent with Ewing sarcoma. The patient received chemotherapy and radiotherapy, without evidence of disease at 8 months follow-up. A review of the literature on all published cases of extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma with epidural involvement is presented. PMID:25497289

  13. Brown Tumors: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Can, Özgür; Boynueğri, Başak; Gökçe, Ali Murat; Özdemir, Ebru; Ferhatoğlu, Ferhat; Canbakan, Mustafa; Şahin, Gülizar Manga; Titiz, Mesut İzzet; Apaydın, Süheyla

    2016-01-01

    Brown tumors are focal bone lesions, encountered in patients with uncontrolled hyperparathyroidism. They can be located in any part of the skeleton. Clinically significant lesions in the craniofacial bones are rare. Craniofacial involvement may cause facial disfiguration and compromise social ease of the patient and normal functions, such as chewing, talking, and breathing. In this case report, we present a patient with a brown tumor of the craniofacial bones provoked by secondary hyperparathyroidism and review the last 10 years of craniofacial brown tumors associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism in the English literature. PMID:27066494

  14. Three-dimensional imaging techniques: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Karatas, Orhan Hakki; Toy, Ebubekir

    2014-01-01

    Imaging is one of the most important tools for orthodontists to evaluate and record size and form of craniofacial structures. Orthodontists routinely use 2-dimensional (2D) static imaging techniques, but deepness of structures cannot be obtained and localized with 2D imaging. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging has been developed in the early of 1990's and has gained a precious place in dentistry, especially in orthodontics. The aims of this literature review are to summarize the current state of the 3D imaging techniques and to evaluate the applications in orthodontics. PMID:24966761

  15. Umbilical cord rupture: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Madhusudhan; Nama, Vivek; Karoshi, Mahantesh; Kakumani, Vijayasri; Worth, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The umbilical cord acts as a mechanical conduit between the fetus and placenta, allowing movement of water and nutrient substances between the fetal circulation and the amniotic fluid. Complications can occur antenatally or intranatally and are usually acute events that require immediate delivery to prevent intrauterine death. Even though the majority of the cord complications are unpreventable, significant improvement in perinatal mortality and morbidity can be achieved if such an event can be predicted. Umbilical cord rupture is not uncommon, but significantly underreported. We present an unusual cause of umbilical cord rupture and a review of literature. PMID:18320869

  16. Trust in nurse-patient relationships: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Dinç, Leyla; Gastmans, Chris

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to report the results of a literature review of empirical studies on trust within the nurse-patient relationship. A search of electronic databases yielded 34 articles published between 1980 and 2011. Twenty-two studies used a qualitative design, and 12 studies used quantitative research methods. The context of most quantitative studies was nurse caring behaviours, whereas most qualitative studies focused on trust in the nurse-patient relationship. Most of the quantitative studies used a descriptive design, while qualitative methods included the phenomenological approach, grounded theory, ethnography and interpretive interactionism. Data collection was mainly by questionnaires or interviews. Evidence from this review suggests that the development of trust is a relational phenomenon, and a process, during which trust could be broken and re-established. Nurses' professional competencies and interpersonal caring attributes were important in developing trust; however, various factors may hinder the trusting relationship. PMID:23426234

  17. Arthropods and their products as aphrodisiacs--review of literature.

    PubMed

    Pajovic, B; Radosavljevic, M; Radunovic, M; Radojevic, N; Bjelogrlic, B

    2012-04-01

    After a short review of impotence, the definitions of erectants and aphrodisiacs are presented. The Authors propose division of arthropods according to the places of effect. The description of particular arthropods with their pictures and nomenclature, is followed by certain or probable mechanisms of achieving the aphrodisiac and sometimes toxic effect, that were available in the literature since 1929 till nowadays. We mention the most usual locations, mainly in Asia, where they are found and consumed, but also, we describe the manner of preparing and intake. The review includes the following arthropods: lobster, Arizona bark scorpion, deathstalker, banana spider, Mediterranean black widow, Burmeister's triatoma, giant water bug, diving-beetle, Korean bug, diaclina, flannel moth, Spanish fly, migratory locust, red wood ant and honeybee. PMID:22696884

  18. Issues in benchmarking human reliability analysis methods : a literature review.

    SciTech Connect

    Lois, Erasmia; Forester, John Alan; Tran, Tuan Q.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Boring, Ronald L.

    2008-04-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study is currently underway that compares HRA methods with each other and against operator performance in simulator studies. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  19. Limitations of the Millennium Development Goals: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Fehling, Maya; Nelson, Brett D.; Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    With the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) showing uneven progress, this review identifies possible limitations arising from the MDG framework itself rather than extrinsic issues. A multidisciplinary literature review was conducted with a focus on limitations in the formulation of the MDGs, their structure, content and implementation. Of 1837 MDG-related articles, 90 met criteria for analysis. Articles describe MDGs as being created by only a few stakeholders without adequate involvement by developing countries and overlooking development objectives previously agreed upon. Others claim MDGs are unachievable and simplistic, not adapted to national needs, do not specify accountable parties and reinforce vertical interventions. While MDGs have promoted increased health and well-being in many countries by recognising and deliberating on the possible constraints of the MDG framework, the post-2015 agenda may have even greater impact. Complex problems have simple, easy to understand, wrong answers (Henry Louis Mencken) PMID:24266508

  20. Implants in conjunction with removable partial dentures: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Mijiritsky, Eitan

    2007-06-01

    Although the benefits of implant-borne removable prostheses are readily apparent for the fully edentulous patient and have been well documented, there is a paucity of studies concerning the combination of implants with removable partial dentures in partially edentulous patients. The aim of this article is to review the literature regarding implants with removable partial dentures and evaluate the evidence for this clinical approach. A MEDLINE/PubMed search from 1990 to 2006, focusing on the use of implants with removable partial dentures and related features, was supplemented with a hand search to identify relevant peer-reviewed English articles published in dental journals and textbooks on removable partial dentures. PMID:17563505

  1. Knowledge Transfer and Exchange: Review and Synthesis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mitton, Craig; Adair, Carol E; McKenzie, Emily; Patten, Scott B; Perry, Brenda Waye

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) is as an interactive process involving the interchange of knowledge between research users and researcher producers. Despite many strategies for KTE, it is not clear which ones should be used in which contexts. This article is a review and synthesis of the KTE literature on health care policy. The review examined and summarized KTE's current evidence base for KTE. It found that about 20 percent of the studies reported on a real-world application of a KTE strategy, and fewer had been formally evaluated. At this time there is an inadequate evidence base for doing “evidence-based” KTE for health policy decision making. Either KTE must be reconceptualized, or strategies must be evaluated more rigorously to produce a richer evidence base for future activity. PMID:18070335

  2. Olfaction in Neurologic and Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Maria Dantas Costa Lima; Voegels, Richard Louis; Pinna, Fábio de Rezende; Imamura, Rui; Farfel, José Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Loss of smell is involved in various neurologic and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease. However, the olfactory test is usually neglected by physicians at large. Objective The aim of this study was to review the current literature about the relationship between olfactory dysfunction and neurologic and neurodegenerative diseases. Data Synthesis Twenty-seven studies were selected for analysis, and the olfactory system, olfaction, and the association between the olfactory dysfunction and dementias were reviewed. Furthermore, is described an up to date in olfaction. Conclusion Otolaryngologist should remember the importance of olfaction evaluation in daily practice. Furthermore, neurologists and physicians in general should include olfactory tests in the screening of those at higher risk of dementia. PMID:25992176

  3. Applications of teledentistry: A literature review and update

    PubMed Central

    Jampani, N. D.; Nutalapati, R.; Dontula, B. S. K.; Boyapati, R.

    2011-01-01

    Teledentistry is a combination of telecommunications and dentistry involving the exchange of clinical information and images over remote distances for dental consultation and treatment planning. Teledentistry has the ability to improve access to oral healthcare, improve the delivery of oral healthcare, and lower its costs. It also has the potential to eliminate the disparities in oral health care between rural and urban communities. This article reviews the origin, rationale, scope, basis, and requirements for teledentistry, along with the current evidence that exists in the literature. This article also reviews the ethical and legal issues related to the practice of teledentistry and the future of this alternative and innovative method of delivering dental care. PMID:24478952

  4. Haematological cancer and quality of life: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Allart-Vorelli, P; Porro, B; Baguet, F; Michel, A; Cousson-Gélie, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of haematological cancers on quality of life (QoL). A review of the international literature was conducted from the databases 'PsycInfo' and 'Medline' using the keywords: 'haematological cancer', 'quality of life', 'physical', 'psychological', 'social', 'vocational', 'professional', 'economic', 'cognitive', and 'sexual'. Twenty-one reliable studies were analysed. Among these studies, 12 showed that haematological cancer altered overall QoL, 8 papers found a deterioration of physical dimension, 8 papers reported on functional and role dimensions, 11 papers reported on the psychological component and 9 on the social component. Moreover, one study and two manuscripts, respectively, reported deteriorated sexual and cognitive dimensions. Our review demonstrates that the different dimensions of QoL are deteriorated by haematological malignancies and, probably, by the side effects of treatment. PMID:25909835

  5. Resting Doppler ankle brachial pressure index measurement: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Sihlangu, Dorcus; Bliss, Julie

    2012-07-01

    Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is under-diagnosed in primary and acute settings. The use of Doppler ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) is effective in diagnosing PVD , aid in determining aetiology of leg ulcers and is cost efficient in reducing the effects of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. The aim of this literature review was to review practitioners' experience in using Doppler ABPI, different skills used to measure ABPI and to examine practitioners' confidence in ABPI. The findings identified variation in method for Doppler measurement: including position of the artery, arm measurement, resting period and type of equipment for measuring blood pressure, variations in practitioners' training and experience have demonstrated variability in ABPI results. Although limited in number, the studies have demonstrated knowledge gap, and the need for training among health professionals. PMID:22875182

  6. Animal-Assisted Intervention for trauma: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    O'Haire, Marguerite E.; Guérin, Noémie A.; Kirkham, Alison C.

    2015-01-01

    Animals have a long history of inclusion in psychiatric treatment. There has been a recent growth in the empirical study of this practice, known as Animal-Assisted Intervention (AAI). We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on AAI for trauma, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Ten studies qualified for inclusion, including six peer-reviewed journal articles and four unpublished theses. Participants were predominantly survivors of child abuse, in addition to military veterans. The presentation of AAI was highly variable across the studies. The most common animal species were dogs and horses. The most prevalent outcomes were reduced depression, PTSD symptoms, and anxiety. There was a low level of methodological rigor in most studies, indicating the preliminary nature of this area of investigation. We conclude that AAI may provide promise as a complementary treatment option for trauma, but that further research is essential to establish feasibility, efficacy, and manualizable protocols. PMID:26300817

  7. Desmoid Tumors: A Review of the Literature and Pharmacologic Management.

    PubMed

    Sivanesan, Eellan; Gitlin, Melvin C

    2016-06-01

    Desmoid tumors represent a nonmalignant proliferation of fibroblast-related cells. These rare tumors are difficult to treat and often persist as indolent, lifelong conditions. There are a number of treatments available for both anatomic and symptom regression. Some of these treatments, unfortunately, may not provide long-lasting results and may result in further complications. Pain is a distressing symptom that may be due to the tumor itself or the result of utilized treatments. Pharmacologic therapies represent a noninvasive alternative to surgical resection. Pain symptoms require therapeutic regimens that must be modified as the tumor evolves in expression. The individualized pain treatment program utilized may often reflect principles used in both nonmalignant and malignant pain management models. This review seeks to increase awareness of desmoid tumors through a review of the literature and discussion of its pharmacotherapeutic management. PMID:27159399

  8. Haematological cancer and quality of life: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Allart-Vorelli, P; Porro, B; Baguet, F; Michel, A; Cousson-Gélie, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of haematological cancers on quality of life (QoL). A review of the international literature was conducted from the databases ‘PsycInfo' and 'Medline' using the keywords: 'haematological cancer', 'quality of life', 'physical', 'psychological', 'social', 'vocational', 'professional', 'economic', 'cognitive', and 'sexual'. Twenty-one reliable studies were analysed. Among these studies, 12 showed that haematological cancer altered overall QoL, 8 papers found a deterioration of physical dimension, 8 papers reported on functional and role dimensions, 11 papers reported on the psychological component and 9 on the social component. Moreover, one study and two manuscripts, respectively, reported deteriorated sexual and cognitive dimensions. Our review demonstrates that the different dimensions of QoL are deteriorated by haematological malignancies and, probably, by the side effects of treatment. PMID:25909835

  9. Issues in Benchmarking Human Reliability Analysis Methods: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; John A. Forester; Tuan Q. Tran; Erasmia Lois

    2010-06-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessments (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study comparing and evaluating HRA methods in assessing operator performance in simulator experiments is currently underway. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  10. Reviewing the Literature on the Effectiveness of Pressure Relieving Movements

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, May

    2013-01-01

    Sitting for prolonged periods of time increases seating interface pressures, which is known to increase the risk of developing pressure ulcers. Those at risk of developing pressure ulcers are advised to perform pressure relieving movements such as “pushups” or “forward leans” in order to reduce the duration and magnitude of pressure acting on the vulnerable ischial tuberosity region. The aim of this review was to synthesize and critique the existing literature investigating the effectiveness of pressure relieving movements on seating interface pressures. The twenty-seven articles included in this paper highlight the need for further research investigating the effect of recommended pressure relieving movements on the pressures around the ischial tuberosities. Furthermore, this review found that the majority of individuals at risk of developing pressure ulcers do not adhere with the pressure relieving frequency or magnitude of movements currently recommended, indicating a need for pressure ulcer prevention to be explored further. PMID:23365733

  11. Pit and fissure sealant: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Richard J

    2002-01-01

    For this literature review of pit and fissure sealant, 1,465 references were selected by a search for "sealants" on PubMed. References were limited to dental journals and papers in the English language. The search comprised papers from 1971 to October 2001. Additional papers of historical significance prior to 1971 were added from memory and from reference lists published in early papers. This paper reviewed the literature on pit and fissure sealants under the following subheadings: (1) laboratory studies, (2) clinical technique and tooth preparation, (3) etching time, (4) auxiliary application of pit and fissure sealant, (5) retention and caries prevention, (6) fluoride used with sealants and fluoride-containing sealant, (7) glass ionomer materials as sealants, (8) options in sealant: filled vs unfilled; colored vs clear; autocure vs light-initiated, (9) sealant placed over caries in a therapeutic manner, (10) cost effectiveness of sealant application, (11) underuse of pit and fissure sealant, (12) the estrogenicity issue, (13) use of an intermediate bonding layer to improve retention, (14) new developments and projections, and (15) summary and conclusions. From a careful and thorough review of peer-reviewed publications on pit and fissure sealant, it is clear that sealants are safe, effective and underused (at least underused in the United States). Pit and fissure sealant is best applied to high-risk populations by trained auxiliaries using sealant that incorporates the benefit of an intermediate bonding layer, applied under the rubber dam or with some alternative short-term, but effective, isolation technique, onto an enamel surface that has been cleaned with an air polishing technique and etched with 35% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds. The dental profession awaits with enthusiasm, and some impatience, the incorporation of dentin-bonding technology into the development of a modern, more durable, resin-based sealant. PMID:12412954

  12. Iodine intake in human nutrition: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Dahl, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    The present literature review is a part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004. The main objective of the review is to assess the influence of different intakes of iodine at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation) in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. The literature search resulted in 1,504 abstracts. Out of those, 168 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 40 papers that were quality assessed (A, B, or C). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, and no conclusion. We found suggestive evidence for improved maternal iodine status and thyroid function by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Suggestive evidence was found for the relationship between improved thyroid function (used as an indicator of iodine status) during pregnancy and cognitive function in the offspring up to 18 months of age. Moderately to severely iodine-deficient children will probably benefit from iodine supplementation or improved iodine status in order to improve their cognitive function, while only one study showed improved cognitive function following iodine supplementation in children from a mildly iodine-deficient area (no conclusion). No conclusions can be drawn related to other outcomes included in our review. There are no new data supporting changes in dietary reference values for children or adults. The rationale for increasing the dietary reference values for pregnant and lactating women in the NNR5 needs to be discussed in a broader perspective, taking iodine status of pregnant women in the Nordic countries into account. PMID:23060737

  13. Quality in the pharmaceutical industry – A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Haleem, Reham M.; Salem, Maissa Y.; Fatahallah, Faten A.; Abdelfattah, Laila E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to:a.Highlight the most important guidelines and practices of quality in the pharmaceutical industry.b.Organize such guidelines and practices to create a guide to pave the way for other researchers who would like to dig deeper into these guidelines and practices. Design A review was conducted of 102 publications; 56 publications were concerned with the pharmaceutical quality directly while 46 publications were concerned with the general quality practices. The content of those sources was analyzed and the following themes were identified:a.Research theme 1: Guidelines of the pharmaceutical quality.b.Research theme 2: General practices recently applied in the pharmaceutical industry. Main outcome measures The following guidelines were identified and reviewed: WHO guidelines, FDA guidelines, EU guidelines and ICH guidelines in the research theme I. In research theme II; the following topics were identified and reviewed: quality risk management, quality by design, corrective actions and preventive actions, process capability analysis, Six Sigma, process analytical technology, lean manufacturing, total quality management, ISO series and HACCP. Results Upon reviewing the previously highlighted guidelines and the practices that are widely applied in the pharmaceutical industry, it was noticed that there is an abundant number of papers and articles that explain the general guidelines and practices but the literature lack those describing application; case studies of the pharmaceutical factories applying those guidelines and significance of those guidelines and practices. Conclusions It is recommended that the literature would invest more in the area of application and significance of guidelines and practices. New case studies should be done to prove the feasibility of such practices. PMID:26594110

  14. Mindfulness and problem gambling: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    de Lisle, Steven M; Dowling, Nicki A; Allen, J Sabura

    2012-12-01

    This article reviews the literature with respect to mindfulness and its potential for reducing the severity of problem gambling behaviour. Interest in the role of mindfulness as a treatment for problem gambling has gained the attention of researchers across Australia, the United States, and Canada. However, the literature is limited and current studies have severe methodological limitations. Despite this issue, investigations have revealed that dispositional mindfulness is related to less severe problem gambling outcomes and that psychological distress, overconfidence and risk willingness, myopic focus on reward and ego involvement may act as mediators in this relationship. Moreover, the literature indicates that the inverse relationship between dispositional mindfulness and psychological distress may be mediated by factors such as values clarification; emotional, cognitive, and behavioural flexibility; non-attachment; emotion dysregulation/distress intolerance; thought suppression; and rumination. This article discusses the theoretical and clinical implications of these relationships with respect to mindfulness-based interventions for problem gambling. It is recommended that the approach be considered with cautious optimism. PMID:22160581

  15. Gastric bronchogenic cysts: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    TU, CHAOYONG; ZHU, JINGDE; SHAO, CHUXIAO; MAO, WEIBO; ZHOU, XINGMU; LIN, QIAOMEI; LI, ZHUKAI; ZHANG, JIE; ZHOU, QINGYUE; CHEN, WEI

    2016-01-01

    Gastric bronchogenic cysts are rare lesions, first described in 1956, with only 34 cases reported in the literature to date. The present study described a case of bronchogenic cyst of the stomach in a 17-year-old female who presented with periodic epigastric pain. In addition, the study analyzed the existing literature on these lesions. Gastric bronchogenic cysts are more common in females (female:male ratio, 21:14) and the median age of their development is 43 years. In total, 48.57% of the 34 previously reported cases were identified incidentally, and the remainder presented mainly with epigastric pain. Cyst sizes varied between 1.7 and 15 cm. In 3 cases, preoperative diagnosis was performed using needle biopsy, whereas several studies were initially misdiagnosed as stromal tumors. In 85% of the cases (31/35), cyst resection was performed, with laparoscopy used in 4 of the cases. The findings of the present study and literature review suggested that bronchogenic cysts of the stomach are rare, and surgical resection is warranted to treat symptoms and prevent malignant transformation. PMID:27073434

  16. Deep brain stimulation for dystonia: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mehdorn, Hubertus M

    2016-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become one of the major therapy options for movement disorders including dystonia. This article should give a review of the current literature from a neurosurgical perspective. Since dystonia is a rare disease, only few studies on larger cohorts have been published, and very few randomized controlled studies are avaialable in the international literature. Our experiences gained treating 134 patients with various types of dystonia, between 1999 and 2015, will serve a guide to interpret the current literature. Symptoms of dystonia are due to a variety of medical conditions. A careful and extensive neurological evaluation is mandatory before medical and surgical treatment options are considered, since the clinical benefits of more aggressive treatment e.g. by DBS depend to a large extent on the etiology of the disease. Diagnostic steps should include also magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and possibly genetic evaluation. Therapy consists of physiotherapy, medical therapy including botulinum toxin injections in focal dystonia and DBS. This neurosurgical therapy is considered a highly effective therapy in well selected patients, which should be discussed, depending on the etiology, early in the patient's career. Patients with primary dystonia will benefit the most from DBS to the ventromediolateral part of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) with acceptable low complication rates; in order to optimize longterm results in these groups of patient, they will require an interdisciplinary individualized approach both pre- and postoperatively as well as longterm care adjusting to their needs. PMID:26977634

  17. Bisphenol A and human health: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rochester, Johanna R

    2013-12-01

    There is growing evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) may adversely affect humans. BPA is an endocrine disruptor that has been shown to be harmful in laboratory animal studies. Until recently, there were relatively few epidemiological studies examining the relationship between BPA and health effects in humans. However, in the last year, the number of these studies has more than doubled. A comprehensive literature search found 91 studies linking BPA to human health; 53 published within the last year. This review outlines this body of literature, showing associations between BPA exposure and adverse perinatal, childhood, and adult health outcomes, including reproductive and developmental effects, metabolic disease, and other health effects. These studies encompass both prenatal and postnatal exposures, and include several study designs and population types. While it is difficult to make causal links with epidemiological studies, the growing human literature correlating environmental BPA exposure to adverse effects in humans, along with laboratory studies in many species including primates, provides increasing support that environmental BPA exposure can be harmful to humans, especially in regards to behavioral and other effects in children. PMID:23994667

  18. [Educational practices for diabetes mellitus: integrative literature review].

    PubMed

    Borba, Anna Karla de Oliveira Tito; Marques, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Leal, Márcia Carréra Campos; Ramos, Roberta Souza Pereira da Silva

    2012-03-01

    This is an integrative literature review which aims to identify the multi-professional scientific production on educational practices for individuals with diabetes available in the databases: Latin American Literature in Health Sciences (Literatura Latino Americana em Ciências da Saúde-LILACS), Medical Literature and Retrieval System online (Medline), Spanish Bibliographical Index in Health Sciences (Indice Bibliográfico Español en Ciencias de la Salud-Ibecs) and the Database on Nursing (Base de Dados em Enfermagem-BDENF), from 1999 to 2009. Results show that educational practices are developed mainly for adults and seniors up to 80 years of age, and involve themes that reflect the daily ife of living with diabetes. These practices are spread mainly through groups, bringing benefits not only for the individual with diabetes but also for the healthcare professional. Thus, we can see the process of changing the traditional education paradigm to a problem-based dialogical education, with a view for promoting health. PMID:22737810

  19. Antihistamines and Birth Defects: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Ailes, Elizabeth C.; Rai, Ramona P.; Anderson, Jaynia A.; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 10-15% of women reportedly take an antihistamine during pregnancy for the relief of nausea and vomiting, allergy and asthma symptoms, or indigestion. Antihistamines include histamine H1-receptor and H2-receptor antagonists. Areas covered This is a systematic evaluation of the peer-reviewed epidemiologic literature published through February 2014 on the association between prenatal exposure to antihistamines and birth defects. Papers addressing histamine H1- or H2-receptor antagonists are included. Papers addressing pyridoxine plus doxylamine (Bendectin in the United States, Debendox in the United Kingdom, Diclectin in Canada, Lenotan and Merbental in other countries) prior to the year 2001 were excluded post-hoc because of several previously published meta-analyses and commentaries on this medication. Expert opinion The literature on the safety of antihistamine use during pregnancy with respect to birth defects is generally reassuring though the positive findings from a few large studies warrant corroboration in other populations. The findings in the literature are considered in light of three critical methodological issues: (1) selection of appropriate study population; (2) ascertainment of antihistamine exposures; and (3) ascertainment of birth defects outcomes. Selected antihistamines have been very well-studied (e.g. loratadine); others, especially H2- receptor antagonists, require additional study before an assessment of safety with respect to birth defects risk could be made. PMID:25307228

  20. Global health diplomacy: A critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald; Lencucha, Raphael; Runnels, Vivien; Gagnon, Michelle

    2016-04-01

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) describes the practices by which governments and non-state actors attempt to coordinate and orchestrate global policy solutions to improve global health. As an emerging field of practice, there is little academic work that has comprehensively examined and synthesized the theorization of Global Health Diplomacy (GHD), nor looked at why specific health concerns enter into foreign policy discussion and agendas. With the objective of uncovering the driving forces behind and theoretical explanations of GHD, we conducted a critical literature review. We searched three English-language scholarly databases using standardized search terms which yielded 606 articles. After screening of abstracts based on our inclusion/exclusion criteria, we retained 135 articles for importing into NVivo10 and coding. We found a lack of rigorous theorizing about GHD and fragmentation of the GHD literature which is not clearly structured around key issues and their theoretical explanations. To address this lack of theoretical grounding, we link the findings from the GHD literature to how theoretical concepts used in International Relations (IR) have been, and could be invoked in explaining GHD more effectively. To do this, we develop a theoretical taxonomy to explain GHD outcomes based on a popular categorization in IR, identifying three levels of analysis (individual, domestic/national, and global/international) and the driving forces for the integration of health into foreign policy at each level. PMID:26994358

  1. Review: Abortion care in Ghana: A critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R

    2015-01-01

    The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords “Ghana and abortion” and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services. PMID:25438507

  2. Polypharmacy and Falls in the Elderly: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Tania; Wilson, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Context: Medications are taken to ease, control or cure ailments. They are effective and safe if used correctly. In the elderly, disorders that occur as a result of ageing, frequently require treatment, resulting in increased use of medications. Polypharmacy is common among the elderly and although it can be therapeutic in nature, is linked to adverse events such as falls. Evidence Acquisition: A review of the literature was conducted. English articles in Cinahl, Medline and Healthsource (2000-2012) were searched for links between polypharmacy and falls in older adults aged 65 years old and over. Articles not meeting the age criterion were excluded. Search terms included falls, polypharmacy, medications, multiple medications, medicines, elderly, aged. A total of 120 articles were retrieved from the Literature search. Results: Sixteen articles were included in the literature review. Four literature reviews, three observational prospective cohort, three cross-sectional, three case-control, one longitudinal study and two retrospective cohort studies were examined. Many studies were able to demonstrate a link between the number of medications taken and risk of falls however the potential for bias resulting from confounding by indication was high due to study design in many cases. Conclusions: Polypharmacy as an independent variable has been linked to falls in older people, however there appears to be a stronger link between falls and the type of medications taken (e.g. medications known to increase risk of falls), rather than polypharmacy on its own. Polypharmacy can sometimes be therapeutic and it may be more beneficial to consider terms such as ‘inappropriate prescribing’ or potentially inappropriate medications’ when considering the effects of medication on falls in older adults. Polypharmacy in older people is often viewed in a negative light due to the increased risk of adverse events, including falls. This article examined current knowledge on the

  3. Occupational therapy and return to work: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this review study was to gather evidence on the effectiveness in terms of return to work (RTW) of occupational therapy interventions (OTIs) in rehabilitation patients with non-congenital disorders. A secondary aim was to be able to select the most efficient OTI. Methods A systematic literature review of peer-reviewed papers was conducted using electronic databases (Cinahl, Cochrane Library, Ebsco, Medline (Pubmed), and PsycInfo). The search focussed on randomised controlled trials and cohort studies published in English from 1980 until September 2010. Scientific validity of the studies was assessed. Results Starting from 1532 papers with pertinent titles, six studies met the quality criteria. Results show systematic reviewing of OTIs on RTW was challenging due to varying populations, different outcome measures, and poor descriptions of methodology. There is evidence that OTIs as part of rehabilitation programs, increase RTW rates, although the methodological evidence of most studies is weak. Conclusions Analysis of the selected papers indicated that OTIs positively influence RTW; two studies described precisely what the content of their OTI was. In order to identify the added value of OTIs on RTW, studies with well-defined OT intervention protocols are necessary. PMID:21810228

  4. Measuring persistence: A literature review focusing on methodological issues

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.; Brown, M.A.; Trumble, D.

    1995-03-01

    This literature review was conducted as part of a larger project to produce a handbook on the measurement of persistence. The past decade has marked the development of the concept of persistence and a growing recognition that the long-term impacts of demand-side management (DSM) programs warrant careful assessment. Although Increasing attention has been paid to the topic of persistence, no clear consensus has emerged either about its definition or about the methods most appropriate for its measurement and analysis. This project strives to fill that gap by reviewing the goals, terminology, and methods of past persistence studies. It was conducted from the perspective of a utility that seeks to acquire demand-side resources and is interested in their long-term durability; it was not conducted from the perspective of the individual consumer. Over 30 persistence studies, articles, and protocols were examined for this report. The review begins by discussing the underpinnings of persistence studies: namely, the definitions of persistence and the purposes of persistence studies. Then. it describes issues relevant to both the collection and analysis of data on the persistence of energy and demand savings. Findings from persistence studies also are summarized. Throughout the review, four studies are used repeatedly to illustrate different methodological and analytical approaches to persistence so that readers can track the data collection. data analysis, and findings of a set of comprehensive studies that represent alternative approaches.

  5. Space Mechanisms Lessons Learned Study. Volume 2: Literature Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur; Murray, Frank; Howarth, Roy; Fusaro, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Hundreds of satellites have been launched to date. Some have operated extremely well and others have not. In order to learn from past operating experiences, a study was conducted to determine the conditions under which space mechanisms (mechanically moving components) have previously worked or failed. The study consisted of an extensive literature review that included both government contractor reports and technical journals, communication and visits (when necessary) to the various NASA and DOD centers and their designated contractors (this included contact with project managers of current and prior NASA satellite programs as well as their industry counterparts), requests for unpublished information to NASA and industry, and a mail survey designed to acquire specific mechanism experience. The information obtained has been organized into two volumes. Volume 1 provides a summary of the lesson learned, the results of a needs analysis, responses to the mail survey, a listing of experts, a description of some available facilities, and a compilation of references. Volume 2 contains a compilation of the literature review synopsis.

  6. Folded zoom lenses: a review of patent literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiley, Daniel J.

    2014-12-01

    Folded zoom lenses offer an interesting opportunity for a review of patent literature: they are of a reasonable complexity that the designs are likely to be instructive, they offer a small range of design constraints because of the standardization of CMOS imager sizes and the mechanical constraints imposed on DSC cameras, and there is enough recent activity in awarded patents that a representative sample of contemporary designs can be collected. This paper presents a review of recent patent literature for folded zoom lenses. Zemax models were built for the designs disclosed in 67 patents. For this large set of models, the distribution of paraxial properties and lens materials is presented. For the most-common design constraints, two particularly-similar disclosed designs are compared in detail. Engineering differences between the two disclosed designs are compared to differences in patent claims directed to the disclosed designs; the patents' claims are shown to omit, at least for these two patents, some design differences that seem important from an engineering point of view.

  7. Therapeutic options in idiopathic burning mouth syndrome: literature review.

    PubMed

    Miziara, Ivan; Chagury, Azis; Vargas, Camila; Freitas, Ludmila; Mahmoud, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by a burning sensation in the tongue, palate, lips, or gums of no well-defined etiology. The diagnosis and treatment for primary BMS are controversial. No specific laboratory tests or diagnostic criteria are well established, and the diagnosis is made by excluding all other possible disorders. Objective To review the literature on the main treatment options in idiopathic BMS and compare the best results of the main studies in 15 years. Data Synthesis We conducted a literature review on PubMed/MEDLINE, SciELO, and Cochrane-BIREME of work in the past 15 years, and only selected studies comparing different therapeutic options in idiopathic BMS, with preference for randomized and double-blind controlled studies. Final Comments Topical clonazepam showed good short-term results for the relief of pain, although this was not presented as a definitive cure. Similarly, α-lipoic acid showed good results, but there are few randomized controlled studies that showed the long-term results and complete remission of symptoms. On the other hand, cognitive therapy is reported as a good and lasting therapeutic option with the advantage of not having side effects, and it can be combined with pharmacologic therapy. PMID:25992157

  8. Therapeutic Options in Idiopathic Burning Mouth Syndrome: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Miziara, Ivan; Chagury, Azis; Vargas, Camila; Freitas, Ludmila; Mahmoud, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by a burning sensation in the tongue, palate, lips, or gums of no well-defined etiology. The diagnosis and treatment for primary BMS are controversial. No specific laboratory tests or diagnostic criteria are well established, and the diagnosis is made by excluding all other possible disorders. Objective To review the literature on the main treatment options in idiopathic BMS and compare the best results of the main studies in 15 years. Data Synthesis We conducted a literature review on PubMed/MEDLINE, SciELO, and Cochrane-BIREME of work in the past 15 years, and only selected studies comparing different therapeutic options in idiopathic BMS, with preference for randomized and double-blind controlled studies. Final Comments Topical clonazepam showed good short-term results for the relief of pain, although this was not presented as a definitive cure. Similarly, α-lipoic acid showed good results, but there are few randomized controlled studies that showed the long-term results and complete remission of symptoms. On the other hand, cognitive therapy is reported as a good and lasting therapeutic option with the advantage of not having side effects, and it can be combined with pharmacologic therapy. PMID:25992157

  9. Capsular block syndrome: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Mauricio; Velásquez, Luis F; Rojas, Sebastián; Montoya, Laura; Zuluaga, Katherine; Balparda, Kepa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report the case of a patient who developed late capsular block syndrome and to review the current literature regarding this complication of phacoemulsification procedures. Methods The literature was reviewed to summarize the diagnosis, classification, use of diagnostic aids, and the current treatments for this complication. Results A 69-year-old patient complained of decreased visual acuity 11 months after undergoing phacoemulsification. She was found to have a secondary myopization. Anterior segment ultrabiomicroscopy confirmed the diagnosis of capsular block syndrome. The patient underwent neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser posterior capsulotomy, which resulted in complete resolution of her symptoms. Conclusion Capsular block syndrome is a fairly rare complication of phacoemulsification procedures that, depending primarily on the timing of its occurrence following surgery, can develop into one of the three following possible clinical scenarios: intraoperatory, early postoperatory, and late postoperatory. In this patient, Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy was shown to be a safe and effective treatment option for this type of complication. PMID:25152612

  10. Pancreaticoduodenectomy following total gastrectomy: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Satoshi; Sekioka, Akinori; Ueno, Kohei; Higashide, Yasuhiro; Okishio, Yuko; Kawaguchi, Nao; Hagihara, Takeshi; Yamada, Harumi; Kamimura, Ryo; Kuwahara, Michio; Ichimiya, Masato; Utsunomiya, Hirofumi; Uyama, Shiro; Kato, Hiroaki

    2014-03-14

    We present a case of afferent loop syndrome (ALS) occurring after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) in a patient who had previously undergone total gastrectomy (TG), and review the English-language literature concerning reconstruction procedures following PD in patients who had undergone TG. The patient was a 69-year-old man who had undergone TG reconstruction by a Roux-en-Y method at age 58 years. The patient underwent PD for pancreas head adenocarcinoma. A jejunal limb previously made at the prior TG was used for pancreaticojejunostomy and hepaticojejunostomy. Despite normal patency of the hepaticojejunostomy, he suffered from repeated postoperative cholangitis which was brought on by ALS due to shortness of the jejunal limb (15 cm in length). We therefore performed receliotomy in which the hepaticojejunostomy was disconnected and reconstructed using a new Y limb 40-cm in length constructed in a double Roux-en-Y fashion. The refractory cholangitis resolved immediately after the receliotomy and did not recur. Review of the literature revealed the lack of any current consensus for a standard procedure for reconstruction following PD in patients who had previously undergone TG. This issue warrants further attention, particularly given the expected future increase in the number of PDs in patients with a history of gastric cancer. PMID:24627609

  11. Complications Associated With Medial Thigh Lift: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sisti, Andrea; Cuomo, Roberto; Zerini, Irene; Tassinari, Juri; Brandi, Cesare; Grimaldi, Luca; D’Aniello, Carlo; Nisi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Medial contouring of the thigh is frequently requested to improve appearance and function of medial thigh deformities, following massive weight loss or aging process. This surgical procedure can be associated with a significant rate of complications. Our aim was to consider the complications and outcomes according to the performed technique, through a wide and comprehensive review of the literature. A search on PubMed/Medline was performed using “medial thighplasty”, “medial thigh lifting” and “technique” as key words. As inclusion criteria, we selected the clinical studies describing techniques of medial thighplasty. We excluded the papers in which complications related to medial thighplasty were not specified. We also excluded literature-review articles. We found 16 studies from 1988 to 2015. Overall, 447 patients were treated. Different techniques were applied. Complications were observed in 191/447 patients (42.72%). The most frequent complications were wound dehiscence(18.34%) and seroma (8.05%). No major complications, such as thromboembolism and sepsis, were observed. Minor complications occurred in a high percent of patients, regardless of the performed surgical procedure. Patients should be informed about the possible occurrence of wound dehiscence and seroma, as common complications associated with this surgical procedure. PMID:26865783

  12. Cutaneous Metaplastic Synovial Cyst: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kermani, Hamed; Dehghani, Nima; Dehghani, Siavash; Behnia, Hossein; Pourdanesh, Fereydoun; Mohajerani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cutaneous metaplastic synovial cyst (CMSC) is a rare cutaneous lesion characterized by a tender subcutaneous nodule, which usually occurs at the site of previous surgical or local trauma. Histologically, the lesion includes a cystic structure with villous-like projections and a lining mimicking hyperplastic synovium. Case Presentation: We reported the first case of CMSC which developed at the surgical incision site of treatment of a maxillofacial fracture. In addition, we reviewed English literature to evaluate all previously reported CMSC cases and discussed its clinical and histopathological features and etiology. From 1987 to now, reviewing the English literature about CMSC includes 17 studies that described 28 cases, and our presented case was the 29th. There was no sex predilection and age of patients ranged from 7 to 82 years, but most of them were over 40 years. We can see this lesion in any site of the body and hand/arm is the most prevalent involved region (28% cases). Most of the patients had a history of previous local trauma or operation in the involved area. Conclusions: Although the actual etiology of CMSC remains unclear, trauma, as the most probable etiologic factor, plays a role in development of CMSC. Surgical excision of the lesion is the preferable treatment choice and rate of recurrence is low. PMID:26756011

  13. Complications Associated With Medial Thigh Lift: A Comprehensive Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Sisti, Andrea; Cuomo, Roberto; Zerini, Irene; Tassinari, Juri; Brandi, Cesare; Grimaldi, Luca; D'Aniello, Carlo; Nisi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Medial contouring of the thigh is frequently requested to improve appearance and function of medial thigh deformities, following massive weight loss or aging process. This surgical procedure can be associated with a significant rate of complications. Our aim was to consider the complications and outcomes according to the performed technique, through a wide and comprehensive review of the literature. A search on PubMed/Medline was performed using "medial thighplasty", "medial thigh lifting" and "technique" as key words. As inclusion criteria, we selected the clinical studies describing techniques of medial thighplasty. We excluded the papers in which complications related to medial thighplasty were not specified. We also excluded literature-review articles. We found 16 studies from 1988 to 2015. Overall, 447 patients were treated. Different techniques were applied. Complications were observed in 191/447 patients (42.72%). The most frequent complications were wound dehiscence(18.34%) and seroma (8.05%). No major complications, such as thromboembolism and sepsis, were observed. Minor complications occurred in a high percent of patients, regardless of the performed surgical procedure. Patients should be informed about the possible occurrence of wound dehiscence and seroma, as common complications associated with this surgical procedure. PMID:26865783

  14. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Urethra: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2015-01-01

    Background. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra (CCAU) is extremely rare and a number of clinicians may be unfamiliar with its diagnosis and biological behaviour. Aims. To review the literature on CCAU. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results/Literature Review. (i) CCAU occurs in adults and in women in the great majority of cases. (ii) It has a particular association with urethral diverticulum, which has been present in 56% of the patients; is indistinguishable from clear cell adenocarcinoma of the female genital tract but is not associated with endometriosis; and probably does not arise by malignant transformation of nephrogenic adenoma. (iii) It is usually, readily distinguished from nephrogenic adenoma because of greater cytological a-typicality and mitotic activity and does not stain for prostate-specific antigen or prostatic acid phosphatase. (iv) It has been treated by anterior exenteration in women and cystoprostatectomy in men and at times by radiotherapy; chemotherapy has rarely been given. (v) CCAU is aggressive with low 5-year survival rates. (vi) There is no consensus opinion of treatment options that would improve the prognosis. Conclusions. Few cases of CCAU have been reported. Urologists, gynaecologists, pathologists, and oncologists should report cases of CCAU they encounter and enter them into a multicentric trial to determine the best treatment options that would improve the prognosis. PMID:25685552

  15. Ethics education for pediatric residents: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Deonandan, Raywat; Khan, Hafsa

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethics education and research on medical residents is needed because, unlike medical students or experienced doctors, medical residents have to perform multiple roles simultaneously – student, teacher and clinician – thus exposing them to unique ethical stressors. In this paper we reviewed the literature concerning ethics education in postgraduate pediatrics training programs. Our goal was not to simply describe educational strategies and programs, but also to explore measurements and experiences of current practices to address gaps in ethics education during residency. Method We conducted a structured literature review to explore the extent of ethics education in pediatric residency programs. Results Twelve relevant studies were found. The studies suggest that existing training regimens are insufficient to meet the real life ethical challenges experienced in actual practice, particularly with respect to palliative care and the commission of clinical errors. Conclusions The increasing diversity of culture and beliefs in the clinical workplace is also serving to complicate educational needs. An interdisciplinary approach, spread over the entirety of a physician’s training, is a proposed solution worthy of more attention. PMID:26451231

  16. Variable permanent mandibular first molar: Review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Ballullaya, Srinidhi V; Vemuri, Sayesh; Kumar, Pabbati Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The success of root canal therapy depends on the locations of all the canals, thourough debridement and proper sealing. At times the clinicians are challenged with variations in morphology of root canal. This review article attempts to list out all the variations of permanent mandibular first molar published so for in the literature. Materials and Methods: An exhaustive search was undertaken using PUBMED database to identify published literature from 1900 to 2010 relating to the root canal morphology of permanent first molar by using key words. The selected artcles were obtained and reviewed. Results: Total ninty seven articles were selected out of which 50 were original article and forty seven were case reports. The incidence of third canal in mesial root was 0.95% to 15%. The incidence of three rooted mandibular first molar was 3% to 33%. Only ninety cases reported with c-shape canal configuration. Incidence of Taurodintism without congenital disorder was very rare. Conclusion: The root canal treatment requires proper knowlegde of variations in root canal morphology in order to recognise, disinfect and seal all portal of exit. This can be accomplished with proper diagnosis using newer modes, modification in access preparation, use of operating microscope, enhanced methods of disinfecting and sealing of all canals. PMID:23716959

  17. Women's empowerment and fertility: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Ushma D; Gipson, Jessica D; Withers, Mellissa; Lewis, Shayna; Ciaraldi, Erica J; Fraser, Ashley; Huchko, Megan J; Prata, Ndola

    2014-08-01

    Women's empowerment has become a focal point for development efforts worldwide and there is a need for an updated, critical assessment of the existing evidence on women's empowerment and fertility. We conducted a literature review on studies examining the relationships between women's empowerment and several fertility-related topics. Among the 60 studies identified for this review, the majority were conducted in South Asia (n = 35) and used household decision-making as a measure of empowerment (n = 37). Overall, the vast majority of studies found some positive associations between women's empowerment and lower fertility, longer birth intervals, and lower rates of unintended pregnancy, but there was some variation in results. In many studies, results differed based on the measure of empowerment used, sociopolitical or gender environment, or sub-population studied. This article is one of the first evaluations of the literature assessing the relationships between women's empowerment and fertility. We identify several key issues that merit further investigation. PMID:24955875

  18. Fluvial sediment fingerprinting: literature review and annotated bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Joyce E.; Haj, Adel E., Jr.; Stamm, John F.; Valder, Joshua F.; Prautzch, Vicki L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has evaluated and adopted various field methods for collecting real-time sediment and nutrient data. These methods have proven to be valuable representations of sediment and nutrient concentrations and loads but are not able to accurately identify specific source areas. Recently, more advanced data collection and analysis techniques have been evaluated that show promise in identifying specific source areas. Application of field methods could include studies of sources of fluvial sediment, otherwise referred to as sediment “fingerprinting.” The identification of sediment is important, in part, because knowing the primary sediment source areas in watersheds ensures that best management practices are incorporated in areas that maximize reductions in sediment loadings. This report provides a literature review and annotated bibliography of existing methodologies applied in the field of fluvial sediment fingerprinting. This literature review provides a bibliography of publications where sediment fingerprinting methods have been used; however, this report is not assumed to provide an exhaustive listing. Selected publications were categorized by methodology with some additional summary information. The information contained in the summary may help researchers select methods better suited to their particular study or study area, and identify methods in need of more testing and application.

  19. Phantom Eye Syndrome: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Agda M.; Goiato, Marcelo C.; Pellizzer, Eduardo P.; Pesqueira, Aldiéris A.; Guiotti, Aimée M.; Gennari-Filho, Humberto; dos Santos, Daniela M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to describe the main features of phantom eye syndrome in relation to their possible causes, symptoms, treatments, and influence of eye amputation on quality of life of anophthalmic patients. For this, a bibliographical research was performed in Pubmed database using the following terms: “eye amputation,” “eye trauma,” “phantom eye syndrome,” “phantom pain,” and “quality of life,” associated or not. Thirteen studies were selected, besides some relevant references contained in the selected manuscripts and other studies hallowed in the literature. Thus, 56 articles were included in this review. The phantom eye syndrome is defined as any sensation reported by the patient with anophthalmia, originated anophthalmic cavity. In phantom eye syndrome, at least one of these three symptoms has to be present: phantom vision, phantom pain, and phantom sensations. This syndrome has a direct influence on the quality of life of the patients, and psychological support is recommended before and after the amputation of the eyeball as well as aid in the treatment of the syndrome. Therefore, it is suggested that, for more effective treatment of phantom eye syndrome, drug therapy should be associated with psychological approach. PMID:25548790

  20. Tuberculosis of the Penis: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2015-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis of the penis (TBP) is rare. Aim. To review the literature. Method. Various internet data bases were searched. Literature Review. TBP could be primary or secondary, may develop following circumcision performed by a person who had pulmonary Tb, and may be transmitted to the penis from ejaculation, contamination from clothing, or from contact with endometrial secretions, following an earlier pulmonary Tb or Tb elsewhere. TBP presents with a painless/painful small nodule, ulcer, mass on penis which gradually enlarges, and induration/swelling of penis, with or without erectile dysfunction. Inguinal lymph nodes may or may not be palpable. The patient's voiding is normal. There may or may not be history of circumcision, pulmonary Tb, and BCG immunization. TBP mimics penile carcinoma, granulomatous syphilis penile ulcer, genital herpes simplex, granuloma inguinale, and HIV infection. Diagnosis is established by microscopic examination finding of granulomas +/−AFB in penile discharge or biopsy of lesion or culture of Tb organism from discharge or biopsy specimens or positive Elisa serology/PCR for Tb. PTBs respond to first- or 2nd-line anti-Tb 6-month treatment. Close contacts should be screened. Extrapulmonary Tb should be excluded. Conclusions. Clinicians should consider possibility of PTB in cases of penile lesions and erectile failure. PMID:26435877

  1. Recovery and mental health: a review of the British literature.

    PubMed

    Bonney, S; Stickley, T

    2008-03-01

    Recovery is not a new concept within mental health, although in recent times, it has come to the forefront of the policy agenda. However, there is no universal definition of recovery, and it is a contested concept. The aim of this study was to examine the British literature relating to recovery in mental health. Three contributing groups are identified: service users, health care providers and policy makers. A review of the literature was conducted by accessing all relevant published texts. A search was conducted using these terms: 'recovery', 'schizophrenia', 'psychosis', 'mental illness' and 'mental health'. Over 170 papers were reviewed. A thematic analysis was conducted. Six main themes emerged, which were examined from the perspective of the stakeholder groups. The dominant themes were identity, the service provision agenda, the social domain, power and control, hope and optimism, risk and responsibility. Consensus was found around the belief that good quality care should be made available to service users to promote recovery both as inpatient or in the community. However, the manner in which recovery was defined and delivered differed between the groups. PMID:18211561

  2. Histological Stains: A Literature Review and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Alturkistani, Hani A; Tashkandi, Faris M; Mohammedsaleh, Zuhair M

    2016-01-01

    The history of histology indicates that there have been significant changes in the techniques used for histological staining through chemical, molecular biology assays and immunological techniques, collectively referred to as histochemistry. Early histologists used the readily available chemicals to prepare tissues for microscopic studies; these laboratory chemicals were potassium dichromate, alcohol and the mercuric chloride to harden cellular tissues. Staining techniques used were carmine, silver nitrate, Giemsa, Trichrome Stains, Gram Stain and Hematoxylin among others. The purpose of this research was to assess past and current literature reviews, as well as case studies, with the aim of informing ways in which histological stains have been improved in the modern age. Results from the literature review has indicated that there has been an improvement in histopathology and histotechnology in stains used. There has been a rising need for efficient, accurate and less complex staining procedures. Many stain procedures are still in use today, and many others have been replaced with new immunostaining, molecular, non-culture and other advanced staining techniques. Some staining methods have been abandoned because the chemicals required have been medically proven to be toxic. The case studies indicated that in modern histology a combination of different stain techniques are used to enhance the effectiveness of the staining process. Currently, improved histological stains, have been modified and combined with other stains to improve their effectiveness. PMID:26493433

  3. Therapeutic hypothermia and ischemic stroke: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Rizwan A.; Pabaney, Aqueel H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ischemic stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the US. Clinical techniques aimed at helping to reduce the morbidity associated with stroke have been studied extensively, including therapeutic hypothermia. In this study, the authors review the literature regarding the role of therapeutic hypothermia in ischemic stroke to appreciate the evolution of hypothermia technology over several decades and to critically analyze several early clinical studies to validate its use in ischemic stroke. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Search terms included “hypothermia and ischemic stroke” and “therapeutic hypothermia.” A comprehensive search of the current clinical trials using clinicaltrials.gov was conducted using the keywords “stroke and hypothermia” to evaluate early and ongoing clinical trials utilizing hypothermia in ischemic stroke. Results: A comprehensive review of the evolution of hypothermia in stroke and the current status of this treatment was performed. Clinical studies were critically analyzed to appreciate their strengths and pitfalls. Ongoing and future registered clinical studies were highlighted and analyzed compared to the reported results of previous trials. Conclusion: Although hypothermia has been used for various purposes over several decades, its efficacy in the treatment of ischemic stroke is debatable. Several trials have proven its safety and feasibility; however, more robust, randomized clinical trials with large volumes of patients are needed to fully establish its utility in the clinical setting. PMID:27313963

  4. Phantom eye syndrome: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Agda M; Goiato, Marcelo C; Pellizzer, Eduardo P; Pesqueira, Aldiéris A; Guiotti, Aimée M; Gennari-Filho, Humberto; dos Santos, Daniela M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to describe the main features of phantom eye syndrome in relation to their possible causes, symptoms, treatments, and influence of eye amputation on quality of life of anophthalmic patients. For this, a bibliographical research was performed in Pubmed database using the following terms: "eye amputation," "eye trauma," "phantom eye syndrome," "phantom pain," and "quality of life," associated or not. Thirteen studies were selected, besides some relevant references contained in the selected manuscripts and other studies hallowed in the literature. Thus, 56 articles were included in this review. The phantom eye syndrome is defined as any sensation reported by the patient with anophthalmia, originated anophthalmic cavity. In phantom eye syndrome, at least one of these three symptoms has to be present: phantom vision, phantom pain, and phantom sensations. This syndrome has a direct influence on the quality of life of the patients, and psychological support is recommended before and after the amputation of the eyeball as well as aid in the treatment of the syndrome. Therefore, it is suggested that, for more effective treatment of phantom eye syndrome, drug therapy should be associated with psychological approach. PMID:25548790

  5. Residual gallbladder stones after cholecystectomy: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chowbey, Pradeep; Sharma, Anil; Goswami, Amit; Afaque, Yusuf; Najma, Khoobsurat; Baijal, Manish; Soni, Vandana; Khullar, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incomplete gallbladder removal following open and laparoscopic techniques leads to residual gallbladder stones. The commonest presentation is abdominal pain, dyspepsia and jaundice. We reviewed the literature to report diagnostic modalities, management options and outcomes in patients with residual gallbladder stones after cholecystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline, Google and Cochrane library between 1993 and 2013 were reviewed using search terms residual gallstones, post-cholecystectomy syndrome, retained gallbladder stones, gallbladder remnant, cystic duct remnant and subtotal cholecystectomy. Bibliographical references from selected articles were also analyzed. The parameters that were assessed include demographics, time of detection, clinical presentation, mode of diagnosis, nature of intervention, site of stone, surgical findings, procedure performed, complete stone clearance, sequelae and follow-up. RESULTS: Out of 83 articles that were retrieved between 1993 and 2013, 22 met the inclusion criteria. In most series, primary diagnosis was established by ultrasound/computed tomography scan. Localization of calculi and delineation of biliary tract was performed using magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In few series, diagnosis was established by endoscopic ultrasound, intraoperative cholangiogram and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Laparoscopic surgery, endoscopic techniques and open surgery were the most common treatment modalities. The most common sites of residual gallstones were gallbladder remnant, cystic duct remnant and common bile duct. CONCLUSION: Residual gallbladder stones following incomplete gallbladder removal is an important sequelae after cholecystectomy. Completion cholecystectomy (open or laparoscopic) is the most common treatment modality reported in the literature for the management of residual gallbladder stones. PMID:26622110

  6. Ward rounds, participants, roles and perceptions: literature review.

    PubMed

    Walton, Victoria; Hogden, Anne; Johnson, Julie; Greenfield, David

    2016-05-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to classify and describe the purpose of ward rounds, who attends each round and their role, and participants' perception of each other's role during the respective ward rounds. Design/methodology/approach - A literature review of face-to-face ward rounds in medical wards was conducted. Peer reviewed journals and government publications published between 2000 and 2014 were searched. Articles were classified according to the type of round described in the study. Purposes were identified using keywords in the description of why the round was carried out. Descriptions of tasks and interactions with team members defined participant roles. Findings - Eight round classifications were identified. The most common were the generalised ward; multidisciplinary; and consultant rounds. Multidisciplinary rounds were the most collaborative round. Medical officers were the most likely discipline to attend any round. There was limited reference to allied health clinicians and patient involvement on rounds. Perceptions attendees held of each other reiterated the need to continue to investigate teamwork. Practical implications - A collaborative approach to care planning can occur by ensuring clinicians and patients are aware of different ward round processes and their role in them. Originality/value - Analysis fulfils a gap in the literature by identifying and analysing the different ward rounds being undertaken in acute medical wards. It identifies the complexities in the long established routine hospital processes of the ward round. PMID:27142947

  7. Prevention of abusive head trauma: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Bethany; Anderson, Judy K

    2013-01-01

    Abusive head trauma, formerly known as shaken baby syndrome, is a condition with physical, psychosocial, and fiscal implications presenting opportunities for nurses to intervene with prevention strategies. This integrative review of the literature explored the empirical evidence to identify prevention strategies effective in decreasing abusive head trauma. Education, medical, and nursing databases yielded 14 quality research studies providing the basis for the review. Multiple facets of prevention strategies were identified with patterns in the literature of community involvement, early detection and involvement by health professionals, and parental education programming. A five-component model of prevention strategies is proposed to provide nurses with a comprehensive approach to the issue. These components consist of a) completion of personal inventory, b) involvement in multi-modal parental education, c) commitment to a prevention program, d) participation of the family and community, and e) connection to a spiritual element. Through these components, it is hoped there is enhancement of the quality of life for parents and infants, and a discouragement of situations that increase the risk of infant injury. PMID:24640317

  8. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices.

  9. Spiritually and Religiously Integrated Group Psychotherapy: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We systematically reviewed the research literature on spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy to answer the following three questions: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group psychotherapy; and, third, what is the outcome of the group psychotherapies? We searched in two databases: PsycINFO and PubMed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria and checklists from standardized assessment tools were applied to the research literature. Qualitative and quantitative papers were included. In total, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from other types of group psychotherapies, was not fully conceptualized or understood either. However, clear and delimited conceptualization of spiritual and religious factors is crucial in order to be able to conclude the direct influences of spiritual or religious factors on outcomes. Implications for spiritually or religiously integrated group psychotherapy and conducting research in this field are propounded. PMID:24288557

  10. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) communications program: Non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation literature evaluation and assessment, 1986-1987 literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-11-01

    This report deals with the evaluation and assessment of literature concerned with the bioeffects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation. The report covers the period from November 1986 to October 1987. The objective of this program is to conduct a thorough and comprehensive review and evaluation, of the published professional literature containing scientific information pertaining to biological effects, including but not limited to human health effects of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, germane to the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communication Program of the United States Navy. The published professional literature reviewed, evaluated and assessed includes books, research reports, and articles and papers in peer-reviewed journals that discuss and/or describe biological and health effects of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range of 1-300 Hz. In some instances documents discussing effects of frequencies above 300 Hz were also reviewed. The review and evaluation included both domestic and international literature published in English or other foreign languages.

  11. A Literature Review on Health Information Exchange (HIE).

    PubMed

    Attallah, Nora; Gashgari, Horeya; Al Muallem, Yahya; Al Dogether, Majed; Al Moammary, Eman; Almeshari, Meshari; Househ, Mowafa

    2016-01-01

    Developing a national Health Information Exchange (HIE) for Saudi Arabia has developed into a priority for the Saudi Ministry of Health. In the process of conducting a literature review of existing opportunities and challenges of health information exchange in international hospitals and the possible implications of such studies on Saudi Arabia, an initial search was conducted in April 2015 yielding 31 articles from PubMed, Science Direct and other database using key terms such as: health information exchange, data exchange, health data exchange, data interoperability in health, lessons of data interoperability, opportunities of health information exchange, challenges of data integration, and challenges of data format and ontology. Research studies that were not related to the health care sector, that were not in English, or found not relevant to the purpose of the study were excluded. Only six studies were included in the review. Results show that there are many opportunities and challenges found in the literature which may impact how Saudi Arabia implements the national Health Information Exchange (HIE) strategy. Three primary challenges for HIE were identified including data formatting, semantic ontology, and building the HIE infrastructure. Opportunities for Saudi Arabia in implementing the HIE were also found in the literature such as improving the quality of healthcare services and reducing healthcare costs. Saudi Arabia is advancing in the electronic medical record (EMR) implementation especially with current changes on the level of authority and ministry structure. Building an EMR foundation will make the HIE simpler to implement for the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health. PMID:27350496

  12. Vulnerabilities—bibliometric analysis and literature review of evolving concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giupponi, Carlo; Biscaro, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    In this work we analyse the evolution of the vulnerability concept in the research streams of climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR). We combine a traditional literature review with data mining procedures applied to bibliographic databases to reconstruct the history of the concept within various research topics, showing its evolution and convergences over time. To do that, we integrate different methods combining machine learning algorithms with network and cluster analyses to examine a set of 3757 articles, analysing their distinctive features and similarities on the basis of their contents as well as co-authorships. Bibliometric analyses enable the identification of different communities of articles, pinpointing key papers and authors, while literature review makes it possible to assess the concept of vulnerability evolved within and beyond research communities and scientific networks. Moreover, this work examines the role played by documents published by UN institutions (UNDRO, UNISDR, IPCC) in contributing to the evolution of vulnerability and related concepts. Results show that signs of convergence are evident between the two research streams, and that the IPCC reports have played a major role in proposing solutions for unifying definitions of vulnerability. We observe that the phases of preparation of the IPCC reports are very rich in methodological and terminological developments, while after publication, the literature shows evident signs of propagation of the proposed concepts. The DRR research stream developed before the research stream on CCA, but the latter flourished rapidly and became much larger in terms of number of publications. Nevertheless, in terms of contents, adaptation studies and the IPCC have shown increasing adoption of the concepts developed within the disaster research stream, in particular with regard to the interpretation of vulnerability as one of the dimensions of risk.

  13. Preventing childhood unintentional injuries--what works? A literature review.

    PubMed Central

    Dowswell, T.; Towner, E. M.; Simpson, G.; Jarvis, S. N.

    1996-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this paper is to report on a systematic review of the world literature to provide information about the most effective forms of health promotion interventions to reduce childhood (0-14 years) unintentional injuries. The findings are of relevance to policy makers at a local or national level, to practitioners and researchers. METHODS: The relevant literature has been identified through the use of electronic databases, hand searching of journals, scanning reference lists, and consultation with key informants. RESULTS: Examples of interventions that have been effective in reducing injury include: bicycle helmet legislation, area wide traffic calming measures, child safety restraint legislation, child resistant containers to prevent poisoning, and window bars to prevent falls. Interventions effective in changing behaviour include bicycle helmet education and legislation, child restraint legislation, child restraint loan schemes, child restraint educational campaigns, pedestrian education aimed at the child/parent, provision of smoke detectors, and parent education on home hazard reduction. For the community based campaigns, the key to success has been the sustained use of surveillance systems, the commitment of interagency cooperation and the time needed to develop networks and implement a range of interventions. Education, environmental modification and legislation all have a part to play and their effect in combination is important. CONCLUSION: The design of evaluations in injury prevention needs to be improved so that more reliable evidence can be obtained. Better information is needed on process, so that successful strategies can be replicated elsewhere. There is also a need for literature reviews on effectiveness to be updated regularly and for their findings to be widely disseminated to policy makers, researchers, and practitioners. PMID:9346079

  14. Towards pervasive computing in health care – A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Orwat, Carsten; Graefe, Andreas; Faulwasser, Timm

    2008-01-01

    Background The evolving concepts of pervasive computing, ubiquitous computing and ambient intelligence are increasingly influencing health care and medicine. Summarizing published research, this literature review provides an overview of recent developments and implementations of pervasive computing systems in health care. It also highlights some of the experiences reported in deployment processes. Methods There is no clear definition of pervasive computing in the current literature. Thus specific inclusion criteria for selecting articles about relevant systems were developed. Searches were conducted in four scientific databases alongside manual journal searches for the period of 2002 to 2006. Articles included present prototypes, case studies and pilot studies, clinical trials and systems that are already in routine use. Results The searches identified 69 articles describing 67 different systems. In a quantitative analysis, these systems were categorized into project status, health care settings, user groups, improvement aims, and systems features (i.e., component types, data gathering, data transmission, systems functions). The focus is on the types of systems implemented, their frequency of occurrence and their characteristics. Qualitative analyses were performed of deployment issues, such as organizational and personnel issues, privacy and security issues, and financial issues. This paper provides a comprehensive access to the literature of the emerging field by addressing specific topics of application settings, systems features, and deployment experiences. Conclusion Both an overview and an analysis of the literature on a broad and heterogeneous range of systems are provided. Most systems are described in their prototype stages. Deployment issues, such as implications on organization or personnel, privacy concerns, or financial issues are mentioned rarely, though their solution is regarded as decisive in transferring promising systems to a stage of regular

  15. Fatigue following Acute Q-Fever: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Delsing, Corine E.; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Langendam, Miranda; Timen, Aura; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-term fatigue with detrimental effects on daily functioning often occurs following acute Q-fever. Following the 2007–2010 Q-fever outbreak in the Netherlands with over 4000 notified cases, the emphasis on long-term consequences of Q-fever increased. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of all relevant available literature, and to identify knowledge gaps regarding the definition, diagnosis, background, description, aetiology, prevention, therapy, and prognosis, of fatigue following acute Q-fever. Design A systematic review was conducted through searching Pubmed, Embase, and PsycInfo for relevant literature up to 26th May 2015. References of included articles were hand searched for additional documents, and included articles were quality assessed. Results Fifty-seven articles were included and four documents classified as grey literature. The quality of most studies was low. The studies suggest that although most patients recover from fatigue within 6–12 months after acute Q-fever, approximately 20% remain chronically fatigued. Several names are used indicating fatigue following acute Q-fever, of which Q-fever fatigue syndrome (QFS) is most customary. Although QFS is described to occur frequently in many countries, a uniform definition is lacking. The studies report major health and work-related consequences, and is frequently accompanied by nonspecific complaints. There is no consensus with regard to aetiology, prevention, treatment, and prognosis. Conclusions Long-term fatigue following acute Q-fever, generally referred to as QFS, has major health-related consequences. However, information on aetiology, prevention, treatment, and prognosis of QFS is underrepresented in the international literature. In order to facilitate comparison of findings, and as platform for future studies, a uniform definition and diagnostic work-up and uniform measurement tools for QFS are proposed. PMID:27223465

  16. Infertility and psychological distress: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Greil, A L

    1997-12-01

    This essay reviews the literature on the social psychological impact of infertility, paying special attention to the relationship between gender and the infertility experience. It is convenient to divide the literature into articles which explore the possibility that infertility may have psychological causes (Psychogenic Hypothesis) and those which examine the psychological consequences of infertility (Psychological Consequences Hypothesis). The psychogenic hypothesis is now rejected by most researchers, but a related hypothesis, which states that stress may be a causal factor in infertility, is worthy of exploration. The descriptive literature on the psychological consequences of infertility presents infertility as a devastating experience, especially for women. Attempts to test the psychological consequences hypothesis have produced more equivocal results. In general, studies which look for psychopathology have not found significant differences between the infertile and others. Studies which employ measures of stress and self-esteem have found significant differences. The psychological consequences literature is characterized by a number of flaws, including over sampling of women, small sample size, non-representative samples, failure to study those who have not sought treatment, primitive statistical techniques, and an over-reliance on self-reports. Studies on infertility and psychological distress need to take into consideration both the duration of infertility and the duration of treatment. Finding an appropriate set of "controls" is a particularly intractable problem for this area of research. In general, the psychological distress literature shows little regard for the social construction of infertility. By taking what should be understood as a characteristic of a social situation and transforming it into an individual trait, the literature presents what is essentially a medical model of the psycho-social impact of infertility. Most researchers conclude that

  17. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Karen; Anies, Maria; Folb, Barbara L; Zallman, Leah

    2015-01-01

    With the unprecedented international migration seen in recent years, policies that limit health care access have become prevalent. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants go beyond policy and range from financial limitations, to discrimination and fear of deportation. This paper is aimed at reviewing the literature on barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants and identifying strategies that have or could be used to address these barriers. To address study questions, we conducted a literature review of published articles from the last 10 years in PubMed using three main concepts: immigrants, undocumented, and access to health care. The search yielded 341 articles of which 66 met study criteria. With regard to barriers, we identified barriers in the policy arena focused on issues related to law and policy including limitations to access and type of health care. These varied widely across countries but ultimately impacted the type and amount of health care any undocumented immigrant could receive. Within the health system, barriers included bureaucratic obstacles including paperwork and registration systems. The alternative care available (safety net) was generally limited and overwhelmed. Finally, there was evidence of widespread discriminatory practices within the health care system itself. The individual level focused on the immigrant’s fear of deportation, stigma, and lack of capital (both social and financial) to obtain services. Recommendations identified in the papers reviewed included advocating for policy change to increase access to health care for undocumented immigrants, providing novel insurance options, expanding safety net services, training providers to better care for immigrant populations, and educating undocumented immigrants on navigating the system. There are numerous barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants. These vary by country and frequently change. Despite concerns that access to health care attracts

  18. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Obesity among Children and Adolescents: A Review of Systematic Literature Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Bucher Della Torre, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has increased worldwide and has reached alarming proportions. Currently, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the primary source of added sugar in the diet of children and adolescents. Contradictive findings from studies and reviews have fueled an endless debate on the role of SSBs in the development of childhood obesity. Methods: The primary aim of the present review of reviews was to assess how review- and study-level methodological factors explain conflicting results across reviews and meta-analyses by providing an up-to-date synthesis of recent evidence regarding the association between SSB consumption and weight gain, overweight, and obesity in a population of 6-month-old to 19-year-old children and adolescents. The secondary aim was to assess the quality of included reviews using the Assessment of Multiple SysTemAtic Reviews (AMSTAR) measurement tool. Systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses were included. The literature search was performed through the platforms Pubmed/Medline, Cinahl, and Web of Knowledge. Results: Thirteen reviews and meta-analyses were included. Nine reviews concluded that there was a direct association between SSBs and obesity in children and adolescents and four others did not. The quality of the included reviews was low to moderate, and the two reviews with the highest quality scores showed discrepant results. Conclusions: The majority of reviews concluded that there was a direct association between SSB consumption and weight gain, overweight, and obesity in children and adolescents. However, recent evidence from well-conducted meta-analyses shows discrepant results regarding the association between SSB and weight gain, overweight, and obesity among children and adolescents. Improving methodological quality of studies and reviews as well as ensuring responsible conduct of research and scientific integrity is essential for the provision

  19. Breast cancer screening interventions for Arabic women: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Hwang, Jasmine

    2015-06-01

    Similar to other Middle Eastern countries, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Qatar with increasing incidence and mortality rates. High mortality rates of breast cancer in the Middle Eastern countries are primarily due to delayed diagnosis of the disease. Thus screening and early detection of breast cancer are important in reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. With the aim of updating knowledge on existing interventions and developing effective intervention programs to promote breast cancer screening in Arabic populations in Qatar, this review addresses the question: What interventions are effective in increasing breast cancer knowledge and breast cancer screening rates in Arabic populations in Arabic countries and North America? Systematic literature review was performed to answer the proposed question. As the result of the search, six research studies were identified and appraised. From the findings, we infer several insights: (a) a language-appropriate and culturally sensitive educational program is the most important component of a successful intervention regardless of the study setting, (b) multi-level interventions that target both women, men, health care professionals, and/or larger health care system are more likely to be successful than single educational interventions or public awareness campaigns, and (c) more vigorous, personal and cognitive interventions that address psychosocial factors are likely to be more effective than less personal and informative interventions. This review has important implications for health care providers, intervention planners, and researchers. PMID:23975014

  20. Manganese and epilepsy: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Reyes, Rodrigo E; Gutierrez-Alvarez, Angela M; Moreno, Carlos B

    2007-02-01

    Manganese is an essential trace element for the development and function of the central nervous system. Alterations in manganese concentrations, whether excessive or deficient, can be accompanied by convulsions. This article represents a systematic review of available quantitative evidence that might clarify this issue. We searched The Cochrane Library, Medline and LILACS databases from January 1966 through June 2006 and reviewed all resulting English and Spanish language publications, as well as those possibly relevant in other languages based on their abstracts. The final selection included for this review comprises all investigations in humans and animals that compared manganese levels in any tissue of a group with spontaneous or induced convulsions (with or without antiepileptic treatment) and a convulsion-free control group. The literature search identified thirteen publications since then relevant to the issue, four of which failed to meet our criteria for inclusion. Of the remaining nine, six were in humans and three in rodents. At present, there is no satisfactory explanation for the relationship between low manganese levels and the presence of convulsions. There is a documented correlation between low blood manganese levels and the presence of convulsions in both humans and animals. The lack of evidence indicating whether this is a cause or an effect of the convulsions clearly justifies more detailed follow-up investigations in humans. PMID:17166592