Sample records for lithium beryllium boron

  1. The cosmochemical behavior of beryllium and boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauretta, Dante S.; Lodders, Katharina

    1997-01-01

    The chemistry of Be and B in the solar nebula is reinvestigated using thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The dominant Be gases are monatomic Be at high temperatures and the hydroxides BeOH and Be(OH)2 at lower temperatures. Beryllium condenses as gugiaite (Ca2BeSi2O7) in solid solution with melilite with a 50% condensation temperature of 1490 K. If an ideal solid solution of chrysoberyl (BeAl2O4) into spinel is assumed, most of the Be condenses into spinel, yielding a 50% condensation temperature of 1501 K. However, the difference in the crystal structures of spinel and chrysoberyl indicates that their solid solution may be non-ideal. At high temperatures the dominant B gases are BO, HBO, and HBO2, while NaBO2, KBO2, and LiBO2 are dominant at lower temperatures. Boron is less refractory than Be and is calculated to condense into solid solution with feldspar. The majority of B condenses as danburite (CaB2Si2O8) in solid solution with anorthite. At lower temperatures, when the feldspar composition is more albitic, the remaining B condenses as reedmergnerite (NaBSi3O8). The 50% condensation temperature of B is 964 K. The 50% condensation temperature of B is similar to that of Na and much higher than that of S. Therefore, normalized B abundances in chondrites are expected to correlate with Na abundances. Be is predicted to be concentrated in melilite, a conclusion which is consistent with the few measurements of Be concentrations in calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). Boron is predicted to be concentrated in feldspar, but no analytical data are available to test this prediction.

  2. Double Photoionization of excited Lithium and Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, Frank L.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2010-05-20

    We present total, energy-sharing and triple differential cross sections for one-photon, double ionization of lithium and beryllium starting from aligned, excited P states. We employ a recently developed hybrid atomic orbital/ numerical grid method based on the finite-element discrete-variable representation and exterior complex scaling. Comparisons with calculated results for the ground-state atoms, as well as analogous results for ground-state and excited helium, serve to highlight important selection rules and show some interesting effects that relate to differences between inter- and intra-shell electron correlation.

  3. Spatial periphery of lithium and beryllium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanina, L. I.; Zelenskaya, N. S.

    2014-06-01

    The spatial structure of the periphery of lithium and beryllium isotopes is studied by means of charge-exchange reactions and the ( t, p) and ( d, p) reactions on their nuclei. It is shown that the 0+ isobaric-analog state of 6Li at 3.56 MeV has a halo structure formed by a proton and a neutron, that there is virtually no manifestation of a neutron halo in the ground state of the 9Li nucleus, and that the 11Li nucleus has a Borromean halo structure that two neutrons form with respect to the 9Li core and which manifests itself in cigar and dineutron configurations. The 10Be nucleus has a substantial two-neutron periphery in either configuration both in the ground and in the 2+ excited state at 3.37MeV.

  4. The cosmochemical behavior of beryllium and boron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dante S. Lauretta; Katharina Lodders

    1997-01-01

    The chemistry of Be and B in the solar nebula is reinvestigated using thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The dominant Be gases are monatomic Be at high temperatures and the hydroxides BeOH and Be(OH)2 at lower temperatures. Beryllium condenses as gugiaite (Ca2BeSi2O7) in solid solution with melilite with a 50% condensation temperature of 1490 K. If an ideal solid solution of chrysoberyl

  5. Beryllium and Boron abundances in population II stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The scientific focus of this program was to undertake UV spectroscopic abundance analyses of extremely metal poor stars with attention to determining abundances of light elements such as beryllium and boron. The abundances are likely to reflect primordial abundances within the early galaxy and help to constrain models for early galactic nucleosynthesis. The general metal abundances of these stars are also important for understanding stellar evolution.

  6. Test fixture design for boron-aluminum and beryllium test panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaux, C. G.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed description of the test fixture design and the backup analysis of the fixture assembly and its components are presented. The test fixture is required for the separate testing of two boron-aluminum and two beryllium compression panels. This report is presented in conjunction with a complete set of design drawings on the test fixture system.

  7. Tritium release from beryllium discs and lithium ceramics irradiated in the SIBELIUS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.; Kopasz, J.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Baldwin, D.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The SIBELIUS experiment was designed to obtain information on the compatibility between beryllium and ceramics, as well as beryllium and steel, in a neutron environment. This experiment comprised irradiation of eight capsules, seven of which were independently purged with a He/0.1% H{sub 2} gas mixture. Four capsules were used to examine beryllium/ceramic (Li{sub 2}O, LiAlO{sub 2}, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) and beryllium/steel (Types 316L and 1.4914) compacts. Isothermal anneal experiments have been run on representative beryllium and ceramic disks from each of the four capsules at 550{degrees}C to 850{degrees}C in steps of 100{degrees}C. The results indicate that tritium release from the beryllium did not exhibit burst release behavior, as previously reported, but rather a progressive release with increasing temperature. Generally, {approximately}99% of the tritium was released by 850{degrees}C. Tritium release from the ceramic discs was quite similar to the behavior shown in other dynamic tritium release experiments on lithium ceramics. The tritium content in beryllium discs adjacent to a steel sample was found to be significantly lower than that found in a beryllium disc adjacent to a ceramic sample. Recoil of tritium from the ceramic into the beryllium appears to be the source of tritium entering the beryllium, probably residing in the beryllium oxide layer.

  8. Boron nitride protective coating of beryllium window surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gmuer, N.F.

    1991-12-01

    The use of beryllium windows on white synchrotron radiation beamlines is constrained by the fact that the downstream surfaces of these windows should not be exposed to ambient atmosphere. They should, rather, be protected by a tail-piece under vacuum or containing helium atmosphere. This tailpiece is typically capped by Kapton (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) or aluminum foil. The reason for such an arrangement is due to the health risk associated with contaminants (BeO) which from on the exposed beryllium window surfaces and due to possible loss of integrity of the windows. Such a tail-piece may, however, add unwanted complications to the beamline in the form of vacuum pumps or helium supplies and their related monitoring systems. The Kapton windows may burn through in the case of high intensity beams and lower energy radiation may be absorbed in the case of aluminum foil windows. A more ideal situation would be to provide a coating for the exposed beryllium window surface, sealing it off from the atmosphere, thus preventing contamination and/or degradation of the window, and eliminating the need for helium or vacuum equipment.

  9. Development of structural test articles from magnesium-lithium and beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, R.

    1969-01-01

    Study on the fabrication and testing of a magnesium-lithium box beam shows the formability and machinability characteristics of that alloy to be excellent. Results of forming tests for shrink and stretch flanges show values for both flange heights that may be used in future beryllium design.

  10. Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1992-12-01

    In the last 50 years, beryllium has risen from a geological curiosity to become an important industrial metal. Its high strength, light weight and high thermal conductivity make it valuable in both defense and commercial applications, It is lighter than aluminum, has a higher tensile strength and melting temperature than both magnesium and aluminum, and exhibits the highest elasticity and strength-to-weight ratio of the light metals. These features, as well as beryllium`s high beat capacity and unusual nuclear properties, caused beryllium to be dubbed the {open_quotes}wonder metal{close_quotes} in the 1950s and early 1960s.

  11. Isotope shifts in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, C.; Verdebout, S.; Rynkun, P.; Gaigalas, G.; Godefroid, M.; Jönsson, P.

    2014-09-01

    Energy levels, normal and specific mass shift parameters as well as electronic densities at the nucleus are reported for numerous states along the beryllium, boron, carbon, and nitrogen isoelectronic sequences. Combined with nuclear data, these electronic parameters can be used to determine values of level and transition isotope shifts. The calculation of the electronic parameters is done using first-order perturbation theory with relativistic configuration interaction wavefunctions that account for valence, core-valence, and core-core correlation effects as zero-order functions. Results are compared with experimental and other theoretical values, when available.

  12. Early-life exposure to lithium and boron from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Harari, Florencia; Ronco, Ana María; Concha, Gabriela; Llanos, Miguel; Grandér, Margaretha; Castro, Francisca; Palm, Brita; Nermell, Barbro; Vahter, Marie

    2012-12-01

    The transfer of lithium and boron from exposed mothers to fetuses and breast-fed infants was investigated in areas in northern Argentina and Chile with up to 700 ?g lithium/L and 5-10 mg boron/L in drinking water. Maternal and cord blood concentrations were strongly correlated and similar in size for both lithium (47 and 70 ?g/L, respectively) and boron (220 and 145 ?g/L, respectively). The first infant urine produced after birth contained the highest concentrations (up to 1700 ?g lithium/L and 14,000 ?g boron/L). Breast-milk contained 40 and 60% of maternal blood concentrations of lithium and boron, respectively (i.e. about 30 and 250 ?g/L, respectively, in high exposure areas), and infant urine concentrations decreased immediately after birth (120 ?g lithium/L and 920 ?g boron/L). We conclude that lithium and boron easily passed the placenta to the fetus, and that exclusively breast-fed infants seemed to have lower exposure than formula-fed infants. PMID:23017911

  13. Determination of boron and lithium by recording the products from (n, alpha) reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobanov, Y. M.; Zverev, B. P.; Simakhin, Y. F.; Usmanova, M. M.

    1978-01-01

    Irradiation with thermal neutrons in the VVR-S reactor provides a nondestructive method for determining the presence of boron and lithium in solids. The charged particles produced in the reactions Li-6(n,alpha)H-3 and B-10(n,alpha)Li-7 were detected using CsI single crystal. For alpha-particle spectrometry in the boron determination, an ionization chamber (W and Sn electrodes, 99% Ar + 1% H2) was developed allowing both absolute and relative measurements. In determining boron in lithium-containing samples, both scintillation and ionization chambers are used. In determining lithium in minerals, the error was 1.5%, and the sensitivity 0.00005 wt.%. In the determination of boron in SiC with a concentration of boron approximately (3 plus or minus 2) the error given by the alpha-range uncertainty was 15%.

  14. Boron-based anion receptors in lithium-ion and metal-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash Reddy, V.; Blanco, Mario; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2014-02-01

    Boron-based anion receptors, widely used as biosensors, are currently being explored as electrolyte-additives in lithium ion batteries and metal-air batteries, towards the goal of realizing high voltage, high energy density batteries. The potential advantage of the boron-based anion receptors as electrolyte-additives is to improve the lithium ion or metal-air battery cell cycle performance, and increase lithium ion transference numbers and ionic conductivity. These anion receptors also have unique characteristics that facilitate in maintaining a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) at the electrode surface. In this comprehensive review, we have outlined the synthesis, computational studies, and applications of various classes of boron-based anion receptors in lithium ion and metal-air batteries.

  15. Potential mining of lithium, beryllium and strontium from oilfield wastewater after enrichment in constructed wetlands and ponds.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Headley, Tom; Prigent, Stephane; Breuer, Roman

    2014-09-15

    Shortages of resources (chemical elements) used by growing industrial activities require new techniques for their acquisition. A suitable technique could be the use of wetlands for the enrichment of elements from produced water of the oil industry. Oil industries produce very high amounts of water in the course of oil mining. These waters may contain high amounts of rare elements. To our best knowledge nothing is known about the economic potential regarding rare element mining from produced water. Therefore, we estimated the amount of harvestable rare elements remaining in the effluent of a constructed wetland-pond system which is being used to treat and evaporate vast quantities of produced waters. The examined wetland system is located in the desert of the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula. This system manages 95,000 m(3) per day within 350 ha of surface flow wetlands and 350 ha of evaporation ponds and is designed to be used for at least 20 years. We found a strong enrichment of some chemical elements in the water pathway of the system (e.g. lithium up to 896 ?g L(-1) and beryllium up to 139 ?g L(-1)). For this wetland, lithium and beryllium are the elements with the highest economic potential resulting from a high price and load. It is calculated that after 20 years retention period 131 t of lithium and 57 t of beryllium could be harvested. This technique may also be useful for acquisition of rare earth elements. Other elements (e.g. strontium) with a high calculated load of 4500 tons in 20 years are not efficiently harvestable due to a relatively low market value. In conclusion, wetland treated waters from the oil industry offer a promising new acquisition technique for elements like lithium and beryllium. PMID:25010942

  16. Endogenous lithium and boron red cell-plasma ratios: normal subjects versus bipolar patients not on lithium therapy.

    PubMed

    Clarke, W Brian; Guscott, Richard; Downing, R Gregory; Lindstrom, Richard M

    2004-02-01

    This study was undertaken to compare endogenous lithium concentrations in human blood and its components from normal donors versus bipolar patients. The patients were not on lithium therapy at the time that the blood samples were donated and had not received any lithium therapy for at least 2 yr. Blood components were separated by centrifugation. The analytical method for lithium as developed in this laboratory consists of thermal-neutron activation of freeze-dried samples. 3H is produced via the reaction 6Li + n = 3H + 4He, and high-sensitivity rare gas mass spectrometry is used to measure 3He formed from beta-decay of 3H. Boron measurements are made concurrently using 4He from the reaction 10B + n = 4He + 7Li. Seven normal donors and seven patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder participated in this study. Measurements of lithium and boron were made in whole blood, plasma, and red cells. Red cell-plasma ratios R(Li) and R(B) were calculated after corrections were made for trapped plasma in the red cells. The results show that bipolar patients may have higher concentrations of lithium in blood, plasma, and red cells (p = 0.08, 0.02, and 0.02, respectively) and may have higher R(Li) values than normal donors (p = 0.01). No evidence was found for bipolar-normal differences in these four parameters for boron. Although our sample size is admittedly very small, the results clearly show that the endogenous red cell ratio R(Li) and plasma or red cell lithium concentrations may become useful diagnostic indicators for bipolar illness if the analytical methods are further developed. PMID:14985621

  17. NIFTI and DISCOS: New concepts for a compact accelerator neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Powell; H. Ludewig; M. Todosow; M. Reich

    1995-01-01

    Two new concepts, NIFTI and DISCOS, are described. These concepts enable the efficient production of epithermal neutrons for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) medical treatment, utilizing a low current, low energy proton beam impacting on a lithium target. The NIFTI concept uses fluoride compounds, such as lead or beryllium fluoride, to efficiently degrade high energy neutrons from the lithium target

  18. Determination of lithium, boron, and carbon by quasi-prompt charged particle activation analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. McGinley; Emile A. Schweikert

    1975-01-01

    A novel approach for rapid nondestructive trace analysis is presented, ; based on the detection of short-lived high energy $beta$ emitters (10 msec less ; than or equal to tââ less than or equal to 1 sec) produced by charged ; particle bombardment. Lithium, boron, and carbon were determined via $sup ; 7$Li(d,p)³Li, ¹¹B(d,p)¹²B and ¹²C(p,n)¹²N, ; respectively. These elements

  19. Formation of c-BN nanoparticles by helium, lithium and boron ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aradi, Emily; Erasmus, Rudolph M.; Derry, Trevor E.

    2012-02-01

    Ion induced phase transformation from the soft graphitic hexagonal boron nitride ( h-BN) to ultrahard cubic boron nitride ( c-BN) nanoparticles is presented in the work herein. Ion implantation was used as a technique to introduce boron lithium and helium ions, at the energy of 150 keV and fluences ranging from 1 × 10 14 to 1 × 10 16 ions/cm 2, into hot pressed, polycrystalline h-BN. Analyses using Raman Spectroscopy showed that He +, Li + and B + led to a h-BN to c-BN phase transition, evident from the longitudinal optical (LO) Raman phonon features occurring in the implanted samples' spectra. The nature of these phonon peaks and their downshifting is explained using the spatial phonon correlation model.

  20. Study on High Speed Lithium Jet For Neutron Source of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Minoru; Kobayashi, Tooru; Zhang, Mingguang; Mák, Michael; Štefanica, Jirí; Dostál, Václav; Zhao, Wei

    The feasibility study of a liquid lithium type proton beam target was performed for the neutron source of the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). As the candidates of the liquid lithium target, a thin sheet jet and a thin film flow on a concave wall were chosen, and a lithium flow experiment was conducted to investigate the hydrodynamic stability of the targets. The surfaces of the jets and film flows with a thickness of 0.5 mm and a width of 50 mm were observed by means of photography. It has been found that a stable sheet jet and a stable film flow on a concave wall can be formed up to certain velocities by using a straight nozzle and a curved nozzle with the concave wall, respectively.

  1. Hydrogen-like Spectra of Lithium and Beryllium in the Extreme Ultra-violet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bengt Edlen; Algot Ericson

    1930-01-01

    IN preceding communications (NATURE, NOV. 2, 1929, and Comptes rendus, Jan. 1930) we have given a brief account of the extension of the extreme ultraviolet down to 100 resp. 88 A. in the spectrum of doubly ionised beryllium (Be III). Using a vacuum-spark with a considerably increased capacity and ionisation power, it has now been possible to record the strongest

  2. Ab initio treatment of electron correlations in polymers: Lithium hydride chain and beryllium hydride polymer

    E-print Network

    Birkenheuer, Uwe

    H and beryllium hydride Be2H4 . First, employing a Wannier-function-based approach, the systems are studied Hartree­Fock Wannier functions of the infinite chain into the complementary space of localized unoccupied for the treatment of large molecules.3 Simi- larly, in infinite systems localized Wannier functions provide a better

  3. Method for hot pressing beryllium oxide articles

    DOEpatents

    Ballard, Ambrose H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Godfrey, Jr., Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Mowery, Erb H. (Clinton, TN)

    1988-01-01

    The hot pressing of beryllium oxide powder into high density compacts with little or no density gradients is achieved by employing a homogeneous blend of beryllium oxide powder with a lithium oxide sintering agent. The lithium oxide sintering agent is uniformly dispersed throughout the beryllium oxide powder by mixing lithium hydroxide in an aqueous solution with beryllium oxide powder. The lithium hydroxide is converted in situ to lithium carbonate by contacting or flooding the beryllium oxide-lithium hydroxide blend with a stream of carbon dioxide. The lithium carbonate is converted to lithium oxide while remaining fixed to the beryllium oxide particles during the hot pressing step to assure uniform density throughout the compact.

  4. Predicted lithium-boron compounds under high pressure.

    PubMed

    Peng, Feng; Miao, Maosheng; Wang, Hui; Li, Quan; Ma, Yanming

    2012-11-14

    High pressure can fundamentally alter the bonding patterns of light elements and their compounds, leading to the unexpected formation of materials with unusual chemical and physical properties. Using an unbiased structure search method based on particle-swarm optimization algorithms in combination with density functional theory calculations, we investigate the phase stabilities and structural changes of various Li-B systems on the Li-rich regime under high pressures. We identify the formation of four stoichiometric lithium borides (Li(3)B(2), Li(2)B, Li(4)B, and Li(6)B) having unforeseen structural features that might be experimentally synthesizable over a wide range of pressures. Strikingly, it is found that the B-B bonding patterns of these lithium borides evolve from graphite-like sheets in turn to zigzag chains, dimers, and eventually isolated B ions with increasing Li content. These intriguing B-B bonding features are chemically rationalized by the elevated B anionic charges as a result of Li?B charge transfer. PMID:23088280

  5. Boron, Samarium, Gadolinium, Lithium and Hydrogen Abundances in Antarctic Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, D. M.; Smith, P. L. C.; Zhai, M.

    1992-07-01

    The boron concentrations in 13 Antarctic meteorite specimens were published in 1988 (1). Here we report B, Sm, Gd, and some H abundances in 27 additional chondrites and 14 achondrites, all measured by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis: some Li analyses were also made, using AAS. The accuracy and precision of analysis are particularly important for B, Sm, and Gd, whose abundance levels in meteorites can be 1 ppm or less, so multiple analyses of Reference Materials DTS-1, PCC-1, BHVO-1, and JG-1 were made for controls. The results showed good agreement with recommended values for B and H (expressed as H2O); the results were good also for Sm and Gd but at concentrations 10x meteorites. Precision was adequate, averaging 10 to 15% (1 s.d.) of amount present. Stringent precautions against contamination were maintained during handling and analysis. Natural mobilisation of B in the Antarctic weathering environment is however known to take place (1). The summarised results are as follows: B Sm Gd H2O Li ppm ppm ppm % ppm Mean of 6 analyses of 3 C.C. 0.93 0.36 0.39 0.94 4.3 Mean of 42 analyses of 37 CH 0.78 0.35 0.30 0.97 5.8 Mean of 7 eucrites, howardites 2.7 1.1 1.9 0.75 - The principal observations are that (a) B and Li abundances in CH and C.C. resemble earlier estimates, (b) Sm and Gd in CH and C.C. are markedly higher than expected, (c) B, Sm, and Gd are significantly higher in eucrites and howardites than in other meteorites (including aubrites, diogenites, and ureilites) and (d) estimates of H2O on individual meteorites agree quite well with published results by conventional methods. These observations form the basis for further interpretations. (1) D. M. Shaw, M. D. Higgins, R. W. Hinton, M. G. Truscott, and T. A. Middleton (1988) Boron in chondritic meteorites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 52, 2311-2319.

  6. BORON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of boron chemical speciation is important in understanding bioavailability, excretion, and retention of boron derived from supplemental dietary sources. Undissociated boric acid is the predominant species of boron in most natural freshwater systems. Five antibiotics, one with apparent pote...

  7. Cosmic-ray models for early Galactic Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.

    1994-01-01

    To understand better the early Galactic production of Li, Be, and B by comsmic-ray spallation and fusion reactions, the dependence of these production rates on cosmic-ray models and model parameters is examined. The sensitivity of elemental and isotopic production to the cosmic-ray path length magnitude and energy dependence, source spectrum, spallation kinematics, and cross section uncertainties is studied. Changes in these model features, particularly those features related to confinement, are shown to alter the Be- and B- versus-Fe slopes from a naive quadratic relation. The implications of our results for the diffuse gamma-ray background are examined, and the role of chemical evolution and its relation to our results is noted. It is also noted that the unmeasured high-energy behavior of alpha + alpha fusion can lead to effects as large as a factor of 2 in the resultant yields. Future data should enable Population II Li, Be, and B abundances to constrain cosmic-ray models for the early Galaxy.

  8. Production of Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron from Baryon inhomogeneous primordial nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David; Schramm, David N.; Olive, Keith A.; Mathews, Grant J.; Meyer, Bradley S.; Fields, Brian D.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis may eventually be used to explain the abundances of Li-6, Be-9, and B in Population II stars. The present work differs from previous studies in that we have used a more extensive reaction network. It is demonstrated that in the simplest scenario the abundances of the light elements with A less than or = 7 constrain the separation of inhomogeneities to sufficently small scales that the model is indistinguishable from homogeneous nucleosynthesis and that the abundnace of Li-6, Be-9, and B are then below observations by several orders of magnitude. This conclusion does not depend on the Li-7 constraint. We also examine alternative scenarios which involve a post-nucleosynthesis reprocessing of the light elements to reproduce the observed abundances of Li and B, while allowing for a somewhat higher baryon density (still well below the cosmological critical density). Future B/H measurements may be able to exclude even this exotic scenario and further restrict primirdial nucleosynthesis to approach the homogeneous model conclusions.

  9. B - Be (Boron - Beryllium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predel, B.

    This document is part of Volume 12 Phase Equilibria, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data of Binary Alloys', Subvolume B 'B - Ba … Cu - Zr, Supplement to Subvolumes IV/5B, IV/5C and IV/5D', of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'.

  10. Boron-doped, carbon-coated SnO2/graphene nanosheets for enhanced lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxin; Liu, Ping; Wu, Dongqing; Huang, Yanshan; Tang, Yanping; Su, Yuezeng; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2015-03-27

    Heteroatom doping is an effective method to adjust the electrochemical behavior of carbonaceous materials. In this work, boron-doped, carbon-coated SnO2 /graphene hybrids (BCTGs) were fabricated by hydrothermal carbonization of sucrose in the presence of SnO2/graphene nanosheets and phenylboronic acid or boric acid as dopant source and subsequent thermal treatment. Owing to their unique 2D core-shell architecture and B-doped carbon shells, BCTGs have enhanced conductivity and extra active sites for lithium storage. With phenylboronic acid as B source, the resulting hybrid shows outstanding electrochemical performance as the anode in lithium-ion batteries with a highly stable capacity of 1165?mA?h?g(-1) at 0.1?A?g(-1) after 360 cycles and an excellent rate capability of 600?mA?h?g(-1) at 3.2?A?g(-1), and thus outperforms most of the previously reported SnO2-based anode materials. PMID:25694249

  11. Highly sensitive analysis of boron and lithium in aqueous solution using dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hyoung; Han, Sol-Chan; Kim, Tae-Hyeong; Yun, Jong-Il

    2011-12-15

    We have applied a dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) to sensitively detect concentrations of boron and lithium in aqueous solution. Sequential laser pulses from two separate Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers at 532 nm wavelength have been employed to generate laser-induced plasma on a water jet. For achieving sensitive elemental detection, the optimal timing between two laser pulses was investigated. The optimum time delay between two laser pulses for the B atomic emission lines was found to be less than 3 ?s and approximately 10 ?s for the Li atomic emission line. Under these optimized conditions, the detection limit was attained in the range of 0.8 ppm for boron and 0.8 ppb for lithium. In particular, the sensitivity for detecting boron by excitation of laminar liquid jet was found to be excellent by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared with 80 ppm reported in the literature. These sensitivities of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy are very practical for the online elemental analysis of boric acid and lithium hydroxide serving as neutron absorber and pH controller in the primary coolant water of pressurized water reactors, respectively. PMID:22054422

  12. Erosion and re-deposition of lithium and boron coatings under high-flux plasma bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, Tyler Wayne

    Lithium and boron coatings are applied to the walls of many tokamaks to enhance performance and protect the underlying substrates. Li and B-coated high-Z substrates are planned for use in NSTX-U and are a candidate plasma-facing component (PFC) for DEMO. However, previous measurements of Li evaporation and thermal sputtering on low-flux devices indicate that the Li temperature permitted on such devices may be unacceptably low. Thus it is crucial to characterize gross and net Li erosion rates under high-flux plasma bombardment. Additionally, no quantitative measurements have been performed of the erosion rate of a boron-coated PFC during plasma bombardment. A realistic model for the compositional evolution of a Li layer under D bombardment was developed that incorporates adsorption, implantation, and diffusion. A model was developed for temperature-dependent mixed-material Li-D erosion that includes evaporation, physical sputtering, chemical sputtering, preferential sputtering, and thermal sputtering. The re-deposition fraction of a Li coating intersecting a linear plasma column was predicted using atomic physics information and by solving the Li continuity equation. These models were tested in the Magnum-PSI linear plasma device at ion fluxes of 1023-1024 m-2 s-1 and Li surface temperatures less than 800 degrees C. Li erosion was measured during bombardment with a neon plasma that will not chemically react with Li and the results agreed well with the erosion model. Next the ratio of the total D fluence to the areal density of the Li coating was varied to quantify differences in Li erosion under D plasma bombardment as a function of the D concentration. The ratio of D/Li atoms was calculated using the results of MD simulations and good agreement is observed between measurements and the predictions of the mixed-material erosion model. Li coatings are observed to disappear from graphite much faster than from TZM Mo, indicating that fast Li diffusion into the bulk graphite substrate occurred, as predicted. Li re-deposition fractions very close to unity are observed in Magnum-PSI, as predicted by modeling. Finally, predictions of Li coating lifetimes in the NSTX-U divertor are calculated. The gross erosion rate of boron coatings was also measured for the first time in a high-flux plasma device.

  13. Content of lithium, beryllium, boron, and titanium, and the isotopic composition of lithium, boron, and magnesium in Luna 16 regolith sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eugster, O.

    1974-01-01

    The abundance of the following elements in the L 16-19 No. 118 regolith sample, zone V was determined by isotopic dilution using a mass spectrometer equipped with a scattering ion source: Li -- 9.8, Be -- 1.2, Be -- 2.6, and Ti -- 1.92 percent. For comparison, these same elements were measured in samples of surface material returned by Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 14, and in the terrestrial reference standard diabase W-1. The content of Li, Be, and B in the Luna 16 sample is nearly the same as in the Apollo 11 surface material. The surface material returned by Apollo 12 and Apollo 14 contains two to four times more of these elements. However, the abundance ratios of Li, Be, and B are remarkably similar in the surface materials from the four different lunar regions. With respect to basaltic achondrites and especially with respect to chondrites, the lunar basalts are enriched in Li, Be, and B up to 100 times.

  14. Characteristics of boron doped mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers as anode materials for lithium secondary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, Toshio; Kawamura, Toshifumi; Yamazaki, Yoshinori

    1998-07-01

    Mesophase pitch-based Carbon Fibers(MCF) have been investigated as anode materials for lithium secondary cells by examining their physical and electrochemical properties. Discharge capacity and initial charge-discharge efficiency of the materials were studied in relation to the heat treatment temperatures of MCF. MCF heat treated at about 3,000 C gave high discharge capacity over 310mAh/g, good efficiency (93%) and superior current capability of 600mA/g (6mA/cm2). On the other hand, to improve the battery capacity, Boron was doped to the fiber about several {degree} by adding B{sub 4}C to the pre-carbonized milled fibers and then heat-treated up to 3,000 C in Ar. Then heat treated at 2,500 C under vacuum condition to remove remained B{sub 4}C. The structure of Boron-doped fibers was characterized and compared with that of non-doped standard fibers, and also Li ion battery performances are evaluated. The Boron-doped MCF indicated improvement in graphitization and increased discharge capacity as high as 360mAh/g. The voltammograms of both fibers are different from each other. The cell mechanism is discussed based on the unique structure of Boron-doping to the MCF is very effective for the battery performance.

  15. High power accelerator-based boron neutron capture with a liquid lithium target and new applications to treatment of infectious diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Halfon; M. Paul; D. Steinberg; A. Nagler; A. Arenshtam; D. Kijel; I. Polacheck; M. Srebnik

    2009-01-01

    A new conceptual design for an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (ABNCT) facility based on the high-current low-energy proton beam driven by the linear accelerator at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) incident on a windowless forced-flow liquid-lithium target, is described. The liquid-lithium target, currently in construction at Soreq NRC, will produce a neutron field suitable for the BNCT treatment

  16. The boron-to-beryllium ratio in halo stars - A signature of cosmic-ray nucleosynthesis in the early Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Schramm, D. N.; Olive, K. A.; Fields, B.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) spallation production of Li, Be, and B in the early Galaxy with particular attention to the uncertainties in the predictions of this model. The observed correlation between the Be abundance and the metallicity in metal-poor Population II stars requires that Be was synthesized in the early Galaxy. We show that the observations and such Population II GCR synthesis of Be are quantitatively consistent with the big bang nucleosynthesis production of Li-7. We find that there is a nearly model independent lower bound to B/Be of about 7 for GCR synthesis. Recent measurements of B/Be about 10 in HD 140283 are in excellent agreement with the predictions of Population II GCR nucleosynthesis. Measurements of the boron abundance in additional metal-poor halo stars is a key diagnostic of the GCR spallation mechanism. We also show that Population II GCR synthesis can produce amounts of Li-6 which may be observed in the hottest halo stars.

  17. Engineering the work function of buckled boron ?-sheet by lithium adsorption: a first-principles investigation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bing; Yu, Hai-tao; Xie, Ying; Lian, Yong-fu

    2014-11-26

    First-principles density functional theory calculations were performed to study the effect of Li adsorption on the structural and electronic properties, particularly the work function, of boron ?-sheet. The calculated binding energies indicated that boron ?-sheet could be well stabilized by the adsorption of Li atoms. Furthermore, the work functions of Li-adsorbed boron ?-sheets were observed to decrease drastically with increasing Li coverage. The work functions are lower than that of Mg and even, for some of them, lower than that of Ca, indicating a considerable potential application of Li-adsorbed boron ?-sheets as field-emission and electrode materials. Based on the calculated geometric and electronic structures, we discuss in details some possible aspects affecting the work function. The Li coverage dependence of the work functions of Li-adsorbed boron ?-sheets was further confirmed by electrostatic potential analyses. The relationship between the work function variation and the Fermi and vacuum energy level shifts was also discussed, and we observed that the variation of the work function is primarily associated with the shift of the Fermi energy level. It is the surface dipole formed by the interaction between adatoms and substrate that should be responsible for the observed variation of the work function, whereas the increasing negative charge and rumpling for boron ?-sheet only play minor roles. Additionally, the effect of Li adatoms on the work function of boron ?-sheet was confirmed to be much stronger than that of graphene or a graphene double layer. PMID:25333913

  18. Boron and Lithium Isotope Variations in Chondrules: The Signature of Presolar Nucleosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Chaussidon; F. Robert

    1996-01-01

    We report here the preliminary results of tests concerning two major implications of the boron isotope variations that were recently found in meteoritic chondrules (Chaussidon and Robert 1995, Nature 374, 337-339). (1) Freshly nucleosynthetized boron with variable 11B\\/10B ratios must have been preserved as solid grains in the solar nebula and implanted or embedded in the newly formed chondrules. Therefore,

  19. Behaviour of boron, beryllium, and lithium during melting and crystallization: constraints from mineral-melt partitioning experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Brenan; E. Neroda; C. C. Lundstrom; H. F. Shaw; F. J. Ryerson; D. L. Phinney

    1998-01-01

    In order to provide a more substantial foundation for interpreting the behaviour of B, Be, and Li during the production and early crystallization of primitive igneous rocks, we have measured olivine-, clinopyroxene-, orthopyroxene-, and amphibole-melt partition coefficients for these elements involving broadly basaltic-andesitic melt compositions. Experiments were conducted at both one atmosphere and 1.0–1.5 GPa and employed a time-temperature history

  20. Behavior of boron, beryllium, and lithium during melting and crystallization: Constraints from mineral-melt partitioning experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Brenan, J.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Geology] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Neroda, E. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Div. of Geological and Planetary Sciences] [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Div. of Geological and Planetary Sciences; Lundstrom, C.C. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Board] [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Board; Shaw, H.F.; Ryerson, F.J.; Phinney, D.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In order to provide a more substantial foundation for interpreting the behavior of B, Be, and Li during the production and early crystallization of primitive igneous rocks, the authors have measured olivine-clinopyroxene-, orthopyroxene-, and amphibole-melt partition coefficients for these elements involving broadly basaltic-andesitic melt compositions. Experiments were conducted at both one atmosphere and 1.0--1.5 GPa and employed a time-temperature history that yielded large crystals with minimal compositional zoning. Experiment temperatures ranged from 1,000 to 1,350 C and were selected to minimize the total crystal fraction in a given experiment. Partition coefficients for olivine and clinopyroxene were found to be independent of run duration or total concentration of B, Be, or Li suggesting that crystal-liquid equilibrium was closely approached. Partial melting models have also been constructed to explore the possibility of using the Li/V ratio in MORB and IAB as a monitor of redox conditions in their source-regions. Models indicate that this ratio does not uniquely constrain source fO{sub 2} without a priori knowledge of the degree of melting. However, the small amount of dispersion in MORB Li/V is consistent with (1) the small variation in source-region fO{sub 2} inferred for MORB by independent means and (2) degrees of melting close to clinopyroxene exhaustion. The very large dispersion in Li/V ratios in the IAB suite can be reconciled by melt generation under more oxidizing conditions than that for MORB, in addition to variation in source composition resulting from metasomatism involving a Li-rich component.

  1. Implications of the serpentine phase transition on the behaviour of beryllium and lithium-boron of subducted ultramafic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vils, Flurin; Müntener, Othmar; Kalt, Angelika; Ludwig, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    The Totalp-Platta-Malenco ophiolites in the Eastern Central Alps offer a unique opportunity to study the behaviour of Li, Be and B in ultramafic rocks in response to serpentinization and to progressive Alpine metamorphism. These units represent the remnants of a former ocean-continent transition that was intensely serpentinized during exposure on the Jurassic seafloor of the Ligurian Tethys. From north to the south, three isograd reactions ( lizardite?antigorite+brucite;lizardite+talc?antigorite;lizardite+tremolite?antigorite+diopside) have been used to quantify the evolution of the light element content of metamorphic minerals. We determined the Li, Be and B concentrations in major silicate minerals from the ultramafic bodies of Totalp, Platta and Malenco by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Mantle minerals have Be concentrations (e.g. <0.001-0.009 ?g/g in olivine) similar to the metamorphic minerals that replace them (e.g. <0.001-0.016 ?g/g in serpentine). The mantle signature of Be is thus neither erased during seafloor alteration nor by progressive metamorphism from prehnite-pumpellyite to epidote-amphibolite facies. In contrast, the Li and B inventories of metamorphic minerals are related to the lizardite-to-antigorite transition. Both elements display higher concentrations in the low-temperature serpentine polymorph lizardite (max. 156 ?g/g Li, max. 318 ?g/g B) than in antigorite (max. 0.11 ?g/g Li, max. 12 ?g/g B). Calculated average B/Li ratios for lizardite (˜1395) and antigorite (˜115) indicate that Li fractionates from B during the lizardite-to-antigorite transition during prograde metamorphism in ultramafic rocks. In subduction zones, this signature is likely to be recorded in the B-rich nature of forearc fluids. Relative to oceanic mantle the Be content of mantle clinopyroxene is much higher, but similar to Be values from mantle xenoliths and subduction-related peridotite massifs. These data support previous hypothesis that the mantle rocks from the Eastern Central Alps have a subcontinental origin. We conclude that Be behaves conservatively during subduction metamorphism of ultramafic rocks, at least at low-temperature, and thus retains the fingerprint of ancient subduction-related igneous events in mantle peridotites.

  2. Analysis of ultratrace lithium and boron by neutron activation and mass-spectrometric measurement of 3He and 4He.

    PubMed

    Clarke, W B; Koekebakker, M; Barr, R D; Downing, R G; Fleming, R F

    1987-01-01

    A new technique for analysis of lithium and boron at ultratrace concentrations (less than 10(-8)g g-1) is described. The method consists of mass-spectrometric assay of 3He from decay of tritium produced by thermal-neutron reaction on 6Li, and 4He produced by thermal-neutron reaction on 10B. Two neutron-irradiation facilities were used: the McMaster reactor, which is 235U-enriched and light-water moderated; and a graphite-moderated thermal column attached to the 235U-enriched, heavy-water-moderated core at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) reactor. In the McMaster irradiations, fast neutrons (greater than 0.2 MeV) induce the reactions 14N(n, 3H)12C, 12C(n, alpha)9Be, 16O(n, alpha)13C, and 14N(n, alpha)11B. These reactions become serious sources of error in samples such as human blood which have very low concentrations of lithium and boron, and high concentrations of nitrogen, carbon and oxygen. In the NBS thermal column, fast-neutron reactions are virtually absent, and only corrections for thermal-neutron capture by deuterium, and thermal-neutron (n, alpha) reactions on oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, potassium, and calcium need to be taken into account. Results are presented for various actual samples including human blood and its components, and some standard biological reference materials, to provide a realistic base for other workers to judge the reliability of the method. PMID:2822629

  3. Lithium-6 filter for a fission converter-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy irradiation facility beam

    E-print Network

    Gao, Wei, Ph. D.

    2005-01-01

    (cont.) A storage system was designed to contain the lithium-6 filter safely when it is not in use. A mixed field dosimetry method was used to measure the photon, thermal neutron and fast neutron dose. The measured advantage ...

  4. Beryllium Technology Research in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst; Robert A. Anderl; M. Kay Adleer-Flitton; Gretchen E. Matthern; Troy J. Tranter; Kendall J. Hollis

    2005-02-01

    While most active research involving beryllium in the United States remains tied strongly to biological effects, there are several areas of technology development in the last two years that should be mentioned. (1) Beryllium disposed of in soil vaults at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) has been encapsulated in-situ by high-temperature and pressure injection of a proprietary wax based material to inhibit corrosion. (2) A research program to develop a process for removing heavy metals and cobalt from irradiated beryllium using solvent extraction techniques has been initiated to remove components that prevent the beryllium from being disposed of as ordinary radioactive waste. (3) The JUPITER-II program at the INL Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has addressed the REDOX reaction of beryllium in molten Flibe (a mixture of LiF and BeF2) to control tritium, particularly in the form of HF, bred in the Flibe by reactions involving both beryllium and lithium. (4) Work has been performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to produce beryllium high heat flux components by plasma spray deposition on macro-roughened substrates. Finally, (5) corrosion studies on buried beryllium samples at the RWMC have shown that the physical form of some of the corroded beryllium is very filamentary and asbestos-like. This form of beryllium may exacerbate the contraction of chronic beryllium disease.

  5. High power accelerator-based boron neutron capture with a liquid lithium target and new applications to treatment of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Steinberg, D; Nagler, A; Arenshtam, A; Kijel, D; Polacheck, I; Srebnik, M

    2009-07-01

    A new conceptual design for an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (ABNCT) facility based on the high-current low-energy proton beam driven by the linear accelerator at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) incident on a windowless forced-flow liquid-lithium target, is described. The liquid-lithium target, currently in construction at Soreq NRC, will produce a neutron field suitable for the BNCT treatment of deep-seated tumor tissues, through the reaction (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be. The liquid-lithium target is designed to overcome the major problem of solid lithium targets, namely to sustain and dissipate the power deposited by the high-intensity proton beam. Together with diseases conventionally targeted by BNCT, we propose to study the application of our setup to a novel approach in treatment of diseases associated with bacterial infections and biofilms, e.g. inflammations on implants and prosthetic devices, cystic fibrosis, infectious kidney stones. Feasibility experiments evaluating the boron neutron capture effectiveness on bacteria annihilation are taking place at the Soreq nuclear reactor. PMID:19406650

  6. Method for welding beryllium

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, Raymond D. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, Frank M. (Espanola, NM); O'Leary, Richard F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon.

  7. Boron and lithium isotopic composition in chondrules from the mokoia meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, F.; Chaussidon, M.

    2003-04-01

    Introduction: Large Boron isotopic variations have been reported in individual chondrules from several meteorites [1, 2]. These variations were interpreted as resulting from the incomplete mixing of two isotopically distinct sources of Boron. Spallation is the only known nucleosynthetic process that can yield Boron in substantial amounts at the scale of the Universe. Therefore it has been proposed that the two sources observed in chondrules correspond to two different types of spallation reactions, namely at high and low energies. Indeed, in the case of Boron, the 11B/10B ratio is sensitive to the energy at which the spallation reaction takes place. Since this report of large B isotopic variations in chondrules, two observations have allowed to identify the natural conditions under which at least one of such spallation reactions may have taken place in the early solar system. First, X-ray observations of T-Tauri stars have revealed daily outbursts which mimic the present day solar activity during the emission of flares [3]. Second, the decay product (i.e. 10B) of the short lived radio-isotope 10Be was discovered in Calcium-Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) [4]. This is an indication that spallation did occurr in the solar system, shortly (i.e. less than a few million years) before the formation of the CAIs. In addition the possible occurrence of 7Be in CAIs suggests that this duration can be as short as a few months [5]. Sampling and Results: In the 8 chondrules from Mokoia, the ?11B values range between -39±6.8 ppm and -0.6±7.8 ppm (2 sigma). In one Boron depleted area of one chondrule, the ?11B value was found to be as low as -68.5 ppm and -61.5 ppm (±29; 2 sigma). In one chondrule from Mokoia the ?11B values range between -33.7±5.4 ppm and -3.8±5.4 ppm. These data confirm with a resolution of ? ±6 ppm the presence of a significant Boron isotopic heterogeneity,.The ?^7Li were also measured along with the ^delta11B. They range from -53.7±2.4 and -0.15±1.6 ppm (2 sigma) in the 8 chondrules of the Mokoia meteorite. Therefore the heterogeneity in B has its counterpart for Li. Interpretation: A two end member mixing model members can be proposed : ?11B ?0 ppm and ?11B<= -70 ppm. The value of 0 ppm is still significantly different from the matrix value reported by [6] (+19.2 ppm) and thus the possible contamination of the chondrule by their surrounding matrix is highly unlikely. The second end member should have ?11B and ?^7Li values le-70 ppm and le-50 ppm, respectively, resulting from Li and B produced at high energy by spallation reactions (E >= 100 MeV/nucleon, ?11B =-375 ?^7Li = -830 ppm). References: [1] Chaussidon M., Robert F. (1995) Nature 374, 337-339. [2] Chaussidon M. and Robert F. (1998) Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 164, 577-589. [3] Montmerle T. (1999) MPE Report : Astronomy with Radioactivities, 225-236. [4] McKeegan K., Chaussidon M., Robert F. (2000) Science 289, 1334-1337. [5] Chaussidon M., Robert F. McKeegan K. (2002) Abst. 33th LPSC #1563 [6] Hoppe et al., (2001) MAPS, 36, 1331-1343. [7] Zhai M et al., (1996) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60, 4877-4881.

  8. A computational study on the hydrogen adsorption capacity of various lithium-doped boron hydrides.

    PubMed

    Pan, Sudip; Giri, Santanab; Chattaraj, Pratim K

    2012-02-01

    An aromatic boron hydride B(3)H(3)(2-) and its various Li/Li(+) doped isomers have been studied at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d) and M06/6-311+G(d) levels of theory to assess their hydrogen storage potential. Different types of interaction energies, reaction enthalpies and reaction electrophilicities associated with the hydrogen adsorption process suggest that B(3)H(3)(2-) itself and some of its Li-decorated analogues may turn out to be effective hydrogen storage material. Nucleus independent chemical shift and conceptual density functional theory based reactivity descriptors lend additional support. The temperature-pressure phase diagram identifies the temperature-pressure zone where the reaction Gibbs free energy for the hydrogen adsorption is negative making it a thermodynamically feasible process. PMID:22121031

  9. Beryllium weldability

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.A.; Damkroger, B.K.; Dixon, R.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Robertson, E. (Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Welding processes and metallurgical considerations for beryllium welding are discussed in this review. The primary difficulties of welding beryllium are hot cracking, cracking at defects, and ductility limitation or thermally induced cracking. Solutions to these welding problems include control of the Fe/Al ratio in the base metal to reduce hot cracking, minimization of the BeO content and starting grain size to limit cracking at defects and ductility limitation cracking, and optimization of the welding process and process variables. 25 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Astrophysics: A lithium-rich stellar explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernanz, Margarita

    2015-02-01

    The contribution of explosions known as novae to the lithium content of the Milky Way is uncertain. Radioactive beryllium, which transforms into lithium, has been detected for the first time in one such explosion. See Letter p.381

  11. Comparative Studies of the Electrochemical and Thermal Stability of Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Using Two Types of Boron-Based Anion Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X. Q.; Lee, H. S.; Sun, X.; McBreen, J.

    1999-10-17

    Comparative studies were done on two new types of boron based anion receptors, tris(pentafluorophenyl) borane (TFPB) and tris(pentafluorophenyl) borate (TFPBO), regarding conductivity enhancement electrochemical and thermal stability when used as additives in composite electrolytes for lithium batteries. Both additives enhance the ionic conductivity of electrolytes of simple lithium salts, LiF, CF{sub 3}CO{sub 2}Li and C{sub 2}F{sub 5}CO{sub 2}Li in several organic solvents. The electrochemical windows of TPFB based electrolytes in ethylene carbonate (EC)-propylene carbonate (PC)-dmethyl carbonate (DMC) (1:1:3, v/v) are up to 5, 4.76 and 4.96 V for LiF, CF{sub 3}CO{sub 2}Li and C{sub 2}F{sub 5}CO{sub 2}Li respectively. TPFBO has lower electrochemical stability compared to TPFB. The thermal stability of pure TFPB is better than TFPBO. The lithium salt complexes have higher thermal stability than these two compounds. TPFB based electrolytes showed high cycling efficiencies and good cycleability when they were tested in Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells. The capacity retention of the cells using TFPB based electrolytes during multiple cycling is better than those using TFPBO based electrolytes.

  12. Method for welding beryllium

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1997-04-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

  13. Strengthened lithium for x-ray blast windows

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, N. R. [Ecopulse Inc., P.O. Box 528, Springfield, Virginia 22150 (United States); Imam, M. A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Lithium's high x-ray transparency makes it an attractive material for windows intended to protect soft x-ray diagnostics in high energy density experiments. Pure lithium is soft and weak, but lithium mixed with lithium hydride powder becomes harder and stronger, in principle without any additional x-ray absorption. A comparison with the standard material for x-ray windows, beryllium, suggests that lithium or lithium strengthened by lithium hydride may well be an excellent option for such windows.

  14. Indirect Measurements for (p,{alpha}) Reactions Involving Boron Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; Romano, S.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Sergi, M. L.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l'Ingegneria, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Carlin, N.; Szanto, M. G. del; Liguori Neto, R.; Moura, M. M. de; Munhoz, M. G.; Souza, F. A.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Szanto, E. [Departamento de Fisica Nuclear, Universitade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] (and others)

    2008-04-06

    Light elements lithium, beryllium and boron (LiBeB) were used in the last years as 'possible probe' for a deeper understanding of some extra-mixing phenomena occurring in young Main-Sequence stars. They are mainly destroyed by (p,{alpha}) reactions and cross section measurements for such channels are then needed. The Trojan Horse Method (THM) allows one to extract the astrophysical S(E)-factor without the experience of tunneling through the Coulomb barrier. In this work a resume of the recent results about the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be and {sup 10}B(p,{alpha}){sup 7}Be reactions is shown.

  15. Lithium Irradiation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Leveling, A.F.; /Fermilab

    2000-08-22

    The subject of tritium production in the Antiproton Source Collection lens was raised in the mid-1980s during the design phase of the pbar source. Interest in it has recurred during development of the proton lens and in recent investigations to determine the feasibility of liquid lithium collection lenses for the pbar source and a muon collider project. Calculations for tritium and beryllium 7 production on lithium suffer from a lack of information on medium and high energy cross section data. In addition, knowledge of the energy spectrum within the target vault is based upon calculations. Knowledge of the low energy spectrum, important for tritium production on lithium, is limited, if not non-existent. For Collider Run II, effort is to be applied to improve the performance of the solid lithium lens. Historically, examination of failed lithium lenses has not been pursued because they have been fairly radioactive and because they are thought to contain significant quantities of the radionuclides tritium and beryllium 7. The development of methods to examine failed lithium lenses may be desirable so that the specific causes of failure can be discovered. From such studies, design improvements can be incorporated with the goal of achieving lens performances goals related to Collider Run II. The purpose of the lithium irradiation experiment is to determine the production rates of radioisotopes tritium and beryllium 7 within the lithium lens in its operating in its operating environment.

  16. Extractive Metallurgy of Beryllium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. GUPTA; S. SAHA

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the extractive metallurgy of beryllium is presented. Due to the strategic importance and element of secrecy surrounding the metal, any open literature on beryllium is rather limited. However, this review has been made to cover all important aspects of beryllium extraction technology namely, resources of the metal; processing of ores; reduction of fluoride and oxide to

  17. Beryllium Sampling Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HARRY M. DONALDSON; WILLIAM T. STRINGER

    1980-01-01

    Three sampling methods for airborne beryllium are compared to validate observations made in a 1973 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) industrywide study of the beryllium industry which indicated that, in general, the three methods yielded different results for samples taken in the same environment. Under NIOSH contract a beryllium production facility was sampled in 1974 by the

  18. Improved synthesis of a highly fluorinated boronic ester as dual functional additive for lithium-ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.; Zhang, Z.; Schlueter, J. A.; Redfern, P. C.; Curtiss, L. A.; Amine, K. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( CSE); ( MSD)

    2011-02-01

    The electrolyte additive 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (PFPTFBB, 1) was found to have a reversible redox potential at 4.43 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li. This compound can function as an overcharge protection additive as well as anion receptor for lithium-ion batteries. It has drawn a great deal of interest from industry, but its use in relatively large quantities is limited by the production challenges of tetrafluorocatechol (TFC, 3), which is the key starting chemical for the synthesis of PFPTFBB. As part of a continuous effort in our research toward improving the safety of lithium-ion batteries, we have performed the synthesis of TFC and optimized its synthesis process. The X-ray single-crystal structures of TFC and the intermediate product 5,6,7,8-tetrafluoro-1,4-benzodioxane (4) during the process of PFPTFBB synthesis are reported for the first time. Also presented is the lithium ion cell performance of PFPTFBB as redox shuttle in various electrolyte systems.

  19. Low temperature coefficient of resistance and high gage factor in beryllium-doped silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, J. B.; Littlejohn, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The gage factor and resistivity of p-type silicon doped with beryllium was studied as a function of temperature, crystal orientation, and beryllium doping concentration. It was shown that the temperature coefficient of resistance can be varied and reduced to zero near room temperature by varying the beryllium doping level. Similarly, the magnitude of the piezoresistance gage factor for beryllium-doped silicon is slightly larger than for silicon doped with a shallow acceptor impurity such as boron, whereas the temperature coefficient of piezoresistance is about the same for material containing these two dopants. These results are discussed in terms of a model for the piezoresistance of compensated p-type silicon.

  20. Chemical feasibility of lithium as a matrix for structural composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swann, R. T.; Esterling, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical compatibility of lithium with tows of carbon and aramid fibers and silicon carbide and boron monofilaments was investigated by encapsulating the fibers in liquid lithium and also by sintering. The lithium did not readily wet the various fibers. In particular, very little lithium infiltration into the carbon and aramid tows was achieved and the strength of the tows was seriously degraded. The strength of the boron and silicon carbide monofilaments, however, was not affected by the liquid lithium. Therefore lithium is not feasible as a matrix for carbon and aramid fibers, but a composite containing boron or silicon carbide fibers in a lithium matrix may be feasible for specialized applications.

  1. Boron and beryllium in Gamma Geminorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesgaard, A. M.; Praderie, F.

    1981-01-01

    Observations have been made of the B II resonance line at 1362 A in the A0 IV star Gamma Gem with the Princeton spectrometer on the Copernicus satellite at a spectral resolution of 0.05 A. Complementary ground-based observations of the Be II resonance lines at 3130 and 3131 A have been made at Mauna Kea Observatory with a comparable resolution. A model-atmosphere abundance analysis has been done which includes the effects of the lines that blend with the B II and Be II lines. Previous data on Alpha Lyr and Alpha CMa for B II (which blends with a V III feature) have been reanalyzed with the help of new photographic and Reticon data from Mauna Kea which enable the determination of the V abundance. The results show that Gamma Gem is depleted in B by a factor of 5-10 relative to Alpha Lyr and other normal B stars and depleted in Be by at least a factor of four. By comparison, the hot Am star Alpha CMa is B-deficient by about three orders of magnitude and Be-deficient by at least fifteen times. It is suggested that the abundance deficiencies are due to diffusion, and that Alpha CMa is intrinsically a slow rotator, and Gamma Gem is a slightly evolved slow rotator where some, but not all, of the B and Be has resurfaced.

  2. Boron and beryllium in gamma Geminorum

    SciTech Connect

    Boesgaard, A.M.; Praderie, F.

    1981-04-01

    Observations have been made of the B II resonance line at 1362 A inthe A0 IV star ..gamma.. Gem with the Princeton spectrometer on the Copernicus satellite at a spectral resolution of 0.05 A. Complementary ground-based observations of the Be II resonance lines at 3130 and 3131 A have been made at Mauna Kea Observatory with a comparable resolution. A model-atmosphere abundance analysis has been done which includes the effects of the lines that blend with the B II and Be II lines. Previous data on ..cap alpha.. Lyr and ..cap alpha.. CMa for B II (which blends with a V III feature) have been reanalyzed with the help of new photographic and Reticon data from Mauna Kea which enable us to determine the V abundance. The results show that ..gamma.. Gem is depleted in B by a factor of 5--10 relative to ..cap alpha.. Lyr and other normal B stars and depleted in Be by at least a factor of 4. By comparison, the hot Am star ..cap alpha.. CMa is B-deficient by about 3 orders of magnitude and Be-deficient by at least 15 times. It is suggested that the abundance deficiencies are due to diffusion, and that ..cap alpha.. CMa is intrinsically a slow rotator, and ..gamma.. Gem is a slightly evolved slow rotator where some, but not all, of the B and Be has resurfaced.

  3. Beryllium: laboratory evidence.

    PubMed

    Flamm, W G

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium-containing compounds have been studied extensively and have been known to be carcinogenic in animals since 1946. Beryllium salts and alloys were among the first nonradioactive, inorganic substances shown to induce osteogenic sarcoma in experimental animals. Beryllium-containing compounds have been demonstrated to be powerful pulmonary carcinogens in rats. To date, these compounds do not appear to be mutagenic, leaving open the question of their mechanism of action. PMID:3866748

  4. Boron and Lithium isotopic signatures in rivers as proxies of silicate weathering regimes : the example of the Mackenzie river system, Canada (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardet, J.; Millot, R.; Lemarchand, D.; Vigier, N.

    2009-12-01

    Large river systems integrate the diversity of weathering and transport conditions as well as the bedrock composition. They provide a unique opportunity to unravel the parameters operating within the critical zone of the Earth globally. Here, we present B and Li isotopes data measured in both the complementary soluble and suspended phases in the Mackenzie river (Northeastern Canada), one of the world largest river the Mackenzie river basin. An interesting parallel can be made between these two isotopic systems: - Both elements are predominantly derived from the weathering of silicate minerals and are thus relatively less affected by lithology. - Both elements are considerably fractionated during water/rock interactions during which they partition between the solid and liquid phases. Their respective geochemical signature is then strongly dependent upon geomorphic features of the Basin (mountains, plains, shield area). - Both isotopic systems are greatly fractionated by a preferential release in solution of the heavy isotope, which considerably help investigating the nature and magnitude of the weathering and transport processes in action. - And finally, strong evidences indicate that local groundwaters may control their transfer through the basin and imprint their isotopic signature as well. Because, boron and lithium have very different chemical behaviors, in particular distinct surface properties, their respective isotopes behave distinctly under same reactive transport conditions. This feature results in the absence of correlation between this two isotopic systems despite their apparent similarities. Then the coupled investigation of the Li and B isotopes during chemical weathering adds strong constraints on the weathering regimes operating at large scale and clearly encourages the multi-isotopic tracing of the critical zone processes.

  5. High-power electron beam tests of a liquid-lithium target and characterization study of (7)Li(p,n) near-threshold neutrons for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Cohen, D; Eliyahu, I; Kijel, D; Mardor, I; Silverman, I

    2014-06-01

    A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The target is intended to demonstrate liquid-lithium target capabilities to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals. The lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power >5kW generated by high-intensity proton beams, necessary for sufficient therapeutic neutron flux. In preliminary experiments liquid lithium was flown through the target loop and generated a stable jet on the concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power densities of more than 4kW/cm(2) and volumetric power density around 2MW/cm(3) at a lithium flow of ~4m/s, while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. These power densities correspond to a narrow (?=~2mm) 1.91MeV, 3mA proton beam. A high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5MeV, 2mA) is being commissioned at the SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator. In order to determine the conditions of LiLiT proton irradiation for BNCT and to tailor the neutron energy spectrum, a characterization of near threshold (~1.91MeV) (7)Li(p,n) neutrons is in progress based on Monte-Carlo (MCNP and Geant4) simulation and on low-intensity experiments with solid LiF targets. In-phantom dosimetry measurements are performed using special designed dosimeters based on CR-39 track detectors. PMID:24387907

  6. Beryllium copper alloy (2%) causes chronic beryllium disease.

    PubMed

    Balkissoon, R C; Newman, L S

    1999-04-01

    We describe two newly confirmed cases of chronic beryllium disease who presented to our clinic from a facility that only used 2% beryllium copper alloy. These cases illustrate that the 2% beryllium copper alloy continues to cause chronic beryllium disease and that appropriate preventive measures must be taken to control exposures and educate industries and their workers about the hazards of beryllium alloys. PMID:10224597

  7. Boron-lithium relationships in rhyolites and associated thermal waters of young silicic calderas, with comments on incompatible element behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, D.M. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)); Sturchio, N.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-10-01

    This study had three goals: (1) to study B distribution in a rhyolitic volcanic sequence already extensively investigated for other elements; (2) to interpret the joint behavior of B and Li during the interaction of such rocks with subsurface waters; and (3) to assess the manner in which water affects the behavior of incompatible elements such as B and Gd. New B, Gd, and Sm analyses have been made on a suite of Yellowstone rhyolites, including fresh and partially devitrified glassy obsidian from surface exposures of several flows, a drill-core of increasing degrees of alteration in the Biscuit Basin Flow, and two drill-cores from other flows. Within the Biscuit Basin Flow, the Sm and Gd concentrations remain rather constant and behave conservatively, independent of alteration. Boron decreases from about 10 to 3 ppm with progressive alteration, and Li increases from about 40 ppm by a factor of 2-3 in the most altered rocks. Obsidians from the Valles and Long Valley calderas show greater Li loss during alteration. All the rhyolitic rocks lose B during aqueous alteration; the waters acquire both B and Li, but proportionately much more B. Natural waters of all kinds, including those from the three calderas, show six orders of magnitude range in aqueous B and Li, with a high degree of linear correlation and an average ratio B/Li essentially constant at 4.0. The linearity mainly expresses processes of dilution and concentration: reactions specific to B or Li engender waters with deviating B/Li.

  8. The carcinogenicity of beryllium.

    PubMed

    Kuschner, M

    1981-08-01

    Beryllium, some of its alloys, and a variety of its compounds have induced malignant tumors of the lung and osteogenic sarcoma in experimental animals. Three animal species, monkeys, rabbits, and rats, have been shown to be susceptible. Beryllium induces morphological transformation in mammalian cells and enhances viral transformation of mammalian cells. It has been shown to decrease fidelity of DNA synthesis. It has been recognized that exposure to compounds of this metal will, in some individuals, result in a chronic granulomatous disease of the lung. A series of overlapping recent human epidemiological studies have been suggestive of an increase in the incidence of lung cancer in populations occupationally exposed to beryllium. Such studies, together with animal and in vitro studies, argue for the strong presumption of a carcinogenic hazard to man in occupational beryllium exposures. PMID:7023926

  9. Laser fabrication of beryllium components

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Beryllium metal, beryllium alloy sheet, and beryllium/beryllium oxide composite sheets are all superior materials for use in various advanced technological applications, such as for improving computer speed and memory capacities. However, conventional machining techniques of these materials impose costs that make their use in commercial applications uneconomical. We have demonstrated that lasers can remove this economic barrier. Lasers can cut components to size at high speeds, with high tolerances and small radii without introducing machining damage, thus yielding high material efficiencies. We have also shown that lasers allow beryllium to be used in applications requiring autogenous welding. We have autogenously welded commercial structural grades of beryllium.

  10. Some Properties of Beryllium Oxide and Beryllium Oxide - Columbium Ceramals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robards, C F; Gangler, J J

    1951-01-01

    High-temperature tensile and thermal-shock investigations were conducted on beryllium oxide and beryllium oxide plus columbium metal additions. X-ray diffraction and metallographic results are given. The tensile strength of 6150 pounds per square inch for beryllium oxide at 1800 degrees F compared favorably with the zirconia bodies previously tested. Additions of 2, 5, 8, 10, 12, and 15 percent by weight of columbium metal failed to improve the shock resistance over that of pure beryllium oxide.

  11. HANFORD BERYLLIUM STEERING GROUP CHARTER

    SciTech Connect

    HEWITT, E.R.

    2003-11-19

    The purpose of the Beryllium Steering Group (BSG) is to (1) provide a forum for discussion of beryllium issues and concerns among Hanford prime contractors and DOE; (2) review proposed changes in prime contractor Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Programs (CBDPP) to determine if these changes will result in significant impacts to other contractors and their employees; (3) review proposed changes to Beryllium Hanford Facilities List prior to updating of this list.

  12. Containerless processing of beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wouch, G.; Keith, G. H.; Frost, R. T.; Pinto, N. P.

    1977-01-01

    Melting and solidification of a beryllium alloy containing 1.5% BeO by weight in the weightless environment of space has produced cast beryllium with a relatively uniform dispersion of BeO throughout. Examination of the cast material shows that it is coarse grained, although the BeO is not heavily agglomerated in the flight specimen. Ground based comparison experiments show extreme agglomeration and segregation of BeO, resulting in large zones which are practically free of the oxide. Several postulated hypotheses for the failure to grain refine the beryllium are formulated. These are: (1) spherodization of the BeO particles during specimen preparation and during the molten phase of the experiment; (2) loss of nucleation potency through aging in the molten phase; and (3) inability of BeO to act as a grain refiner for beryllium. Further investigation with non spherodized particles and shorter dwell times molten may delineate which of these hypotheses are valid. The results of this flight experiment indicate that the weightless environment of space is an important asset in conducting research to find grain refiners for beryllium and other metals for which cast dispersions of grain refining agents cannot be prepared terrestrially due to gravitationally driven settling and agglomeration.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF BERYLLIUM, BERYLLIUM CHLORIDE, BERYLLIUM FLUORIDE, AND BERYLLIUM NITRATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beryllium is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B2 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). vidence on potential arcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient," and the evidence from human studies is "Inadequa...

  14. Lithium alloy anode for thermal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cupp, E.B.; Cottingham, D.R.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes as an article of manufacture, an anode wafer for a thermal cell, the anode wafer comprising particles of a lithium anode alloy bonded with particles of a metal binder, the lithium anode alloy being of the class consisting of lithium-aluminum alloys; lithium-silicon alloys; and lithium-boron alloys, the metal binder being of the class consisting of unalloyed iron, copper, nickel, manganese; and mixtures thereof, and wherein substantially all the metal binder in the wafer remains present as a discrete phase, unalloyed with the lithium alloy.

  15. Rocky Flats beryllium health surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, A.W.; Furman, F.J.; Hilmas, D.E. [Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP), initiated in June 1991, was designed to provide medical surveillance for current and former employees exposed to beryllium. The BHSP identifies individuals who have developed beryllium sensitivity using the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). A detailed medical evaluation to determine the prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is offered to individuals identified as beryllium sensitized or to those who have chest X-ray changes suggestive of CBD. The BHSP has identified 27 cases of CBD and another 74 cases of beryllium sensitization out of 4268 individuals tested. The distribution of BeLPT values for normal, sensitized, and CBD-identified individuals is described. Based on the information collected during the first 3 1/3 years of the BHSP, the BeLPT is the most effective means for the early identification of beryllium-sensitized individuals and to identify individuals who may have CBD. The need for BeLPT retesting is demonstrated through the identification of beryllium sensitization in individuals who previously tested normal. Posterior/anterior chest X-rays were not effective in the identification of CBD. 12 refs., 8 tabs.

  16. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady, C. M.; Adams, C. D.; Hull, L. M.; Gray, G. T.; Prime, M. B.; Addessio, F. L.; Wynn, T. A.; Papin, P. A.; Brown, E. N.

    2012-08-01

    While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. In the current work, high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. Two constitutive strength (plasticity) models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) models, were calibrated using common quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data. However, simulations with the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured experimental wave profiles. The experimental results indicate that, even if fractured by the initial shock loading, the Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading. Additional "arrested" drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

  17. Characterization of Shocked Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Cady, Carl M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Adams, Chris D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hull, Lawrence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray III, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prime, Michael B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Addessio, Francis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wynn, Thomas A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Eric N [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-24

    Beryllium metal has many excellent structural properties in addition to its unique radiation characteristics, including: high elastic modulus, low Poisson's ratio, low density, and high melting point. However, it suffers from several major mechanical drawbacks: 1) high anisotropy - due to its hexagonal lattice structure and its susceptibility to crystallographic texturing; 2) susceptibility to impurity-induced fracture - due to grain boundary segregation; and 3) low intrinsic ductility at ambient temperatures thereby limiting fabricability. While large ductility results from deformation under the conditions of compression, the material can exhibit a brittle behavior under tension. Furthermore, there is a brittle to ductile transition at approximately 200 C under tensile conditions. While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. The beryllium used in this study was Grade S200-F (Brush Wellman, Inc., Elmore, OH) material. The work focused on high strain rate deformation and examine the validity of constitutive models in deformation rate regimes, including shock, the experiments were modeled using a Lagrangian hydrocode. Two constitutive strength (plasticity) models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) models, were calibrated using the same set of quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data taken at temperatures from 77K to 873K and strain rates from 0.001/sec to 4300/sec. In spite of being calibrated on the same data, the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured wave profiles. These high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Preliminary analysis of the results appears to indicate that, if fractured by the initial shock loading, the S200F Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading of the material. Additional 'arrested' drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

  18. 5. VIEW OF BERYLLIUM PROCESSING AREA, ROLLING MILL. BERYLLIUM FORMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF BERYLLIUM PROCESSING AREA, ROLLING MILL. BERYLLIUM FORMING BEGAN IN SIDE A OF THE BUILDING IN 1962. (11/5/73) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.; Jacobson, L.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

    1993-12-31

    A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum 4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 {mu}m) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications.

  20. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2014-07-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  1. Ceramic-metal seals for advanced battery systems. [sodium sulfur and lithium sulfur batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, L.

    1978-01-01

    The search for materials which are electrochemically compatible with the lithium sulfur and sodium sulfur systems is discussed. The use liquid or braze alloys, titanium hydrite coatings, and tungsten yttria for bonding beryllium with ceramic is examined.

  2. Boron reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.

    1980-07-01

    A process to recover high purity /sup 10/B enriched crystalline boron powder from a polymeric matrix was developed on a laboratory basis and ultimately scaled up to production capacity. The process is based on controlled pyrolysis of boron-filled scrap followed by an acid leach and dry sieving operation to return the powder to the required purity and particle size specifications. Typically, the recovery rate of the crystalline powder is in excess of 98.5 percent, and some of the remaining boron is recovered in the form of boric acid. The minimum purity requirement of the recovered product is 98.6 percent total boron.

  3. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR BERYLLIUM. REVIEW DRAFT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The properties of beryllium resemble those of aluminum, zinc, and magnesium. The main routes of beryllium intake are inhalation and ingestion. The chemical properties of beryllium are such that transformation of soluble to insoluble forms of inhaled beryllium results in long rete...

  4. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of dissolved arsenic, boron, lithium, selenium, strontium, thallium, and vanadium using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garbarino, John R.

    1999-01-01

    The inductively coupled plasma?mass spectrometric (ICP?MS) methods have been expanded to include the determination of dissolved arsenic, boron, lithium, selenium, strontium, thallium, and vanadium in filtered, acidified natural water. Method detection limits for these elements are now 10 to 200 times lower than by former U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) methods, thus providing lower variability at ambient concentrations. The bias and variability of the method was determined by using results from spike recoveries, standard reference materials, and validation samples. Spike recoveries at 5 to 10 times the method detection limit and 75 micrograms per liter in reagent-water, surface-water, and groundwater matrices averaged 93 percent for seven replicates, although selected elemental recoveries in a ground-water matrix with an extremely high iron sulfate concentration were negatively biased by 30 percent. Results for standard reference materials were within 1 standard deviation of the most probable value. Statistical analysis of the results from about 60 filtered, acidified natural-water samples indicated that there was no significant difference between ICP?MS and former USGS official methods of analysis.

  5. Dose point kernel for boron-11 decay and the cellular S values in boron neutron capture therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunzhi Ma; Jinpeng Geng; Song Gao; Shanglian Bao

    2006-01-01

    The study of the radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy is based on the cellular level dosimetry of boron-10's thermal neutron capture reaction ¹°B(n,α)⁷Li, in which one 1.47 MeV helium-4 ion and one 0.84 MeV lithium-7 ion are spawned. Because of the chemical preference of boron-10 carrier molecules, the dose is heterogeneously distributed in cells. In the present work, the

  6. The natural history of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, L.S. [National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States); Lloyd, J.; Daniloff, E. [National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    With the advent of in vitro immunologic testing, we can now detect exposed individuals who are sensitized to beryllium and those who have chronic beryllium disease (CBD) with lung pathology and impairment. Earlier detection and more accurate diagnostic tools raise new questions about the natural history of sensitization and granulomatous disease. Preliminary data suggest that early detection identifies people who are sensitized to beryllium and that these individuals are at risk for progressing into clinical disease. This article discusses the historical, recent, and ongoing studies germane to our understanding of CBD natural history, including the immunologic and inflammatory basis of the disease, the environmental and host risk factors for disease progression, biological markers of disease severity and activity that may help predict outcome, and the implications for broad-based workplace screening to identify patients at the earliest stages of beryllium sensitization and disease. 29 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Beryllium optics and beryllium-aluminum structures for reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Michael J.; LoBiondo, Stephen; Coon, Bryan; Engelhardt, Michel; Pinzon, William

    2007-09-01

    BAE Systems has developed and fielded the F-9120, a compact, lightweight, dual-band Electro-Optical/Infrared (EO/IR) long range sensor for high altitude tactical reconnaissance applications. The sensor's weight and size allow it to be carried internally or in a pod on a variety of military aircraft. The challenge of maintaining optical performance over severe vibration and thermal environments has been met using beryllium optics coupled to a beryllium-aluminum structure. Material choices were vital to maintaining both the optical performance of the system over the environments as well as jitter control of the two-axis, inertially-stabilized gimbal. The beryllium and beryllium-aluminum combination has demonstrated unprecedented vibration performance in both laboratory and field environments. In addition, the close coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) match between the optics and structure has enabled the sensor to meet its stringent imaging requirements over a wide temperature range as predicted.

  8. Beryllium Health Effects in the Era of the Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa A. Maier

    2001-01-01

    The beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) has revolutionized our approach to the diagnosis, screening, and surveillance of beryllium health effects. Based on the development of a beryllium-specific cell-mediated immune response, the BeLPT has allowed us to define early health effects of beryllium, including beryllium sensitization (BeS), and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) at a subclinical stage. The use of this test

  9. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. N.; Cady, C. M.; Gray, G. T., III; Hull, L. M.; Cooley, J. H.; Bronkhorst, C. A.; Addessio, F. L.

    2014-05-01

    Explosively driven arrested beryllium experiments were performed with post mortem characterization to evaluate the failure behaviors. The test samples were encapsulated in an aluminum assembly that was large relative to the sample, and the assembly features both axial and radial momentum traps. The sample carrier was inserted from the explosively-loaded end and has features to lock the carrier to the surrounding cylinder using the induced plastic flow. Calculations with Lagrangian codes showed that the tensile stresses experienced by the Be sample were below the spall stress. Metallographic characterization of the arrested Be showed radial cracks present in the samples may have been caused by bending moments. Fractography showed the fractures propagated from the side of the sample closest to the explosives, the side with the highest tensile stress. There was evidence that the fractures may have propagated from the circumferential crack outward and downward radially.

  10. Beryllium Interactions in Molten Salts

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Smolik; M. F. Simpson; P. J. Pinhero; M. Hara; Y. Hatano; R. A. Anderl; J. P. Sharpe; T. Terai; S. Tanaka; D. A. Petti; D.-K. Sze

    2006-01-01

    Molten flibe (2LiF·BeF2) is a candidate as a cooling and tritium breeding media for future fusion power plants. Neutron interactions with the salt will produce tritium and release excess free fluorine ions. Beryllium metal has been demonstrated as an effective redox control agent to prevent free fluorine, or HF species, from reacting with structural metal components. The extent and rate of beryllium solubility in a pot design experiments to suppress continuously supplied hydrogen fluoride gas has been measured and modeled[ ]. This paper presents evidence of beryllium loss from specimens, a dependence of the loss upon bi-metal coupling, i.e., galvanic effect, and the partitioning of the beryllium to the salt and container materials. Various posttest investigative methods, viz., scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to explore this behavior.

  11. Beryllium and Strong Hydrogen Bonds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Mark McCleskey; Brian L. Scott

    2009-01-01

    We compare beryllium to H and show that beryllium can displace H in many “strong hydrogen bonds” where Be as a “tetrahedral proton” (O-Be-O angle is tetrahedral as opposed to the nearly linear O-H—O angle) is thermodynamically preferred. The strong hydrogen bond provides two advantages. First, the O–X distance in a strong hydrogen bond is in the range 2.4–2.8 Å,

  12. Electroextraction of boron from boron carbide scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashish [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Anthonysamy, S., E-mail: sas@igcar.gov.in [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Ghosh, C. [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Ravindran, T.R. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Divakar, R.; Mohandas, E. [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Studies were carried out to extract elemental boron from boron carbide scrap. The physicochemical nature of boron obtained through this process was examined by characterizing its chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size. The microstructural characteristics of the extracted boron powder were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopic examination of boron powder was also carried out to determine its crystalline form. Oxygen and carbon were found to be the major impurities in boron. Boron powder of purity ? 92 wt. % could be produced by the electroextraction process developed in this study. Optimized method could be used for the recovery of enriched boron ({sup 10}B > 20 at. %) from boron carbide scrap generated during the production of boron carbide. - Highlights: • Recovery of {sup 10}B from nuclear grade boron carbide scrap • Development of process flow sheet • Physicochemical characterization of electroextracted boron • Microscopic examination of electroextracted boron.

  13. Beryllium technology workshop, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 20, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: beryllium in the ITER blanket; mechanical testing of irradiated beryllium; tritium release measurements on irradiated beryllium; beryllium needs for plasma-facing components; thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed beryllium; beryllium research at the INEL; Japanese beryllium research activities for in-pile mockup tests on ITER; a study of beryllium bonding of copper alloy; new production technologies; thermophysical properties of a new ingot metallurgy beryllium product line; implications of beryllium:steam interactions in fusion reactors; and a test program for irradiation embrittlement of beryllium at JET.

  14. Influence of LOTUS concrete structure, boron-loaded sheets, and B[sub 4]C filter on the integral tritium production of a nature lithium graphite-reflected blanket and comparison with experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Joneja, O.P.; Schneeberger, J.P. (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)); Nargundkar, V.R. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

    1993-07-01

    Integral tritium production rate (TPR) measurements are important in comparisons of calculations to ascertain the suitability of computer codes and cross-section sets used in calculation. At the LOTUS facility, one of the objectives is to make measurements with different types of pure fusion and hybrid blankets and compare the results with calculations. Since the concrete cavity housing the blankets is small, it is of direct relevance to determine the influence of room-reflected neutrons on the integral TPR and, if possible, to reduce this effect by special absorbers. The effects on the TPR of a stainless steel-natural lithium-graphite-reflected blanket due to the concrete structure, B[sub 4]C filter, and boron-loaded sheets covering the assembly are studied. Calculations are performed by the MCNP Monte Carlo code. Since the room-returned component depends strongly on the composition of the concrete and, more-over, does not correspond to a real blanket situation, it is advisable to compare measurements with calculations for the region where such interference is minimal. A central region is identified for the purpose of comparison. In addition to calculations for a fully homogenized blanket, the important central blanket region is considered in the form of rods, and the remaining blanket as a homogeneous region, to assess the effect of neutron streaming on the TPR of the assembly. An experiment is done by irradiating several Li[sub 2]CO[sub 3] probes positioned in each tube so that the central region of interest is fully covered. The activity of the probes is measured by the standard liquid scintillation method, and the TPR for the entire region can be derived from the experimental reaction rate data. The complete details of the calculational model and the experimental procedure are provided. Good agreement is found between the calculated and experimental TPRs after accounting for various sources of errors. 14 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. SUIVI MEDICAL DE SALARIES EXPOSES AU BERYLLIUM : Medical follow-up of beryllium -exposed workers

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 SUIVI MEDICAL DE SALARIES EXPOSES AU BERYLLIUM : Medical follow-up of beryllium - exposed workers-up of beryllium-exposed workers. Method: a medical follow-up of workers from a factory machining beryllium (Be) either plain or as an alloy started in 2001. Be Lymphocyte Proliferation Tests (LPT) were performed

  16. Characterization of physicochemical properties of beryllium aerosols associated with prevalence of chronic beryllium disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandr B. Stefaniak; Mark D. Hoover; Gregory A. Day; Robert M. Dickerson; Eric J. Peterson; Michael S. Kent; Christine R. Schuler; Patrick N. Breysseb; Ronald C. Scripsick

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the physicochemical properties of beryllium aerosols associated with increased risk of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Such information is needed to evaluate whether airborne mass of beryllium is the appropriate metric of exposure or alternatively to provide a scientific basis for using information on particle size, surface area, and chemistry to support an improved

  17. Shockless compression and release behavior of beryllium to 110?GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J. L.; Knudson, M. D.; Alexander, C. S.; Asay, J. R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2014-07-21

    A magnetohydrodynamic loading technique was used to shocklessly compress beryllium to peak longitudinal stresses of 19–110?GPa and, subsequently, unload in order to determine both the compressive response and also the shear stress supported upon release. Loading strain rates were on the order of 10{sup 6?}s{sup ?1}, while the unloading rates were nearly constant at 3?×?10{sup 5?}s{sup ?1}. Velocimetry was used to monitor the ramp and release behavior of a beryllium/lithium fluoride window interface. After applying window corrections to infer in situ beryllium velocities, a Lagrangian analysis was employed to determine the material response. The Lagrangian wavespeed-particle velocity response is integrated to generate the stress-strain path, average change in shear stress over the elastic unloading, and estimates of the shear modulus at peak compression. These data are used to infer the pressure dependence of the flow strength at the unloading rate. Comparisons to several strength models reveal good agreement to 45?GPa, but the data indicate 20%–30% higher strength near 100?GPa.

  18. Shockless compression and release behavior of beryllium to 110 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. L.; Knudson, M. D.; Alexander, C. S.; Asay, J. R.

    2014-07-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic loading technique was used to shocklessly compress beryllium to peak longitudinal stresses of 19-110 GPa and, subsequently, unload in order to determine both the compressive response and also the shear stress supported upon release. Loading strain rates were on the order of 106 s-1, while the unloading rates were nearly constant at 3 × 105 s-1. Velocimetry was used to monitor the ramp and release behavior of a beryllium/lithium fluoride window interface. After applying window corrections to infer in situ beryllium velocities, a Lagrangian analysis was employed to determine the material response. The Lagrangian wavespeed-particle velocity response is integrated to generate the stress-strain path, average change in shear stress over the elastic unloading, and estimates of the shear modulus at peak compression. These data are used to infer the pressure dependence of the flow strength at the unloading rate. Comparisons to several strength models reveal good agreement to 45 GPa, but the data indicate 20%-30% higher strength near 100 GPa.

  19. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady, Carl; Brown, Eric; Gray, George; Adams, Chris; Hull, Lawrence; Wynn, Thomas; Prime, Michael; Cooley, James; Bronkhorst, Curt; Addessio, Frank

    2013-06-01

    Explosively driven arrested beryllium experiments were performed with post mortem characterization to evaluate the microstructure and failure behaviors. The test samples were encapsulated in an aluminum assembly that was large relative to the sample, and the assembly features both axial and radial momentum traps. The sample carrier was inserted from the explosively loaded end and has features to lock the carrier to the surrounding cylinder using the induced plastic flow. Calculations with Lagrangian codes showed that the tensile stresses experienced by the Be sample were below the spall stress. Metallographic characterization of the arrested Be showed radial cracks present in the samples may have been caused by bending moments. Fractography showed the fractures propagated from the side of the sample closest to the explosives, the side with the highest tensile stress. There was evidence that the fractures may have propagated from the circumferential crack outward and downward radially. The EBSD results were the most informative of the characterization techniques used. EBSD provides information regarding texture, residual strain, and twinning. There was clear evidence of grain rotation as evidenced by the pole figures, the inverse pole figures and the Kernel Average Misorientation figures.

  20. Process-related risk of beryllium sensitization and disease in a copper-beryllium alloy facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine R. Schuler; Michael S. Kent; David C. Deubner; Michael T. Berakis; Michael McCawley; Paul K. Henneberger; Milton D. Rossman; Kathleen Kreiss

    2005-01-01

    Background Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), which primarily affects the lungs, occurs in sensitized beryllium-exposed individuals. At a copper-beryllium alloy strip and wire finishing facility we performed a cross-sectional survey to examine prevalences of beryllium sensitization and CBD, and relationships between sensitization and CBD and work areas\\/processes. Methods Current employees (185) were offered beryllium lymphocyte proliferation testing (BeLPT) for sensitization, clinical

  1. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herr

    1997-01-01

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough,

  2. Beryllium and the Growth of Bush Beans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan M. Romney; James D. Childress; George V. Alexander

    1962-01-01

    Beryllium in nutrient solution inhibited the growth of bush beans. The initial symptom was retarded root development. Although severe stunting of plants occurred, the foliage retained normal color. Roots accumulated beryllium. Increased beryllium concentrations decreased calcium in roots, stems, leaves, and fruits, and also decreased magnesium in roots and stems. Phosphorus was slightly increased in stems, leaves, and fruit.

  3. Neutron Yields from Americium-Beryllium Alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. J. C. Runnalls; R. R. Boucher

    1955-01-01

    THE neutron yields from two americium - beryllium alloys have been measured. The alloys were prepared by the reduction of americium trifluoride with powdered beryllium metal in vacuum, according to the reaction: The beryllium fluoride readily distilled, leaving a fluoride-free alloy.

  4. Colorimetric Method for Beryllium Surface Contamination Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    To address the need for real-time accurate total beryllium analyses, Savannah River Technology Center Analytical Development Section personnel evaluated and modified a colorimetric screening method developed at Los Alamos National Lab to measure beryllium on surfaces. This method was based on a color complex formed by beryllium and chromium azurol s . SRTC converted this visual method to a quantitative

  5. Beryllium in the Environment: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tammy P. Taylor; Mei Ding; Deborah S. Ehler; Trudi M. Foreman; John P. Kaszuba; Nancy N. Sauer

    2003-01-01

    Beryllium is an important industrial metal because of its unusual material properties: it is lighter than aluminum and six times stronger than steel. Often alloyed with other metals such as copper, beryllium is a key component of materials used in the aerospace and electronics industries. Beryllium has a small neutron cross-section, which makes it useful in the production of nuclear

  6. Primordial nucleosynthesis and the abundances of beryllium and boron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David; Schramm, David N.; Olive, Keith A.; Fields, Brian D.

    1993-01-01

    The recently attained ability to make measurements of Be and B as well as to put constraints on Li-6 abundances in metal-poor stars has led to a detailed reexamination of big bang nucleosynthesis in the A is greater than about 6 regime. The nuclear reaction network has been significantly expanded, with many new rates added. It is demonstrated that although a number of A is greater than 7 reaction rates are poorly determined, even with extreme values chosen, the standard homogeneous model is unable to produce significant yields above A = 7, and the (Li-7)/(Li-6) ratio always exceeds 500. We also preliminarily explore inhomogeneous models, such as those inspired by a first-order quark-hadron phase transition, where regions with high neutron/proton ratios can allow some leakage up to A is greater than 7. However, models that fit the A is not greater than 7 abundances still seem to have difficulty in obtaining significant A is greater than 7 yields.

  7. Beryllium and boron constraints on an early Galactic bright phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Brian D.; Schramm, David N.; Truran, James W.

    1993-01-01

    The recent observations of Be and B in metal-deficient halo dwarfs are used to constrain a 'bright phase' of enhanced cosmic-ray flux in the early Galaxy. Assuming that this Be and B arises from cosmic-ray spallation in the early Galaxy, limits are placed on the intensity of the early (Population II) cosmic-ray flux relative to the present (Population I) flux. A simple estimate of bounds on the flux ratio is 1 - 40. This upper bound would restrict galaxies like our own from producing neutrino fluxes that would be detectable in any currently proposed detectors. It is found that the relative enhancement of the early flux varies inversely with the relative time of enhancement. It is noted that associated gamma-ray production via pp - pi sup 0 pp may be a significant contribution to the gamma-ray background above 100 MeV.

  8. Beryllium and boron production in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaney, R. A.

    1993-05-01

    Studies of inhomogeneous primordial nucleosynthesis are once again generating some excitement. Rather than some new theoretical innovation, however, this new excitement arises from recent optical observations which indicate the presence of a relatively high Be abundance in the early galaxy. Although such observations are consistent with the predictions of simple inhomogeneous models, recent more sophisticated models predict Be yields which are orders of magnitude below detectable levels. We discuss here some of the caveats associated with Be production in the early universe, and argue that primordial Be yields consistent with recent observations remain a viable option. Since detectable yields of B (observable in the UV with the Hubble Space Telescope) are also predicted by inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis, primordial production of this isotope is also considered. The production of Be and B isotopes by GCR spallation is discussed, and we highlight possible means of discriminating between this more traditional mechanism and that of primordial production. We conclude that an observation of Be/B > 0.1 in the early galaxy would be a ``smoking gun'' of inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis.

  9. Cryogenic Properties of Aluminum-Beryllium and Beryllium Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were obtained for the aluminum- beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 (38%Al-62%Be), at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-32O F) and (- 252.8 C) (-423 F)) temperatures, and for an optical grade beryllium, O-30H (99%Be), at -252.8 C. AlBeMet162 material was purchased to the requirements of SAE- AMs7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions". O-30H material was purchased to the requirements of Brush Wellman Inc. specification O-30H Optical Grade Beryllium. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths for extruded AlBeMet162 material increased with decreasing temperature, and the percent elongation decreased with decreasing temperature. Design properties for the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percent elongation for extruded AlBeMetl62 were generated. It was not possible to distinguish a difference in the room and cryogenic ultimate strength for the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) O-30H material. The O-30H elongation decreased with decreasing temperature.

  10. NIFTI and DISCOS: New concepts for a compact accelerator neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Reich, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1995-06-01

    Two new concepts, NIFTI and DISCOS, are described. These concepts enable the efficient production of epithermal neutrons for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) medical treatment, utilizing a low current, low energy proton beam impacting on a lithium target. The NIFTI concept uses fluoride compounds, such as lead or beryllium fluoride, to efficiently degrade high energy neutrons from the lithium target to the lower energies required for BNCT. The fluoride compounds are in turn encased in an iron layer that strongly impedes the transmission of neutrons with energies above 24 KeV. Lower energy neutrons readily pass through this iron filter, which has a deep window in its scattering cross section at 24 KeV. The DISCOS concept uses a rapidly rotating, high g disc to create a series of thin ({approximately} 1 micron thickness) liquid lithium targets in the form of continuous films or sheets of discrete droplets--through which the proton beam passes. The average energy lost by a proton as it passes through a single target is small, approximately 10 KeV. Between the targets, the proton beam is re-accelerated by an applied DC electric field. The DISCOS approach enables the accelerator--target facility to operate with a beam energy only slightly above the threshold value for neutron production--resulting in an output beam of low-energy epithermal neutrons--while achieving a high yield of neutrons per milliamp of proton beam current. Parametric trade studies of the NIFTI and DISCOS concepts are described. These include analyses of a broad range of NIFTI designs using the Monte carlo MCNP neutronics code, as well as mechanical and thermal-hydraulic analyses of various DISCOS designs.

  11. A Reconsideration of Acute Beryllium Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Kristin J.; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Virji, M. Abbas; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Context Although chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is clearly an immune-mediated granulomatous reaction to beryllium, acute beryllium disease (ABD) is commonly considered an irritative chemical phenomenon related to high exposures. Given reported new cases of ABD and projected increased demand for beryllium, we aimed to reevaluate the patho physiologic associations between ABD and CBD using two cases identified from a survey of beryllium production facility workers. Case Presentation Within weeks after exposure to beryllium fluoride began, two workers had systemic illness characterized by dermal and respiratory symptoms and precipitous declines in pulmonary function. Symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities improved with cessation of exposure and, in one worker, recurred with repeat exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analyses and blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests revealed lymphocytic alveolitis and cellular immune recognition of beryllium. None of the measured air samples exceeded 100 ?g/m3, and most were < 10 ?g/m3, lower than usually described. In both cases, lung biopsy about 18 months after acute illness revealed noncaseating granulomas. Years after first exposure, the workers left employment because of CBD. Discussion Contrary to common understanding, these cases suggest that ABD and CBD represent a continuum of disease, and both involve hypersensitivity reactions to beryllium. Differences in disease presentation and progression are likely influenced by the solubility of the beryllium compound involved. Relevance to Practice ABD may occur after exposures lower than the high concentrations commonly described. Prudence dictates limitation of further beryllium exposure in both ABD and CBD. PMID:19672405

  12. US Beryllium Case Registry through 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Sprince, N.L.; Kazemi, H.

    1980-02-01

    A synopsis of the cases reported to the Beryllium Case Registry between 1973 and 1977 is presented. As of 1973, there were 832 cases of beryllium disease entered into the Registry. In the five years since that report, 55 additional cases have been added, 40 men and 15 women. Exposures occured in the electronics and nuclear industries in the production and use of beryllium containing alloys and beryllium oxide ceramis. Pathological changes in the lung tissue are described. Cases continue to be reported in which the diagnosis was sarcoidosis until the history of beryllium exposure led to the finding of beryllium in the lung tissue or mediastinal lymph node biopsy. Data from the Registry support the fact that chronic beryllium disease is a continued occupational hazard.

  13. Structure and Electrochemical Properties of Boron-Doped LiCoO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcántara, R.; Lavela, P.; Tirado, J. L.; Stoyanova, R.; Zhecheva, E.

    1997-12-01

    XRD, 6Li and 11B MAS NMR, IR, and EPR of low-spin Ni 3+probes were used for the structural characterization of boron-doped LiCoO 2. Up to 5 atom % boron additives were shown to dissolve in trigonal LiCoO 2. The structure of the CoO 2sandwiches remained unaffected by this treatment. The boron environment was assessed by spectroscopic analysis, which showed a distorted tetrahedral coordination. The boron-doped LiCoO 2samples were used as active electrode materials in lithium cells. Step potential electrochemical spectroscopy and galvanostatic cycling revealed that boron dopants improve the reversibility of the lithium deintercalation-intercalation process and favor lattice adaptation to lithium order-disorder in the depleted LiO 2layers.

  14. Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/boron mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, J.R.; Manos, D.; Nartowitz, E.

    1994-12-13

    A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod. 2 figures.

  15. Beryllium in the environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Tammy P; Ding, Mei; Ehler, Deborah S; Foreman, Trudi M; Kaszuba, John P; Sauer, Nancy N

    2003-02-01

    Beryllium is an important industrial metal because of its unusual material properties: it is lighter than aluminum and six times stronger than steel. Often alloyed with other metals such as copper, beryllium is a key component of materials used in the aerospace and electronics industries. Beryllium has a small neutron cross-section, which makes it useful in the production of nuclear weapons and in sealed neutron sources. Unfortunately, beryllium is one of the most toxic elements in the periodic table. It is responsible for the often-fatal lung disease, Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD) or berylliosis, and is listed as a Class A EPA carcinogen. Coal-fired power plants, industrial manufacturing and nuclear weapons production and disposal operations have released beryllium to the environment. This contamination has the potential to expose workers and the public to beryllium. Despite the increasing use of beryllium in industry, there is surprisingly little published information about beryllium fate and transport in the environment. This information is crucial for the development of strategies that limit worker and public exposure. This review summarizes the current understanding of beryllium health hazards, current regulatory mandates, environmental chemistry, geochemistry and environmental contamination. PMID:12638707

  16. Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect

    T., A. Tomberlin

    2004-11-01

    Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a “window” for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in “windows” for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed.

  17. OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Brisson, M

    2009-04-01

    Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

  18. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

    2010-06-22

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, {alpha}) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg {sup 10}B/g blood.

  19. The quest for beryllium peroxides.

    PubMed

    Berger, R J; Hartmann, M; Pyykkö, P; Sundholm, D; Schmidbaur, H

    2001-05-01

    There is no experimental proof documented in the literature for the existence of any beryllium peroxide compound. All recent pertinent preparative attempts described in this work, using a range of beryllium salts with various peroxides as reagents under mild conditions, were equally unsuccessful. (1)H and (9)Be NMR investigations of aqueous solutions containing beryllium salts and hydrogen peroxide in a broad pH range also gave no definite evidence for the presence of peroxoberyllates as components of the manifold equilibria in such solutions. Quantum chemical calculations have therefore been carried out to delineate the energetics and structures of various beryllium peroxide model compounds. Standard Hartree-Fock and density functional methods were employed at various levels of sophistication. The series of prototypes considered consists of [BeOH](+), Be(OH)(2), Be(OH)(OOH), Be(OOH)(2), [Be(O(2))(2)](2-), [BeO(2)(OH(2))(2)], and [Be(2)(O(2))(2)(OH(2))(4)] (all in the gas phase). Surprisingly, the triatomic cation [BeOH](+) has been found to have a linear structure. All the Be-O(peroxide) bonds are found to be rather long, suggesting weaker bonding compared to the Be-O bonds in aquo, hydroxo, or oxo complexes. Hydrogen peroxide or anions derived therefrom are therefore not able to compete successfully with water (hydroxide anions) in aqueous solution. In the mononuclear beryllium peroxide molecules, the peroxide groups form chelating units at tetrahedrally 4-coordinate metal atoms. The binuclear compound [Be(2)(O(2))(2)(OH(2))(4)] has a puckered six-membered-ring structure, close to the standard chair conformation. A significant lengthening of the O-O bonds upon coordination to the Be(2+) centers has been calculated, but it is unlikely that the polarization of the peroxide group by the high positive charge density at Be(2+) is significant to cause an intrinsic instability of beryllium peroxides. All structures represent distinct local minima on the potential energy surface and are predicted to be (meta)stable species in nonaqueous media. The field of aluminum peroxides is a similar gray area on the map of metal and metalloid peroxides and is reminiscent of the well-established "diagonal-relation" of Be and Al in the periodic table of the elements. PMID:11327901

  20. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    SciTech Connect

    Herr, M.

    1997-07-01

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is likely to generate dusts, mists, fumes, or small particulates. A beryllium exposure control program should minimize airborne concentrations, the potential for and spread of contamination, the number of times individuals are exposed to beryllium, and the number of employees who may be potentially exposed.

  1. Layered carbon lattices and their influence on the nature of lithium bonding in lithium intercalated carbon anodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlon, L.G.

    1998-05-27

    Ab initio molecular orbital calculations have been used to investigate the nature of lithium bonding in stage 1 lithium intercalated carbon anodes. This has been approximated by using layered carbon lattices such as coronene, (C{sub 24}H{sub 12}),anthracene, and anthracene substituted with boron. With two coronene carbon lattices forming a sandwich structure and intercalated with either 2, 3, 4 or 6 six lithiums, it has been found that the predominant mode of bonding for the lithium is at the carbon edge sites as opposed to bonding at interior carbon hexagon sites. Formation of all structures is thermodynamically allowed except for the two lithium case in which there is repulsion between the lattices. The optimized structure with six lithiums gives a reasonable approximation for the stage 1 lithium intercalated carbon anode. In this case the lithium to carbon ratio is 1:8 versus 1:6 occurring in the stage 1 graphite. The coronene lattices are eclipsed with a separation of 4.03 {angstrom}. However, there is a slight ruffling of the lattice. Separation between adjacent lithiums is either 3.32 {angstrom} or 2.98 {angstrom}. Even though the separation between lithiums is very small, composition of the molecular orbitals suggests that there is no lithium cluster formation. The highest occupied molecular orbitals are composed of a combination of lithium and carbon orbitals. In contrast, in the C{sub 60} fullerene lattice with three and five lithiums intercalated, there are molecular orbitals composed only of lithiums, indicative of cluster formation. For anthracene and boron substituted anthracene, lithium bonding takes place within the carbon hexagon sites. The separation between lithiums in a sandwich type structure with two anthracenes in the eclipsed conformation is 5.36 {angstrom}. The effect of boron in a carbon lattice has been evaluated by comparing the difference in behavior of a single anthracene lattice reacting with a dilithium cluster as compared to a 1, 4, 5, 8-tetraboroanthracene lattice. The effect of boron substitution is to increases lattice flexibility by allowing the lattice to twist and lithium to bond at adjacent hexagon sites. The thermodynamic feasibility of the reaction between the dilithium cluster and the boron substituted anthracene lattice is enhanced.

  2. MEASUREMENTS OF THE PROPERTIES OF BERYLLIUM FOIL

    SciTech Connect

    ZHAO,Y.; WANG,H.

    2000-03-31

    The electrical conductivity of beryllium at radio frequency (800 MHz) and liquid nitrogen temperature were investigated and measured. This summary addresses a collection of beryllium properties in the literature, an analysis of the anomalous skin effect, the test model, the experimental setup and improvements, MAFIA simulations, the measurement results and data analyses. The final results show that the conductivity of beryllium is not as good as indicated by the handbook, yet very close to copper at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  3. Brazing of beryllium for structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogan, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Progress made in fabricating a beryllium compression tube structure and a stiffened beryllium panel. The compression tube was 7.6cm in diameter and 30.5cm long with titanium end fittings. The panel was 203cm long and stiffened with longitudinal stringers. Both units were assembled by brazing with BAg-18 braze alloy. The detail parts were fabricated by hot forming 0.305cm beryllium sheet and the brazing parameters established.

  4. Production of hydrogen. [lithium borohydride decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Bensoam, J.; Mathey, F.; Muller, A.

    1980-03-18

    A description is given of a method of utilizing lithium borohydride for the storage and generation of hydrogen where the lithium borohydride is thermally decomposed to generate hydrogen and the remaining decomposition products (Contaning boron in free or combined form and lithium in free or combined form) are hydrogenated from a separate source of hydrogen so as to reconstitute at least partially the composition as a hydrogen reserve. A further embodiment contemplates the utilization of aluminum in the composition which lowers the reconstitution temperature and increases the hydrogen capacity of the hydrogen reserve.

  5. Beryllium Use in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-12-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) began operation in 1967. It makes use of a unique serpentine fuel core design and a beryllium reflector. Reactor control is achieved with rotating beryllium cylinders to which have been fastened plates of hafnium. Over time, the beryllium develops rather high helium content because of nuclear transmutations and begins to swell. The beryllium must be replaced at nominally 10-year intervals. Determination of when the replacement is made is by visual observation using a periscope to examine the beryllium surface for cracking and swelling. Disposition of the irradiated beryllium was once accomplished in the INL’s Radioactive Waste Management Complex, but that is no longer possible. Among contributing reasons are high levels of specific radioactive contaminants including transuranics. The INL is presently considering disposition pathways for this irradiated beryllium, but presently is storing it in the canal adjacent to the reactor. Numerous issues are associated with this situation including (1) Is there a need for ultra-low uranium material? (2) Is there a need to recover tritium from irradiated beryllium either because this is a strategic material resource or in preparation for disposal? (3) Is there a need to remove activation and fission products from irradiated beryllium? (4) Will there be enough material available to meet requirements for research reactors (fission and fusion)? In this paper will be discussed the present status of considerations on these issues.

  6. The beryllium "double standard" standard.

    PubMed

    Egilman, David S; Bagley, Sarah; Biklen, Molly; Golub, Alison Stern; Bohme, Susanna Rankin

    2003-01-01

    Brush Wellman, the world's leading producer and supplier of beryllium products, has systematically hidden cases of beryllium disease that occurred below the threshold limit value (TLV) and lied about the efficacy of the TLV in published papers, lectures, reports to government agencies, and instructional materials prepared for customers and workers. Hypocritically, Brush Wellman instituted a zero exposure standard for corporate executives while workers and customers were told the 2 microgram standard was "safe." Brush intentionally used its workers as "canaries for the plant," and referred to them as such. Internal documents and corporate depositions indicate that these actions were intentional and that the motive was money. Despite knowledge of the inadequacy of the TLV, Brush has successfully used it as a defense against lawsuits brought by injured workers and as a sales device to provide reassurance to customers. Brush's policy has reaped an untold number of victims and resulted in mass distribution of beryllium in consumer products. Such corporate malfeasance is perpetuated by the current market system, which is controlled by an organized oligopoly that creates an incentive for the neglect of worker health and safety in favor of externalizing costs to victimized workers, their families, and society at large. PMID:14758859

  7. The Boron Abundance of Tidally Locked Binaries in the Hyades Cluster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Favata

    1995-01-01

    We propose to measure the boron abundance in two short period, tidally locked binaries in the Hyades clusters, which all exhibit higher lithium abundance than Hyades stars of comparable mass and effective temperature. This observed higher lithium abundance is in agreement with the predictions of rotating stellar models combined with tidal synchronization theory. The same rotating stellar models are however

  8. Accelerator-driven boron neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgecock, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is a binary treatment for certain types of cancer. It works by loading the cancerous cells with a boron-10 carrying compound. This isotope has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the reaction producing a lithium nucleus and alpha particle that kill the cell in which they are produced. Recent studies of the boron carrier compound indicate that the uptake process works best in particularly aggressive cancers. Most studied is glioblastoma multiforme and a trial using a combination of BNCT and X-ray radiotherapy has shown an increase of nearly a factor of two in mean survival over the state of the art. However, the main technical problem with BNCT remains producing a sufficient flux of neutrons for a reasonable treatment duration in a hospital environment. This paper discusses this issue.

  9. Fracture toughness of hot-pressed beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemon, D. D.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the fracture toughness, sustained-load flaw growth, and fatigue-crack propagation resistance of S200E hot-pressed beryllium at room temperature. It also reviews the literature pertaining to the influence of various factors on the fracture toughness of hot-pressed beryllium determined using fatigue-cracked specimens.

  10. Applications of Beryllium and Its Alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. G. Naik; N. Sivasubramanian

    1994-01-01

    Whereas the beryllium metal is an ideal choice for many applications in nuclear and space technology, its alloys with copper, aluminium, nickel, titanium, oxide and beryllides are equally important and find numerous applications not only in hightech areas, but also in various other fields. This paper presents an appraisal of these uses of beryllium.

  11. Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  12. Boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Michael W. (Newport News, VA); Jordan, Kevin (Newport News, VA); Park, Cheol (Yorktown, VA)

    2012-06-06

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  13. BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES

    SciTech Connect

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-02-18

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  14. Use of Beryllium and Beryllium Oxide in Space Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, L. L.; Zinkle, S. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, OakRidge, TN 37831-6138 (United States)

    2005-02-06

    Beryllium and beryllium oxide are attractive candidate materials for neutron reflector application in space reactors due to their beneficial combination of low density and high neutron moderation and reflection capabilities. Drawbacks to their use include the expense of working with toxic materials, a limited industrial infrastructure, and material properties that are challenging in the non-irradiated state and seriously degrade under neutron irradiation. As an example of neutron effects, mechanical properties degrade under relevant conditions to the point where encasement in structural alloys is necessary. Such measures are required if neutron fluence exceeds {approx}1x1024 n/m2 (E>0.1 MeV). At high temperatures (>500 deg. C for Be and >600 deg. C for BeO), irradiation-induced swelling may also limit the maximum allowable dose without additional engineering measures. Significant volumetric swelling (>5%) can occur in these materials during neutron irradiation at elevated temperatures for neutron fluences above 1x1025 n/m2. This paper will review Be and BeO fabrication considerations, and summarize the effects of neutron irradiation on material properties.

  15. Dose point kernel for boron-11 decay and the cellular S values in boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunzhi; Geng, JinPeng; Gao, Song; Bao, Shanglian

    2006-12-01

    The study of the radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy is based on the cellular level dosimetry of boron-10's thermal neutron capture reaction 10B(n,alpha)7Li, in which one 1.47 MeV helium-4 ion and one 0.84 MeV lithium-7 ion are spawned. Because of the chemical preference of boron-10 carrier molecules, the dose is heterogeneously distributed in cells. In the present work, the (scaled) dose point kernel of boron-11 decay, called 11B-DPK, was calculated by GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code. The DPK curve drops suddenly at the radius of 4.26 microm, the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) range of a lithium-7 ion. Then, after a slight ascending, the curve decreases to near zero when the radius goes beyond 8.20 microm, which is the CSDA range of a 1.47 MeV helium-4 ion. With the DPK data, S values for nuclei and cells with the boron-10 on the cell surface are calculated for different combinations of cell and nucleus sizes. The S value for a cell radius of 10 microm and a nucleus radius of 5 microm is slightly larger than the value published by Tung et al. [Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 739-743 (2004)]. This result is potentially more accurate than the published value since it includes the contribution of a lithium-7 ion as well as the alpha particle. PMID:17278826

  16. Beryllium Recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Larry D.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

  17. Beryllium recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Larry D.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

  18. Patch testing with beryllium alloy samples in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Zissu, D; Binet, S; Cavelier, C

    1996-03-01

    An experimental study was conducted in guinea pigs for the predictive assessment of the beryllium alloy hazard in occupational exposure of the skin to beryllium compounds. Guinea pigs were sensitized to beryllium sulfate according to the maximized Magnusson and Kligman test, and challenged with beryllium alloys and metallic copper, beryllium and aluminum samples. Results showed a delayed skin hypersensitivity reaction in 30 to 60% of pre-sensitized guinea pigs challenged with copper-beryllium alloys and aluminum-beryllium alloy. An inflammatory follicular reaction was induced by copper in both controls and pre-sensitized guinea pigs. PMID:8833464

  19. Beryllium abundances in parent stars of extrasolar planets: 16 Cyg A & B and rho 1 Cnc

    E-print Network

    R. J. Garcia Lopez; M. R. Perez de Taoro

    1998-03-03

    The Be II 3131 A doublet has been observed in the solar-type stars 16 Cyg A & B and in the late G-type star rho 1 Cnc, to derive their beryllium abundances. 16 Cyg A & B show similar (solar) beryllium abundances while 16 Cyg B, which has been proposed to have a planetary companion of ~2 M_Jup, is known to be depleted in lithium by a factor larger than 6 with respect to 16 Cyg A. Differences in their rotational histories which could induce different rates of internal mixing of material, and the ingestion of a similar planet by 16 Cyg A are discussed as potential explanations. The existence of two other solar-type stars which are candidates to harbour planetary-mass companions and which show lithium and beryllium abundances close to those of 16 Cyg A, requires a more detailed inspection of the peculiarities of the 16 Cyg system. For rho 1 Cnc, which is the coolest known object candidate to harbour a planetary-mass companion (M > 0.85 M_Jup), we establish a precise upper limit for its beryllium abundance, showing a strong Be depletion which constrains the available mixing mechanisms. Observations of similar stars without companions are required to asses the potential effects of the planetary companion on the observed depletion. It has been recently claimed that rho 1 Cnc appears to be a subgiant. If this were the case, the observed strong Li and Be depletions could be explained by a dilution process taking place during its post-main sequence evolution.

  20. Beryllium at Argonne East, past and present

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, J.L.; Davis, J.T.

    1998-07-01

    The focus of this presentation is the present activities at Argonne related to the control of beryllium exposure. However, since present activities involve some of the past uses of beryllium, the authors will review briefly the history as they have been able to resurrect it from records, memory and interviews with some of the people involved. The goal of the program is to identify past contaminated areas for remedial action, identify employees with past and current exposure who may benefit from additional medical monitoring and provide guidance and support so that any ongoing activities involving beryllium can be conducted safely.

  1. Accelerator-based epithermal neutron sources for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Blue, Thomas E; Yanch, Jacquelyn C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of low-energy light ion accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs) for the treatment of brain tumors through an intact scalp and skull using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A major advantage of an ABNS for BNCT over reactor-based neutron sources is the potential for siting within a hospital. Consequently, light-ion accelerators that are injectors to larger machines in high-energy physics facilities are not considered. An ABNS for BNCT is composed of: (1) the accelerator hardware for producing a high current charged particle beam, (2) an appropriate neutron-producing target and target heat removal system (HRS), and (3) a moderator/reflector assembly to render the flux energy spectrum of neutrons produced in the target suitable for patient irradiation. As a consequence of the efforts of researchers throughout the world, progress has been made on the design, manufacture, and testing of these three major components. Although an ABNS facility has not yet been built that has optimally assembled these three components, the feasibility of clinically useful ABNSs has been clearly established. Both electrostatic and radio frequency linear accelerators of reasonable cost (approximately 1.5 M dollars) appear to be capable of producing charged particle beams, with combinations of accelerated particle energy (a few MeV) and beam currents (approximately 10 mA) that are suitable for a hospital-based ABNS for BNCT. The specific accelerator performance requirements depend upon the charged particle reaction by which neutrons are produced in the target and the clinical requirements for neutron field quality and intensity. The accelerator performance requirements are more demanding for beryllium than for lithium as a target. However, beryllium targets are more easily cooled. The accelerator performance requirements are also more demanding for greater neutron field quality and intensity. Target HRSs that are based on submerged-jet impingement and the use of microchannels have emerged as viable target cooling options. Neutron fields for reactor-based neutron sources provide an obvious basis of comparison for ABNS field quality. This paper compares Monte Carlo calculations of neutron field quality for an ABNS and an idealized standard reactor neutron field (ISRNF). The comparison shows that with lithium as a target, an ABNS can create a neutron field with a field quality that is significantly better (by a factor of approximately 1.2, as judged by the relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-dose that can be delivered to a tumor at a depth of 6cm) than that for the ISRNF. Also, for a beam current of 10 mA, the treatment time is calculated to be reasonable (approximately 30 min) for the boron concentrations that have been assumed. PMID:12749700

  2. Liquid lithium for high power density fragmentation targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolen, J. A.; Reed, C. B.; Hassanein, A.; Morrissey, D. J.; Ottarson, J. H.; Sherrill, B. M.

    2001-10-01

    Windowless liquid lithium targets for in-flight fragmentation or fission of high power heavy ion beams are being developed for the U.S. RIA project. With uranium beam power of 100 kW and a beam spot diameter of 1 mm the power density in the target is over 1 MW/cm3. Thermal analysis for this example indicates a very low peak temperature for the lithium when flowing at a linear velocity of 10 m/s. A vacuum test chamber is under construction at Argonne at an existing liquid lithium facility to demonstrate a 2 cm thick windowless target. As a first step towards using liquid lithium target technology at a nuclear physics fragmentation facility, a lower power target is being constructed for use at the NSCL. This target will use beryllium windows with flowing lithium. It is designed for beams between oxygen and calcium with beam power above 3 kW. The tapered beryllium windows are each 1 mm thick for the calcium beams and 7 mm thick for the oxygen beams. The lithium is 5 mm thick. This gives an overall target thickness ranging from about 1 g/cm2 to 3 g/cm2 which is adjusted by moving the target vertically. The designs of these targets and the status of the prototypes will be discussed.

  3. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  4. Nitrogen reactivity toward beryllium: surface reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouche, A.

    2013-06-01

    Recent experiments with nitrogen as a seeding gas in fusion plasma devices together with the option of using beryllium as an armor material in the future ITER tokamak (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) have raised new interest in the interactions of beryllium surfaces with nitrogen (atomic or molecular). The strong reactivity of nitrogen implies the formation of beryllium nitrite and, in conjunction with oxygen and other possible impurities, experimentalists have to consider the probability of generating various complex moieties such as imine, amine or oxyamine, and amide radicals. This chemistry would obviously dramatically perturb the plasma, and quantum investigations can be of great predictive help. Nitrogen adsorption on beryllium basal surfaces is investigated through quantum density functional theory. Different situations are examined: molecular or atomic nitrogen reactions; nitride radical adsorption or formation on surfaces; hydrogen retention on surfaces; combined nitrogen/oxygen reactivity and hydrogen retention. A tentative comparison with experiment is also proposed.

  5. Fabrication of boron articles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benton

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to the fabrication of boron articles by a powder metallurgical method wherein the articles are of a density close to the theoretical density of boron and are essentially crackfree. The method comprises the steps of admixing 1 to 10 weight percent carbon powder with amorphous boron powder, cold pressing the mixture and then hot pressing the

  6. Transgenic Mouse Model of Chronic Beryllium Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Terry

    2009-05-26

    Animal models provide powerful tools for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new treatment paradigms. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships is severely limited by a general inability to develop a sufficient chronic beryllium disease animal model. Discovery of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) - DPB1Glu69 genetic susceptibility component of chronic beryllium disease permitted the addition of this human beryllium antigen presentation molecule to an animal genome which may permit development of a better animal model for chronic beryllium disease. Using FVB/N inbred mice, Drs. Rubin and Zhu, successfully produced three strains of HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 transgenic mice. Each mouse strain contains a haplotype of the HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 gene that confers a different magnitude of odds ratio (OR) of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR = 240). In addition, Drs. Rubin and Zhu developed transgenic mice with the human CD4 gene to permit better transmission of signals between T cells and antigen presenting cells. This project has maintained the colonies of these transgenic mice and tested the functionality of the human transgenes.

  7. BERYLLIUM CONCENTRATION IN THE AIR OF A BERYLLIUM ALLOY HANDLING FACTORY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Hara; A. Hamada; K. Nozaki; H. Sakabe

    1958-01-01

    Electrostatic precipitators are used to measure the concentration of ; beryllium dust in the air during various phases of cutting and melting ; operations; filter-paper type dust collectors are used to measure the ; concentration at different times of the day. Collected dust particles are ; analyzed by measuring the fluorescence of beryllium due to irradiation by ; ultraviolet rays.

  8. Lithium nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Azab, Abed N; Shnaider, Alla; Osher, Yamima; Wang, Dana; Bersudsky, Yuly; Belmaker, R H

    2015-12-01

    Reports of toxic effects on the kidney of lithium treatment emerged very soon after lithium therapy was introduced. Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is usually self-limiting or not clinically dangerous. Some reports of irreversible chronic kidney disease and renal failure were difficult to attribute to lithium treatment since chronic kidney disease and renal failure exist in the population at large. In recent years, large-scale epidemiological studies have convincingly shown that lithium treatment elevates the risk of chronic kidney disease and renal failure. Most patients do not experience renal side effects. The most common side effect of polyuria only weakly predicts increasing creatinine or reduced kidney function. Among those patients who do experience decrease in creatinine clearance, some may require continuation of lithium treatment even as their creatinine increases. Other patients may be able to switch to a different mood stabilizer medication, but kidney function may continue to deteriorate even after lithium cessation. Most, but not all, evidence today recommends using a lower lithium plasma level target for long-term maintenance and thereby reducing risks of severe nephrotoxicity. PMID:26043842

  9. Structure and reactivity of boron-ate complexes derived from primary and secondary boronic esters.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Kathryn; Berionni, Guillaume; Mayr, Herbert; Aggarwal, Varinder K

    2015-06-01

    Boron-ate complexes derived from primary and secondary boronic esters and aryllithiums have been isolated, and the kinetics of their reactions with carbenium ions studied. The second-order rate constants have been used to derive nucleophilicity parameters for the boron-ate complexes, revealing that nucleophilicity increased with (i) electron-donating aromatics on boron, (ii) neopentyl glycol over pinacol boronic esters, and (iii) 12-crown-4 ether. PMID:25973673

  10. Properties of boron/boron-nitride multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A.F.; Wall, M.A.; Hayes, J.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Alexander, K.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Boron-Nitride films are of interest for their high hardness and wear resistance. Large intrinsic stresses and poor adhesion which often accompany high hardness materials can be moderated through the use of a layered structure. Alternate layers of boron (B) and boron-nitride (BN) are formed by modulating the composition of the sputter gas during deposition from a pure B target. The thin films are characterized with TEM to evaluate the microstructure and with nanoindentation to determine hardness. Layer pair spacing and continuity effects on hardness are evaluated for the B/BN films.

  11. Precipitation of Boron in Highly Boron-Doped Silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ichiro Mizushima; Yuichiro Mitani; Mitsuo Koike; Masahiko Yoshiki; Mitsuhiro Tomita; Sigeru Kambayashi

    1998-01-01

    The clustering of boron in highly boron-doped silicon and its influence on electrical deactivation are reported. Highly boron-doped crystalline silicon was fabricated as a starting material by solid phase epitaxy of boron-doped amorphous silicon films. Boron can be supersaturated in the crystallized samples annealed at a low temperature of about 600°C. A lot of precipitates, containing clustered boron, were observed

  12. Age hardening in beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Carter; A. C. McGeorge; L. A. Jacobson; P. W. Stanek

    1996-01-01

    Three different alloys of beryllium-aluminum-silver were processed to powder by centrifugal atomization in a helium atmosphere. Alloy compositions were, by weight percent, Be?47.5Al?2.5Ag, Be?47Al?3Ag, and Be?46Al?4Ag. Due to the low solubility of both aluminum and silver in beryllium, the silver was concentrated in the aluminum phase, which separates from the beryllium in the liquid phase. A fine, continuous composite beryllium-aluminum

  13. Chronic beryllium disease: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Rossman, M D

    1996-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease is predominantly a pulmonary granulomatosis that was originally described in 1946. Symptoms usually include dyspnea and cough. Fever, anorexia, and weight loss are common. Skin lesions are the most common extrathoracic manifestation. Granulomatous hepatitis, hypercalcemia, and kidney stones can also occur. Radiographic and physiologic abnormalities are similar to those in sarcoidosis. While traditionally the pathologic changes included granulomas and cellular interstitial changes, the hallmark of the disease today is the well-formed granuloma. Immunologic studies have demonstrated a cell-mediated response to beryllium that is due to an accumulation of CD4+ T cells at the site of disease activity. Diagnosis depends on the demonstration of pathologic changes (i.e., granuloma) and evidence that the granuloma was caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium (i.e., positive lung proliferative response to beryllium). Using these criteria, the diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease can now be made before the onset of clinical symptoms. Whether, with early diagnosis, the natural course of this condition will be the same as when it was traditionally diagnosed is not known. Currently, corticosteroids are used to treat patients with significant symptoms or evidence of progressive disease. PMID:8933039

  14. Chronic beryllium disease: Diagnosis and management

    SciTech Connect

    Rossman, M.D. [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Chronic beryllium disease is predominantly a pulmonary granulomatosis that was originally described in 1946. Symptoms usually include dyspnea and cough. Fever, anorexia, and weight loss are common. Skin lesions are the most common extrathoracic manifestation. Granulomatous hepatitis, hypercalcemia, and kidney stones can also occur. Radiographic and physiologic abnormalities are similar to those in sarcoidosis. While traditionally the pathologic changes included granulomas and cellular interstitial changes, the hallmark of the disease today is the well-formed granuloma. Immunologic studies have demonstrated a cell-mediated response to beryllium that is due to an accumulation of CD4{sup +} T cells at the site of disease activity. Diagnosis depends on the demonstration of pathologic changes (i.e., granuloma) and evidence that the granuloma was caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium (i.e., positive lung proliferative response to beryllium). Using these criteria, the diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease can now be made before the onset of clinical symptoms. Whether, with early diagnosis, the natural course of this condition will be the same as when it was traditionally diagnosed is not known. Currently, corticosteroids are used to treat patients with significant symptoms or evidence of progressive disease. 21 refs.

  15. Target and filter concepts for accelerator-driven boron neutron capture therapy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Reich, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1999-01-01

    Two new accelerator target and neutron filter concepts are proposed for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to enable production efficiencies for epithermal neutrons (i.e., neutrons leaving the treatment port and neutrons generated in the target) of {approximately}5 to 10%. These efficiencies are much greater than in previous designs and allow BNCT facilities to use near-term, low-current ({approximately}5 mA) proton accelerators. Two target/filter designs are described and their neutronic performance analyzed. In NIFTI-1, epithermal neutrons (maximum energy of {approximately}100 keV) are generated by a proton beam that is maintained slightly above the 1,889-MeV threshold for the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. As the proton beam passes through the DISCOS target, which consists of a sequential series (e.g., total of 80) of very thin (several microns) liquid-lithium films on ultrathin rotating beryllium metal foils, the protons are reaccelerated by an applied direct-current field between the foils. This reacceleration enables a high total neutron yield, {approximately}10{sup {minus}4} neutrons/proton. The NIFTI-1 neutron filter, a highly scattering cross-section layer of iron-magnesium, located between the target and the treatment port, impedes neutron transmission for energies >24 keV, but it has a deep window in the scattering cross section at 24 keV. Scattering in the filter and an accompanying thin ({approximately}1 cm) hydrogenous neutron downshifter yield a neutron output beam with an average energy of {approximately}10 to 20 keV. In the NIFTI-2 design, a single thick lithium target is used, with a proton beam energy ({approximately}2.5 MeV) well above the (p,n) threshold. Although the neutron yield from the target is high, {approximately}1010{sup {minus}4} neutrons/proton, their energy is much greater (maximum of {approximately}800 keV) than in NIFTI-1. The high-energy neutrons inelastically scatter in a fluorine-containing material (BeF{sub 2}/PbF{sub 2}) placed between the target and the NIFTI filter. The neutron beam out of the treatment port has an average energy of {approximately}30 keV. The effectiveness of the two designs for BNCT treatment is analyzed. Both exhibit good penetration in tissue (advantage depth) and tumor/healthy tissue dose (relative biological effectiveness advantage ratio) performance.

  16. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Cancer: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf F. Barth; Jeffrey A. Coderre; M. GraaH

    2005-01-01

    Background: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) isbased on the nuclear reaction that occurswhen boron-10 isirradiated with low-energy thermal neutronsto yield high linear energy transferA particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT hasfocused primarily on the treatment of high-grade gliomas and either cutaneous primaries or cerebral metastases of mel- anoma, most recently, head and neck and liver cancer. Neutron

  17. [Chronic Beryllium disease after exposure to low-beryllium-content copper].

    PubMed

    Hasejima, N; Kobayashi, H; Takezawa, S; Yamato, K; Kadoyama, C; Kawano, Y

    1995-10-01

    A 24-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of exertional dyspnea and abnormal shadows on chest X-ray film. He worked in a factory, where he was exposed to 1.8% beryllium-copper alloys. His job was to draw out heated beryllium-copper wire to make it more fine. Chest X-ray film and chest CT scan showed left-sided pneumothorax, diffuse fine reticulonodular shadows, and several cysts. Pulmonary-function tests showed a restrictive disorder and a low diffusing capacity. A specimen obtained by open-lung biopsy showed epithelioid cell granuloma and alveolitis, which were compatible with chronic beryllium disease. The beryllium content of the lung tissue was 0.045 microgram/gram. Beryllium lymphocyte transformation tests on blood and on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were positive. Based on these findings, chronic beryllium disease was diagnosed. After treatment with 1 mg/kg of prednisolone daily, dyspnea disappeared. Then the dose was tapered slowly. In Japan, chronic beryllium disease is extremely rare, and to our knowledge only 22 other cases have been reported. PMID:8544383

  18. Evaluation of three beryllium sequestering agents by isothermal titration calorimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chadi H. Stephan; Michel Fournier; Pauline Brousseau

    Occupational exposure to beryllium may cause Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD), a granulomatous interstitial pneumonitis. Molecular epidemiological studies indicate charge interaction between beryllium and a specific MHC class II human leukocyte antigen as a factor in disease susceptibility. Therefore, increased research efforts are focusing on the development of a CBD treatment by chelation therapy. In this work, we use direct and

  19. REVIEWS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS: VI. BERYLLIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a review of the scientific literature on the biological and environmental effects of beryllium. Included in the review are a general summary and a comprehensive discussion of the following topics as related to beryllium and specific beryllium compounds: physical and...

  20. Beryllium and the growth of the bush beans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Romney; J. D. Childress; G. V. Alexander

    1962-01-01

    Beryllium in nutrient solution inhibited the growth of bush beans. The initial symptom was retarded root development. Although severe stunting of plants occurred, the foliage retained normal color. Roots accumulated beryllium. Increased beryllium concentrations decreased calcium in roots, stems, leaves, and fruits, and also decreased magnesium in roots and stems. Phosphorus was slightly increased in stems, leaves, and fruit.

  1. High Pressure-High Temperature Phase Diagram of Beryllium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Lipp; B. J. Baer; H. Cynn; Z. Jenei; J.-H. Klepeis; W. J. Evans; H.-P. Liermann; Y. Meng; S. V. Sinogeikin; W. Yang; A. Lazicki; Y. Ohishi

    2009-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the phase diagram of beryllium and its alloys impacts fundamental science and technological applications. Despite a simple atomic structure, theoretical modeling of the phase diagram of beryllium has been extremely challenging and remains an area of active investigation [Kadas, ,PRB 07]. Extension of the experimental understanding of beryllium will serve to inform and advance theoretical efforts

  2. Clearance, translocation, and excretion of beryllium following acute inhalation of beryllium oxide by beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, G.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Hoover, M.D.; Eidson, A.F.; Haley, P.J.; Bice, D.E. (Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Beagle dogs inhaled radiolabeled beryllium oxide (7BeO) particles that were calcined at either 500 or 1000 degrees C, resulting in either high (mean of 50 micrograms/kg body wt) or low (mean of 17 micrograms/kg body wt) initial lung burdens (ILBs) of both preparations of BeO. Levels of beryllium in whole body, tissue, and excreta were measured by external gamma-ray counting. Dogs were euthanized in pairs at 8, 32, 64, and 180 days after exposure to determine beryllium distribution in tissues. Beryllium oxide calcined at 1000 degrees C was retained more tenaciously in the lungs (62% of the ILB retained at 180 days after exposure) than BeO calcined at 500{degree}C (14% of the ILB retained at 180 days after exposure). Most of the beryllium that was cleared from the lungs and not excreted was translocated to the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, skeleton, liver, and blood. More beryllium was translocated to the skeleton and liver at 180 days after inhalation of BeO prepared at 500{degree}C than at 1000{degree}C. The predominant mode of excretion at early times after exposure was through the feces, with urinary excretion assuming predominance at later times. These data are important for interpreting the toxic effects of beryllium in the exposed dogs. Furthermore, because little is known concerning the retention and clearance of inhaled beryllium in man, these results provide information that may be used to understand the disposition of beryllium in accidentally exposed humans.

  3. Nuclear Transmutations in HFIR's Beryllium Reflector and Their Impact on Reactor Operation and Reflector Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, David [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Proctor, Larry Duane [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory utilizes a large cylindrical beryllium reflector that is subdivided into three concentric regions and encompasses the compact reactor core. Nuclear transmutations caused by neutron activation occur in the beryllium reflector regions, which leads to unwanted neutron absorbing and radiation emitting isotopes. During the past year, two topics related to the HFIR beryllium reflector were reviewed. The first topic included studying the neutron poison (helium-3 and lithium-6) buildup in the reflector regions and its affect on beginning-of-cycle reactivity. A new methodology was developed to predict the reactivity impact and estimated symmetrical critical control element positions as a function of outage time between cycles due to helium-3 buildup and was shown to be in better agreement with actual symmetrical critical control element position data than the current methodology. The second topic included studying the composition of the beryllium reflector regions at discharge as well as during decay to assess the viability of transporting, storing, and ultimately disposing the reflector regions currently stored in the spent fuel pool. The post-irradiation curie inventories were used to determine whether the reflector regions are discharged as transuranic waste or become transuranic waste during the decay period for disposal purposes and to determine the nuclear hazard category, which may affect the controls invoked for transportation and temporary storage. Two of the reflector regions were determined to be transuranic waste at discharge and the other region was determined to become transuranic waste in less than 2 years after being discharged due to the initial uranium content (0.0044 weight percent uranium). It was also concluded that all three of the reflector regions could be classified as nuclear hazard category 3 (potential for localized consequences only).

  4. Alloying of aluminum-beryllium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanova, L. V.; Ilyushin, V. N.

    2013-01-01

    The existing phase diagrams of Al-Be- X alloys, where X is an alloying element, are analyzed. Element X is noted to poorly dissolve in both aluminum and beryllium. It is shown that the absence of intermetallic compounds in the Al-Be system affects the phase equilibria in an Al-Be- X system. Possible phase equilibria involving phases based on aluminum, beryllium, and intermetallic compounds are proposed, and the types of strengthening of Al-Be alloys by an addition of a third element are classified.

  5. Beryllium window for synchrotron light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, D.R.; Berman, L.; Montanez, P.; Pjerov, S.; Stefan, P.; Woodle, M.

    1996-10-01

    As part of an on-going upgrade program at the National Synchrotron Light Source, a parametric study of rectangular flat and curved beryllium windows of varying thickness and heights and under varying thermal loading was undertaken. The study consisted of a series of 2D and 3D thermal stress finite element analyses to determine the relative benefit of various combinations of parameters with respect to the windows` ability to withstand thermal loads. This study includes evaluation of fixed versus flexible mounting of flat and curved beryllium windows. Buckling analyses for both types of mountings are also included.

  6. Preliminary results for explosion bonding of beryllium to copper

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, D.J. [Northwest Technical Industries, Inc., Sequim, WA (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This program was undertaken to determine if explosive bonding is a viable technique for joining beryllium to copper substrates. The effort was a cursory attempt at trying to solve some of the problems associated with explosive bonding beryllium and should not be considered a comprehensive research effort. There are two issues that this program addressed. Can beryllium be explosive bonded to copper substrates and can the bonding take place without shattering the beryllium? Thirteen different explosive bonding iterations were completed using various thicknesses of beryllium that were manufactured with three different techniques.

  7. Synthesis of hexagonal boron carbonitride phase by solvothermal method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu Lin Huang; Chuan Bao Cao; Xu Xiang; Rui Tao Lv; He Sun Zhu

    2004-01-01

    A solvothermal reaction of CH3CN·BCl3 and lithium nitride (Li3N) using benzene as the solvent has been successfully applied to prepare boron carbonitride at 300 °C and less than about 7 MPa. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are used to confirm their chemical composition and atomic-level hybrid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron diffraction (TED) analysis

  8. Radiation damage and defect behavior in ion-implanted, lithium counterdoped silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    Boron doped silicon n+p solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implanation and the resultant n+p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. The function of fluence and a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) was studied to correlate defect behavior with cell performance. It was found that the lithium counterdoped cells exhibited significantly increased radiation resistance when compared to boron doped control cells. It is concluded that the annealing behavior is controlled by dissociation and recombination of defects. The DLTS studies show that counterdoping with lithium eliminates at least three deep level defects and results in three new defects. It is speculated that the increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is due primarily to the interaction of lithium with oxygen, single vacancies and divacancies and that the lithium-oxygen interaction is the most effective in contributing to the increased radiation resistance.

  9. Dose point kernel for boron-11 decay and the cellular S values in boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Yunzhi; Geng Jinpeng; Gao Song; Bao Shanglian [Research Center for Tumor Diagnosis and Radiotherapy Physics and Laboratory of Medical Physics and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Nuclear Physics, Chinese Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing, 102413 (China); Research Center for Tumor Diagnosis and Radiotherapy Physics and Laboratory of Medical Physics and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2006-12-15

    The study of the radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy is based on the cellular level dosimetry of boron-10's thermal neutron capture reaction {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li, in which one 1.47 MeV helium-4 ion and one 0.84 MeV lithium-7 ion are spawned. Because of the chemical preference of boron-10 carrier molecules, the dose is heterogeneously distributed in cells. In the present work, the (scaled) dose point kernel of boron-11 decay, called {sup 11}B-DPK, was calculated by GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code. The DPK curve drops suddenly at the radius of 4.26 {mu}m, the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) range of a lithium-7 ion. Then, after a slight ascending, the curve decreases to near zero when the radius goes beyond 8.20 {mu}m, which is the CSDA range of a 1.47 MeV helium-4 ion. With the DPK data, S values for nuclei and cells with the boron-10 on the cell surface are calculated for different combinations of cell and nucleus sizes. The S value for a cell radius of 10 {mu}m and a nucleus radius of 5 {mu}m is slightly larger than the value published by Tung et al. [Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 739-743 (2004)]. This result is potentially more accurate than the published value since it includes the contribution of a lithium-7 ion as well as the alpha particle.

  10. Solvent removal of beryllium from surfaces of equipment made of beryllium copper.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, A; Turcotte, V; Golshahi, H; Viau, S; Perrault, G; Dion, C

    2009-06-01

    Exposure to beryllium compounds, both by inhalation and skin contact, may result in immune sensitization and chronic beryllium disease. The objective of the present research work was to study the feasibility of removing beryllium compounds from the surfaces of devices made of Be-Cu alloy and to estimate the frequency at which the surfaces had to be rubbed in order to evaluate the likelihood that beryllium can be removed from the surfaces by serial wipe sampling at concentrations exceeding the US Department of Energy (DOE) standard limit of 0.2 microg per 100 cm2. The standard limit was exceeded after successive cleanings of moulds and plates made of Be-Cu alloy with solvents such Citranox, an acidic solvent, Alconox, Z-99 and Fantastik, basic solvents, or more neutral solvents such as Luminox and water. Citranox was the best solvent for extracting beryllium from the tested surfaces, while Alconox seemed to be the second best one. In general, warm water, Luminox and Z-99 seemed to be less efficient for extracting Be from all equipment. The results of the present study suggest that Ghost Wipes, when passed across a surface under the firm pressure of an individual's hand, can be used to detect beryllium contamination. However, they seem to show low reliability for quantification. From a safety standpoint in occupational settings, workers should be offered skin protection and respiratory protection if they have to handle devices made of Be-Cu alloy. PMID:19254960

  11. Boron Deficiency in Tea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Chenery

    1958-01-01

    TEA must be the last commodity crop to show a need for boron. This is probably due to its low calcium requirement and to the fact that tea gardens are very rarely limed. The boron deficiency syndrome first appeared accidentally in a pot experiment testing five different soils for natural potassium uptake. All plants in two soils when they were

  12. Hydrogen trapping by yttrium in low temperature lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantatmula, R. P.; Katsuta, Hiroji

    1984-05-01

    A test to determine the lithium compatibility and impurity gettering capabilities of various materials including yttrium was performed in Beryllium-7 Experimental Lithium Loop (7BELL) at 270°C. Yttrium coupons were exposed in liquid lithium for a total of 3,718 hours. X-ray diffraction and bulk chemical analysis data indicated that yttrium absorbs hydrogen from liquid lithium at 270°C and transforms to yttrium dihydride (YH 2). The transformation of yttrium to YH 2 resulted in embrittlement of the coupons and subsequent fragmentation to small pieces. Additional analysis, based on the equilibrium hydrogen pressures for the transition of yttrium to YH 2, and Sievert's relationship for hydrogen in equilibrium with hydrogen in lithium, indicates that the temperature of yttrium cannot exceed 280°C to control the hydrogen concentration in lithium at below 1 wt ppm. It is concluded in general that yttrium in sponge form is a good getter for removal of hydrogen isotopes from the lithium blanket of a fusion reactor at or below 280°C, which is in excellent agreement with the results of previous authors.

  13. Possibility for irradiated beryllium at CERN

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    possibilities exists at CERN to obtain irradiated beryllium for testing: beam windows, and in particular 6 sec. (fast extraction) SPS primary targets, used for secondary beam production for test beams-line, just in front of the CNGS target shielding assembly March 2011 before start-up (after 1.434*1020 POT

  14. Status of beryllium development for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Donne, M.D. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Institut fuer Neutronphysik and Reaktortechnik; Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G. [McMaster Univ., Ontario, CA (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics

    1994-05-01

    Beryllium is a leading candidate material for the neutron multiplier of tritium breeding blankets and the plasma facing component of first wall and divertor systems. Depending on the application, the fabrication methods proposed include hot-pressing, hot-isostatic-pressing, cold isostatic pressing/sintering, rotary electrode processing and plasma spraying. Product forms include blocks, tubes, pebbles, tiles and coatings. While, in general, beryllium is not a leading structural material candidate, its mechanical performance, as well its performance with regard to sputtering, heat transport, tritium retention/release, helium-induced swelling and chemical compatibility, is an important consideration in first-wall/blanket design. Differential expansion within the beryllium causes internal stresses which may result in cracking, thereby affecting the heat transport and barrier performance of the material. Overall deformation can result in loading of neighboring structural material. Thus, in assessing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications, it is important to have a good database in all of these performance areas, as well as a set of properties correlations and models for the purpose of interpolation/extrapolation.

  15. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF MAGNESIUM-BERYLLIUM ALLOYS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. F. Ercko; E. V. Lifshitz; V. G. Konovalov; I. G. Dubinsky; N. I. Bugayeva

    1961-01-01

    The methods of spectral analysis of magnesiumberyllium alloys are ; considered. Beryllium (basic addition), aluminium, zirconium, and calcium were ; alloying additions. Copper, iron, and nickel were determined as noxious ; impurities. The determination of the impurities was carried out both by method ; of solution of a sample and by direct analysis of metal specimens. The ; determined concentration

  16. Deformation of a beryllium-aluminum composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Harold Carter

    1999-01-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of beryllium, especially the combination of low density and high elastic modulus, make it an attractive candidate for a structural material. Intrinsic problems exist with Be as a monolithic material, as its structural behavior is complex due to its hexagonal close-packed crystal structure. Therefore, great value may be found in investigating composites of Be, such

  17. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  18. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1998-06-16

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 8 figs.

  19. Microwave sintering of boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

    1988-06-10

    A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

  20. Synthesis of lithium nitride for neutron production target of BNCT by in situ lithium deposition and ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, S.; Baba, Y.; Fujii, R.; Nakamura, M.; Imahori, Y.

    2012-12-01

    To achieve high performance of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) device, Li3N/Li/Pd/Cu four layered Li target was designed and the structures of the synthesized four layered target were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. For the purpose of avoiding the radiation blistering and lithium evaporation, in situ vacuum deposition and nitridation techniques were established for in situ production and repairing maintenance of the lithium target. Following conclusions were derived: Uniform lithium layer of a few hundreds nanometer was formed on Pd/Cu multilayer surface by in situ vacuum deposition technique using metallic lithium as a source material. Lithium nitrides were formed by in situ nitridation reaction by the implantation of low-energy nitrogen ions on the deposited lithium layer surface. The chemical states of the nitridated zone were close to the stoichiometric lithium nitride, Li3N. This nitridated zone formed on surface of four layered lithium target is stable for a long time in air condition. The in situ nitridation is effective to protect lithium target from degradation by unfavorable reactions.

  1. Risks of beryllium disease related to work processes at a metal, alloy, and oxide production plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Kreiss; M M Mroz; B Zhen; H Wiedemann; B Barna

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe relative hazards in sectors of the beryllium industry, risk factors of beryllium disease and sensitisation related to work process were sought in a beryllium manufacturing plant producing pure metal, oxide, alloys, and ceramics. METHODS: All 646 active employees were interviewed; beryllium sensitisation was ascertained with the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation blood test on 627 employees; clinical evaluation and

  2. Historical analysis of airborne beryllium concentrations at a copper beryllium machining facility (1964-2000).

    PubMed

    McAtee, B L; Donovan, E P; Gaffney, S H; Frede, W; Knutsen, J S; Paustenbach, D J

    2009-06-01

    Copper beryllium alloys are the most commonly used form of beryllium; however, there have been few studies assessing occupational exposure in facilities that worked exclusively with this alloy versus those where pure metal or beryllium oxide may also have been present. In this paper, we evaluated the airborne beryllium concentrations at a machining plant using historical industrial hygiene samples collected between 1964 and 2000. With the exception of a few projects conducted in the 1960s, it is believed that >95% of the operations used copper beryllium alloy exclusively. Long-term (>120 min) and short-term (<120 min) personal and area samples were collected during a variety of activities including machining of copper beryllium-containing parts, as well as finishing operations (e.g., deburring and polishing) and decontamination of machinery. A total of 580 beryllium air samples were analyzed (311 personal and 269 area samples). The average concentration based on area samples (1964-2000) was 0.021 microg m(-3) (SD 0.17 microg m(-3); range 0.00012-2.5 microg m(-3)); 68.8% were below the analytical limit of detection (LOD). The average airborne beryllium concentration, based on all personal samples available from 1964 through the end of 2000 (n = 311), was 0.026 microg m(-3) (SD 0.059 microg m(-3); range 0.019-0.8 microg m(-3)); 97.4% were below the LOD. Personal samples collected from machinists (n = 78) had an average airborne concentration of 0.021 microg m(-3) (SD 0.014 microg m(-3); range 0.019-0.14 microg m(-3)); 97.4% were below the LOD. Airborne concentrations were consistently below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit for beryllium (2 microg m(-3)). Overall, the data indicate that for machining operations involving copper beryllium, the airborne concentrations for >95% of the samples were below the contemporaneous occupational exposure limits or the 1999 Department of Energy action level of 0.2 microg m(-3) and, in most cases, were below the LOD. PMID:19383942

  3. Beryllium surface levels in a military ammunition plant.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Wayne T; Leonard, Stephanie; Ott, Darrin; Fuortes, Laurence; Field, William

    2008-07-01

    This study evaluated the presence of beryllium surface contamination in a U.S. conventional munitions plant as an indicator of possible past beryllium airborne and skin exposure and used these measurements to classify job categories by potential level of exposure. Surface samples were collected from production and nonproduction areas of the plant and at regional industrial reference sites with no known history of beryllium use. Surface samples of premoistened wiping material were analyzed for beryllium mass content using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and results expressed as micrograms of beryllium per 100 square centimeters (micro g/100 cm(2)). Beryllium was detected in 87% of samples collected at the munitions plant and in 72% of the samples collected at regional reference sites. Two munitions plant samples from areas near sanders and grinders were above 3.0 micro g/100 cm(2) (U.S. Department of Energy surface contamination limit). The highest surface level found at the reference sites was 0.44 micro g/100 cm(2). Workers in areas where beryllium-containing alloy tools were sanded or ground, but not other work areas, may have been exposed to airborne beryllium concentrations above levels encountered in other industries where metal work is conducted. Surface sampling provided information useful for categorizing munitions plant jobs by level of past beryllium airborne and skin exposure and, subsequently, for identifying employees within exposure strata to be screened for beryllium sensitization. PMID:18569510

  4. Beryllium contamination inside vehicles of machine shop workers

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, W.T. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Div. of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies] [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Div. of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies; Henneberger, P.K. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States). Div. of Respiratory Disease Studies] [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States). Div. of Respiratory Disease Studies; Martyny, J. [Tri-County Health Dept., Commerce, CO (United States)] [Tri-County Health Dept., Commerce, CO (United States); Ellis, K. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health] [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health; Mroz, M.M. [National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO (United States)] [National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO (United States); Newman, L.S. [National jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO (United States)] [National jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO (United States); [Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Inhalation of beryllium particles causes a chronic, debilitating lung disease--chronic beryllium disease (CBD)--in immunologically sensitized workers. Evidence that very low concentrations of beryllium may initiate this chronic disease is provided by incidences of the illness in family members exposed to beryllium dust from workers` clothes and residents in neighborhoods surrounding beryllium refineries. This article describes the results of a cross-sectional survey to evaluate potential take-home beryllium exposures by measuring surface concentrations on the hands and in vehicles of workers at a precision machine shop where cases of CBD had recently been diagnosed. Many workers did not change out of their work clothes and shoes at the end of their shift, increasing the risk of taking beryllium home to their families. Wipe samples collected from workers` hands and vehicle surfaces were analyzed for beryllium content by inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results ranged widely, from nondetectable to 40 {micro}g/ft{sup 2} on workers` hands and up to 714 {micro}g/fg{sup 2} inside their vehicles, demonstrating that many workers carried residual beryllium on their hands and contaminated the inside of their vehicles when leaving work. The highest beryllium concentrations inside the workers` vehicles were found on the drivers` floor (GM = 19 {micro}g/ft{sup 2}, GSD = 4.9), indicating that workers were carrying beryllium on their shoes into their vehicles. A safe level of beryllium contamination on surfaces is not known, but it is prudent to reduce the potential for workers to carry beryllium away from the work site.

  5. Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using DFT Sergio Orozco Student Advisor: Chen Huang Faculty Mentor Lithium LPS Test Lithium LPS #12;Density Functional Theory (DFT) Successful quantum mechanical approach (1979) #12;Building LPS for Lithium Create a LPS using NLPS density for Lithium Test LPS by comparing

  6. Thermal Conductivity of Composites of Beryllia and Lithium Titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, B. N.; Ghanwat, S. J.; Kaity, Santu; Danani, Chandan; Kulkarni, R. V.; Alur, V. D.; Sathiyamoorthy, D.; Anantharaman, S.

    2013-11-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion power for energy purposes. Wide varieties of solid breeders and multiplier materials have been proposed for fusion blankets. Beryllium and lithium titanate (Li2TiO3) have been accepted as neutron multiplier and breeder materials, respectively. However, swelling of beryllium due to helium and tritium permeation through metallic beryllium and low thermal conductivity of lithium titanate have caused serious limitations when ITER is in the demo version. It has been well established that BeO due its highest thermal conductivity among the known ceramics, low neutron absorption cross section, and high neutron reflection cross section is a good neutron multiplier. In the present investigation, a novel ceramic single compound of BeO-Li2TiO3 was synthesized, keeping the BeO content to Li2TiO3 in the volume ratio of 80:20, 75:25, 65:35, and 55:45 with the aim of maintaining the tritium breeding ratio as more than one, and characterized for phases present by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  7. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Pt. 850, App. A Appendix A to Part 850—Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent...

  8. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...transport fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be)...

  9. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...transport fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be)...

  10. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...transport fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be)...

  11. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...transport fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be)...

  12. Characterization of Plasma Sprayed Beryllium ITER First Wall Mockups

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Richard G.; Vaidya, Rajendra U.; Hollis, Kendall J.

    1997-12-31

    ITER first wall beryllium mockups, which were fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying the beryllium armor, have survived 3000 thermal fatigue cycles at 1 MW/sq m without damage during high heat flux testing at the Plasma Materials Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. The thermal and mechanical properties of the plasma sprayed beryllium armor have been characterized. Results are reported on the chemical composition of the beryllium armor in the as-deposited condition, the through thickness and normal to the through thickness thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, the four-point bend flexure strength and edge-notch fracture toughness of the beryllium armor, the bond strength between the beryllium armor and the underlying heat sink material, and ultrasonic C-scans of the Be/heat sink interface.

  13. Lithium and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    Lithium and Pregnancy This sheet talks about the risks that exposure to lithium can have during pregnancy. With each pregnancy, all ... miscarriage has been reported. Can taking lithium during pregnancy cause birth defects? Yes, although not very often. ...

  14. Boron-Based Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Ban, Hyun Seung; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    The use of the element boron, which is not generally observed in a living body, possesses a high potential for the discovery of new biological activity in pharmaceutical drug design. In this account, we describe our recent developments in boron-based drug design, including boronic acid containing protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors, and tubulin polymerization inhibitors, and ortho-carborane-containing proteasome activators, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 inhibitors, and topoisomerase inhibitors. Furthermore, we applied a closo-dodecaborate as a water-soluble moiety as well as a boron-10 source for the design of boron carriers in boron neutron capture therapy, such as boronated porphyrins and boron lipids for a liposomal boron delivery system. PMID:25800654

  15. Removal and recovery of beryllium in waters by chlorella vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip L. Gatewood; Joseph Sneddon

    1990-01-01

    Using nitrous oxide?acetylene flame atomic absorption and direct curent argon plasma emission spectrometry to determine Beryllium, the removal of Beryllium from solutions and waste waters by an algae biomass, Chlorella vulgaris was investigated. Binding was dependent on pH with maximum binding of over 80 % occurring at a pH between 6 and 9. The binding was independent of the Beryllium

  16. Lithium target for accelerator based BNCT neutron source: Influence by the proton irradiation on lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, R.; Imahori, Y.; Nakakmura, M.; Takada, M.; Kamada, S.; Hamano, T.; Hoshi, M.; Sato, H.; Itami, J.; Abe, Y.; Fuse, M.

    2012-12-01

    The neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is in the transition stage from nuclear reactor to accelerator based neutron source. Generation of low energy neutron can be achieved by 7Li (p, n) 7Be reaction using accelerator based neutron source. Development of small-scale and safe neutron source is within reach. The melting point of lithium that is used for the target is low, and durability is questioned for an extended use at a high current proton beam. In order to test its durability, we have irradiated lithium with proton beam at the same level as the actual current density, and found no deterioration after 3 hours of continuous irradiation. As a result, it is suggested that lithium target can withstand proton irradiation at high current, confirming suitability as accelerator based neutron source for BNCT.

  17. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Ehler, Deborah S. (Los Alamos, NM); John, Kevin D. (Santa Fe, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Collis, Gavin E. (Los Alamos, NM); Minogue, Edel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  18. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.

    2006-10-31

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  19. Beryllium window for an APS diagnostics beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, I.C.; Yang, B.X.; Sharma, Y.S.

    1997-09-01

    A beryllium (Be) window for an Advanced Photon Source (APS) diagnostics beamline has been designed and built. The window, which has a double concave axisymmetrical profile with a thickness of 0.5 mm at the center, receives 160 W/mm{sup 2} (7 GeV/100 mA stored beam) from an undulator beam. The window design as well as thermal and thermomechanical analyses, including thermal buckling of the Be window, are presented.

  20. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium windows

    SciTech Connect

    Gmur, N.F.

    1986-12-01

    It is known that various crystalline and liquid compounds form on the downstream surfaces of beryllium windows exposed to air. It is also known that the integrity of such windows may be compromised resulting in leaks through the window. The purpose of this report is to document the occurrences described as they pertain to the NSLS and to analyze, where possible, the various substances formed.

  1. Carcinogenicity of beryllium hydroxide and alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Groth; C. Kommineni; G. R. Mackay

    1980-01-01

    Animal experiments are presented which show that Be metal, BeAl alloy, passivated Be metal, and beryllium hydroxide are pulmonary carcinogens in rats. These findings are supported by successful transplantation experiments. In addition, other alloys of Be, VBeââ, TiBeââ, TaBeââ, NbBeââ, BeâB, and BeâB were found to produce pulmonary metaplasia, frequently a preneoplastic lesion in rats. Old rats are shown to

  2. Contact dermatitis from beryllium in dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Haberman, A L; Pratt, M; Storrs, F J

    1993-03-01

    An increasing number of metals with the potential to cause allergic contact dermatitis have found their way into dental alloys for economic and practical reasons. 2 patients are reported who developed gingivitis adjacent to the Rexillium III alloy in their dental prostheses. Patch testing demonstrated positive reactions to beryllium sulfate, a component of the alloy. Components of dental alloys and the mechanism of the contact dermatitis are discussed. PMID:8462293

  3. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation

    SciTech Connect

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Paducha, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM), Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Scholz, M.; Igielski, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS (IFJPAN), Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Karpinski, L. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland); Pytel, K. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Soltana 7, 05-400 Otwock - Swierk (Poland)

    2014-08-21

    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction {sup 9}Be(n, ?){sup 6}He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, {sup 6}He, decays with half-life T{sub 1/2} = 0.807 s emitting ?{sup ?} particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of ?–particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known ?–source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5–the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of ?{sup ?} particles emitted from radioactive {sup 6}He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  4. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Glass-fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The report discusses the following: domestic data coverage; legislation and government programs; domestic production; comsumption and uses; prices; foreign trade; world capacity; world review--Argentina, Chile, France, Italy, Turkey, United Kingdom; Technology.

  5. Boron and Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Munir Ozturk; Serdal Sakcali; Salih Gucel; Huseyin Tombuloglu

    \\u000a Boron is found naturally in the earth’s crust in the oxidized form as borax and colemanite, particularly in the oceans, sedimentary\\u000a rocks, coal, shale, and some soils. It is never found in the elemental form in nature possessing a complex chemistry similar\\u000a to that of silicon, with properties switching between metals and non-metals. Boron has become an important and strategic

  6. Physicochemical Characteristics of Aerosol Particles Generated During the Milling of Beryllium Silicate Ores: Implications for Risk Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandr B. Stefaniak; Steve J. Chipera; Gregory A. Day; Phil Sabey; Robert M. Dickerson; Deborah C. Sbarra; Mathew G. Duling; Robert B. Lawrence; Marcia L. Stanton; Ronald C. Scripsick

    2008-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium dusts generated during milling of ores and cutting of beryl-containing gemstones is associated with development of beryllium sensitization and low prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Inhalation of beryllium aerosols generated during primary beryllium production and machining of the metal, alloys, and ceramics are associated with sensitization and high rates of CBD, despite similar airborne beryllium mass

  7. Epidemiology of beryllium sensitization and disease in nuclear workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kreiss, K.; Mroz, M.M.; Zhen, B.; Martyny, J.W.; Newman, L.S. (National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-10-01

    We examined the epidemiology of chronic beryllium disease among a stratified, random sample (n = 895) of nuclear weapons workers using the blood beryllium lymphocyte transformation (BeLT) test and chest radiograph for case identification. Of 18 new cases of beryllium sensitization, 12 had beryllium disease, and three more developed pulmonary granulomas on lung biopsy over the succeeding 2 yr. Beryllium-sensitized cases did not differ from noncases in age, gender, race, ethnicity, smoking, most respiratory symptoms, spirometric or radiographic abnormalities, or job tenure. The six sensitized cases without initial disease differed from beryllium disease cases in having greater pack-years of smoking. Sensitization occurred among workers with inadvertent or bystander exposure, such as a secretary and security guard. However, beryllium sensitization risk was higher for machinists (4.7%) and for persons reporting measured overexposure (7.4%, odds ratio 5.1); exposure beginning before 1970 (3.6%, odds ratio 2.7); consistent beryllium exposure (3.4%); and sawing (4.7%) or band sawing (6.0%) of beryllium metal. We conclude that both individual susceptibility to sensitization and exposure circumstances are important in developing disease.

  8. Possible health risks from low level exposure to beryllium.

    PubMed

    Stange, A W; Hilmas, D E; Furman, F J

    1996-07-17

    The first case of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) was diagnosed in a machinist in 1984. Rocky Flats, located 16 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado, is part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex. Research and development operations using beryllium began at Rocky Flats in 1953, and beryllium production operations began in 1957. Exposures could have occurred during foundry operations, casting, shearing, rolling, cutting, welding, machining, sanding, polishing, assembly, and chemical analysis operations. The Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP) was established in June 1991 at Rocky Flats to provide health surveillance for beryllium exposed employees using the Lymphocyte Proliferation Test (LPT) to identify sensitized individuals. Of the 29 cases of CBD and 76 cases of beryllium sensitization identified since 1991, several cases appear to have had only minimal opportunistic exposures to beryllium, since they were employed in administrative functions rather than primary beryllium operations. In conjunction with other health surveillance programs, a questionnaire and interview are administered to obtain detailed work and health histories. These histories, along with other data, are utilized to estimate the extent of an individual's exposure. Additional surveillance is in progress to attempt to characterize the possible risks from intermittent or brief exposures to beryllium in the workplace. PMID:8711738

  9. Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites - Evidence for a sedimentary precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, D. K.; Moniot, R. K.; Kruse, T. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Tuniz, C.

    1982-01-01

    Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 100 micron atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 million years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

  10. Diagnoses of chronic beryllium disease within cohorts of sarcoidosis patients.

    PubMed

    Müller-Quernheim, J; Gaede, K I; Fireman, E; Zissel, G

    2006-06-01

    An increase in chronic beryllium disease (CBD) has been suggested due to higher industrial use of beryllium alloys. Since occupational CBD is a perfect phenocopy of sarcoidosis, it might be misdiagnosed as sarcoidosis. In the current it was hypothesised that CBD exists in cohorts of sarcoidosis patients. In a prospective case study, sarcoidosis patients were evaluated for potential beryllium exposure. In those patients in whom beryllium exposure was confirmed and beryllium hypersensitivity demonstrated, the diagnosis of sarcoidosis was rejected and corrected to CBD. In 84 patients seen for re-evaluation or making a diagnosis of sarcoidosis, beryllium exposure was recognised and a diagnosis of CBD was made in 34 out of 84 patients. The time lag between clinical diagnosis of sarcoidosis and the final diagnosis of CBD ranged 0-18 yrs (median 3 yrs) and the mean (range) age at time of diagnosis of CBD was 43.9(25-80) yrs. Beryllium-contaminated workplaces causing disease encompassed a wide spectrum of industries and technical trades in which beryllium-exposure is generally not perceived as a health hazard. In conclusion, chronic beryllium disease still belongs to the spectrum of differential diagnoses of granulomatous disorders. PMID:16540500

  11. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site beryllium characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Morrell, D.M. [Kaiser-Hill Co. LLC, Golden, CO (United States); Miller, J.R. [Radian International LLC, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Allen, D.F. [Radian International LLC, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1999-06-01

    A site beryllium characterization project was completed at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in 1997. Information from historical reviews, previous sampling surveys, and a new sampling survey were used to establish a more comprehensive understanding of the locations and levels of beryllium contamination in 35 buildings. A feature of the sampling strategy was to test if process knowledge was a good predictor of where beryllium contamination could be found. Results revealed that this technique was effective at identifying where surface contamination levels might exceed the RFETS smear control level but that it was not effective in identifying where low concentrations of beryllium might be found.

  12. Marked tachypnea in siblings with chronic beryllium disease due to copper-beryllium alloy.

    PubMed

    Tarlo, S M; Rhee, K; Powell, E; Amer, E; Newman, L; Liss, G; Jones, N

    2001-02-01

    Two biological sisters working at the same factory for > 9 years developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD) from a copper-beryllium alloy. Both had marked tachypnea (36 breaths/min and 45 breaths/min at rest, respectively), persisting over 8 years. Ventilation during exercise (assessed in one sibling) was grossly excessive (57 L/min, expected 23 L/min) with a respiratory rate of 64 breaths/min even with normal baseline routine pulmonary function tests. Blood beryllium lymphocyte transformation test and lung biopsies confirmed the diagnosis. No other cases of CBD have been reported from this plant among about 120 workers. These cases support the genetic basis for berylliosis and illustrate the marked tachypnea that may accompany this disease. PMID:11171753

  13. The Cryogenic Properties of Several Aluminum-Beryllium Alloys and a Beryllium Oxide Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Performance related mechanical properties for two aluminum-beryllium (Al-Be) alloys and one beryllium-oxide (BeO) material were developed at cryogenic temperatures. Basic mechanical properties (Le., ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percent elongation, and elastic modulus were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 at cryogenic [-195.5"C (-320 F) and -252.8"C (-423"F)I temperatures. Basic mechanical properties for the Be0 material were obtained at cyrogenic [- 252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. Fracture properties were obtained for the investment cast alloy Beralcast 363 at cryogenic [-252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. The AlBeMetl62 material was extruded, the Be0 material was hot isostatic pressing (HIP) consolidated, and the Beralcast 363 material was investment cast.

  14. Special topics reports for the reference tandem mirror fusion breeder: beryllium lifetime assessment. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.G.; Beeston, J.M.; Harris, B.L.; Wong, C.P.C.

    1984-10-01

    The lifetime of beryllium pebbles in the Reference Tandem Mirror Fusion Breeder blanket is estimated on the basis of the maximum stress generated in the pebbles. The forces due to stacking height, lithium flow, and the internal stresses due to thermal expansion and differential swelling are considered. The total stresses are calculated for three positions in the blanket, at a first wall neutron wall loading of 1.3 MW/m/sup 2/. These positions are: (a) near the first fuel zone wall, (b) near the center, and (c) near the back wall. The average lifetime of the pebbles is estimated to be 6.5 years. The specific estimated lifetimes are 2.4 years, 5.4 years, and 15 years for the first fuel zone wall, center and near the back wall, respectively.

  15. Boron Nutrition and Boron Application in Crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Marcelli Boaretto; Takashi Muraoka; Maria Fernanda Giné; Antonio Enedi Boaretto

    The application of micronutrients in citrus plants has usually been done by foliar spraying. The citrus plants are exigent\\u000a in boron, zinc, manganese, iron and deficiency of these micronutrients is common in worldwide citriculture. In Brazilian citriculture,\\u000a the B and Zn deficiencies are most frequent (Quaggio et al. 2003). For this reason, these micronutrients are routinely applied\\u000a as foliar fertilizers

  16. Boron Nutrition and Boron Application in Crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rashid; M. Masud Mahmood; E. Rafique; K. Farooq

    Deficiencies of boron (B) and zinc (Zn) are well established in many agronomic and horticultural crops grown in calcareous\\u000a soils of Pakistan (Rashid 2006). As crop responses to B as well as to Zn are appreciable and use of their fertilizers is highly\\u000a cost–effective, application of these micronutrients is now recommended in the country. The history of Zn use in

  17. Beryllium Metal II. A Review of the Available Toxicity Data

    PubMed Central

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Beryllium metal was classified in Europe collectively with beryllium compounds, e.g. soluble salts. Toxicological equivalence was assumed despite greatly differing physicochemical properties. Following introduction of the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation, beryllium metal was classified as individual substance and more investigational efforts to appropriately characterize beryllium metal as a specific substance apart from soluble beryllium compounds was required. A literature search on toxicity of beryllium metal was conducted, and the resulting literature compiled together with the results of a recently performed study package into a comprehensive data set. Testing performed under Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development guidelines and Good Laboratory Practice concluded that beryllium metal was neither a skin irritant, an eye irritant, a skin sensitizer nor evoked any clinical signs of acute oral toxicity; discrepancies between the current legal classification of beryllium metal in the European Union (EU) and the experimental results were identified. Furthermore, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity were discussed in the context of the literature data and the new experimental data. It was concluded that beryllium metal is unlikely to be a classical nonthreshold mutagen. Effects on DNA repair and morphological cell transformation were observed but need further investigation to evaluate their relevance in vivo. Animal carcinogenicity studies deliver evidence of carcinogenicity in the rat; however, lung overload may be a species-specific confounding factor in the existing studies, and studies in other species do not give convincing evidence of carcinogenicity. Epidemiology has been intensively discussed over the last years and has the problem that the studies base on the same US beryllium production population and do not distinguish between metal and soluble compounds. It is noted that the correlation between beryllium exposure and carcinogenicity, even including the soluble compounds, remains under discussion in the scientific community and active research is continuing. PMID:21196456

  18. Experimental dosimetry and beam evaluation in a phantom for near lithium threshold accelerator based BNCT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Kudchadker; C. L. Lee; Y. D. Harker; F. Harmon

    1999-01-01

    Current accelerator-based neutron source concepts for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are centered on the lithium (p,n) reaction. The near lithium threshold source concept uses proton energies ≲100 keV above the reaction threshold energy (1.88 MeV). For deeply seated brain tumors, epithermal (1 eV to 10 keV) neutrons are needed to penetrate the skull cap and subsequently thermalize at the

  19. Experimental dosimetry and beam evaluation in a phantom for near lithium threshold accelerator based BNCT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Kudchadker; C. L. Lee; Y. D. Harker; F. Harmon

    1999-01-01

    Current accelerator-based neutron source concepts for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are centered on the lithium (p,n) reaction. The near lithium threshold source concept uses proton energies <~100 keV above the reaction threshold energy (1.88 MeV). For deeply seated brain tumors, epithermal (1 eV to 10 keV) neutrons are needed to penetrate the skull cap and subsequently thermalize at the

  20. Boronated liposome development and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, M.F. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The boronated liposome development and evaluation effort consists of two separate tasks. The first is the development of new boron compounds and the synthesis of known boron species with BNCT potential. These compounds are then encapsulated within liposomes for the second task, biodistribution testing in tumor-bearing mice, which examines the potential for the liposomes and their contents to concentrate boron in cancerous tissues.

  1. Boron incorporation into mullite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesser, K. J.; Beran, A.; Voll, D.; Schneider, H.

    2008-03-01

    Boron-doped mullites were synthesized using aluminium nitrate-nonahydrate, tetraethoxysilane and boric acid in a sol gel process with subsequent annealing at 950 and 1300 °C for five hours. Two different bulk compositions with constant Al2O3 contents (60 and 70 mol%, respectively) and varying SiO2 plus B2O3 contents were investigated. X-ray powder diffraction analyses yielded a linear decrease of the lattice parameters with increasing bulk B2O3 content, which was interpreted as to be due to boron incorporation. Related to the increasing boron content, corresponding infrared spectra revealed a slight and continuous shift for most of the absorption bands. These data show that mullite is able to incorporate large amounts of boron into its structure (up to about 20 mol% B2O3 depending on the bulk composition of the starting materials). Infrared analyses suggest that boron is incorporated into the mullite structure in form of planar three-fold coordinated BO3 groups.

  2. RESIDUAL STRAINS IN A PIGMA WELDED BERYLLIUM RING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Brown; R. Varma; M. A. M. Bourke; P. Burgardt; S. Spooner; T. Ely

    We have studied the residual stresses associated with the PIGMA welding of two right circular beryllium rings. Using spatially resolved neutron diffraction techniques (resolution of 4.5 mm3) we have determined residual strains in the beryllium base metal using the interplanar spacings of the (10 10) , ) 0 2 11 ( and ) 3 1 10 ( crystallographic planes as

  3. Modeling Airborne Beryllium Concentrations From Open Air Dynamic Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, N. M.

    2003-12-01

    A heightened awareness of airborne beryllium contamination from industrial activities was reestablished during the late 1980's and early 1990's when it became recognized that Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD) had not been eradicated, and that the Occupational Health and Safety Administration standards for occupational air exposure to beryllium may not be sufficiently protective. This was in response to the observed CBD increase in multiple industrial settings where beryllium was manufactured and/or machined, thus producing beryllium particulates which are then available for redistribution by airborne transport. Sampling and modeling design activities were expanded at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico to evaluate potential airborne beryllium exposure to workers who might be exposed during dynamic testing activities associated with nuclear weapons Stockpile Stewardship. Herein is presented the results of multiple types of collected air measurements that were designed to characterize the production and dispersion of beryllium used in components whose performance is evaluated during high explosive detonation at open air firing sites. Data from fallout, high volume air, medium volume air, adhesive film, particle size impactor, and fine-particulate counting techniques will be presented, integrated, and applied in dispersion modeling to assess potential onsite and offsite personal exposures resulting from dynamic testing activities involving beryllium.

  4. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR BERYLLIUM: REVIEW DRAFT (APRIL 1986)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical and geochemical properties of beryllium resemble those of aluminum, zinc, and magnesium. This resemblance is primarily due to similar ionic potentials which facilitate covalent bonding. The three most common forms of beryllium in industrial emission are the metal, th...

  5. Enhanced preventive programme at a beryllium oxide ceramics facility reduces beryllium sensitisation among new workers

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Kristin J; Deubner, David C; Day, Gregory A; Henneberger, Paul K; Kitt, Margaret M; Kent, Michael S; Kreiss, Kathleen; Schuler, Christine R

    2007-01-01

    Background A 1998 survey at a beryllium oxide ceramics manufacturing facility found that 10% of workers hired in the previous 6?years had beryllium sensitisation as determined by the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). In response, the facility implemented an enhanced preventive programme to reduce sensitisation, including increased respiratory and dermal protection and particle migration control. Aim To assess the programme's effectiveness in preventing sensitisation. Methods In 2000, the facility began testing newly hired workers for beryllium sensitisation with the BeLPT at time of hire and during employment. The sensitisation rate and prevalence for workers hired from 2000 to 2004 were compared with that for workers hired from 1993 to 1998, who were tested in the 1998 survey. Facility environmental conditions for both time periods were evaluated. Results Newly hired workers in both cohorts worked for a mean of 16?months. Of the 97 workers hired from 2000 to 2004 with at least one employment BeLPT result, four had abnormal results at time of hire and one became sensitised during employment. Of the 69 workers hired from 1993 to 1998 and tested in 1998, six were found to be sensitised. The sensitisation rate for the 2000–4 workers was 0.7–2.7/1000 person?months of employment, and that for the 1993–8 workers was 5.6/1000 person?months, at least 2.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6 to 8.4) and up to 8.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 188.8) times higher than that for the 2000–4 workers. The sensitisation prevalence for the 2000–4 workers was 1% and that for the 1993–8 workers was 8.7%, 8.4 (95% CI 1.04 to 68.49) times higher than that for the 2000–4 workers. Airborne beryllium levels for production workers for the two time periods were similar. Conclusions A comprehensive preventive programme reduced beryllium sensitisation in new workers during the first years of employment, despite airborne beryllium levels for production workers that were similar to pre?programme levels. PMID:17043076

  6. Preparation and characterization of beryllium doped organic plasma polymer coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Brusasco, R.; Letts, S.; Miller, P.; Saculla, M.; Cook, R.

    1995-10-04

    We report the formation of beryllium doped plasma polymerized coatings derived from a helical resonator deposition apparatus, using diethylberyllium as the organometaric source. These coatings had an appearance not unlike plain plasma polymer and were relatively stable to ambient exposure. The coatings were characterized by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Coating rates approaching 0.7 {mu}m hr{sup {minus}1} were obtained with a beryllium-to-carbon ratio of 1:1.3. There is also a significant oxygen presence in the coating as well which is attributed to oxidation upon exposure of the coating to air. The XPS data show only one peak for beryllium with the preponderance of the XPS data suggesting that the beryllium exists as BeO. Diethylberyllium was found to be inadequate as a source for beryllium doped plasma polymer, due to thermal decomposition and low vapor recovery rates.

  7. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  8. One-dimensional two-phase reacting gas nonequilibrium performance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, S. S.; Frey, H. M.; Kliegel, J. R.; Quan, V.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program calculates the inviscid one-dimensional equilibrium, frozen, and nonequilibrium nozzle expansion of propellant exhaust mixtures containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, chlorine and either aluminum, beryllium, boron or lithium. This program performs calculations for conical nozzles only.

  9. Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, P.A.

    1990-08-01

    U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position as a source of sodium borate products and boric acid exported to foreign markets. Supplementary U.S. imports of Turkish calcium borate and calcium-sodium borate ores, borax, and boric acid, primarily for various glass uses, continued.

  10. LITERATURE SURVEY OF GASES IN BERYLLIUM. Report to Wright Air Development Division

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Pemsler; R. W. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Structural and thermodynamic properties of beryllium, beryllium-oxygen systems, beryllium-nitrogen systems, and beryllium-hydrogen systems as determined by various researchers are surveyed. Diffusion properties, reaction kinetics, and vapor pressures are given where they were available. 44 references. ;\\u000a (D.C.W.)

  11. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, R.K.; Bystroff, R.I.; Miller, D.E.

    1986-08-27

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  12. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); Bystroff, Roman I. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Dale E. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  13. Exposure pathway assessment at a copper-beryllium alloy facility.

    PubMed

    Day, Gregory A; Dufresne, André; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Schuler, Christine R; Stanton, Marcia L; Miller, William E; Kent, Michael S; Deubner, David C; Kreiss, Kathleen; Hoover, Mark D

    2007-01-01

    Controlling beryllium inhalation exposures to comply with regulatory levels (2 micro g m(-3) of air) does not appear to prevent beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Additionally, it has proven difficult to establish a clear inhalation exposure-response relationship for beryllium sensitization and CBD. Thus, skin may be an important route of exposure that leads to beryllium sensitization. A 2000 survey had identified prevalence of sensitization (7%) and CBD (4%) in a beryllium alloy facility. An improved particulate migration control program, including dermal protection in production areas, was completed in 2002 at the facility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate levels of beryllium in workplace air, on work surfaces, on cotton gloves worn by employees over nitrile gloves, and on necks and faces of employees subsequent to implementation of the program. Over a 6 day period, we collected general area air samples (n = 10), wipes from routinely handled work surfaces (n = 252), thin cotton glove samples (n = 113) worn by employees, and neck wipes (n = 109) and face wipes (n = 109) from the same employees. In production, production support and office areas geometric mean (GM) levels of beryllium were 0.95, 0.59 and 0.05 micro g per 100 cm(2) on work surfaces; 42.8, 73.8 and 0.07 micro g per sample on cotton gloves; 0.07, 0.09 and 0.003 micro g on necks; and 0.07, 0.12 and 0.003 micro g on faces, respectively. Correlations were strong between beryllium in air and on work surfaces (r = 0.79), and between beryllium on cotton gloves and on work surfaces (0.86), necks (0.87) and faces (0.86). This study demonstrates that, even with the implementation of control measures to reduce skin contact with beryllium as part of a comprehensive workplace protection program, measurable levels of beryllium continue to reach the skin of workers in production and production support areas. Based on our current understanding of the multiple exposure pathways that may lead to sensitization, we support prudent control practices such as use of protective gloves to minimize skin exposure to beryllium salts and fine particles. PMID:16844720

  14. Fabrication of boron sputter targets

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A process for fabricating high density boron sputtering targets with sufficient mechanical strength to function reliably at typical magnetron sputtering power densities and at normal process parameters. The process involves the fabrication of a high density boron monolithe by hot isostatically compacting high purity (99.9%) boron powder, machining the boron monolithe into the final dimensions, and brazing the finished boron piece to a matching boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) piece, by placing aluminum foil there between and applying pressure and heat in a vacuum. An alternative is the application of aluminum metallization to the back of the boron monolithe by vacuum deposition. Also, a titanium based vacuum braze alloy can be used in place of the aluminum foil.

  15. Fabrication of boron sputter targets

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.

    1995-02-28

    A process is disclosed for fabricating high density boron sputtering targets with sufficient mechanical strength to function reliably at typical magnetron sputtering power densities and at normal process parameters. The process involves the fabrication of a high density boron monolithe by hot isostatically compacting high purity (99.9%) boron powder, machining the boron monolithe into the final dimensions, and brazing the finished boron piece to a matching boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) piece, by placing aluminum foil there between and applying pressure and heat in a vacuum. An alternative is the application of aluminum metallization to the back of the boron monolithe by vacuum deposition. Also, a titanium based vacuum braze alloy can be used in place of the aluminum foil. 7 figs.

  16. Thick beryllium coatings by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H; Nikroo, A; Youngblood, K; Moreno, K; Wu, D; Fuller, T; Alford, C; Hayes, J; Detor, A; Wong, M; Hamza, A; van Buuren, T; Chason, E

    2011-04-14

    Thick (>150 {micro}m) beryllium coatings are studied as an ablator material of interest for fusion fuel capsules for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). As an added complication, the coatings are deposited on mm-scale spherical substrates, as opposed to flats. DC magnetron sputtering is used because of the relative controllability of the processing temperature and energy of the deposits. We used ultra small angle x-ray spectroscopy (USAXS) to characterize the void fraction and distribution along the spherical surface. We investigated the void structure using a combination focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results show a few volume percent of voids and a typical void diameter of less than two hundred nanometers. Understanding how the stresses in the deposited material develop with thickness is important so that we can minimize film cracking and delamination. To that end, an in-situ multiple optical beam stress sensor (MOSS) was used to measure the stress behavior of thick Beryllium coatings on flat substrates as the material was being deposited. We will show how the film stress saturates with thickness and changes with pressure.

  17. Evaluation of the characteristics of boron-dose enhancer (BDE) materials for BNCT using near threshold 7Li(p,n)7Be direct neutrons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard Bengua; Tooru Kobayashi; Kenichi Tanaka; Yoshinobu Nakagawa

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of a number of candidate boron-dose enhancer (BDE) materials for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using near threshold 7Li(p,n)7Be direct neutrons were evaluated based on the treatable protocol depth (TPD), defined in this paper. Simulation calculations were carried out by means of MCNP-4B transport code for candidate BDE materials, namely, (C2H4)n, (C2H3F)n, (C2H2F2)n, (C2HF3)n, (C2D4)n, (C2F4)n, beryllium metal,

  18. Boron Nutrition of Avocados

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. Whiley; I. E. Smith; B. N. Wolstenholme; J. B. Saranah

    1996-01-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for normal plant growth, but is deficient in many soils that support avocado cultivation. In avocado, deficiency symptoms include yellowing and deformation of leaves, thickening of nodal regions on branch es, loss of geotropism, reduced root growth, branch and trunk lesions, reduced pollen viability, and deformed and smaller fruit. Avocado trees are particularly recalcitrant in

  19. Boron in Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, P.; Goswami, J. N.; Krähenbühl, U.; Marti, K.

    2001-10-01

    Isotopic compositions and abundances of boron were measured in sixteen chondrules from seven chondrites by ion microprobe mass spectrometry. The chondrules are of the porphyritic, barred, and radial type and host meteorites include carbonaceous, ordinary, and enstatite chondrites. Boron abundances are generally low with average boron concentrations of between 80 and 500 ppb. These abundances are lower than those of bulk chondrites (0.35 to 1.2 ppm; Zhai et al., 1996), confirming earlier suggestions that boron is mostly contained in the matrix. No significant variation in the 11B/10B ratio is observed among these chondrules, outside our experimental error limits of several permil, and B-isotopic compositions agree with those reported for bulk chondrites. The lack of a significant isotope fractionation between chondrules and matrix implies that the low boron abundances are not the result of a Rayleigh fractionation during chondrule formation. Isotopic heterogeneities within individual chondrules are constrained to be < +/-20% at >95% confidence level at a spatial scale of 20-30 um, significantly lower than the value of about +/-40% previously reported for chondrules from carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites (Chaussidon and Robert, 1995, 1998). The observed B-isotopic homogeneity does not conflict with the presence of decay products from extinct 10Be, with (10Be/9Be)0 ~ 10-3, as was inferred for calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions. Extinct 10Be in chondrules would shift the abundance ratio 11B/10B at best by several permil because of their commonly observed low Be/B ratios (<2). The results show that potential B-isotopic heterogeneities in the solar nebula due to the presence of components with different B-isotopic signatures, such as boron produced by high-energy galactic cosmic rays (11B/10B ~ 2.5), or by the hypothetical low-energy particle irradiation (11B/10B ~ 3.5-11) or boron from type II supernovae (11B/10B >> 1), did not survive the chondrule formation processes to a measurable extent.

  20. Synthesis of hexagonal boron nitride graphene-like few layers.

    PubMed

    Yuan, S; Toury, B; Journet, C; Brioude, A

    2014-07-21

    Self-standing highly crystallized hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) mono-, bi- and few-layers have been obtained for the first time via the Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route by adding lithium nitride (Li?N) micropowders to liquid-state polyborazylene (PBN). Incorporation of Li?N as a crystallization promoter allows the onset of crystallization of h-BN at a lower temperature (1200 °C) than under classical conditions (1800 °C). The hexagonal structure was confirmed by both electron and X-ray diffraction. PMID:24914881

  1. Thermal neutron scintillators using unenriched boron nitride and zinc sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, J. E.; Cole, A. J.; Kirby, A.; Marsden, E.

    2015-06-01

    Thermal neutron detectors based on powdered zinc sulfide intimately mixed with a neutron capture compound have a history as long as scintillation technique itself. We show that using unenriched boron nitride powder, rather than the more commonly used enriched lithium fluoride, results in detection screens which produce less light but which are very considerably cheaper. Methods of fabricating large areas of this material are presented. The screens are intended for the production of large area low cost neutron detectors as a replacement for helium-3 proportional tubes.

  2. Measurement of the thermal neutron distribution in a water phantom using a cyclotron based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroki Tanaka; Yoshinori Sakurai; Minoru Suzuki; Shinichiro Masunaga; Toshinori Mitsumoto; Satoru Yajima; Hiroshi Tsutsui; Takemi Sato; Tomoyuki Asano; Genro Kashino; Yuko Kinashi; Yong Liu; Koji Ono; A. Maruhashi

    2009-01-01

    We have been developed an epithermal neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy(BNCT), consisting of a cyclotron accelerator that can provide a ~ 1 mA, 30 MeV proton beam, a neutron production beryllium target and the moderator that can reduce the energy of fast neutrons to an effective energy range. In order to validate the simulations, we measured the depth

  3. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas (Great Salt Lake, Searles Lake), geothermal systems (Salton Sea) and oil fields contain lithium, but in low concentrations that add relatively little to estimated global resources. Igneous deposits, which constitute 26% of estimated global resources, consist largely of pegmatites, including past and present producers at Kings Mountain-Bessemer City (USA), Greenbushes (Australia) and Bikita (Zimbabwe), as well as numerous active prospects, especially in Canada and China. Amenability of these deposits to economic extraction is controlled by mineralogy and zoning of lithium, which vary considerably from deposit to deposit. An additional 8% of global lithium resources is estimated to be present in unusual deposits including largely hectorite clays in volcaniclastic rocks at Kings Valley (USA) and jadarite in lacustrine evaporite deposits (Serbia), which present new challenges to both mining and processing. If this highly varied population of deposits can be converted to reserves, lithium supplies for the 21st century EV market are relatively secure.

  4. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  5. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  6. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium and aluminum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Gmur, N.F.

    1987-06-01

    An effort has been made to document the types of contamination which form on beryllium window surfaces due to interaction with a synchrotron radiation beam. Beryllium windows contaminated in a variety of ways (exposure to water and air) exhibited surface powders, gels, crystals and liquid droplets. These contaminants were analyzed by electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and wet chemical methods. Materials found on window surfaces include beryllium oxide, amorphous carbon, cuprous oxide, metallic copper and nitric acid. Aluminum window surface contaminants were also examined.

  7. Exposure Pathway Assessment at a Copper-Beryllium Alloy Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GREGORY A. DAY; ALEKSANDR B. STEFANIAK; CHRISTINE R. SCHULER; MARCIA L. STANTON; WILLIAM E. MILLER; MICHAEL S. KENT; DAVID C. DEUBNER; KATHLEEN KREISS; MARK D. HOOVER

    2007-01-01

    levels of beryllium were 0.95, 0.59 and 0.05 mg per 100 cm2 on work surfaces; 42.8, 73.8 and 0.07 mg per sample on cotton gloves; 0.07, 0.09 and 0.003 mg on necks; and 0.07, 0.12 and 0.003 mg on faces, respectively. Correlations were strong between beryllium in air and on work surfaces (r = 0.79), and between beryllium on cotton

  8. Measurement of Beryllium in Biological Samples by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry: Applications for Studying Chronic Beryllium Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarappa-Zucca, M L; Finkel, R C; Martinelli, R E; McAninch, J E; Nelson, D O; Turtletaub, K W

    2004-04-15

    A method using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has been developed for quantifying attomoles of beryllium (Be) in biological samples. This method provides the sensitivity to trace Be in biological samples at very low doses with the purpose of identifying the molecular targets involved in chronic beryllium disease. Proof of the method was tested by administering 0.001, 0.05, 0.5 and 5.0 {micro}g {sup 9}Be and {sup 10}Be by intraperitoneal injection to male mice and removing spleen, liver, femurs, blood, lung, and kidneys after 24 h exposure. These samples were prepared for AMS analysis by tissue digestion in nitric acid, followed by further organic oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and ammonium persulfate and lastly, precipitation of Be with ammonium hydroxide, and conversion to beryllium oxide at 800 C. The {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratio of the extracted beryllium oxide was measured by AMS and Be in the original sample was calculated. Results indicate that Be levels were dose-dependent in all tissues and the highest levels were measured in the spleen and liver. The measured {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios spanned 4 orders of magnitude, from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -14}, with a detection limit of 3.0 x 10{sup -14}, which is equivalent to 0.8 attomoles of {sup 10}Be. These results show that routine quantification of nanogram levels of Be in tissues is possible and that AMS is a sensitive method that can be used in biological studies to understand the molecular dosimetry of Be and mechanisms of toxicity.

  9. Real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium, at OSHA limit levels, by time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Radziemski, L.J.; Loree, T.R.; Cremers, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Real-time detection of beryllium particulate is being investigated by the new technique of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. For beryllium detection we monitor the 313.1-nm feature of once ionized beryllium (Be II). Numerous publications describe the technique, our beryllium results, and other applications. Here we summarize the important points and describe our experiments with beryllium.

  10. Boron isotopic compositions of some boron minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oi, Takao; Nomura, Masao; Musashi, Masaaki; Ossaka, Tomoko; Okamoto, Makoto; Kakihana, Hidetake

    1989-12-01

    Boron minerals that have different structural formulae but are supposed to have the same geologic origin have been collected and analyzed for the 11B /10B isotopic ratio. It has been reconfirmed that minerals of marine origin have higher 11B /10B ratios than those of nonmarine origin. It has been found that the sequence of decreasing 11B /10B values among the minerals with the same geologic origin is; borax, tincal, kernite (Na borates) > ulexite ( Na/Ca borate) > colemanite, iyoite, meyerhofferite (Ca borates). This sequence is explainable on the basis of the difference in crystal structure among the minerals. That is, minerals with higher BO 3/BO 4 ratios, (the ratio of the number of the BO 3 triangle units to the number of the BO 4 tetrahedron units in the structural formula of a mineral) have higher 11B /10B ratios.

  11. Impact of boron dilution accidents on low boron PWR safety

    SciTech Connect

    Papukchiev, A.; Liu, Y. [Dept. of Reactor Dynamics and Reactor Safety, Technical Univ. Munich, Walther Meissner-Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schaefer, A. [ISaR Inst. for Safety and Reliability, Walther Meissner-Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    In conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR) designs, soluble boron is used for reactivity control over core fuel cycle. As an inadvertent reduction of the boron concentration during a boron dilution accident could introduce positive reactivity and have a negative impact on PWR safety, design changes to reduce boron concentration in the reactor coolant are of general interest. In the framework of an investigation into the feasibility of low boron design, a PWR core configuration based on fuel with higher gadolinium (Gd) load has been developed which permits to reduce the natural boron concentration at begin of cycle (BOC) to 518 ppm. For the assessment of the potential safety advantages, a boron dilution accident due to small break loss-of-coolant-accident (SBLOCA) has been simulated with the system code ATHLET for two PWR core designs: a low boron design and a standard core design. The results from the comparative analyses showed that the impact of the boron dilution accident on the new PWR design safety is significantly lower in comparison with the standard design. The new reactor design provided at least 4, 4% higher reactivity margin to recriticality during the whole accident which is equivalent to the negative reactivity worth of additional 63% of all control rods fully inserted in to the core. (authors)

  12. Crystalline Boron Nanoribbons: Synthesis and Characterization

    E-print Network

    to its electron-deficient nature.1-3 Extensive fundamental and ap- plied research of bulk boron and boron vapor transport method using boron and iodine as precursor,12,13 and also by laser ablation of a B

  13. Primordial beryllium as a big bang calorimeter.

    PubMed

    Pospelov, Maxim; Pradler, Josef

    2011-03-25

    Many models of new physics including variants of supersymmetry predict metastable long-lived particles that can decay during or after primordial nucleosynthesis, releasing significant amounts of nonthermal energy. The hadronic energy injection in these decays leads to the formation of ?Be via the chain of nonequilibrium transformations: Energy(h)?T, ³He??He, ?Li??Be. We calculate the efficiency of this transformation and show that if the injection happens at cosmic times of a few hours the release of O(10 MeV) per baryon can be sufficient for obtaining a sizable ?Be abundance. The absence of a plateau structure in the ?Be/H abundance down to a O(10?¹?) level allows one to use beryllium as a robust constraint on new physics models with decaying or annihilating particles. PMID:21517297

  14. Advances in beryllium powder consolidation simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, B.J.

    1998-12-01

    A fuzzy logic based multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced and the algorithm is used to optimize micromechanical densification modeling parameters for warm isopressed beryllium powder, HIPed copper powder and CIPed/sintered and HIPed tantalum powder. In addition to optimizing the main model parameters using the experimental data points as objective functions, the GA provides a quantitative measure of the sensitivity of the model to each parameter, estimates the mean particle size of the powder, and determines the smoothing factors for the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 densification. While the GA does not provide a sensitivity analysis in the strictest sense, and is highly stochastic in nature, this method is reliable and reproducible in optimizing parameters given any size data set and determining the impact on the model of slight variations in each parameter.

  15. The mechanical behavior of cross-rolled beryllium sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henkener, J. A.; Spiker, I. K.; Castner, W. L.

    1992-01-01

    In response to the failure of a conical section of the Insat C satellite during certification testing, the use of beryllium for payload structures, particularly in sheet product form, is being reevaluated. A test program was initiated to study the tensile, shear, and out-of-plane failure modes of beryllium cross-rolled sheet and to apply data to the development of an appropriate failure criterion. Tensile test results indicated that sanding the surface of beryllium sheet has no significant effect on yield strength but can produce a profound reduction in ultimate strength and results obtained by finite element analysis. Critical examination of these test results may contribute to the modification of a JSC policy for the use of beryllium in orbiter and payload structures.

  16. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...LABOR ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 CLAIMS...UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000, AS...covered Part B employee has established chronic beryllium...

  17. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...LABOR ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 CLAIMS...UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000, AS...covered Part B employee has established chronic beryllium...

  18. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...LABOR ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 CLAIMS...UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000, AS...covered Part B employee has established chronic beryllium...

  19. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...LABOR ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 CLAIMS...UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000, AS...covered Part B employee has established chronic beryllium...

  20. Age hardening in beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, D.H.; McGeorge, A.C.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

    1996-11-01

    Three different alloys of beryllium-aluminum-silver were processed to powder by centrifugal atomization in a helium atmosphere. Alloy compositions were, by weight percent, Be-47.5Al-2.5Ag, Be-47Al-3Ag, and Be-46Al-4Ag. Due to the low solubility of both aluminum and silver in beryllium, the silver was concentrated in the aluminum phase, which separates from the beryllium in the liquid phase. A fine, continuous composite beryllium-aluminum microstructure was formed, which did not significantly change after hot isostatic pressing. Samples of hot isostatically pressed material were solution treated at 550 C for 1 h, followed by a water quench. Aging temperatures were 150, 175, 200, and 225 C for times ranging from half an hour to 65 h. Results indicate that peak hardness was reached in 36--40 h at 175 C and 12--16 h at 200 C aging temperature, relatively independent of alloy composition.

  1. Plans and status of the Beryllium ablator campaign on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Olson, R. E.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Kyrala, G. A.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S. H.; Dewald, E. L.; Edwards, M. J.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.

    2014-10-01

    Beryllium has long been known to have excellent properties for indirectly driven ICF implosions including enhanced ablation pressure, implosion velocity, and mass ablation rate. The high ablation velocity leads to stabilization of ablative hydrodynamic instabilities and higher ablation pressures. Recent ``high foot'' experiments have shown ablative Rayleigh-Taylor to be a leading cause of degraded performance for ICF implosions. While Beryllium ablators have these advantages, there are also risks associated with Beryllium target designs. A campaign is underway to design and to test these advantages for comparison with other ablator options and determine which provides the best path forward for ICF. Experiments using Beryllium ablators are expected to start in the late summer of 2014. This presentation will discuss the status of the experiments and layout the plans/goals for the campaign. This work is supported by the US DOE.

  2. The polarographic microdetermination of boron 

    E-print Network

    Peacock, Dixon Williams

    1958-01-01

    LIBRARY A A M COLLEGE OF TEXAS THE POLAROGRAPHIC MICRODETERMINATION OF BORON By DIXON WILLIAMS PEACOCK A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment................................. vi Chapter I- a. Introduction........................ 1 b. Analytical Chemistry of Boron........ 4 c. Alternative Methods................. 11 d. Objects and Methods of This Study.... 15 Chapter II- Polarography in the Determination of Boron...

  3. Development of Biomarkers for Chronic Beryllium Disease in Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Terry

    2013-01-25

    Beryllium is a strategic metal, indispensable for national defense programs in aerospace, telecommunications, electronics, and weaponry. Exposure to beryllium is an extensively documented occupational hazard that causes irreversible, debilitating granulomatous lung disease in as much as 3 - 5% of exposed workers. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships has been severely limited by a general lack of a sufficient CBD animal model. We have now developed and tested an animal model which can be used for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new diagnostic and treatment paradigms. We have created 3 strains of transgenic mice in which the human antigen-presenting moiety, HLA-DP, was inserted into the mouse genome. Each mouse strain contains HLA-DPB1 alleles that confer different magnitude of risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD): HLA-DPB1*0401 (odds ratio = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (odds ratio = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (odds ratio = 240). Our preliminary work has demonstrated that the *1701 allele, as predicted by human studies, results in the greatest degree of sensitization in a mouse ear swelling test. We have also completed dose-response experiments examining beryllium-induced lung granulomas and identified susceptible and resistant inbred strains of mice (without the human transgenes) as well as quantitative trait loci that may contain gene(s) that modify the immune response to beryllium. In this grant application, we propose to use the transgenic and Â?normal inbred strains of mice to identify biomarkers for the progression of beryllium sensitization and CBD. To achieve this goal, we propose to compare the sensitivity and accuracy of the lymphocyte proliferation test (blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) with the ELISPOT test in the three HLA-DP transgenic mice strains throughout a 6 month treatment with beryllium particles. Because of the availability of high-throughput proteomics, we will also identify changes in potential protein biomarkers in beryllium-treated mice. We will correlate these findings with the ability of the transgenic mice to develop a beryllium-specific adaptive immune response in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. We will also determine whether beryllium-responsive CD4+ T cells in blood and BAL correlate with the onset of granuloma formation. Thus, we will provide the scientific community with biomarkers of sensitization and disease progression for CBD. These biomarkers will serve as critical tools for development of improved industrial hygiene and therapeutic interventions.

  4. Statistical methods for the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward L. Frome; Matthew H. Smith; L. Gayle Littlefield

    1996-01-01

    The blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) is a modification of the standard lymphocyte proliferation test that is used to identify persons who may have chronic beryllium disease. A major problem in the interpretation of BeLPT test results is outlying data values among the replicate well counts (â7%). A log-linear regression model is used to describe the expected well counts

  5. A DFT study of dodecahedral beryllium silicide cage clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioressi, Silvina; Bacelo, Daniel E.; Binning, R. C.

    2012-06-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been conducted on 20- and 32-atom dodecahedral and face-capped dodecahedral cage clusters of beryllium and silicon. Stable Be24Si8, Be12Si8 and Be12Si20 cages are described, as is a stuffed cluster consisting of dodecahedral Si20 with an endohedral icosahedral Be12. Especial stability is associated with clusters in which faces are capped by silicon atoms, acting as electron donors to beryllium atoms.

  6. Actinide/beryllium neutron sources with reduced dispersion characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Schulte, Louis D.

    2012-08-14

    Neutron source comprising a composite, said composite comprising crystals comprising BeO and AmBe.sub.13, and an excess of beryllium, wherein the crystals have an average size of less than 2 microns; the size distribution of the crystals is less than 2 microns; and the beryllium is present in a 7-fold to a 75-fold excess by weight of the amount of AmBe.sub.13; and methods of making thereof.

  7. Structure and mechanical properties of beryllium — Chromium alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. V. Molchanova; N. D. Nagorskaya; K. P. Yatsenko; V. M. Mezhennyi; V. I. Kolesnikova

    1979-01-01

    1.In Be-Cr alloys in equilibrium with phase based on beryllium there is a phase based on CrBe12, which is formed by the peritectic reaction: L+CrBe2?CrBe12. The composition of the compound is evidently close to the composition at the peritectic point on the phase diagram.2.The position of the eutectic point on the phase diagram was determined more precisely from the beryllium

  8. Beryllium localization in base metal dental casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Covington, J S; McBride, M A; Slagle, W F; Disney, A L

    1985-09-01

    Investigation of dissolution of base metal dental casting alloy constituents in aqueous solutions revealed an unexpectedly high level of beryllium as compared with the other constituents. Analysis of atomic emission spectroscopy is presented here showing the outer surface (0-100 A) is decidedly enriched in beryllium as compared with the bulk composition of the alloy. This localization is consistent in all samples and forms of the alloy tested. PMID:4077894

  9. Beryllium contamination and exposure monitoring in an inhalation laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Muller, Caroline; Audusseau, Séverine; Salehi, Fariba; Truchon, Ginette; Chevalier, Gaston; Mazer, Bruce; Kennedy, Greg; Zayed, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Beryllium (Be) is used in several forms: pure metal, beryllium oxide, and as an alloy with copper, aluminum, or nickel. Beryllium oxide, beryllium metal, and beryllium alloys are the main forms present in the workplace, with inhalation being the primary route of exposure. Cases of workers with sensitization or chronic beryllium disease challenge the scientific community for a better understanding of Be toxicity. Therefore, a toxicological inhalation study using a murine model was performed in our laboratory in order to identify the toxic effects related to different particle sizes and chemical forms of Be. This article attempts to provide information regarding the relative effectiveness of the environmental monitoring and exposure protection program that was enacted to protect staff (students and researchers) in this controlled animal beryllium inhalation exposure experiment. This includes specific attention to particle migration control through intensive housekeeping and systematic airborne and surface monitoring. Results show that the protective measures applied during this research have been effective. The highest airborne Be concentration in the laboratory was less than one-tenth of the Quebec OEL (occupational exposure limit) of 0.15 microg/m(3). Considering the protection factor of 10(3) of the powered air-purifying respirator used in this research, the average exposure level would be 0.03 x 10(- 4) microg/m(3), which is extremely low. Moreover, with the exception of one value, all average Be concentrations on surfaces were below the Quebec Standard guideline level of 3 microg/100 cm(2) for Be contamination. Finally, all beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests for the staff were not higher than controls. PMID:20056744

  10. Penetration of boron carbide, aluminum, and beryllium alloys by depleted uranium rods: Modeling and experimentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Walker; Scott A. Mullin; Carl E. Weiss; Paul O. Leslie

    2006-01-01

    As part of the US stockpile stewardship program, it is necessary to perform experiments with various metallic components and explosives. These experiments will be conducted within specially designed blast vessels to ensure that the debris from the experiment is contained. The debris includes fragments that are launched at hypervelocities. The blast vessels are built primarily of steel, but have windows

  11. Boron nitride nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Chopra; R. J. Luyken; K. Cherrey; V. H. Crespi; M. L. Cohen; S. G. Louie; A. Zettl

    1995-01-01

    The successful synthesis of pure boron nitride (BN) nanotubes is reported here. Multi-walled tubes with inner diameters on the order of 1 to 3 nanometers and with lengths up to 200 nanometers were produced in a carbon-free plasma discharge between a BN-packed tungsten rod and a cooled copper electrode. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy on individual tubes yielded B:N ratios of approximately

  12. Boron carbonitride nanojunctions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Guo; C. Y. Zhi; X. D. Bai; E. G. Wang

    2002-01-01

    Boron carbonitride (BCN) nanometric heterojunctions are controllably fabricated by bias-assisted hot-filament chemical vapor deposition with a pause-reactivation two-stage (PRTS) process. Tailored composition revulsion across the nanotube junction is obtained by simply varying the concentration of the gaseous precursor between the two stages of the PRTS process. The critical effect of the plasma power density in the reactivation process on continuous

  13. Lithium batteries: Future batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Reiche

    1991-01-01

    The main characteristics and applications of lithium batteries are reviewed. Miniature batteries for quartz crystal watches have been developed and fabricated in Switzerland since 1970. High technology systems like lithium batteries are largely used for their low auto-discharge during storage and for their high energy density. Two kinds of lithium batteries can be distinguished concerning their place in the watch:

  14. Lithium Ion Production NDE

    E-print Network

    .L. Wood, "Non-destructive evaluation of slot-die-coated lithium secondary battery electrodes by in-Voltage Lithium-Manganese-Rich Cathode (TODA HE5050) Thickness Measurement Uniform wet-thickness during coating, and D.L. Wood, "Non-destructive evaluation of slot-die-coated lithium secondary battery electrodes by in

  15. Lithium composite anode

    SciTech Connect

    McManis, G.E.; Fletcher, A.N.; Bliss, D.E.

    1986-12-30

    A method is described of manufacturing a lithium composite anode for thermal batteries comprising the steps of: preparing a homogeneous lithium alloy; grinding the alloy into a powder; melting elemental lithium onto the surface of the powder to form a uniform heterogenous mixture; cooling the mixture to ambient to form an ingot; and configuring the ingot into an anode.

  16. Factors affecting airborne beryllium concentrations in dental spaces.

    PubMed

    Hinman, R W; Lynde, T A; Pelleu, G B; Gaugler, R W

    1975-02-01

    Air sampling for beryllium concentrations produced during finishing procedures for a beryllium-containing alloy was conducted in two rooms with capacities of 700 and 10,000 cubic feet. The clearance rate of beryllium in the air and the effect of ventilation and room size on these concentrations were investigated. With local lathe ventilation, no beryllium was found. Without local lathe ventilation, mean 10 minutes concentrations of about 23 mug per cubic meter were found at the breathing zone of the lathe operator in both rooms. At 4 and 8 feet from the breathing zone, sizable concentrations of beryllium above the maximum acceptable standard were found only in the small room. These levels decreased to zero 10 minutes after completion of the finishing and polishing procedure. It was concluded that there was little hazard to dental personnel when local lathe ventilation was used; however, our finding of high concentrations of beryllium in the air when lathe ventilation was not used indicates that continued vigilance must be maintained. PMID:1090727

  17. Determination of beryllium by using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zawisza, Beata

    2008-03-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry method is subject to certain difficulties and inconveniences for the elements having the atomic number 9 or less. These difficulties become progressively more severe as the atomic number decreases, and are quite serious for beryllium, which is practically indeterminable directly by XRF. Therefore, an indirect determination of beryllium that is based on the evaluation of cobalt in the precipitate is taken into consideration. In the thesis below, there is a description of a new, simple, and precise method by selective precipitation using hexamminecobalt(III) chloride and ammonium carbonate-EDTA solution as a complexing agent for the determining of a trace amount of beryllium using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The optimum conditions for [Co(NH(3))(6)][Be(2)(OH)(3)(CO(3))(2)(H(2)O)(2)].(3)H(2)O complex formation were studied. The complex was collected on the membrane filter, and the Co Kalpha line was measured by XRF. The method presents the advantages of the sample preparation and the elimination of the matrix effects due to the thin film obtained. The detection limit of the proposed method is 0.2 mg of beryllium. The method was successfully applied to beryllium determination in copper/ beryllium/cobalt alloys. PMID:18247483

  18. Wetting Properties of Liquid Lithium on Stainless Steel and Enhanced Stainless Steel Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiflis, P.; Xu, W.; Raman, P.; Andruczyk, D.; Ruzic, D. N.; Curreli, D.

    2012-10-01

    Research into lithium as a first wall material has proven its ability to effectively getter impurities and reduce recycling of hydrogen ions at the wall. Current schemes for introducing lithium into a fusion device consist of lithium evaporators, however, as these devices evolve from pulsed to steady state, new methods will need to be employed such as the LIMIT concept of UIUC, or thin flowing film lithium walls. Critical to their implementation is understanding the interactions of liquid lithium with various surfaces. One such interaction is the wetting of materials by lithium, which may be characterized by the contact angle between the lithium and the surface. Experiments have been performed at UIUC into the contact angle of liquid lithium with a given surface, as well as methods to increase it. To reduce the oxidation rate of the droplets, the experiments were performed in vacuum, using a lithium injector to deposit drops on each surface. Among the materials investigated are stainless steel, both untreated and coated with a diamond like carbon (DLC) layer, molybdenum, and boronized molybdenum. The contact angle and its dependence on temperature is measured.

  19. A pilot study of an epithermal neutron source based on a low-energy proton accelerator for boron neutron-capture therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changkwang Chris

    1989-01-01

    In this study, a hospital-based low-energy proton accelerator neutron irradiation facility (LPANIF) for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is described. Neutrons are generated by 2.5 MeV protons impinging upon a lithium-7 target. The neutrons emitted from the lithium target are too energetic for BNCT, and must be moderated. A moderator assembly served this purpose. The neutron field generated by the

  20. 20 CFR 30.205 - What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa...benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA...cells. (2) Established chronic beryllium disease. (3) Any injury, illness, impairment, or...

  1. 20 CFR 30.205 - What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa...benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA...cells. (2) Established chronic beryllium disease. (3) Any injury, illness, impairment, or...

  2. 20 CFR 30.205 - What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa...benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA...cells. (2) Established chronic beryllium disease. (3) Any injury, illness, impairment, or...

  3. 20 CFR 30.205 - What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa...benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA...cells. (2) Established chronic beryllium disease. (3) Any injury, illness, impairment, or...

  4. 20 CFR 30.205 - What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa...benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA...cells. (2) Established chronic beryllium disease. (3) Any injury, illness, impairment, or...

  5. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain claimants...Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.615 What type of...filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain...

  6. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain claimants...Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.615 What type of...filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain...

  7. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain claimants...Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.615 What type of...filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain...

  8. 20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance of duty...employee” exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance of duty...during a period when beryllium dust, particles, or vapor may have been...

  9. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain claimants...Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.615 What type of...filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain...

  10. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain claimants...Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.615 What type of...filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain...

  11. Exposure and genetics increase risk of beryllium sensitisation and chronic beryllium disease in the nuclear weapons industry

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Michael V; Martyny, John W; Mroz, Margaret M; Silveira, Lori J; Strand, Matt; Cragle, Donna L; Tankersley, William G; Wells, Susan M; Newman, Lee S; Maier, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Beryllium sensitisation (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) are caused by exposure to beryllium with susceptibility affected by at least one well-studied genetic host factor, a glutamic acid residue at position 69 (E69) of the HLA-DP? chain (DP?E69). However, the nature of the relationship between exposure and carriage of the DP?E69 genotype has not been well studied. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between DP?E69 and exposure in BeS and CBD. Methods Current and former workers (n=181) from a US nuclear weapons production facility, the Y-12 National Security Complex (Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA), were enrolled in a case–control study including 35 individuals with BeS and 19 with CBD. HLA-DPB1 genotypes were determined by PCR-SSP. Beryllium exposures were assessed through worker interviews and industrial hygiene assessment of work tasks. Results After removing the confounding effect of potential beryllium exposure at another facility, multivariate models showed a sixfold (OR 6.06, 95% CI 1.96 to 18.7) increased odds for BeS and CBD combined among DP?E69 carriers and a fourfold (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.43 to 11.0) increased odds for those exposed over an assigned lifetime-weighted average exposure of 0.1?g/m3. Those with both risk factors had higher increased odds (OR 24.1, 95% CI 4.77 to 122). Conclusion DP?E69 carriage and high exposure to beryllium appear to contribute individually to the development of BeS and CBD. Among workers at a beryllium-using facility, the magnitude of risk associated with either elevated beryllium exposure or carriage of DP?E69 alone appears to be similar. PMID:21460389

  12. Lithium use in batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  13. An improved neutron collimator for brain tumor irradiations in clinical boron neutron capture therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hungyuan B. Liu; D. D. Greenberg; J. Capala; F. J. Wheeler

    1996-01-01

    To improve beam penetration into a head allowing the treatment of deeper seated tumors, two neutron collimators were built sequentially and tested for use in the clinical boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) program at the epithermal neutron irradiation facility of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor. The collimators were constructed from lithium-impregnated polyethylene, which comprises LiâCOâ powder (â93% enriched isotopic ⁶Li)

  14. Conceptual design of an RFQ accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron-capture therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P. Wangler; J. E. Stovall; T. S. Bhatia; C. K. Wang; T. E. Blue; R. A. Gahbauer

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design of a low-energy neutron generator for treatment of brain tumors by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is presented. The concept is based on a 2.5-MeV proton beam from a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, and the neutrons are produced by the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. A liquid lithium target and modulator assembly are designed to provide a high flux of

  15. Radiation damage and defect behavior in proton irradiated lithium-counterdoped n+p silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stupica, John; Goradia, Chandra; Swartz, Clifford K.; Weinberg, Irving

    1987-01-01

    Two lithium-counterdoped n+p silicon solar cells with different lithium concentrations were irradiated by 10-MeV protons. Cell performance was measured as a function of fluence, and it was found that the cell with the highest concentration of lithium had the highest radiation resistance. Deep level transient spectroscopy which showed two deep level defects that were lithium related. Relating the defect energy levels obtained from this study with those from earlier work using 1-MeV electron irradiation shows no correlation of the defect energy levels. There is one marked similarity: the absence of the boron-interstitial-oxygen-interstitial defect. This consistency strengthens the belief that lithium interacts with oxygen to prevent the formation of the boron interstitial-oxygen interstitial defect. The results indicate that, in general, addition of lithium in small amounts to the p-base of a boron doped silicon solar cell such that the base remains p-type, tends to increase the radiation resistance of the cell.

  16. Synthesis of hexagonal boron nitride graphene-like few layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, S.; Toury, B.; Journet, C.; Brioude, A.

    2014-06-01

    Self-standing highly crystallized hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) mono-, bi- and few-layers have been obtained for the first time via the Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route by adding lithium nitride (Li3N) micropowders to liquid-state polyborazylene (PBN). Incorporation of Li3N as a crystallization promoter allows the onset of crystallization of h-BN at a lower temperature (1200 °C) than under classical conditions (1800 °C). The hexagonal structure was confirmed by both electron and X-ray diffraction.Self-standing highly crystallized hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) mono-, bi- and few-layers have been obtained for the first time via the Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route by adding lithium nitride (Li3N) micropowders to liquid-state polyborazylene (PBN). Incorporation of Li3N as a crystallization promoter allows the onset of crystallization of h-BN at a lower temperature (1200 °C) than under classical conditions (1800 °C). The hexagonal structure was confirmed by both electron and X-ray diffraction. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01017e

  17. Boron isotopic compositions of some boron minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Oi, Takao; Musashi, Masaaki; Ossaka, Tomoko; Kakihana, Hidetake (Sophia Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Nomura, Masao; Okamoto, Makoto (Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    Boron minerals that have different structural formulae but are supposed to have the same geologic origin have been collected and analyzed for the {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B isotopic ratio. It has been reconfirmed that minerals of marine origin have higher {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B ratios than those of nonmarine origin. It has been found that the sequence of decreasing {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B values among the minerals with the same geologic origin is; borax, tincal, kernite (Na borates) > ulexite (Na/Ca borate) > colemanite, iyoite, meyerhofferite (Ca borates). This sequence is explainable on the basis of the difference in crystal structure among the minerals. That is, minerals with high BO{sub 3}/BO{sub 4} ratios, (the ratio of the number of the BO{sub 3} triangle units to the number of the BO{sub 4} tetrahedron units in the structural formula of a mineral) have higher {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B ratios.

  18. Aluminum-lithium for aerospace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Fielding; G. J. Wolf

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum-lithium alloys were developed primarily to reduce the weight of aircraft and aerospace structures. Lithium is the lightest metallic element, and each 1% of lithium added to aluminum reduces alloy density by about 3% and increases modulus by about 5%. Though lithium has a solubility limit of 4.2% in aluminum, the amount of lithium ranges between 1 and 3% in

  19. Surface area of respirable beryllium metal, oxide, and copper alloy aerosols and implications for assessment of exposure risk of chronic beryllium disease.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Hoover, Mark D; Dickerson, Robert M; Peterson, Eric J; Day, Gregory A; Breysse, Patrick N; Kent, Michael S; Scripsick, Ronald C

    2003-01-01

    The continued occurrence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) suggests the current occupational exposure limit of 2 microg beryllium per cubic meter of air does not adequately protect workers. This study examined the morphology and measured the particle surface area of aerodynamically size-separated powders and process-sampled particles of beryllium metal, beryllium oxide, and copper-beryllium alloy. The beryllium metal powder consisted of compact particles, whereas the beryllium oxide powder and particles were clusters of smaller primary particles. Specific surface area (SSA) results for all samples (N=30) varied by a factor of 37, from 0.56 +/- 0.07 m(2)/g (for the 0.4-0.7 microm size fraction of the process-sampled reduction furnace particles) to 20.8 +/- 0.4 m(2)/g (for the beryllium metal, from 4.0 +/- 0.01 m(2)/g (for the particle size fraction >6 microm) to 20.8 +/- 0.44 m(2)/g (for the particle size fraction beryllium oxide powder and particles collected from the screening operation. The SSA of beryllium metal powder decreases with increasing particle size, as expected for compact particles, and the SSA of the beryllium oxide powders and particles remains constant as a function of particle size, which might be expected for clustered particles. These associations illustrate how process-related factors can influence the morphology and SSA of beryllium materials. To avoid errors in predicting bioavailability of beryllium and the associated risks for CBD, the mechanisms of particle formation should be understood and the SSA of beryllium particles should be measured directly. PMID:12809534

  20. Process for producing boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, L.N.; Chase, C.C.

    1988-06-07

    A process for producing boron nitride is described which comprises mixing boron oxide, orthoboric acid and melamine to form a reaction composition which comprises from about 45 to about 50 weight percent, based on the weight of the reaction composition, of melamine and from about 50 to about 55 weight percent, based on the weight of the reaction composition, of a combination of boron oxide and orthoboric acid. The weight ratio of boron oxide to orthoboric acid is from about 3:1 to about 4:1; and heating the composition to temperature of about 700/sup 0/C to about 1200/sup 0/C under a non-oxidizing atmosphere to form boron nitride.

  1. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes. PMID:26081242

  2. A critical assessment of boron neutron capture therapy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Barth, Rolf F

    2003-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the nuclear reaction that occurs when boron-10 is irradiated with neutrons of the appropriate energy to produce high-energy alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. BNCT has been used clinically to treat patients with high-grade gliomas, and a much smaller number with primary and metastatic melanoma. The purpose of this special issue of the Journal of Neuro-Oncology is to provide a critical and realistic assessment of various aspects of basic and clinical BNCT research in order to better understand its present status and future potential. Topics that are covered include neutron sources, tumor-targeted boron delivery agents, brain tumor models to assess therapeutic efficacy, computational dosimetry and treatment planning, results of clinical trails in the United States, Japan and Europe, pharmacokinetic studies of sodium borocaptate and boronophenylalanine (BPA), positron emission tomography imaging of BPA for treatment planning, and finally an overview of the challenges and problems that must be faced if BNCT is to become a useful treatment modality for brain tumors. Clinical studies have demonstrated the safety of BNCT. The next challenge is an unequivocal demonstration of therapeutic efficacy in one or more of the clinical trails that either are in progress or are planned over the next few years. PMID:12749698

  3. Boron-Lined Multitube Neutron Proportional Counter Test

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2010-09-07

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride (BF3)-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated non-scintillating plastic fibers. In addition, a few other companies have detector technologies that might be competitive in the near term as an alternative technology. Reported here are the results of tests of a boron-lined, “multitube” proportional counter manufactured by Centronic Ltd. (Surry, U.K. and Houston, TX). This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma-ray rejection capabilities of the detector.

  4. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf F. Barth; Albert H. Soloway; Ralph G. Fairchild

    1990-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) bring together two components that when kept separate have only minor effects on normal cells. The first component is a stable isotope of boron (boron 10) that can be concentrated in tumor cells. The second is a beam of low-energy neutrons that produces short-range radiation when absorbed, or captured, by the boron. The combination of

  5. Functionalized boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Sainsbury, Toby; Ikuno, Takashi; Zettl, Alexander K

    2014-04-22

    A plasma treatment has been used to modify the surface of BNNTs. In one example, the surface of the BNNT has been modified using ammonia plasma to include amine functional groups. Amine functionalization allows BNNTs to be soluble in chloroform, which had not been possible previously. Further functionalization of amine-functionalized BNNTs with thiol-terminated organic molecules has also been demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles have been self-assembled at the surface of both amine- and thiol-functionalized boron nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) in solution. This approach constitutes a basis for the preparation of highly functionalized BNNTs and for their utilization as nanoscale templates for assembly and integration with other nanoscale materials.

  6. Adjustable boron carbonitride nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Y. Zhi; J. D. Guo; X. D. Bai; E. G. Wang

    2002-01-01

    The adjustable photoluminescence (PL) and field electron emission (FEE) properties of boron carbonitride (B–C–N) nanotubes grown under well-controlled conditions are studied systematically. Large-scale highly aligned B–C–N nanotubes are synthesized directly on Ni substrates by the bias-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition method. Single-walled B–C–N nanotubes and nanometric B–C–N heterojunctions are obtained by the pulsed-arc-discharge technique and pause-reactivation two-stage process, respectively.

  7. Boron carbonitride nanojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J. D.; Zhi, C. Y.; Bai, X. D.; Wang, E. G.

    2002-01-01

    Boron carbonitride (BCN) nanometric heterojunctions are controllably fabricated by bias-assisted hot-filament chemical vapor deposition with a pause-reactivation two-stage (PRTS) process. Tailored composition revulsion across the nanotube junction is obtained by simply varying the concentration of the gaseous precursor between the two stages of the PRTS process. The critical effect of the plasma power density in the reactivation process on continuous growth of the nanotubes is realized and controlled, leading to successful synthesis of the Y-shaped BCN nanojunctions.

  8. Adjustable boron carbonitride nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Y. Zhi; J. D. Guo; X. D. Bai; E. G. Wang

    2002-01-01

    The adjustable photoluminescence (PL) and field electron emission (FEE) properties of boron carbonitride (B-C-N) nanotubes grown under well-controlled conditions are studied systematically. Large-scale highly aligned B-C-N nanotubes are synthesized directly on Ni substrates by the bias-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition method. Single-walled B-C-N nanotubes and nanometric B-C-N heterojunctions are obtained by the pulsed-arc-discharge technique and pause-reactivation two-stage process, respectively.

  9. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20...

  10. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20...

  11. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20...

  12. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20...

  13. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20...

  14. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1993-07-01

    Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included.

  15. Boron Diffusion In Silicon From Ultrafine Boron-Silicon Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Arunava; West, Gary A.; Donlan, Jeffrey P.

    1984-06-01

    A CO2 laser pyrolysis technique has been used to prepare ultrafine (< 0.1p diameter) boron-silicon powders with different boron concentrations. These powders have been used as a spin-on boron diffusion source for silicon wafers. The spin-on colloidal suspension is prepared by mixing the powder with a thermally degradable polymer binder, polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA), and an organic vehicle, cyclohexanone. Thin, uniform films are spun-on using a standard photoresist spinner. Two different procedures are followed in diffusing the boron from the boron-silicon powder. In the first process, the boron is diffused by heating the wafer in an argon ambient (1000-1260°C). The excess dopant layer is removed by oxidation (02) and subsequent etching (HF). In the second process, the powder is first converted to a borosilicate glass layer by oxidation, followed by diffusion in an argon ambient. Some experiments using commercially available boron nitride powder as a diffusion source are also discussed.

  16. Tritium migration in the materials proposed for fusion reactors: Li2TiO3 and beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulsartov, T. V.; Gordienko, Yu. N.; Tazhibayeva, I. L.; Kenzhin, E. A.; Barsukov, N. I.; Sadvakasova, A. O.; Kulsartova, A. V.; Zaurbekova, Zh. A.

    2013-11-01

    The results of tritium and helium gas release from lithium ceramics samples Li2TiO3 irradiated at the WWR-K reactor (Almaty, Kazakhstan) and from beryllium samples irradiated at the BN-350 reactor (Aktau, Kazakhstan) and the IVG.1M reactor (Kurchatov, Kazakhstan) are presented. Experimentally obtained thermal desorption (TDS) spectra have shown that the dependence of tritium release from lithium ceramics has a complicated behavior and to a large extent depends on lithium ceramics type. Nevertheless, it was found that the total amount of tritium released from all types of lithium ceramics has the same order of magnitude, equal to about 1011 Bq/kg. It was found that in the temperature range from 523 K to 1373 K the process of tritium release from lithium ceramics involves volume diffusion and thermoactivated tritium release from the accumulation centers generated under irradiation. TDS of beryllium samples enables us to obtain characteristics of tritium and helium release during linear heating, to determine integrated quantities of generated helium and tritium, and to determine parameters of release processes. The range of operating temperatures from 303 K to 1773 K; The pressure in the operating volume of the chamber 10-5 Pa; The accuracy in automatic temperature maintenance with respect to given temperature ±0.5 K. The experiments were carried out as follows: the sample was loaded into the crucible of the operating chamber. Then the sample was degassed at 423 K with constant pumping for 4 h. After that the sample was cooled to room temperature and the sample heating experiment was carried out. Each of the samples was heated linearly to 1523 K examining the released gases having mass numbers 2 (?2), 3 (3??), 4 (4?? + ??), 6 (?2), 18 (?2?), 20 (HTO) and 22 (?2?). The rate of linear heating ranged from 5 K/min to 20 K/min. It was taken into account that the total tritium quantity is formed by values of peaks respective to 6 and 3 mass numbers. And according to standard interpretation of spectra relative to the deposition for tritium total quantity - M6 makes 95% and M3 makes 5%, which means that M3 is formed only by 3He at missing of M6 peak.It should be noted that the experimental device for TDS studies is small (the volume of the measuring chamber and all gas paths to the mass spectrometer is 3 l at the most). The assembly is equipped with a pump with a capacity of 100 l/s. Calibration experiments using helium and hydrogen pumping did not show any substantial delay in detection of gases with different mass numbers, caused by different rates of transportation from the place of gas measurement. The observed detection delay was less than 0.1 s. The majority of helium is released from samples of DV-56 in the high temperature region. For samples of TShG-200 helium released in the high-temperature region is about ˜50% of the total release. For samples of DV-56 (irradiated to higher doses than samples of TShG-200 with a higher amount of generated tritium), tritium is released in the high temperature range as T2 (˜60%), HTO and T2O (˜30%). For samples of TShG-200 tritium is released in low temperature region as HTO and T2O. In the high temperature range the overall allocation of tritium as T2 from TShG-200 samples increases from 5% to 25%. Tritium release in the form of tritium water is caused by the tritium-oxygen (beryllium oxide) reaction. We suppose that it can have a complicated mechanism: for example, in case of direct chemical interaction of tritium with beryllium oxide (or beryllium hydroxide forming HTO) or tritium-beryllium oxide decay. This mechanism is not fully understood, which is why we have not analyzed the dependences of tritium water flux obtained in the TDS experiments. The questions of the importance of sample exposure and its influence on tritium conditions in beryllium require further explanation. For samples of DV-56 the exposure is about 17 years. The dependence of T2 release were considered in diffusion coefficient estimations.Tri

  17. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrickson, M.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manly, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers.

  18. Genetic determinants of sensitivity to beryllium in mice.

    PubMed

    Tarantino-Hutchison, Lauren M; Sorrentino, Claudio; Nadas, Arthur; Zhu, Yiwen; Rubin, Edward M; Tinkle, Sally S; Weston, Ainsley; Gordon, Terry

    2009-06-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an irreversible, debilitating granulomatous lung disease is caused by exposure to beryllium. This occupational hazard occurs in primary production and machining of Be-metal, BeO, beryllium - containing alloys, and other beryllium products. CBD begins as an MHC Class II-restricted, T(H)1 hypersensitivity, and the Human Leukocyte Antigen, HLA-DPB1E(69), is associated with risk of developing CBD. Because inbred strains of mice have not provided good models of CBD to date, three strains of HLA-DPB1 transgenic mice in an FVB/N background were developed; each contains a single allele of HLA-DPB1 that confers a different magnitude of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR approximately 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR approximately 3), and HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR approximately 46). The mouse ear swelling test (MEST) was employed to determine if these different alleles would support a hypersensitivity response to beryllium. Mice were first sensitized on the back and subsequently challenged on the ear. In separate experiments, mice were placed into one of three groups (sensitization/challenge): C/C, C/Be, and Be/Be. In the HLA-DPB1*1701 mice, the strain with the highest risk transgene, the Be/Be group was the only group that displayed significant maximum increased ear thickness of 19.6% +/- 3.0% over the baseline measurement (p < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in the other transgenic strains for any treatment condition. In addition, inter-strain differences in response to beryllium in seven inbred strains were investigated through use of the MEST, these included: FVB/N, AKR, Balb/c, C3H/HeJ, C57/BL6, DBA/2, and SJL/J. The FVB/N strain was least responsive, while the SJL/J and C57/BL6 strains were the highest responders. Our results suggest that the HLA-DPB1*1701 transgene product is an important risk factor for induction of the beryllium-sensitive phenotype. This model should be a useful tool for investigating beryllium sensitization. PMID:19589099

  19. Skin as a route of exposure and sensitization in chronic beryllium disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tinkle, Sally S; Antonini, James M; Rich, Brenda A; Roberts, Jenny R; Salmen, Rebecca; DePree, Karyn; Adkins, Eric J

    2003-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease is an occupational lung disease that begins as a cell-mediated immune response to beryllium. Although respiratory and engineering controls have significantly decreased occupational beryllium exposures over the last decade, the rate of beryllium sensitization has not declined. We hypothesized that skin exposure to beryllium particles would provide an alternative route for sensitization to this metal. We employed optical scanning laser confocal microscopy and size-selected fluorospheres to demonstrate that 0.5- and 1.0- micro m particles, in conjunction with motion, as at the wrist, penetrate the stratum corneum of human skin and reach the epidermis and, occasionally, the dermis. The cutaneous immune response to chemical sensitizers is initiated in the skin, matures in the local lymph node (LN), and releases hapten-specific T cells into the peripheral blood. Topical application of beryllium to C3H mice generated beryllium-specific sensitization that was documented by peripheral blood and LN beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests (BeLPT) and by changes in LN T-cell activation markers, increased expression of CD44, and decreased CD62L. In a sensitization-challenge treatment paradigm, epicutaneous beryllium increased murine ear thickness following chemical challenge. These data are consistent with development of a hapten-specific, cell-mediated immune response following topical application of beryllium and suggest a mechanistic link between the persistent rate of beryllium worker sensitization and skin exposure to fine and ultrafine beryllium particles. PMID:12842774

  20. SULPHODICHLOROHYDROXYDIMETHYL FUCHSON DICARBOXYLIC ACID AS A COLORIMETRIC REAGENT FOR THE MICRODETERMINATION OF BERYLLIUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Sinha; A. K. Dey

    1962-01-01

    Beryllium forms a pink-colored chelate ( lambda \\/sub max\\/540 m mu ) ; with Chrome Azurol S (sulfodichlorohydroxydimethyl fuchson dicarboxylic acid, ; color index 723). This was used in the colorimetric determination of beryllium ; on a micro scale and conditions for the measurements were worked out. Baer's law ; is adhered to with 0.01 to 0,33 ppm of beryllium

  1. Lithium battery space experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Chmlelewski, A.B.; Surampudi, S.; Bennett, R.; Frank, H.; Mueller, R. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The In-Space Technology Experiments Program selected the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to conduct a Phase A study of the Lithium Battery Experiment. The experiment will mark the first time a rechargeable lithium battery will be flown in space. The operation of the battery involves lithium deposition and dissolution processes. Micro gravity influences these processes significantly. The experiment will check the rate capability, discharge voltage, capacity and the phenomena affecting cycle life. The paper describes the design and methodology of this experiment.

  2. Temperature rise in lithium targets for accelerator based BNCT using multi-fin heat removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. L.; Zhou, X.-L.; Hamm, R. W.; Harmon, F.; Kudchadker, R. J.; Harker, Y. D.

    1999-06-01

    Thick lithium targets are excellent sources of neutrons for accelerator boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), but the low melting point of lithium (181 °C) and a need for high proton currents make target heating a concern. However, because neutrons are not produced for proton energies below the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction threshold of 1.88 MeV, the lithium targets need only be thick enough to slow the proton beam past this energy. This allows the majority of the proton energy deposition, including the Bragg peak, to occur in the copper backing, whose superior thermal properties reduce the total temperature rise. We have developed a model for predicting temperature rises in a BNCT target design that utilizes multiple rectangular fins. A theoretical model of the multi-fin heat removal is presented. Experiments confirm the results of these calculations, which indicate that multi-fin lithium targets for BNCT can successfully cool milliamp level proton beams.

  3. Comparison of Cleaning Methods for Analysis of Underground Beryllium Corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    M. K. Adler Flitton; T. S. Yoder

    2006-03-01

    The subsurface radioactive disposal site located at the Idaho National Laboratory contains neutronactivated beryllium metals from non-fuel nuclear-reactor-core components. A long-term underground corrosion test is being conducted to obtain site-specific corrosion rates of the disposed beryllium to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements in the surrounding arid vadose zone environment. During the corrosion analysis, two cleaning methods were used. This paper describes the cleaning methods and presents a comparison of the results.

  4. Method for removal of beryllium contamination from an article

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Hollenbeck, Scott M.

    2012-12-25

    A method of removal of beryllium contamination from an article is disclosed. The method typically involves dissolving polyisobutylene in a solvent such as hexane to form a tackifier solution, soaking the substrate in the tackifier to produce a preform, and then drying the preform to produce the cleaning medium. The cleaning media are typically used dry, without any liquid cleaning agent to rub the surface of the article and remove the beryllium contamination below a non-detect level. In some embodiments no detectible residue is transferred from the cleaning wipe to the article as a result of the cleaning process.

  5. Fluorimetric determination of beryllium with pyridoxal-5-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Petidier, A; Rubio, S; Gomez-Hens, A; Valcarcel, M

    1985-11-01

    A simple, rapid and selective method for the determination of beryllium with pyridoxal-5-phosphate has been developed. The system is only fluorescent (lambda(ex) 360, lambda(em) 460 nm) in the presence of a nitrogenous base such as ammonia, ethylenediamine or pyridine, owing to the possible formation of a ternary complex. The calibration graph is linear over the range 8-60 ng ml . The high selectivity of the method permits the determination of beryllium in various types of alloys. PMID:18963944

  6. Failure prediction of thin beryllium sheets used in spacecraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roschke, Paul N.; Papados, Photios; Mascorro, Edward

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to predict failure for cross-rolled beryllium sheet structures, high order macroscopic failure criteria are used. These require the knowledge of in-plane uniaxial and shear strengths. Test results are included for in-plane biaxial tension, uniaxial compression for two different material orientations, and shear. All beryllium specimens have the same chemical composition. In addition, all experimental work was performed in a controlled laboratory environment. Numerical simulation complements these tests. A brief bibliography supplements references listed in a previous report.

  7. An all-beryllium-aluminum optical system for reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Michael J.

    2009-08-01

    BAE Systems has developed an all-beryllium-aluminum version of the F-9120; a compact, lightweight, dual-band Electro-Optical/Infrared (EO/IR) long range sensor for high altitude tactical reconnaissance applications. The use of beryllium-aluminum as a common mirror and structure material provides a novel sensor solution that satisfies the military's need to gather high quality, long range, simultaneous, visible and infrared imagery at a lower cost. This paper will discuss the formulation and implementation of BAE Systems innovative material approach as well as its manufacturing and performance advantages.

  8. Elemental composition in sealed plutonium-beryllium neutron sources.

    PubMed

    Xu, N; Kuhn, K; Gallimore, D; Martinez, A; Schappert, M; Montoya, D; Lujan, E; Garduno, K; Tandon, L

    2014-10-22

    Five sealed plutonium-beryllium (PuBe) neutron sources from various manufacturers were disassembled. Destructive chemical analyses for recovered PuBe materials were conducted for disposition purposes. A dissolution method for PuBe alloys was developed for quantitative plutonium (Pu) and beryllium (Be) assay. Quantitation of Be and trace elements was performed using plasma based spectroscopic instruments, namely inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Pu assay was accomplished by an electrochemical method. Variations in trace elemental contents among the five PuBe sources are discussed. PMID:25464182

  9. Boron isotope application for tracing sources of contamination in groundwater.

    E-print Network

    Kasher, Roni

    Boron isotope application for tracing sources of contamination in groundwater. Abstract: Boron isotope composition and concentration of sewage effluent and pristine and contaminated groundwater from. Anthropogenic boron in wastewater is isotopically distinct from natural boron in groundwater and thus can

  10. Reducing Boron Toxicity by Microbial Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.; Phelps, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    While electricity is a clean source of energy, methods of electricity-production, such as the use of coal-fired power plants, often result in significant environmental damage. Coal-fired electrical power plants produce air pollution, while contaminating ground water and soils by build-up of boron, which enters surrounding areas through leachate. Increasingly high levels of boron in soils eventually overcome boron tolerance levels in plants and trees, resulting in toxicity. Formation of insoluble boron precipitates, mediated by mineral-precipitating bacteria, may sequester boron into more stable forms that are less available and toxic to vegetation. Results have provided evidence of microbially-facilitated sequestration of boron into insoluble mineral precipitates. Analyses of water samples taken from ponds with high boron concentrations showed that algae present contained 3-5 times more boron than contained in the water in the samples. Boron sequestration may also be facilitated by the incorporation of boron within algal cells. Experiments examining boron sequestration by algae are in progress. In bacterial experiments with added ferric citrate, the reduction of iron by the bacteria resulted in an ironcarbonate precipitate containing boron. An apparent color change showing the reduction of amorphous iron, as well as the precipitation of boron with iron, was more favorable at higher pH. Analysis of precipitates by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy revealed mineralogical composition and biologicallymediated accumulation of boron precipitates in test-tube experiments.

  11. Boron carbonitride nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhi, C Y; Bai, X D; Wang, E G

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the design, synthesis, characterization, and properties of boron carbonitride nanotubes (BCN) is presented in this review. Distinctive structural and electronic properties are revealed in theoretical studies of the BCN nanotubes and compared with the properties of carbon nanotubes. In the experimental studies, BCN nanotubes have been synthesized by various techniques. For different purposes, controllable growth processes have been used to fabricate BCN nanotubes with novel structures, such as nanojunctions and filled nanotubes. Some interesting phenomena originating from the substitution of B and N atoms, such as the phase segregation, are considered theoretically and experimentally. Mainly the physical properties--field electron emission and photoluminescence--are discussed, which turn out to have potential applications in the industry. PMID:15112540

  12. Boron diffusion in silicon devices

    DOEpatents

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Atlanta, GA); Kim, Dong Seop (Atlanta, GA); Nakayashiki, Kenta (Smyrna, GA); Rounsaville, Brian (Stockbridge, GA)

    2010-09-07

    Disclosed are various embodiments that include a process, an arrangement, and an apparatus for boron diffusion in a wafer. In one representative embodiment, a process is provided in which a boric oxide solution is applied to a surface of the wafer. Thereafter, the wafer is subjected to a fast heat ramp-up associated with a first heating cycle that results in a release of an amount of boron for diffusion into the wafer.

  13. The effect of processing parameters on plasma sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Jacobson, L.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Cowgill, D.F. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Plasma spraying is being investigated as a potential coating technique for applying thin (0.1--5mm) layers of beryllium on plasma facing surfaces of blanket modules in ITER and also as an in-situ repair technique for repairing eroded beryllium surfaces in high heat flux divertor regions. High density spray deposits (>98% of theoretical density) of beryllium will be required in order to maximize the thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. A preliminary investigation was done to determine the effect of various processing parameters (particle size, particle morphology, secondary gas additions and reduced chamber pressure) on the as-deposited density of beryllium. The deposits were made using spherical beryllium feedstock powder which was produced by centrifugal atomization at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Improvements in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the beryllium spray deposits will be discussed along with the corresponding thermal conductivity and outgassing behavior of these deposits.

  14. The Behavior of Beryllium and Beryllium Copper in a 4,000 F Supersonic Air Jet at a Mach Number of 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.

    1961-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted in a 4,000 F supersonic air jet at a Mach number of 2 at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory to investigate the behavior of beryllium and beryllium copper. Both materials were tested as conical models having 10 deg half-angles with sharp points and with 0.064-inch nose radii. Results of these tests indicate that the beryllium is superior to beryllium copper as a heat-sink material. No burning of either material was observed during the test.

  15. Modelling of lithium erosion and transport in FTU lithium experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, R.; Maddaluno, G.; Apicella, M. L.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Kirschner, A.; Chen, J. L.; Li, J. G.; Luo, G.-N.

    2013-07-01

    The ERO code has been used to simulate lithium erosion, transport and re-deposition from liquid lithium limiter experiments in FTU. Two different operational cases from LLL experiments with different plasma parameters and surface temperature are modelled. According to the effective lithium sputtering yields, for both cases the lithium erosion is mainly due to physical sputtering rather than evaporation. Furthermore, the modelled re-deposition fraction of evaporated lithium is much higher than that of sputtered lithium, which is due to the shorter ionisation mean free path of thermal lithium atoms. Therefore, the evaporation erosion effect can be neglected compared to physical sputtering when the surface temperature is below 450 °C. According to the simulations, most of the lithium impurities exist in the form of Li+, and the main plasma contamination by lithium ions is low because most of eroded lithium particles are not transported into the core plasma and stay outside of the LCFS.

  16. BORON--1998 13.1 By Phyllis A. Lyday

    E-print Network

    BORON--1998 13.1 BORON By Phyllis A. Lyday Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Shantae, international data coordinator. Boron is produced domestically only in the State of California. Boron products. The United States and Turkey are the world's largest producers of boron. Boron is priced and sold

  17. Atmospheric corrosion of lithium electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnson

    1981-01-01

    Atmospheric corrosion of lithium during lithium-cell assembly and the dry storage of cells prior to electrolyte fill has been found to initiate lithium corrosion pits and to form corrosion products. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate lithium pitting and the white floccullent corrosion products. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Auger spectroscopy in combination with X-ray diffraction

  18. Sputter deposited beryllium fuel capsules for NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, C.S.

    1998-02-12

    The objective of our effort is to systematically study the properties of films produced under different conditions, with an emphasis on improving surface morphology and microstructure while studying permeability and capsule strength. We have made extensive use of atomic force and electron microscopy to determine the microstructure of the films, along with composition probes (mainly x-ray fluorescence) to quantify the chemical structure. Our studies can be roughly divided into three categories. First, there are those in which the effects of substrate biasing have been investigated. This includes varying the substrate voltage from 0 to 120 V and applying an intermittent bias. Next there are studies of Be combined with boron, a non-soluble dopant Because of it`s low Z this dopant is of particular interest for x-ray related applications. Finally, there are experiments in which pulses of nitrogen are admitted to the vacuum chamber during deposition. The layers of nitride formed tended to disrupt the growth of Be grains, leading to a more fine-grained microstructure. For all these studies, we have most often used hollow plastic spheres for our substrate material. However, there have been some samples deposited on glass spheres or silicon flats.

  19. Significant Improvement from Chronic Beryllium Disease Following Corticosteroid Pulse Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaoru NAGAOKA; Tsutomu YOSHIDA; Hiroki SAKAKIBARA; Hideki KURITA; Hiroshige TANIWAKI; Yuichiro ONO

    2006-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a rare disease characterized by diffuse interstitial pulmonary granulomatosis. We report a case of CBD which exhibited marked improvement both subjectively and objectively following pulse therapy. The patient was a 36-year-old man whose chief complaint was dyspnea and a dry cough. Since July 1990, the patient had been working in the development of an automatic

  20. The acute toxicity of inhaled beryllium metal in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, P.J.; Finch, G.L.; Hoover, M.D.; Cuddihy, R.G. (Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1990-01-01

    The authors exposed rats once by nose only for 50 min to a mean concentration of 800 [mu]g/m[sup 3] of beryllium metal to characterize the acute toxic effects within the lung. Histological changes within the lung and enzyme changes within bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were evaluated at 3, 7, 10, 14, 31, 59, 115, and 171 days postexposure (dpe). Beryllium metal-exposed rats developed acute, necrotizing, hemorrhagic, exudative pneumonitis and intraalveolar fibrosis that peaked at 14 dpe. By 31 dpe, inflammatory lesions were replaced by minimal interstitial and intraalveolar fibrosis. Necrotizing inflammation was observed again at 59 dpe which progressed to chronic-active inflammation by 115 dpe. Low numbers of diffusely distributed lymphocytes were also present but they were not associated with granulomas as is observed in beryllium-induced disease in man. Lymphocytes were not elevated in BAL samples collected from beryllium-exposed rats at any time after exposure. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), [beta]-glucuronidase, and protein levels were elevated in BAL fluid from 3 through 14 dpe but returned to near normal levels by 31 dpe. LDH increased once again at 59 dpe and remained elevated at 171 dpe. [beta]-Glucuronidase and protein levels were slightly, but not significantly, elevated from 31 through 171 dpe.

  1. REACTOR CORE SURROUNDED BY BERYLLIUM MODERATOR. CAMERA LOOKS DOWN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR CORE SURROUNDED BY BERYLLIUM MODERATOR. CAMERA LOOKS DOWN AND TOWARD NORTH INTO LOWER GRID CASTING. HOLES OF VARIOUS SIZES ACCOMMODATE COOLANT WATER AND EXPERIMENTAL POSITIONS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4197. Unknown Photographer, 2/11/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Industrywide study of beryllium production facilities. Industrywide study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donaldson

    1973-01-01

    Worker exposures to beryllium (7440417) (Be) were surveyed in an industrywide study of four Be facilities in 1968 through 1970 and 1971 thru 1972. In the 1968 survey, general area, gross, and respirable dust samples were collected. In 1970, mainly personal respirable samples were collected and some general area gross and respirable dust samples were analyzed. In the 1971 through

  3. Fracture testing of beryllium copper alloy C17510

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irving J. Zatz; Holt A. Murray

    1991-01-01

    Beryllium-copper alloy C17510 has been selected as the primary candidate material for the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) toroidal field (TF) coil conductors. Since the coils will be subjected to both mechanical and thermal load cycling during their design life, it becomes imperative to be able to predict the fatigue crack propagation characteristics of this structural system. While C17510 is well

  4. A high performance beryllium copper alloy for magnet applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. Ratka; W. D. Spiegelberg

    1994-01-01

    Although beryllium copper alloy UNS C17510 has been in commercial use for many years, recent advances in metallurgical processing have led to a version that has demonstrated improved performance. The alloy's combination of strength and electrical conductivity allow it to withstand forces from high magnetic fields as well. Or better than other alloy or composite systems. It is produced as

  5. SESAME equation of state number 7611, beryllium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Boettger, J.C.; Willis, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    A new equation of state (EOS) for beryllium oxide (BeO) has been constructed for the SESAME library as material number 7611. Unlike the existing EOS for BeO in the library (7610), this new EOS incorporates the effect of a structural phase transition which has been predicted by two independent theoretical calculations. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  6. SESAME equation of state number 7611, beryllium oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Boettger; J. M. Willis

    1990-01-01

    A new equation of state (EOS) for beryllium oxide (BeO) has been constructed for the SESAME library as material number 7611. Unlike the existing EOS for BeO in the library (7610), this new EOS incorporates the effect of a structural phase transition which has been predicted by two independent theoretical calculations. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Biological Exposure Metrics of Beryllium-Exposed Dental Technicians

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Moshe; Lerman, Yehuda; Kapel, Arik; Pardo, Asher; Schwarz, Yehuda; Newman, Lee; Maier, Lisa; Fireman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Beryllium is commonly used in the dental industry. This study investigates the association between particle size and shape in induced sputum (IS) with beryllium exposure and oxidative stress in 83 dental technicians. Particle size and shape were defined by laser and video, whereas beryllium exposure data came from self-reports and beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) results. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) gene expression in IS was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A high content of particles (92%) in IS > 5 µ in size is correlated to a positive BeLPT risk (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9–13). Use of masks, hoods, and type of exposure yielded differences in the transparency of IS particles (gray level) and modulate HO1 levels. These results indicate that parameters of size and shape of particles in IS are sensitive to workplace hygiene, affect the level of oxidative stress, and may be potential markers for monitoring hazardous dust exposures. PMID:24205960

  8. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian P.

    2009-01-01

    Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were tabulated. Years 2001–10 gave the greatest match (45.9%) for methodological parameters, followed by 27.71% for 1991–2000. Years 1971–80 and 1981–90 were not significantly different in the information published and available whereas years 1951–1960 showed a lack of suitable articles. Some articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its biological monitoring in the workplace essential. PMID:20386622

  9. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  10. Hanford Site Beryllium Program: Past, Present, and Future - 12428

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Mark [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Garcia, Pete [U.S. Department of Energy - Richland Office, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Goeckner, Julie [U.S. Department of Energy - HQ, EMCBC, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202 (United States); Millikin, Emily [Washington Closure Hanford, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Stoner, Mike [Mission Support Alliance, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a long history of beryllium use because of the element's broad application to many nuclear operations and processes. At the Hanford Site beryllium alloy was used to fabricate parts for reactors, including fuel rods for the N-Reactor during plutonium production. Because of continued confirmed cases of chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and data suggesting CBD occurs at exposures to low-level concentrations, the DOE decided to issue a rule to further protect federal and contractor workers from hazards associated with exposure to beryllium. When the beryllium rule was issued in 1999, each of the Hanford Site contractors developed a Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) and initial site wide beryllium inventories. A new site-wide CBDPP, applicable to all Hanford contractors, was issued in May, 2009. In the spring of 2010 the DOE Headquarters Office of Health, Safety, and Security (HSS) conducted an independent inspection to evaluate the status of implementation of the Hanford Site Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP). The report identified four Findings and 12 cross-cutting Opportunities for Improvement (OFIs). A corrective action plan (CAP) was developed to address the Findings and crosscutting OFIs. The DOE directed affected site contractors to identify dedicated resources to participate in development of the CAP, along with involving stakeholders. The CAP included general and contractor-specific recommendations. Following initiation of actions to implement the approved CAP, it became apparent that additional definition of product deliverables was necessary to assure that expectations were adequately addressed and CAP actions could be closed. Consequently, a supplement to the original CAP was prepared and transmitted to DOE-HQ for approval. Development of the supplemental CAP was an eight month effort. From the onset a core group of CAP development members were identified to develop a mechanism for assuring that consensus was achieved on products developed as part of the CAP and the closure process. The original CAP was developed based on a large number of actions developed from the HSS report. This was essentially a 'bottoms up' approach. The revised CAP development team concluded that a more holistic, process-based approach was appropriate to assure that the resulting deliverable resulted in a best-in-class product. Consequently, issues and recommendations contained in the HSS report were grouped into 11 program areas, specific product deliverables were identified within each of the program areas, and a work breakdown structure (WBS) was logically applied to number the groupings. While the revised approach to product development utilizes a more holistic, 'top down' approach, the intent was still to incorporate specific recommendations and address specific issues contained in the HSS report. Through implementation of this new approach, a collaborative team has been established that works together using a consensus process for ensuring product completion. Benefits of the new approach include building a level of trust amongst all parties, quality of the products have improved, and acceptance by all parties of what action will truly meet the intent of the deficiency and make the beryllium program stronger. Open dialogue occurs amongst the core Be CAP team members, Hanford contractors, and DOE. It has been a learning process and will continue to be one, but everyone shares the common goal of reducing worker exposure to beryllium. (authors)

  11. A new boron impregnation technique of wood by vapor boron of boric acid to reduce leaching boron from wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ergun Baysal; Mustafa Kemal Yalinkilic

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to reveal impregnation ability and to enhance leaching resistance of boron from borate-treated wood. Vapor boron treatment was applied in compressed and uncompressed states at high temperatures such as 180 and 200°C for 6, 8 and 15 min. Following ten-cycle leaching periods, amounts of boron leached from vapor boron treated wood was measured by ion chromatography. According

  12. MACHINING TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES FOR URANIUM, GRAPHITE, TITANIUM, ZIRCONIUM, THORIUM, TANTALUM, BERYLLIUM, BISMUTH, LITHIUM, AND STELLITE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1952-01-01

    Techniqnes are presented which are applicable in machining materinls such as U, graphite, Ti, Zr, Th, Ta, Be, Bi, Li, and stellite. Included in the general considerations are factors related to machinability of the materials, operating condition of the machines, and the condition of the cutting tools. In addition, industrial hygtene and safety aspects are examined. The techniques for each

  13. MACHINING TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES FOR URANIUM, GRAPHITE, TITANIUM, ZIRCONIUM, THORIUM, TANTALUM, BERYLLIUM, BISMUTH, LITHIUM, AND STELLITE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1952-01-01

    Techniqnes are presented which are applicable in machining materinls ;\\u000a such as U, graphite, Ti, Zr, Th, Ta, Be, Bi, Li, and stellite. Included in the ;\\u000a general considerations are factors related to machinability of the materials, ;\\u000a operating condition of the machines, and the condition of the cutting tools. In ;\\u000a addition, industrial hygtene and safety aspects are examined.

  14. Decreasing the leachibility of boron wood preservatives 

    E-print Network

    Gezer, Engin Derya

    1996-01-01

    The use of boron in wood preservatives has been growing since the 1930s, primarily in various boric acid/borax mixtures. Boron preservatives have several advantages for application as wood preservatives including a broad spectrum of activity...

  15. Methods for boron delivery to mammalian tissue

    DOEpatents

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick (Encino, CA); Feaks, Debra A. (Los Angeles, CA); Shelly, Kenneth J. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2003-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy can be used to destroy tumors. This treatment modality is enhanced by delivering compounds to the tumor site where the compounds have high concentrations of boron, the boron compounds being encapsulated in the bilayer of a liposome or in the bilayer as well as the internal space of the liposomes. Preferred compounds, include carborane units with multiple boron atoms within the carborane cage structure. Liposomes with increased tumor specificity may also be used.

  16. Adjustable boron carbonitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, C. Y.; Guo, J. D.; Bai, X. D.; Wang, E. G.

    2002-04-01

    The adjustable photoluminescence (PL) and field electron emission (FEE) properties of boron carbonitride (B-C-N) nanotubes grown under well-controlled conditions are studied systematically. Large-scale highly aligned B-C-N nanotubes are synthesized directly on Ni substrates by the bias-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition method. Single-walled B-C-N nanotubes and nanometric B-C-N heterojunctions are obtained by the pulsed-arc-discharge technique and pause-reactivation two-stage process, respectively. It is found that the microstructures, orientations, and chemical compositions of the nanotubes can be controlled by varying growth parameters. The mechanism of the controllable growth is also investigated. Intense and stable PL from the nanotubes is observed in both blue-violet (photon energies 3.14-2.55 eV) and yellow-green bands (photon energies 2.13-2.34 eV) and the emission bands are adjusted by varying the compositions of the nanotubes. FEE properties are also studied and optimized by varying the B or N atomic concentrations in the nanotubes. All these results verify the controllability of the electronic band structure of the B-C-N nanotubes.

  17. Fallout beryllium-7 as a soil and sediment tracer in river basins: current status and needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Alex; Blake, Will H.; Smith, Hugh G.; Mabit, Lionel; Keith-Roach, Miranda J.

    2013-04-01

    Beryllium-7 is a cosmogenic radionuclide formed in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of nitrogen and oxygen. Its constant natural production and fallout via precipitation coupled with its ability to bind to soil particles have underpinned its application as a sediment tracer. The short half-life of beryllium-7 (53.3 days) lends itself to tracing sediment dynamics over short time periods, thus, enabling assessment of the effect of land use change upon soil redistribution. Although beryllium-7 has been widely applied as a tracer to date, there remain crucial gaps in understanding relating to the assumptions for its use. To further support the application of beryllium-7 as a tracer across a range of environments requires consideration of both the current strengths and shortcomings of the technique to direct research needs. Here we review research surrounding the assumptions underpinning beryllium-7 use as a tracer and identify key knowledge gaps relating to i) the effects of rain shadowing and vegetation interception upon beryllium-7 fallout uniformity at the hillslope-scale; ii) the effect of preferential flow pathways upon beryllium-7 depth distribution in soil and overland flow upon beryllium-7 inventory uniformity and iii) the potential for beryllium-7 desorption in saline and reducing environments. To provide continued support for the use of beryllium-7 as a hillslope and catchment-scale tracer, there is an urgent need to undertake further research to quantify the effect of these factors upon tracer estimates.

  18. Diffusion of boron in alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Zhang, S; He, X. [Univ. of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Material Physics] [Univ. of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Material Physics

    1995-04-01

    By means of particle tracking autoradiography (PTA), the diffusion coefficients of boron between 900 and 1,200 C were measured in 04MnNbB steel, 25MnTiB steel, Ni-B, Fe-30%Ni-B and Fe-3%Si-B alloys, and the frequency factor D{sub 0} and activation energy Q were obtained respectively. The experiment results indicated that there was an obvious difference between the present result and the result obtained by Busby (in 1953). It was found that the boron diffusivity in {gamma}-Fe increased as Ni was added. The diffusivity of boron in Fe-3%Si-B alloy with b.c.c. structure was much slower than one obtained by Busby in {alpha}-Fe (1954), which, however, was much faster than the results obtained in {gamma}-Fe (with f.c.c. structure). Based on the present data of boron diffusion coefficients, the mechanism of segregation of boron to grain boundaries is discussed.

  19. Chronic beryllium disease and cancer risk estimates with uncertainty for beryllium released to the air from the Rocky Flats Plant.

    PubMed

    McGavran, P D; Rood, A S; Till, J E

    1999-09-01

    Beryllium was released into the air from routine operations and three accidental fires at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado from 1958 to 1989. We evaluated environmental monitoring data and developed estimates of airborne concentrations and their uncertainties and calculated lifetime cancer risks and risks of chronic beryllium disease to hypothetical receptors. This article discusses exposure-response relationships for lung cancer and chronic beryllium disease. We assigned a distribution to cancer slope factor values based on the relative risk estimates from an occupational epidemiologic study used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine the slope factors. We used the regional atmospheric transport code for Hanford emission tracking atmospheric transport model for exposure calculations because it is particularly well suited for long-term annual-average dispersion estimates and it incorporates spatially varying meteorologic and environmental parameters. We accounted for model prediction uncertainty by using several multiplicative stochastic correction factors that accounted for uncertainty in the dispersion estimate, the meteorology, deposition, and plume depletion. We used Monte Carlo techniques to propagate model prediction uncertainty through to the final risk calculations. We developed nine exposure scenarios of hypothetical but typical residents of the RFP area to consider the lifestyle, time spent outdoors, location, age, and sex of people who may have been exposed. We determined geometric mean incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk estimates for beryllium inhalation for each scenario. The risk estimates were < 10(-6). Predicted air concentrations were well below the current reference concentration derived by the EPA for beryllium sensitization. PMID:10464074

  20. Chronic beryllium disease and cancer risk estimates with uncertainty for beryllium released to the air from the Rocky Flats Plant.

    PubMed Central

    McGavran, P D; Rood, A S; Till, J E

    1999-01-01

    Beryllium was released into the air from routine operations and three accidental fires at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado from 1958 to 1989. We evaluated environmental monitoring data and developed estimates of airborne concentrations and their uncertainties and calculated lifetime cancer risks and risks of chronic beryllium disease to hypothetical receptors. This article discusses exposure-response relationships for lung cancer and chronic beryllium disease. We assigned a distribution to cancer slope factor values based on the relative risk estimates from an occupational epidemiologic study used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine the slope factors. We used the regional atmospheric transport code for Hanford emission tracking atmospheric transport model for exposure calculations because it is particularly well suited for long-term annual-average dispersion estimates and it incorporates spatially varying meteorologic and environmental parameters. We accounted for model prediction uncertainty by using several multiplicative stochastic correction factors that accounted for uncertainty in the dispersion estimate, the meteorology, deposition, and plume depletion. We used Monte Carlo techniques to propagate model prediction uncertainty through to the final risk calculations. We developed nine exposure scenarios of hypothetical but typical residents of the RFP area to consider the lifestyle, time spent outdoors, location, age, and sex of people who may have been exposed. We determined geometric mean incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk estimates for beryllium inhalation for each scenario. The risk estimates were < 10(-6). Predicted air concentrations were well below the current reference concentration derived by the EPA for beryllium sensitization. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10464074

  1. Helium-cooled lithium compound suspension blanket concept for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.C.; Attaya, H.; Billone, M.; Clemmer, R.C.; Finn, P.A.; Hassanein, A.; Johnson, C.E.; Majumdar, S.; Mattas, R.F.

    1989-03-01

    This blanket concept uses a dilute suspension of fine solid breeder particles (Li/sub 2/O, LiAlO/sub 2/, or Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/) in a carrier gas (He) as the coolant and the tritium breeding stream. A small fraction of this stream is processed outside the reactor for tritium recovery. The blanket consists of a beryllium multiplier and carbon/steel reflector. A steel clad is used for all materials. A carbon reflector is employed to reduce the the beryllium thickness used in the blanket for a specific tritium breeding ratio. The breeder particle size has to exceed a few microns (greater than or equal to 2 microns) to avoid sticking problems on the cold surfaces of the heat exchanger. The helium gas pressure is in the range of 2 - 3 MPa to carry the solid breeder particles through the blanket and the heat exchanger loop. The solid breeder concentration in the helium stream is 1 to 5 volume percent. A high lithium-6 enrichment is used to produce a high tritium breeding ratio and to reduce the breeder concentration in the helium gas. The main features, key technical issues, and design analyses of this blanket concept are summarized in this paper.

  2. SUBMILLIMETER OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF HEXAGONAL BORON NITRIDE

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    SUBMILLIMETER OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF HEXAGONAL BORON NITRIDE A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles and J ABSTRACT The submillimeter optical properties of hot-pressed polycrystalline boron nitride on related materials. #12;INTRODUCTION Boron nitride (BN) has received considerable attention within the last

  3. NEW ADVANCES IN BORON SOIL CHEMISTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron is an essential micronutrient element required for plant growth. Boron deficiency is wide-spread in crop plants throughout the world especially in coarse-textured soils in humid areas. Boron toxicity can also occur, especially in arid regions under irrigation. Plants respond directly to the...

  4. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  5. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.; Brown, L.K.

    1998-06-09

    A method of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried, with the boron film then being driven into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out into piles and melted/fused with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements. 2 figs.

  6. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Gary Don (18912 Ravenglen Ct., Dallas, TX 75287); Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott (703 Horizon, Murphy, TX 75094); Brown, Louanne Kay (2530 Poplar Tr., Garland, TX 75042)

    1998-06-09

    A method (10,30) of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried (16), with the boron film then being driven (18) into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out (38) into piles and melted/fused (40) with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements.

  7. Isolation of a three-coordinate boron cation with a boron-sulfur double bond.

    PubMed

    Franz, Daniel; Irran, Elisabeth; Inoue, Shigeyoshi

    2014-12-15

    The reaction of the bulky bis(imidazolin-2-iminato) ligand precursor (1,2-(L(Mes)NH)2-C2H4)[OTs]2 (1(2+) ?2[OTs](-); L(Mes) = 1,3-dimesityl imidazolin-2-ylidene, OTs = p-toluenesulfonate) with lithium borohydride yields the boronium dihydride cation (1,2-(L(Mes)N)2-C2H4)BH2[OTs] (2(+) ?[OTs](-)). The boronium cation 2(+) ?[OTs](-) reacts with elemental sulfur to give the thioxoborane salt (1,2-(L(Mes)N)2-C2H4)BS[OTs] (3(+) ?[OTs](-)). The hitherto unknown compounds 1(2+) ?2[OTs](-), 2(+) ?[OTs](-), and 3(+) ?[OTs](-) were fully characterized by spectroscopic methods and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Moreover, DFT calculations were carried out to elucidate the bonding situation in 2(+) and 3(+). The theoretical, as well as crystallographic studies reveal that 3(+) is the first example for a stable cationic complex of three-coordinate boron that bears a B=S double bond. PMID:25323781

  8. Lithium drifted germanium system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fjarlie, E. J.

    1969-01-01

    General characteristics of the lithium-drifted germanium photodiode-Dewar-preamplifier system and particular operating instructions for the device are given. Information is included on solving operational problems.

  9. DISSOLUTION OF FB-LINE METAL RESIDUES CONTAINING BERYLLIUM IN H-CANYON

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T; Mark Crowder, M; Michael Bronikowski, M

    2005-07-15

    Scrap materials containing plutonium (Pu) metal from FB-Line vaults are currently being dissolved in HB-Line for subsequent disposition through the H-Canyon facility. However, milestone and schedule commitments may require the dissolution of material containing Pu and beryllium (Be) metals in H-Canyon. To support this option, a flowsheet for dissolving Pu and Be metals in H-Canyon was demonstrated using a 4 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution containing 0.3 M fluoride (F{sup -}). The F{sup -} was added as calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}). The dissolving solution also contained 2.5 g/L boron (B), a nuclear safety contingency for the H-Canyon dissolver, and 3.9 g/L iron (Fe) to represent the dissolution of carbon steel cans. The solution was heated to 90-95 C during the 8 h dissolution cycle. Dissolution of the Be metal appeared to begin as soon as the samples were added to the dissolver. Clear, colorless bubbles generated on the surface were observed and were attributed primarily to the generation of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas. The generation of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) gas was also evident from the color of the solution. Essentially all of the Pu and Be dissolved during the first hour of the dissolution as the solution was heated to 90-95 C. The amount of residual solids collected following the dissolution was < 2% of the total metal charged to the dissolver. Examination of residual solids by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the largest dimension of the particles was less than 50 {micro}m with particles of smaller dimensions being more abundant. Energy dispersive spectra from spots on some of the particles showed the solids consisted of a small amount of undissolved material, corrosion products from the glassware, and dried salts from the dissolving solution.

  10. Epidemiological aspects of beryllium-induced nonmalignant lung disease: a 30-year update

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenbud, M. (New York Univ. Medical Center, New York); Lisson, J.

    1983-03-01

    The unusual epidemiology of beryllium disease observed in the early studies of beryllium disease led in 1951 to the hypothesis that the chronic form of the disease is the result of an acquired sensitization to beryllium or its compounds. After 30 years, the role of sensitization has been confirmed in a number of laboratory and clinical studies. The unusual epidemiological features first summarized by Sterner and Eisenbud continue to be evident. The early studies also led to formulation of standards that have resulted in effective control of both the acute and chronic pulmonary forms of beryllium disease. No case of acute chemical pneumonitis has been reported among beryllium workers in about 15 years, and the number of chronic cases has diminished greatly despite a marked increase in the use of beryllium.

  11. Removal of beryllium from drinking water by chemical coagulation and lime softening

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, D.A.; Summers, R.S.; Sorg, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. Jar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride) and lime softening performed in removing beryllium from spiked waters. Centrifugation was used to simulate filtration. The two source waters used were raw Ohio River water and groundwater from the Great Miami Aquifer. The impact of initial beryllium concentration, coagulant dose, turbidity and pH on beryllium removal was examined and optimum treatment conditions were determined. Jar tests using alum and ferric chloride coagulants were able to achieve 95% and 85% removal of beryllium respectively from surface water. Removal efficiency increased as the pH was increased. Based on the data collected in the study, coprecipitation and precipitation are the two likely mechanisms responsible for beryllium removal.

  12. A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of beryllium antibodies.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S M

    1991-03-01

    A novel immunological method has been developed for detecting antibodies (IgG molecules) specific to beryllium, a light metal used in industry and capable of causing chronic beryllium disease. Beryllium metal was vacuum deposited onto commercially available immunological microsticks, which were then exposed to test plasma containing the putative antibodies. Antigen-antibody complexes were located using a biotin-avidin amplification method. One employee diagnosed with chronic beryllium disease and one diagnosed as "sensitized" (lymphocyte transformation positive) exhibited antibody titers graphically and statistically different and higher than a pooled baseline control population. Plasma from these two employees (former beryllium workers) was used in four different approaches to validate the presence of beryllium antibodies. The assay proved to be reproducible. PMID:2010619

  13. Aluminum-lithium for aerospace

    SciTech Connect

    Fielding, P.S.; Wolf, G.J. [Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond, VA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Aluminum-lithium alloys were developed primarily to reduce the weight of aircraft and aerospace structures. Lithium is the lightest metallic element, and each 1% of lithium added to aluminum reduces alloy density by about 3% and increases modulus by about 5%. Though lithium has a solubility limit of 4.2% in aluminum, the amount of lithium ranges between 1 and 3% in commercial alloys. Aluminum-lithium alloys are most often selected for aerospace components because of their low density, high strength, and high specific modulus. However, other applications now exploit their excellent fatigue resistance and cryogenic toughness.

  14. Solid-state lithium battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  15. Lithium battery thermal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Daniel H.; Butler, Paul C.; Jungst, Rudolph G.; Roth, E. Peter

    Thermal characteristics and thermal behavior of lithium batteries are important both for the batteries meeting operating life requirements and for safety considerations. Sandia National Laboratories has a broad-based program that includes analysis, engineering and model development. We have determined thermal properties of lithium batteries using a variety of calorimetric methods for many years. We developed the capability to model temperature gradients and cooling rates of high-temperature primary lithium thermal batteries several years ago. Work is now under way to characterize the response of ambient-temperature rechargeable lithium-ion batteries to thermal abuse. Once the self-heating rates of lithium cells have been established over a range of temperatures, the thermal response can be estimated under a variety of conditions. We have extended this process to isolate the behavior of individual battery components and have begun to understand the chemical nature of the species responsible for heat evolution within the cells. This enhanced level of understanding will enable more accurate modeling of cell thermal behavior and will allow model-based design of safer, more abuse-tolerant lithium batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in the future. Progress toward this goal and key information still needed to reach it are discussed.

  16. Process for recovering boron trifluoride from an impure gaseous boron trifluoride residue

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, F.E.; Schroeder, K.H.; Wagner, W.J.

    1990-07-24

    This patent describes a method for removing sulfur dioxide from a boron trifluoride stream. It comprises: condensing a gaseous boron trifluoride stream; distilling the condensed boron trifluoride stream to yield pure boron trifluoride and a liquid boron trifluoride residue wherein the liquid boron trifluoride residue comprises by weight: about 40 to about 95% boron trifluoride, about 5 to about 30% sulfur dioxide, about 0 to 19% sulfur trioxide, about 0 to about 0.2% silicon fluoride, about 0 to about 1.0% arsenic fluoride, and about 0 to about 0.1% antimony fluoride; vaporizing the liquid boron trifluoride residue; feeding the gaseous boron trifluoride residue into a mixture of boric and sulfuric acids; and removing the unabsorbed sulfur dioxide from the acid mixture.

  17. Thermionic properties of the molybdenum boron system

    SciTech Connect

    Storms, E.K.

    1980-01-01

    The thermionic work function has been measured as a function of composition within the various two phase regions between Mo and MoB/sub 2/. Values at the low boron and high boron phase boundaries for the various compounds were obtained by extrapolation. The following effective work functions were obtained: Mo/sub 2/B (low boron) = 3.08 eV; Mo/sub 2/B (high boron) = 3.63 eV; ..cap alpha..-MoB (low boron) = 3.38 eV; ..cap alpha..-MoB (high boron) = 4.30 eV; ..beta..-MoB (low boron) = 2.83 eV; ..beta..-MoB (high boron) = 3.92; Mo/sub 2/B/sub 3/ (low boron) = 4.65 eV; Mo/sub 2/B/sub 3/ (high boron) = 3.85 eV; and MoB/sub 2/ (low boron) = 3.52 eV. Because the composition range of these compounds is very narrow, the work function is very sensitive to the composition within the single phase regions.

  18. Transient Diffusion of Beryllium and Silicon in Gallium Arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddara, Yaser M.; Bravman, John C.

    1998-08-01

    Transient diffusion is an increasingly important phenomenon as thermal budgets for real processes decrease and diffusion during sample growth becomes more important. To fully characterize dopant diffusion in gallium arsenide, an understanding must be developed of the dominant atomistic processes for a given dopant, as well as the sources of transient effects under a given set of experimental conditions. Theoretical, experimental, and simulation results were obtained to understand transient diffusivities of beryllium and silicon in grown-in and implanted samples. In implanted samples, by understanding implant damage and modeling the evolution of point defect populations, the observed transient effects can be explained. Such phenomena cannot account for the time-dependent diffusivity observed when the dopant is introduced during molecular beam epitaxial growth. Transient diffusivities for grown-in beryllium were investigated and explained by modeling the evolution of point defect populations as they increase beyond their equilibrium levels at the growth temperature to achieve equilibrium at the anneal temperature.

  19. RADIATION DOSIMETRY OF A GRAPHITE MODERATED RADIUM BERYLLIUM SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN,N.E.; RECINIELLO,R.N.; HU,J.P.; RORER,D.C.

    2002-08-18

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Sigma Pile a Radium-Beryllium neutron source imbedded in a cube of graphite blocks. The pile is approximately 2.13 m on four sides and is 3.07 m high. Absolute and relative thermal neutron flux measurements have been made using gold and indium foils, which were both bare and cadmium covered. Thermo-luminescent dosimeters were used to determine the neutron and gamma-ray dose rates in the pile. Gamma-ray dose rate measurements have also been made in the air outside of the pile, while the Radium-Beryllium neutron source was being withdrawn from the pile. The Monte Carlo MCNP code has been used to calculate the coupled neutron-photon transport. Measured dose rates at various locations agreed with the calculated values within 5% to 15%.

  20. Beryllium-7 Wet Deposition in Open Precipitation and Canopy Throughfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karwan, D. L.; Levia, D. F.; Siegert, C. M.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Short-lived cosmogenic isotopes, such as beryllium-7 (7Be), are increasingly used in forested watersheds as tracers of erosion and sediment movement. Beryllium-7 is produced in the atmosphere and is delivered to Earth's surface primarily in precipitation. However, relatively little published data are available to document the influence of tree canopy on the 7Be activity that reaches the soil surface. We have collected open precipitation, canopy throughfall, and soils in two forested, headwater catchments associated with the Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory. On average, there was no significant difference between the 7Be activity in open precipitation and throughfall over a one-year period, although differences do occur in individual events. Deposition activity in all samples was higher during late summer storms that followed a dry period, with a disproportionate increase in the open precipitation. In the soil, the 7Be activity is concentrated in the litter layer and organic material of the O horizon.

  1. Purfication kinetics of beryllium during vacuum induction melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, J. L.; Gupta, K. P.; Li, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    The kinetics of evaporation in binary alloys were quantitatively treated. The formalism so developed works well for several systems studied. The kinetics of purification of beryllium was studied through evaporation data actually acquired during vacuum induction melting. Normal evaporation equations are shown to be generally valid and useful for understanding the kinetics of beryllium purification. The normal evaporation analysis has been extended to cover cases of limited liquid diffusion. It was shown that under steady-state evaporation, the solute concentration near the surface may be up to six orders of magnitude different from the bulk concentration. Corrections for limited liquid diffusion are definitely needed for the highly evaporative solute elements, such as Zn, Mg, and Na, for which the computed evaporation times are improved by five orders of magnitude. The commonly observed logarithmic relation between evaporation time and final concentration further supports the validity of the normal evaporation equations.

  2. Preparation and characterization of liposomal systems entrapping the boronated compound o-carboranylpropylamine.

    PubMed

    Moraes, A M; Santana, M H; Carbonell, R G

    1999-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the nuclear reaction that occurs when the stable isotope, Boron-10, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield ionizing Helium and Lithium ions that are highly damaging and usually lethal to cells. The successful treatment of cancer by BNCT requires the selective concentration of Boron-10 within malignant tumours. Liposomes have been used as therapeutic compound delivery vehicles for in vivo application, including several anticancer agents. The ability of the boron-containing compound, o-carboranylpropylamine chloride, to accumulate within unilamellar liposomes in response to a transmembrane pH gradient is evaluated. Characterization of the systems obtained is performed for conventional and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified (stealth) liposomes, in terms of lipid and CPA contents, vesicle size and stability in detergent solutions. Results demonstrate that CPA loading and vesicle stability can be controlled by the experimental procedure. The loading of CPA into liposomes with average diameters of 100 nm is estimated at 13000 molecules per vesicle for the most stable systems. CPA toxicity to normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes and to adherent glioblastoma multiforme SK-MG-1 cells in vitro is observed to decrease as a result of the entrapment of CPA in liposomes. PMID:10499844

  3. Target studies for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Reich, M.

    1996-03-01

    Two new concepts, NIFTI and DISCOS, are described. These concepts enable the efficient production of epithermal neutrons for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) medical treatment, utilizing a low current, low energy proton beam impacting on a lithium target. The NIFTI concept uses an iron layer that strongly impedes the transmission of neutrons with energies above 24 KeV. Lower energy neutrons readily pass through this iron ``filter``, which has a deep ``window`` in its scattering cross section at 24 KeV. The DISCOS concept uses a rapidly rotating, high g disc to create a series of thin ({approximately} 1 micron thickness) liquid lithium targets in the form of continuous films through which the proton beam passes. The average energy lost by a proton as it passes through a single target is small, approximately 10 KeV. Between the targets, the proton beam is reaccelerated by an applied DC electric field. The DISCOS approach enables the accelerator -- target facility to operate with a beam energy only slightly above the threshold value for neutron production -- resulting in an output beam of low-energy epithermal neutrons -- while achieving a high yield of neutrons per milliamp of proton beam current.

  4. Early clinical experience of boron neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Joel, D.D.; Bergland, R.; Capala, J. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality that can selectively irradiate tumor tissue. BNCT uses drugs containing a stable isotope of boron. {sup 10}B, to sensitize tumor cells to irradiation by low energy (thermal) neutrons. The interaction of the {sup 10}B with a thermal neutron (neutron capture) causes the {sup 10}B nucleus to split, releasing an alpha particle and a lithium nucleus. These products of the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction are very damaging to cells but have a combined path length in tissue of approximately 14 {mu}m, or roughly the diameter of one or two cells. Thus, most of the ionizing energy imparted to tissue is localized to {sup 10}B-loaded cells.

  5. Residual stresses in copper-2% beryllium alloy strips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Amin; S. Ganesh

    1981-01-01

    Residual-stress profiles were determined along the rolling direction in cold-rolled, annealed, and roller-leveled copper-2% beryllium alloy strips using the X-ray-diffraction technique. The data were corrected for the effects of beam penetration and subsurface-stress relaxation due to material removal.The type, magnitude and distribution of residual stresses were found to depend on the amount of cold reduction of the strips. Surface residual

  6. Fatigue and corrosion fatigue of beryllium-copper spring materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bagheri; G. A. Miller

    1993-01-01

    Fine gage, 0.006-in. d(0.15-mm) thick, beryllium-copper (Be-Cu) spring materials with tensile strength in the range of 70 to 145 ksi were subjected to cyclic loading in air and salt water environments. Plain and notched (center hole) hour glass specimens were subjected to sinusoidal loading with R = (minimum\\/maximum) stress = 0.1 at cyclic frequencies of 50 Hz in air and

  7. Secondary electron emission properties of oxidized beryllium CFA cathodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Shih; J. Yater; C. Hor; R. H. Abrams

    1994-01-01

    Heating an oxidized beryllium sample above 500°C for eight hours or more establishes a stable surface composition that consists of about 35% carbon in carbide form, and Be and O in nearly one-to-one atomic ratio for the remainder. The secondary electron yield of this surface has a maximum yield, ?max, of 2.8±0.1 at the primary electron energy of 420±20 eV.

  8. Lithium Isotope Selectivity of Sorbents Prepared from Lithium Manganese Oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIROTSUGU TAKEUCHI; TAKAO OI; MORIKAZU HOSOE

    1999-01-01

    Sorbents are prepared by extracting lithium ions from lithium manganese oxides with the lithium\\/manganese mole ratio (Li\\/Mn ratio) varying between 0.42 and 0.84, and their lithium isotope selectivities are investigated. All the sorbents are Li-specific and the values of the Li-to-Li isotopic separation factor (S) are between 1.0040 and 1.0092 at 25°C. The S value is slightly dependent on the

  9. Cesium133, Lithium6, and Lithium7 Hyperfine Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Vollmerhausen

    2010-01-01

    I report a spectroscopy study on Cesium-133, Lithium-6, and Lithium-7. Hyperfine splittings are created using a controllable laser with a wavelength of 852.350 nm for Cesium, and a wavelength of 670.980 nm. This study covers the D2 line of Cesium and the D1 and D2 lines of Lithium-6 and Lithium-7. These are examined using two different techniques. These techniques are

  10. Determining beryllium in drinking water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, D.A.; Schock, M.R.; Dues, N.R.; Doerger, J.U.

    1993-01-01

    A direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy method for the analysis of beryllium in drinking water has been derived from a method for determining beryllium in urine. Ammonium phosphomolybdate and ascorbic acid were employed as matrix modifiers. The matrix modifiers successfully eliminated common chemical interferences in drinking water samples analyzed for beryllium content, as well as interferences encountered during jar testing of beryllium removal by alum coagulation. The method proved to be a simple, accurate, and precise alternative to the method of standard additions. Method detection limit was 0.09 microgram/l, with a linear calibration range of 0 to 6 microgram/l.

  11. The beryllium quandary: will the lower exposure limits spur new developments in sampling and analysis?

    SciTech Connect

    Brisson, Michael

    2013-06-03

    At the time this article was written, new rulemakings were under consideration at OSHA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that would propose changes to occupational exposure limits for beryllium. Given these developments, it’s a good time to review the tools and methods available to IHs for assessing beryllium air and surface contamination in the workplace—what’s new and different, and what’s tried and true. The article discusses limit values and action levels for beryllium, problematic aspects of beryllium air sampling, sample preparation, sample analysis, and data evaluation.

  12. The Influence of a Beryllium Containing Plasma on the Evolution of a Mixed-Material Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerner, R. P.; Baldwin, M. J.; Schmid, K.

    Experiments at UC San Diego PISCES-B, in collaboration with EFDA, are investigating the influence of beryllium impurities on deuterium plasma erosion of graphite material. The experiments are designed to reduce uncertainties in the prediction of tritium retention in redeposited mixed-materials expected in future burning plasma devices. Earlier PISCES-B experiments hinted that small amounts of beryllium surface impurities on graphite could reduce the rate of chemical erosion. In the present experiment, beryllium is seeded into a deuterium plasma to simulate the flow of the scrape-off layer plasma from the first wall to the divertor in ITER. Plasma containing low levels of Be impurities have so far been investigated and a greater reduction of carbon erosion is found. For beryllium concentrations above âe 1/4 0.1%, a thin coating of beryllium is observed to form on the surface of the graphite. This beryllium layer suppresses chemical and physical erosion of the underlying carbon. The ITER divertor plasma is expected to contain percent levels of beryllium impurities, so similar beryllium deposition may occur on the ITER divertor plates. Future experiments at PISCES will quantify the formation rate of redeposited carbonaceous films and their suppression, and aim at better simulating ITER conditions including higher operating temperature ranges for the graphite targets, and larger beryllium impurity fractions.

  13. Hygienic and toxicological aspects of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium.

    PubMed

    Bencko, V; Vasil'eva, E V

    1983-01-01

    As the production of missile, nuclear devices and electronics grew and modern industrial technologies emerged the risk of the occupational exposure to beryllium has become increasingly common and widespread. The environmental burden of beryllium is also on the increase, not only as a result of emissions from plants producing and processing beryllium, or its alloys and compounds, but also from burning coal of higher beryllium content in some localities. This article discusses primarily the hygienic and toxicologic aspects of beryllium and its threat to human health. The following topics are included in this review: occurrence, production and uses of beryllium; its metabolism and experimental toxicology; clinical toxicology and pathogenesis of berylliosis; hygienic and epidemiologic aspects of berylliosis; berylliosis treatment and prevention. Berylliosis is here characterized as a disease combining clinical manifestations of pneumosclerosis, allergy to beryllium and, in its granulomatous form, autoimmune reactions. Importantly, the available technical means and measures can ensure that the both occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium can be kept below the established MAC values. If occasionally impossible, special preventive measures should be adopted. It is essential that all persons with allergy be prophylactically excluded from work at risk of exposure to beryllium. PMID:6663073

  14. Reactions of boron with soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Goldberg

    1997-01-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, but the range between deficient and toxic B concentration is smaller than for any other nutrient element. Plants respond directly to the activity of B in soil solution and only indirectly to B adsorbed on soil constituents. Soil factors affecting availability of B to plants are: pH, texture, moisture, temperature, organic matter and

  15. Boron in plant cell walls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toru Matoh

    1997-01-01

    Boron is an essential element for higher plants, yet the primary functions remain unclear. In intact tissues of higher plants, this element occurs as both water soluble and water insoluble forms. In this review, the intracellular localisation of B and possible function of B in cell walls of higher plants are discussed. The majority of the water soluble B seems

  16. Controlled boron doping of silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin

    1986-01-01

    A method is described of making a semiconductor device by steps comprising doping a vertical surface of a silicon body with boron characterized in that the doping is accomplished by steps comprising: forming a layer of silicon dioxide on the vertical surface; forming a layer of silicon on the silicon dioxide on the vertical surface, and on a horizontal surface

  17. Graphitic electrodes modified with boron and nitrogen for electrochemical energy storage enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Guoping; Paul, Rajib; Reifenberger, Ron; Fisher, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    Electrodes based on carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes or graphitic nanopetals) have been modified with boron (B) and nitrogen (N) through a facile microwave heating cycle. During the microwave heating, the electrodes are immersed in a precursor solution consisting of urea and boric acid dissolved in either water or methanol. After microwave heating and overnight vacuum drying, the electrodes are again heated in nitrogen to remove unreacted chemicals and to form CxBN. Hydrogen plasma was then used to remove any residual boron oxide from the surface of the electrodes. Carbon nanotubes modified with B and N exhibited higher lithium storage capacity as compared to pure carbon nanotube electrodes. We note that the modification appears to produce a highly unexpected and substantial cycle-to-cycle improvement in battery capacity as the electrode cycles through hundreds of charge-discharge iterations. This process can be applied to other carbon-based electrodes, which themselves are recognized for their high performance, to add further improvements. Electrodes based on carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes or graphitic nanopetals) have been modified with boron (B) and nitrogen (N) through a facile microwave heating cycle. During the microwave heating, the electrodes are immersed in a precursor solution consisting of urea and boric acid dissolved in either water or methanol. After microwave heating and overnight vacuum drying, the electrodes are again heated in nitrogen to remove unreacted chemicals and to form CxBN. Hydrogen plasma was then used to remove any residual boron oxide from the surface of the electrodes. Carbon nanotubes modified with B and N exhibited higher lithium storage capacity as compared to pure carbon nanotube electrodes. We note that the modification appears to produce a highly unexpected and substantial cycle-to-cycle improvement in battery capacity as the electrode cycles through hundreds of charge-discharge iterations. This process can be applied to other carbon-based electrodes, which themselves are recognized for their high performance, to add further improvements. AFOSR MURI No. 105800

  18. A detailed examination of boronic acid–diol complexation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Springsteen; Binghe Wang

    2002-01-01

    Boronic acids bind with compounds containing diol moieties with high affinity through reversible boronate formation. However, the conditions that foster tight binding between the diol and the boronic acid are not well understood. Also, due to the multiple ionic states of both the boronic acid and boronate ester, the equilibrium constants reported in the literature have not always been strictly

  19. High-flux neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G.; Paul, M.; Arenshtam, A.; Berkovits, D.; Kijel, D.; Nagler, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Silverman, I.

    2013-04-01

    A prototype compact Liquid Lithium Target (LiLiT), able to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source, was built. The neutron source is intended for nuclear astrophysical research, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in hospitals and material studies for fusion reactors. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear research Center (SNRC). The lithium target will produce neutrons through the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated by a high-intensity proton beam, necessary for intense neutron flux for the above applications. The liquid-lithium loop of LiLiT is designed to generate a stable lithium jet at high velocity on a concave supporting wall with free surface toward the incident proton beam (up to 10 kW). During off-line tests, liquid lithium was flown through the loop and generated a stable jet at velocity higher than 5 m/s on the concave supporting wall. The target is now under extensive test program using a high-power electron-gun. Up to 2 kW electron beam was applied on the lithium flow at velocity of 4 m/s without any flow instabilities or excessive evaporation. High-intensity proton beam irradiation will take place at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator currently in commissioning at SNRC.

  20. High-flux neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target

    SciTech Connect

    Halfon, S. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel) and Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Feinberg, G. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel) and Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Arenshtam, A.; Berkovits, D.; Kijel, D.; Nagler, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Silverman, I. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel)

    2013-04-19

    A prototype compact Liquid Lithium Target (LiLiT), able to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source, was built. The neutron source is intended for nuclear astrophysical research, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in hospitals and material studies for fusion reactors. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear research Center (SNRC). The lithium target will produce neutrons through the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated by a high-intensity proton beam, necessary for intense neutron flux for the above applications. The liquid-lithium loop of LiLiT is designed to generate a stable lithium jet at high velocity on a concave supporting wall with free surface toward the incident proton beam (up to 10 kW). During off-line tests, liquid lithium was flown through the loop and generated a stable jet at velocity higher than 5 m/s on the concave supporting wall. The target is now under extensive test program using a high-power electron-gun. Up to 2 kW electron beam was applied on the lithium flow at velocity of 4 m/s without any flow instabilities or excessive evaporation. High-intensity proton beam irradiation will take place at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator currently in commissioning at SNRC.

  1. Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

  2. A new target concept for proton accelerator driven boron neutron capture therapy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Reich, M.

    1998-11-01

    A new target concept termed Discs Incorporating Sector Configured Orbiting Sources (DISCOS), is proposed for spallation applications, including BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). In the BNCT application a proton beam impacts a sequence of ultra thin lithium DISCOS targets to generate neutrons by the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. The proton beam loses only a few keV of its {approximately}MeV energy as it passes through a given target, and is re-accelerated to its initial energy, by a DC electric field between the targets.

  3. Boron analysis and boron imaging in biological materials for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Wittig; Jean Michel; Raymond L. Moss; Finn Stecher-Rasmussen; Heinrich F. Arlinghaus; Peter Bendel; Pier Luigi Mauri; Saverio Altieri; Ralf Hilger; Piero A. Salvadori; Luca Menichetti; Robert Zamenhof; Wolfgang A. G. Sauerwein

    2008-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on the ability of the stable isotope 10B to capture neutrons, which leads to a nuclear reaction producing an alpha- and a 7Li-particle, both having a high biological effectiveness and a very short range in tissue, being limited to approximately one cell diameter. This opens the possibility for a highly selective cancer therapy.

  4. Beryllium Metal I. Experimental Results on Acute Oral Toxicity, Local Skin and Eye Effects, and Genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral toxic properties. PMID:21196457

  5. Synthesis of vinyl boronates from aldehydes by a practical boron-Wittig reaction.

    PubMed

    Coombs, John R; Zhang, Liang; Morken, James P

    2015-04-01

    A highly stereoselective boron-Wittig reaction between stable and readily accessible 1,1-bis(pinacolboronates) and aldehydes furnishes a variety of synthetically useful di- and trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters. PMID:25799147

  6. Reversibility of anodic lithium in rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Shui, Jiang-Lan; Okasinski, John S; Kenesei, Peter; Dobbs, Howard A; Zhao, Dan; Almer, Jonathan D; Liu, Di-Jia

    2013-01-01

    Non-aqueous lithium-air batteries represent the next-generation energy storage devices with very high theoretical capacity. The benefit of lithium-air batteries is based on the assumption that the anodic lithium is completely reversible during the discharge-charge process. Here we report our investigation on the reversibility of the anodic lithium inside of an operating lithium-air battery using spatially and temporally resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction and three-dimensional micro-tomography technique. A combined electrochemical process is found, consisting of a partial recovery of lithium metal during the charging cycle and a constant accumulation of lithium hydroxide under both charging and discharging conditions. A lithium hydroxide layer forms on the anode separating the lithium metal from the separator. However, numerous microscopic 'tunnels' are also found within the hydroxide layer that provide a pathway to connect the metallic lithium with the electrolyte, enabling sustained ion-transport and battery operation until the total consumption of lithium. PMID:23929396

  7. Jaguar Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Explosives Containing Boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, L. I.; Baker, E. L.; Capellos, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Jaguar product library was expanded to include boron and boron containing products by analysis of Available Hugoniot and static volumetric data to obtain constants of the Murnaghan relationships for the components. Experimental melting points were also utilized to obtain the constants of the volumetric relationships for liquid boron and boron oxide. Detonation velocities for HMX—boron mixtures calculated with these relationships using Jaguar are in closer agreement with literature values at high initial densities for inert (unreacted) boron than with the completely reacted metal. These results indicate that the boron does not react near the detonation front or that boron mixtures exhibit eigenvalue detonation behavior (as shown by some aluminized explosives), with higher detonation velocities at the initial points. Analyses of calorimetric measurements for RDX—boron mixtures indicate that at high boron contents the formation of side products, including boron nitride and boron carbide, inhibits the detonation properties of the formulation.

  8. A review of lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhe; Huang, Jun; Yann Liaw, Bor; Metzler, Viktor; Zhang, Jianbo

    2014-05-01

    Major aspects related to lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries are reviewed. For lithium-ion batteries with carbonaceous anode, lithium deposition may occur under harsh charging conditions such as overcharging or charging at low temperatures. The major technical solutions include: (1) applying electrochemical models to predict the critical conditions for deposition initiation; (2) preventions by improved battery design and material modification; (3) applying adequate charging protocols to inhibit lithium deposition. For lithium metal secondary batteries, the lithium deposition is the inherent reaction during charging. The major technical solutions include: (1) the use of mechanistic models to elucidate and control dendrite initiation and growth; (2) engineering surface morphology of the lithium deposition to avoid dendrite formation via adjusting the composition and concentration of the electrolyte; (3) controlling battery working conditions. From a survey of the literature, the areas that require further study are proposed; e.g., refining the lithium deposition criteria, developing an effective AC self pre-heating method for low-temperature charging of lithium-ion batteries, and clarifying the role the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) plays in determining the deposition morphology; to facilitate a refined control of the lithium deposition.

  9. Effect of excess boron supply on accumulation of boron and nitrogen metabolism in groundnut plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. H. Gopal

    1971-01-01

    In both soil and sand cultures, a supply of 10 ppm boron to root medium was highly injurious to the groundnut (TMV-2) plants.\\u000a The boron-treated plants grown it sand cultures absorbed relatively much higher quantities of boron and the foliage manifested\\u000a chlorosis (yellowing) more quickly than in the boron-treated plants raised in soil cultures. In sand cultures, on the ninth

  10. Lithium Dinitramide as an Additive in Lithium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorkovenko, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    Lithium dinitramide, LiN(NO2)2 has shown promise as an additive to nonaqueous electrolytes in rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion-based electrochemical power cells. Such non-aqueous electrolytes consist of lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of organic ethers, esters, carbonates, or acetals. The benefits of adding lithium dinitramide (which is also a lithium salt) include lower irreversible loss of capacity on the first charge/discharge cycle, higher cycle life, lower self-discharge, greater flexibility in selection of electrolyte solvents, and greater charge capacity. The need for a suitable electrolyte additive arises as follows: The metallic lithium in the anode of a lithium-ion-based power cell is so highly reactive that in addition to the desired main electrochemical reaction, it engages in side reactions that cause formation of resistive films and dendrites, which degrade performance as quantified in terms of charge capacity, cycle life, shelf life, first-cycle irreversible capacity loss, specific power, and specific energy. The incidence of side reactions can be reduced through the formation of a solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) a thin film that prevents direct contact between the lithium anode material and the electrolyte. Ideally, an SEI should chemically protect the anode and the electrolyte from each other while exhibiting high conductivity for lithium ions and little or no conductivity for electrons. A suitable additive can act as an SEI promoter. Heretofore, most SEI promotion was thought to derive from organic molecules in electrolyte solutions. In contrast, lithium dinitramide is inorganic. Dinitramide compounds are known as oxidizers in rocket-fuel chemistry and until now, were not known as SEI promoters in battery chemistry. Although the exact reason for the improvement afforded by the addition of lithium dinitramide is not clear, it has been hypothesized that lithium dinitramide competes with other electrolyte constituents to react with lithium on the surface of the anode to form a beneficial SEI. Apparently, nitrides and oxides that result from reduction of lithium dinitramide on the anode produce a thin, robust SEI different from the SEIs formed from organic SEI promoters. The SEI formed from lithium dinitramide is more electronically insulating than is the film formed in the presence of an otherwise identical electrolyte that does not include lithium dinitramide. SEI promotion with lithium dinitramide is useful in batteries with metallic lithium and lithium alloy anodes.

  11. Microprecipitation in boron-containing high-carbon steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence Lanier; Gérard Metauer; Mohamed Moukassi

    1994-01-01

    The dissolution and precipitation of boron have been studied in a high-carbon steel. Boron was found in different states: boron oxides, boron carbonitrides and iron-borocarbides Fe23(B,C)6. The dissolution of iron-borocarbides in austenite is complete at 1100 °C and precipitation along ? grain boundaries of this boron-bearing phase was observed after water-quenching from high austenitizing temperature. Therefore, boron precipitates along ?

  12. Beryllium Impregnation of Uranium Fuel: Thermal Modeling of Cylindrical Objects for Efficiency Evaluation

    E-print Network

    Lynn, Nicholas

    2011-08-04

    BERYLLIUM IMPREGNATION OF URANIUM FUEL: THERMAL MODELING OF CYLINDRICAL OBJECTS FOR EFFICIENCY EVALUATION Major: Nuclear Engineering April 2009 Submitted to the Office of Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the designation as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR A Senior Scholars Thesis by NICHOLAS MORGAN LYNN BERYLLIUM IMPREGNATION OF URANIUM FUEL: THERMAL MODELING OF CYLINDRICAL...

  13. BERYLLIUM AND LUNG CANCER: A REANALYSIS OF A NIOSH COHORT MORTALITY STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul S. Levy; H. Daniel Roth; Peggy May T. Hwang; Timothy E. Powers

    2002-01-01

    This analysis is motivated by recent reviews on the carcinogenicity of beryllium by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, and reconsideration by the National Toxicology Program on its classification of the carcinogenicity of beryllium. It reanalyzes data from a 1992 publication of a cohort mortality study

  14. Dynamic reference electrode for investigation of fluoride melts containing beryllium difluoride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valery K. Afonichkin; Andrey L. Bovet; Victor V. Ignatiev; Alexander V. Panov; Vladimir G. Subbotin; Alexander I. Surenkov; Andrey D. Toropov; Aleksey L. Zherebtsov

    2009-01-01

    Existing designs of reference electrodes for potentiometric measurements in fluoride melts do not meet basic requirements of the long exposure corrosion tests to be performed. A new diaphragm-free three-electrode meter with a nonstationary (dynamic) beryllium reference electrode for the redox potential measurements was developed. Optimum conditions of forming dynamic beryllium reference electrode were determined in the laboratory tests in isothermal

  15. The development and advantages of beryllium capsules for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.C.; Bradley, P.A.; Hoffman, N.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1998-02-01

    Capsules with beryllium ablators have long been considered as alternatives to plastic for the National Ignition Facility laser ; now the superior performance of beryllium is becoming well substantiated. Beryllium capsules have the advantages of relative insensitivity to instability growth, low opacity, high tensile strength, and high thermal conductivity. 3-D calculation with the HYDRA code NTIS Document No. DE-96004569 (M. M. Marinak et.al. in UCRL-LR-105821-95-3) confirm 2-D LASNEX U. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, Comments Plasmas Phys. Controlled Thermonucl. Fusion, 2, 51(2975) results that particular beryllium capsule designs are several times less sensitive than the CH point design to instability growth from DT ice roughness. These capsule designs contain more ablator mass and leave some beryllium unablated at ignition. By adjusting the level of copper dopant, the unablated mass can increase or decrease, with a corresponding decrease or increase in sensitivity to perturbations. A plastic capsule with the same ablator mass as the beryllium and leaving the same unablated mass also shows this reduced perturbation sensitivity. Beryllium`s low opacity permits the creation of 250 eV capsule designs. Its high tensile strength allows it to contain DT fuel at room temperature. Its high thermal conductivity simplifies cryogenic fielding.

  16. Beryllium Impregnation of Uranium Fuel: Thermal Modeling of Cylindrical Objects for Efficiency Evaluation 

    E-print Network

    Lynn, Nicholas

    2011-08-04

    BERYLLIUM IMPREGNATION OF URANIUM FUEL: THERMAL MODELING OF CYLINDRICAL OBJECTS FOR EFFICIENCY EVALUATION Major: Nuclear Engineering April 2009 Submitted to the Office of Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the designation as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR A Senior Scholars Thesis by NICHOLAS MORGAN LYNN BERYLLIUM IMPREGNATION OF URANIUM FUEL: THERMAL MODELING OF CYLINDRICAL...

  17. DETERMINING BERYLLIUM IN DRINKING WATER BY GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy method for the analysis of beryllium in drinking water has been derived from a method for determining beryllium in urine. Ammonium phosphomolybdate and ascorbic acid were employed as matrix modifiers. The matrix modifiers s...

  18. The Cryogenic Tensile Properties of an Extruded Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, W. R.

    2002-01-01

    Basic mechanical properties; i.e., ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percent elongation, and elastic modulus, were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMet162, at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-320 F) and -252.8 C (-423 F)) temperatures. The material evaluated was purchased to the requirements of SAE-AMS7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions."

  19. Dynamic failure prediction of cross-rolled beryllium sheets subjected to vibration loads 

    E-print Network

    Serna, Oscar R.

    1996-01-01

    and numerical simulations are carried out on glass and beryllium plates. A-total of five glass and nine beryllium specimens with various length-to-width ratios aretested to failure. Energy is imparted to each plate in the form of sinusoidal base excitationby...

  20. Physical and electrical properties of beryllium base alloys. (Latest citations from Metadex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the properties of beryllium base alloys. Included are discussions of magnetic, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties. Special emphasis is placed on superconductivity and magnetic susceptibility. The oxidation of beryllium base alloys in a variety of atmospheres is also reviewed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Comparison of methods of determination of aluminum in beryllium and its alloys (exchange of experience)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Vinogradov; N. A. Zemlyanukhina; I. V. Pavlova; M. P. Dronova; N. N. Lopatina

    1973-01-01

    Four methods of determining 0.1-- 30% aluminum in beryllium and ; beryllium-- aluminum alloys were compared: gravimetric method with ; hydroxyquinoline; gravimetric method with hydroxyquinoline from aqueous acetone ; medium; complexometnic method by back titration with thorium; and photometrically ; with methylthymol blue. The most accurate method is the gravimetric ; hydroxyquinoline method, while the most rapid is the photometric

  2. Physical and electrical properties of beryllium base alloys. (Latest citations from METADEX). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the properties of beryllium base alloys. Included are discussions of magnetic, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties. Special emphasis is placed on superconductivity and magnetic susceptibility. The oxidation of beryllium base alloys in a variety of atmospheres is also reviewed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. SOURCE AND PATHWAY DETERMINATION FOR BERYLLIUM FOUND IN BECHTEL NEVADA NORTH LAS VEGAS FACILITIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    In response to the report ''Investigation of Beryllium Exposure Cases Discovered at the North Las Vegas Facility of the National Nuclear Security Administration'', published by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) in August 2003, Bechtel Nevada (BN) President and General Manager Dr. F. A. Tarantino appointed the Beryllium Investigation & Assessment Team (BIAT) to identify

  4. Beryllium-copper joining techniques for use on plasma-facing components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Caddena; W. D. Boniverta; R. D. Watsonb

    1995-01-01

    Several technologies are being evaluated as methods of joining beryllium to copper for plasma facing components in fusion reactors. The mechanical and microstructural properties of these bonds are reviewed and compared with the requirements for the application. The prime candidate for the plasma facing material is S-65C grade beryllium. At present three copper alloys are being considered for the structural

  5. Computational study of boron nitride nanotube synthesis: How catalyst morphology stabilizes the boron nitride bond

    E-print Network

    Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

    Computational study of boron nitride nanotube synthesis: How catalyst morphology stabilizes the boron nitride bond S. Riikonen,1 A. S. Foster,1,2 A. V. Krasheninnikov,1,3 and R. M. Nieminen1,* 1 COMP methods for the growth of boron nitride nanotubes work much worse than for their carbon counterparts, we

  6. Synthesis, Properties, and Applications Of Boron Nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes synthesis, properties, and applications of boron nitride. Especially in thin-film form. Boron nitride films useful as masks in x-ray lithography; as layers for passivation of high-speed microelectronic circuits; insulating films; hard, wear-resistant, protective films for optical components; lubricants; and radiation detectors. Present status of single-crystal growth of boron nitride indicates promising candidate for use in high-temperature semiconductor electronics.

  7. Toxic effects of boron on mallard reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.J.; Anders, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    Boron, a naturally occurring trace element generally considered environmentally innocuous, was documented to severely impair mallard reproduction. Boron is leached from irrigated agricultural soils and transported in drainage water that contaminates wetlands. Until now, only the selenium accumulated in aquatic food chains has been documented to pose a toxic hazard to wildlife in drainage water wetlands. Management of drainage water-contaminated environments must now also consider the adverse effects of boron, as well as the possible interactions of drainage water contaminants.

  8. New Advances in Boron Soil Chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Goldberg; Chunming Su

    Boron is an essential micronutrient element required for plant growth. Boron deficiency is wide-spread in crop plants throughout\\u000a the world especially in coarse-textured soils in humid areas. Boron toxicity can also occur, especially in arid regions under\\u000a irrigation. Plants respond directly to the B concentration in soil solution and only indirectly to the amount of B attached\\u000a to soil surfaces

  9. Boron Removal by Polymer-Assisted Ultrafiltration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan M. Smith; Paul Todd; Christopher N. Bowman

    1995-01-01

    Boron contamination of natural waters is a widespread environmental problem which lacks a cost-effective solution. Polymer-assisted ultrafiltration is a method of boron removal that is compatible with other water-treatment processes. This boron removal technique exploits the pH-dependent complexation between boric acid and a macromolecule containing vicinal diol groups to prevent boric acid from passing through an ultrafiltration membrane. The concentration

  10. Boron removal in RO seawater desalination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahide Taniguchi; Yoshinari Fusaoka; Tsuyoshi Nishikawa; Masaru Kurihara

    2004-01-01

    In the seawater desalination field, the WHO requires that boron concentration in drinking water be below 0.5 mg\\/l, and this requirement has affected SWRO process design because of the difficulty in achieving such a low boron concentration. In order to overcome this problem, anew SWRO membrane element with higher boron-rejecting performance was developed. This new SWRO membrane element exhibits excellent

  11. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  12. Large lithium loop experience

    SciTech Connect

    Kolowith, R.; Owen, T.J.; Berg, J.D.; Atwood, J.M.

    1981-10-01

    An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters include coolant temperatures to 430/sup 0/C and flow to 0.038 m/sup 3//s (600 gal/min). Performance of the main pump, vacuum system, and control system is discussed. Unique test capabilities of the ELS are also discussed.

  13. Boron-10 ABUNCL Active Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2013-07-09

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results from testing of the active mode of the General Electric Reuter-Stokes Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) at Los Alamos National Laboratory using sources and fuel pins.

  14. A review of hazards associated with primary lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego Lisbona; Timothy Snee

    Primary lithium batteries contain hazardous materials such as lithium metal and flammable solvents, which can lead to exothermic activity and runaway reactions above a defined temperature. Lithium-ion batteries operating outside the safe envelope can also lead to formation of lithium metal and thermal runaway. Despite protection by battery safety mechanisms, fires originating from primary lithium and lithium-ion batteries are a

  15. Producing carbon stripper foils containing boron

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, J. O. Jr. [ACF-Metals (Arizona Carbon Foil Co., Inc.), 2239 E. Kleindale Road, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2012-12-19

    Parameters being actively tested by the accelerator community for the purpose of extending carbon stripper foil lifetimes in fast ion beams include methods of deposition, parting agents, mounting techniques, support (fork) materials, and inclusion of alloying elements, particularly boron. Specialized production apparatus is required for either sequential deposition or co-deposition of boron in carbon foils. A dual-use vacuum evaporator for arc evaporation of carbon and electron-beam evaporation of boron and other materials has been built for such development. Production of both carbon and boron foils has begun and improvements are in progress.

  16. Boron mullite: Formation and basic characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lührs, Hanna, E-mail: hanna.luehrs@uni-bremen.de [Universität Bremen, FB 5 Geowissenschaften, Klagenfurter Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)] [Universität Bremen, FB 5 Geowissenschaften, Klagenfurter Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Fischer, Reinhard X. [Universität Bremen, FB 5 Geowissenschaften, Klagenfurter Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)] [Universität Bremen, FB 5 Geowissenschaften, Klagenfurter Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Schneider, Hartmut [Universität Bremen, FB 5 Geowissenschaften, Klagenfurter Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany) [Universität Bremen, FB 5 Geowissenschaften, Klagenfurter Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Universität Köln, Institut für Kristallographie, Greinstraße 6, D-50939 Kölm (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Decrease of B-mullite formation temperature with increasing boron content. ? Decrease of lattice parameters b and c with increasing boron content. ? Significant reduction of thermal expansion (?15%) due to incorporation of boron. ? Decomposition of B-mullite at 1400 °C, long-term stability at 800 °C. -- Abstract: A series of boron doped mullites (B-mullite) was prepared from single-phase gels with initial compositions based on a 1:1 isomorphous substitution of Si by B, starting from a 3:2 mullite composition (Al{sub 4.5}Si{sub 1.5}O{sub 9.75}). A high amount of boron (>10 mol.%) can be incorporated into the crystal structure of mullite where it most likely replaces Si. In situ phase formation of B-mullites was studied with high temperature X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. A decrease of the formation temperature for B-mullite with increasing boron content was observed. With increasing boron content lattice parameters b and c significantly decrease, while no systematic evolution of a is observed. Long annealing at 1400 °C results in decomposition of B-mullite to boron free mullite and ?-alumina. At 800 °C B-mullite appears to be stable over a period of at least 12 days. The mean thermal expansion coefficient was reduced by 15% upon incorporation of boron which makes the material technologically interesting.

  17. Boron deposition from fused salts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.L.

    1980-08-01

    A partial evaluation of the feasibility of a process to electrodeposit pure coherent coatings of elemental boron from molten fluorides has been performed. The deposit produced was powdery and acicular, unless the fluoride melt was purified to have very low oxygen concentration. When the oxygen activity was reduced in the melt by addition of crystalline elemental boron, dense, amorphous boron deposit was produced. The boron deposits produced had cracks but were otherwise pure and dense and ranged up to 0.35 mm thick. Information derived during this project suggests that similar deposits might be obtained crack-free up to 1.00 mm thick by process modifications and improvements.

  18. Sputtered boron nitride films for graphene devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David L.; Keller, Mark W.; Shaw, Justin M.; Zhu, Zixu; Joshi, Saumil; Moddel, Garret

    2012-02-01

    For exfoliated graphene, hexagonal boron nitride substrates yield better transport properties than the more common SiO2 substrates. We deposited boron nitride films onto a variety of substrates using rf magnetron sputtering at substrate temperatures between 30 ^oC and 350 ^oC. The amount of amorphous and hexagonal phases depends on sputtering parameters and type of substrate. Regardless of crystallinity, the films are smooth and suitable for graphene exfoliation or transfer of graphene grown by CVD. We compare the roughness, optical contrast, mobility, and substrate-induced doping for graphene on amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, and SiO2.

  19. Making Microscopic Cubes Of Boron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulkner, Joseph M.

    1993-01-01

    Production of finely divided cubes of boron involves vacuum-deposition technology and requires making of template. Template supports pattern of checkered squares 25 micrometers on side, which are etched 25 micrometers into template material. Template coasted uniformly with paralyene or some similar vacuum coating with low coefficient of adhesion. Intended application to solid rocket fuels, explosives, and pyrotechnics; process used for other applications, from manufacture of pharmaceuticals to processing of nuclear materials.

  20. Post-irradiation studies of beryllium reflector of fission reactor examination of gas release, swelling and structure of beryllium under annealing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. Andreev; V. N. Bespalov; A. Ju. Birjukov; B. A. Gurovich; P. A. Platonov

    1996-01-01

    Hot-pressed high-density (TShG-type) beryllium was irradiated at 100°C up to the fast neutron fluence of 1 × 1026 n\\/m2. Transmutation tritium and helium contents were 652 and 4400 appm, respectively. Post-irradiation studies of beryllium consist of optical and electron microscopy, density measurements before and after isochronal annealing at the temperature range of 300–1100°C and thermodesorption gas spectrometry. Investigation shows the

  1. A canine model of beryllium-induced granulomatous lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, P.J.; Finch, G.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Harmsen, A.G.; Hahn, F.F.; Hoover, M.D.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Bice, D.E. (Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Groups of beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to attain either low or high initial lung burdens (ILB) of BeO calcined at 500 degrees or 1000 degrees C. Dogs were killed at 8, 32, 64, 180, and 365 days after exposure for evaluation of beryllium tissue burdens and histopathologic examination. Histologic lesions were characterized by perivascular and peribronchiolar infiltrates of lymphocytes and macrophages 8 days after exposure. These lesions progressed to distinct microgranulomas accompanied by patchy granulomatous pneumonia. Lesions were more severe in dogs exposed to 500 degrees C BeO. Additional dogs were sampled by bronchoalveolar lavage at 3, 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, and 22 months after exposure for characterization of lung cytology and lung immune responses. Lymphocyte percentages and numbers were increased in lavage samples 3 months after exposure in dogs with both the high and low ILB of 500 degrees C. Values for both parameters decreased rapidly thereafter. Dogs with either low or high ILB of 1000 degrees C-treated BeO displayed negligible to low and variable changes in both lymphocyte percentages and numbers. In vitro lymphocyte stimulation by beryllium was increased 180 and 210 days after exposure in dogs with the high ILB 500 degrees C BeO only. A marked degree of individual variation in both histologic lesions and lymphocyte responses among dogs was noted. Less soluble 1000 degrees C-treated BeO was retained in the lung longer than the more soluble 500 degrees C-treated material that was cleared almost entirely by 1 year after exposure. Because these changes are similar to those reported in humans with chronic beryllium disease, these data suggest that the beagle represents a good model to study histologic and immunologic aspects of this disease syndrome.

  2. Tritium and Helium Retention in Neutron-Irradiated Beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Sand, C.; Wu, C. H.

    Among the presently available low-Z materials beryllium represents one of the most promising candidate materials to be used as protection of the first wall and as neutron multiplier in the blanket of a next-step fusion reactor. Both sintered-product blocks and pebbles have been considered, and research and evaluations associated with safety, tritium release, heat transfer, thermal-mechanical and irradiation stability are underway to study the characteristics of several material grades. This paper presents the results of a series of out-of-pile annealing tests up to 1000°C aimed at investigating both tritium and helium release kinetics from the S-65C beryllium grade irradiated in the BR2 reactor at temperatures of 235, 485 and 600°C, with a fast neutron fluence (En > 1 MeV) of about 2.1×1025 m-2 and with a damage dose of 2.45, 2.1 and 2.3 dpa, respectively. In agreement with previous studies, all the beryllium samples show a tritium release which starts to increase above about 600-650°C and reaches a maximum when the specimens first reach about 1000°C. Although tritium is released between 600°C and 900°C, no helium release is observed in that temperature range. However, after several minutes heating at 1000°C the samples showed a burst release leading to the release of essentially all retained tritium. Correspondingly, a peak of helium release was observed. This unambiguous and concurrent release of tritium and helium leads to the conclusion that T and He partially reside in common bubbles in the irradiated material.

  3. The beryllium pentamer: trailing an uneven sequence of dissociation energies.

    PubMed

    Ascik, Peter N; Rugango, René; Simmonett, Andrew C; Compaan, Katherine R; Schaefer, Henry F

    2012-04-10

    Recent high-resolution spectroscopic studies by Merritt, Bondybey, and Heaven (Science 2009, 324, 1548) have heightened the anticipation that small beryllium clusters will soon be observed in the laboratory. Beryllium clusters are important discrete models for the theoretical study of metals. The trigonal bipyramidal Be(5) molecule is studied using high-level coupled cluster methods. We obtain the optimized geometry, atomization and dissociation energies, and vibrational frequencies. The c~CCSDT(Q) method is employed to compute the atomization and dissociation energies. In this approach, complete basis set (CBS) extrapolations at the CCSD(T) level of theory are combined with an additive correction for the effect of iterative triple and perturbative quadruple excitations. Harmonic vibrational frequencies are obtained using analytic gradients computed at the CCSD(T) level of theory. We report an atomization energy of 129.6 kcal mol(-1) at the trigonal bipyramid global minimum geometry. The Be(5)?Be(4)+Be dissociation energy is predicted to be 39.5 kcal mol(-1). The analogous dissociation energies for the smaller beryllium clusters are 64.0 kcal mol(-1) (Be(4)?Be(3)+Be), 24.2 kcal mol(-1) (Be(3)?Be(2)+Be), and 2.7 kcal mol(-1) (Be(2)?Be+Be). The trigonal bipyramidal Be(5) structure has an equatorial-equatorial bond length of 2.000 Å and an axial-equatorial distance of 2.060 Å. Harmonic frequencies of 730, 611, 456, 583, 488, and 338 cm(-1) are obtained at the CCSD(T)/cc-pCVQZ level of theory. Quadruple excitations are found to make noticeable contributions to the energetics of the pentamer, which exhibits a significant level of static correlation. PMID:22392888

  4. Residual stress measurement and microstructural characterization of thick beryllium films

    SciTech Connect

    Detor, A; Wang, M; Hodge, A M; Chason, E; Walton, C; Hamza, A V; Xu, H; Nikroo, A

    2008-02-11

    Beryllium films are synthesized by a magnetron sputtering technique incorporating in-situ residual stress measurement. Monitoring the stress evolution in real time provides quantitative through-thickness information on the effects of various processing parameters, including sputtering gas pressure and substrate biasing. Specimens produced over a wide range of stress states are characterized via transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, in order to correlate the stress data with microstructure. A columnar grain structure is observed for all specimens, and surface morphology is found to be strongly dependent on processing conditions. Analytical models of stress generation are reviewed and discussed in terms of the observed microstructure.

  5. Chronic beryllium disease in a precious metal refinery. Clinical epidemiologic and immunologic evidence for continuing risk from exposure to low level beryllium fumes

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, M.R.; Kominsky, J.R.; Rossman, M.D.; Cherniack, M.G.; Rankin, J.A.; Balmes, J.R.; Kern, J.A.; Daniele, R.P.; Palmer, L.; Naegel, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    Five workers at a precious metal refinery developed granulomatous lung disease between 1972 and 1985. The original diagnosis was sarcoidosis, but 4 of the workers were subsequently proved to have hypersensitivity to beryllium by in vitro proliferative responses of lymphocytes obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. Review of medical records of coworkers and extensive industrial hygiene surveillance of the plant demonstrated that 4 cases occurred in the furnace area where air concentrations of beryllium fume were consistently below the permissible exposure limit of 2 micrograms/M3. A single case has been recognized from parts of the refinery where exposures to cold beryllium dust often exceeded the standard by as much as 20-fold. These data demonstrate that chronic beryllium disease still occurs and confirm the importance of specific immunologic testing in patients suspected of having sarcoidosis but with potential exposure to beryllium. The data raise concern about the adequacy of modern industrial controls, especially in the setting of exposure to highly respirable beryllium fumes.

  6. Lithium in Evolved Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel D. Hiltgen; Christopher Sneden

    1994-01-01

    I. Lithium in F-G Giants at the Rotational Break As a star crosses the Hertzprung Gap, its surface rotational velocity declines abruptly between between spectral types G0 and G3 III. This rotational break must in large part be due to the growth of of the convective envelope and, thus, the star must exhibit a decline of the surface Li abundance.

  7. Lithium Lens Interlocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Krider

    1985-01-01

    The lithium lens in the antiproton source target vault is protected by an interlock system, which is located in relay racks R5 and R6 near the southwest corner of the Target Hall (building APO). The interlock system consists of crates of commercial signal conditioner and alarm modules built by Acromag, Inc and interlock Master Modules built by Fermilab: Twenty analog

  8. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  9. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  10. Lithium iodate, intracavity upconversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Y. C.; Falk, J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes an internal CW parametric upconverter which uses a lithium iodate crystal and a CW argon laser. The upconversion reported demonstrates a noise equivalent power (NEP) of 5 x 10 to the -14th W/Hz to the 1/2th at 3.39-micron wavelength. Noise properties of the upconverter are outlined.

  11. Lithium ion battery production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antti Väyrynen; Justin Salminen

    Recently, new materials and chemistry for lithium ion batteries have been developed. There is a great emphasis on electrification in the transport sector replacing part of motor powered engines with battery powered applications. There are plans both to increase energy efficiency and to reduce the overall need for consumption of non-renewable liquid fuels. Even more significant applications are dependent on

  12. SOURCE AND PATHWAY DETERMINATION FOR BERYLLIUM FOUND IN BECHTEL NEVADA NORTH LAS VEGAS FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2004-07-01

    In response to the report ''Investigation of Beryllium Exposure Cases Discovered at the North Las Vegas Facility of the National Nuclear Security Administration'', published by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) in August 2003, Bechtel Nevada (BN) President and General Manager Dr. F. A. Tarantino appointed the Beryllium Investigation & Assessment Team (BIAT) to identify both the source and pathway for the beryllium found in the North Las Vegas (NLV) B-Complex. From September 8 to December 18, 2003, the BIAT investigated the pathway for beryllium and determined that a number of locations existed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which could have contained sufficient quantities of beryllium to result in contamination if transported. Operations performed in the B-1 Building as a result of characterization activities at the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD); Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (RMAD); Test Cells A and C; and the Central Support Facility in Area 25 had the greatest opportunity for transport of beryllium. Investigative monitoring and sampling was performed at these sites with subsequent transport of sample materials, equipment, and personnel from the NTS to the B-1 Building. The timeline established by the BIAT for potential transport of the beryllium contamination into the B-1 Building was from September 1997 through November 2002. Based on results of recently completed swipe sampling, no evidence of transport of beryllium from test areas has been confirmed. Results less than the DOE beryllium action level of 0.2 ???g/100 cm2 were noted for work support facilities located in Area 25. All of the identified sites in Area 25 worked within the B-1 tenant's residency timeline have been remediated. Legacy contaminants have either been disposed of or capped with clean borrow material. As such, no current opportunity exists for release or spread of beryllium contamination. Historical records indicate that there are locations at the NTS which contain hazardous quantities of beryllium; however, because beryllium was not always considered a contaminant of concern, complete characterization was not performed prior to remediation efforts. Today, it is not practical to characterize Area 25 for beryllium due to the successful remediation. Analysis of sample data collected in B-1 for the BIAT was performed for the purpose of confirming past results and identifying a source of beryllium through the use of markers. The results confirmed the presence of man-made beryllium contamination in the B-1 High Bay at levels consistent with the NNSA Report. No source markers were found that would be associated with NTS historical nuclear rocket or weapons-related operations. Beryllium contamination was identified in the southwest area of the B-1 High Bay in characteristic association with materials handled during historic metal-working operations. Use of source marker analysis suggests a contributor of beryllium found in carpeted areas of the B-Complex may be naturally occurring. Naturally occurring beryllium is not regulated by Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 850 (10 CFR 850) (see Appendix A). No current uncontrolled beryllium source or transport pathways have been identified as available for spread of contamination to uncontrolled areas from the NTS.

  13. SELDI-TOF derived serum biomarkers failed to differentiate between patients with beryllium sensitisation and patients with chronic beryllium disease

    PubMed Central

    Tooker, B C; Bowler, R P; Orcutt, J M; Maier, L A; Christensen, H M; Newman, L S

    2015-01-01

    Background People exposed to beryllium may develop beryllium sensitisation (BeS) and, in some cases, progress to chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Objectives The objective of this study was to test the ability of proteomic technology to identify patterns of serum protein biomarkers that allow differentiation between BeS and CBD and thus remove the need for invasive bronchoscopic procedures. Methods Initially, SELDI-TOF methodology and analysis was performed on serum samples from 30 CBD and 31 BeS patients. Results This ‘starter set’ yielded two distinct biomarker pattern sets with eight candidate proteins. The first set differentiated between BeS and CBD with 83.3% sensitivity and 82.3% specificity, with 10-fold cross-validation of 75% and 79%, respectively. The second set of biomarkers yielded higher sensitivity (90.0%) and higher specificity (90.3%), with 10-fold cross-validation of 71.7% and 82.3%, respectively. Due to its greater sensitivity and specificity, the second set of biomarkers was used as the framework for differentiating between CBD and BeS in a second set of serum samples from 450 patients with BeS and CBD. When this larger set of samples was subjected to the biomarker framework in a blinded fashion, it yielded a sensitivity of 43.53% and a specificity of 38.93%. Conclusions Due to these low sensitivity and specificity values, we have concluded that, currently, the unique set of SELDI-TOF derived biomarkers does not possess the qualities that would allow it to differentiate between a CBD patient and a BeS patient using serum protein biomarkers. Future refinements in sample collection or proteomic technology may be needed to improve biomarker discovery. PMID:21278142

  14. Growth and decomposition of lithium and lithium hydride on nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engbæk, Jakob; Nielsen, Gunver; Nielsen, Jane H.; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we have investigated the deposition, structure and decomposition of lithium and lithium-hydride films on a nickel substrate. Using surface sensitive techniques it was possible to quantify the deposited Li amount, and to optimize the deposition procedure for synthesizing lithium-hydride films. By only making thin films of LiH it is possible to study the stability of these hydride layers and compare it directly with the stability of pure Li without having any transport phenomena or adsorbed oxygen to obscure the results. The desorption of metallic lithium takes place at a lower temperature than the decomposition of the lithium-hydride, confirming the high stability and sintering problems of lithium-hydride making the storage potential a challenge.

  15. Growth and decomposition of lithium and lithium hydride on nickel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakob Engbæk; Gunver Nielsen; Jane H. Nielsen; Ib Chorkendorff

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated the deposition, structure and decomposition of lithium and lithium-hydride films on a nickel substrate. Using surface sensitive techniques it was possible to quantify the deposited Li amount, and to optimize the deposition procedure for synthesizing lithium-hydride films.By only making thin films of LiH it is possible to study the stability of these hydride layers

  16. Thin-film lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Bates; N. J. Dudney; B. Neudecker; A. Ueda; C. D. Evans

    2000-01-01

    Research over the last decade at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has led to the development of solid-state thin-film lithium and lithium-ion batteries. The batteries, which are less than 15 ?m thick, have important applications in a variety of consumer and medical products, and they are useful research tools in characterizing the properties of lithium intercalation compounds in thin-film form. The

  17. Surface Treatment of a Lithium Limiter for Spherical Torus Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Doerner, R.; Antar, G.; Timberlake, J.; Spaleta, J.; Hoffman, D.; Jones, B.; Munsat, T.; Kugel, H.; Taylor, G.; Stutman, D.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Maingi, R.; Molesa, S.; Efthimion, P.; Menard, J.; Finkenthal, M.; Luckhardt, S.

    2001-03-20

    The concept of a flowing lithium first wall for a fusion reactor may lead to a significant advance in reactor design, since it could virtually eliminate the concerns with power density and erosion, tritium retention, and cooling associated with solid walls. As part of investigations to determine the feasibility of this approach, plasma interaction questions in a toroidal plasma geometry are being addressed in the Current Drive eXperiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) spherical torus (ST). The first experiments involved a toroidally local lithium limiter (L3). Measurements of pumpout rates indicated that deuterium pumping was greater for the L3 compared to conventional boron carbide limiters. The difference in the pumpout rates between the two limiter types decreased with plasma exposure, but argon glow discharge cleaning was able to restore the pumping effectiveness of the L3. At no point, however, was the extremely low recycling regime reported in previous lithium experiments achieved. This may be due to the much larger lithium surfaces that were exposed to the plasma in the earlier work. The possibility will be studied in the next set of CDX-U experiments, which are to be conducted with a large area, fully toroidal lithium limiter.

  18. In-situ vacuum deposition technique of lithium on neutron production target for BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, S.; Baba, Y.; Fujii, R.; Nakamura, M.; Imahori, Y.

    2012-10-01

    For the purpose of avoiding the radiation blistering of the lithium target for neutron production in BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) device, trilaminar Li target, of which palladium thin layer was inserted between cupper substrate and Li layer, was newly designed. In-situ vacuum deposition and electrolytic coating techniques were applied to validate the method of fabrication of the Li/Pd/Cu target, and the layered structures of the synthesized target were characterized. In-situ vacuum re-deposition technique was also established for repairing and maintenance for lithium target damaged. Following conclusions were derived; (1) Uniform lithium layers with the thickness from 1.6 nm to a few hundreds nanometer were formed on Pd/Cu multilayer surface by in situ vacuum deposition technique using metallic lithium as a source material. (2) Re-deposition of lithium layer on Li surface can be achieved by in situ vacuum deposition technique. (3) Small amount of water and carbonate was observed on the top surface of Li. But the thickness of the adsorbed layer was less than monolayer, which will not affect the quality of the Li target. (4) The formation of Pd-Li alloy layer was observed at the Pd and Li interface. The alloy layer would contribute to the stability of the Li layer.

  19. High-power liquid-lithium jet target for neutron production

    E-print Network

    Halfon, S; Kijel, D; Paul, M; Berkovits, D; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Friedman, M; Hazenshprung, N; Mardor, I; Nagler, A; Shimel, G; Tessler, M; Silverman, I

    2013-01-01

    A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center. The lithium target, to be bombarded by the high-intensity proton beam of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), will constitute an intense source of neutrons produced by the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction for nuclear astrophysics research and as a pilot setup for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The liquid-lithium jet target acts both as neutron-producing target and beam dump by removing the beam thermal power (>5 kW, >1 MW/cm3) with fast transport. The target was designed based on a thermal model, accompanied by a detailed calculation of the 7Li(p,n) neutron yield, energy distribution and angular distribution. Liquid lithium is circulated through the target loop at ~200oC and generates a stable 1.5 mm-thick film flowing at a velocity up to 7 m/s onto a concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can diss...

  20. High energy neutron differential scattering measurements for beryllium and molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saglime, Frank J., III

    At the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Gaerttner LINAC Laboratory, a system for high energy (up to 20MeV) neutron scattering measurements, using time-of-flight (TOF) methods, has been developed. An array of proton recoil detectors surrounding the sample placed at 30.1 meters from the source measures the scattered neutron flux. This system has been used for measurement of the differential scattering yield of beryllium and molybdenum normalized a graphite standard. A state of the art, all digital, data acquisition system has been employed in the collection, analysis, and storing of all TOF data. Sophisticated software was developed to perform pulse shape analysis, multi-channel analyzer (MCA) functions, and TOF analysis on the raw data and generate angular dependent scattered neutron distributions free from gamma contamination. The experimental data for beryllium collected with this system shows good agreement with the latest nuclear data file, ENDF/B-VII.0. In addition, the results for molybdenum show the improvement of ENDF/B-VII.0 over nuclear data scattering evaluations.

  1. Steam chemical reactivity of plasma-sprayed beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Anderl, R.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Castro, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Plasma-spraying with the potential for in-situ repair makes beryllium a primary candidate for plasma facing and structural components in experimental magnetic fusion machines. Deposits with good thermal conductivity and resistance to thermal cycling have been produced with low pressure plasma-spraying (LPPS). A concern during a potential accident with steam ingress is the amount of hydrogen produced by the reactions of steam with hot components. In this study the authors measure the reaction rates of various deposits produced by LPPS with steam from 350 C to above 1,000 C. They correlate these reaction rates with measurements of density, open porosity and BET surface areas. They find the reactivity to be largely dependent upon effective surface area. Promising results were obtained below 600 C from a 94% theoretical dense (TD) deposit with a BET specific surface area of 0.085 m{sup 2}/g. Although reaction rates were higher than those for dense consolidated beryllium they were substantially lower, i.e., about two orders of magnitude, than those obtained from previously tested lower density plasma-sprayed deposits.

  2. Boron Carbides As Thermo-electric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles

    1988-01-01

    Report reviews recent theoretical and experimental research on thermoelectric materials. Recent work with narrow-band semiconductors demonstrated possibility of relatively high thermoelectric energy-conversion efficiencies in materials withstanding high temperatures needed to attain such efficiencies. Among promising semiconductors are boron-rich borides, especially boron carbides.

  3. Fabrication of boron-phosphide neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimmons, M.; Pynn, R.

    1997-07-01

    Boron phosphide is a potentially viable candidate for high neutron flux neutron detectors. The authors have explored chemical vapor deposition methods to produce such detectors and have not been able to produce good boron phosphide coatings on silicon carbide substrates. However, semi-conducting quality films have been produced. Further testing is required.

  4. Evolving patterns in boron cluster chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Fox; Ken Wade

    2003-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of our knowledge and understanding of the structures and bonding of boron cluster compounds, with particular reference to the evolving complementary roles localized bonding and molecular orbital treatments have played in providing simple rationalizations of their polyhedral molecules. INTRODUCTION: EARLY DEVEL OPMENTS The polyhedral patterns that characterize boron cluster chemistry have provided rich pickings for

  5. Boron and nitrogen implantation of steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T. Kern; K. C. Walter; A. J. Griffin; Y. Lu; M. Nastasi; W. K. Scarborough; J. R. Tesmer; S. Fayeulle

    1997-01-01

    Samples of four steels with varying chromium content were implanted with boron and seperately with nitrogen. Implantation energy was 75 keV in all cases. Implantation profiles were modeled using TRIM and determined experimentally by ion beam analysis. Boron ion sources leading to improved ion beams will be discussed. Material characterization included tribology and nano-indentation. Implanted materials showed improvements in wear

  6. The effect of copper on the crystallization of hexagonal boron nitride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milan Hubacek; Tadao Sato

    1997-01-01

    The crystallization process of hexagonal boron nitride in the presence of copper has been investigated. The positive effect of copper on the crystallinity of boron nitride was observed in the three studied systems of: nitrided boron, nitrided boron–carbon, and previously prepared turbostratic boron nitride. However, the presence of copper hindered the formation of boron carbonitride and produced graphite and boron

  7. An electrochemical cell for in operando studies of lithium/sodium batteries using a conventional x-ray powder diffractometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanbin; Pedersen, Erik E.; Christensen, Mogens; Iversen, Bo B.

    2014-10-01

    An electrochemical cell has been designed for powder X-ray diffraction studies of lithium ion batteries (LIB) and sodium ion batteries (SIB) in operando with high time resolution using a conventional powder X-ray diffractometer. The cell allows for studies of both anode and cathode electrode materials in reflection mode. The cell design closely mimics that of standard battery testing coin cells and allows obtaining powder X-ray diffraction patterns under representative electrochemical conditions. In addition, the cell uses graphite as the X-ray window instead of beryllium, and it is easy to operate and maintain. Test examples on lithium insertion/extraction in two spinel-type LIB electrode materials (Li4Ti5O12 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode) are presented as well as first results on sodium extraction from a layered SIB cathode material (Na0.84Fe0.56Mn0.44O2).

  8. An electrochemical cell for in operando studies of lithium/sodium batteries using a conventional x-ray powder diffractometer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanbin; Pedersen, Erik E; Christensen, Mogens; Iversen, Bo B

    2014-10-01

    An electrochemical cell has been designed for powder X-ray diffraction studies of lithium ion batteries (LIB) and sodium ion batteries (SIB) in operando with high time resolution using a conventional powder X-ray diffractometer. The cell allows for studies of both anode and cathode electrode materials in reflection mode. The cell design closely mimics that of standard battery testing coin cells and allows obtaining powder X-ray diffraction patterns under representative electrochemical conditions. In addition, the cell uses graphite as the X-ray window instead of beryllium, and it is easy to operate and maintain. Test examples on lithium insertion/extraction in two spinel-type LIB electrode materials (Li4Ti5O12 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode) are presented as well as first results on sodium extraction from a layered SIB cathode material (Na0.84Fe0.56Mn0.44O2). PMID:25362421

  9. New and Emerging Technologies for Real-Time Air and Surface Beryllium Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; Churnetski, E.L.; Cooke, L.E.; Reed, J.J.; Howell, M.L.; Smith, V.D.

    2001-09-01

    In this study, five emerging technologies were identified for real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium: Microwave-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (MIPS), Aerosol Beam-Focused Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (ABFLIPS), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy, and Micro-Calorimetric Spectroscopy (CalSpec). Desired features of real-time air beryllium monitoring instrumentation were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies as well as their unique demonstrated capability to provide real-time monitoring of similar materials. However, best available technologies were considered, regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features. None of the five technologies have the capability to measure the particle size of airborne beryllium. Although reducing the total concentration of airborne beryllium is important, current literature suggests that reducing or eliminating the concentration of respirable beryllium is critical for worker health protection. Eight emerging technologies were identified for surface monitoring of beryllium. CalSpec, MIPS, SERS, LIBS, Laser Ablation, Absorptive Stripping Voltametry (ASV), Modified Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy, and Gamma BeAST. Desired features of real-time surface beryllium monitoring were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies. However, the best available technologies were considered regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features.

  10. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  11. Interlaboratory evaluation of an extraction and fluorescence method for the determination of trace beryllium in soils.

    PubMed

    Cronin, John P; Agrawal, Anoop; Adams, Lori; Tonazzi, Juan C L; Brisson, Michael J; White, Kenneth T; Marlow, David; Ashley, Kevin

    2008-08-01

    Analytical methods for the determination of trace beryllium in soils are needed so that anthropogenic sources of this element can be distinguished from native (background) levels of beryllium. In this work, a collaborative interlaboratory evaluation of a new extraction and fluorescence-based procedure for determining beryllium in soil samples was carried out to fulfil method validation requirements for ASTM International voluntary consensus standard test methods. A Canadian reference material, CCRMP Till-1 soil, with a background beryllium concentration of 2.4 microg g(-1), was selected for study. This certified reference material (CRM) was spiked and homogenized with varying levels of beryllium oxide in order to give batches of material with beryllium concentrations of 4.36 +/- 0.69, 11.5 +/- 0.7, 124 +/- 7 and 246 +/- 16 microg g(-1) (+/- values are standard deviations). In the interlaboratory study (ILS), which was carried out in accordance with an applicable ASTM International standard practice (ASTM E691), samples of these spiked soils were subjected to extraction in dilute ammonium bifluoride at approximately 90 degrees C for 40 h. Fluorescence measurement of the extracted beryllium was carried out via detection using the high quantum yield fluorophore, hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate (HBQS). Interlaboratory precision estimates from six participating laboratories ranged from 0.048 to 0.103 (relative standard deviations) for the five different beryllium concentrations. Pooled bias estimates resulting from this ILS were between -0.049 and 0.177 for the various beryllium levels. These figures of merit support promulgation of the analytical procedure as an ASTM International standard test method. PMID:18688465

  12. Will advanced lithium-alloy anodes have a chance in lithium-ion batteries?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. Besenhard; J. Yang; M. Winter

    1997-01-01

    The high packing density of lithium is a significant advantage of lithium insertion into metallic matrices that can be achieved in lithium alloys compared with lithium intercalation into carbonaceous materials. Moreover, the operating voltage of lithium-alloy anodes may be chosen well-above the potential of metallic lithium and the solvent co-intercalation has not been observed at lithium-alloy electrodes. On the other

  13. BORON--2000 14.1 By Phyllis A. Lyday

    E-print Network

    BORON--2000 14.1 BORON By Phyllis A. Lyday Domestic survey data and tables were prepared. Coleman, international data coordinator. Boron produced domestically during 2000 totaled 546,000 metric tons (t) of boron oxide valued at $557 million (table 1). The most common minerals of commercial

  14. Hydrocarbon analogues of boron clusters - planarity, aromaticity and antiaromaticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua-Jin Zhai; Boggavarapu Kiran; Jun Li; Lai-Sheng Wang

    2003-01-01

    An interesting feature of elemental boron and boron compounds is the occurrence of highly symmetric icosahedral clusters. The rich chemistry of boron is also dominated by three-dimensional cage structures. Despite its proximity to carbon in the periodic table, elemental boron clusters have been scarcely studied experimentally and their structures and chemical bonding have not been fully elucidated. Here we report

  15. Black Phosphorus Boron Nitride Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillgren, Nathaniel; Barlas, Yafis; Shi, Yanmeng; Yang, Jiawei; Taniguchi, Takashi; Lau, Chun Ning (Jeanie)

    2015-03-01

    There has been significant recent interest in black phosphorus as a candidate for future electronics applications, as it possesses both a layered-tunable band gap and a relatively high mobility (compared to other 2D candidates). However, black phosphorus' degradation in ambient conditions constitutes a major road block in future applications. As a potential solution for this problem we explore the effects of encapsulating black phosphorus between hexagonal boron nitride. We will present the effects of this heterostructure on both the stability and transport properties of thin black phosphorus devices.

  16. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  17. Conditions for preparation of ultrapure beryllium by electrolytic refining in molten alkali-metal chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlfarth, Hagen

    1982-02-01

    Electrolytic refining is regarded as the most suitable process for the production of beryllium with impurity contents below 1 at.-ppM. Several parameters are important for electrolytic refining of beryllium in a BeCl/sub 2/-containing LiCl-KCl melt: current density, BeCl/sub 2/ content, electrolyte temperature, composition of the unpurified beryllium and impurity-ion concentrations in the melt, as well as apparatus characteristics such as rotation speed of the cathode and condition of the crucible material. These factors were studied and optimized such that extensive removal of the maximum number of accompanying and alloying elements was achieved.

  18. Peculiarities of beryllium atomization in a gasdynamic mass-spectrometric interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhenov, A. N.; Gall, L. N.; Masyukevich, S. V.; Berdnikov, A. S.; Gall, N. R.

    2015-04-01

    We have studied physical processes involved in electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry with controlled ion fragmentation and atomization in an IESAP (ion extraction from solutions at atmospheric pressure) source, which lead to the observed shape of mass spectra that can be used for determining trace amounts of beryllium. These mass spectra contain only the peak of beryllium atomic ion at 9 amu in a region that is free of background, which ensures high-sensitivity detection of this element. This mass spectrum is well reproduced in a broad range of beryllium concentrations and conditions of ESI measurements.

  19. Feasibility of organo-beryllium target mandrels using organo-germanium PECVD as a surrogate

    SciTech Connect

    Brusasco, R.M.; Dittrich, T.; Cook, R.C.

    1995-03-09

    Inertial Confinement Fusion capsules incorporating beryllium are becoming attractive for use in implosion experiments designed for modest energy gain. This paper explores the feasibility of chemical vapor deposition of organo-beryllium precursors to form coating materials of interest as ablators and fuel containers. Experiments were performed in a surrogate chemical system utilizing tetramethylgermane as the organometallic precursor. Coatings with up to 60 mole percent germanium were obtained. These coatings compare favorably with those previously reported in the literature and provide increasing confidence that a similar deposition process with an organo-beryllium precursor would be successful.

  20. Optimized lithium oxyhalide cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilroy, W. P.; Schlaikjer, C.; Polsonetti, P.; Jones, M.

    1993-04-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride cells were optimized with respect to electrolyte and carbon cathode composition. Wound 'C-size' cells with various mixtures of Chevron acetylene black with Ketjenblack EC-300J and containing various concentrations of LiAlCl4 and derivatives, LiGaCl4, and mixtures of SOCl2 and SO2Cl2 were evaluated as a function of discharge rate, temperature, and storage condition.

  1. CHARACTERISATION AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE BORON RICH LAYER RESULTING FROM OPEN-TUBE LIQUID SOURCE BBR3 BORON DIFFUSION PROCESSES

    E-print Network

    CHARACTERISATION AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE BORON RICH LAYER RESULTING FROM OPEN-TUBE LIQUID SOURCE BBR3 BORON DIFFUSION PROCESSES Michael Andreas Kessler, Tobias Ohrdes, Bettina Wolpensinger, Robert, Germany ABSTRACT Boron diffusion is commonly associated with the formation of an undesirable boron rich

  2. Rechargeable lithium battery anodes: alternatives to metallic lithium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Fauteux; R. Koksbang

    1993-01-01

    This review is concerned with alternatives to metallic lithium for use in rechargeable lithium batteries. Emphasis is placed on the use of various materials and combinations of materials in different types of electrodes rather than on the properties of the materials themselves. The review includes carbon based electrodes, alloys, conducting polymers and transition metal compounds. Special consideration is given to

  3. Combustion synthesis of novel boron carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harini, R. Saai; Manikandan, E.; Anthonysamy, S.; Chandramouli, V.; Eswaramoorthy, D.

    2013-02-01

    The solid-state boron carbide is one of the hardest materials known, ranking third behind diamond and cubic boron nitride. Boron carbide (BxCx) enriched in the 10B isotope is used as a control rod material in the nuclear industry due to its high neutron absorption cross section and other favorable physico-chemical properties. Conventional methods of preparation of boron carbide are energy intensive processes accompanied by huge loss of boron. Attempts were made at IGCAR Kalpakkam to develop energy efficient and cost effective methods to prepare boron carbide. The products of the gel combustion and microwave synthesis experiments were characterized for phase purity by XRD. The carbide formation was ascertained using finger-print spectroscopy of FTIR. Samples of pyrolized/microwave heated powder were characterized for surface morphology using SEM. The present work shows the recent advances in understanding of structural and chemical variations in boron carbide and their influence on morphology, optical and vibrational property results discussed in details.

  4. Boron-Loaded Silicone Rubber Scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Z.W.; Maya, L.; Brown, G.M.; Sloop, F.V.Jr

    2003-05-12

    Silicone rubber received attention as an alternative to polyvinyltoluene in applications in which the scintillator is exposed to high doses because of the increased resistance of the rubber to the formation of blue-absorbing color centers. Work by Bowen, et al., and Harmon, et al., demonstrated their properties under gamma/x-ray irradiation, and Bell, et al. have shown their response to thermal neutrons. This last work, however, provided an example of a silicone in which both the boron and the scintillator were contained in the rubber as solutes, a formulation which led to the precipitation of solids and sublimation of the boron component. In the present work we describe a scintillator in which the boron is chemically bonded to the siloxane and so avoids the problem of precipitation and loss of boron to sublimation. Material containing up to 18% boron, by weight, was prepared, mounted on photomultipliers, and exposed to both neutron and gamma fluxes. Pulse height spectra showing the neutron and photon response were obtained, and although the light output was found to be much poorer than from samples in which boron was dissolved, the higher boron concentrations enabled essentially 100% neutron absorption in only a few millimeters' thickness of rubber.

  5. JAGUAR Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Explosives Containing Boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, Leonard; Baker, Ernest; Capellos, Christos

    2009-06-01

    The JAGUAR product library was expanded to include boron and boron containing products. Relationships of the Murnaghan form for molar volumes and derived properties were implemented in JAGUAR. Available Hugoniot and static volumertic data were analyzed to obtain constants of the Murnaghan relationship for solid boron, boron oxide, boron nitride, boron carbide, and boric acid. Experimental melting points were also utilized with optimization procedures to obtain the constants of the volumetric relationships for liquid boron and boron oxide. Detonation velocities for HMX - boron mixtures calculated with these relationships using JAGUAR are in closer agreement with literature values at high initial densities for inert (unreacted) boron than with the completely reacted metal. These results indicate that boron mixtures may exhibit eigenvalue detonation behavior, as observed by aluminized combined effects explosives, with higher detonation velocities than would be achieved by a classical Chapman-Jouguet detonation. Analyses of calorimetric measurements for RDX - boron mixtures indicate that at high boron contents the formation of side products, including boron nitride and boron carbide, inhibits the energy output obtained from the detonation of the formulation.

  6. Lithium Research Status and PlansLithium Research Status and Plans Charles H. Skinner, PPPL

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Lithium Research Status and PlansLithium Research Status and Plans Charles H. Skinner, PPPL Robert February 3-5, 2010 #12;NSTX PAC-27 ­ Lithium Research Status and Plans 2/15February 3-5, 2010 NSTX lithium research is an integral part of a program to develop lithium as a PFC concept for magnetic fusion NSTX w

  7. Near real-time fluorescence detection of beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    McCleskey, T. M. (Thomas Mark); Ehler, D. S. (Deborah S.); Minogue, E. M. (Edel Mary); Collis, G. E. (Gavin E.); Keizer, T. S. (Timothy S.); Burrell, A. K. (Anthony K.); Sauer, N. N. (Nancy N.); John, K. D. (Kevin D.)

    2004-01-01

    We report on a fluorescent test for beryllium designed for analyzing swipes. The detection is rapid, quantitative and deployable in the field with $5,000 portable fluorimeter. Swipes are placed in a vial and a dilution solution is added. The vials are then rotated for 30 minutes and then syringe filtered. An aliquot of 100 pL is added to a detector solution and fluorescence measured with a portable ocean optics unit. We can readily detect down to 0.02 {micro}g on a filter paper. Interference studies have been carried out with various metals including Al, Fe, Pb, U, Ca, W, Ni, Co and Cu. The technique has proven to be successful under various conditions including a variety of surfaces both in the lab and in field. It is a user-friendly, cost effective method.

  8. Boronated DNA-binding compounds as potential agents for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Ellen L; Ziolkowski, Erin J; Coderre, Jeffrey A; Rendina, Louis M

    2007-03-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary cancer treatment that exploits the short range particles released from a nuclear fission reaction involving the non-radioactive 10B nucleus and low-energy (thermal) neutrons for the destruction of tumour cells. If boronated agents are targeted towards chromosomal DNA, the efficiency of BNCT is greatly enhanced. This article presents a concise review of DNA-binding compounds that have been functionalised with boron. PMID:17346220

  9. Electronic Properties of Boron-Nitride and Boron Carbonitride Nanotubes and Related Heterojunctions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xavier Blase; Helio Chacham

    We review in the present chapter the electronic and optical properties of hexagonal boron-nitride and hexagonal composite\\u000a boron carbonitride planar and nanotubular structures. We focus mainly on theoretical aspects, but illustrate in all situations\\u000a the link with existing experimental findings. In a first part, the ­insulating nature, and the band gap stability, of boron-nitride\\u000a nanotubes are shown to be related

  10. A novel biomarker for beryllium sensitization in humans. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Albertini, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    'Overall, this project is designed to identify the beryllium reactive T-cell clones that are proliferating in vivo in individuals sensitized to beryllium. The basic method for identifying such clones is the hprt T-cell mutation assay. The rationale is that in vivo proliferating T-lymphocytes are more likely to undergo hprt mutations and/or be included in hprt mutant fractions of T-cells isolated from peripheral blood. T-lymphocytes isolated as hprt mutants from beryllium sensitized individuals are propagated in vitro and characterized for T-cell receptor (TCR)/3 gene usage patterns and antigen reactivity. Results will be compared with similar characteristics determined for T-cell clones from the same individuals that were developed in vitro from peripheral blood lymphocytes by beryllium stimulation. This research project has several specific aims. Progress for the year 10/1/96 to 9/30/97 is given.'

  11. Retrospective beryllium exposure assessment at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, A.E.; Torma-Krajewski, J. [Department of Energy, Rocky Flats Field Office, Golden, CO (United States); Viet, S.M. [M.H. Chew & Associates, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Since the 1960`s, beryllium machining was performed to make nuclear weapon components at the Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant. Beryllium exposure was assessed via fixed airhead (FAH) sampling in which the filter cassette was affixed to the machine, generally within a few feet of the worker`s breathing zone. Approximately 500,000 FAH samples were collected for beryllium over three decades. From 1984 to 1987, personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples were also collected as part of the evaluation of a new high velocity/low volume local exhaust ventilation (HV/LV LEV) system. The purpose of this study was to determine how the two types of sampling data could be used for an exposure assessment in the beryllium shop.

  12. REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

  13. Analysis of beryllium and depleted uranium: An overview of detection methods in aerosols and soils

    SciTech Connect

    Camins, I.; Shinn, J.H.

    1988-06-01

    We conducted a survey of commercially available methods for analysis of beryllium and depleted uranium in aerosols and soils to find a reliable, cost-effective, and sufficiently precise method for researchers involved in environmental testing at the Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, Arizona. Criteria used for evaluation include cost, method of analysis, specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, applicability, and commercial availability. We found that atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace meets these criteria for testing samples for beryllium. We found that this method can also be used to test samples for depleted uranium. However, atomic absorption with graphite furnace is not as sensitive a measurement method for depleted uranium as it is for beryllium, so we recommend that quality control of depleted uranium analysis be maintained by testing 10 of every 1000 samples by neutron activation analysis. We also evaluated 45 companies and institutions that provide analyses of beryllium and depleted uranium. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Boron-10 Lined Proportional Counter Wall Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Siciliano, Edward R.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2012-05-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report provides information about how variations in proportional counter radius and gas pressure in a typical coincident counter design might affect the observed signal from boron-lined tubes. A discussion comparing tubes to parallel plate counters is also included.

  15. Developments in boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year on maturing Boron-11 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methodology for noninvasive determination of BNCT agents (BSH) spatially in time. Three major areas are excerpted: (1) Boron-11 MRI of BSH distributions in a canine intracranial tumor model and the first human glioblastoma patient, (2) whole body Boron-11 MRI of BSH pharmacokinetics in a rat flank tumor model, and (3) penetration of gadolinium salts through the BBB as a function of tumor growth in the canine brain.

  16. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  17. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  18. Boron containing macromolecules and nanovehicles as delivery agents for neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gong; Barth, Rolf F; Yang, Weilian; Lee, Robert J; Tjarks, Werner; Backer, Marina V; Backer, Joseph M

    2006-03-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10 is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer (LET) alpha particles ((4)He) and recoiling lithium -7((7)Li) nuclei. For BNCT to be successful, a sufficient number of (10)B atoms ( approximately 10(9) atoms/cell) must be selectively delivered to the tumor and enough thermal neutrons must be absorbed by them to sustain a lethal (10)B(n, alpha) (7)Li capture reaction. BNCT primarily has been used to treat patients with brain tumors, and more recently those with head and neck cancer. Two low molecular weight (LMW) boron delivery agents currently are being used clinically, sodium borocaptate and boronophenylalanine. However, a variety of high molecular weight (HMW) agents consisting of macromolecules and nanovehicles have been developed. This review will focus on the latter which include: monoclonal antibodies, dendrimers, liposomes, dextrans, polylysine, avidin, folic acid, and epidermal and vascular endothelial growth factors (EGF and VEGF). Procedures for introducing boron atoms into these HMW agents and their chemical properties will be discussed. In vivo studies on their biodistribution will be described, and the efficacy of a subset of them, which have been used for BNCT of tumors in experimental animals, will be discussed. Since brain tumors currently are the primary candidates for treatment by BNCT, delivery of these HMW agents across the blood-brain barrier presents a special challenge. Various routes of administration will be discussed including receptor-facilitated transcytosis following intravenous administration, direct intratumoral injection and convection enhanced delivery by which a pump is used to apply a pressure gradient to establish bulk flow of the HMW agent during interstitial infusion. Finally, we will conclude with a discussion relating to issues that must be addressed if these HMW agents are to be used clinically. PMID:16529539

  19. Bispecific antibodies as targeting agents for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Barth, R F; Adams, D M; Soloway, A H; Reisfeld, R A

    1995-10-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the nuclear reaction that occurs when boron-10, a stable isotope, is irradiated with low energy (< or = 0.025 eV) or thermal neutrons to yield alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. A major requirement for the success of BNCT is the selective delivery of a sufficient number of boron atoms (approximately 10(9)) to individual cancer cells to sustain a lethal 10B (n, alpha) 7Li capture reaction. A panel of BsAb reactive with polyhedral borane anions (PBA) and a tumor-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan has been produced. All of these BsAb showed strong reactivity with a panel of human glioblastoma and melanoma cell lines, as demonstrated by indirect membrane immunofluorescence. Two of them (H6 and B8) also reacted with cells that had been exposed to PBA (Na2B10H10 and Na2B12H11SH) and a boronated starburst dendrimer, which contained approximately 250-400 B atoms per molecule. The affinity constant (Ka) of BsAb-B8 was 2.57 x 10(8) M-1 on M21 human melanoma cell and 3.49 x 10(8) M-1 on A172 glioblastoma cells, which were almost identical to those of the parental monoclonal antibody (mAb) 9.2.27 on the same cell lines (2.62 x 10(8) M-1). Since our BsAb recognize both human glioblastoma and melanoma-associated antigens, as well as PBA, they potentially could be used to target 10B to these tumors for BNCT. PMID:8581388

  20. Investigation of high purity beryllium for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), Task 002. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vagin, S.P.

    1995-05-01

    The report includes a description of experimental abilities of Solid Structure Research Laboratory of IAE NNC RK, a results of microstructural characterization of A-4 grade polycrystal Beryllium produced at the Ulba metal plant and a technical project-for irradiation experiments. Technical project contains a detailed description of five proposed experiments, clearing behavior of Beryllium materials under the influence of irradiation, temperature, helium and hydrogen accumulation. Complex irradiation jobs, microstructural investigations and mechanical tests are planned in the framework of these experiments.