Note: This page contains sample records for the topic lithium beryllium boron from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Evolution of lithiumberylliumboron and oxygen in the early Galaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen is a much better evolutionary index than iron to describe the history of lithiumberylliumboron (LiBeB) since it is the main producer of these light elements at least in the early Galaxy. The OFe relation is crucial to the determination of the exact physical process responsible for the LiBeB production. At low metallicity, if [O\\/Fe] vs. [Fe\\/H] is flat, then

Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Michel Cass

2001-01-01

2

Production of Lithium, Beryllium and Boron and Analysis of Nuclear Gamma-Ray Line Emission in Active Star Forming Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for the formation of the elements Lithium, Beryllium and Boron is presented. The main formation mechanism for these elements has been known to be a process called nuclear spallation. Spallation between protons or alpha particles and the Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen nuclei result in the production of the isotopes of Li, Be and B. The originally proposed site

Deepa Paresh Majmudar

1998-01-01

3

Production of Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron by Hypernovae and the Possible Hypernova-Gamma-Ray Burst Connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate a possible nucleosynthetic signature of highly energetic explosions of C-O cores (``hypernovae'' [HNe]) that might be associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We note that the direct impact of C- and O-enriched hypernova ejecta on the ambient hydrogen and helium leads to spallation reactions that can produce large amounts of the light nuclides lithium, beryllium, and boron (LiBeB). Using

Brian D. Fields; Frdric Daigne; Michel Cass; Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam

2002-01-01

4

Production of Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron by Hypernovae and the Possible Hypernova-Gamma-Ray Burst Connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a possible nucleosynthetic signature of highly energetic explosions of C-O cores (``hypernovae'' [HNe]) that might be associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We note that the direct impact of C- and O-enriched hypernova ejecta on the ambient hydrogen and helium leads to spallation reactions that can produce large amounts of the light nuclides lithium, beryllium, and boron (LiBeB). Using analytic velocity spectra of the hypernova ejecta, we calculate the LiBeB yields of different exploding C-O cores associated with observed hypernovae. The deduced yields are much higher than those produced by similar (direct) means in normal Type II supernovae (SNe) and are higher than the commonly used ones arising from shock wave acceleration induced by Type II supernova explosions. To avoid overproduction of these elements in our Galaxy, hypernovae should be rare events, with <~310-2 hypernovae per supernova, assuming a constant HN/SN ratio over time; this result also implies that the HN production of Be is only a fraction of other sources, e.g., superbubbles. Our limit to the HN/SN ratio is in good agreement with that of long-duration GRBs if we assume that the gamma-ray emission is focussed in a solid angle ? so that <(?/4?)-1><~3104. This encouraging result supports the possible HN-GRB association. Thus, Galactic LiBeB abundance measurements offer a promising way to probe the HN rate history and the possible HN-GRB correlation. On the other hand, if hypernovae are associated with massive pregalactic stars (Population III), they would produce an LiBeB pre-enrichment in protogalactic gas, which could show up as a plateau in the lowest metallicities of the Be-Fe relation in halo stars.

Fields, Brian D.; Daigne, Frdric; Cass, Michel; Vangioni-Flam, Elisabeth

2002-12-01

5

Production of Lithium, Beryllium and Boron and Analysis of Nuclear Gamma-Ray Line Emission in Active Star Forming Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for the formation of the elements Lithium, Beryllium and Boron is presented. The main formation mechanism for these elements has been known to be a process called nuclear spallation. Spallation between protons or alpha particles and the Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen nuclei result in the production of the isotopes of Li, Be and B. The originally proposed site for spallation, well-mixed interstellar medium, was found to be inconsistent with the recent observations of linearly varying abundances of Be and B with respect to the metallicity in metal-poor stars. We propose a model for spallation occuring in the unmixed ejecta of supernova as the primary mode of production of the isotopes of Li, Be and B. This scenario was simulated by writing a Monte-Carlo code. The results in terms of the energy required for spallation are feasible compared to the total energy released in a supernova explosion. The calculated isotopic ratios produced were found to generally agree with the observed values. Recent observations of Orion region showing excess flux in 3-7 MeV range, identified as Carbon and Oxygen nuclear deexcitation lines, were followed by models proposing spallation in the vicinity of supernova by collision between energetic C), O nuclei and protons or alpha particles in the surrounding ambient medium. We searched for similar emission from other nearby OB associations, the Cygnus region. Cygnus region contains several large OB associations, including Wolf-Rayet stars, and has a total wind power almost 100 times larger than that in the Orion complex. We present the results from our study of the gamma-ray emission in the 0.75-30 MeV range from the Cygnus region using data from the COMPTEL instrument onboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). In the 3-7 MeV band, where Orion emission is most prominent, we do not find significant emission. We do find significant emission at 1.8 MeV, resulting from the radioactive decay of 26Al. This flux is consistent with the amount predicted from known sources of 26Al in this region.

Majmudar, Deepa Paresh

6

A study of beryllium and beryllium-lithium complexes in single crystal silicon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When beryllium is thermally diffused into silicon, it gives rise to acceptor levels 191 MeV and 145 meV above the valence band. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that the 145-MeV level is due to a more complex beryllium configuration than the 191-MeV level. When lithium is thermally diffused into a beryllium-doped silicon sample, it produces two acceptor levels at 106 MeV and 81 MeV. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that these levels are due to lithium forming a complex with the defects responsible for the 191-MeV and 145-MeV beryllium levels, respectively. Electrical measurements imply that the lithium impurity ions are physically close to the beryllium impurity atoms. The ground state of the 106-MeV beryllium level is split into two levels, presumably by internal strains. Tentative models are proposed.

Crouch, R. K.; Robertson, J. B.; Gilmer, T. E., Jr.

1972-01-01

7

LITHIUM-BERYLLIUM-BORON ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS IN METEORITIC HIBONITE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ORIGIN OF {sup 10}Be AND EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM IRRADIATION  

SciTech Connect

NanoSIMS isotopic measurements of Li, Be, and B in individual hibonite grains extracted from the Murchison meteorite revealed that {sup 10}B excesses correlate with the {sup 9}Be/{sup 11}B ratios in {sup 26}Al-free PLAty hibonite Crystals. From these data, an initial {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be = (5.5 {+-} 1.6) x 10{sup -4} (2{sigma}) and {sup 10}B/{sup 11}B = 0.2508 {+-} 0.0015 can be inferred. On the other hand, chondritic boron isotopic compositions were found in {sup 26}Al-bearing Spinel-HIBonite spherules, most likely due to contamination with normal boron. No {sup 7}Li excesses due to {sup 7}Be decay were observed. When combined with previously reported data, the new data yield the best defined {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be = (5.3 {+-} 1.0) x 10{sup -4} (2{sigma}) and {sup 10}B/{sup 11}B = 0.2513 {+-} 0.0012 for PLACs. A comparison of this value and the best constrained {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be = (8.8 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup -4} in CV Ca-Al-rich inclusions supports a heterogeneous distribution of {sup 10}Be and its protosolar irradiation origin. We consider two possible irradiation scenarios that could potentially lead to the observed Li-Be-B isotopic compositions in PLACs. Although in situ irradiation of solids with hibonite chemistry seems to provide the simplest explanation, more high quality data will be needed for quantitatively constraining the irradiation history.

Liu, Ming-Chang; Nittler, Larry R.; Alexander, Conel M. O'D. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC (United States); Lee, Typhoon, E-mail: mliu@dtm.ciw.ed [Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2010-08-10

8

Beryllium in Lithium-deficient F and G Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of an extensive search, conducted at the Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6-m telescope, for beryllium (Be) in the atmospheres of lithium-deficient F and G dwarfs. We also report revised lithium (Li) estimates for the entire sample using previously published equivalent widths and updated, consistently calculated stellar parameters. Abundances derived from an LTE analysis of the Li and Be line-forming

Alex Stephens; Ann Merchant Boesgaard; Jeremy R. King; Constantine P. Deliyannis

1997-01-01

9

On temperature bifurcation of beryllium and lithium plasma facing components  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of temperature bifurcation of plasma contacting surfaces due to recycling of the ionized surface material vapor is considered. It is shown that this mechanism can lead to overheating of beryllium and lithium plasma facing components (in particular, in fusion devices) prior to the thermionic electron emission mechanism. The surface temperatures and the plasma parameters, at which the considered mechanism triggers the local overheating of beryllium and lithium components, are evaluated. The increase in the surface heat load due to secondary electron emission is also considered. It is shown that the combined effects of energy and impact angle distributions of the plasma electrons can increase the averaged secondary electron emission yield to values higher than unity and can lower the average electron energy, at which such yields are achieved.

Smirnov, R. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Pigarov, A. Yu. [University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2009-12-15

10

Boronated mesophase pitch coke for lithium insertion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boronated carbons from mesophase pitch have been used as materials for lithium storage in Li/carbon cells. Doping by boron has been realized by co-pyrolysis of coal tar pitch with the pyridine-borane complex. Amount of boron in mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) varied from 1.4 to 1.8 wt.% affecting the texture of carbon. Optical microscopy and X-ray diffractograms have shown tendency to more disordered structure for boron-doped carbon. The values of specific reversible capacity ( x) varied from 0.7 to 1.1 depending significantly on the final temperature of pyrolysis (700-1150C). The optimal charge/discharge performance was observed for boronated carbon heated at 1000C.

Frackowiak, E.; Machnikowski, J.; Kaczmarska, H.; Bguin, F.

11

Boron nitride protective coating of beryllium window surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The use of beryllium windows on white synchrotron radiation beamlines is constrained by the fact that the downstream surfaces of these windows should not be exposed to ambient atmosphere. They should, rather, be protected by a tail-piece under vacuum or containing helium atmosphere. This tailpiece is typically capped by Kapton (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) or aluminum foil. The reason for such an arrangement is due to the health risk associated with contaminants (BeO) which from on the exposed beryllium window surfaces and due to possible loss of integrity of the windows. Such a tail-piece may, however, add unwanted complications to the beamline in the form of vacuum pumps or helium supplies and their related monitoring systems. The Kapton windows may burn through in the case of high intensity beams and lower energy radiation may be absorbed in the case of aluminum foil windows. A more ideal situation would be to provide a coating for the exposed beryllium window surface, sealing it off from the atmosphere, thus preventing contamination and/or degradation of the window, and eliminating the need for helium or vacuum equipment.

Gmuer, N.F.

1991-12-01

12

p-type conduction in beryllium-implanted hexagonal boron nitride films  

Microsoft Academic Search

p-type conduction in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) films was achieved by beryllium implantation and subsequent rapid thermal annealing treatment. The dependence of phase composition and electrical properties of hBN films on the implantation fluence and annealing was studied. A maximum resistivity reduction by six orders of magnitude was demonstrated. Hall measurements revealed a corresponding hole concentration of 31019 cm-3 and

B. He; W. J. Zhang; Z. Q. Yao; Y. M. Chong; Y. Yang; Q. Ye; X. J. Pan; J. A. Zapien; I. Bello; S. T. Lee; I. Gerhards; H. Zutz; H. Hofsss

2009-01-01

13

Electron-beam-induced currents on beryllium-doped cubic boron nitride single crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical properties of a beryllium-doped cubic boron nitride (c-BN) single crystal grown on (111) diamond were investigated by using electron-beam-induced current measurements as well as currentvoltage (IV) and capacitancevoltage measurements. The IV measurements through silver electrodes on c-BN showed non-linear characteristics, revealing Schottky behavior. From the temperature dependence of resistivity, the activation energy of 0.24eV was obtained. We observed

Hajime Tomokage; Naoki Nomura; Takashi Taniguchi; Toshihiro Ando

2000-01-01

14

Production of Lithium, Beryllium and Boron in Supernova Ejecta  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model the nucleosynthesis of light elements (Li,Be,B) by spallation of C,N,O targets by accelerated H,He in expanding supernova ejecta. Recent observations of metal-poor halo dwarfs indicate that these light element abundance increases linearly with metalicity, i.e. the ratio of these elements to iron is constant. The model of formation of these elements in interstellar medium where spallation takes place

Deepa Majmudar

1995-01-01

15

The Spallagenic Production Rates of Lithium, Beryllium and Boron  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate the production rates of Li6, Li7, Be9, B10 and B11 via\\u000aspallation of Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen nuclei by protons and alpha-particles\\u000aand by alpha-alpha fusion reactions. We include recent measurements of the\\u000across sections of alpha-alpha fusion reactions and find that the computations\\u000ayield rates of Li6 and Li7 production that are nearly a factor of two

J. P. Kneller; J. R. Phillips; T. P. Walker

2000-01-01

16

The Spallagenic Production Rates of Lithium, Beryllium and Boron  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate the production rates of Li6, Li7, Be9, B10 and B11 via spallation of Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen nuclei by protons and alpha-particles and by alpha-alpha fusion reactions. We include recent measurements of the cross sections of alpha-alpha fusion reactions and find that the computations yield rates of Li6 and Li7 production that are nearly a factor of two

J. P. Kneller; J. R. Phillips; T. P. Walker

2000-01-01

17

Production of Lithium, Beryllium and Boron in Supernova Ejecta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We model the nucleosynthesis of light elements (Li,Be,B) by spallation of C,N,O targets by accelerated H,He in expanding supernova ejecta. Recent observations of metal-poor halo dwarfs indicate that these light element abundance increases linearly with metalicity, i.e. the ratio of these elements to iron is constant. The model of formation of these elements in interstellar medium where spallation takes place by galactic cosmic rays colliding with interstellar matter would not give a linear dependence of spallation products with iron abundance. We investigate the scenario of formation of these elements in expanding supernova where spallation would take place in an unmixed medium of supernova ejecta, which would give the observed linear dependence. Calculations will be presented on energetics of this scenario and abundances and ratios of the isotopes of Li,Be,B.

Majmudar, Deepa

1995-12-01

18

Lithium, beryllium, and boron production in core-collapse supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) is the gravitational collapse of a massive star without H and He layers. It propels several solar masses of material to the typical velocity of 10,000 km/s, a very small fraction of the ejecta nearly to the speed of light. We investigate SNe Ic as production sites for the light elements Li, Be, and B, via the neutrino-process and spallations. As massive stars collapse, neutrinos are emitted in large numbers from the central remnants. Some of the neutrinos interact with nuclei in the exploding materials and mainly 7Li and 11B are produced. Subsequently, the ejected materials with very high energy impinge on the interstellar/circumstellar matter and spall into light elements. We find that the ?-process in the current SN Ic model produces a significant amount of 11B, consistent with observations if combined with B isotopes from the following spallation production.

Nakamura, Ko; Yoshida, Takashi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Kajino, Toshitaka

2010-04-01

19

Industrial methods for the integrated processing of minerals that contain beryllium and lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wider use of lithium and beryllium is being held up by the cost of these elements, the poor environmental rating of the hydrometallurgical\\u000a methods used to obtain them, and the fact that they can be extracted only from a limited range of raw materials two or three\\u000a silicates. The objective of the project discussed in this article a

V. I. Samoilov; A. N. Borsuk; N. A. Kulenova

2008-01-01

20

Beryllium electrorefining  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium scrap was purified by electrorefining in a ternary salt bath containing potassium, lithium, and beryllium chloride salts. The beryllium flake produced had a purity greater than 99.95% and was produced at a direct operating cost of slightly less than $500 per pound, not including capital equipment depreciation. 2 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Mitchell, D.L.; Nieweg, R.G.; Ledford, J.A.; Richen, M.J.; Burton, D.A.; Harder, R.V.; Watson, L.E.; Thomas, R.L. (ed.)

1989-01-30

21

Use of a chelate complex with boron as a lithium salt for lithium battery electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chelate complex with boron, lithium bis[2,3-naphthalenediolato(2-)-O,O]borate was used in lithium battery electrolytes for Li\\/VO prototype cells. This lithium salt remains a safe and thermally stable compound up to 320 C without melting. A high specific conductivity (4.63 mS\\/cm) is exhibited in spite of its high viscosity (1.732 cP) in a 0.5 mol\\/dm³ electrolyte\\/ethylene carbonate-1,2-dimethoxyethane (mol ratio 2:3) binary solvent

M. Handa; S. Fukuda; Y. Sasaki; K. Usami

1997-01-01

22

p-type conduction in beryllium-implanted hexagonal boron nitride films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

p-type conduction in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) films was achieved by beryllium implantation and subsequent rapid thermal annealing treatment. The dependence of phase composition and electrical properties of hBN films on the implantation fluence and annealing was studied. A maximum resistivity reduction by six orders of magnitude was demonstrated. Hall measurements revealed a corresponding hole concentration of 31019 cm-3 and mobility of 27 cm2/V s. The activation energy of Be ions was estimated to be 0.21 eV. It is suggested that hBN is a promising wide bandgap semiconductor for applications in high-temperature electronic devices and transparent conductive coatings.

He, B.; Zhang, W. J.; Yao, Z. Q.; Chong, Y. M.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Q.; Pan, X. J.; Zapien, J. A.; Bello, I.; Lee, S. T.; Gerhards, I.; Zutz, H.; Hofsss, H.

2009-12-01

23

Possible sources of the Population I lithium abundance and light-element evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-zone numerical models of Galactic chemical evolution of the light elements (lithium, beryllium, boron, and deuterium) with a broad sample of possible stellar lithium production sites and star formation histories, including the multiple merger model of Mathews and Schramm (1992), are examined. Models with high primordial lithium are constrained by observations of lithium and potassium in the interstellar medium of

Lawrence E. Brown

1992-01-01

24

Carbons prepared from boron-containing polymers as host materials for lithium insertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical lithium insertion behavior of boron-containing carbons was studied by constant-current potentiometry. The boron-containing carbons were prepared by pyrolyzing a phenolic resin chemically bonded with boron atoms, which was synthesized via an esterification reaction of the phenol hydroxyl groups by boric acid. It was found that the as-prepared boron-containing carbons at pyrolysis temperatures higher than 700 C could accommodate more

Hong-Qi Xiang; Shi-Bi Fang; Ying-Yan Jiang

2002-01-01

25

Determination of the lithium diffusion coefficient in irradiated boron carbide pellets  

Microsoft Academic Search

During neutron irradiation, 10B atoms in B4C are destroyed, producing lithium and helium atoms according to the well-known 10B(n,?)7Li reaction. The aim of this work is to measure the lithium diffusion coefficient of high density boron carbide material. The nuclear microprobe technique is used to determine lithium concentration profiles in irradiated B4C pellets. The analysis of the measured lithium concentration

X. Deschanels; D. Simeone; J. P. Bonal

1999-01-01

26

Semiclassical method for calculating the energetic values of helium, lithium and beryllium atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In previous papers we have presented a wave model for conservative bound systems resulted from the equivalency between the Schrdinger and wave equations. We proved that the normal curves of the characteristic surface of the wave equation, denoted by C curves, are solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, written for the same system, and correspond to the same constants of motion as those resulting from the Schrdinger equation. In this paper we present a method for computing the energetic values of conservative bound systems which is based on the properties of the C curves. The method is applied to the 1 s 2 state of helium, 1 s 22 s and 1 s 22 p states of lithium and 1 s 22 s 2 state of beryllium. Our theoretical values are compared with experimental data taken from well-known books. The relative error of our method is less than 5 x 10?3.

Popa, A.

2008-10-01

27

On the nature of lithium-rich giant stars. Constraints from beryllium abundances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have derived beryllium abundances for 7 Li-rich giant (A(Li) > 1.5) stars and 10 other Li-normal giants with the aim of investigating the origin of the lithium in the Li-rich giants. In particular, we test the predictions of the engulfment scenario proposed by Siess & Livio (1999, MNRAS, 308, 1133), where the engulfment of a brown dwarf or one or more giant planets would lead to simultaneous enrichment of 7Li and 9Be. We show that regardless of their nature, none of the stars studied in this paper were found to have detectable beryllium. Using simple dilution arguments we show that engulfment of an external object as the sole source of Li enrichment is ruled out by the Li and Be abundance data. The present results favor the idea that Li has been produced in the interior of the stars by a Cameron-Fowler process and brought up to the surface by an extra mixing mechanism.

Melo, C. H. F.; de Laverny, P.; Santos, N. C.; Israelian, G.; Randich, S.; Do Nascimento, J. D., Jr.; de Medeiros, J. R.

2005-08-01

28

Determination of boron and lithium by recording the products from (n, alpha) reactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Irradiation with thermal neutrons in the VVR-S reactor provides a nondestructive method for determining the presence of boron and lithium in solids. The charged particles produced in the reactions Li-6(n,alpha)H-3 and B-10(n,alpha)Li-7 were detected using CsI single crystal. For alpha-particle spectrometry in the boron determination, an ionization chamber (W and Sn electrodes, 99% Ar + 1% H2) was developed allowing both absolute and relative measurements. In determining boron in lithium-containing samples, both scintillation and ionization chambers are used. In determining lithium in minerals, the error was 1.5%, and the sensitivity 0.00005 wt.%. In the determination of boron in SiC with a concentration of boron approximately (3 plus or minus 2) the error given by the alpha-range uncertainty was 15%.

Lobanov, Y. M.; Zverev, B. P.; Simakhin, Y. F.; Usmanova, M. M.

1978-01-01

29

Measurement of the Melting Point Temperature of Several Lithium-Sodium-Beryllium Fluoride Salt (Flinabe) Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium fluorides studied for molten salt fission reactors, has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for fusion applications. The melting points of 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} and LiF-BeF{sub 2} are 460 deg. C and 363 deg. C, but LiF-BeF{sub 2} is rather viscous and has less lithium for breeding. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing liquid for the first wall and blanket were investigated. Flinabe (a mixture of LiF, BeF{sub 2} and NaF) was selected for a molten salt design because a melting temperature below 350 deg. C appeared possible and this provided an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a stainless steel crucible under vacuum. One had an apparent melting temperature of 305 deg. C. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, melting procedures and temperature curves for the melting and cooling are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible is reported in an accompanying paper.

McDonald, J.M; Nygren, R.E.; Lutz, T.J.; Tanaka, T.J; Ulrickson, M.A.; Boyle, T.J.; Troncosa, K.P. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States)

2005-04-15

30

Production cross sections of lithium and beryllium isotopes in 12C by high-energy protons and alpha particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation cross sections of 6Li, 7Li and 7Be, 9Be, 10Be by high-energy protons and alpha-particles in a 12C target have been determined by a high sensitivity mass-spectrometric technique. A method for extracting lithium and beryllium from the irradiated graphite without interference by natural contamination has been developed. Cross sections have been measured for 150 MeV and 600 MeV protons

P. Fontes; C. Perron; J. Lestringuez; F. Yiou; R. Bernas

1971-01-01

31

Potential mining of lithium, beryllium and strontium from oilfield wastewater after enrichment in constructed wetlands and ponds.  

PubMed

Shortages of resources (chemical elements) used by growing industrial activities require new techniques for their acquisition. A suitable technique could be the use of wetlands for the enrichment of elements from produced water of the oil industry. Oil industries produce very high amounts of water in the course of oil mining. These waters may contain high amounts of rare elements. To our best knowledge nothing is known about the economic potential regarding rare element mining from produced water. Therefore, we estimated the amount of harvestable rare elements remaining in the effluent of a constructed wetland-pond system which is being used to treat and evaporate vast quantities of produced waters. The examined wetland system is located in the desert of the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula. This system manages 95,000m(3) per day within 350ha of surface flow wetlands and 350ha of evaporation ponds and is designed to be used for at least 20years. We found a strong enrichment of some chemical elements in the water pathway of the system (e.g. lithium up to 896?gL(-1) and beryllium up to 139?gL(-1)). For this wetland, lithium and beryllium are the elements with the highest economic potential resulting from a high price and load. It is calculated that after 20years retention period 131t of lithium and 57t of beryllium could be harvested. This technique may also be useful for acquisition of rare earth elements. Other elements (e.g. strontium) with a high calculated load of 4500tons in 20years are not efficiently harvestable due to a relatively low market value. In conclusion, wetland treated waters from the oil industry offer a promising new acquisition technique for elements like lithium and beryllium. PMID:25010942

Schaller, Jrg; Headley, Tom; Prigent, Stephane; Breuer, Roman

2014-09-15

32

Lithium in the Super-Beryllium-rich HG-MN Stars HR 6158 and HR 8915  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemically peculiar stars that inhabit the upper main sequence exhibit very extreme enhancements and deficiencies of several elements. In all likelihood, the primary cause of these anomalies is radiatively driven diffusion, although other mechanisms may also be important-such as mass loss and various kinds of mixing. Only by examining as many elements as possible will a cohesive theory explaining these abundance oddities materialize. To this end, we present high-resolution (R~62,500), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N pixel^-1~120) observations of the 6708 Li I resonance doublet in a pair of Hg-Mn stars. No record of a lithium detection has been found for this type of chemically peculiar star. The atmospheres of the two program stars (HR 6158=28 Her=HD 149212; HR 8915=69 Peg=HD 220933) contain an inordinate amount of beryllium (Be) in fact, the Be abundances in these stars are among the highest known. While the LTE concentration of Be is several thousand times larger than cosmic [A(Be)_i~1.27] in both stars, lithium (Li) is detected in neither HR 6158 nor HR 8915. The calculated 3 sigma (99% confidence level) upper limits place the maximum Li enhancements at 50 times and 80 times cosmic [A(Li)_i~3.23] for HR 6158 and HR 8915, respectively, or ~100 times smaller than the Be overabundances. These Li upper limits, which argue against a ``nucleosynthesis'' origin for the Be surfeit, provide yet another means of constraining the physical process (or processes) responsible for the Hg-Mn phenomenon in some A stars.

Stephens, Alex; Deliyannis, Constantine P.

1999-04-01

33

Determination of boron and lithium by recording the products from (n, alpha) reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiation with thermal neutrons in the VVR-S reactor provides a nondestructive method for determining the presence of boron and lithium in solids. The charged particles produced in the reactions Li-6(n,alpha)H-3 and B-10(n,alpha)Li-7 were detected using CsI single crystal. For alpha-particle spectrometry in the boron determination, an ionization chamber (W and Sn electrodes, 99% Ar + 1% H2) was developed allowing

Y. M. Lobanov; B. P. Zverev; Y. F. Simakhin; M. M. Usmanova

1978-01-01

34

THE SPECTROGRAPHIC DETECTION OF TRACE IMPURITIES IN BERYLLIUM OXIDE. Interim Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tentative methods are reported for the spectrographic determination of ; trace impurities in beryllium oxide. The detected elements include the rare ; earths erbium, thulium, europium, dysprosium, gadolinium, and samarium. The ; common elements cobalt, gold, iron, boron, silicon, manganese, lead, chromium, ; aluminum, calcium, yttrium, palladium, copper, indium, cadmium, silver, titanium, ; rhodium, nickel, and lithium were also detected.

Killeen

1959-01-01

35

Measurement of the melting point temperature of several lithium-sodium-beryllium fluoride salt (FLINABE) mixtures.  

SciTech Connect

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium flourides, was studied for molten salt fission reactors and has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for the fusion applications. 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at 460 C. LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at a lower temperature, 363 C, but is rather viscous and has less lithium breeder. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing ternary molten salt for the first wall surface and blanket were investigated. The molten salt (FLiNaBe, a ternary mixture of LiF, BeF2 and NaF) salt was selected because a melting temperature below 350 C that would provide an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor application appeared possible. This information came from a Russian binary phase diagram and a US ternary phase diagram in the 1960's that were not wholly consistent. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and, BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a small stainless steel crucible under vacuum. The proportions of the three salts were selected to yield conglomerate salts with as low a melting temperature as possible. The temperature of the salts and the crucible were recorded during the melting and subsequent re-solidification using a thermocouple directly in the salt pool and two thermocouples embedded in the crucible. One mixture had an apparent melting temperature of 305 C. Particular attention was paid to the cooling curve of the salt temperature to observe evidence of any mixed intermediate phases between the fully liquid and fully solid states. The clarity, texture, and thickness were observed and noted as well. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, and the melting procedure are described. The temperature curves for the melting and cooling of each of the mixtures are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible was also done and is reported in a separate paper.

Boyle, Timothy J.; Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Nygren, Richard Einar; Lutz, Thomas Joseph; McDonald, Jimmie M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

2004-09-01

36

Large scale boron carbon nitride nanosheets with enhanced lithium storage capabilities.  

PubMed

Few-layered boron carbon nitride nanosheets are synthesized by a simple and environmentally friendly process. The BCN nanosheets have 2-6 atomic layers with high surface area and show enhanced storage performance in lithium batteries, as well as a stable capacity of ~100 mA h g(-1) at 2 A g(-1) for 5000 cycles. PMID:23108161

Lei, Weiwei; Qin, Si; Liu, Dan; Portehault, David; Liu, Zongwen; Chen, Ying

2013-01-14

37

Lithium and Boron Isotope Systematics of Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotope systems, which strongly fractionate under low-temperature near surface conditions (<~600C) and in the subduction environment, have a potential to identify the existence of 'recycled material' in the mantle source of oceanic basalt. In particular, lithium (Li) and boron (B) isotopes could be powerful geochemical tracers of tracing this geochemical pathway. Li and B are fluid-mobile elements; therefore, the mass fractionation is enhanced by fluid-rock interactions on the ocean floor and during metamorphic dehydration through the material recycling. Studies, focused on Li and B systematics in high- pressure metamorphic systems, suggested that the isotopic composition of both these isotopes in the oceanic crust subducted into the deep mantle are lighter than surrounding mantle materials, thus producing mantle heterogeneity. Li and B isotopes with "near-surface" signature, therefore, might be detectable in ocean island basalt samples, which are considered to include recycled materials. Given the constraints on the physicochemical behavior of Li and B in the subduction cycle, isotope systematics of these elements in the ocean island basalts may be the key in understanding crust-mantle recycling. In this talk, we will focus on the recent studies carried out on Li and B isotopic variation in Hawaiian volcanoes and also introduce the topic on the behavior of Li and B through subduction zone metamorphism. A recent study employing HR-SIMS revealed significant Li and B isotopic variation of olivine glass (melt) inclusions from Hawaiian lavas (Kobayashi et al., 2004). While our studies on olivine inclusions show large variations ranging between -10.2 and +8.4 for ?7Li and from -10.5 to +5.2 for ?11B, the whole rock samples are limited to be ranging from +2.2 to +5.7 for ?7Li (Chen and Frey, 2003) and between 5.4 and -3.0 for ?11B (Tanaka and Nakamura, 2005). These results suggest that the glass inclusions preserve better information regarding Li and B isotopic source heterogeneity than does the whole rock. At the same time, Tanaka and Nakamura (2005), using whole rock B geochemistry, have suggested little or no assimilation of variably altered shallow oceanic crust or volcanic edifice into the mantle-derived Hawaiian magma en route to the surface or in deep magmatic chambers. When the whole rock data is combined with that of glass inclusions, significantly "light" Li and B isotope signatures are seen in Hawaiian lava, implying the involvement of subduction-modified recycled materials to the generation of the Hawaiian magma. This result clearly shows that the comprehensive approach including both in-situ and whole rock geochemistry of Li and B can contribute to our understanding of the nature and heterogeneity of mantle. Moreover, we believe that the recent spectacular technical improvements in Li and B measurements will provide important clues to our understanding on crust-mantle recycling through the Earth's history in the near future.

Nakamura, E.; Moriguti, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Tanaka, R.; Watanabe, M.

2006-05-01

38

Determination of boron and lithium in ferroelectric samples by ICP-OES and ICP-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a quantitative method for determining boron and lithium content by ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled PlasmaOptical\\u000a Emission Spectrometry) and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled PlasmaMass Spectrometry) techniques using doped BST (BaSrTiO3) as an example material. The analyses were done to pure and doped BST samples before and after sintering. The ICP-OES analyses\\u000a of the samples before sintering showed the same amounts

Pekka Vuollo; Johanna Honkamo; Matti Niemel; Paavo Permki; Heli Jantunen

2009-01-01

39

Heats of formation of beryllium, boron, aluminum, and silicon re-examined by means of W4 theory.  

PubMed

Benchmark total atomization energies (TAE0 values) were obtained, by means of our recent W4 theory [Karton, A.; Rabinowitz, E.; Martin, J. M. L.; Ruscic, B. J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 125, 144108], for the molecules Be2, BeF2, BeCl2, BH, BF, BH3, BHF2, B2H6, BF3, AlF, AlF3, AlCl3, SiH4, Si2H6, and SiF4. We were then able to deduce "semi-experimental" heats of formation for the elements beryllium, boron, aluminum, and silicon by combining the calculated TAE0 values with experimental heats of formation obtained from reactions that do not involve the species Be(g), B(g), Al(g), and Si(g). The elemental heats of formation are fundamental thermochemical quantities that are required whenever a molecular heat of formation has to be derived from a calculated binding energy. Our recommended DeltaH degrees f,0 [A(g)] values are Be 76.4+/-0.6 kcal/mol, B 135.1+/-0.2 kcal/mol, Al 80.2+/-0.4 kcal/mol, and Si 107.2+/-0.2 kcal/mol. (The corresponding values at 298.15 K are 77.4, 136.3, 80.8, and 108.2 kcal/mol, respectively.) The Be value is identical to the CODATA recommendation (but with half of the uncertainty), while the B, Al, and Si values represent substantial revisions from established earlier reference data. The revised B and Si values are in agreement with earlier semi-ab initio derivations but carry much smaller uncertainties. PMID:17567115

Karton, Amir; Martin, Jan M L

2007-07-01

40

Cryogenic detection of 7Be with beryllium metal absorber for lithium solar neutrino experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cryogenic micro-calorimeter to detect the 7Be electron capture decay has been developed. The detector absorber is a beryllium metal foil which has been previously irradiated by protons in order to produce the 7Be isotope. The 112 eV spectral line corresponding to the 7Be K-capture decay to the 7Li ground state (Auger-electron plus the nuclear recoil energy) has been successfully

M. Galeazzi; G. Gallinaro; F. Gatti; P. Meunier; S. Vitale; A. Kopylov; E. Yanovich

1997-01-01

41

Specific features of formation and properties of boron-chromium coatings obtained on steels in lithium melt  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed and tested a new method for the one-stage application of two-component boronchromium coatings on steels\\u000a in the lithium meltchromium oxideboron medium. We have established the mechanism of coating formation: first, the transport\\u000a melt is enriched with chromium, reduced from its oxide, and afterwards boron powder is dissolved. Therefore, a chromium coating\\u000a is first formed on steel, and

V. V. Shyrokov; Kh. B. Vasyliv; L. A. Arendar; E. M. Rudkovskyi

2011-01-01

42

On the production of lithium, beryllium, and boron at low energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative yields of LiBeB isotopes are calculated for proton and alpha-particle induced reactions at energies in the neighborhood of 10 or tens of MeV, and comparisons are made with solar system abundances. A match is found for incident particles in the neighborhood of 16 MeV, assuming the meteoritic value for the B abundance and standard values for other target and

D. Bodansky; W. W. Jacobs; D. L. Oberg

1975-01-01

43

Production of Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron from Baryon inhomogeneous primordial nucleosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the possibility that inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis may eventually be used to explain the abundances of Li-6, Be-9, and B in Population II stars. The present work differs from previous studies in that we have used a more extensive reaction network. It is demonstrated that in the simplest scenario the abundances of the light elements with A less than or

David Thomas; David N. Schramm; Keith A. Olive; Grant J. Mathews; Bradley S. Meyer; Brian D. Fields

1994-01-01

44

Inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis: Upper limit on Omegab and production of lithium, beryllium, and boron  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) process in the presence of small-scale baryon inhomogeneities. Primordial abundance yields for D, 4He, 6Li, 7Li, 9Be, and 11B are computed for wide ranges of parameters characterizing the inhomogeneities taking account of all relevant diffusive and hydrodynamic processes. These calculations may be of interest due to (a) recent observations of the anisotropies in

Karsten Jedamzik; Jan B. Rehm

2001-01-01

45

Cosmic-ray models for early Galactic Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron production  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand better the early Galactic production of Li, Be, and B by comsmic-ray spallation and fusion reactions, the dependence of these production rates on cosmic-ray models and model parameters is examined. The sensitivity of elemental and isotopic production to the cosmic-ray path length magnitude and energy dependence, source spectrum, spallation kinematics, and cross section uncertainties is studied. Changes in

Brian D. Fields; Keith A. Olive; David N. Schramm

1994-01-01

46

Cosmic Ray Models for Early Galactic Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand better the early galactic production of Li, Be, and B by cosmic\\u000aray spallation and fusion reactions, the dependence of these production rates\\u000aon cosmic ray models and model parameters is examined. The sensitivity of\\u000aelemental and isotopic production to the cosmic ray pathlength magnitude and\\u000aenergy dependence, source spectrum, spallation kinematics, and cross section\\u000auncertainties is studied.

Brian D. Fields; Keith A. Olive; David N. Schramm

1994-01-01

47

Cosmic ray models for early galactic lithium, beryllium, and boron production  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the early galactic production of Li, Be, and B by cosmic ray spallation and fusion reactions, the dependence of these production rates on cosmic ray models and model parameters is examined. The sensitivity of elemental and isotropic production to the cosmic ray pathlength magnitude and energy dependence, source spectrum spallation kinematics, and cross section uncertainties is studied.

Brian D. Fields; Keith A. Olive; David N. Schramm

1994-01-01

48

Inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis: Upper limit on ?b and production of lithium, beryllium, and boron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) process in the presence of small-scale baryon inhomogeneities. Primordial abundance yields for D, 4He, 6Li, 7Li, 9Be, and 11B are computed for wide ranges of parameters characterizing the inhomogeneities taking account of all relevant diffusive and hydrodynamic processes. These calculations may be of interest due to (a) recent observations of the anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation favoring slightly larger baryonic contribution to the critical density, ?b, than allowed by a standard BBN scenario and (b) new observational determinations of 6Li and 9Be in metal-poor halo stars. We find considerable parameter space in which production of D and 4He is in agreement with observational constraints even for ?bh2 a factor 2 or 3 larger than the ?b inferred from standard BBN. Nevertheless, in this parameter space synthesis of 7Li in excess of the inferred 7Li abundance on the Spite plateau results. Production of 6Li, 9Be, and 11B in inhomogeneous BBN scenarios is still typically well below the abundance of these isotopes observed in the most metal-poor stars to date thus neither confirming nor rejecting inhomogeneous BBN. In an Appendix we summarize results of a reevaluation of baryon diffusion constants entering inhomogeneous BBN calculations.

Jedamzik, Karsten; Rehm, Jan B.

2001-07-01

49

Production of Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron from Baryon inhomogeneous primordial nucleosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the possibility that inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis may eventually be used to explain the abundances of Li-6, Be-9, and B in Population II stars. The present work differs from previous studies in that we have used a more extensive reaction network. It is demonstrated that in the simplest scenario the abundances of the light elements with A less than or = 7 constrain the separation of inhomogeneities to sufficently small scales that the model is indistinguishable from homogeneous nucleosynthesis and that the abundnace of Li-6, Be-9, and B are then below observations by several orders of magnitude. This conclusion does not depend on the Li-7 constraint. We also examine alternative scenarios which involve a post-nucleosynthesis reprocessing of the light elements to reproduce the observed abundances of Li and B, while allowing for a somewhat higher baryon density (still well below the cosmological critical density). Future B/H measurements may be able to exclude even this exotic scenario and further restrict primordial nucleosynthesis to approach the homogeneous model conclusions.

Thomas, David; Schramm, David N.; Olive, Keith A.; Mathews, Grant J.; Meyer, Bradley S.; Fields, Brian D.

1994-07-01

50

Cosmic ray models for early galactic lithium, beryllium, and boron production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To better understand the early galactic production of Li, Be, and B by cosmic ray spallation and fusion reactions, the dependence of these production rates on cosmic ray models and model parameters is examined. The sensitivity of elemental and isotropic production to the cosmic ray pathlength magnitude and energy dependence, source spectrum spallation kinematics, and cross section uncertainties is studied. Changes in these model features, particularly those features related to confinement, are shown to alter the Be- and B-versus-Fe slopes from a naive quadratic relation. The implications of our results for the diffuse gamma-ray background are examined, and the role of chemical evolution and its relation to our results is noted. It is also noted that the unmeasured high energy behavior of alpha + alpha fusion can lead to effects as large as a factor of 2 in the resultant yields. Future data should enable Population II Li, Be, and B abundances to constrain cosmic ray models for the early Galaxy.

Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.

1994-01-01

51

Implications of a Sub-Threshold Resonance for Stellar Beryllium Depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundance measurements of the light elements lithium, beryllium, and boron\\u000aare playing an increasingly important role in the study of stellar physics.\\u000aBecause these elements are easily destroyed in stars at temperatures 2--4\\u000amillion K, the abundances in the surface convective zone are diagnostics of the\\u000astar's internal workings. Standard stellar models cannot explain depletion\\u000apatterns observed in low mass

1997-01-01

52

Structure of Lithium-Boron Alloys and Their Performance as Potential Anodes for High Power Molten Salt Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anodic discharge curves in the LiCl-KCl eutectic melt have been obtained for two lithium-boron alloys (70 and 80 weight % Li) between 673 and 873K (400 and 600 C) and from 2-8 A/sq cm. The behavior of Li contained in wicks of porous Ni was also studied fo...

L. E. DeVries S. D. James

1976-01-01

53

Lithium Adsorption on Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanosheet Using Dispersion-Corrected Density Functional Theory Calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single lithium (Li) atom adsorption behavior on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheet was investigated using the first-principles density functional theory (DFT) with the semi-empirical Grimme DFT-D2 approach, which allows a description of London dispersive interaction. The single Li atom was found to be strongly physisorbed on the h-BN nanosheet with dispersion-corrected DFT calculation, while a very weak bonding, close to non-bonding, between the adsorbed Li and h-BN was calculated with conventional DFT calculation. Through analyzing the charge density and the electron density of states of the Li/h-BN system, our calculations demonstrate that the dispersion-corrected DFT calculations give more reasonable predictions for a weakly-bonded adsorption system than conventional DFT calculations, which are unable to precisely describe the system due to absence of a dispersive interaction description.

Hwang, Yubin; Chung, Yong-Chae

2013-06-01

54

How does the boron concentration affect hydrogen storage in lithium decorated zero- and two-dimensional boron-carbon compounds?  

PubMed

A balance between the hydrogen capacity and reversibility is a big challenge in the search for hydrogen storage materials. Using van der Waals-corrected density functional theory, we perform a detailed study of the hydrogen molecules adsorption on lithium (Li) decorated zero- and two-dimensional boron-carbon (B-C) compounds. It is found that not only the Li bond strength but also the number of adsorbed hydrogen molecules depends on the B concentration. First, the binding of Li on the B-C compounds strengthens with the increase of the B concentration due to the stronger hybridization between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of the B-C compounds and Li 2p orbitals. Thus, Li atoms are not likely to form clusters, indicating a good reversible hydrogen storage. Second, higher B concentration results in weaker electric field produced by the charge transfer from Li to the B-C compounds. Therefore, one Li atom can adsorb up to 5H(2) molecules with the B concentration less than 50%. In contrast, the adsorption number of H(2) molecules is reduced to 4 when the B concentration is greater than or equal to 50%. Third, using a statistical model parametrized by the results of ab initio calculations, the adsorption and desorption of molecular hydrogens are calculated at ambient temperature and pressure. We find that the usable number of adsorbed H(2) per Li under ambient conditions decreases with the increase of B concentration. These results can serve as a guide in the design of new hydrogen storage materials based on B-C compounds. PMID:23318411

Ye, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Jia, Ran; Zeng, Zhi; Zhong, Wei

2013-02-21

55

Structure of lithium-boron alloys and their performance as potential anodes for high power molten salt batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anodic discharge curves in the LiCl-KCl eutectic melt have been obtained for two lithium-boron alloys (70 and 80 weight % Li) between 673 and 873 K (400 and 600 C) and from 2-8 A\\/sq cm. The behavior of Li contained in wicks of porous Ni was also studied for comparison. Calculated Li contents for Li-B alloy anodes, at the main

S. D. James; L. E. Devries

1976-01-01

56

Highly sensitive analysis of boron and lithium in aqueous solution using dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We have applied a dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) to sensitively detect concentrations of boron and lithium in aqueous solution. Sequential laser pulses from two separate Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers at 532 nm wavelength have been employed to generate laser-induced plasma on a water jet. For achieving sensitive elemental detection, the optimal timing between two laser pulses was investigated. The optimum time delay between two laser pulses for the B atomic emission lines was found to be less than 3 ?s and approximately 10 ?s for the Li atomic emission line. Under these optimized conditions, the detection limit was attained in the range of 0.8 ppm for boron and 0.8 ppb for lithium. In particular, the sensitivity for detecting boron by excitation of laminar liquid jet was found to be excellent by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared with 80 ppm reported in the literature. These sensitivities of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy are very practical for the online elemental analysis of boric acid and lithium hydroxide serving as neutron absorber and pH controller in the primary coolant water of pressurized water reactors, respectively. PMID:22054422

Lee, Dong-Hyoung; Han, Sol-Chan; Kim, Tae-Hyeong; Yun, Jong-Il

2011-12-15

57

Synthesis and studies of boron based anion receptors and their use in non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

A new family of anion receptors based on boron compounds has been synthesized. These compounds can be used as anion receptors in lithium battery electrolytes and can greatly increase solubility and ionic conductivities of various lithium salts, such as LiF, LiCl, CF{sub 3}COOLi and C{sub 2}F{sub 5}COOLi, in DME solutions. Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy studies show that Cl{sup {minus}} anions of LiCl are complexed with these compounds in DME solutions. The electrochemical stability of lithium salts and one of the boron compounds in deferent solvents was studied. For the first time, LiF has been successfully used as conducting salt in a novel electrolyte with this boron compound as an additive in DME. A rechargeable Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cell using this electrolyte was successfully cycled 51 times. However, the capacity fades with cycling due to decomposition of the solvent. The cycling performance of the battery was greatly improved by replacing DME with PC-EC-DMC as the solvent.

Sun, X.; Yang, X.Q.; Lee, H.S.; McBreen, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Choi, L.S. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1998-12-31

58

Content of lithium, beryllium, boron, and titanium, and the isotopic composition of lithium, boron, and magnesium in Luna 16 regolith sample  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The abundance of the following elements in the L 16-19 No. 118 regolith sample, zone V was determined by isotopic dilution using a mass spectrometer equipped with a scattering ion source: Li -- 9.8, Be -- 1.2, Be -- 2.6, and Ti -- 1.92 percent. For comparison, these same elements were measured in samples of surface material returned by Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 14, and in the terrestrial reference standard diabase W-1. The content of Li, Be, and B in the Luna 16 sample is nearly the same as in the Apollo 11 surface material. The surface material returned by Apollo 12 and Apollo 14 contains two to four times more of these elements. However, the abundance ratios of Li, Be, and B are remarkably similar in the surface materials from the four different lunar regions. With respect to basaltic achondrites and especially with respect to chondrites, the lunar basalts are enriched in Li, Be, and B up to 100 times.

Eugster, O.

1974-01-01

59

Anode property of boron-doped graphite materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anode properties of boron-doped graphites were investigated by means of electrochemical measurements. A discharge capacity of about 315 mAh\\/g was obtained for 3.8 mass% boron-doped pitch coke-derived graphite in galvanostatic measurements. Increased discharge capacity for boron-doped graphite compared with boron-free one was considered to be mainly due to the enhanced graphitization by boron. Also, in this measurements, a shoulder was

Udai Tanaka; Toshiaki Sogabe; Haruo Sakagoshi; Masayuki Ito; Tetsuro Tojo

2001-01-01

60

Boron  

MedlinePLUS

... and muscle coordination. Women sometimes use capsules containing boric acid, the most common form of boron, inside the vagina to treat yeast infections. People also apply boric acid to the skin as an astringent or to ...

61

Effect of boron doped fullerene C 60 film coating on the electrochemical characteristics of silicon thin film anodes for lithium secondary batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, boron doped fullerene (B:C60) films were prepared by the radio frequency plasma assisted thermal evaporation technique for use as a coating material for the silicon thin film anode in lithium secondary batteries. Raman and XPS analyses revealed that the boron atoms were well inserted into the fullerene film lattices. The effect of the B:C60 film on the

Arenst Andreas Arie; Joong Kee Lee

2011-01-01

62

Boron Removal from Lithium Pentaborate (Li2B10O1610H2O) Solution Using Ion Exchange Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of deuterium oxide (D2O) e.g., heavy water from lithium pentaborate, Li2B10O1610H2O (represented as LiPB), solution in heavy water is achieved by using a mixed bed (MB) ion exchanger. Boron removal capacity for the strong base anion exchange resin was found to increase with an increasing concentration of boron in the inlet solution of ion exchange column. With 0.2M LiPB

A. G. Kumbhar; G. Venkateswaran; C. S. Kumar

2005-01-01

63

Comparative Studies of the Electrochemical and Thermal Stability of Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Using Two Types of Boron-Based Anion Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative studies were done on two new types of boron based anion receptors, tris(pentafluorophenyl) borane (TFPB) and tris(pentafluorophenyl) borate (TFPBO), regarding conductivity enhancement electrochemical and thermal stability when used as additives in composite electrolytes for lithium batteries. Both additives enhance the ionic conductivity of electrolytes of simple lithium salts, LiF, CFCOLi and CFCOLi in several organic solvents. The electrochemical windows

X. Q. Yang; H. S. Lee; X. Sun; J. McBreen

1999-01-01

64

Comparative studies of the electrochemical and thermal stability of two types of composite lithium battery electrolytes using boron-based anion receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative studies were done on two new types of boron based anion receptors, tris(pentafluorophenyl) borane (TFPB) and tris(pentafluorophenyl) borate (TFPBO), regarding conductivity enhancement, and electrochemical and thermal stability when used as additives in composite electrolytes for lithium batteries. Both additives enhance the ionic conductivity of electrolytes of simple lithium salts, LiF, CFCOLi, and CFCOLi in several organic solvents\\/ The electrochemical

X. Sun; H. S. Lee; X. Q. Yang; J. McBreen

1999-01-01

65

Boron-substituted manganese spinel oxide cathode for lithium ion battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt has been made to synthesize boron-substituted cubic spinel through solid state (SS) and solution route (SR) techniques. The synthesized spinels have been examined for their physical and electrochemical characteristics through ex situ-X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and SEM, as well as by chargedischarge cycling and diffusion coefficient measurements. X-ray diffraction reveals boron elimination from boron-substituted spinel (SR-B spinel) resulting in

A Veluchamy; H Ikuta; M Wakihara

2001-01-01

66

Lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States consumes over one-half of the world's lithium and provides about 70 percent of the market economy world's supply of lithium. The report contains data on domestic and worldwide lithium production, consumption, and reserves to monitor and analyze supply-demand relationships. In addition, it presents comprehensive data on lithium including industry structure, uses, resources, technology, byproducts and coproducts, strategic

1979-01-01

67

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

Ober, J. A.

2006-01-01

68

Possible sources of the Population I lithium abundance and light-element evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One-zone numerical models of Galactic chemical evolution of the light elements (lithium, beryllium, boron, and deuterium) with a broad sample of possible stellar lithium production sites and star formation histories, including the multiple merger model of Mathews and Schramm (1992), are examined. Models with high primordial lithium are constrained by observations of lithium and potassium in the interstellar medium of the LMC to have Li abundances close to the Population I value of about 10 exp -9. Li-7 production in intermediate- or high-mass stars (greater than 4 solar masses) is found to fit observations somewhat better than production in low-mass (1-5 solar masses) stars. Since elevated levels of lithium are commonly observed in intermediate-mass stars in the LMC, it is argued that this is indeed the major source of the Population I Li-7 abundance.

Brown, Lawrence E.

1992-01-01

69

Possible sources of the Population I lithium abundance and light-element evolution  

SciTech Connect

One-zone numerical models of Galactic chemical evolution of the light elements (lithium, beryllium, boron, and deuterium) with a broad sample of possible stellar lithium production sites and star formation histories, including the multiple merger model of Mathews and Schramm (1992), are examined. Models with high primordial lithium are constrained by observations of lithium and potassium in the interstellar medium of the LMC to have Li abundances close to the Population I value of about 10 exp -9. Li-7 production in intermediate- or high-mass stars (greater than 4 solar masses) is found to fit observations somewhat better than production in low-mass (1-5 solar masses) stars. Since elevated levels of lithium are commonly observed in intermediate-mass stars in the LMC, it is argued that this is indeed the major source of the Population I Li-7 abundance. 71 refs.

Brown, L.E. (NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Batavia, IL (United States) Chicago, University, IL (United States))

1992-04-01

70

Beryllium disease  

SciTech Connect

After two workers at the nuclear weapons plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee were diagnosed earlier this year with chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a rare and sometimes fatal scarring of the lungs, the Department of Energy ordered up a 4-year probe. Now, part of that probe has begun - tests conducted by the Oak Ridge Associated Universities' Center for Epidemiological Research measuring beryllium sensitivity in 3,000 people who've been exposed to the metal's dust since Manhattan Project managers opened the Y-12 plant at Oak Ridge in 1943. Currently, 119 Y-12 employees process beryllium, which has a number of industrial uses, including rocket heat shields and nuclear weapon and electrical components. The disease often takes 20 to 25 years to develop, and the stricken employees haven't worked with beryllium for years. There is no cure for CBD, estimated to strike 2% of people exposed to the metal. Anti-inflammatory steroids alleviate such symptoms as a dry cough, weight loss, and fatigue. Like other lung-fibrosis diseases that are linked to lung cancer, some people suspect CBD might cause some lung cancer. While difficult to diagnose, about 900 cases of CBD have been reported since a Beryllium Case Registry was established in 1952. The Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that about 10,000 DOE employees and 800,000 people in private industry have worked with beryllium.

Not Available

1991-12-20

71

Method for welding beryllium  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon.

Dixon, Raymond D. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, Frank M. (Espanola, NM); O'Leary, Richard F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01

72

Structure of lithium--boron alloys and their performance as potential anodes for high power molten salt batteries. Progress report, 1 Aug 1974--30 Jun 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anodic discharge curves in the LiCl--KCl eutectic melt have been obtained for two lithium--boron alloys (70 and 80 wt % Li) between 673 and 873 K (400 and 600 C) and from 2 to 8 A\\/sq cm. The behavior of Li contained in wicks of porous Ni was also studied for comparison. Calculated Li contents for Li--B alloy anodes, at

S. D. James; L. E. DeVries

1976-01-01

73

Development of a high-power neutron-producing lithium target for boron neutron capture therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A neutron producing lithium target for a novel, accelerator based cancer treatment requires the removal of up to 6kW of heat produced by 1-2mA beam of 2.3-3.0MeV protons. This paper presents the results form computer simulations which show that, using submerged jet cooling, a solid lithium target can be maintained up to 1.6mA, and a liquid target up to 2.6mA, assuming a 3.0MeV proton beam. The predictions from the simulations are verified through the use of an experimental heat transfer test-rig and the result form a number of metallurgical studies made to select a compatible substrate material for the lithium are reported.

Brown, Adam V.; Scott, Malcolm C.

2000-12-01

74

Development of a high-power neutron-producing lithium target for boron neutron capture therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neutron producing lithium target for a novel, accelerator based cancer treatment requires the removal of up to 6kW of heat produced by 1-2mA beam of 2.3-3.0MeV protons. This paper presents the results form computer simulations which show that, using submerged jet cooling, a solid lithium target can be maintained up to 1.6mA, and a liquid target up to 2.6mA,

Adam V. Brown; Malcolm C. Scott

2000-01-01

75

Lithium  

MedlinePLUS

Lithium is also sometimes used to treat depression, schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. If you become pregnant while taking lithium, call ...

76

Boron-doped carbon prepared from PFO as a lithium-ion battery anode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A petroleum-based Li-ion battery anode was prepared by thermal condensation of pyrolysis fuel oil (PFO) and a subsequent carbonization process. H3BO3 was used as a catalyst for efficient thermal condensation, carbonization and battery performance. The influence of the carbonization temperature on the carbon structure and battery performance was also investigated. Notably, H3BO3 promoted thermal condensation and formation of a graphitic carbon structure and acted as a boron doping agent. Boron-doping attenuated the highly active sites in carbon and effectively controlled formation of the SEI layer, which resulted in an increase in the initial efficiency of the anode. For the sample carbonized at 900 C, a reversible capacity of 301 mAh/g and an initial efficiency of 78.6% were obtained. In addition, the samples obtained at different carbonization temperatures were all highly stable over 50 cycles, with capacity retentions greater than 90%.

Kim, Jong Gu; Liu, Fei; Lee, Chul-Wee; Lee, Young-Seak; Im, Ji Sun

2014-08-01

77

Lithium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States consumes over one-half of the world's lithium and provides about 70 percent of the market economy world's supply of lithium. The report contains data on domestic and worldwide lithium production, consumption, and reserves to monitor and ...

R. H. Singleton

1979-01-01

78

Boron and lithium isotopic composition in chondrules from the mokoia meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: Large Boron isotopic variations have been reported in individual chondrules from several meteorites [1, 2]. These variations were interpreted as resulting from the incomplete mixing of two isotopically distinct sources of Boron. Spallation is the only known nucleosynthetic process that can yield Boron in substantial amounts at the scale of the Universe. Therefore it has been proposed that the two sources observed in chondrules correspond to two different types of spallation reactions, namely at high and low energies. Indeed, in the case of Boron, the 11B/10B ratio is sensitive to the energy at which the spallation reaction takes place. Since this report of large B isotopic variations in chondrules, two observations have allowed to identify the natural conditions under which at least one of such spallation reactions may have taken place in the early solar system. First, X-ray observations of T-Tauri stars have revealed daily outbursts which mimic the present day solar activity during the emission of flares [3]. Second, the decay product (i.e. 10B) of the short lived radio-isotope 10Be was discovered in Calcium-Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) [4]. This is an indication that spallation did occurr in the solar system, shortly (i.e. less than a few million years) before the formation of the CAIs. In addition the possible occurrence of 7Be in CAIs suggests that this duration can be as short as a few months [5]. Sampling and Results: In the 8 chondrules from Mokoia, the ?11B values range between -396.8 ppm and -0.67.8 ppm (2 sigma). In one Boron depleted area of one chondrule, the ?11B value was found to be as low as -68.5 ppm and -61.5 ppm (29; 2 sigma). In one chondrule from Mokoia the ?11B values range between -33.75.4 ppm and -3.85.4 ppm. These data confirm with a resolution of ? 6 ppm the presence of a significant Boron isotopic heterogeneity,.The ?^7Li were also measured along with the ^delta11B. They range from -53.72.4 and -0.151.6 ppm (2 sigma) in the 8 chondrules of the Mokoia meteorite. Therefore the heterogeneity in B has its counterpart for Li. Interpretation: A two end member mixing model members can be proposed : ?11B ?0 ppm and ?11B<= -70 ppm. The value of 0 ppm is still significantly different from the matrix value reported by [6] (+19.2 ppm) and thus the possible contamination of the chondrule by their surrounding matrix is highly unlikely. The second end member should have ?11B and ?^7Li values le-70 ppm and le-50 ppm, respectively, resulting from Li and B produced at high energy by spallation reactions (E >= 100 MeV/nucleon, ?11B =-375 ?^7Li = -830 ppm). References: [1] Chaussidon M., Robert F. (1995) Nature 374, 337-339. [2] Chaussidon M. and Robert F. (1998) Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 164, 577-589. [3] Montmerle T. (1999) MPE Report : Astronomy with Radioactivities, 225-236. [4] McKeegan K., Chaussidon M., Robert F. (2000) Science 289, 1334-1337. [5] Chaussidon M., Robert F. McKeegan K. (2002) Abst. 33th LPSC #1563 [6] Hoppe et al., (2001) MAPS, 36, 1331-1343. [7] Zhai M et al., (1996) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60, 4877-4881.

Robert, F.; Chaussidon, M.

2003-04-01

79

From Wade-Mingos to Zintl-Klemm at 100 GPa: binary compounds of boron and lithium.  

PubMed

Structural diversity and a variety of bonding schemes emerge as characteristics of the Li-B phase diagram in this ground-state theoretical investigation. We studied stoichiometries ranging from LiB(15) to Li(5)B, over a pressure range from 1 atm to 300 GPa. At P = 1 atm, stability is found for the experimentally known LiB(0.8-1.0), LiB(3), and Li(3)B(14) phases. As the pressure rises, the latter two structures are no longer even metastable, while the LiB(0.8-1.0) structures change in geometry and narrow their range of off-stoichiometry, eventually coming at high pressure to a diamondoid NaTl-type LiB. This phase then dominates the convex hull of stability. Other phases emerge as stable points at some pressure: LiB(4), Li(3)B(2), Li(2)B, and Li(5)B. At the boron-rich end, one obtains structures expectedly containing polyhedral motifs, and geometries are governed by Wade-Mingos electron counts; LiB(4) has a BaAl(4) structure. In the center and on the lithium-rich side of the phase diagram, Zintl-phase considerations, i.e., bonding between B(n-) entities, give us insight into the structures-tetrahedral B(-) networks in LiB; B pairs to isolated bonds in Li(5)B. PMID:23066852

Hermann, Andreas; McSorley, Alexandra; Ashcroft, N W; Hoffmann, Roald

2012-11-14

80

Beryllium Manufacturing Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5)

2006-01-01

81

Chronic Beryllium Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease About Beryllium Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Work Environment Management FAQ Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer ... Beryllium Disease Information About Beryllium Causes Diagnosis Work Environment Management FAQ Symptoms Treatment Print Page Email Page Add ...

82

Insight into the effect of boron doping on sulfur/carbon cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries.  

PubMed

To exploit the high energy density of lithium-sulfur batteries, porous carbon materials have been widely used as the host materials of the S cathode. Current studies about carbon hosts are more frequently focused on the design of carbon structures rather than modification of its properties. In this study, we use boron-doped porous carbon materials as the host material of the S cathode to get an insightful investigation of the effect of B dopant on the S/C cathode. Powder electronic conductivity shows that the B-doped carbon materials exhibit higher conductivity than the pure analogous porous carbon. Moreover, by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we prove that doping with B leads to a positively polarized surface of carbon substrates and allows chemisorption of S and its polysulfides. Thus, the B-doped carbons can ensure a more stable S/C cathode with satisfactory conductivity, which is demonstrated by the electrochemical performance evaluation. The S/B-doped carbon cathode was found to deliver much higher initial capacity (1300 mA h g(-1) at 0.25 C), improved cyclic stability, and rate capability when compared with the cathode based on pure porous carbon. Electrochemical impedance spectra also indicate the low resistance of the S/B-doped C cathode and the chemisorption of polysulfide anions because of the presence of B. These features of B doping can play the positive role in the electrochemical performance of S cathodes and help to build better Li-S batteries. PMID:24764111

Yang, Chun-Peng; Yin, Ya-Xia; Ye, Huan; Jiang, Ke-Cheng; Zhang, Juan; Guo, Yu-Guo

2014-06-11

83

Evidence for lithium and boron from star-forming regions implanted in presolar SiC grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first measurements of lithium and boron isotope ratios and abundances measured in "gently separated" presolar SiC grains. Almost all analyses of presolar SiC grains since their first isolation in 1987 have been obtained from grains that were separated from their host meteorite by harsh acid dissolution. We recently reported a new method of "gently" separating the grains from meteorites by using freeze-thaw disaggregation, size, and density separation to retain any nonrefractory coatings or alteration to the surfaces of the grains that have been acquired in interstellar space. Nonrefractory coats or amorphized surfaces will almost certainly be removed or altered by the traditional acid separation procedure. High Li/Si and B/Si ratios of up to 10-2 were found implanted in the outer 0.5 ?m of the grains dropping to 10-5 in the core of the grains.7Li/6Li and 11B/10B ratios indistinguishable from solar system average values were found. Analyses obtained from SiC grains from the acid dissolution technique showed isotope ratios that were the same as those of gently separated grains, but depth profiles that were different. These results are interpreted as evidence of implantation of high velocity (1200-1800 km s-1) Li and B ions into the grains by shock waves as the grains traveled through star-forming regions some time after their condensation in the outflow of an AGB star that was their progenitor. The results are in line with spectroscopic measurements of Li and B isotope ratios in star-forming regions and may be used to infer abundances and isotopic sources in these regions.

Lyon, I. C.; Tizard, J. M.; Henkel, T.

2007-03-01

84

Review of Recent Developments. Beryllium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Properties of KBI brake grade beryllium; Properties of plasma consolidated beryllium; Effect of subgrain size on the properties of beryllium sheet; Effect of silicon on the powder metallurgy of beryllium; Deformation mechanism; Diffusion welding...

A. N. Ashurst S. H. Gelles

1971-01-01

85

Minerals Yearbook, 1991: Beryllium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Beryllium data are collected from two voluntary surveys of U.S. operations. In 1990, there were eight responses to the 'Beryllium Mineral Concentrate and Beryllium Ore' survey, representing 100% of the total canvassed. U.S. mine production continued to de...

D. A. Kramer

1992-01-01

86

Laser fabrication of beryllium components  

SciTech Connect

Working with the beryllium industry on commercial applications and using prototype parts, the authors have found that the use of lasers provides a high-speed, low-cost method of cutting beryllium metal, beryllium alloys, and beryllium-beryllium oxide composites. In addition, they have developed laser welding processes for commercial structural grades of beryllium that do not need a filler metal; i.e., autogenous welds were made in commercial structural grades of beryllium by using lasers.

Hanafee, J.E.; Ramos, T.J.

1995-08-01

87

The role of aqueous fluids in the slab-to-mantle transfer of boron, beryllium, and lithium during subduction: experiments and models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low atomic mass elements B, Be, and Li are viewed as sensitive tracers of the involvement of subducted materials in the genesis of island arc magmas. In order to better assess the role of dense aqueous fluids in the slab-to-mantle transfer of these elements during subduction, measurements have been made of partition coefficients for B, Be, and Li between

James M. Brenan; Frederick J. Ryerson; Henry F. Shaw

1998-01-01

88

The role of aqueous fluids in the slab-to-mantle transfer of boron, beryllium, and lithium during subduction: Experiments and models  

SciTech Connect

The low atomic mass elements B, Be, and Li are viewed as sensitive tracers of the involvement of subducted materials in the genesis of island arc magmas. In order to better assess the role of dense aqueous fluids in the slab-to-mantle transfer of these elements during subduction, measurements have been made of partition coefficients for B, Be, and Li between aqueous fluid and minerals likely to be present in the basaltic portion of the downgoing slab, namely clinopyroxene and garnet. Experiments at 900 C and 2.0 GPa reveal that the average clinopyroxene-fluid partition coefficient for Be ({approximately}2) exceeds that for either Li ({approximately}0.2) or B ({approximately}0.02) and values are 100{times} (B,Li) to 1,000{times} (Be) larger than partition coefficients for garnet. Clinopyroxene-fluid partition coefficients were found to vary with the alumina content of run-product clinopyroxenes, but this variation is interpreted to reflect the specific exchange reaction that governs the incorporation of these elements into the pyroxene structure, and not mineral-fluid disequilibrium. Calculations indicate that by the time the slab reaches a depth of 200 km, B/Be and B/Nb in the dehydration residue has been reduced to {approximately}5--12% of initial values. Thus, the preferential loss of B during dehydration is viewed as a viable mechanism to prevent the excess B acquired during near-surface alteration of oceanic crust from being cycled into the mantle, thereby maintaining the distinction in B/Be and B/Nb for mantle and crustal reservoirs.

Brenan, J.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Geology] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Ryerson, F.J.; Shaw, H.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1998-10-01

89

The effect of boron-doped on capacity of carbon cathode of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose To focus on the development of negative materials with a large Li ion capacity. Design\\/methodology\\/approach All calculations were performed using the Own N-layered Integrated molecular Orbital and molecular Mechanics method with Becke 3-parameter, Lee, Yang, Parr for high-level treatment and with the universal force field for low-level treatment. Findings It was found that boron substitution created

S. R. Ma; Z. H. Huang; C. B. Li; G. X. Yang; C. Wang

2007-01-01

90

Low temperature coefficient of resistance and high gage factor in beryllium-doped silicon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gage factor and resistivity of p-type silicon doped with beryllium was studied as a function of temperature, crystal orientation, and beryllium doping concentration. It was shown that the temperature coefficient of resistance can be varied and reduced to zero near room temperature by varying the beryllium doping level. Similarly, the magnitude of the piezoresistance gage factor for beryllium-doped silicon is slightly larger than for silicon doped with a shallow acceptor impurity such as boron, whereas the temperature coefficient of piezoresistance is about the same for material containing these two dopants. These results are discussed in terms of a model for the piezoresistance of compensated p-type silicon.

Robertson, J. B.; Littlejohn, M. A.

1974-01-01

91

Improved synthesis of a highly fluorinated boronic ester as dual functional additive for lithium-ion batteries.  

SciTech Connect

The electrolyte additive 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (PFPTFBB, 1) was found to have a reversible redox potential at 4.43 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li. This compound can function as an overcharge protection additive as well as anion receptor for lithium-ion batteries. It has drawn a great deal of interest from industry, but its use in relatively large quantities is limited by the production challenges of tetrafluorocatechol (TFC, 3), which is the key starting chemical for the synthesis of PFPTFBB. As part of a continuous effort in our research toward improving the safety of lithium-ion batteries, we have performed the synthesis of TFC and optimized its synthesis process. The X-ray single-crystal structures of TFC and the intermediate product 5,6,7,8-tetrafluoro-1,4-benzodioxane (4) during the process of PFPTFBB synthesis are reported for the first time. Also presented is the lithium ion cell performance of PFPTFBB as redox shuttle in various electrolyte systems.

Weng, W.; Zhang, Z.; Schlueter, J. A.; Redfern, P. C.; Curtiss, L. A.; Amine, K. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( CSE); ( MSD)

2011-02-01

92

Beryllium Manufacturing Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of ...

A. Goldberg

2006-01-01

93

Beryllium Manufacturing Processes  

SciTech Connect

This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61 cm high), may be cut or machined into parts or be thermomechanically processed to develop the desired microstructure, properties, and shapes. Vacuum hot-isostatic pressing and cold-isostatic pressing (CIP) followed by sintering and possibly by a final HIP'ing (CIP/Sinter/HIP) are important in their use for the production of near net-shaped parts. For the same starting powder, a HIP'ed product will have less anisotropy than that obtained for a VHP'ed product. A schematic presentation illustrating the difference between VHP'ing and HIP'ing is shown in Figure I-1. The types of powders and the various beryllium grades produced from the consolidated powders and their ambient-temperature mechanical properties were presented in the consolidation report referred to above. Elevated-temperature properties and the effect of processing variables on mechanical properties are described in the mechanical properties report. Beryllium can also be deposited as coatings as well as freestanding forms. The microstructure, properties, and various methods used that are related to the deposition of beryllium are discussed in the report on beryllium coatings.

Goldberg, A

2006-06-30

94

Nontraditional Machining of Beryllium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report deals with electrichemical machining (ECM), chemical milling, and electric-discharge machining (EDM). The general characteristics of these processes and their applications to the processing of beryllium parts are presented and covered in detail...

J. A. Gurklis

1972-01-01

95

Bonding in Beryllium Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beryllium clusters provide an ideal series for exploring the evolution from discrete molecules to the metallic state. The beryllium dimer has a formal bond order of zero, but the molecule is weakly bound. In contrast, bulk-phase beryllium is a hard metal with a high melting point. Theoretical calculations indicate that the bond energies increase dramatically for Ben clusters in the range n=2-6. A triplet ground state is found for n=6, indicating an early emergence of metallic properties. There is an extensive body of theoretical work on smaller Ben clusters, in part because this light element can be treated using high-level methods. However, the apparent simplicity of beryllium is deceptive, and the calculations have proved to be challenging owing to strong electron correlation and configuration interaction effects. Consequently, these clusters have become benchmark systems for the evaluation of a wide spectrum of quantum chemistry methods.

Heaven, Michael C.; Merritt, Jeremy M.; Bondybey, Vladimir E.

2011-05-01

96

High-power electron beam tests of a liquid-lithium target and characterization study of (7)Li(p,n) near-threshold neutrons for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.  

PubMed

A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The target is intended to demonstrate liquid-lithium target capabilities to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals. The lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power >5kW generated by high-intensity proton beams, necessary for sufficient therapeutic neutron flux. In preliminary experiments liquid lithium was flown through the target loop and generated a stable jet on the concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power densities of more than 4kW/cm(2) and volumetric power density around 2MW/cm(3) at a lithium flow of ~4m/s, while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. These power densities correspond to a narrow (?=~2mm) 1.91MeV, 3mA proton beam. A high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5MeV, 2mA) is being commissioned at the SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator. In order to determine the conditions of LiLiT proton irradiation for BNCT and to tailor the neutron energy spectrum, a characterization of near threshold (~1.91MeV) (7)Li(p,n) neutrons is in progress based on Monte-Carlo (MCNP and Geant4) simulation and on low-intensity experiments with solid LiF targets. In-phantom dosimetry measurements are performed using special designed dosimeters based on CR-39 track detectors. PMID:24387907

Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Cohen, D; Eliyahu, I; Kijel, D; Mardor, I; Silverman, I

2014-06-01

97

Lithium counterdoped silicon solar cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The resistance to radiation damage of an n(+)p boron doped silicon solar cell is improved by lithium counterdoping. Even though lithium is an n-dopant in silicon, the lithium is introduced in small enough quantities so that the cell base remains p-type. The lithium is introduced into the solar cell wafer by implantation of lithium ions whose energy is about 50 keV. After this lithium implantation, the wafer is annealed in a nitrogen atmosphere at 375 C for two hours.

Weinberg, I. (inventor); Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (inventor)

1986-01-01

98

Containerless processing of beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Melting and solidification of a beryllium alloy containing 1.5% BeO by weight in the weightless environment of space has produced cast beryllium with a relatively uniform dispersion of BeO throughout. Examination of the cast material shows that it is coarse grained, although the BeO is not heavily agglomerated in the flight specimen. Ground based comparison experiments show extreme agglomeration and segregation of BeO, resulting in large zones which are practically free of the oxide. Several postulated hypotheses for the failure to grain refine the beryllium are formulated. These are: (1) spherodization of the BeO particles during specimen preparation and during the molten phase of the experiment; (2) loss of nucleation potency through aging in the molten phase; and (3) inability of BeO to act as a grain refiner for beryllium. Further investigation with non spherodized particles and shorter dwell times molten may delineate which of these hypotheses are valid. The results of this flight experiment indicate that the weightless environment of space is an important asset in conducting research to find grain refiners for beryllium and other metals for which cast dispersions of grain refining agents cannot be prepared terrestrially due to gravitationally driven settling and agglomeration.

Wouch, G.; Keith, G. H.; Frost, R. T.; Pinto, N. P.

1977-01-01

99

Codeposition of deuterium with beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured the codeposition and\\/or coimplantation of deuterium with beryllium. Beryllium, sputtered from a target disk, was collected on a heated silicon catcher plate where it was simultaneously bombarded by reflected deuterons. Oxygen to beryllium ratios in the layer varied between 0.03 and 0.13. Deuterium to beryllium ratios dropped from 0.15 at 373 K to 0.02 at 573 K.

Rion A Causey; David S Walsh

1998-01-01

100

Excited states of positronic lithium and beryllium.  

PubMed

Using a variational method with an explicitly correlated Gaussian basis, we study the e(+)-Li and e(+)-Be complexes in the ground and lowest excited states with higher spin multiplicity. Our calculations provide rigorous theoretical confirmation that a positron can be attached to the excited states: 1s2s2p 4P(o) and 1s2s2p 3P(o) for e(+)-Li and e(+)-Be, respectively. The result is particularly notable for the e(+)-Be complex, as the excited 3P(o) state lies below the autoionization threshold. We report accurate binding energies, annihilation rates and structural properties of these positron-atom systems. The existence of the ground and metastable excited states with bound positron opens up a new route to the presently lacking experimental verification of stability of a positron binding to any neutral atom. PMID:24266470

Bubin, Sergiy; Prezhdo, Oleg V

2013-11-01

101

Excited States of Positronic Lithium and Beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a variational method with an explicitly correlated Gaussian basis, we study the e+-Li and e+-Be complexes in the ground and lowest excited states with higher spin multiplicity. Our calculations provide rigorous theoretical confirmation that a positron can be attached to the excited states: 1s2s2pPo4 and 1s22s2pPo3 for e+-Li and e+-Be, respectively. The result is particularly notable for the e+-Be complex, as the excited Po3 state lies below the autoionization threshold. We report accurate binding energies, annihilation rates and structural properties of these positron-atom systems. The existence of the ground and metastable excited states with bound positron opens up a new route to the presently lacking experimental verification of stability of a positron binding to any neutral atom.

Bubin, Sergiy; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

2013-11-01

102

Production of hydrogen. [lithium borohydride decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of a method of utilizing lithium borohydride for the storage and generation of hydrogen where the lithium borohydride is thermally decomposed to generate hydrogen and the remaining decomposition products (Contaning boron in free or combined form and lithium in free or combined form) are hydrogenated from a separate source of hydrogen so as to reconstitute at

J. Bensoam; F. Mathey; A. Muller

1980-01-01

103

JOINING OF BERYLLIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium is a brittle metal and consequently is difficult to fabricate ; and join. Limited success has been reported on direct welding by tungsten-arc, ; pressure, and electron-beam processes. Cracking is the major problem encountered. ; Resistance spot welds have been made, but little is known about the properties of ; these welds. Good joints have been made by braze

N. E. Weare; R. E. Monroe

1959-01-01

104

EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF BERYLLIUM, BERYLLIUM CHLORIDE, BERYLLIUM FLUORIDE, AND BERYLLIUM NITRATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Beryllium is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B2 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). vidence on potential arcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient," and the evidence from human studies is "Inadequa...

105

Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum 4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 μm)

R. G. Castro; P. W. Stanek; K. E. Elliott; L. A. Jacobson

1993-01-01

106

T cell recognition of beryllium.  

PubMed

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disorder caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium and characterized by the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells in the lung. Genetic susceptibility to beryllium-induced disease is strongly associated with HLA-DP alleles possessing a glutamic acid at the 69th position of the ?-chain (?Glu69). The structure of HLA-DP2, the most prevalent ?Glu69-containing molecule, revealed a unique solvent-exposed acidic pocket that includes ?Glu69 and represents the putative beryllium-binding site. The delineation of mimotopes and endogenous self-peptides that complete the ??TCR ligand for beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells suggests a unique role of these peptides in metal ion coordination and the generation of altered self-peptides, blurring the distinction between hypersensitivity and autoimmunity. PMID:23978481

Dai, Shaodong; Falta, Michael T; Bowerman, Natalie A; McKee, Amy S; Fontenot, Andrew P

2013-12-01

107

Protection of Beryllium Against High Temperature Oxidation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The influence of chemical chromate film on the high temperature oxidation behavior of beryllium was investigated. Chromate conversion coatings were applied to beryllium from solution normally utilized for aluminum. Chromated beryllium was unoxidized after...

F. Pearlstein R. W. Wick A. Gallaccio

1966-01-01

108

Synthesis of a New Family of Fluorinated Boronate Compounds as Anion Receptors and Studies of Their Use as Additives in Lithium Battery Electrolytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerous studies have been done on developing new electrolytes for lithium batteries with high ionic conductivity, and good chemical and electrochemical stability. In addition to the research on new salts and solvents, the use of cation receptors to reduc...

J. McBreen H. S. Lee X. Q. Yang

2001-01-01

109

Characterization of shocked beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. In the current work, high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. Two constitutive strength (plasticity) models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) models, were calibrated using common quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data. However, simulations with the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured experimental wave profiles. The experimental results indicate that, even if fractured by the initial shock loading, the Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading. Additional "arrested" drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

Cady, C. M.; Adams, C. D.; Hull, L. M.; Gray, G. T.; Prime, M. B.; Addessio, F. L.; Wynn, T. A.; Papin, P. A.; Brown, E. N.

2012-08-01

110

Characterization of Shocked Beryllium  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium metal has many excellent structural properties in addition to its unique radiation characteristics, including: high elastic modulus, low Poisson's ratio, low density, and high melting point. However, it suffers from several major mechanical drawbacks: 1) high anisotropy - due to its hexagonal lattice structure and its susceptibility to crystallographic texturing; 2) susceptibility to impurity-induced fracture - due to grain boundary segregation; and 3) low intrinsic ductility at ambient temperatures thereby limiting fabricability. While large ductility results from deformation under the conditions of compression, the material can exhibit a brittle behavior under tension. Furthermore, there is a brittle to ductile transition at approximately 200 C under tensile conditions. While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. The beryllium used in this study was Grade S200-F (Brush Wellman, Inc., Elmore, OH) material. The work focused on high strain rate deformation and examine the validity of constitutive models in deformation rate regimes, including shock, the experiments were modeled using a Lagrangian hydrocode. Two constitutive strength (plasticity) models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) models, were calibrated using the same set of quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data taken at temperatures from 77K to 873K and strain rates from 0.001/sec to 4300/sec. In spite of being calibrated on the same data, the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured wave profiles. These high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Preliminary analysis of the results appears to indicate that, if fractured by the initial shock loading, the S200F Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading of the material. Additional 'arrested' drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

Cady, Carl M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Adams, Chris D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hull, Lawrence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray III, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prime, Michael B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Addessio, Francis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wynn, Thomas A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Eric N [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-24

111

Diffusion Welding of Wrought Beryllium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study was to produce diffusion welds in wrought beryllium sheet having mechanical properties, primarily tensile strength, approaching those of the base metal at temperatures up to 800F. Beryllium sheet, 1/16 to 1/4 inch thick and cont...

D. Hauser D. G. Howden R. E. Monroe

1970-01-01

112

Machining of beryllium with the LLNL Precision Engineering Research Lathe  

SciTech Connect

In August 1984, six flat samples of beryllium, which were prepared by Brush-Wellmen Corp. using various pressing and sintering processes, were machined at LLNL on the recently completed Precision Engineering Research Lathe (PERL). The purpose of this study, which was conducted in cooperation with the Hughes Aircraft Corporation and partially funded by that organization, was to determine the optical properties of machined beryllium surfaces when prepared under highly controlled conditions using high quality machine tools and CBN (cubic boron nitrite) cutting tools. This report will summarize the materials properties, the machining conditions used on the PERL and a comparison of the completed samples using optical measuring techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mirror surface reflecting measurements in the IR region are to be made by the group at Hughes Aircraft and will be exchanged with LLNL as a part of this joint technical effort. 3 refs., 14 figs.

Foley, R.J.

1985-04-01

113

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR BERYLLIUM. REVIEW DRAFT  

EPA Science Inventory

The properties of beryllium resemble those of aluminum, zinc, and magnesium. The main routes of beryllium intake are inhalation and ingestion. The chemical properties of beryllium are such that transformation of soluble to insoluble forms of inhaled beryllium results in long rete...

114

The INEL beryllium multiplication experiment  

SciTech Connect

The experiment to measure the multiplication of 14-MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium has been completed. The experiment consists of determining the ratio of {sup 56}Mn activities induced in a large manganese bath by a central 14-MeV neutron source, with and without a beryllium sample surrounding the source. In the manganese bath method a neutron source is placed at the center of a totally-absorbing aqueous solution of MnSo{sub 4}. The capture of neutrons by Mn produces a {sup 56}Mn activity proportional to the emission rate of the source. As applied to the measurement of the multiplication of 14- MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium, the neutron source is a tritium target placed at the end of the drift tube of a small deuteron accelerator. Surrounding the source is a sample chamber. When the sample chamber is empty, the neutrons go directly to the surrounding MnSO{sub 4} solution, and produce a {sup 56}Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate. When the chamber contains a beryllium sample, the neutrons first enter the beryllium and multiply through the (n,2n) process. Neutrons escaping from the beryllium enter the bath and produce a {sup 56}Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate multiplied by the effective value of the multiplication in bulk beryllium. The ratio of the activities with and without the sample present is proportional to the multiplication value. Detailed calculations of the multiplication and all the systematic effects were made with the Monte Carlo program MCNP, utilizing both the Young and Stewart and the ENDF/B-VI evaluations for beryllium. Both data sets produce multiplication values that are in excellent agreement with the measurements for both raw and corrected values of the multiplication. We conclude that there is not real discrepancy between experimental and calculated values for the multiplication of neutrons in bulk beryllium. 12 figs., 11 tabs., 18 refs.

Smith, J.R.; King, J.J.

1991-03-01

115

Beryllium in the ITER blanket  

SciTech Connect

This paper consists of viewgraphs used in a presentation on the application of beryllium in breeding blankets for ITER and JET. The paper brings together data on the physical, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of beryllium and beryllium oxide for this type of application, as well as issues of compatibility with construction materials, and irradiation experience. It includes the results from testing programs carried out to arrive at some of the information, including fabrication work, irradiation experiments, and sample tests performed both in and out of the irradiation piles.

Billone, M.C.

1995-01-01

116

The natural history of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease.  

PubMed Central

With the advent of in vitro immunologic testing, we can now detect exposed individuals who are sensitized to beryllium and those who have chronic beryllium disease (CBD) with lung pathology and impairment. Earlier detection and more accurate diagnostic tools raise new questions about the natural history of sensitization and granulomatous disease. Preliminary data suggest that early detection identifies people who are sensitized to beryllium and that these individuals are at risk for progressing into clinical disease. This article discusses the historical, recent, and ongoing studies germane to our understanding of CBD natural history, including the immunologic and inflammatory basis of the disease, the environmental and host risk factors for disease progression, biological markers of disease severity and activity that may help predict outcome, and the implications for broad-based workplace screening to identify patients at the earliest stages of beryllium sensitization and disease. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 1. C Figure 1. D

Newman, L S; Lloyd, J; Daniloff, E

1996-01-01

117

Ceramic-metal seals for advanced battery systems. [sodium sulfur and lithium sulfur batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The search for materials which are electrochemically compatible with the lithium sulfur and sodium sulfur systems is discussed. The use liquid or braze alloys, titanium hydrite coatings, and tungsten yttria for bonding beryllium with ceramic is examined.

Reed, L.

1978-01-01

118

Characterization of shocked beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosively driven arrested beryllium experiments were performed with post mortem characterization to evaluate the failure behaviors. The test samples were encapsulated in an aluminum assembly that was large relative to the sample, and the assembly features both axial and radial momentum traps. The sample carrier was inserted from the explosively-loaded end and has features to lock the carrier to the surrounding cylinder using the induced plastic flow. Calculations with Lagrangian codes showed that the tensile stresses experienced by the Be sample were below the spall stress. Metallographic characterization of the arrested Be showed radial cracks present in the samples may have been caused by bending moments. Fractography showed the fractures propagated from the side of the sample closest to the explosives, the side with the highest tensile stress. There was evidence that the fractures may have propagated from the circumferential crack outward and downward radially.

Brown, E. N.; Cady, C. M.; Gray, G. T., III; Hull, L. M.; Cooley, J. H.; Bronkhorst, C. A.; Addessio, F. L.

2014-05-01

119

Beryllium sensitization, chronic beryllium disease, and exposures at a beryllium mining and extraction facility.  

PubMed

In this study, we examine beryllium sensitization, chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and workplace exposures at a beryllium mining (mine) and extraction facility (mill) in Delta, Utah. Historical airborne beryllium data collected between 1970-1999 included general area (GA), breathing zone (BZ), and personal lapel (LP) measurements and calculations of job-specific quarterly daily-weighted averages (DWVAs). We compared GA, BZ, and DWA data to airborne beryllium data from a mixed beryllium products facility and a beryllium ceramics facility located in Elmore, Ohio and Tucson, Arizona, respectively. At the Delta facility, jobs involving beryllium hydrolysis and wet-grinding activities had the highest air concentrations; annual median GA concentrations were less than 0.3 microg/m3 or both areas. Annual median GA sample concentrations ranged from 0.1-0.4 microg/m(-3) at Delta. These levels were generally lower than Elmore (0.1-1.0 microg/m3) and were comparable to the Tucson facility (0.1-0.4 microg/m3). Median BZ concentrations were higher, whereas DWAs were lower at the Delta facility than at the other two facilities. Among the 87 employees at the Delta facility, 75 participated in the medical survey; there were three persons sensitized, one with CBD. The individual with CBD previously worked at the Elmore facility for 10 years. Cumulative CBD incidence rates were significantly lower at the Delta facility: 0.3 percent compared to 2.0 percent for Elmore and 2.5 percent for the Tucson facility. Sensitization and CBD prevalence rates determined from cross-sectional surveys for the Delta facility were lower than but not significantly different from rates at the other two facilities. There was no sensitization or CBD among those who worked only at the mine where the only exposure to beryllium results from working with bertrandite ore. Although these results are derived from a small sample, this study suggests that the form of beryllium may affect the likelihood of developing CBD. Specifically, exposure to beryl and bertrandite ore dusts or to beryllium salts, in the absence of exposure to beryllium oxide particulates appears to pose a lower risk for developing CBD. PMID:11370937

Deubner, D; Kelsh, M; Shum, M; Maier, L; Kent, M; Lau, E

2001-05-01

120

Boron reclamation  

SciTech Connect

A process to recover high purity /sup 10/B enriched crystalline boron powder from a polymeric matrix was developed on a laboratory basis and ultimately scaled up to production capacity. The process is based on controlled pyrolysis of boron-filled scrap followed by an acid leach and dry sieving operation to return the powder to the required purity and particle size specifications. Typically, the recovery rate of the crystalline powder is in excess of 98.5 percent, and some of the remaining boron is recovered in the form of boric acid. The minimum purity requirement of the recovered product is 98.6 percent total boron.

Smith, R.M.

1980-07-01

121

Machining Data for Beryllium Metal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains evaluated machining information for beryllium which has been extracted from many sources. Machining data are tabulated and presented in chart form for the following processes: turning, milling, drilling, band sawing, grinding, boring, ...

J. F. Kahles R. F. Snider

1966-01-01

122

Vacuum brazing beryllium to Monel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tensile strength of beryllium to Monel vacuum furnace brazed joints was studied. The filler used was the 72% Ag-28%Cu(BAg-8) alloy. The strength of these joints, which require the use of a titanium hydride powder or physical vapor deposited titanium wetting agent on the beryllium, was found to approach the yield strength of the base metals. Strength was found to

T. G. Glenn; V. K. Grotsky; D. L. Keller

1982-01-01

123

Electronic structure of metallic beryllium  

SciTech Connect

The authors determine the electronic and crystal structure of beryllium and construct an atomic and crystal model which accounts for the heretofore unexplained indication of a compression of the elementary beryllium nucleus in the vertical plane by discrepancies found in the handbook values for the expected face-centered hexagonal packing of spherical atoms. The configuration and interaction of the valence and conductivity electrons and their coordinates are determined.

Protod'yakonov, M.M.; Makarov, E.S.; Ivanov, V.I.

1987-10-01

124

Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of dissolved arsenic, boron, lithium, selenium, strontium, thallium, and vanadium using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The inductively coupled plasma?mass spectrometric (ICP?MS) methods have been expanded to include the determination of dissolved arsenic, boron, lithium, selenium, strontium, thallium, and vanadium in filtered, acidified natural water. Method detection limits for these elements are now 10 to 200 times lower than by former U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) methods, thus providing lower variability at ambient concentrations. The bias and variability of the method was determined by using results from spike recoveries, standard reference materials, and validation samples. Spike recoveries at 5 to 10 times the method detection limit and 75 micrograms per liter in reagent-water, surface-water, and groundwater matrices averaged 93 percent for seven replicates, although selected elemental recoveries in a ground-water matrix with an extremely high iron sulfate concentration were negatively biased by 30 percent. Results for standard reference materials were within 1 standard deviation of the most probable value. Statistical analysis of the results from about 60 filtered, acidified natural-water samples indicated that there was no significant difference between ICP?MS and former USGS official methods of analysis.

Garbarino, John R.

1999-01-01

125

Beryllium technology workshop, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 20, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: beryllium in the ITER blanket; mechanical testing of irradiated beryllium; tritium release measurements on irradiated beryllium; beryllium needs for plasma-facing components; thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed beryllium; beryllium research at the INEL; Japanese beryllium research activities for in-pile mockup tests on ITER; a study of beryllium bonding of copper alloy; new production technologies; thermophysical properties of a new ingot metallurgy beryllium product line; implications of beryllium:steam interactions in fusion reactors; and a test program for irradiation embrittlement of beryllium at JET.

Longhurst, G.R.

1991-12-01

126

Plutonium Sphere Reflected by Reflected by Beryllium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This experiment with an alpha-phase plutonium sphere reflected by beryllium was performed using the Planet critical assembly at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF). The beryllium reflector consisted of a pair of inner and outer hemisphere...

D. Loaiza J. Hutchinson

2013-01-01

127

Cell and defect behavior in lithium-counterdoped solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some n(+)/p cells in which lithium is introduced as a counterdopant, by ion-implantation, into the cell's boron-doped p-region were studied. To determine if the cells radiation resistance could be significantly improved by lithium counterdoping. Defect behavior was related to cell performance using deep level transient spectroscopy. Results indicate a significantly increased radiation resistance for the lithium counterdoped cells when compared to the boron doped 1 ohm-cm control cell. The increased radiation resistance of the lithium counterdoped cells is due to the complexing of lithium with divacancies and boron. It is speculated that complexing with oxygen and single vacancies also contributes to the increased radiation resistance. Counterdoping silicon with lithium results in a different set of defects.

Weinberg, I.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C. K.

1984-01-01

128

Processing Irradiated Beryllium For Disposal  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to develop a process for decontaminating irradiated beryllium that will allow it to be disposed of through normal radwaste channels. Thus, the primary objectives of this ongoing study are to remove the transuranic (TRU) isotopes to less than 100 nCi/g and remove {sup 60}Co, and {sup 137}Cs, to levels that will allow the beryllium to be contact handled. One possible approach that appears to have the most promise is aqueous dissolution and separation of the isotopes by selected solvent extraction followed by precipitation, resulting in a granular form for the beryllium that may be fixed to prevent it from becoming respirable and therefore hazardous. Beryllium metal was dissolved in nitric and fluorboric acids. Isotopes of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 85}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs were then added to make a surrogate beryllium waste solution. A series of batch contacts was performed with the spiked simulant using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) and polyethylene glycol diluted with sulfone to extract the isotopes of Cs and Sr. Another series of batch contacts was performed using a combination of octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in tributyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with dodecane for extracting the isotopes of Pu and Am. The results indicate that greater than 99.9% removal can be achieved for each isotope with only three contact stages.

T. J. Tranter; R. D. Tillotson; N. R. Mann; G. R. Longhurst

2005-11-01

129

Investigation of a lithium-halogen exchange flow process for the preparation of boronates by using a cryo-flow reactor.  

PubMed

Conducting low-temperature organometallic reactions under continuous flow conditions offers the potential to more accurately control exotherms and thus provide more reproducible and scalable processes. Herein, progress towards this goal with regards to the lithium-halogen exchange/borylation reaction is reported. In addition to improving the scope of substrates available on a research scale, methods to improve reaction profiles and expedite purification of the products are also described. On moving to a continuous system, thermocouple measurements have been used to track exotherms and provide a level of safety for continuous processing of organometallic reagents. The use of an in-line continuous liquid-liquid separation device to circumvent labour intensive downstream off-line processing is also reported. PMID:24339222

Newby, James A; Huck, Lena; Blaylock, D Wayne; Witt, Paul M; Ley, Steven V; Browne, Duncan L

2014-01-01

130

Beryllium in the Environment: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium is an important industrial metal because of its unusual material properties: it is lighter than aluminum and six times stronger than steel. Often alloyed with other metals such as copper, beryllium is a key component of materials used in the aerospace and electronics industries. Beryllium has a small neutron cross-section, which makes it useful in the production of nuclear

Tammy P. Taylor; Mei Ding; Deborah S. Ehler; Trudi M. Foreman; John P. Kaszuba; Nancy N. Sauer

2003-01-01

131

Corrosion Research Studies on Forged Beryllium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bare beryllium when exposed to high humidity environments at 100 F is not attacked; however, in the presence of aqueous sodium chloride at the same temperature bare beryllium is severely pitted. A protective coating will be necessary for beryllium when ex...

C. B. Gilpin T. L. Mackay

1967-01-01

132

Theoretical assessment of irradiation swelling in beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current models of irradiation swelling in beryllium are based on the assumption that the swelling arises from bubble growth rather than void growth. However, the factors governing cavity formation in beryllium are more complex than those in cubic metals which are based on elastic interaction difference (EID) between vacancies and self-interstitial atoms. Beryllium belongs to the set of hexagonal close-packed

V. I. Dubinko; V. R. Barabash

1996-01-01

133

Microstructure and electrochemical properties of boron-doped mesocarbon microbeads  

SciTech Connect

The microstructure and electrochemical properties of pristine and boron-doped mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) were comparatively studied by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electrochemical measurements. The authors examined the correlation between the boron-doping effect and the electrochemical properties of boron-doped MCMBs prepared at different heat-treatment temperatures. It was found that boron doping in MCMBs starts above 1,800 C, and then the substitution reaction proceeds with increasing heat-treatment temperature. The effect of boron doping is to accelerate graphitization of MCMBs for heat-treatment temperatures in the range from 1,800 to 2,500 C. Electrochemical lithium intercalation takes place at a higher potential in boron-doped MCMBs than in undoped MCMBs, presumably because the substitutional boron acts as an electron acceptor in the MCMBs.

Kim, C.; Fujino, T.; Miyashita, K.; Hayashi, T.; Endo, M.; Dresselhaus, M.S.

2000-04-01

134

Cryogenic Properties of Aluminum Beryllium and Beryllium Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 (38%Al-62%Be), at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-320 F) and (-252.8 C) (-423 F)) temperatures, and for an optical grade beryllium, O-30H (99%Be), at -252.8 C. AlBeMetl62 material was purchased to the requirements of SAE-AMS7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions." O-30H material was purchased to the requirements of Brush Wellman Inc. specification O-30H Optical Grade Beryllium. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths for extruded AlBeMetl62 material increased with decreasing temperature, and the percent elongation decreased with decreasing temperature. Design properties for the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percent elongation for extruded AlBeMetl62 were generated. It was not possible to distinguish a difference in the room and cryogenic ultimate strength for the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) O-30H material. The O30H elongation decreased with decreasing temperature.

Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

2003-01-01

135

Electron impact excitation cross sections for beryllium and boron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron impact excitation cross sections for Be and B atoms and ions have been calculated in the distorted wave approximation from ground states to excited states with principal quantum number up to 5. The collision strength data have been fitted as a function of the impact electron energy in threshold units and the fit parameters for all transitions are presented.

R. E. H. Clark; J. Abdallah

1996-01-01

136

A Reconsideration of Acute Beryllium Disease  

PubMed Central

Context Although chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is clearly an immune-mediated granulomatous reaction to beryllium, acute beryllium disease (ABD) is commonly considered an irritative chemical phenomenon related to high exposures. Given reported new cases of ABD and projected increased demand for beryllium, we aimed to reevaluate the patho physiologic associations between ABD and CBD using two cases identified from a survey of beryllium production facility workers. Case Presentation Within weeks after exposure to beryllium fluoride began, two workers had systemic illness characterized by dermal and respiratory symptoms and precipitous declines in pulmonary function. Symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities improved with cessation of exposure and, in one worker, recurred with repeat exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analyses and blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests revealed lymphocytic alveolitis and cellular immune recognition of beryllium. None of the measured air samples exceeded 100 ?g/m3, and most were < 10 ?g/m3, lower than usually described. In both cases, lung biopsy about 18 months after acute illness revealed noncaseating granulomas. Years after first exposure, the workers left employment because of CBD. Discussion Contrary to common understanding, these cases suggest that ABD and CBD represent a continuum of disease, and both involve hypersensitivity reactions to beryllium. Differences in disease presentation and progression are likely influenced by the solubility of the beryllium compound involved. Relevance to Practice ABD may occur after exposures lower than the high concentrations commonly described. Prudence dictates limitation of further beryllium exposure in both ABD and CBD.

Cummings, Kristin J.; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Virji, M. Abbas; Kreiss, Kathleen

2009-01-01

137

US Beryllium Case Registry through 1977  

SciTech Connect

A synopsis of the cases reported to the Beryllium Case Registry between 1973 and 1977 is presented. As of 1973, there were 832 cases of beryllium disease entered into the Registry. In the five years since that report, 55 additional cases have been added, 40 men and 15 women. Exposures occured in the electronics and nuclear industries in the production and use of beryllium containing alloys and beryllium oxide ceramis. Pathological changes in the lung tissue are described. Cases continue to be reported in which the diagnosis was sarcoidosis until the history of beryllium exposure led to the finding of beryllium in the lung tissue or mediastinal lymph node biopsy. Data from the Registry support the fact that chronic beryllium disease is a continued occupational hazard.

Sprince, N.L.; Kazemi, H.

1980-02-01

138

Boron in the Lithium-Rich K-Giants: A Critical Test of Deep Stellar Mixing Versus Brown-Dwarf Ingestion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will observe the B I 2500Angstrom lines in four Li-rich K- giants using HST with STIS/G230M in order to test two different evolutionary scenarios invoked to explain the high Li abundances: the cool bottom process {CBP} versus the possible accretion of brown dwarfs/planets. This test utilizes the two following properties of boron: among the three light elements {Li, Be, and B} which are easily destroyed in stars by {p, Alpha} reactions, B is the least fragile to nuclear destruction. In addition, unlike Li which can be created under certain conditions in stellar mixing, B can only be destroyed. The hypothetical mixing mechanism, CBP, produces Li by introducing deeper mixing to hotter layers such that ^7Li is created via ^3He{alpha, Gamma}^7Be{e^-, anti- Nu}^7Li. A by-product of CBP is the total destruction of pre- existing Be and B. If B I is absent from the spectra, we will prove that deep mixing has occurred. In an accretion scenario, the increase in the Li abundance caused by the deposition of fresh material onto the red giant from a substellar mass companion will also result in an increase in the Be and B abundances. Because B is more robust to nuclear burning than Be, as well as initially being 20 times more abundant, spectroscopy of the B I lines will provide a solid and definitive test of whether the process that creates these chemically peculiar giants is a new type of internal mixing, or the ingestion of a substellar mass companion.

de La Reza, Ramiro

2000-07-01

139

Brazing Beryllium by Capillary Flow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six silver-base braze alloys (including some high in copper), with a high tolerance for adverse braze conditions, were developed to give maximum capillary flow in unplated beryllium sheet without flux at 1400F to avoid loss of base metal wrought propertie...

A. G. Metcalfe R. G. Bogowitz

1968-01-01

140

Notes on UHV beryllium windows  

SciTech Connect

Techniques are described for making large ultrahigh vacuum beryllium windows for use in synchrotron radiation installations. Procedures are given for affecting both hard brazed seals and demountable seals involving either lead or copper gaskets. Brazed seals can be made to either stainless steel or copper. Possible alternative methods are suggested.

Hartman, P.L.

1986-10-01

141

Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, Minnema Report.

NSTec Environment, Safety, Health & Quality

2009-12-28

142

Galvanic corrosion of beryllium welds  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium is difficult to weld because it is highly susceptible to cracking. The most commonly used filler metal in beryllium welds is Al-12 wt.% Si. Beryllium has been successfully welded using Al-Si filler metal with more than 30 wt.% Al. This filler creates an aluminum-rich fusion zone with a low melting point that tends to backfill cracks. Drawbacks to adding a filler metal include a reduction in service temperature, a lowering of the tensile strength of the weld, and the possibility for galvanic corrosion to occur at the weld. To evaluate the degree of interaction between Be and Al-Si in an actual weld, sections from a mock beryllium weldment were exposed to 0.1 M Cl{sup {minus}} solution. Results indicate that the galvanic couple between Be and the Al-Si weld material results in the cathodic protection of the weld and of the anodic dissolution of the bulk Be material. While the cathodic protection of Al is generally inefficient, the high anodic dissolution rate of the bulk Be during pitting corrosion combined with the insulating properties of the Be oxide afford some protection of the Al-Si weld material. Although dissolution of the Be precipitate in the weld material does occur, no corrosion of the Al-Si matrix was observed.

Hill, M.A.; Butt, D.P.; Lillard, R.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Corrosion and Environmental Effects Lab.

1997-12-01

143

Gas retention in irradiated beryllium  

SciTech Connect

Helium (an inert gas) with low solubility in beryllium is trapped in irradiated beryllium at low temperatures (<100{degree}C) while the tritium generated may have some mobility and be released. The subject of tritium retention in irradiated beryllium within fusion reactor blankets is of considerable interest in their conceptual design. Results from experiments on three sets of irradiated beryllium specimens are examined in this paper. The beryllium specimens were irradiated at abut 75{degree}C in capsules to protect them from the cooling water. One set of samples was irradiated to {approximately}3 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV). In these samples the calculated helium generated was {approximately} 14,000 appm. They are described in terms of swelling, annealing, microstructure, and helium bubble behavior (size, density and mobility). A second sample was irradiated to {approximately}5 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV). In that one the calculated helium and tritium generated were {approximately}24,000 appm He and {approximately}3720 appm, and tritium content was examined in a dissolution experiment. Most of the tritium was released as gas to the glovebox indicating the generated tritium was retained in the helium bubbles. In a third set of experiments a specimen was examined by annealing at a succession of temperatures to more than 600{degree}C for tritium release. In the temperature range of 300--500{degree}C little release (0.01--0.4%) occurred, but there was a massive release at just over 600{degree}C. Theories of swelling appear to adequately describe bubble behavior with breakaway release occurring at high helium contents and at large bubble diameters. 8 refs., 6 figs.

Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.; Longhurst, G.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Causey, R.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-06-01

144

Electronic structure and thermochemical properties of small neutral and cationic lithium clusters and boron-doped lithium clusters: Li(n)(0/+) and Li(n)B(0/+) (n = 1-8).  

PubMed

The stability, electronic structure, and thermochemical properties of the pure Li(n) and boron-doped Li(n)B (n = 1-8) clusters in both neutral and cationic states are studied using electronic structure methods. The global equilibrium structures are established, and their heats of formation are evaluated using the G3B3 and CCSD(T)/CBS methods based on the density functional theory geometries. Theoretical adiabatic ionization energies (IE(a)) for the Li(n) clusters are in good agreement with experiment: Li(2) (G3B3, 5.21 eV; CCSD(T), 5.14 eV; expt, 5.1127 0.0003 eV), Li(3) (4.16, 4.11, 4.08 0.10), Li(4) (4.76, 4.68, 4.70 0.05), Li(5) (4.11, 4.06, 4.02 0.10), Li(6) (4.46, 4.32, 4.20 0.10), Li(7) (4.07, 3.99, 3.94 0.10), and Li(8) (4.49, 4.31, 4.16 0.10). The Li(4) experimental IE(a) has been revised on the basis of the Franck-Condon simulations. Species Li(5)B, Li(6)B(+), Li(7)B, and Li(8)B(+) exhibit high stability as compared to their neighbors, which can be understood by considering the magic numbers of the phenomenological shell model (PSM). PMID:21671620

Tai, Truong Ba; Nhat, Pham Vu; Nguyen, Minh Tho; Li, Shenggang; Dixon, David A

2011-07-01

145

Control of beryllium powder at a DOE facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium is contained in a number of domestic and national defense items. Although many items might contain beryllium in some manner, few people need worry about the adverse effects caused by exposure to beryllium because it is the inhalable form of beryllium that is most toxic. Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a granulomas and fibrotic lung disease with long latency, can

G. C. Langner; K. L. Creek; R. G. Castro

1997-01-01

146

Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a window for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in windows for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed.

T., A. Tomberlin

2004-11-01

147

Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Test Surveillance Identifies Clinically Significant Beryllium Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Workplace surveillance identifies chronic beryllium disease (CBD) but it remains unknown over what time frame mild CBD will progress to a more severe form. Methods We examined physiology and treatment in 229 beryllium sensitization (BeS) and 171 CBD surveillance-identified cases diagnosed from 1982 to 2002. Never smoking CBD cases (81) were compared to never smoking BeS patients (83) to assess disease progression. We compared CBD machinists to non-machinists to examine effects of exposure. Results At baseline, CBD and BeS cases did not differ significantly in exposure time or physiology. CBD patients were more likely to have machined beryllium. Of CBD cases, 19.3% went on to require oral immunosuppressive therapy. At 30 years from first exposure, measures of gas exchange were significantly worse and total lung capacity was lower for CBD subjects. Machinists had faster disease progression as measured by pulmonary function testing and gas exchange. Conclusions Medical surveillance for CBD identifies individuals at significant risk of disease progression and impairment with sufficient time since first exposure.

Mroz, Margaret M.; Maier, Lisa A.; Strand, Matthew; Silviera, Lori; Newman, Lee S.

2011-01-01

148

Inhibited solid propellant composition containing beryllium hydride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An object of this invention is to provide a composition of beryllium hydride and carboxy-terminated polybutadiene which is stable. Another object of this invention is to provide a method for inhibiting the reactivity of beryllium hydride toward carboxy-terminated polybutadiene. It was found that a small amount of lecithin inhibits the reaction of beryllium hydride with the acid groups in carboxy terminated polybutadiene.

Thompson, W. W. (inventor)

1978-01-01

149

MEASUREMENTS OF THE PROPERTIES OF BERYLLIUM FOIL  

SciTech Connect

The electrical conductivity of beryllium at radio frequency (800 MHz) and liquid nitrogen temperature were investigated and measured. This summary addresses a collection of beryllium properties in the literature, an analysis of the anomalous skin effect, the test model, the experimental setup and improvements, MAFIA simulations, the measurement results and data analyses. The final results show that the conductivity of beryllium is not as good as indicated by the handbook, yet very close to copper at liquid nitrogen temperature.

ZHAO,Y.; WANG,H.

2000-03-31

150

Brazing of beryllium for structural applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made in fabricating a beryllium compression tube structure and a stiffened beryllium panel. The compression tube was 7.6cm in diameter and 30.5cm long with titanium end fittings. The panel was 203cm long and stiffened with longitudinal stringers. Both units were assembled by brazing with BAg-18 braze alloy. The detail parts were fabricated by hot forming 0.305cm beryllium sheet and the brazing parameters established.

Vogan, J. W.

1972-01-01

151

Amorphous boron gasket in diamond anvil cell research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in high-pressure diamond anvil cell experiments include high-energy synchrotron x-ray techniques as well as new cell designs and gasketing procedures. The success of high-pressure experiments usually depends on a well-prepared sample, in which the gasket plays an important role. Various gasket materials such as diamond, beryllium, rhenium, and stainless steel have been used. Here we introduce amorphous boron

Jung-Fu Lin; Jinfu Shu; Ho-Kwang Mao; Russell J. Hemley; Guoyin Shen

2003-01-01

152

Tritium behavior in ITER beryllium  

SciTech Connect

The beryllium neutron multiplier in the ITER breeding blanket will generate tritium through transmutations. That tritium constitutes a safety hazard. Experiments evaluating tritium storage and release mechanisms have shown that most of the tritium comes out in a burst during thermal ramping. A small fraction of retained tritium is released by thermally activated processes. Analysis of recent experimental data shows that most of the tritium resides in helium bubbles. That tritium is released when the bubbles undergo swelling sufficient to develop porosity that connects with the surface. That appears to occur when swelling reaches about 10--15%. Other tritium appears to be stored chemically at oxide inclusions, probably as Be(OT){sub 2}. That component is released by thermal activation. There is considerable variation in published values for tritium diffusion through the beryllium and solubility in it. Data from experiments using highly irradiated beryllium from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory showed diffusivity generally in line with the most commonly accepted values for fully dense material. Lower density material, planned for use in the ITER blanket may have very short diffusion times because of the open structure. The beryllium multiplier of the ITER breeding blanket was analyzed for tritium release characteristics using temperature and helium production figures at the midplane generated in support of the ITER Summer Workshop, 1990 in Garching. Ordinary operation, either in Physics or Technology phases, should not result in the release of tritium trapped in the helium bubbles. Temperature excursions above 600{degree}C result in large-scale release of that tritium. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Longhurst, G.R.

1990-10-01

153

Vacuum brazing beryllium to Monel  

SciTech Connect

The tensile strength of beryllium to Monel vacuum furnace brazed joints was studied. The filler used was the 72% Ag-28%Cu(BAg-8) alloy. The strength of these joints, which require the use of a titanium hydride powder or physical vapor deposited titanium wetting agent on the beryllium, was found to approach the yield strength of the base metals. Strength was found to be reduced by the interaction of increased titanium hydride quantity and brazing time. Metallographic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies correlated these effects with microstructure. The formation of the brittle copper-beryllium delta phase was found to require conditions of high brazing temperature and the presence of a reservoir of the copper-containing filler such as found in fillet areas. Two other filler metals: pure silver, and a 60% Ag-30% Cu-10%Sn (BAg-17) alloy were shown to be acceptable alternatives to the BAg-8 alloy in cases where the filler metal can be preplaced between the base metal surfaces.

Glenn, T.G.; Grotsky, V.K.; Keller, D.L.

1982-10-01

154

Beryllium Use in the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) began operation in 1967. It makes use of a unique serpentine fuel core design and a beryllium reflector. Reactor control is achieved with rotating beryllium cylinders to which have been fastened plates of hafnium. Over time, the beryllium develops rather high helium content because of nuclear transmutations and begins to swell. The beryllium must be replaced at nominally 10-year intervals. Determination of when the replacement is made is by visual observation using a periscope to examine the beryllium surface for cracking and swelling. Disposition of the irradiated beryllium was once accomplished in the INLs Radioactive Waste Management Complex, but that is no longer possible. Among contributing reasons are high levels of specific radioactive contaminants including transuranics. The INL is presently considering disposition pathways for this irradiated beryllium, but presently is storing it in the canal adjacent to the reactor. Numerous issues are associated with this situation including (1) Is there a need for ultra-low uranium material? (2) Is there a need to recover tritium from irradiated beryllium either because this is a strategic material resource or in preparation for disposal? (3) Is there a need to remove activation and fission products from irradiated beryllium? (4) Will there be enough material available to meet requirements for research reactors (fission and fusion)? In this paper will be discussed the present status of considerations on these issues.

Glen R. Longhurst

2007-12-01

155

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, ?) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg 10B/g blood.

Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena

2010-06-01

156

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme  

SciTech Connect

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, {alpha}) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg {sup 10}B/g blood.

Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

2010-06-22

157

Enthalpy of Formation of Beryllium Fluoride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The enthalpy of formation of beryllium fluoride was determined by measuring the heat of the reaction PbF2(c) + Be(c) = BeF2(s) + Pb(c). The heat of formation of crystalline beryllium fluoride was found to be -245.75 plus or minus 0.37 kcal/mole (-1028.2 p...

C. Hayman J. T. Bingham P. Gross

1971-01-01

158

Aluminum-Beryllium Alloys for Aerospace Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A family of low density, high elastic modulus aluminum-beryllium alloys is under development in order to meet the requirements of advanced aerospace designs. These alloys are aluminum based with 10 to 75 percent beryllium and combine the high specific sti...

D. Hashiguchi A. N. Ashurst F. C. Grensing J. M. Marder

1992-01-01

159

Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate  

DOEpatents

A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

Bergeron, Charles (Baton Rouge, LA); Bullard, John E. (Kendall Park, NJ); Morgan, Evan (Lynchburg, VA)

1991-01-01

160

Layered carbon lattices and their influence on the nature of lithium bonding in lithium intercalated carbon anodes.  

SciTech Connect

Ab initio molecular orbital calculations have been used to investigate the nature of lithium bonding in stage 1 lithium intercalated carbon anodes. This has been approximated by using layered carbon lattices such as coronene, (C{sub 24}H{sub 12}),anthracene, and anthracene substituted with boron. With two coronene carbon lattices forming a sandwich structure and intercalated with either 2, 3, 4 or 6 six lithiums, it has been found that the predominant mode of bonding for the lithium is at the carbon edge sites as opposed to bonding at interior carbon hexagon sites. Formation of all structures is thermodynamically allowed except for the two lithium case in which there is repulsion between the lattices. The optimized structure with six lithiums gives a reasonable approximation for the stage 1 lithium intercalated carbon anode. In this case the lithium to carbon ratio is 1:8 versus 1:6 occurring in the stage 1 graphite. The coronene lattices are eclipsed with a separation of 4.03 {angstrom}. However, there is a slight ruffling of the lattice. Separation between adjacent lithiums is either 3.32 {angstrom} or 2.98 {angstrom}. Even though the separation between lithiums is very small, composition of the molecular orbitals suggests that there is no lithium cluster formation. The highest occupied molecular orbitals are composed of a combination of lithium and carbon orbitals. In contrast, in the C{sub 60} fullerene lattice with three and five lithiums intercalated, there are molecular orbitals composed only of lithiums, indicative of cluster formation. For anthracene and boron substituted anthracene, lithium bonding takes place within the carbon hexagon sites. The separation between lithiums in a sandwich type structure with two anthracenes in the eclipsed conformation is 5.36 {angstrom}. The effect of boron in a carbon lattice has been evaluated by comparing the difference in behavior of a single anthracene lattice reacting with a dilithium cluster as compared to a 1, 4, 5, 8-tetraboroanthracene lattice. The effect of boron substitution is to increases lattice flexibility by allowing the lattice to twist and lithium to bond at adjacent hexagon sites. The thermodynamic feasibility of the reaction between the dilithium cluster and the boron substituted anthracene lattice is enhanced.

Scanlon, L.G.

1998-05-27

161

The near-Surface Region of Cubic Boron Nitride Single Crystal from the Li3N-hBN System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cubic boron nitride single crystals are synthesized with lithium nitride as a catalyst under high pressure and high temperature. The main phases in the near-surface region, which around the single crystal are determined as a mixture of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), cubic boron nitride (cBN) and lithium boron nitride (Li3BN2). High resolution transmission electron microscopy examinations show that there exist lots of nanometer-sized cubic boron nitride nuclei in this region. The interface phase structures of cubic boron nitride crystal and its near-surface region are investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. The growth mechanism of cubic boron nitride crystal is analyzed briefly. It is supposed that Li3BN2 impels the direct conversion of hBN to cBN as a real catalyst, and cBN is homogeneously nucleated in the molten state under high pressure and high temperature.

Guo, Xiao-Fei; Xu, Bin; Wen, Zhen-Xing; Fan, Xiao-Hong; Tian, Bin

2014-04-01

162

Can mirror matter solve the the cosmological lithium problem?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance of lithium-7 confronts cosmology with a long lasting inconsistency between the predictions of standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis with the baryonic density determined from the Cosmic Microwave Background observations on the one hand, and the spectroscopic determination of the lithium-7 abundance on the other hand. We investigated the influence of the existence of a mirror world, focusing on models in which mirror neutrons can oscillate into ordinary neutrons. Such a mechanism allows for an effective late time neutron injection, which induces an increase of the destruction of beryllium-7and thus a lower final lithium-7 abundance.

Coc, Alain; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth

2014-05-01

163

Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented.

McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wolfer, W.; Fulton, F.J.; Lee, J.D.; Maninger, R.C.; Moir, R.W.; Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.

1985-01-01

164

Accelerator-driven boron neutron capture therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is a binary treatment for certain types of cancer. It works by loading the cancerous cells with a boron-10 carrying compound. This isotope has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the reaction producing a lithium nucleus and alpha particle that kill the cell in which they are produced. Recent studies of the boron carrier compound indicate that the uptake process works best in particularly aggressive cancers. Most studied is glioblastoma multiforme and a trial using a combination of BNCT and X-ray radiotherapy has shown an increase of nearly a factor of two in mean survival over the state of the art. However, the main technical problem with BNCT remains producing a sufficient flux of neutrons for a reasonable treatment duration in a hospital environment. This paper discusses this issue.

Edgecock, Rob

2014-05-01

165

Beryllium Recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2003-01-01

166

Beryllium recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2004-01-01

167

Fundamental Studies on the Aluminum-Lithium-Beryllium Alloy System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent developments in aluminum alloys for aerospace applications have emphasized low-density alloys and in large part this emphasis has been on Al-Li based alloys. The development of fine-structed Al-Li-Be alloys remains an interesting prospect for furth...

J. Wadsworth T. G. Nieh A. E. Vidoz R. E. Lewis A. Joshi

1986-01-01

168

Lithium toxicity  

MedlinePLUS

... easily interfere with lithium in your body and cause it to build up. Acute on chronic toxicity occurs when you take lithium every day for bipolar disorder, but one day you take an extra amount ( ...

169

Boron nitride nanotubes  

DOEpatents

Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

Smith, Michael W. (Newport News, VA); Jordan, Kevin (Newport News, VA); Park, Cheol (Yorktown, VA)

2012-06-06

170

THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BERYLLIUM TECHNOLOGY UPDATE  

SciTech Connect

A Beryllium Technology Update meeting was held at the Idaho National Laboratory on July 18, 2007. Participants came from the U.S., Japan, and Russia. There were two main objectives of this meeting. One was a discussion of current technologies for beryllium in fission reactors, particularly the Advanced Test Reactor and the Japan Materials Test Reactor, and prospects for material availability in the coming years. The second objective of the meeting was a discussion of a project of the International Science and Technology Center regarding treatment of irradiated beryllium for disposal. This paper highlights discussions held during that meeting and major conclusions reached

Glen R. Longhurst

2007-12-01

171

Carbon monoxide adsorption on beryllium surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density functional calculations are here carried out to study the carbon monoxide molecule adsorption on pristine, hydrogenated and hydroxylated beryllium Be (0001) surfaces. The adsorption energies and structures, the activation barriers to molecular adsorption and dissociation are calculated. These reactions are described in terms of potential energy surfaces and electronic density of states. The quantum results are discussed along two directions: the beryllium surface reactivity in the domain of nuclear fusion devices and the possible usage of beryllium as a catalyst of Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis.

Allouche, A.

2013-02-01

172

Beryllium abundances in parent stars of extrasolar planets: 16 Cygni A & B and rho (1) CANCRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The (9) Be ii lambda 3131 Angstroms doublet has been observed in the solar-type stars 16 Cyg A & B and in the late G-type star rho (1) Cnc, to derive their beryllium abundances. 16 Cyg A & B show similar (solar) beryllium abundances while 16 Cyg B, which has been proposed to have a planetary companion of ~ 2 M_Jup, is known to be depleted in lithium by a factor larger than 6 with respect to 16 Cyg A. Differences in their rotational histories which could induce different rates of internal mixing of material, and the ingestion of a similar planet by 16 Cyg A are discussed as potential explanations. The existence of two other solar-type stars which are candidates to harbour planetary-mass companions and which show lithium and beryllium abundances close to those of 16 Cyg A, requires a more detailed inspection of the peculiarities of the 16 Cyg system. For rho (1) Cnc, which is the coolest known object candidate to harbour a planetary-mass companion (M > 0.85 M_Jup), we establish a precise upper limit for its beryllium abundance, showing a strong Be depletion which constrains the available mixing mechanisms. Observations of similar stars without companions are required to assess the potential effects of the planetary companion on the observed depletion. It has been recently claimed that rho (1) Cnc appears to be a subgiant. If this were the case, the observed strong Li and Be depletions could be explained by a dilution process taking place during its post-main sequence evolution. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical and William Herschel Telescopes, which are operated on the island of La Palma by the NOT Scientific Association and the Isaac Newton Group, respectively, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrof\\'\\i sica de Canarias.

Garcia Lopez, R. J.; Perez de Taoro, M. R.

1998-06-01

173

Value of beryllium lymphocyte transformation tests in chronic beryllium disease and in potentially exposed workers  

PubMed Central

The beryllium lymphocyte transformation test was performed on 16 patients with chronic beryllium disease, 10 subjects (seven patients and three young boys) who were under suspicion, and 117 healthy beryllium workers. The tests gave a positive response in all patients with definite disease and a negative response in the suspected group. Two of the healthy workers had a positive response, indicating both exposure and sensitisation. It is not known whether sensitised workers are more liable to develop disease. We consider that the test is of value in the diagnosis of beryllium disease and advocate its use in monitoring the health of potentially exposed workers.

Williams, W Jones; Williams, WR

1983-01-01

174

Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report  

SciTech Connect

This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

Lee, S

2012-03-29

175

Nitrogen reactivity toward beryllium: surface reactions.  

PubMed

Recent experiments with nitrogen as a seeding gas in fusion plasma devices together with the option of using beryllium as an armor material in the future ITER tokamak (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) have raised new interest in the interactions of beryllium surfaces with nitrogen (atomic or molecular). The strong reactivity of nitrogen implies the formation of beryllium nitrite and, in conjunction with oxygen and other possible impurities, experimentalists have to consider the probability of generating various complex moieties such as imine, amine or oxyamine, and amide radicals. This chemistry would obviously dramatically perturb the plasma, and quantum investigations can be of great predictive help. Nitrogen adsorption on beryllium basal surfaces is investigated through quantum density functional theory. Different situations are examined: molecular or atomic nitrogen reactions; nitride radical adsorption or formation on surfaces; hydrogen retention on surfaces; combined nitrogen/oxygen reactivity and hydrogen retention. A tentative comparison with experiment is also proposed. PMID:23594802

Allouche, A

2013-06-01

176

JWST beryllium telescope: material and substrate fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new grade of beryllium, O-30, has been chosen for the primary, secondary, and tertiary cryogenic optics for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) program. This paper will describe the characterization of O-30 beryllium for this cryogenic space telescope, including cryogenic material properties. It will also show the cryogenic performance data that resulted in the selection of the O-30 beryllium for the JWST primary mirror, as compared to the other material candidate ULE. The paper will also describe the consolidation process of this 1.315-meter hexagon segment to produce a highly isotropic mirror segment. In addition, this paper will describe a technology effort called near net shape (NNS), to significantly reduce the cost of beryllium substrates for future cryogenic telescopes like SPICA, SAFIR, and GMST.

Parsonage, Thomas B.

2004-09-01

177

Optical Absorption, ESR and Termoluminescence (TL) in Copper-Doped Lithium Borate Glasses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Boron oxide plays a significant role in numerous glasses of high technological importance, such as nuclear wastes management, electronics, low density fibrous silica insulation used in space vehicles, and radiation dosimetry. Lithium borate glasses were p...

E. F. Chinaglia M. L. F. Nascimento M. Matsuoka S. Watanabe

1999-01-01

178

Beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children.  

PubMed

Power plant dust is believed to be the main source of the increased presence of the element beryllium in the environment which has been detected in the atmospheric air, surface waters, groundwater, soil, food, and cigarette smoke. In humans, beryllium absorption occurs mainly via the respiratory system. The pharyngeal tonsils are located on the roof of the nasopharynx and are in direct contact with dust particles in inhaled air. As a result, the concentration levels of beryllium in the pharyngeal tonsils are likely to be a good indicator of concentration levels in the air. The presented study had two primary aims: to investigate the beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children living in southern Poland, and the appropriate reference range for this element in children's pharyngeal tonsils. Pharyngeal tonsils were extracted from a total of 379 children (age 2-17 years, mean 6.2 2.7 years) living in southern Poland. Tonsil samples were mineralized in a closed cycle in a pressure mineralizer PDS 6, using 65% spectrally pure nitric acid. Beryllium concentration was determined using the ICP-AES method with a Perkin Elmer Optima 5300DVTM. The software Statistica v. 9 was used for the statistical analysis. It was found that girls had a significantly greater beryllium concentration in their pharyngeal tonsils than boys. Beryllium concentration varies greatly, mostly according to the place of residence. Based on the study results, the reference value for beryllium in pharyngeal tonsils of children is recommended to be determined at 0.02-0.04 g/g. PMID:24959774

Nogaj, Ewa; Kwapulinski, Jerzy; Misio?ek, Maciej; Golusi?ski, Wojciech; Kowol, Jolanta; Wiechu?a, Danuta

2014-06-10

179

Theoretical assessment of irradiation swelling in beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current models of irradiation swelling in beryllium are based on the assumption that the swelling arises from bubble growth rather than void growth. However, the factors governing cavity formation in beryllium are more complex than those in cubic metals which are based on elastic interaction difference (EID) between vacancies and self-interstitial atoms. Beryllium belongs to the set of hexagonal close-packed metals where diffusion has been shown to be anisotropic. Diffusional anisotropy difference (DAD) between point defects changes the cavity bias for their absorption and leads to dependence of the dislocation bias on the distribution of dislocations over crystallographic directions. This results in new critical quantities for the bubblevoid transition that controls transition from low-dose to high-dose irradiation effects. In the present paper, we show how the critical parameters controlling irradiation swelling in beryllium depend on the distribution of dislocations over crystallographic directions taking into account an anomalously high anisotropy of self-diffusion in beryllium. The latter is shown to be in agreement with experimentally observed resistance of beryllium to void swelling at early stages of irradiation when a-type dislocations prevail over c-type dislocations. However, a mechanism of radiation-induced production of c-type dislocation loops is proposed that can lead to a subsequent transition of bubbles to voids.

Dubinko, V. I.; Barabash, V. R.

1996-10-01

180

Transgenic Mouse Model of Chronic Beryllium Disease  

SciTech Connect

Animal models provide powerful tools for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new treatment paradigms. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships is severely limited by a general inability to develop a sufficient chronic beryllium disease animal model. Discovery of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) - DPB1Glu69 genetic susceptibility component of chronic beryllium disease permitted the addition of this human beryllium antigen presentation molecule to an animal genome which may permit development of a better animal model for chronic beryllium disease. Using FVB/N inbred mice, Drs. Rubin and Zhu, successfully produced three strains of HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 transgenic mice. Each mouse strain contains a haplotype of the HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 gene that confers a different magnitude of odds ratio (OR) of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR = 240). In addition, Drs. Rubin and Zhu developed transgenic mice with the human CD4 gene to permit better transmission of signals between T cells and antigen presenting cells. This project has maintained the colonies of these transgenic mice and tested the functionality of the human transgenes.

Gordon, Terry

2009-05-26

181

Lithium Ion Aqueous Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium ion aqueous cells were investigated using lithium intercalating compounds as anodes and cathodes. The aqueous electrolyte consisted of 4 to 5 molar solutions of either lithium perchlorate or lithium nitrate which contained lithium hydroxide in mil...

E. J. Plichta W. K. Behl

1995-01-01

182

Reactivity of boron fullerenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of carbon and boron fullerenes are compared, and similarities and distinctions are pointed out. The ionization\\u000a potentials and electron affinities of boron nanoparticles are estimated, and the binding energy for these systems is calculated.

S. P. Ionov; G. V. Ionova; N. T. Kuznetsov

2011-01-01

183

Mechanical Properties Evaluation of Some Commercial Beryllium Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The integrity of a beryllium component that had developed questionable etching patterns on chemical milling is evaluated. The tensile properties of the beryllium material, which was vacuum hot-pressed (VHP), and the same material after an additional hot i...

A. Goldberg J. E. Hanafee R. G. Scott

1982-01-01

184

XD(TM) Reinforced Beryllium-Based Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eleven beryllium castings were made by Brush Wellman using dispersoid materials provided by Martin Marietta Laboratories. Eight castings had a beryllium matrix, while three had a NiBe matrix. Each casting was analyzed metallographically. It was found that...

A. Bopp F. Grensing W. Meyerer

1990-01-01

185

Reviews of the Environmental Effects of Pollutants: VI. Beryllium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a review of the scientific literature on the biological and environmental effects of beryllium. Included in the review are a general summary and a comprehensive discussion of the following topics as related to beryllium and specific berylliu...

A. S. Hammons C. R. Shriner E. B. Lewis J. S. Drury L. E. Towill

1978-01-01

186

Reaction of porous beryllium in steam  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of some additional investigations into the reaction of beryllium of approximately 88% theoretical density with steam. An earlier investigation had shown this material to be extremely reactive compared to dense beryllium. Inductively heated samples developed self-sustaining reactions due to the exothermic heat of reaction at temperatures between 600[degrees]C and 700[degrees]C. These initial tests did not completely explain the mechanisms causing this behavior. The onset of thermal instability appeared to have a temperature dependent incubation period and some dependence upon specimen geometry. Additional tests have clarified this behavior. We have also obtained measurements of emissivity and permeability. This information will be helpful in the future in modeling reactor accident scenarios. The high effective surface area of porous beryllium has also allowed reaction rates to be obtained at temperatures as low as 400[degrees]C. This information for porous beryllium was then used to extend relationships for the reaction rates of dense beryllium in steam to these lower temperatures.

Smolik, G.R.; Merrill, B.J.; Wallace, R.S.

1992-07-01

187

Chronic beryllium disease: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed Central

Chronic beryllium disease is predominantly a pulmonary granulomatosis that was originally described in 1946. Symptoms usually include dyspnea and cough. Fever, anorexia, and weight loss are common. Skin lesions are the most common extrathoracic manifestation. Granulomatous hepatitis, hypercalcemia, and kidney stones can also occur. Radiographic and physiologic abnormalities are similar to those in sarcoidosis. While traditionally the pathologic changes included granulomas and cellular interstitial changes, the hallmark of the disease today is the well-formed granuloma. Immunologic studies have demonstrated a cell-mediated response to beryllium that is due to an accumulation of CD4+ T cells at the site of disease activity. Diagnosis depends on the demonstration of pathologic changes (i.e., granuloma) and evidence that the granuloma was caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium (i.e., positive lung proliferative response to beryllium). Using these criteria, the diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease can now be made before the onset of clinical symptoms. Whether, with early diagnosis, the natural course of this condition will be the same as when it was traditionally diagnosed is not known. Currently, corticosteroids are used to treat patients with significant symptoms or evidence of progressive disease.

Rossman, M D

1996-01-01

188

Age hardening in beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different alloys of beryllium-aluminum-silver were processed to powder by centrifugal atomization in a helium atmosphere. Alloy compositions were, by weight percent, Be?47.5Al?2.5Ag, Be?47Al?3Ag, and Be?46Al?4Ag. Due to the low solubility of both aluminum and silver in beryllium, the silver was concentrated in the aluminum phase, which separates from the beryllium in the liquid phase. A fine, continuous composite beryllium-aluminum

D. H. Carter; A. C. McGeorge; L. A. Jacobson; P. W. Stanek

1996-01-01

189

Major histocompatibility locus genetic markers of beryllium sensitization and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major histocompatibility locus genetic markers of beryllium sensitization and disease. C. Saltini, L. Richeldi, M. Losi, M. Amicosante, C. Voorter, E. van den Berg-Loonen, R.A. Dweik, H.P. Wiedemann, D.C. Deubner, C. Tinelli. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: Hypersensitivity to beryllium (Be) is found in 1-16% of exposed workers undergoing immunological screening for beryllium disease using the beryllium lym- phocyte proliferation

C. Saltini; L. Richeldi; M. Losi; M. Amicosante; C. Voorter; E. Van Den Berg-Loonen; R. A. Dweik; H. P. Wiedemann; D. C. Deubner; C. Tinelli

2001-01-01

190

[Chronic Beryllium disease after exposure to low-beryllium-content copper].  

PubMed

A 24-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of exertional dyspnea and abnormal shadows on chest X-ray film. He worked in a factory, where he was exposed to 1.8% beryllium-copper alloys. His job was to draw out heated beryllium-copper wire to make it more fine. Chest X-ray film and chest CT scan showed left-sided pneumothorax, diffuse fine reticulonodular shadows, and several cysts. Pulmonary-function tests showed a restrictive disorder and a low diffusing capacity. A specimen obtained by open-lung biopsy showed epithelioid cell granuloma and alveolitis, which were compatible with chronic beryllium disease. The beryllium content of the lung tissue was 0.045 microgram/gram. Beryllium lymphocyte transformation tests on blood and on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were positive. Based on these findings, chronic beryllium disease was diagnosed. After treatment with 1 mg/kg of prednisolone daily, dyspnea disappeared. Then the dose was tapered slowly. In Japan, chronic beryllium disease is extremely rare, and to our knowledge only 22 other cases have been reported. PMID:8544383

Hasejima, N; Kobayashi, H; Takezawa, S; Yamato, K; Kadoyama, C; Kawano, Y

1995-10-01

191

REVIEWS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS: VI. BERYLLIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a review of the scientific literature on the biological and environmental effects of beryllium. Included in the review are a general summary and a comprehensive discussion of the following topics as related to beryllium and specific beryllium compounds: physical and...

192

Evaluation of beryllium for space shuttle components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of beryllium to specific full-scale space shuttle structural components and assemblies was studied. Material evaluations were conducted to check the mechanical properties of as-received material to gain design information on characteristics needed for the material in the space shuttle environment, and to obtain data needed for evaluating component and panel tests. Four beryllium structural assemblies were analyzed and designed. Selected components of these assemblies, representing areas of critical loading or design/process uncertainty, were designed and tested, and two panel assemblies were fabricated. Trends in cost and weight factors were determined by progressive estimation at key points of preliminary design, final design, and fabrication to aid in a cost/weight evaluation of the use of beryllium.

Trapp, A. E.

1972-01-01

193

Tritium production measurements by the lithium-glass scintillator method  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of phase I of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)\\/US collaborative program on fusion neutronics, the tritium production rate (TPR) profiles in simulated fusion blanket assemblies of various configurations-a reference system, first-wall system, and beryllium neutron multiplier system - have been measured by means of the lithium-glass method. This is a highly sensitive on-line method for

S. Yamaguchi; T. Nakamura

1986-01-01

194

Scattering by anisotropic grains in beryllium mirrors  

SciTech Connect

Scattering from mirror surfaces arises from topographic and non-topographic sources. This paper considers the nontopographic scattering of beryllium mirrors modelled as a collection of randomly oriented bireflective grains. Simple scattering theory shows that this type of scatting scales as {lambda}{sup {minus}2}, rather than as {lambda}{sup {minus}4} for topographic scattering, which means that it is relatively more important at long radiation wavelengths. Estimates of the intensity based an available short-wavelength values of the anisotropic optical constants of beryllium indicate that this type of scattering could dominate the topographic scattering from smooth surfaces at CO{sub 2} wavelengths. 10 refs., 2 figs.

Church, E.L. (Army Armament Research and Development Command, Dover, NJ (USA)); Takacs, P.Z. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Stover, J.C. (TMA Technologies, Inc., Bozeman, MT (USA))

1990-08-01

195

Beryllium chemical speciation in elemental human biological fluids.  

PubMed

The understanding of beryllium chemistry in human body fluids is important for understanding the prevention and treatment of chronic beryllium disease. Thermodynamic modeling has traditionally been used to study environmental contaminant migration and rarely in the examination of metal (particularly beryllium) toxicology. In this work, a chemical thermodynamic speciation code (MINTEQA2) has been used to model and understand the chemistry of beryllium in simulated human biological fluids such as intracellular, interstitial, and plasma fluids, a number of airway surface fluids for patients with lung conditions, saliva, sweat, urine, bile, gastric juice, and pancreatic fluid. The results show that predicted beryllium solubility and speciation vary markedly between each simulated biological fluid. Formation of beryllium hydroxide and/or phosphate was observed in most of the modeled fluids, and results support the postulation that beryllium absorption in the gastrointestinal tract may be limited by the formation of beryllium phosphate solids. It is also postulated that beryllium is potentially 13% less soluble in the airway surface fluid of a patient with asthma when compared to a "normal" case. The results of this work, supported by experimental validation, can aid in the understanding of beryllium toxicology. Our results can potentially be applied to assessing the feasibility of biological monitoring or chelation treatment of beryllium body burden. PMID:12971803

Sutton, Mark; Burastero, Stephen R

2003-09-01

196

Critical parameters controlling irradiation swelling in beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation effects in beryllium can hardly be explained within a framework of the conventional theory based on the bias concept due to elastic interaction difference (EID) between vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) since beryllium belongs to hexagonal close-packed metals where diffusion has been shown to be anisotropic. Diffusional anisotropy difference (DAD) between point defects changes the cavity bias for their absorption and leads to dependence of the dislocation bias on the distribution of dislocations over crystallographic directions. On the other hand, the elastic interaction between point defects and cavities gives rise to the size and gas pressure dependencies of the cavity bias, resulting in new critical quantities for bubble-void transition effects at low temperature irradiation. In the present paper, we develop the concept of the critical parameters controlling irradiation swelling with account of both DAD and EID, and take care of thermal effects as well since they are of major importance for beryllium which has an anomalously low self-diffusion activation energy. Experimental data on beryllium swelling are analyzed on the basis of the present theory.

Dubinko, V. I.; Barabash, V. R.

1995-08-01

197

Low cycle thermal fatigue testing of beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique has been used to test the relative low cycle thermal fatigue resistance of different grades of US and Russian beryllium, which is proposed as plasma facing armor for fusion reactor first wall, limiter and divertor components. The 30 kW electron beam test system at Sandia National Laboratories was used to sweep the beam spot along one direction

R. D Watson; D. L Youchison; D. E Dombrowski; R. N Guiniatouline; I. B Kupriynov

1997-01-01

198

Status of beryllium development for fusion applications  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium is a leading candidate material for the neutron multiplier of tritium breeding blankets and the plasma facing component of first wall and divertor systems. Depending on the application, the fabrication methods proposed include hot-pressing, hot-isostatic-pressing, cold isostatic pressing/sintering, rotary electrode processing and plasma spraying. Product forms include blocks, tubes, pebbles, tiles and coatings. While, in general, beryllium is not a leading structural material candidate, its mechanical performance, as well its performance with regard to sputtering, heat transport, tritium retention/release, helium-induced swelling and chemical compatibility, is an important consideration in first-wall/blanket design. Differential expansion within the beryllium causes internal stresses which may result in cracking, thereby affecting the heat transport and barrier performance of the material. Overall deformation can result in loading of neighboring structural material. Thus, in assessing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications, it is important to have a good database in all of these performance areas, as well as a set of properties correlations and models for the purpose of interpolation/extrapolation.

Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Donne, M.D. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Institut fuer Neutronphysik and Reaktortechnik; Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G. [McMaster Univ., Ontario, CA (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics

1994-05-01

199

Genetic/Exposure Interaction in Beryllium Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CBD is a hypersensitivity granulomatous disease affecting the lungs of people exposed to the metal Beryllium (Be2+). Objective: To study the polymorphisms of the HLA class II molecules that influence whether an individual will develop CBD and/or BeS in a ...

C. Rice D. Monos K. D. Rosenman M. Rossman V. S. Hertzberg

2008-01-01

200

VACUUM BRAZING OF STAINLESS STEEL TO BERYLLIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique of brazing stainless steel to beryllium results in ; vacuum-tight joints twice as strong as those previously obtained. Pretreatment ; of the component surfaces, as well as the brazing operation itself, is done in a ; furnace capable of maintaining a vacuum of 0.1 mu . (auth)

Whitson

1962-01-01

201

Summary of beryllium specifications, current and historical  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes beryllium properties included in producer, Department of Energy, and government specifications. The specifications are divided into two major categories: current and historical. Within each category the data are arranged primarily according to increasing purity and secondarily by increasing tensile properties. Qualitative comments on formability and weldability are included. Also, short summaries of powder production and consolidation techniques are provided.

Abeln, S.P.; Kyed, P.

1990-12-28

202

Boron-Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A conductive boron doped nanocrystalline diamond is described. The boron doped diamond has a conductivity which uses the boron in the crystals as a charge carrier. The diamond is particularly useful for electrochemical electrodes in oxidation-reduction re...

G. M. Swain M. Witek P. Sonthalia Y. Show

2004-01-01

203

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Cancer: Current Status and Future Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) isbased on the nuclear reaction that occurswhen boron-10 isirradiated with low-energy thermal neutronsto yield high linear energy transferA particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT hasfocused primarily on the treatment of high-grade gliomas and either cutaneous primaries or cerebral metastases of mel- anoma, most recently, head and neck and liver cancer. Neutron

Rolf F. Barth; Jeffrey A. Coderre; M. GraaH

2005-01-01

204

Formation and properties of diffusion coatings applied to steels by boronizing in melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the optimum modes for the formation of diffusion boride coatings on steels of various classes from liquid-metal\\u000a melts. The microstructure and physical properties of boronized steels 20, 30, 45, R18, DI22, and U10 are analyzed. The advantages\\u000a of boronizing from lithium-based melts, which enables one to combine the process of deposition with heat treatment, over the\\u000a familiar methods

V. V. Shirokov; M. I. Kitsak; E. T. Rudkovs'kyi; L. A. Arendar

1999-01-01

205

The All Boron Carbide Diode Neutron Detector: Experiment and Modeling Approach  

SciTech Connect

Boron carbide diode detectors, fabricated from two different polytypes of semiconducting boron carbide, will detect neutrons in reasonable agreement with theoretical expectations. The performance of the all boron carbide neutron detector differs, as expected, from devices where a boron rich neutron capture layer is distinct from the diode charge collection region (i.e. a conversion layer solid state detector). Diodes were fabricated from natural abundance boron (20% {sup 10}B and 80% {sup 11}B.) directly on the metal substrates and metal contacts applied to the films as grown. The total boron depth was on the order of 2 microns. This is clearly not a conversion-layer configuration. The diodes were exposed to thermal neutrons generated from a paraffin moderated plutonium-beryllium source in moderated and un-moderated, as well as shielded and unshielded experimental configurations, where the expected energy peaks at at 2.31 MeV and 2.8 MeV were clearly observed, albeit with some incomplete charge collection typical of thinner diode structures. The results are compared with other boron based thin film detectors and literature models. (authors)

Sabirianov, Ildar F.; Brand, Jennifer I. [College of Engineering, UNL, Lincoln, Nebraska (United States)]|[Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, UNL, Lincoln, Nebraska (United States); Fairchild, Robert W. [Physics and Astronomy, Nebraska Wesleyan University, Lincoln, Nebraska (United States)

2008-07-01

206

The Nucleosynthesis of Boron - Benchmarks for the Galactic Disk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spite of several HST cycles of boron abundance determinations, we do not know the true, ambient, present-day abundance of B. Only two stars {with undepleted Li and Be} have been observed to derive the Population I true B abundance. Past cycles have focused on {1} halo stars with low metallicity and {2} solar-type stars with Li and/or Be deficiencies. In this study we wish to determine stellar abundances of boron, measured from the B I 2497 Angstrom line from STIS echelle spectra, of main sequence F-G stars that have retained their full initial abundances of boron. Our target stars are those for which ground-based observations show that beryllium is undepleted. These new abundances will map evolution of the boron abundance in the Galactic disk in the metallicity range from one-third solar up to solar. Then the B, and previously determined Li and Be abundances, will be used to improve understanding of the nucleosynthesis of B. In particular, we will be able to assess the relative contributions from cosmic ray-induced spallation vs neutrino-induced spallation in Type II SN, that are predicted to synthesize B {as ^11B} but not Be. Since the former process is the only identified site of Be synthesis, the B/Be ratio can be used to resolve the contributions of neutrino and cosmic ray induced spallation.

Boesgaard, Ann

2000-07-01

207

Beryllium surface levels in a military ammunition plant.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the presence of beryllium surface contamination in a U.S. conventional munitions plant as an indicator of possible past beryllium airborne and skin exposure and used these measurements to classify job categories by potential level of exposure. Surface samples were collected from production and nonproduction areas of the plant and at regional industrial reference sites with no known history of beryllium use. Surface samples of premoistened wiping material were analyzed for beryllium mass content using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and results expressed as micrograms of beryllium per 100 square centimeters (micro g/100 cm(2)). Beryllium was detected in 87% of samples collected at the munitions plant and in 72% of the samples collected at regional reference sites. Two munitions plant samples from areas near sanders and grinders were above 3.0 micro g/100 cm(2) (U.S. Department of Energy surface contamination limit). The highest surface level found at the reference sites was 0.44 micro g/100 cm(2). Workers in areas where beryllium-containing alloy tools were sanded or ground, but not other work areas, may have been exposed to airborne beryllium concentrations above levels encountered in other industries where metal work is conducted. Surface sampling provided information useful for categorizing munitions plant jobs by level of past beryllium airborne and skin exposure and, subsequently, for identifying employees within exposure strata to be screened for beryllium sensitization. PMID:18569510

Sanderson, Wayne T; Leonard, Stephanie; Ott, Darrin; Fuortes, Laurence; Field, William

2008-07-01

208

Control of beryllium powder at a DOE facility  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium is contained in a number of domestic and national defense items. Although many items might contain beryllium in some manner, few people need worry about the adverse effects caused by exposure to beryllium because it is the inhalable form of beryllium that is most toxic. Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a granulomas and fibrotic lung disease with long latency, can be developed after inhalation exposures to beryllium. It is a progressive, debilitating lung disease. Its occurrence in those exposed to beryllium has been difficult to predict because some people seem to react to low concentration exposures whereas others do not react to high concentration exposures. Onset of the disease frequently occurs between 15 to 20 years after exposure begins. Some people develop the disease after many years of low concentration exposures but others do not develop CBD even though beryllium is shown to be present in lungs and urine. Conclusions based on these experiences are that their is some immunological dependence of developing CBD in about 3--4% of the exposed population, but the exact mechanism involved has not yet been identified. Acute beryllium disease can occur after a single exposure to a concentration of greater than 0.100 mg/m3 (inhalation exposure); it is characterized by the development of chemical pneumoconiosis, a respiratory disease. The acute effect of skin contact is a dermatitis characterized by itching and reddened, elevated, or fluid-accumulated lesions which appear particularly on the exposed surfaces of the body, especially the face, neck, arms, and hands. Small particles of beryllium that enter breaks in the skin can lead to the development of granulomas and/or open sores that do not heal until the beryllium has been removed. Our interest is only airborne beryllium, which is found in areas that machine or produce beryllium.

Langner, G.C.; Creek, K.L.; Castro, R.G.

1997-12-31

209

Incipient toxicity of lithium to freshwater organisms representing a salmonid habitat  

SciTech Connect

Because the eventual development of fusion power reactors could increase the mining, use and disposal of lithium five-fold by the year 2000, potential effects from unusual amounts of lithium in aquatic environments were investigated. Freshwater oganisms representing a Pacific Northwest salmonid habitat were exposed to elevated conentrations of lithium. Nine parameters were used to determine the incipient toxicity of lithium to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), insect larvae (Chironomus sp.), and Columbia River periphyton. All three groups of biota were incipiently sensitive to lithium at concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results correspond with the incipient toxicity of beryllium, a chemically similar component of fusion reactor cores. A maximum lithium concentration of 0.01 mg/L occurs naturally in most freshwater environments (beryllium is rarer). Therefore, a concentration range of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L may be regarded as approaching toxic concentrations when assessing the hazards of lithium in freshwaters.

Emery, R.; Klopfer, D.C.; Skalski, J.R.

1981-07-01

210

Synthesis of new classes of boron-containing nucleotides.  

PubMed

Four different types of boron-modified nucleotides are reported: P-boranophosphorothioates, P-cyanoboranophosphates, P-boranomethylphosphonates, and P3'-N5'-boranophosphoramidates. Synthesis of dinucleoside borano-phosphorothioates and nucleoside P-borano-P-thiomonophosphates via a lithium sulfide method is described. The Li2S method also provides an alternative way to synthesize phosphorothioates through a dinitrophenyl P(V) phosphotriester precursor. The mechanism of Li2S substitution was investigated. PMID:11563076

Lin, J; Shaw, B R

2001-01-01

211

Hydrogen trapping by yttrium in low temperature lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A test to determine the lithium compatibility and impurity gettering capabilities of various materials including yttrium was performed in Beryllium-7 Experimental Lithium Loop (7BELL) at 270C. Yttrium coupons were exposed in liquid lithium for a total of 3,718 hours. X-ray diffraction and bulk chemical analysis data indicated that yttrium absorbs hydrogen from liquid lithium at 270C and transforms to yttrium dihydride (YH 2). The transformation of yttrium to YH 2 resulted in embrittlement of the coupons and subsequent fragmentation to small pieces. Additional analysis, based on the equilibrium hydrogen pressures for the transition of yttrium to YH 2, and Sievert's relationship for hydrogen in equilibrium with hydrogen in lithium, indicates that the temperature of yttrium cannot exceed 280C to control the hydrogen concentration in lithium at below 1 wt ppm. It is concluded in general that yttrium in sponge form is a good getter for removal of hydrogen isotopes from the lithium blanket of a fusion reactor at or below 280C, which is in excellent agreement with the results of previous authors.

Anantatmula, R. P.; Katsuta, Hiroji

1984-05-01

212

Modified lithium borohydrides for reversible hydrogen storage.  

PubMed

In an attempt to develop lithium borohydrides as reversible hydrogen storage materials with high hydrogen storage capacities, the feasibility of reducing the dehydrogenation temperature of the lithium borohydride and moderating rehydrogenation conditions was explored. The lithium borohydride was modified by ball milling with metal oxides and metal chlorides as additives. The modified lithium borohydrides released 9 wt % hydrogen starting from 473 K. The dehydrided modified lithium borohydrides absorbed 7-9 wt % hydrogen at 873 K and 7 MPa. The modification with additives reduced the dehydriding starting temperature from 673 to 473 K and moderated the rehydrogenation conditions from 923 K/15 MPa to 873 K/7 MPa. XRD and SEM analysis revealed the formation of an intermediate compound that might play a key role in changing the reaction path, resulting in the lower dehydriding temperature and reversibility. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity of the oxide-modified lithium borohydrides decreased gradually during hydriding/dehydriding cycling. One of the possible reasons for this effect might be the loss of boron during dehydrogenation, but this can be prevented by changing the dehydriding path using appropriate additives. The additives reduced the dehydriding temperature and improved the reversibility, but they also reduced the hydrogen storage capacity. The best compromise can be reached by selecting appropriate additives, optimizing the additive loading, and using new synthesis processes other than ball milling. PMID:16571023

Au, Ming; Jurgensen, Arthur

2006-04-01

213

Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position

Lyday

1990-01-01

214

Photoemission of Doped Lithium Tetraborate Crystals Being Developed for Neutron Dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium tetraborate or LTB crystals are being developed for possible use in solid state neutron detectors. Already used in thermo luminescence dosimeters, LTB is of interest due to its large cross section for neutron capture by lithium and boron. The reaction between lithium and a neutron produces an alpha particle and tritium. When boron interacts with a neutron an alpha particle and lithium are produced. These reactions are the basis for neutron detection, and an LTB crystal enriched with Mn should show improved efficiency for neutron detection. There is, however, a lack of fundamental characterization information regarding this useful material, particularly with regard to its electronic configuration. In this study, photoemission spectroscopy has been used to determine the energy level structure of manganese doped Lithium Tetraborate crystals. Measurements were made using UV photons from the storage ring of the synchrotron at Louisiana State University. Comparison will be made between Mn doped LTB crystals and undoped crystals.

Dugan, Christina; Hengehold, Robert; McHale, Stephen; McClory, John; Petrosky, James

2010-10-01

215

Radiation damage and defect behavior in ion-implanted, lithium counterdoped silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boron doped silicon n+p solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implantation and the resuitant n+p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. The function of fluence and a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) was studied to correlate defect behavior with cell performance. It was found that the lithium counterdoped cells exhibited significantly increased radiation resistance when compared to boron doped control cells. It is concluded that the annealing behavior is controlled by dissociation and recombination of defects. The DLTS studies show that counterdoping with lithium eliminates at least three deep level defects and results in three new defects. It is speculated that the increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is due primarily to the interaction of lithium with oxygen, single vacanies and divacancies and that the lithium-oxygen interaction is the most effective in contributing to the increased radiation resistance.

Weinberg, I.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C. K.

1984-01-01

216

Radiation damage and defect behavior in ion-implanted, lithium counterdoped silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boron doped silicon n+p solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implanation and the resultant n+p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. The function of fluence and a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) was studied to correlate defect behavior with cell performance. It was found that the lithium counterdoped cells exhibited significantly increased radiation resistance when compared to boron doped control cells. It is concluded that the annealing behavior is controlled by dissociation and recombination of defects. The DLTS studies show that counterdoping with lithium eliminates at least three deep level defects and results in three new defects. It is speculated that the increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is due primarily to the interaction of lithium with oxygen, single vacancies and divacancies and that the lithium-oxygen interaction is the most effective in contributing to the increased radiation resistance.

Weinberg, I.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C. K.

1984-01-01

217

Magnetron sputtered boron films  

DOEpatents

A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 8 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

1998-06-16

218

Neutron irradiated beryllium: tensile strength and swelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four different species of beryllium: S-200F (vacuum hot pressed, 1.2 wt% BeO), S-200FH (hot isostatic pressed, 0.9 wt% BeO); S-65 (vacuum hot pressed, 0.6 wt% BeO) and S-65H (hot isostatic pressed, 0.5 wt% BeO) are fabricated by Brush Wellman. Three batches of the berylliums are investigated, a neutron irradiated batch, a thermal control batch and a reference batch. Neutron irradiation is performed at nominal temperature conditions of 200, 400 and 600C up to a fluence of 1.5 10 25 n m -2 ( En ? 1 MeV). Based on the tensile tests results, the S-65 VHP and the S-200 HIP show slightly higher elongation and strength after irradiation. Based on the swelling determination, S-200 swells less than S-65. In conclusion, the S-200 HIP might tentatively be selected.

Moons, Frans; Sannen, Leo; Rahn, August; Van De Velde, Jos

1996-10-01

219

Process for microwave sintering boron carbide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated

C. E. Holcombe; M. S. Morrow

1993-01-01

220

Prevalence of beryllium sensitization among aluminium smelter workers  

PubMed Central

Background Beryllium exposure occurs in aluminium smelters from natural contamination of bauxite, the principal source of aluminium. Aims To characterize beryllium exposure in aluminium smelters and determine the prevalence rate of beryllium sensitization (BeS) among aluminium smelter workers. Methods A population of 3185 workers from nine aluminium smelters owned by four different aluminium-producing companies were determined to have significant beryllium exposure. Of these, 1932 workers participated in medical surveillance programmes that included the serum beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), confirmation of sensitization by at least two abnormal BeLPT test results and further evaluation for chronic beryllium disease in workers with BeS. Results Personal beryllium samples obtained from the nine aluminium smelters showed a range of <0.0113.00 ?g/m3 time-weighted average with an arithmetic mean of 0.25 ?g/m3 and geometric mean of 0.06 ?g/m3. Nine workers were diagnosed with BeS (prevalence rate of 0.47%, 95% confidence interval = 0.210.88%). Conclusions BeS can occur in aluminium smelter workers through natural beryllium contamination of the bauxite and further concentration during the refining and smelting processes. Exposure levels to beryllium observed in aluminium smelters are similar to those seen in other industries that utilize beryllium. However, compared with beryllium-exposed workers in other industries, the rate of BeS among aluminium smelter workers appears lower. This lower observed rate may be related to a more soluble form of beryllium found in the aluminium smelting work environment as well as the consistent use of respiratory protection.

Slade, M. D.; Cantley, L. F.; Kirsche, S. R.; Wesdock, J. C.; Cullen, M. R.

2010-01-01

221

Mechanical properties evaluation of some commercial beryllium materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrity of a beryllium component that had developed questionable etching patterns on chemical milling is evaluated. The tensile properties of the beryllium material, which was vacuum hot-pressed (VHP), and the same material after an additional hot isostatic pressing (VHP\\/HIP) were compared to the properties obtained on two acceptable beryllium materials. Tensile testing was performed under strain-rate control conditions at

A. Goldberg; J. E. Hanafee; R. G. Scott

1982-01-01

222

Detection of beryllium by laser-induced-breakdown spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the new technique of laser-induced-breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) a limit of detection was measured for beryllium in air of 0.5 ng/g ( w/w), which is one-third of the OSHA limit for the 8-h average exposure to beryllium. Approximately linear working curves were obtained over the concentration range 0.5 to 2 10 4 ng g -1. The potential application of this technique to a beryllium monitoring instrument is discussed.

Radziemski, Leon J.; Cremers, David A.; Loree, Thomas R.

223

The right tool for machining beryllium  

SciTech Connect

Machine tools from the C-2, C-4, and C-7 designation were examined in this study. Overall twelve different machine tools from these grades were evaluated. Each machine tool was used to machine beryllium and then examined to determine wear characteristics. They were then polished and etched to reveal microstructure. The microstructure was examined on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS).

Johns, W.L.; Jackson, M.H.

1987-01-01

224

Diffusion and solubility of aluminum in beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated distilled beryllium, remelted in an arc furnace on a water-cooled copper hearth in purified helium (Table i). To investigate the diffusion mobility we used the method of layerwise analysis and determination of the integral radioactivity of the residue of the specimen. A layer of AgClz containing the isotope 26A1 was deposited onto the specimen surface. During diffusion

V. P. Gladkov; A. V. Svetlov; D. M. Skorov; V. I. Tenishev; A. N. Shabalin

1976-01-01

225

Beryllium window for an APS diagnostics beamline  

SciTech Connect

A beryllium (Be) window for an Advanced Photon Source (APS) diagnostics beamline has been designed and built. The window, which has a double concave axisymmetrical profile with a thickness of 0.5 mm at the center, receives 160 W/mm{sup 2} (7 GeV/100 mA stored beam) from an undulator beam. The window design as well as thermal and thermomechanical analyses, including thermal buckling of the Be window, are presented.

Sheng, I.C.; Yang, B.X.; Sharma, Y.S.

1997-09-01

226

Isotope shift in a beryllium atom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the isotope shift of 21P0-21S0, 31S0-21S0 transitions and of the 21S0 ionization potential in the four-electron beryllium atom. The achieved precision is high enough to make possible the accurate determination of the nuclear charge radii from the experimental isotope shifts. This calls for corresponding measurements and opens the window for the determination of charge radii of heavier nuclei.

Puchalski, Mariusz; Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

2014-01-01

227

Microwave sintering of boron carbide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

R. D. Blake; J. D. Katz; J. J. Petrovic; H. Sheinberg

1988-01-01

228

Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample  

SciTech Connect

A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Ehler, Deborah S. (Los Alamos, NM); John, Kevin D. (Santa Fe, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Collis, Gavin E. (Los Alamos, NM); Minogue, Edel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-08-24

229

Analysis of DC magnetron sputtered beryllium films  

SciTech Connect

We are evaluating techniques that alter the columnar grain structure in sputtered beryllium films on fused silica substrates. The films are formed by DC magnetron sputtering, and the columnar structure, which is characteristic of this and most other deposition techniques, is highly detrimental to the tensile strength of the films. Attempts to modify the columnar structure by using RF-biased sputtering combined with nitrogen pulsing have been successful, and this paper describes the analyses of these films. Sputtered beryllium films are quite brittle, and the columnar structure in particular tends to form a distinct intergranular fracture; therefore, the grain structure was analyzed in fractured specimens using the high-resolution capability of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with a field emission gun (FESEM). Ion microanalysis using secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was conducted on some specimens to determining relative contamination levels introduced by nitrogen pulsing. The capability to perform quantitative SIMS analyses using ion-implanted specimens as standards also is being developed. This work confirms that the structure of DC magnetron sputtered beryllium can be improved significantly with combined nitrogen pulsing and RF-biased sputtering. 8 refs.

Price, C.W.; Hsieh, E.J.; Lindsey, E.F.; Pierce, E.L.; Norberg, J.C.

1988-10-01

230

The Cryogenic Properties of Several Aluminum-Beryllium Alloys and a Beryllium Oxide Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance related mechanical properties for two aluminum-beryllium (Al-Be) alloys and one beryllium-oxide (BeO) material were developed at cryogenic temperatures. Basic mechanical properties (Le., ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percent elongation, and elastic modulus were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 at cryogenic [-195.5"C (-320 F) and -252.8"C (-423"F)I temperatures. Basic mechanical properties for the Be0 material were obtained at cyrogenic [- 252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. Fracture properties were obtained for the investment cast alloy Beralcast 363 at cryogenic [-252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. The AlBeMetl62 material was extruded, the Be0 material was hot isostatic pressing (HIP) consolidated, and the Beralcast 363 material was investment cast.

Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

2003-01-01

231

Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites - Evidence for a sedimentary precursor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 100 micron atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 million years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

Pal, D. K.; Moniot, R. K.; Kruse, T. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Tuniz, C.

1982-01-01

232

Impurity coverage and deuterium inventory of beryllium and carbon first wall components after beryllium operation in JET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 1989, following a brief all carbon phase, JET was operated with an evaporated beryllium film on all the plasma facing surfaces and then, in a third phase, with bulk beryllium used for the belt limiters and one set of antenna protection tiles. Subsequent analysis of wall components and long term samples (LTS) using Beta Backscatter and Ion Beam Analysis has been conducted to determine the condition of the First Wall and its deuterium inventory after beryllium operation. Ex-situ analysis of components where deposition occurs during operation shows mixed carbon and beryllium layers with an approximate ratio 1:1 and some localised higher Z components. The deuterium inventory situation is littled changed by the introduction of beryllium. Similar surface levels of deuterium, ~1 10 22 atoms m -2, have been seen for both carbon and beryllium belt limiter tiles.

Peacock, A. T.; Coad, J. P.; Lama, F.; Behrisch, R.; Martinelli, A. P.; Mills, B. E.; Pick, M.; Partridge, J.; Simpson, J. C. B.; Zhu, Y. K.

1990-12-01

233

Physicochemical Characteristics of Aerosol Particles Generated During the Milling of Beryllium Silicate Ores: Implications for Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhalation of beryllium dusts generated during milling of ores and cutting of beryl-containing gemstones is associated with development of beryllium sensitization and low prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Inhalation of beryllium aerosols generated during primary beryllium production and machining of the metal, alloys, and ceramics are associated with sensitization and high rates of CBD, despite similar airborne beryllium mass

Aleksandr B. Stefaniak; Steve J. Chipera; Gregory A. Day; Phil Sabey; Robert M. Dickerson; Deborah C. Sbarra; Mathew G. Duling; Robert B. Lawrence; Marcia L. Stanton; Ronald C. Scripsick

2008-01-01

234

Boron in the marine atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric boron was simultaneously separated into gaseous and particulate components for the first time by passing air through a simple impregnated filter sampling system. A Nuclepore filter collected particular boron and preceded KOH impregnated Whatman 41 filters for gaseous boron collection. Boron was determined by visible spectrophotometry. The method was developed to allow daily measurements of atmospheric boron. The results show that boron exists in the atmosphere primarily in the gas phase. Gaseous boron concentrations collected at several sites in the Northern Hemisphere ranged from 1-233 ng/cu m while particulate boron ranged from 0.02-8 ng/cu m. A four month series of daily samples collected at Narragansett, R.I. revealed gaseous boron variations to exist on a time scale of several days. Estimate of inputs of boron to the troposphere reveal that the ocean and vulcanism are the major natural sources, dominating anthropogenic sources, such as coal combustion, by a factor of approx 10.

Fogg, T. R.

235

Determination of Natural Beryllium (Be) in Soil and Swipe Samples Utilizing Yttrium/Beryllium Ratio  

SciTech Connect

1. Objective: A method to determine whether beryllium (Be) components in surface swipe samples are from a natural source is needed. 2. Methods: Soil samples and surface swipes from area facilities were analyzed for marker elements to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be). To be useful, the natural marker element must be present at reasonably consistent levels across the site, must correlate with the Be concentration, and not have the potential to be present from non-natural sources. 3. Results: The research on marker elements used to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be) concentrations demonstrates a clear correlation between Be and yttrium (Y) in natural soils on the Nevada National Security Site. The Y/Be ratio is proposed as a method to characterize the source of Be in soil and surface swipe samples and to aid in recommendations for follow up actions. Swipe samples are analyzed using an ICP/MS method and compared with results from soil samples. Natural soil constituent levels and the Y/Be Ratio range is determined for the occupied and historical facilities and surrounding areas. Y/Be ratios within the statistical range established indicate the Be is from a natural source. Y/Be ratios lower than this range indicate the presence of another Be source, and may then be correlated to alloy, ceramic, or other operational sources by the ratios of copper, nickel, cobalt, uranium, and/or niobium. Example case studies of evaluations of buildings with historical operational beryllium usage, current ongoing technical processes, and heavy equipment used in large building demolitions are included demonstrating the value of the ratio approach. 4. Conclusions: This differentiation is valuable as there is no known correlation between natural beryllium in soil and beryllium disease.

None

2010-09-30

236

Beryllium-Induced TNF Production Is Transcription-Dependent in Chronic Beryllium Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium (Be)-antigenpresentation toBe-specificCD4Tcellsfrom the lungs of patients with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) results in T cellproliferationand TNF-secretion.We tested the hypothesis thatBe-induced,CBDbronchoalveolarlavage(BAL)Tcell,transcrip- tion-dependent, TNF-secretion was accompanied by specific tran- scription factor upregulation. After 6 h of Be stimulation, CBD BAL cells produced a median of 883 pg\\/ml TNF- (range, 608-1,275 pg\\/ml) versus 198 pg\\/ml (range, 116-245 pg\\/ml) by unstimulated cells. After

Richard T. Sawyer; Andrew P. Fontenot; Tristan A. Barnes; Charles E. Parsons; Brian C. Tooker; Lisa A. Maier; May M. Gillespie; E. Brigitte Gottschall; Lori Silveira; James Hagman; Lee S. Newman

237

Boron isotopic compositions of some boron minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron minerals that have different structural formulae but are supposed to have the same geologic origin have been collected and analyzed for the 11 B \\/ 10 B isotopic ratio. It has been reconfirmed that minerals of marine origin have higher 11 B \\/ 10 B ratios than those of nonmarine origin. It has been found that the sequence of

Takao Oi; Masao Nomura; Masaaki Musashi; Tomoko Ossaka; Makoto Okamoto; Hidetake Kakihana

1989-01-01

238

A new class of electrochemically and thermally stable lithium salts for lithium battery electrolytes. 1: Synthesis and properties of lithium bis[1,2-benzenediolato(2-)-O,O]borate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is a new class of nontoxic thermally, chemically, and electrochemically stable, inexpensive lithium salts based on a chelate complex anion of boron with aromatic or aliphatic diols or carboxylic acids. The synthesis, purification and analysis of the first member of this class, lithium bis[1,2-benzenediolato(2-)-O,O]borate (Li[B(CHO)]) is described and some results are given from electrochemical experiments of its solution in

J. Barthel; M. Wuehr; R. Buestrich; H. J. Gores

1995-01-01

239

Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/coron mixtures  

DOEpatents

A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod.

Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ); Manos, Dennis (Williamsburg, VA); Nartowitz, Ed (Edison, NJ)

1994-01-01

240

Friction behaviour evaluation in berylliumcopper threaded connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berylliumcopper alloys present a combination of high tensile and compressive strength, high hardness, good thermal conductivity and high resistance to seizing and galling (conditions where metals begin to cold weld or bond under the joint influence of compressive stress and relative motion at temperatures far below the melting temperature). These properties make berylliumcopper an excellent choice for bearing and bushing

S. Baragetti; A. Terranova; M. Vimercati

2009-01-01

241

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR BERYLLIUM: REVIEW DRAFT (APRIL 1986)  

EPA Science Inventory

The chemical and geochemical properties of beryllium resemble those of aluminum, zinc, and magnesium. This resemblance is primarily due to similar ionic potentials which facilitate covalent bonding. The three most common forms of beryllium in industrial emission are the metal, th...

242

Modeling Airborne Beryllium Concentrations From Open Air Dynamic Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A heightened awareness of airborne beryllium contamination from industrial activities was reestablished during the late 1980's and early 1990's when it became recognized that Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD) had not been eradicated, and that the Occupational Health and Safety Administration standards for occupational air exposure to beryllium may not be sufficiently protective. This was in response to the observed CBD increase in multiple industrial settings where beryllium was manufactured and/or machined, thus producing beryllium particulates which are then available for redistribution by airborne transport. Sampling and modeling design activities were expanded at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico to evaluate potential airborne beryllium exposure to workers who might be exposed during dynamic testing activities associated with nuclear weapons Stockpile Stewardship. Herein is presented the results of multiple types of collected air measurements that were designed to characterize the production and dispersion of beryllium used in components whose performance is evaluated during high explosive detonation at open air firing sites. Data from fallout, high volume air, medium volume air, adhesive film, particle size impactor, and fine-particulate counting techniques will be presented, integrated, and applied in dispersion modeling to assess potential onsite and offsite personal exposures resulting from dynamic testing activities involving beryllium.

Becker, N. M.

2003-12-01

243

Ductile - Ductile Beryllium Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite Manufactured by Extrusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Beryllium-aluminum alloys are unique, in-situ ductile-ductile metal matrix composite alloys. Cast and extruded beryllium-aluminum composite alloys are expected to have a unique combination of properties that are attractive for applications such as ground ...

N. F. Levoy

1994-01-01

244

Dissolution of beryllium in artificial lung alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid.  

PubMed

Dissolution of a lung burden of poorly soluble beryllium particles is hypothesized to be necessary for development of chronic beryllium lung disease (CBD) in humans. As such, particle dissolution rate must be sufficient to activate the lung immune response and dissolution lifetime sufficient to maintain chronic inflammation for months to years to support development of disease. The purpose of this research was to investigate the hypothesis that poorly soluble beryllium compounds release ions via dissolution in lung fluid. Dissolution kinetics of 17 poorly soluble particulate beryllium materials that span extraction through ceramics machining (ores, hydroxide, metal, copper-beryllium [CuBe] fume, oxides) and three CuBe alloy reference materials (chips, solid block) were measured over 31 d using artificial lung alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid (pH 4.5). Differences in beryllium-containing particle physicochemical properties translated into differences in dissolution rates and lifetimes in artificial phagolysosomal fluid. Among all materials, dissolution rate constant values ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-10)gcm(-2)d(-1) and half-times ranged from tens to thousands of days. The presence of magnesium trisilicate in some beryllium oxide materials may have slowed dissolution rates. Materials associated with elevated prevalence of CBD had faster beryllium dissolution rates [10(-7)-10(-8)gcm(-2)d(-1)] than materials not associated with elevated prevalence (p<0.05). PMID:21251696

Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

2011-05-01

245

RESIDUAL STRAINS IN A PIGMA WELDED BERYLLIUM RING  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the residual stresses associated with the PIGMA welding of two right circular beryllium rings. Using spatially resolved neutron diffraction techniques (resolution of 4.5 mm3) we have determined residual strains in the beryllium base metal using the interplanar spacings of the (10 10) , ) 0 2 11 ( and ) 3 1 10 ( crystallographic planes as

D. W. Brown; R. Varma; M. A. M. Bourke; P. Burgardt; S. Spooner; T. Ely

246

Laser welding of a beryllium/tantalum collimator  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the methods utilized in the fabrication of a collimator from 0.001 inch thick beryllium and tantalum foil. The laser welding process proved to be an acceptable method for joining the beryllium in a standing edge joint configuration.

Lingenfelter, A.C.; Anglin, C.D.

1985-01-01

247

Molecular Structure of boron  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boron was founded in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy and Gay-Lussac and Thenard. It occurs as orthoboric acid in volcanic spring waters and as borates in Boron and colematic. Some sources can also be found in the Mohave Desert. It is used when making glass to keep the glass from breaking under temperature stress. Also if combined with sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide it makes bleach.

2002-08-26

248

Molecular dynamics simulation of dynamic response of beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of beryllium to dynamic loading has been extensively studied, both experimentally and theoretically, due to its importance in several technological areas. Compared to other metals, it is quite challenging to accurately represent the various anomalous behaviors of beryllium using classical interatomic potentials. We have used large-scale classical molecular dynamics simulations to study the response of single-crystal beryllium to high-strain rate uniaxial loading. We compare results from two different types of interatomic potential. A MEAM potential was constructed to reproduce properties of beryllium at ambient conditions. A potential based on the recently-developed GAP approach was fit to quantum simulations of solid and liquid beryllium phases near the shock-melting line.

Thompson, Aidan P.; Lane, J. Matthew D.; Desjarlais, Michael P.; Bartok, Albert P.; Csanyi, Gabor

2011-06-01

249

Preparation and characterization of beryllium doped organic plasma polymer coatings  

SciTech Connect

We report the formation of beryllium doped plasma polymerized coatings derived from a helical resonator deposition apparatus, using diethylberyllium as the organometaric source. These coatings had an appearance not unlike plain plasma polymer and were relatively stable to ambient exposure. The coatings were characterized by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Coating rates approaching 0.7 {mu}m hr{sup {minus}1} were obtained with a beryllium-to-carbon ratio of 1:1.3. There is also a significant oxygen presence in the coating as well which is attributed to oxidation upon exposure of the coating to air. The XPS data show only one peak for beryllium with the preponderance of the XPS data suggesting that the beryllium exists as BeO. Diethylberyllium was found to be inadequate as a source for beryllium doped plasma polymer, due to thermal decomposition and low vapor recovery rates.

Brusasco, R.; Letts, S.; Miller, P.; Saculla, M.; Cook, R.

1995-10-04

250

Boron isotope geochemistry as a tracer for the evolution of brines and associated hot springs from the Dead Sea, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A boron isotope study combined with analyses of elemental boron, lithium, and chlorine is used to suggest that brines from the Dead Sea and on-shore hypersaline thermal springs (Hamme Yesha, Hamme Zohar, and Hamme Mazor) are the products of interaction of evaporated seawater with detrital sediments. The high 11 B values of the Dead Sea brines (55.7 to 57.4%. versus

Avner Vengosh; Abraham Starinsky; Yehoshua Kolodny; Allan R. Chivas

1991-01-01

251

Results from the CDX-U Lithium Wall and NSTX Lithium Pallet Injection and Evaporation Experiments  

SciTech Connect

CDX-U has been operated with the vacuum vessel wall and limiter surfaces nearly completely coated with lithium, producing dramatic improvements to plasma performance. Discharges achieved global energy confinement times up to 6 ms, exceeding previous CDX-U results by a factor of 5, and ITER98P(y,1) scaling by 2-3. Lithium wall coatings up to 1000 {angstrom} thick were applied between discharges by electron-beam-induced evaporation of a lithium-filled limiter and vapor deposition from a resistively heated oven. The e-beam power was modest (1.6 kW) but it produced up to 60 MW/m2 power density in a 0.3 cm{sup 2} spot; the duration was up to 300 s. Convective transport of heat away from the beam spot was so effective that the entire lithium inventory (140 g) was heated to evaporation (400-500 C) and there was no observable hot spot on the lithium surface within the beam footprint. These results are promising for use of lithium plasma-facing components in reactor scale devices. Lithium coating has also been applied to NSTX carbon plasma-facing surfaces, to control the density rise during long-duration H-modes for non-inductive current sustainment. First, lithium pellets were injected into sequences of Ohmically heated helium plasmas in both center stack limiter (CSL) and lower single-null divertor (LSND) configurations to deposit a total of 25-30 mg of lithium on the respective plasma contact areas. In both cases, the first subsequent L mode, deuterium discharge with NBI showed a reduction in the volume-average density by a factor {approx}3 compared to similar discharges before the lithium coating. Recently, a lithium evaporator was installed aimed toward the graphite tiles of the lower center stack and divertor. Twelve depositions, ranging from about 10 mg to 5 g of lithium, were performed. The effects on LSND L-mode, double-null divertor (DND) H-mode, and DND reversed-shear plasmas were variable but, immediately after coating, there were decreases in the density and significant increases in electron and ion temperature, neutron rate, confinement time, and edge flow velocity, and reductions in H-mode ELM frequency. For several days of operation after lithium coating, the ratio of oxygen to carbon emission was lower than with boronization.

Majeski, R; Kugel, H; Bell, M; Bell, R; Beiersdorfer, P; Bush, C; Doerner, R; Gates, D; Gray, T; Kaita, R; LeBlanc, B; Maingi, R; Mansfield, D; Menard, J; Mueller, D; Paul, S; Raman, R; Roquemore, A; Skinner, C; Sabbagh, S; Souskhanovskii, V; Spaleta, J; Stevenson, T; Timberlake, J; Zakharov, L

2006-10-05

252

Analytical Techniques for the Determination of Trace Metal Impurities in Beryllium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the preparation of specimens suitable for future mass spectrographic programs the following materials were used: Brush Beryllium's QMV beryllium, Vacuum Cast Pechiney S-R Grade beryllium, and two-pass zone-refined beryllium prepared from Pechiney S-R ...

S. Kallmann F. Collier

1966-01-01

253

Ionicities of Boron-Boron Bonds in B12 Icosahedra  

Microsoft Academic Search

First-principles calculations are used to investigate ionicities of boron-boron bonds in B12 icosahedra. It is observed that the geometrical symmetry breaking of B12 icosahedra results in the spatial asymmetry of charge density on each boron-boron bond, and further in the ionicity of B12 icosahedra. The results calculated by a new ionicity scale, a population ionicity scale, indicate that the maximum

Julong He; Erdong Wu; Huitian Wang; Riping Liu; Yongjun Tian

2005-01-01

254

Diffusion boronizing of molybdenum and niobium in boron carbide powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A study was made of the boronizing of molybdenum and niobium in boron carbide powder with or without additions of halogen-containing activating agents.2.It was established that salts of hydrofluoboric acid are the most effective activating agents.3.The boronizing of refractory metals and alloys in commercial boron carbide powders ensures a comparatively high rate of coating formation and gives high quality of

L. A. Sosnovskii; A. P. pik; A. P. Kraplya

1972-01-01

255

Exposure pathway assessment at a copper-beryllium alloy facility.  

PubMed

Controlling beryllium inhalation exposures to comply with regulatory levels (2 micro g m(-3) of air) does not appear to prevent beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Additionally, it has proven difficult to establish a clear inhalation exposure-response relationship for beryllium sensitization and CBD. Thus, skin may be an important route of exposure that leads to beryllium sensitization. A 2000 survey had identified prevalence of sensitization (7%) and CBD (4%) in a beryllium alloy facility. An improved particulate migration control program, including dermal protection in production areas, was completed in 2002 at the facility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate levels of beryllium in workplace air, on work surfaces, on cotton gloves worn by employees over nitrile gloves, and on necks and faces of employees subsequent to implementation of the program. Over a 6 day period, we collected general area air samples (n = 10), wipes from routinely handled work surfaces (n = 252), thin cotton glove samples (n = 113) worn by employees, and neck wipes (n = 109) and face wipes (n = 109) from the same employees. In production, production support and office areas geometric mean (GM) levels of beryllium were 0.95, 0.59 and 0.05 micro g per 100 cm(2) on work surfaces; 42.8, 73.8 and 0.07 micro g per sample on cotton gloves; 0.07, 0.09 and 0.003 micro g on necks; and 0.07, 0.12 and 0.003 micro g on faces, respectively. Correlations were strong between beryllium in air and on work surfaces (r = 0.79), and between beryllium on cotton gloves and on work surfaces (0.86), necks (0.87) and faces (0.86). This study demonstrates that, even with the implementation of control measures to reduce skin contact with beryllium as part of a comprehensive workplace protection program, measurable levels of beryllium continue to reach the skin of workers in production and production support areas. Based on our current understanding of the multiple exposure pathways that may lead to sensitization, we support prudent control practices such as use of protective gloves to minimize skin exposure to beryllium salts and fine particles. PMID:16844720

Day, Gregory A; Dufresne, Andr; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Schuler, Christine R; Stanton, Marcia L; Miller, William E; Kent, Michael S; Deubner, David C; Kreiss, Kathleen; Hoover, Mark D

2007-01-01

256

Determination of Boron and Carbon in Reactor Grade Boron Carbide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sealed tube method of dissolution at high temperature and pressure has been successfully applied in the analysis of reactor grade boron carbide for the determination of boron. A 50 mg sample of boron carbide is completely dissolved by heating with con...

D. Crossley A. J. Wood C. A. J. McInnes I. G. Jones

1978-01-01

257

Thick beryllium coatings by magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

Thick (>150 {micro}m) beryllium coatings are studied as an ablator material of interest for fusion fuel capsules for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). As an added complication, the coatings are deposited on mm-scale spherical substrates, as opposed to flats. DC magnetron sputtering is used because of the relative controllability of the processing temperature and energy of the deposits. We used ultra small angle x-ray spectroscopy (USAXS) to characterize the void fraction and distribution along the spherical surface. We investigated the void structure using a combination focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results show a few volume percent of voids and a typical void diameter of less than two hundred nanometers. Understanding how the stresses in the deposited material develop with thickness is important so that we can minimize film cracking and delamination. To that end, an in-situ multiple optical beam stress sensor (MOSS) was used to measure the stress behavior of thick Beryllium coatings on flat substrates as the material was being deposited. We will show how the film stress saturates with thickness and changes with pressure.

Wu, H; Nikroo, A; Youngblood, K; Moreno, K; Wu, D; Fuller, T; Alford, C; Hayes, J; Detor, A; Wong, M; Hamza, A; van Buuren, T; Chason, E

2011-04-14

258

Lithium doping of candidate fusion reactor alloys to simulate simultaneous helium and damage production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium and boron doping techniques are possibilities for simulating simultaneous helium production and displacement damage in bulk specimens of non-nickel bearing materials in fast fission reactors. Rapid solidification processing and powder metallurgy salt decomposition were investigated for the preparation of lithium doped alloys. For convenience, austenitic stainless steel was doped rather than non-nickel bearing alloys for which this technique is ultimately designed. Neutron autoradiography verified a uniform distribution of lithium in the alloy. Although the same approach can be used to dope alloys uniformly with a stable boron compound, thus reducing the problem of grain boundary segregation and coarsening, the use of lithium doping should be an advantage because this dopant produces only helium and hydrogen when irradiated in a fast fission reactor. These elements are also produced in materials in the CTR environment.

Megusar, J.; Harling, O. K.; Grant, N. J.

1983-04-01

259

Microstructure Analysis of Boron Nanotubes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction technique revealed boron nitride nanotube and nanoparticles in thin film boron nitride prepared by CVD method. Electron micrographs show single walled nanotubes containing these nonoparticles. The ...

E. Jelis S. Kerwien T. Chatterjee

2012-01-01

260

Boron incorporation into mullite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron-doped mullites were synthesized using aluminium nitrate-nonahydrate, tetraethoxysilane and boric acid in a sol gel process with subsequent annealing at 950 and 1300 C for five hours. Two different bulk compositions with constant Al2O3 contents (60 and 70 mol%, respectively) and varying SiO2 plus B2O3 contents were investigated. X-ray powder diffraction analyses yielded a linear decrease of the lattice parameters with increasing bulk B2O3 content, which was interpreted as to be due to boron incorporation. Related to the increasing boron content, corresponding infrared spectra revealed a slight and continuous shift for most of the absorption bands. These data show that mullite is able to incorporate large amounts of boron into its structure (up to about 20 mol% B2O3 depending on the bulk composition of the starting materials). Infrared analyses suggest that boron is incorporated into the mullite structure in form of planar three-fold coordinated BO3 groups.

Griesser, K. J.; Beran, A.; Voll, D.; Schneider, H.

2008-03-01

261

Sarcoidosis and chronic beryllium disease: similarities and differences.  

PubMed

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disease that may be pathologically and clinically indistinguishable from pulmonary sarcoidosis, except through use of immunologic testing, such as the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). Similar to sarcoidosis, the pulmonary manifestations of CBD are variable and overlap with other respiratory diseases. Definitive diagnosis of CBD is established by evidence of immune sensitization to beryllium and diagnostic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy. However, the diagnosis of CBD can also be established on a medically probable basis in beryllium-exposed patients with consistent radiographic imaging and clinical course. Beryllium workers exposed too much higher levels of beryllium in the past demonstrated a much more fulminant disease than is usually seen today. Some extrapulmonary manifestations similar to sarcoidosis were noted in these historic cohorts, although with a narrower spectrum. Extrapulmonary manifestations of CBD are rare today. Since lung-predominant sarcoidosis can very closely resemble CBD, CBD is still misdiagnosed as sarcoidosis when current or past exposure to beryllium is not recognized and no BeLPT is obtained. This article describes the similarities and differences between CBD and sarcoidosis, including clinical and diagnostic features that can help physicians consider CBD in patients with apparent lung-predominant sarcoidosis. PMID:25007084

Mayer, Annyce S; Hamzeh, Nabeel; Maier, Lisa A

2014-06-01

262

Boron-Based Layered Structures for Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

Based on Density Functional Theory simulations, we have studied the boron-based graphite-like materials, i.e., LiBC and MgB2 for energy storage. First, when half of the Li-ions in the LiBC are removed, the BC layered structure is still preserved. The Li intercalation potential (equilibrium lithium-insertion voltage of 2.3-2.4 V relative to lithium metal) is significantly higher than that in graphite, allowing Li0.5BC to function as a cathode material. The reversible electrochemical reaction, LiBC = Li0.5BC + 0.5Li, enables a specific energy density of 1088 Wh/kg and a volumetric energy density of 2463 Wh/L. Second, 75% of the Mg ions in MgB2 can be removed and reversibly inserted with the layered boron structures being preserved through an in-plane topological transformation between the hexagonal lattice domains and triangular domains. The mechanism of such a charge-driven transformation originates from the versatile valence state of boron in its planar form.

Zhao, Y.; Wei, S. H.

2012-01-01

263

Minerals Yearbook: Lithium, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2006, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to be 2,500 metric tons (t) of contained lithium, the same as the estimate for 2005 and nearly 32% more than in 2004. The sources for these lithium compounds were a domestic lithium carbonate...

J. A. Ober

2006-01-01

264

Rechargeable lithium cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general object of this invention is to provide an improved rechargeable lithium cell. A more specific object of the invention is to provide a rechargeable lithium cell having an improved low temperature performance and rate capability. It has now been found that the aformentioned objects can be attained using lithium as the anode, a solution of a lithium salt

M. Salomon; E. J. Plichta

1984-01-01

265

Minerals Yearbook 1989: Lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States led the world in lithium mineral and compound production and consumption. Estimated consumption increased slightly, and world production also grew. Sales increased for domestic producers, who announced price increases for the third consecutive year. Because lithium is electrochemically reactive and has other unique properties, there are many commercial lithium products. Producers sold lithium as mineral concentrate, brine,

Ober

1989-01-01

266

Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium and aluminum windows  

SciTech Connect

An effort has been made to document the types of contamination which form on beryllium window surfaces due to interaction with a synchrotron radiation beam. Beryllium windows contaminated in a variety of ways (exposure to water and air) exhibited surface powders, gels, crystals and liquid droplets. These contaminants were analyzed by electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and wet chemical methods. Materials found on window surfaces include beryllium oxide, amorphous carbon, cuprous oxide, metallic copper and nitric acid. Aluminum window surface contaminants were also examined.

Gmur, N.F.

1987-06-01

267

Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force  

SciTech Connect

On December 8, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) published Title 10 CFR 850 (hereafter referred to as the Rule) to establish a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) to: {sm_bullet} reduce the number of workers currently exposed to beryllium in the course of their work at DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors, {sm_bullet} minimize the levels of, and potential for, expos exposure to beryllium, and {sm_bullet} establish medical surveillance requirements to ensure early detection of the disease.

MacQueen, D H

2007-02-21

268

A Novel Biomarker for Beryllium Sensitization in Humans - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This research project will determine the T-cell receptor (TCR) gene usages of beryllium reactive T-lymphocytes isolated directly from the peripheral blood of individuals exposed at a U.S. Department of Energy site. The objective is to develop a sensitive and novel biomarker for identifying early human sensitization to environmental beryllium. This is a collaborative project involving the Genetics Laboratory of the University of Vermont and both the Center for Epidemiological Research and the scientific staff of the Cytogenetics Program at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). The > 2000 beryllium exposed workers who have been contacted for participation in the ORISE study ''Follow-up of Beryllium Workers at the Y-12 Plant/Efficacy of the Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Proliferation (LPT) and other Non-Invasive Procedures for Diagnosis of Chronic Beryllium Disease'' will provide the pool of potential participants for the proposed study. Beryllium reactive T-lymphocytes will be directly isolated from peripheral blood using a novel antigen-independent method of surrogate selection for in vivo arising hprt mutants as representatives of clones that are undergoing chronic proliferation. The T-cells undergoing chronic proliferation in beryllium sensitized individuals will be enriched for beryllium reactive cells. The TCR gene usage of these T-cell isolates will be determined and their junctional (CDR3) regions sequenced. Beryllium reactive T-cell clones will also be recovered following in vitro beryllium stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes from these same individuals and the TCR gene CDR3 region sequences similarly determined. The TCR genes used by the beryllium reactive isolates and their CRD3 region sequences will be compared within (in vivo vs. in vitro derived) and among individuals with attention to kinds and durations of beryllium exposure and HPA DPB Glu 69 status. A method for quantitating total body loads of these antigen reactive T-cells in individuals will be developed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) amplification of specific TCR gene sequences. Successful achievement of this overall objective will permit future studies aimed at the elucidation of the immunological mechanisms underlying sensitization, the comparison of cells involved in pulmonary and systemic sensitization and the definition of potential targets for immunotherapy.

Albertini, R. J.

2001-04-16

269

Spectrochemical Analyses of Coal Ash for Trace Elements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spectrochemical analyses were made of ash from 827 U.S. commercial coals for barium, beryllium, boron, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, germanium, lanthanum, lead, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, scandium, strontium, tin, vanadium, ytterbium, yt...

R. F. Abernethy M. J. Peterson F. H. Gibson

1969-01-01

270

Measurement of Beryllium in Biological Samples by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry: Applications for Studying Chronic Beryllium Disease  

SciTech Connect

A method using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has been developed for quantifying attomoles of beryllium (Be) in biological samples. This method provides the sensitivity to trace Be in biological samples at very low doses with the purpose of identifying the molecular targets involved in chronic beryllium disease. Proof of the method was tested by administering 0.001, 0.05, 0.5 and 5.0 {micro}g {sup 9}Be and {sup 10}Be by intraperitoneal injection to male mice and removing spleen, liver, femurs, blood, lung, and kidneys after 24 h exposure. These samples were prepared for AMS analysis by tissue digestion in nitric acid, followed by further organic oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and ammonium persulfate and lastly, precipitation of Be with ammonium hydroxide, and conversion to beryllium oxide at 800 C. The {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratio of the extracted beryllium oxide was measured by AMS and Be in the original sample was calculated. Results indicate that Be levels were dose-dependent in all tissues and the highest levels were measured in the spleen and liver. The measured {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios spanned 4 orders of magnitude, from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -14}, with a detection limit of 3.0 x 10{sup -14}, which is equivalent to 0.8 attomoles of {sup 10}Be. These results show that routine quantification of nanogram levels of Be in tissues is possible and that AMS is a sensitive method that can be used in biological studies to understand the molecular dosimetry of Be and mechanisms of toxicity.

Chiarappa-Zucca, M L; Finkel, R C; Martinelli, R E; McAninch, J E; Nelson, D O; Turtletaub, K W

2004-04-15

271

Lithium doping of 316 stainless steel to simulate irradiation damage in a fusion-reactor environment. Quarterly report, April 1, 1982June 30, 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium and boron doping techniques are possibilities for simulating simultaneous helium production and displacement damage in bulk specimens of non-nickel bearing materials such as ferritic steels when irradiated in fast-fission reactors. The rapid-solidification processing and powder-metallurgy salt-decomposition technique has been used to prepare lithium-doped austenitic stainless steel. Neutron autoradiography verified a uniform distribution of lithium in the alloy. Although the

Harling

1982-01-01

272

Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron  

SciTech Connect

U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position as a source of sodium borate products and boric acid exported to foreign markets. Supplementary U.S. imports of Turkish calcium borate and calcium-sodium borate ores, borax, and boric acid, primarily for various glass uses, continued.

Lyday, P.A.

1990-08-01

273

The effects of lithium counterdoping on radiation damage and annealing in n(+)p silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boron-doped silicon solar cells were counterdoped with lithium and the resultant n+p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. Lithium counterdoped cells exhibit significantly increased radiation resistance with considerable annealing occurring at 100? C; DLTS studies indicate that the annealing behavior is controlled by a single defect at Ev + 0.43 eV. It is concluded that the increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is due primarily to the interaction of lithium with oxygen, single vacancies and divacancies. It is speculated that the lithium-oxygen interaction is the most effective in contributing to the increased radiation resistance.

Weinberg, I.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C. K.

1984-01-01

274

Preparation and characterization of beryllium coatings  

SciTech Connect

The application of low Z coatings on various structurally strong components of a controlled thermonuclear tokamak fusion reactor is expected to reduce the plasma contamination and power loss. With this view, coatings of beryllium have been given on different substrates like (304 and 316) stainless steel, monel-400, molybdenum, copper, and graphite in a specially designed vacuum deposition unit employing physical vapor deposition technique, and its morphology studied as a function of deposition parameters such as substrate temperature, coating thickness, deposition rate, and angle of deposition. It has been characterized using various analytical techniques. Its morphology has been studied with the help of a scanning electron microscope. Coating adherence and hardness have been measured. Results obtained have been analyzed and discussed.

Dua, A.K.; Agarwala, R.P.; Desai, P.B.

1985-11-01

275

Preparation of selenium coatings onto beryllium foils  

SciTech Connect

A technique for preparing selenium films onto 50.8 microns thick beryllium foils is described. The selenium was deposited in vacuum from a resistance heated evaporation source. Profilometry measurements of the coatings indicate deposit thicknesses of 5.5, 12.9, 37.5, 49.8 and 74.5 microns. The control of deposition rate and of coating thickness was facilitated using a commercially available closed-loop programmable thin film controller. The x-ray transmission of the coated substrates was measured using a tritiated zirconium source. The transmissivities of the film/substrate combination are presented for the range of energies from 4 to 20 keV. 15 references, 3 figures.

Erikson, E.D.; Tassano, P.L.; Reiss, R.H.; Griggs, G.E.

1984-09-01

276

Stellar abundances of beryllium and CUBES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stellar abundances of beryllium are useful in different areas of astrophysics, including studies of the Galactic chemical evolution, of stellar evolution, and of the formation of globular clusters. Determining Be abundances in stars is, however, a challenging endeavor. The two Be II resonance lines useful for abundance analyses are in the near UV, a region strongly affected by atmospheric extinction. CUBES is a new spectrograph planned for the VLT that will be more sensitive than current instruments in the near UV spectral region. It will allow the observation of fainter stars, expanding the number of targets where Be abundances can be determined. Here, a brief review of stellar abundances of Be is presented together with a discussion of science cases for CUBES. In particular, preliminary simulations of CUBES spectra are presented, highlighting its possible impact in investigations of Be abundances of extremely metal-poor stars and of stars in globular clusters.

Smiljanic, R.

2014-04-01

277

Polarizabilities of the beryllium clock transition  

SciTech Connect

The polarizabilities of the three lowest states of the beryllium atom are determined from a large basis configuration interaction calculation. The polarizabilities of the 2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sup e} ground state (37.73a{sub 0}{sup 3}) and the 2s2p {sup 3}P{sub 0}{sup o} metastable state (39.04a{sub 0}{sup 3}) are found to be very similar in size and magnitude. This leads to an anomalously small blackbody radiation shift at 300 K of -0.018(4) Hz for the 2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sup e}-2s2p {sup 3}P{sub 0}{sup o} clock transition. Magic wavelengths for simultaneous trapping of the ground and metastable states are also computed.

Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia)

2010-11-15

278

Beryllium isotope geochemistry in tropical river basins  

SciTech Connect

The distributions of beryllium-9 and beryllium-10 in rivers within the Orinoco and Amazon basins have been examined to extend the understanding of their geochemical cycles and to develop their use both in geochronometry, and in studying erosional processes. Analyses of {sup 9}Be in dissolved and suspended material from rivers with a wide range of chemical compositions indicate that its geochemistry is primarily controlled by two major factors: (1) its abundance in the rocks of the watershed and (2) the extent of its adsorption onto particle surfaces. The relative importance of these parameters in individual rivers is determined by the extent of interaction with flood-plain sediments and the riverine pH. This understanding of {sup 9}Be geochemistry forms a basis for examination of the geochemical cycling of {sup 10}Be. In rivers which are dominated by interaction with sediments, the riverine concentration of dissolved {sup 10}Be is far lower than that in the incoming rainwater, indicating that a substantial proportion of it is retained within the soils of the basin or is adsorbed onto riverine particles. However, in acidic rivers in which the stable dissolved Be concentration is determined by the Be level in the rocks of the drainage basin, dissolved {sup 10}Be has essentially the same concentration as in precipitation. These observations imply that the soil column in such regions must be saturated with respect to {sup 10}Be, and that the ratio of the inventory to the flux does not represent an age, as may be the case in temperate latitudes, but rather a residence time.

Brown, E.T.; Edmond, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States)); Raisbeck, G.M.; Bourles, D.L.; Yiou, F. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay (France)); Measures, C.I. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (United States))

1992-04-01

279

Fundamentals of Combustion of Single Aluminum and Beryllium Particles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is a comparative examination of ignition and combustion characteristics of small (< 100-microns diameter) single aluminum and beryllium particles burning in gaseous environment of known composition and temperature. The compsrativ...

A. Macek

1966-01-01

280

Recent results on beryllium and beryllides in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, several research and development (R&D) programs of beryllium and its alloys for fusion reactor application have been conducted in Japan and the community of beryllium research has grown. In the R&D area of beryllium technology for a solid breeding blanket, a major subject is applications of beryllides, for which lifetime evaluation as neutron multiplier, impurity effect on irradiation behavior and recycling of irradiated materials are under investigation. As for neutron multiplier materials, recent R&D has focused on Be-Ti alloys based on Be 12Ti as an advanced option, because of their superior properties compared with beryllium metal in such respects as compatibility with structural materials and oxidation resistance at higher temperatures. In this paper, recent results on beryllide R&D in Japan are described.

Mishima, Y.; Yoshida, N.; Kawamura, H.; Ishida, K.; Hatano, Y.; Shibayama, T.; Munakata, K.; Sato, Y.; Uchida, M.; Tsuchiya, K.; Tanaka, S.

2007-08-01

281

The mechanical behavior of cross-rolled beryllium sheet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the failure of a conical section of the Insat C satellite during certification testing, the use of beryllium for payload structures, particularly in sheet product form, is being reevaluated. A test program was initiated to study the tensile, shear, and out-of-plane failure modes of beryllium cross-rolled sheet and to apply data to the development of an appropriate failure criterion. Tensile test results indicated that sanding the surface of beryllium sheet has no significant effect on yield strength but can produce a profound reduction in ultimate strength and results obtained by finite element analysis. Critical examination of these test results may contribute to the modification of a JSC policy for the use of beryllium in orbiter and payload structures.

Henkener, J. A.; Spiker, I. K.; Castner, W. L.

1992-01-01

282

64 FR 68854 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...provide change rooms or areas and hand washing and shower facilities for beryllium...requirement to provide change rooms, hand washing facilities, and showers be based...employers to provide shower and hand- washing facilities for workers...

1999-12-08

283

Beryllium based multilayers for normal incidence extreme ultraviolet reflectance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We report the experimental results of beryllium based multilayer mirrors for use in the 11.4 nm region. Mirrors using molybdenum as the high-Z material have demonstrated 68.7% peak reflectance at 11.3 nm.

K. Skulina C. Alford R. Bionta D. Makowiecki E. Gullikson

1994-01-01

284

Recovery of plutonium from plutonium-beryllium neutron sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the Los Alamos National Laboratory, plutonium-beryllium neutron sources have traditionally been processed for plutonium recovery by precipitating the plutonium as plutonium oxalate, calcining to plutonium dioxide, redissolving the oxide and then precip...

M. J. Palmer

1990-01-01

285

Development of Biomarkers for Chronic Beryllium Disease in Mice  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium is a strategic metal, indispensable for national defense programs in aerospace, telecommunications, electronics, and weaponry. Exposure to beryllium is an extensively documented occupational hazard that causes irreversible, debilitating granulomatous lung disease in as much as 3 - 5% of exposed workers. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships has been severely limited by a general lack of a sufficient CBD animal model. We have now developed and tested an animal model which can be used for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new diagnostic and treatment paradigms. We have created 3 strains of transgenic mice in which the human antigen-presenting moiety, HLA-DP, was inserted into the mouse genome. Each mouse strain contains HLA-DPB1 alleles that confer different magnitude of risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD): HLA-DPB1*0401 (odds ratio = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (odds ratio = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (odds ratio = 240). Our preliminary work has demonstrated that the *1701 allele, as predicted by human studies, results in the greatest degree of sensitization in a mouse ear swelling test. We have also completed dose-response experiments examining beryllium-induced lung granulomas and identified susceptible and resistant inbred strains of mice (without the human transgenes) as well as quantitative trait loci that may contain gene(s) that modify the immune response to beryllium. In this grant application, we propose to use the transgenic and ?normal inbred strains of mice to identify biomarkers for the progression of beryllium sensitization and CBD. To achieve this goal, we propose to compare the sensitivity and accuracy of the lymphocyte proliferation test (blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) with the ELISPOT test in the three HLA-DP transgenic mice strains throughout a 6 month treatment with beryllium particles. Because of the availability of high-throughput proteomics, we will also identify changes in potential protein biomarkers in beryllium-treated mice. We will correlate these findings with the ability of the transgenic mice to develop a beryllium-specific adaptive immune response in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. We will also determine whether beryllium-responsive CD4+ T cells in blood and BAL correlate with the onset of granuloma formation. Thus, we will provide the scientific community with biomarkers of sensitization and disease progression for CBD. These biomarkers will serve as critical tools for development of improved industrial hygiene and therapeutic interventions.

Gordon, Terry

2013-01-25

286

Lithium Ion Conductive Electrolyte Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A solid electrolyte for the lithium family of batteries is proposed which has a high lithium ion conductivity. It comprises a solid solution of lithium sulfate and lithium hydroxide. 3 figures. (ERA citation 02:048856)

H. Ikeda S. Narukawa

1977-01-01

287

Multiplication of 14MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment to measure the multiplication of 14-MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium has been completed. The experiment consisted of determining the ratio of [sup 56]Mn activities induced in a large manganese bath by a central 14-MeV neutron source, with and without a beryllium sample surrounding the source. The superior isotropy and flat energy response of the manganese bath gives this

J. R. Smith; J. J. King; J. W. Davidson; M. E. Battat

1993-01-01

288

PLUTONIUM-BERYLLIUM NEUTRON SOURCES THEIR FABRICATION AND THEIR YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigntion of the plutonium-beryllium phase diagram demonstrates ;\\u000a the suitability of these alloys and most particularly the intermetallic compound ;\\u000a PuBe for stable neutron sources. These sources are superior to polonium-;\\u000a beryllium sources in respect to sthbility of neutron yield as a iunction of time ;\\u000a and the prediotability of neutroc yield as a function of mass. The gamma-ray

R. E. Tate; A. S. Coffinberry

1958-01-01

289

Effects of Beryllium on Human Serum Immunoglobulin and Lymphocyte Subpopulation  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effects of short-term exposure of beryllium on the human immune system, the proportion of T-lymphocytes such as CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD95, and NK cells, andthe proportion of B cells and TNF? level in peripheral blood and immunoglobulins in the serum of 43 exposed workers and 34 healthy control subjects were studied. External exposure to beryllium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometer as recommended by the NIOSH analytical method 7300. T lymphocyte subpopulation analysis was carried out with flow cytometer. The working duration of exposed workers was less than 3 months and the mean ambient beryllium level was 3.4 ?g/m3, 112.3 ?g/m3, and 2.3 ?g/m3 in molding (furnace), deforming (grinding), and sorting processes, respectively (cited from Kim et al., 2008). However, ambient beryllium level after process change was non-detectable (< 0.1 ?g/m3). The number of T lymphocytes and the amount of immunoglobulins in the beryllium-exposed workers and control subjects were not significantly different, except for the total number of lymphocytes and CD95 (APO1/FAS). The total number of lymphocytes was higher in the beryllium-exposed individuals than in the healthy control subjects. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed lymphocytes to be affected by beryllium exposure (odd ratio = 7.293; p < 0.001). These results show that short-term exposure to beryllium does not induce immune dysfunction but is probably associated with lymphocytes proliferation.

Kim, DaeSeong; Won, Yong Lim; Kang, Seong-Kyu

2013-01-01

290

Work-hardening and effective viscosity in solid beryllium  

SciTech Connect

Results from Hopkinson split-bar, plate-impact, and cylinder deceleration experiments on beryllium are compared with hydrodynamic computer code simulations. By substantially increasing the beryllium work-hardening in the Steinberg-Guinan constitutive model, excellent agreement between the experiments and the calculations is achieved. A model to estimate effective viscosity is also proposed and the resultant calculations are in reasonable agreement with those derived from another model advanced by Asay, Chhabildas and Wise. 12 refs., 5 figs.

Steinberg, D.; Breithaupt, D.; Honodel, C.

1985-06-01

291

Modulation of Lymphocyte Proliferation by Antioxidants in Chronic Beryllium Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Occupational exposure to beryllium (Be) can result in chronic granulomatous inflammation characterized by the presence of Be-specific CD41 T cells. Studies show that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disorders. Objectives: We hypothesized that Be-induced oxidative stress mod- ulates the proliferation of Be-specific CD41 T cells. Methods: Thirty-three subjects with chronic beryllium disease (CBD),

Dave R. Dobis; Richard T. Sawyer; May M. Gillespie; Jie Huang; Lee S. Newman; Lisa A. Maier; Brian J. Day

2008-01-01

292

A DFT study of dodecahedral beryllium silicide cage clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density functional theory calculations have been conducted on 20- and 32-atom dodecahedral and face-capped dodecahedral cage clusters of beryllium and silicon. Stable Be24Si8, Be12Si8 and Be12Si20 cages are described, as is a stuffed cluster consisting of dodecahedral Si20 with an endohedral icosahedral Be12. Especial stability is associated with clusters in which faces are capped by silicon atoms, acting as electron donors to beryllium atoms.

Fioressi, Silvina; Bacelo, Daniel E.; Binning, R. C.

2012-06-01

293

Plasma boron and the effects of boron supplementation in males.  

PubMed Central

Recently, a proliferation of athletic supplements has been marketed touting boron as an ergogenic aid capable of increasing testosterone. The effect of boron supplementation was investigated in male bodybuilders. Ten male bodybuilders (aged 20 to 26) were given a 2.5-mg boron supplement, while nine male bodybuilders (aged 21 to 27) were given a placebo for 7 weeks. Plasma total and free testosterone, plasma boron, lean body mass, and strength measurements were determined on day 1 and day 49 of the study. A microwave digestion procedure followed by inductively coupled argon plasma spectroscopy was used for boron determination. Twelve subjects had boron values at or above the detection limit with median value of 25 ng/ml (16 ng/ml lower quartile and 33 ng/ml upper quartile). Of the ten subjects receiving boron supplements, six had an increase in their plasma boron. Analysis of variance indicated no significant effect of boron supplementation on any of the other dependent variables. Both groups demonstrated significant increases in total testosterone (p < 0.01), lean body mass (p < 0.01), and one repetition maximum (RM) squat (p < 0.001) and one RM bench press (p < 0.01). The findings suggest that 7 weeks of bodybuilding can increase total testosterone, lean body mass, and strength in lesser-trained bodybuilders, but boron supplementation affects these variables not at all.

Green, N R; Ferrando, A A

1994-01-01

294

Pulmonary function in beryllium workers: assessment of exposure.  

PubMed Central

The inhalation of beryllium causes a serious lung disease characterised by pronounced radiographic and functional impairments and occurs in workers engaged in the extraction and manufacture of the metal. This paper describes the beryllium exposure levels and refining processes in a large beryllium factory operating since the 1930s. Lifetime beryllium exposure histories were estimated for the 309 workers present at a health survey conducted in 1977. Beryllium exposure levels in the plant were high for many years, with some estimated exposure levels in excess of 100 micrograms/m3. As late as 1975, there were exposures to beryllium above 10 micrograms/m3 in some jobs. After about 1977, the plant was in compliance with the permissible exposure limit of 2.0 micrograms/m3. The median cumulative exposure in this cohort was 65 micrograms/m3-years and the median duration of exposure was 17 years. From these data a series of exposure parameters, functions of the exposure histories that characterise biologically important dimensions of exposure were calculated for each worker.

Kriebel, D; Sprince, N L; Eisen, E A; Greaves, I A

1988-01-01

295

Beryllium pressure vessels for creep tests in magnetic fusion energy  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium has interesting applications in magnetic fusion experimental machines and future power-producing fusion reactors. Chief among the properties of beryllium that make these applications possible is its ability to act as a neutron multiplier, thereby increasing the tritium breeding ability of energy conversion blankets. Another property, the behavior of beryllium in a 14-MeV neutron environment, has not been fully investigated, nor has the creep behavior of beryllium been studied in an energetic neutron flux at thermodynamically interesting temperatures. This small beryllium pressure vessel could be charged with gas to test pressures around 3, 000 psi to produce stress in the metal of 15,000 to 20,000 psi. Such stress levels are typical of those that might be reached in fusion blanket applications of beryllium. After contacting R. Powell at HEDL about including some of the pressure vessels in future test programs, we sent one sample pressure vessel with a pressurizing tube attached (Fig. 1) for burst tests so the quality of the diffusion bond joints could be evaluated. The gas used was helium. Unfortunately, budget restrictions did not permit us to proceed in the creep test program. The purpose of this engineering note is to document the lessons learned to date, including photographs of the test pressure vessel that show the tooling necessary to satisfactorily produce the diffusion bonds. This document can serve as a starting point for those engineers who resume this task when funds become available.

Neef, W.S.

1990-07-20

296

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain claimants...Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.615 What type of...filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain...

2010-04-01

297

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain claimants...Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.615 What type of...filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain...

2009-04-01

298

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain claimants...Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.615 What type of...filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain...

2013-04-01

299

Synthesis of hexagonal boron nitride graphene-like few layers.  

PubMed

Self-standing highly crystallized hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) mono-, bi- and few-layers have been obtained for the first time via the Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route by adding lithium nitride (Li3N) micropowders to liquid-state polyborazylene (PBN). Incorporation of Li3N as a crystallization promoter allows the onset of crystallization of h-BN at a lower temperature (1200 C) than under classical conditions (1800 C). The hexagonal structure was confirmed by both electron and X-ray diffraction. PMID:24914881

Yuan, S; Toury, B; Journet, C; Brioude, A

2014-06-26

300

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1983-01-01

301

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1982-02-09

302

Low energy Auger transitions of boron in several boron compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron KVV Auger spectra of B4C, BN, and B2O3 are compared with that of pure boron. The observed characteristic changes in the low energy features of the spectra are shown to be dependent on the compound partner of boron, which supplies extra decay channels. The main features of the Auger multiplet can be described in terms of an interatomic transition

G. Hanke; K. Mueller

1984-01-01

303

Electrochemical performance of low temperature fluorinated graphites used as cathode in primary lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study highlights the electrochemical performance of two series of fluorinated graphites used as the cathode in primary lithium batteries. These compounds were prepared under fluorine gas at room temperature using a catalytic atmosphere made of boron or chlorine fluoride, and then thermally treated between 100 and 600C. The electrochemical properties are correlated to a complete physico-chemical characterization, already

C. Delabarre; M. Dubois; J. Giraudet; K. Gurin; A. Hamwi

2006-01-01

304

Electrochemical lithium extraction from ?-lithium nitride  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report the electrochemical characterization of mixtures of ball-milled lithium nitride and iron metal. Several samples were prepared with different lithium nitride to iron molar ratios. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra showed the presence of iron metal in all the samples and ?-lithium nitride in the samples with higher Li3N\\/Fe ratio. No evidence of other phases was detected.

Pier Paolo Prosini; Francesco Cardellini

2002-01-01

305

Beryllium-induced TNF-alpha production is transcription-dependent in chronic beryllium disease.  

PubMed

Beryllium (Be)-antigen presentation to Be-specific CD4(+) T cells from the lungs of patients with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) results in T cell proliferation and TNF-alpha secretion. We tested the hypothesis that Be-induced, CBD bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) T cell, transcription-dependent, TNF-alpha secretion was accompanied by specific transcription factor upregulation. After 6 h of Be stimulation, CBD BAL cells produced a median of 883 pg/ml TNF-alpha (range, 608-1,275 pg/ml) versus 198 pg/ml (range, 116-245 pg/ml) by unstimulated cells. After 12 h CBD BAL cells produced a median of 2,963 pg/ml (range, 99-9,424 pg/ml) TNF-alpha versus 55 pg/ml (range, 0-454) by unstimulated cells. Using real-time RT-PCR, Be-stimulated TNF-alpha production at 6 h was preceded by a 5-fold increase in TNF-alpha pre-mRNA copy number:beta-actin copy number (Be median ratio 0.21; unstimulated median ratio 0.04). The median ratio of mature TNF-alpha mRNA:beta-actin mRNA was upregulated 1.4-fold (Be median ratio 0.17; unstimulated median ratio 0.12). Be exposure in the presence of the transcription inhibitor pentoxifylline (PTX) decreased CBD BAL cell TNF-alpha pre-mRNA levels > 60%, whereas treatment with the mRNA splicing inhibitor 2-aminopurine (2AP) decreased levels 40% relative to Be exposure alone. PTX treatment decreased mature TNF-alpha mRNA levels 50% while 2AP decreased levels > 80%, relative to Be exposure alone. Beryllium exposure specifically upregulated transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kappaB. The data suggest that Be exposure induces transcription-dependent TNF-alpha production, potentially due to upregulation of specific transcription factors. PMID:16980557

Sawyer, Richard T; Fontenot, Andrew P; Barnes, Tristan A; Parsons, Charles E; Tooker, Brian C; Maier, Lisa A; Gillespie, May M; Gottschall, E Brigitte; Silveira, Lori; Hagman, James; Newman, Lee S

2007-02-01

306

Testing of Liquid Lithium Limiters in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect

Part of the development of liquid metals as a first wall or divertor for reactor applications must involve the investigation of plasma-liquid metal interactions in a functioning tokamak. Most of the interest in liquid-metal walls has focused on lithium. Experiments with lithium limiters have now been conducted in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) device at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Initial experiments used a liquid-lithium rail limiter (L3) built by the University of California at San Diego. Spectroscopic measurements showed some reduction of impurities in CDX-U plasmas with the L3, compared to discharges with a boron carbide limiter. While no reduction in recycling was observed with the L3, which had a plasma-wet area of approximately 40 cm2, subsequent experiments with a larger area fully toroidal lithium limiter demonstrated significant reductions in both recycling and in impurity levels. Two series of experiments with the toroidal limiter have now be en performed. In each series, the area of exposed, clean lithium was increased, until in the latest experiments the liquid-lithium plasma-facing area was increased to 2000 cm2. Under these conditions, the reduction in recycling required a factor of eight increase in gas fueling in order to maintain the plasma density. The loop voltage required to sustain the plasma current was reduced from 2 V to 0.5 V. This paper summarizes the technical preparations for lithium experiments and the conditioning required to prepare the lithium surface for plasma operations. The mechanical response of the liquid metal to induced currents, especially through contact with the plasma, is discussed. The effect of the lithium-filled toroidal limiter on plasma performance is also briefly described.

R. Majeski; R. Kaita; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; T. Gray; B. Jones; D. Hoffman; H. Kugel; J. Menard; T. Munsat; A. Post-Zwicker; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; R. Maingi; M. Maiorano; S. Smith; D. Rodgers

2004-07-30

307

Boron based complex wear-resistant coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying boron, boron-copper, and boron-nickel diffusion coatings to die steels, as well as the microhardness, microbrittleness\\u000a and wear resistance of the steels with the coatings are considered.

Yu. A. Balandin

2006-01-01

308

Boronizing protects metals against wear  

SciTech Connect

Boronizing is a thermochemical surface treatment that involves diffusion of boron into a base metal at a high temperature. The resulting metallic boride provides high hardness and resistance to acid corrosion, and lengthens service life by a factor of three to ten. Boronizing fills a gap between conventional surface treatments and the more exotic chemical and physical vapor deposition. In a number of applications, boronizing has replaced such processes as carburizing, nitriding, and nitrocarburizing. It has even replaced hard chrome plating in some cases, while achieving similar service life improvements. Boron can be uniformly applied to irregular surfaces, and can be applied to specific areas of a surface. It is also suitable for high-volume production applications, as first demonstrated in the European automotive industry. This article describes the boronizing process, provides material selection/preparation criteria, and lists industrial applications.

Stewart, K. [Lindberg Heat Treating Co., Rochester, NY (United States)

1997-03-01

309

Complexation of thorium and beryllium with xylenol orange  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of thorium and beryllium with Xylenol Orange, which was purified by gel filtration on Molselect G-10, has been studied. Thorium forms a complex with a component ratio M:R = 2:1, = (1.11 +/- 0.02).10/sup 5/, and K/sub st/ = (3.25 +/- 0.89)/sup ./ 10/sup 13/ at pH 2 and a complex with a 1:1 component ratio and = (6.9 +/- 0.1).10/sup 4/ at pH 4. Beryllium forms a complex with a component ratio M:R = 1:1, = (3.6 +/- 0.1)/sup ./ 10/sup 4/, and K/sub st/ = (1.65 + or - 0.06)/sup ./ 10/sup 13/. For both thorium complexes lambda/sub max/ = 565 NM, and for the beryllium complex lambda/sub max/ = 475 nm. The study of the reaction mechanism has shown that the thorium complex with M:R = 2:1 forms when thorium in the form of Th/sup 4 +/ and the reagent in the form of H/sub 5/R/sup -/ interact. In the case of beryllium, the complex forms between BeOH/sup +/ and H/sub 3/R/sup 3 -/. Acetates have little influence on the formation of the thorium complex and a strong influence on the formation of the beryllium complex. Beer's law holds up to thorium and beryllium concentrations equal to 5 x 10/sup -5/ M when the concentration of Xylenol Orange is equal to 6 x 10/sup -5/M. Fluorides, citrates, tartrates, and EDTA interfere with the formation of the complexes of thorium and beryllium with Xylenol Orange.

Tikhonov, V.N.; Smirnova, S.N.

1986-10-01

310

Characterization Lithium Mineralized Pegmatite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium economic importance has increased in the last years. In Brazil its reserves, generally pegmatites bodies, are found in Itinga-Aracuai-MG. This study of characterization belongs to a global plan of lithium mineralized bodies research of 'Arqueana d...

E. F. S. Pereira O. Luz Ferreira R. Z. L. Cancado J. Mauricio Neto

1986-01-01

311

Navy Lithium Battery Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium batteries are electrochemical reactors that transform chemical energy into electrical energy on demand. Lithium metal batteries were first marketed in early 1970, primarily for military use. They have a very high gravimetric and volumetric energy ...

C. Batchelor J. Dow

2010-01-01

312

Lithium Combustion: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This review deals with the chemical reactions, ignition, and combustion of lithium combustion in air and in the components of air, including oxygen, nitrogen, water, and carbon dioxide. It was found that lithium reacts vigorously with these substances. In...

R. A. Rhein

1990-01-01

313

Boron nitride nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful synthesis of pure boron nitride (BN) nanotubes is reported here. Multi-walled tubes with inner diameters on the order of 1 to 3 nanometers and with lengths up to 200 nanometers were produced in a carbon-free plasma discharge between a BN-packed tungsten rod and a cooled copper electrode. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy on individual tubes yielded B:N ratios of approximately

N. G. Chopra; R. J. Luyken; K. Cherrey; V. H. Crespi; M. L. Cohen; S. G. Louie; A. Zettl

1995-01-01

314

Lithium experiment on solar neutrinos to weight the CNO cycle  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of the flux of beryllium neutrinos with an accuracy of about 10% and CNO neutrinos with an accuracy of 20-30% will enable one to find the flux of pp neutrinos in the source with an accuracy better than 1% using the luminosity constraint. The future experiments on {nu}e{sup -} scattering will enable one to measure with very good accuracy the flux of beryllium and pp neutrinos on the Earth. The ratio of the flux of pp neutrinos on the Earth and in the source will enable one to find with very good accuracy a mixing angle {theta}{sub {center_dot}}. A lithium detector has high sensitivity to CNO neutrinos and can find the contribution of the CNO cycle to the energy generated in the Sun. This will be a stringent test of the theory of stellar evolution and combined with other experiments will provide a precise determination of the flux of pp neutrinos in the source and a mixing angle {theta}{sub {center_dot}}. The work on the development of the technology of a lithium experiment is now in progress.

Kopylov, A.V.; Orekhov, I.V.; Petukhov, V.V.; Solomatin, A.E. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Shestidesyatiletiya Oktyabrya 7a, Moscow, 117312 (Russian Federation); Arnoldov, M.N. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

2004-06-01

315

Lithium nephrotoxicity revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium is widely used to treat bipolar disorder. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is the most common adverse effect of lithium and occurs in up to 40% of patients. Renal lithium toxicity is characterized by increased water and sodium diuresis, which can result in mild dehydration, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and renal tubular acidosis. The concentrating defect and natriuretic effect develop within

Bernard C. Rossier; Jean-Pierre Grnfeld

2009-01-01

316

LITHIUM BATTERY SPACE EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The In-Space Technology Experiments Program seleoted the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to conduct a Phase A study of the Lithium Battery Fxperirnent. The experiment will mark the first time a rechargeable lithium battery will be flown in space. The operation of the batlery irrvofves lithium deposition and dissolution processes. Micro gravity influences these processes significantly. The experiment will check the rate

Artur B. Chmlelewski; Subbarao Surampudl; Richard Bennett; Harvey Frank; Robert Mueller

317

Experimental lithium system experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Experimental Lithium System is a test loop built to support design and operation of the Fusion Test Facility. ELS has achieved over 15,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program has demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including an electromagnetic pump, lithium jet target, and vacuum system. Data on materials corrosion and behavior of lithium

J. M. Atwood; J. D. Berg; R. Kolowith; W. C. Miller

1983-01-01

318

Lithium composite anode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of manufacturing a lithium composite anode for thermal batteries comprising the steps of: preparing a homogeneous lithium alloy; grinding the alloy into a powder; melting elemental lithium onto the surface of the powder to form a uniform heterogenous mixture; cooling the mixture to ambient to form an ingot; and configuring the ingot into an anode.

G. E. McManis; A. N. Fletcher; D. E. Bliss

1986-01-01

319

40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20...

2013-07-01

320

The structure, properties and performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium for fusion applications  

SciTech Connect

Plasma-spray technology is under investigation as a method for producing high thermal conductivity beryllium coatings for use in magnetic fusion applications. Recent investigations have focused on optimizing the plasma-spray process for depositing beryllium coatings on damaged beryllium surfaces. Of particular interest has been optimizing the processing parameters to maximize the through-thickness thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. Experimental results will be reported on the use of secondary H{sub 2} gas additions to improve the melting of the beryllium powder and transferred-arc cleaning to improve the bonding between the beryllium coatings and the underlying surface. Information will also be presented on thermal fatigue tests which were done on beryllium coated ISX-B beryllium limiter tiles using 10 sec cycle times with 60 sec cooldowns and an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) relevant divertor heat flux slightly in excess of 5 MW/m{sup 2}.

Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E. [and others

1995-09-01

321

Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project  

SciTech Connect

This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

2010-10-01

322

Detection of Neutrons Liberated from Beryllium by Gamma Rays: a New Technique for Inducing Radioactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed that a radiation emitted from beryllium under the influence of radium gamma rays excites induced radioactivity in iodine, and we conclude that neutrons are liberated from beryllium by gamma rays.

Leo Szilard; T. A. Chalmers

1934-01-01

323

Uniaxial Shocks in Beryllium from Titanium Impactors: Pre-Shot Calculations for Experiments at Z.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This note records work perfomred to predict shock propagation in the Z experiemtns intended to measure melt in beryllium using a titanium flyer, by observing details of the structure of the rarefaction wave reaching the interface between the beryllium and...

D. C. Swift

2000-01-01

324

40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What General Provisions apply to...

2013-07-01

325

Identification of beryllium-dependent peptides recognized by CD4+ T cells in chronic beryllium disease.  

PubMed

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous disorder characterized by an influx of beryllium (Be)-specific CD4? T cells into the lung. The vast majority of these T cells recognize Be in an HLA-DPrestricted manner, and peptide is required for T cell recognition. However, the peptides that stimulate Be-specific T cells are unknown. Using positional scanning libraries and fibroblasts expressing HLA-DP2, the most prevalent HLA-DP molecule linked to disease, we identified mimotopes and endogenous self-peptides that bind to MHCII and Be, forming a complex recognized by pathogenic CD4? T cells in CBD. These peptides possess aspartic and glutamic acid residues at p4 and p7, respectively, that surround the putative Be-binding site and cooperate with HLA-DP2 in Be coordination. Endogenous plexin A peptides and proteins, which share the core motif and are expressed in lung, also stimulate these TCRs. Be-loaded HLA-DP2mimotope and HLA-DP2plexin A4 tetramers detected high frequencies of CD4? T cells specific for these ligands in all HLADP2+ CBD patients tested. Thus, our findings identify the first ligand for a CD4? T cell involved in metal-induced hypersensitivity and suggest a unique role of these peptides in metal ion coordination and the generation of a common antigen specificity in CBD. PMID:23797096

Falta, Michael T; Pinilla, Clemencia; Mack, Douglas G; Tinega, Alex N; Crawford, Frances; Giulianotti, Marc; Santos, Radleigh; Clayton, Gina M; Wang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xuewu; Maier, Lisa A; Marrack, Philippa; Kappler, John W; Fontenot, Andrew P

2013-07-01

326

A Pentafluorophenylboron Oxalate Additive in Non-aqueous Electrolytes 3 for Lithium Batteries  

SciTech Connect

A novel compound named pentafluorophenylboron oxalate (PFPBO) has been synthesized. PFPBO has a unique molecular structure containing a boron atom center with electron deficiency and an oxalate group. It is found that when PFPBO is used as additive, the solubility of lithium fluoride (LiF) or lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in propylene carbonate (PC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) solvents can be increased dramatically. The new electrolytes show high ionic conductivity, high lithium ion transference number and good compatibility with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode and MCMB anode. PFPBO was synthesized with the designed structure to act as a bi-functional additive: boron-based anion receptor (BBAR) additive and stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation additive in PC-based electrolytes. The results show it does possess these two desired functionalities.

Yang, X.Q.; Li, L.F.; Lee, H.S.; Li, H.; Huang, X.J.

2009-12-01

327

Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers.

Ulrickson, M.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manly, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

1995-08-01

328

Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes for Lithium Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li(sub (2+2x)/(2+x))M'(sub 2x/(2+x))M(sub (2-2x)/(2+x))O(sub 2-delta), in which 0 < or = x < 1 and delta is less than 0....

C. S. Johnson K. Amine M. M. Thackeray S. H. Kang

2006-01-01

329

Lithium use in batteries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

Goonan, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

330

Diamond ultraviolet photovoltaic cell obtained by lithium and boron doping  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline high quality freestanding 300-{mu}m-thick diamond films were doped by diffusion of B and Li under electric bias in order to fabricate vertical p-n junctions. Circular contacts were obtained by high dose ion implantation of B and Li. The I{endash}V characteristics were rectifying. When illuminated by deuterium lamp, an open circuit voltage was 2.6 eV. The shape of the I{endash}V characteristic under illumination points to the existence of shunt and series resistances. The obtained structure is most probably a p-n junction with bad contacts. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Popovici, G. [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)] [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Melnikov, A.; Varichenko, V.V. [Physics Department, Minsk State University, Minsk (Belarus)] [Physics Department, Minsk State University, Minsk (Belarus); Sung, T.; Prelas, M.A. [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)] [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Wilson, R.G. [Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, California 90265 (United States)] [Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, California 90265 (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Particulate Systems Research Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)] [Particulate Systems Research Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

1997-03-01

331

Tritium migration in the materials proposed for fusion reactors: Li2TiO3 and beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of tritium and helium gas release from lithium ceramics samples Li2TiO3 irradiated at the WWR-K reactor (Almaty, Kazakhstan) and from beryllium samples irradiated at the BN-350 reactor (Aktau, Kazakhstan) and the IVG.1M reactor (Kurchatov, Kazakhstan) are presented. Experimentally obtained thermal desorption (TDS) spectra have shown that the dependence of tritium release from lithium ceramics has a complicated behavior and to a large extent depends on lithium ceramics type. Nevertheless, it was found that the total amount of tritium released from all types of lithium ceramics has the same order of magnitude, equal to about 1011 Bq/kg. It was found that in the temperature range from 523 K to 1373 K the process of tritium release from lithium ceramics involves volume diffusion and thermoactivated tritium release from the accumulation centers generated under irradiation. TDS of beryllium samples enables us to obtain characteristics of tritium and helium release during linear heating, to determine integrated quantities of generated helium and tritium, and to determine parameters of release processes. The range of operating temperatures from 303 K to 1773 K; The pressure in the operating volume of the chamber 10-5 Pa; The accuracy in automatic temperature maintenance with respect to given temperature 0.5 K. The experiments were carried out as follows: the sample was loaded into the crucible of the operating chamber. Then the sample was degassed at 423 K with constant pumping for 4 h. After that the sample was cooled to room temperature and the sample heating experiment was carried out. Each of the samples was heated linearly to 1523 K examining the released gases having mass numbers 2 (?2), 3 (3??), 4 (4?? + ??), 6 (?2), 18 (?2?), 20 (HTO) and 22 (?2?). The rate of linear heating ranged from 5 K/min to 20 K/min. It was taken into account that the total tritium quantity is formed by values of peaks respective to 6 and 3 mass numbers. And according to standard interpretation of spectra relative to the deposition for tritium total quantity - M6 makes 95% and M3 makes 5%, which means that M3 is formed only by 3He at missing of M6 peak.It should be noted that the experimental device for TDS studies is small (the volume of the measuring chamber and all gas paths to the mass spectrometer is 3 l at the most). The assembly is equipped with a pump with a capacity of 100 l/s. Calibration experiments using helium and hydrogen pumping did not show any substantial delay in detection of gases with different mass numbers, caused by different rates of transportation from the place of gas measurement. The observed detection delay was less than 0.1 s. The majority of helium is released from samples of DV-56 in the high temperature region. For samples of TShG-200 helium released in the high-temperature region is about 50% of the total release. For samples of DV-56 (irradiated to higher doses than samples of TShG-200 with a higher amount of generated tritium), tritium is released in the high temperature range as T2 (60%), HTO and T2O (30%). For samples of TShG-200 tritium is released in low temperature region as HTO and T2O. In the high temperature range the overall allocation of tritium as T2 from TShG-200 samples increases from 5% to 25%. Tritium release in the form of tritium water is caused by the tritium-oxygen (beryllium oxide) reaction. We suppose that it can have a complicated mechanism: for example, in case of direct chemical interaction of tritium with beryllium oxide (or beryllium hydroxide forming HTO) or tritium-beryllium oxide decay. This mechanism is not fully understood, which is why we have not analyzed the dependences of tritium water flux obtained in the TDS experiments. The questions of the importance of sample exposure and its influence on tritium conditions in beryllium require further explanation. For samples of DV-56 the exposure is about 17 years. The dependence of T2 release were considered in diffusion coefficient estimations.Tri

Kulsartov, T. V.; Gordienko, Yu. N.; Tazhibayeva, I. L.; Kenzhin, E. A.; Barsukov, N. I.; Sadvakasova, A. O.; Kulsartova, A. V.; Zaurbekova, Zh. A.

2013-11-01

332

Boron isotopic compositions of some boron minerals  

SciTech Connect

Boron minerals that have different structural formulae but are supposed to have the same geologic origin have been collected and analyzed for the {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B isotopic ratio. It has been reconfirmed that minerals of marine origin have higher {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B ratios than those of nonmarine origin. It has been found that the sequence of decreasing {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B values among the minerals with the same geologic origin is; borax, tincal, kernite (Na borates) > ulexite (Na/Ca borate) > colemanite, iyoite, meyerhofferite (Ca borates). This sequence is explainable on the basis of the difference in crystal structure among the minerals. That is, minerals with high BO{sub 3}/BO{sub 4} ratios, (the ratio of the number of the BO{sub 3} triangle units to the number of the BO{sub 4} tetrahedron units in the structural formula of a mineral) have higher {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B ratios.

Oi, Takao; Musashi, Masaaki; Ossaka, Tomoko; Kakihana, Hidetake (Sophia Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Nomura, Masao; Okamoto, Makoto (Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan))

1989-12-01

333

Skin as a route of exposure and sensitization in chronic beryllium disease.  

PubMed Central

Chronic beryllium disease is an occupational lung disease that begins as a cell-mediated immune response to beryllium. Although respiratory and engineering controls have significantly decreased occupational beryllium exposures over the last decade, the rate of beryllium sensitization has not declined. We hypothesized that skin exposure to beryllium particles would provide an alternative route for sensitization to this metal. We employed optical scanning laser confocal microscopy and size-selected fluorospheres to demonstrate that 0.5- and 1.0- micro m particles, in conjunction with motion, as at the wrist, penetrate the stratum corneum of human skin and reach the epidermis and, occasionally, the dermis. The cutaneous immune response to chemical sensitizers is initiated in the skin, matures in the local lymph node (LN), and releases hapten-specific T cells into the peripheral blood. Topical application of beryllium to C3H mice generated beryllium-specific sensitization that was documented by peripheral blood and LN beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests (BeLPT) and by changes in LN T-cell activation markers, increased expression of CD44, and decreased CD62L. In a sensitization-challenge treatment paradigm, epicutaneous beryllium increased murine ear thickness following chemical challenge. These data are consistent with development of a hapten-specific, cell-mediated immune response following topical application of beryllium and suggest a mechanistic link between the persistent rate of beryllium worker sensitization and skin exposure to fine and ultrafine beryllium particles.

Tinkle, Sally S; Antonini, James M; Rich, Brenda A; Roberts, Jenny R; Salmen, Rebecca; DePree, Karyn; Adkins, Eric J

2003-01-01

334

Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables  

SciTech Connect

This report on the control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is functioning effectively.

Johnson, J.S.

1980-11-25

335

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...transport fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be)...

2010-01-01

336

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...transport fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be)...

2009-01-01

337

XD(TM) reinforced beryllium-based composites. Final report, Mar 89Aug 90  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven beryllium castings were made by Brush Wellman using dispersoid materials provided by Martin Marietta Laboratories. Eight castings had a beryllium matrix, while three had a NiBe matrix. Each casting was analyzed metallographically. It was found that all the selected dispersoid materials reacted with the beryllium matrix. Little grain refinement was observed in the castings. Slabs cut from the cast

W. Meyerer; A. Bopp; F. Grensing

1990-01-01

338

Rechargeable lithium cell  

SciTech Connect

The general object of this invention is to provide an improved rechargeable lithium cell. A more specific object of the invention is to provide a rechargeable lithium cell having an improved low-temperature performance and rate capability. It has now been found that the aformentioned objects can be attained using lithium as the anode, a solution of a lithium salt such as LiF/sub 6/ or LiA1C/sup 14/ in a mixed organic solvent as the electrolyte and a lithium intercalating cathode.

Salomon, M.; Plichta, E.J.

1984-09-27

339

An improved neutron collimator for brain tumor irradiations in clinical boron neutron capture therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve beam penetration into a head allowing the treatment of deeper seated tumors, two neutron collimators were built sequentially and tested for use in the clinical boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) program at the epithermal neutron irradiation facility of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor. The collimators were constructed from lithium-impregnated polyethylene, which comprises LiCO powder (93% enriched isotopic ⁶Li)

Hungyuan B. Liu; D. D. Greenberg; J. Capala; F. J. Wheeler

1996-01-01

340

Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through diborane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to

Filby; Evan E

1976-01-01

341

Radiation damage and defect behavior in proton irradiated lithium-counterdoped n+p silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two lithium-counterdoped n+p silicon solar cells with different lithium concentrations were irradiated by 10-MeV protons. Cell performance was measured as a function of fluence, and it was found that the cell with the highest concentration of lithium had the highest radiation resistance. Deep level transient spectroscopy which showed two deep level defects that were lithium related. Relating the defect energy levels obtained from this study with those from earlier work using 1-MeV electron irradiation shows no correlation of the defect energy levels. There is one marked similarity: the absence of the boron-interstitial-oxygen-interstitial defect. This consistency strengthens the belief that lithium interacts with oxygen to prevent the formation of the boron interstitial-oxygen interstitial defect. The results indicate that, in general, addition of lithium in small amounts to the p-base of a boron doped silicon solar cell such that the base remains p-type, tends to increase the radiation resistance of the cell.

Stupica, John; Goradia, Chandra; Swartz, Clifford K.; Weinberg, Irving

1987-01-01

342

RCRA designation of discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources  

SciTech Connect

Many sealed sources containing americium and beryllium are used throughout construction, industry, and research, and will eventually require disposal. For planning purposes it is necessary to determine whether these sources, when disposed, constitute a mixed waste, i.e., a waste containing hazardous constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and radioactive constituents regulated under the Atomic Energy Act. Waste designation criteria contained in 40 CFR 261 are evaluated in detail in this report. It is determined that discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources do not contain any wastes listed in Subpart D of 40 CFR 261, nor do the discarded sources exhibit any hazardous characteristics. Therefore, it is concluded that discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources are not a mixed waste under regulations established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Hazardous waste regulatory programs delegated to States, however, may have regulations that differ from those of the Federal government.

Kirner, N.P. [Ebasco Environmental, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1994-09-01

343

Corrosion of beryllium exposed to celotex and water  

SciTech Connect

Celotex is a commercial rigid cellulose fiberboard product primarily used in the building construction industry. Currently celotex is being used as a packing material in AL-R8 containers. Ion chromatography of celotex packing material at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has indicated that this material contains aggressive anions, including chloride, which may accelerate corrosion. It is well known that beryllium is susceptible to pitting corrosion when exposed to chloride containing environments. Levy noted pitting in beryllium at the open circuit potential when exposed to 0.1 M NaCl solution. This investigation attempts to evaluate the potential risk of accelerated beryllium corrosion from celotex and water which may occur naturally when celotex dust comes into contact with moisture from the atmosphere.

Hill, M.A.; Butt, D.P.; Lillard, R.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Corrosion and Environmental Effects Lab.

1997-12-01

344

Beryllium based multilayers for normal incidence extreme ultraviolet reflectivity  

SciTech Connect

The need for normal incidence mirrors maintaining reflectivity greater than 60% for an industrially competitive Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUV) system has been well documented. The Molybdenum/Silicon system has emerged as the de-facto standard, where researchers are now routinely fabricating mirrors demonstrating 63% reflectivity near 130 Angstroms. However, multilayer mirrors using beryllium as the low atomic number (low-Z) spacer could potentially show similar or better reflectivity, and operate at wavelengths down to the beryllium K-edge at 111 Angstroms. Besides offering potentially greater reflectivity, the shorter wavelength light offers increased dissolution depth in photoresists, and offers potentially better resolution and depth of focus. We will report our latest results from beryllium based multilayers. The mirrors were fabricated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and tested at the Center for X-Ray Optics at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (CXRO/LBL).

Skulina, K.M.; Alford, C.; Bionta, R.M.; Makowiecki, D.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kortright, J.; Soufli, R.; Gullikson, E.; Underwood, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-05-26

345

Boron carbide-aluminum cermets  

SciTech Connect

We have developed boron carbide-aluminum cermets by means of thermodynamic, kinetic, and processing studies. Our research indicates that boron carbide-aluminum cermets offer ''tailorable'' microstructures with designable properties through process control. This new class of cermets has the potential to become a very important material with wide industrial applications.

Halverson, D.C.

1986-09-03

346

Modeling tritium processes in plasma-facing beryllium  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present techniques and recommended parameters for modeling tritium implantation, trapping and release, and permeation, in beryllium-clad structures adjacent to the plasma. Among the features that should be considered are the effects of surface films, the mobility of beryllium through those films, damage caused by ion implantation, especially in regions where pitting may be expected, and bubble formation. Tritium transport parameters recommended are based on fits with experimental data and available theory. Estimates of inventories in ITER using these parameters are also given. 31 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Dolan, T.J.; Mulock, M.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-10-01

347

Failure prediction of thin beryllium sheets used in spacecraft structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an attempt to predict failure for cross-rolled beryllium sheet structures, high order macroscopic failure criteria are used. These require the knowledge of in-plane uniaxial and shear strengths. Test results are included for in-plane biaxial tension, uniaxial compression for two different material orientations, and shear. All beryllium specimens have the same chemical composition. In addition, all experimental work was performed in a controlled laboratory environment. Numerical simulation complements these tests. A brief bibliography supplements references listed in a previous report.

Roschke, Paul N.; Papados, Photios; Mascorro, Edward

1991-01-01

348

Comparison of Cleaning Methods for Analysis of Underground Beryllium Corrosion  

SciTech Connect

The subsurface radioactive disposal site located at the Idaho National Laboratory contains neutronactivated beryllium metals from non-fuel nuclear-reactor-core components. A long-term underground corrosion test is being conducted to obtain site-specific corrosion rates of the disposed beryllium to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements in the surrounding arid vadose zone environment. During the corrosion analysis, two cleaning methods were used. This paper describes the cleaning methods and presents a comparison of the results.

M. K. Adler Flitton; T. S. Yoder

2006-03-01

349

Fluorometric study of the beryllium-morin system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three principal beryllium-morin complexes, a (1 + 1) monomer, a (1 + 1) dimer, and a (1 + 2) complex are found and conditional equilibrium constants for their formation are evaluated. Approximate ionization constants, absorption spectra, and the relative fluorescence intensities for five ionic species of morin are also determined in a spectrophotometric and fluorometric study of morin. The following interrelationships are discussed: pH, ionization of morin, absorption spectra of the various ionic species of morin and of the berylliummorin complexes, equilibria for the reactions between beryllium and morin, the period of time between preparation of the solution and measurement of the fluorescence, and fluorescence intensity.

Fletcher, M. H.

1965-01-01

350

Method for removal of beryllium contamination from an article  

DOEpatents

A method of removal of beryllium contamination from an article is disclosed. The method typically involves dissolving polyisobutylene in a solvent such as hexane to form a tackifier solution, soaking the substrate in the tackifier to produce a preform, and then drying the preform to produce the cleaning medium. The cleaning media are typically used dry, without any liquid cleaning agent to rub the surface of the article and remove the beryllium contamination below a non-detect level. In some embodiments no detectible residue is transferred from the cleaning wipe to the article as a result of the cleaning process.

Simandl, Ronald F.; Hollenbeck, Scott M.

2012-12-25

351

CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS  

SciTech Connect

The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

Ekechukwu, A

2009-04-20

352

Boron incorporation into mullite  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBoron-doped mullites were synthesized using aluminium nitrate-nonahydrate, tetraethoxysilane and boric acid in a solgel process\\u000a with subsequent annealing at 950 and 1300?C for five hours. Two different bulk compositions with constant Al2O3 contents (60 and 70?mol%, respectively) and varying SiO2 plus B2O3 contents were investigated. X-ray powder diffraction analyses yielded a linear decrease of the lattice parameters with increasing\\u000a bulk

K. J. Griesser; A. Beran; D. Voll; H. Schneider

2008-01-01

353

Boron-Lined Multitube Neutron Proportional Counter Test  

SciTech Connect

Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride (BF3)-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated non-scintillating plastic fibers. In addition, a few other companies have detector technologies that might be competitive in the near term as an alternative technology. Reported here are the results of tests of a boron-lined, multitube proportional counter manufactured by Centronic Ltd. (Surry, U.K. and Houston, TX). This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma-ray rejection capabilities of the detector.

Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

2010-09-07

354

Arabidopsis boron transporter for xylem loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron deficiency hampers the productivity of 132 crops in more than 80 countries. Boron is essential in higher plants primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls and is also beneficial and might be essential in animals and in yeast. Understanding the molecular mechanism(s) of boron transport is crucial for alleviating boron deficiency. Here we describe the molecular identification of

Junpei Takano; Kyotaro Noguchi; Miho Yasumori; Masaharu Kobayashi; Zofia Gajdos; Kyoko Miwa; Hiroaki Hayashi; Tadakatsu Yoneyama; Toru Fujiwara

2002-01-01

355

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) bring together two components that when kept separate have only minor effects on normal cells. The first component is a stable isotope of boron (boron 10) that can be concentrated in tumor cells. The second is a beam of low-energy neutrons that produces short-range radiation when absorbed, or captured, by the boron. The combination of

Rolf F. Barth; Albert H. Soloway; Ralph G. Fairchild

1990-01-01

356

Uptake, distribution and binding of beryllium to organelles of the rat liver cell  

PubMed Central

1. Male rats were injected intravenously with amounts ranging from 008 to 1110?moles of [7Be]beryllium sulphate/kg. body wt. The distribution in the rat and the subcellular distribution of beryllium in the liver were determined. 2. Within the entire dose range a higher specific activity of beryllium was present in a mitochondrial fraction containing the lysosomes. Purification of this fraction confirmed that beryllium is taken up by lysosomes. 3. With doses approaching the LD50, beryllium was also found in increasing amounts to be present in the liver cell nuclei. Beryllium also showed affinity towards isolated cell nuclei in vitro. Evidence is presented that they have one class of binding sites for beryllium. Mitochondria have less affinity for beryllium. 4. No evidence could be obtained of an affinity of beryllium for DNA or RNA by fractionation of nuclei and dialysis experiments. 5. The presence of beryllium in liver cell nuclei may be relevant to the effects of beryllium on nuclear structure and function.

Witschi, H. P.; Aldridge, W. N.

1968-01-01

357

Tadiran High Energy Lithium Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electrical and environmental performance of a primary lithium inorganic battery is described as well as its reliability and safety features. The cell consists of a lithium anode, a carbon cathode, and a solution of lithium aluminum chloride in thionyl...

1977-01-01

358

Movement of liquid beryllium during melt events in JET with ITER-like wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ITER-like wall recently installed in JET comprises solid beryllium limiters and a combination of bulk tungsten and tungsten-coated carbon fibre composite divertor tiles without active cooling. During a beryllium power handling qualification experiment performed in limiter configuration with 5 MW neutral beam injection input power, accidental beryllium melt events, melt layer motion and splashing were observed locally on a few beryllium limiters in the plasma contact areas. The Lorentz force is responsible for the observed melt layer movement. To move liquid beryllium against the gravity force, the current flowing from the plasma perpendicularly to the limiter surface must be higher than 6 kA m?2. The thermo-emission current at the melting point of beryllium is much lower. The upward motion of the liquid beryllium against gravity can be due to a combination of the Lorentz force from the secondary electron emission and plasma pressure force.

Sergienko, G.; Arnoux, G.; Devaux, S.; Matthews, G. F.; Nunes, I.; Riccardo, V.; Sirinelli, A.; Huber, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Coenen, J. W.; Mertens, Ph; Philipps, V.; Samm, U.; EFDA contributors, JET

2014-04-01

359

The development of beryllium plasma spray technology for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)  

SciTech Connect

Over the past five years, four international parties, which include the European Communities, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States, have been collaborating on the design and development of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the next generation magnetic fusion energy device. During the ITER Engineering Design Activity (EDA), beryllium plasma spray technology was investigated by Los Alamos National Laboratory as a method for fabricating and repairing and the beryllium first wall surface of the ITER tokamak. Significant progress has been made in developing beryllium plasma spraying technology for this application. Information will be presented on the research performed to improve the thermal properties of plasma sprayed beryllium coatings and a method that was developed for cleaning and preparing the surface of beryllium prior to depositing plasma sprayed beryllium coatings. Results of high heat flux testing of the beryllium coatings using electron beam simulated ITER conditions will also be presented.

Castro, R.G.; Elliott, K.E.; Hollis, K.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Material Science and Technology Div.; Bartlett, A.H. [Norsam Technologies Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Watson, R.D. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Fusion Technology Dept.

1999-02-01

360

Beryllium and titanium cost-adjustment report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes cost adjustment factors for beryllium (Be, S200) and titanium (Ti, 6Al-4V) that were derived relative to aluminum (Al, 7075-T6). Aluminum is traditionally the material upon which many of the Cost Analysis Office, Missile Division cost estimating relationships (CERs) are based. The adjustment factors address both research and development and production (Q > 100) quantities. In addition, the factors derived include optical elements, normal structure, and structure with special requirements for minimal microcreep, such as sensor assembly parts and supporting components. Since booster cost per payload pound is an even larger factor in total missile launch costs than was initially presumed, the primary cost driver for all materials compared was the missiles' booster cost per payload pound for both R&D and production quantities. Al and Ti are 1.5 and 2.4 times more dense, respectively, than Be, and the cost to lift the heavier materials results in greater booster expense. In addition, Al and Ti must be 2.1 and 2.8, respectively, times the weight of a Be component to provide equivalent stiffness, based on the example component addressed in the report. These factors also increase booster costs. After review of the relative factors cited above, especially the lower costs for Be when stiffness and booster costs are taken into consideration, affordability becomes an important issue. When this study was initiated, both government and contractor engineers said that Be was the material to be used as a last resort because of its prohibitive cost and extreme toxicity. Although the initial price of Be may lead one to believe that any Be product would be extremely expensive, the total cost of Be used for space applications is actually competitive with or less costly than either Al or Ti. Also, the Be toxicity problem has turned out to be a non-issue for purchasers of finished Be components since no machining or grinding operations are required on the finished components. Several new costing techniques are developed which provide quantitative measures of the cost of material stiffness, costs related to payload weight, and costs associated with the relative temperature stability of different materials. In addition, use is made of the Design/Cost Trade Model developed by Applied Research, Inc., to determine the booster cost differential relative to changes in payload weight, and a mirror fabrication cost model, developed by OCA Applied Optics, was used for mirror costing. This report is a summary of an extensive study done by the U.S. Army Strategic Defense Command, Huntsville, Alabama.

Owen, John; Ulph, Eric, Sr.

1991-09-01

361

Sputter deposited beryllium fuel capsules for NIF  

SciTech Connect

The objective of our effort is to systematically study the properties of films produced under different conditions, with an emphasis on improving surface morphology and microstructure while studying permeability and capsule strength. We have made extensive use of atomic force and electron microscopy to determine the microstructure of the films, along with composition probes (mainly x-ray fluorescence) to quantify the chemical structure. Our studies can be roughly divided into three categories. First, there are those in which the effects of substrate biasing have been investigated. This includes varying the substrate voltage from 0 to 120 V and applying an intermittent bias. Next there are studies of Be combined with boron, a non-soluble dopant Because of it`s low Z this dopant is of particular interest for x-ray related applications. Finally, there are experiments in which pulses of nitrogen are admitted to the vacuum chamber during deposition. The layers of nitride formed tended to disrupt the growth of Be grains, leading to a more fine-grained microstructure. For all these studies, we have most often used hollow plastic spheres for our substrate material. However, there have been some samples deposited on glass spheres or silicon flats.

Alford, C.S.

1998-02-12

362

On Beryllium Deformation at High-Velocity Oblique Impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the methods for providing intensive dynamic stresses in metals is loading by shock waves (normal or oblique). At oblique impact of metals, intensive plastic shear strains and zones of strong heating are growing in neighborhood of contact point. Shear flows with velocity gradient depending on angle and velocity of impact of plates occur for short time. Due to intensive deformation, heating in local zones causes significant softening of substance. In these areas, shear modulus and yield strength are significantly less comparing to those at normal conditions. The mentioned effects result in distortion of profile of interface between metals after impact. Regular waves, non-symmetric distorted waves, melt layers of mixed components are formed. The process of high-velocity oblique impact of beryllium samples (beryllium and stainless steel) was experimentally studied. Beryllium has high ability for wave formation without significant plastic flow of material along sliding line. During high-velocity oblique impact of beryllium and stainless steel, their welded connection was achieved.

Mikhaylov, Anatoly; Drennov, Oleg

2009-06-01

363

67 FR 70707 - Occupational Exposure to Beryllium; Request for Information  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...description of how the exposure takes place within...the potential for exposure, in each job category...levels of employee exposures to beryllium in...for determining exposure levels. OSHA requests...exposure. B. Health Effects OSHA is aware of a number...

2002-11-26

364

Stress relaxation in tension of CA 172 copper--beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress relaxation data on commercially available copper-beryllium alloy ; 172 are presented. Test samples were subjected to strains of up to 2 percent and ; temperatures from 25 to 181°C. The data show that a high degree of ; relaxation occurs at higher temperatures and relaxation was found to be ; independent of the initial stress levels. Time-temperature plots of

Goel; YR Fiorini; KC Lieb; IC Moore; AL Batik; RP Goel

1975-01-01

365

A NOVEL BIOMARKER FOR BERYLLIUM SENSITIZATION IN HUMANS  

EPA Science Inventory

This research project will determine the T-cell receptor (TCR) gene usages of beryllium reactive T-lymphocytes isolated directly from the peripheral blood of individuals exposed at a U.S. Department of Energy site. The objective is to develop a sensitive and novel biomarker for i...

366

Advanced solutions for beryllium and tungsten plasma-facing components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium and tungsten are candidate plasma-facing armour materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). These armours are proposed for areas with low heat flux (?5 MW m?2); however, in the divertor, surface melting during abnormal events may occur. This paper reports the progress made in developing novel approaches to solving the difficulties posed in designing with these armours. A

C Ibbott; R Jakeman; T Ando; P Chappuis; S Chiocchio; H Falter; D Ciric; G Federici; H Heidl; M Merola; L Plchl; M Rdig; R Tivey; G Vieider

1998-01-01

367

REACTOR CORE SURROUNDED BY BERYLLIUM MODERATOR. CAMERA LOOKS DOWN AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REACTOR CORE SURROUNDED BY BERYLLIUM MODERATOR. CAMERA LOOKS DOWN AND TOWARD NORTH INTO LOWER GRID CASTING. HOLES OF VARIOUS SIZES ACCOMMODATE COOLANT WATER AND EXPERIMENTAL POSITIONS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4197. Unknown Photographer, 2/11/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

368

Mechanical properties of diffusion bonded beryllium ingot sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for producing thick beryllium plate from ingot source material by diffusion-bonding together thin sheets is described. The bonds produced are at least as strong as the matrix, and are produced under conditions where no significant grain growth occurs. The laminated plate has better mechanical properties than the sheet from which it was made, and properties substantially superior to

Clinton R. Heiple

1972-01-01

369

Plutonium Beryllium Neutron Source as a Secondary Calibration Standard.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plutonium-Beryllium (Pu-Be) neutron sources are calibrated with respect to total output, using a manganese-sulfate bath. When such sources are used as a point isotropic, secondary standard, inaccuracies occur due to the following reasons: (1) The neutron ...

J. A. Devanney

1968-01-01

370

Grain Boundary Precipitation in a Nickel--Beryllium Alloy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The morphology and kinetics of discontinuous grain boundary precipitation have been studied in a nickel 1.89 wt. percent (11.1 at. percent) beryllium alloy. The cells were found to have an irregular lamellar structure with a continuous nickel rich phase a...

T. V. Nordstrom

1976-01-01

371

Beryllium Wipe Sampling (differing methods - differing exposure potentials)  

SciTech Connect

This research compared three wipe sampling techniques currently used to test for beryllium contamination on room and equipment surfaces in Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling without a wetting agent, with water-moistened wipe materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Analysis indicated that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed about twice as much beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes, which removed about twice as much residue as dry wipes. Criteria at 10 CFR 850.30 and .31 were established on unspecified wipe sampling method(s). The results of this study reveal a need to identify criteria-setting method and equivalency factors. As facilities change wipe sampling methods among the three compared in this study, these results may be useful for approximate correlations. Accurate decontamination decision-making depends on the selection of appropriate wetting agents for the types of residues and surfaces. Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced removal efficiency such as methanol when surface contamination includes oil mist residue.

Kerr, Kent

2005-03-09

372

INEL beryllium multiplication experiment annual report FY89.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a report of activities during the second year of a three-year program to measure the multiplication of 14-MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium. The operating parameters of the neutron generator were established. The manganese sulfate solution was chemic...

J. R. Smith J. J. King

1989-01-01

373

Beryllium Erosion Corrosion Investigation for Solid Rocket Nozzles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contract AF04(611)-10753 was conducted over the period June 1965 to March 1967. The program was directed toward understanding erosion-corrosion mechanisms of nozzle heat sink and insulation materials in state-of-the-art beryllium solid propellant exhausts...

W. L. Smallwood

1967-01-01

374

18. VIEW OF ENGINEERING CONTROLS USED IN THE BERYLLIUM SHOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. VIEW OF ENGINEERING CONTROLS USED IN THE BERYLLIUM SHOP TO REDUCE EMPLOYEE EXPOSURE. THE LATHE IS COVERED BY A HOOD WITH A SEPARATE AIR-HANDLING SYSTEM. PRECISION EQUIPMENT IS CONTROLLED DIGITALLY. (11/13/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

375

9. VIEW OF FOUNDRY FURNACE, DEPLETED URANIUM INGOTS, BERYLLIUM INGOTS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF FOUNDRY FURNACE, DEPLETED URANIUM INGOTS, BERYLLIUM INGOTS, AND ALUMINUM SHAPES WERE PRODUCED IN THE FOUNDRY. (10/30/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

376

The acute toxicity of inhaled beryllium metal in rats  

SciTech Connect

The authors exposed rats once by nose only for 50 min to a mean concentration of 800 [mu]g/m[sup 3] of beryllium metal to characterize the acute toxic effects within the lung. Histological changes within the lung and enzyme changes within bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were evaluated at 3, 7, 10, 14, 31, 59, 115, and 171 days postexposure (dpe). Beryllium metal-exposed rats developed acute, necrotizing, hemorrhagic, exudative pneumonitis and intraalveolar fibrosis that peaked at 14 dpe. By 31 dpe, inflammatory lesions were replaced by minimal interstitial and intraalveolar fibrosis. Necrotizing inflammation was observed again at 59 dpe which progressed to chronic-active inflammation by 115 dpe. Low numbers of diffusely distributed lymphocytes were also present but they were not associated with granulomas as is observed in beryllium-induced disease in man. Lymphocytes were not elevated in BAL samples collected from beryllium-exposed rats at any time after exposure. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), [beta]-glucuronidase, and protein levels were elevated in BAL fluid from 3 through 14 dpe but returned to near normal levels by 31 dpe. LDH increased once again at 59 dpe and remained elevated at 171 dpe. [beta]-Glucuronidase and protein levels were slightly, but not significantly, elevated from 31 through 171 dpe.

Haley, P.J.; Finch, G.L.; Hoover, M.D.; Cuddihy, R.G. (Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1990-01-01

377

Risks of beryllium disease related to work processes at a metal, alloy, and oxide production plant.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To describe relative hazards in sectors of the beryllium industry, risk factors of beryllium disease and sensitisation related to work process were sought in a beryllium manufacturing plant producing pure metal, oxide, alloys, and ceramics. METHODS: All 646 active employees were interviewed; beryllium sensitisation was ascertained with the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation blood test on 627 employees; clinical evaluation and bronchoscopy were offered to people with abnormal test results; and industrial hygiene measurements related to work processes taken in 1984-93 were reviewed. RESULTS: 59 employees (9.4%) had abnormal blood tests, 47 of whom underwent bronchoscopy. 24 new cases of beryllium disease were identified, resulting in a beryllium disease prevalence of 4.6%, including five known cases (29/632). Employees who had worked in ceramics had the highest prevalence of beryllium disease (9.0%). Employees in the pebble plant (producing beryllium metal) who had been employed after 1983 also had increased risk, with a prevalence of beryllium disease of 6.4%, compared with 1.3% of other workers hired in the same period, and a prevalence of abnormal blood tests of 19.2%. Logistic regression modelling confirmed these two risk factors for beryllium disease related to work processes and the dependence on time of the risk at the pebble plant. The pebble plant was not associated with the highest gravimetric industrial hygiene measurements available since 1984. CONCLUSION: Further characterisation of exposures in beryllium metal production may be important to understanding how beryllium exposures confer high contemporary risk of beryllium disease.

Kreiss, K; Mroz, M M; Zhen, B; Wiedemann, H; Barna, B

1997-01-01

378

Lithium Lens for Ilc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium Lens is a key element of FERMILAB proton conversion system in use for many years. We are analyzing the ILC positron source equipped with a scaled version of Lithium lens. Usage of liquid Lithium allows efficient cooling of Lithium container and entrance/exit windows. For the temperature just ~80C higher, than the temperature of boiling water, the system for circulation of liquid Lithium is a compact and reliable. Overall efficiency of 1.5 secondary positrons per each initial electron passing the undulator is feasible with a compact Lithium lens. Axially symmetric motion of liquid Li does not perturb the field quality required for minimization of emittance of the secondary positrons/electrons polarized longitudinally.

Mikhailichenko, Alexander A.

2013-10-01

379

Lithium treatment at 52  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews briefly and comments in detail on selected events in the history of lithium treatment. The events include Cades discovery of lithiums antimanic action, the discovery and establishment of its prophylactic action, the ensuing debate, amelioration and prevention of side effects and risks, use during pregnancy, non-compliance, selection of patients, information and instruction, the question whether new and

Mogens Schou

2001-01-01

380

Lithium purification technique  

DOEpatents

A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

Keough, Robert F. (Richland, WA); Meadows, George E. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01

381

Lithium purification technique  

DOEpatents

A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

1984-01-10

382

Boron fullerenes: From B80 to hole doped boron sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the existence of a family of stable boron fullerenes containing 80n2 atoms that is related to the family of 60n2 carbon icosahedral fullerene series and is compatible with the recently proposed stable boron sheets composed of triangular and hexagonal motifs. All electron density-functional calculations on the B320 , B720 , B1280 , and B2000 confirm their stability and

Rajendra R. Zope; Tunna Baruah; K. C. Lau; Amy Y. Liu; M. R. Pederson; B. I. Dunlap

2009-01-01

383

Evaluation of boron chelates in extracting soil boron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot water extractable boron (HWB) soil?test procedure does not lend itself to rapid routine analysis. This study was conducted to evaluate boron (B) chelates in extracting soil B in comparison to the HWB soil?test procedure. The following B chelates were examined as soil B extractants: mannitol, salicylic acid, 2?hydroxyisobutyric acid, and sorbitol. Soil B chelate extractants were prepared in

Byron Vaughan; John Howe

1994-01-01

384

Unsuspected exposure to beryllium: potential implications for sarcoidosis diagnoses.  

PubMed

Exposure to Beryllium (Be) can cause sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in some individuals. Even relatively low exposures may be sufficient to generate an asymptomatic, or in some cases a symptomatic, immune response. Since the clinical presentation of CBD is similar to that of sarcoidosis, it is helpful to have information on exposure to beryllium in order to reduce misdiagnosis. The purpose of this pilot study is to explore the occurrence of Be surface deposits at worksites with little or no previous reported use of commercially available Be products. The workplaces chosen for this study represent a convenience sample of businesses in eastern Iowa. One hundred thirty-six surface dust samples were collected from 27 businesses for analysis of Be. The results were then divided into categories by the amount of detected Be according to U.S. Department of Energy guidelines as described in 10 CFR 850.30 and 10 CFR 850.31. Overall, at least one of the samples at 78% of the work sites tested contained deposited Be above the analytical limit of quantitation (0.035 g beryllium per sample). Beryllium was detected in 46% of the samples collected. Twelve percent of the samples exceeded 0.2 g/100 cm and 4% of the samples exceeded a Be concentration of 3 g/100 cm. The findings from this study suggest that there may be a wider range and greater number of work environments that have the potential for Be exposure than has been documented previously. These findings could have implications for the accurate diagnosis of sarcoidosis. PMID:25078645

Laczniak, Andrew N; Gross, Nathan A; Fuortes, Laurence J; Field, R William

2014-01-01

385

Lithium: underappreciated and underused?  

PubMed

Lithium is a remarkable drug with a fascinating history. Although less popular than other anticonvulsant and atypical antipsychotic mood-stabilizing drugs, lithium is beneficial in bipolar disorder and may be superior to other drugs for treatment-resistant depression and for reducing suicidal behaviors. Various studies have demonstrated that lithium has neuroprotective and neurotrophic cellular effects in the brain, suggesting it may be "brain healthy" for patients with mood disorders and useful for patients with other neurodegenerative disorders. In this article, I describe the history of lithium and review important aspects of its clinical use. PMID:17848039

Howland, Robert H

2007-08-01

386

Copper passivation of boron in silicon and boron reactivation kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper passivation of substitutional boron in single-crystal silicon and the reactivation kinetics of the passivated boron have been investigated with the use of Schottky-barrier structures formed by the deposition of copper on boron-doped silicon at room temperature. It is found that passivation of the boron acceptors occurs after copper deposition. The results suggest that the fast-diffusing interstitial Cu+ passivates the boron acceptors by forming neutral B-Cu complexes, rather than by direct compensation. No compensating donor levels associated with Cu are observed. These results are consistent with recent theoretical predictions. The reactivation kinetics are first order with an activation energy of 0.89 eV, and the annealing process is found to be controlled by long-range diffusion, rather than by pure dissociation. The thermal dissociation of the B-Cu complexes is driven by the formation of the copper silicide ?'-Cu3Si, indicating the importance of silicide formation in the reactivation of the boron acceptors.

Aboelfotoh, M. O.; Svensson, B. G.

1991-12-01

387

Formulation of Boronic Acid Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to the formulation of pharmaceutical compounds. More particularly, the invention provides stable, pharmaceutically acceptable compositions prepared from boronic acid compounds and methods for preparing the compositions. The invention...

L. Plamondon L. Grenier J. Adams S. L. Gupta

2005-01-01

388

Microstructure Analysis of Boron Nitride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction technique revealed boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) and nanoparticles in thin film baron nitride prepared by chemical vapor deposition method. Electron micrographs show single walled nanotubes contain...

E. Jelis S. Kerwien T. Chatterjee

2009-01-01

389

Boronization in textor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liner and limiters of TEXTOR have been coated in situ with a boron containing carbon film using a RG discharge in a throughflow of 0.8 He + 0.1 B 2H 6 +0.1 CH 4. The average film thickness was 30-50 nm, the ratio of boron and carbon in the layer was about 1:1 according to Auger Electron Spectroscopy. Subsequent tokamak discharges are characterized by a small fraction of radiated power (< 0.3) even during high power ICRF heating (2.6 MW, 1.6 s). A concomitant strong increase of the convective power loading of the limiters is observed. Values of Z eff lower than 1.2 are derived from conductivity measurements. The most prominent change in the impurity concentration compared to good conditions in a carbonized surrounding is measured for oxygen. The value OVI/ ne of the OVI intensity normalized to the averaged plasma density overlinene decreases by more than a factor of four. The decrease in the oxygen content manifests itself also as a reduction of the CO and CO 2 partial pressures measured during and after the discharge with a sniffer probe. The carbon levels are reduced by a factor of about two as measured by the normalized intensity CII/ overlinene of the CII line and via the ratio of the C fluxes and deuterium fluxes measured at the limiter (CI/D ?). The wall shows a pronounced sorption of hydrogen from the plasma, easing the density control and the establishment of low recycling conditions. The beneficial conditions did not show a significant deterioration during more than 200 discharges, including numerous shots at ICRH power levels > 2 MW.

Winter, J.; Esser, H. G.; Knen, L.; Philipps, V.; Reimer, H.; Seggern, J. v.; Schlter, J.; Vietzke, E.; Waelbroeck, F.; Wienhold, P.; Banno, T.; Ringer, D.; Vep?ek, S.

1989-04-01

390

Lithium and the antidiuretic hormone.  

PubMed Central

The effect of lithium on the urine concentrating response to antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and the excretion of ADH has been studied in rats and man. The maximum urine osmolarity following 18 h dehydration and Pitressin (5 u) was decreased in three out of four patients during lithium treatment compared to their response to the same test in the absence of lithium. In a fifth patient, tested only during lithium treatment, the urine remained hypotonic to plasma throughout this test. Lithium increased the excretion of ADH in non-polyuric patients from 9-22 mu/24 h in the absence of lithium to 36-202 mu/24 - during lithium treatment. In four patients with lithium-induced polyuria, a diuretic acting on the distal tubules, clorexolone, reduced the polyuria. Lithium increased urine volume and the excretion of ADH in four rats receiving lithium in their diet. The response to exogenous ADH was decreased during lithium administration.

MacNeil, S; Jennings, G; Eastwood, P R; Paschalis, C; Jenner, F A

1976-01-01

391

Evaluation of historical beryllium abundance in soils, airborne particulates and facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.  

PubMed

Beryllium has been historically machined, handled and stored in facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) since the 1950s. Additionally, outdoor testing of beryllium-containing components has been performed at LLNL's Site 300 facility. Beryllium levels in local soils and atmospheric particulates have been measured over three decades and are comparable to those found elsewhere in the natural environment. While localized areas of beryllium contamination have been identified, laboratory operations do not appear to have increased the concentration of beryllium in local air or water. Variation in airborne beryllium correlates to local weather patterns, PM10 levels, normal sources (such as resuspension of soil and emissions from coal power stations) but not to LLNL activities. Regional and national atmospheric beryllium levels have decreased since the implementation of the EPA's 1990 Clean-Air-Act. Multi-element analysis of local soil and air samples allowed for the determination of comparative ratios for beryllium with over 50 other metals to distinguish between natural beryllium and process-induced contamination. Ten comparative elemental markers (Al, Cs, Eu, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sm, Th and Tl) that were selected to ensure background variations in other metals did not collectively interfere with the determination of beryllium sources in work-place samples at LLNL. Multi-element analysis and comparative evaluation are recommended for all workplace and environmental samples suspected of beryllium contamination. The multi-element analyses of soils and surface dusts were helpful in differentiating between beryllium of environmental origin and beryllium from laboratory operations. Some surfaces can act as "sinks" for particulate matter, including carpet, which retains entrained insoluble material even after liquid based cleaning. At LLNL, most facility carpets had beryllium concentrations at or below the upper tolerance limit determined by sampling facilities with no history of beryllium work. Some facility carpets had beryllium concentrations above the upper tolerance limits but can be attributed to tracking of local soils, while other facilities showed process-induced contamination from adjacent operations. In selected cases, distinctions were made as to the source of beryllium in carpets. Guidance on the determination of facility beryllium sources is given. PMID:22960112

Sutton, Mark; Bibby, Richard K; Eppich, Gary R; Lee, Steven; Lindvall, Rachel E; Wilson, Kent; Esser, Bradley K

2012-10-15

392

Reducing Boron Toxicity by Microbial Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

While electricity is a clean source of energy, methods of electricity-production, such as the use of coal-fired power plants, often result in significant environmental damage. Coal-fired electrical power plants produce air pollution, while contaminating ground water and soils by build-up of boron, which enters surrounding areas through leachate. Increasingly high levels of boron in soils eventually overcome boron tolerance levels in plants and trees, resulting in toxicity. Formation of insoluble boron precipitates, mediated by mineral-precipitating bacteria, may sequester boron into more stable forms that are less available and toxic to vegetation. Results have provided evidence of microbially-facilitated sequestration of boron into insoluble mineral precipitates. Analyses of water samples taken from ponds with high boron concentrations showed that algae present contained 3-5 times more boron than contained in the water in the samples. Boron sequestration may also be facilitated by the incorporation of boron within algal cells. Experiments examining boron sequestration by algae are in progress. In bacterial experiments with added ferric citrate, the reduction of iron by the bacteria resulted in an ironcarbonate precipitate containing boron. An apparent color change showing the reduction of amorphous iron, as well as the precipitation of boron with iron, was more favorable at higher pH. Analysis of precipitates by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy revealed mineralogical composition and biologicallymediated accumulation of boron precipitates in test-tube experiments.

Hazen, T.; Phelps, T.J.

2002-01-01

393

Beryllium in the Ultra-Lithium-deficient, Metal-Poor Halo Dwarf G186-26  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of low-metal halo dwarfs show a similar amount of Li; this has been attributed to the Li that was produced in the big bang. However, there are nine known halo stars with T>5900 K and [Fe/H]<-1.0 that are ultra-Li-deficient. We have looked for Be in the very low metallicity star G186-26, at [Fe/H]=-2.71, which is one of the ultra-Li-deficient stars. This star is also ultra-Be-deficient. Relative to Be in the Li-normal stars at [Fe/H]=-2.7, G186-26 is down in Be by more than 0.8 dex. Of two potential causes for the Li deficiency-mass transfer in a pre-blue straggler or extra rotationally induced mixing in a star that was initially a very rapid rotator-the absence of Be favors the blue straggler hypothesis, but the rotation model cannot be ruled out completely. Based on data obtained with the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; Novicki, Megan C.

2005-11-01

394

Nanoaerosols formation during the bubbling of lithium and beryllium fluorides molten salt to produce reactor radioisotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the parameters of aerosol particles that occur in the course of spontaneous vapor thermal condensation\\u000a and bubbling of the saline blend in 66 LiF-34 BeF2 eutectic compound (mol %) with helium in the vertical-bubbles flow mode\\u000a in an ampoule device to create medical reactor radioisotopes produced at a temperature of T ? 900K. The aerosols mass entrainment

A. V. Zagnitko; D. Yu. Chuvilin

2009-01-01

395

Molecular Structure of Boron trifluoride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boron trifluoride has a trigonal pryamidal shape and dissolves in diethyl ether. Normally a gas, boron trifluoride is a hard and strong Lewis acid with a high affinity in displacement reactions and is therefore used mainly as a catalyst in alkylations, polymerizations and esterifications. It extracts bases bound to carbon and produces carbocations. Also it is used as a fumigant and in the magnesium industry because its anti-oxidant properties.

2002-08-15

396

Neutron detectors comprising boron powder  

DOEpatents

High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

2013-05-21

397

Chronic beryllium disease and cancer risk estimates with uncertainty for beryllium released to the air from the Rocky Flats Plant.  

PubMed Central

Beryllium was released into the air from routine operations and three accidental fires at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado from 1958 to 1989. We evaluated environmental monitoring data and developed estimates of airborne concentrations and their uncertainties and calculated lifetime cancer risks and risks of chronic beryllium disease to hypothetical receptors. This article discusses exposure-response relationships for lung cancer and chronic beryllium disease. We assigned a distribution to cancer slope factor values based on the relative risk estimates from an occupational epidemiologic study used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine the slope factors. We used the regional atmospheric transport code for Hanford emission tracking atmospheric transport model for exposure calculations because it is particularly well suited for long-term annual-average dispersion estimates and it incorporates spatially varying meteorologic and environmental parameters. We accounted for model prediction uncertainty by using several multiplicative stochastic correction factors that accounted for uncertainty in the dispersion estimate, the meteorology, deposition, and plume depletion. We used Monte Carlo techniques to propagate model prediction uncertainty through to the final risk calculations. We developed nine exposure scenarios of hypothetical but typical residents of the RFP area to consider the lifestyle, time spent outdoors, location, age, and sex of people who may have been exposed. We determined geometric mean incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk estimates for beryllium inhalation for each scenario. The risk estimates were < 10(-6). Predicted air concentrations were well below the current reference concentration derived by the EPA for beryllium sensitization. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

McGavran, P D; Rood, A S; Till, J E

1999-01-01

398

Beryllium Alters Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Intracellular Phosphorylation and Cytokine Release in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells  

PubMed Central

Beryllium exposure in susceptible individuals leads to the development of chronic beryllium disease, a lung disorder marked by release of inflammatory cytokine and granuloma formation. We have previously reported that beryllium induces an immune response even in blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals. In this study, we investigate the effects of beryllium on lipopolysaccharide - mediated cytokine release in blood mononuclear and dendritic cells from healthy individuals. We find that in vitro treatment of beryllium sulfate inhibits the secretion of lipopolysaccharide-mediated interleukin 10, while the release of interleukin 1? is enhanced. Additionally, not all lipopolysaccharide - mediated responses are altered, as interleukin 6 release in unaffected upon beryllium treatment. Beryllium sulfate treated cells show altered phosphotyrosine levels upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Significantly, beryllium inhibits the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transducer 3, induced by lipopolysaccharide. Finally, inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3 kinase mimic the effects of beryllium in inhibition of interleukin 10 release, while they have no effect on interleukin 1? secretion. This study strongly suggests that prior exposures to beryllium could alter host immune responses to bacterial infections in healthy individuals, by altering intracellular signaling.

Silva, Shannon; Ganguly, Kumkum; Fresquez, Theresa M.; Gupta, Goutam; McCleskey, T. Mark; Chaudhary, Anu

2013-01-01

399

Application of beryllium antibodies in risk assessment and health surveillance: two case studies.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates that current standards used by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to establish an area free from potential beryllium contamination may be inadequate. Using the Beryllium Antibody Assay, it was shown that workers exposed to former beryllium work areas, thought to be sanitized and to meet OSHA standards, experienced statistically significant rises in blood beryllium antibody titers. This finding raises the question of whether the equipment currently required to protect workers in beryllium-laden environments is sufficient. The project mission of decommissioning/decontaminating the former nuclear weapons plant at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), instituted in 1992, has necessitated development of new technology directed toward safe and responsible cleanup. Challenges have been posed not only by the need to dispose of radioactive and chemical waste, but also by the problem of cleaning up hazardous metals such as the element beryllium. Beryllium was used extensively in research and the manufacture of nuclear weapons components at Rocky Flats for over 40 years. Since inhalation of this element can induce chronic beryllium disease (Eisenbud and Lisson, 1983), an antibody assay was developed to screen workers for internal exposure to beryllium. Exposure is indicated by a titer of antibodies greater than two standard deviations above a normal population control (defined as the mean titer of pooled samples from 51 individuals with no known exposure to beryllium) and a p-value of < 0.05. This paper describes two new applications for the assay: risk assessment and health surveillance. Case study 1 involves a team of three workers who cleaned a beryllium plenum and whose beryllium antibody titers provided a quantitative assessment of their exposure. Case study 2 describes the use of the antibody assay to determine the probable manner in which one worker was exposed to beryllium while performing his duties as an architectural engineer. PMID:8748421

Clarke, S M; Thurlow, S M; Hilmas, D E

1995-01-01

400

Scoping studies: behavior and control of lithium and lithium aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HEDL scoping studies examining the behavior of lithium and lithium aerosols have been conducted to determine and examine potential safety and environmental issues for postulated accident conditions associated with the use of lithium as a fusion reactor blanket and\\/or coolant. Liquid lithium reactions with air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and concretes have been characterized. The effectiveness of various powder extinguishing

Jeppson

1982-01-01

401

Initial boronization of PBX-M using ablation from solid boronized probes  

SciTech Connect

Boronization was performed by plasma ablation of two solid boronized target probes. Probe-1, in a mushroom shape, consisted of a 10.7% boronized two-dimensional carbon-carbon composite containing 3.6 g of boron in a B[sub 4]C binder. Probe-2, in a rectangular shape, consisted of an 86% boronized graphite felt composite containing 19.5 g of 40-[mu]m boron particles. Probe-1 boronization deposited [approximately]26 monolayers of boron. After boronization with Probe-1, the loop voltage in 1-MW neutral-beam-heated plasmas decreased 27%, and volt-second consumption decreased 20%. Strong peripheral spectral lines from low-Z elements decreased by factors of [approximately]5. The central oxygen density decreased 15 to 20%. Carbon levels initially increased during boronization but were significantly reduced after boronization. The total radiated power during neutral beam injection decreased by 43%. Probe-2 boronization deposited [approximately]70 monolayers. Probe-2 boronization exhibited similar improved plasma conditions, but for some parameters, a smaller percentage change occurred because of the previous boronization with Probe-1. The ablation rates of both probes were consistent with front-face temperatures above the boron melting point. The results demonstrate the performance of two different boronized probe materials and the relative simplicity and effectiveness of solid target boronization as a convenient, real-time impurity control technique. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Kugel, H.W.; Timberlake, J.; Bell, R.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Takahashi, H.; Tighe, W.; Von Goeler, S. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)) (and others)

1994-07-01

402

Snub boron nanostructures: Chiral fullerenes, nanotubes and planar sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We design a new class of electronically stable boron nanostructures, viz.: 60n2 boron fullerene family, boron nanotubes, and a planar boron sheet, which like the ?-boron sheet, consists of triangular and hexagonal motifs and has symmetrically arranged hexagonal holes. The binding energy of the proposed new boron sheet is only 0.02eV\\/atom lower than the ?-boron sheet. The 60n2 boron fullerenes

Rajendra R. Zope; Tunna Baruah

2011-01-01

403

Modelling of lithium erosion and transport in FTU lithium experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ERO code has been used to simulate lithium erosion, transport and re-deposition from liquid lithium limiter experiments in FTU. Two different operational cases from LLL experiments with different plasma parameters and surface temperature are modelled. According to the effective lithium sputtering yields, for both cases the lithium erosion is mainly due to physical sputtering rather than evaporation. Furthermore, the modelled re-deposition fraction of evaporated lithium is much higher than that of sputtered lithium, which is due to the shorter ionisation mean free path of thermal lithium atoms. Therefore, the evaporation erosion effect can be neglected compared to physical sputtering when the surface temperature is below 450 C. According to the simulations, most of the lithium impurities exist in the form of Li+, and the main plasma contamination by lithium ions is low because most of eroded lithium particles are not transported into the core plasma and stay outside of the LCFS.

Ding, R.; Maddaluno, G.; Apicella, M. L.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Kirschner, A.; Chen, J. L.; Li, J. G.; Luo, G.-N.

2013-07-01

404

Large lithium loop experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters

R. Kolowith; T. J. Owen; J. D. Berg; J. M. Atwood

1981-01-01

405

LITHIUM AND RENAL FUNCTIONS  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Thirty patients of affective disorder who were on lithium for a year and thirty patients on antidepressant were studied in detail for renal functions. Our observation is that lithium therapy does not lead to any deterioration in kidney functions. The results are discussed.

Sethi, N.; Trivedi, J.K.; Sethi, B.B.

1987-01-01

406

Lithium battery thermal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal characteristics and thermal behavior of lithium batteries are important both for the batteries meeting operating life requirements and for safety considerations. Sandia National Laboratories has a broad-based program that includes analysis, engineering and model development. We have determined thermal properties of lithium batteries using a variety of calorimetric methods for many years. We developed the capability to model temperature

Daniel H Doughty; Paul C Butler; Rudolph G Jungst; E. Peter Roth

2002-01-01

407

Lithium rechargeable envelope cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prototype lithium manganese oxide rechargeable cells have been made in an envelope format, which is particularly suitable for scaling up to large batteries. Materials have been tested in laboratory cells. The synthesis of lithium manganese oxide has been investigated and cathode components for cells have been fabricated. Cycling results are reported.

Gilmour, A.; Giwa, C. O.; Lee, J. C.; Ritchie, A. G.

408

Lithium rechargeable envelope cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prototype lithium manganese oxide rechargeable cells have been made in an envelope format, which is particularly suitable for scaling up to large batteries. Materials have been tested in laboratory cells. The synthesis of lithium manganese oxide has been investigated and cathode components for cells have been fabricated. Cycling results are reported.

A. Gilmour; C. O. Giwa; J. C. Lee; A. G. Ritchie

1997-01-01

409

The New Lithium Clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until the early 1950s, no effective pharmacological treatment existed for bipolar affective disorder. By the early 1960s, specialty clinics were being set up to dispense lithium carbonate to bipolar patients. By the late 1980s, a new body of knowledge was influencing the perception of bipolar disorder and how the disease should be treated. The authors lithium clinic from 1974 has

Yamima Osher; Yuly Bersudsky; R. H. Belmaker

2010-01-01

410

A mortality study of workers at seven beryllium processing plants  

SciTech Connect

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has found that the evidence for the carcinogenicity of beryllium is sufficient based on animal data but limited based on human data. This analysis reports on a retrospective cohort mortality study among 9,225 male workers employed at seven beryllium processing facilities for at least 2 days between January 1, 1940, and December 31, 1969. Vital status was ascertained through December 31, 1988. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for lung cancer in the total cohort was 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.42); significant SMRs for lung cancer were observed for two of the oldest plants located in Lorain, Ohio (SMR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.28-2.19) and Reading, Pennsylvania (SMR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.03-1.48). For the overall cohort, significantly elevated SMRs were found for all deaths (SMR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.01-1.08), ischemic heart disease (SMR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.01-1.14), pneumoconiosis and other respiratory diseases (SMR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.21-1.80), and chronic and unspecified nephritis, renal failure, and other renal sclerosis (SMR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.00-2.12). Lung cancer SMRs did not increase with longer duration of employment, but did increase with longer latency (time since first exposure). Lung cancer was particularly elevated (SMR = 3.33; 95% CI = 1.66-5.95) among workers at the Lorain plant with a history of (primarily) acute beryllium disease, which is associated with very high beryllium exposure. The lung cancer excess was not restricted to plants operating in the 1940s, when beryllium exposures were known to be extraordinarily high. Elevated lung cancer SMRs were also observed for four of the five plants operating in the 1950s for workers hired during that decade. Neither smoking nor geographic location fully explains the increased lung cancer risk. Occupational exposure to beryllium compounds is the most plausible explanation for the increased risk of lung cancer observed in this study.

Ward, E.; Okun, A.; Ruder, A.; Fingerhut, M.; Steenland, K. (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1992-01-01

411

Modeling of beryllium deposition from a beryllium-seeded deuterium plasma  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with modeling the formation of beryllium (Be) layers deposited from a Be-seeded deuterium (D) plasma. In recent experiments at the PISCES-B divertor simulator [Y. Hirooka et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 1790 (1990)] at UC-San Diego, C targets biased at -50 V were exposed to a Be-seeded D plasma in the temperature range from 500 to 1280 K and Be plasma concentrations in the range from 0.01% to 0.4%. It was found in [K. Schmid, M. Baldwin, R. Doetner, and A. Wiltner, Nucl. Fusion 44, 815 (2004)] that even at these low Be concentrations the C samples become covered with a shielding Be layer which almost eliminates chemical and physical erosions of the C sample in the observed target temperature range. Three different approaches were used to model these experimental results: the well-established binary collision Monte Carlo code TRIDYN [W. Moeller, W. E. Und, and J. P. Biersack, Comput. Phys. Commun. 51, 355 (1988)], the recently developed plasma surface interaction code GWAR, and analytical expressions were compared. The paper explains the details of the developed models and how their results compare to the experiment.

Schmid, K.; Baldwin, M.; Doerner, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); University of California, San Diego (UCSD), Center For Energy Research, 460 EBU II 9500, Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2005-03-15

412

Modeling of beryllium deposition from a beryllium-seeded deuterium plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with modeling the formation of beryllium (Be) layers deposited from a Be-seeded deuterium (D) plasma. In recent experiments at the PISCES-B divertor simulator [Y. Hirooka et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 1790 (1990)] at UC-San Diego, C targets biased at -50 V were exposed to a Be-seeded D plasma in the temperature range from 500 to 1280 K and Be plasma concentrations in the range from 0.01% to 0.4%. It was found in [K. Schmid, M. Baldwin, R. Doetner, and A. Wiltner, Nucl. Fusion 44, 815 (2004)] that even at these low Be concentrations the C samples become covered with a shielding Be layer which almost eliminates chemical and physical erosions of the C sample in the observed target temperature range. Three different approaches were used to model these experimental results: the well-established binary collision Monte Carlo code TRIDYN [W. Mller, W. E. Und, and J. P. Biersack, Comput. Phys. Commun. 51, 355 (1988)], the recently developed plasma surface interaction code GWAR, and analytical expressions were compared. The paper explains the details of the developed models and how their results compare to the experiment.

Schmid, K.; Baldwin, M.; Doerner, R.

2005-03-01

413

Cathodoluminescence Study of Undoped and Mn Doped Lithium Tetraborate Crystals Being Developed for Neutron Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium tetraborate or LTB crystals are being developed for possible use in solid state neutron detectors. Already used in thermo luminescence dosimeters, LTB is of interest due to its large cross section for neutron capture by lithium and boron. The reaction between lithium and a neutron produces an alpha particle and tritium. When boron interacts with a neutron an alpha particle and lithium are produced. These reactions are the basis for neutron detection, and a LTB crystal enriched with Mn should show improved efficiency for such detection. There is, however, a lack of fundamental characterization information regarding this useful material, particularly with regard to its electronic configuration. In this study, cathodoluminescent spectroscopy has been used to determine the energy level structure of undoped and manganese doped lithium tetraborate crystals. Measurements were made at various beam energies from 5 to 10 KeV on samples maintained at room temperature. Self trapped exciton emission states are evident in the undoped and Mn doped LTB samples ranging in energies from 2.5 to 4.1 eV.

Dugan, Christina; Hengehold, Robert; McClory, John

2011-04-01

414

PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM HYDRIDE POWDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the production of lithium hydride powder is described. ; Lithium carbonate was converted into the chloride. From a saturated solution of ; the chloride lithium amalgam was produced by electrolysis. The lithium amalgam ; was then converted into the hydride by heating the amalgam in a hydrogen ; atmosphere. The apparatus used for the reaction of the

J. Novotny; M. Novotna

1959-01-01

415

Cathode material for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

2013-07-23

416

Study about lithium battery's characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make certain the lithium battery's terminal limited discharge voltage and internal resistance in different load, four 3.2 V\\/60Ah lithium batteries are put in series to form battery pack in tests. The lithium battery pack terminal voltage, current and overall internal resistance were recorded with the discharge time. By analyze datas from the tests with MATLAB, the lithium battery pack

Ding Zuowu; Wang Shulin; Zhao Weijun; Qu Min

2010-01-01

417

[Intoxication with lithium].  

PubMed

We report a case of a 75-year-old male patient who presented to the emergency room with arterial hypotension and impaired vigilance. The patient was on lithium therapy due to mood disorder. One month earlier medication with a betablocker, a loop-diuretic and an ACE-inhibitor had been started due to heart failure. Findings at admission included renal insufficiency, pneumonia and a slightly increased serum level of lithium. Three days later his Glasgow Coma Scale Score was 7, he showed gaze deviation, increased muscle tonus and cloni. The patient fully recovered after volume substitution and normalization of his renal function. Diagnosis of chronic intoxication with lithium was made due to the clinical picture and after exclusion of neurological pathologies. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of lithium is described and the risk factors leading to lithium intoxication and treatment of intoxication are discussed. PMID:19551652

Fiegler, K; Liechti, M E; Bodmer, M; Bruggisser, M

2009-06-24

418

Boron doped nanostructured diamond films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chemical vapor deposition hydrogen/methane/nitrogen feed-gas mixture with unconventionally high methane (15% CH4 by volume) normally used to grow ultra-hard and smooth nanostructured diamond films on Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrates was modified to include diborane B2H6 for boron-doping of diamond films. The flow rates for B2H 6 and N2 were varied to investigate their effect on plasma chemistry, film structure, boron incorporation, and mechanical properties. It was found that boron atoms can easily be incorporated into diamond films and change the lattice constant and film structure. Nitrogen, on the other hand, competes with boron in the plasma and acts to prevent boron incorporation into the diamond structure. In addition, with the appropriate choice of deposition conditions, the film structure can be tailored to range from highly crystalline, well faceted diamond to nanocrystalline diamond. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction and Micro-Raman were used as the main tools to investigate the relation between processing and structure. An optimal N2/CH4 ratio of 0.4 was found to result in a film with a minimum in grain size and surface roughness, along with high boron incorporation (4 x 1020 cm-3). Mechanical properties and thermal stability of boron doped nanostructured diamond films were examined by means of nanoindentation, open air thermal annealing, and nanotribometry. It was found that the films have high hardness close to that of undoped nanostructured diamond films. Thermal stability of these films was evaluated by heating in an oxygen environment above 700C. Improved thermal stability of boron doped nanostructured diamond films was observed. Tribological tests show that although both undoped and boron doped nanostructured diamond films show extremely low coefficient of friction and wear rate as compared with uncoated titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V) and cobalt chrome alloy (Co-Cr-Mo), a critical failure max stress of 2.2 GPa was observed for boron doped nanostructured diamond films. A FORTRAN Chemical Kinetics Package for the Analysis of Gas Phase Chemical Kinetics, gas-phase thermodynamic equilibrium calculations involving H 2/CH4/N2/B2H6 mixtures was employed to investigate the chemical interactions leading to boron incorporation and crystalline structure variations. The strong influence of the BH 3 in causing the boron incorporation and the role of CN radical in causing the nanocrystallinity are confirmed by the correlation of their modeled compositions in the gas phase with boron content and degree of nanocrystallinity as determined experimentally. A good degree of agreement was obtained between the theoretically predicted gas phase concentration of species and the experimental concentration trends as measured by the optical emission spectroscopy of the microwave plasma. Overall, high film hardness and toughness, combined with good thermal stability and low surface roughness, indicate that nanostructured boron doped diamond films can be used as wear resistant coatings that are able to withstand high temperature oxidizing environments.

Liang, Qi

419

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL; Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL; Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL

2008-01-01

420

A preliminary assessment of beryllium dust oxidation during a wet bypass accident in a fusion reactor  

SciTech Connect

A beryllium dust oxidation model has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by the Fusion Safety Program (FSP) for the MELCOR safety computer code. The purpose of this model is to investigate hydrogen production from beryllium dust layers on hot surfaces inside a fusion reactor vacuum vessel (VV) during in-vessel loss-of-cooling accidents (LOCAs). This beryllium dust oxidation model accounts for the diffusion of steam into a beryllium dust layer, the oxidation of the dust particles inside this layer based on the beryllium-steam oxidation equations developed at the INL, and the effective thermal conductivity of this beryllium dust layer. This paper details this oxidation model and presents the results of the application of this model to a wet bypass accident scenario in the ITER device.

Brad J. Merrill; Richard L. Moore; J. Phillip Sharp

2008-09-01

421

METHODOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS FOR APPLICATION TO THE STUDY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL BORON AND TO BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of immunogold labelling with electron microscopy or the direct detection of boron by electron energy loss spectrometry have the best lateral resolution for the imaging of boron or boron binding sites in tissues at the sub-cellular level. However these methods do not discriminate the boron isotopes. A number of physical methods make it possible to combine analytical imaging

Michel Thellier; Arlette Chevallier; Isabelle His; Mike C. Jarvis; Mark A. Lovell; Camille Ripoll; David Robertson; Wolfgang Sauerwein; Marie-Claire Verdus

2001-01-01

422

RADIATION DOSIMETRY OF A GRAPHITE MODERATED RADIUM BERYLLIUM SOURCE.  

SciTech Connect

The Brookhaven National Laboratory Sigma Pile a Radium-Beryllium neutron source imbedded in a cube of graphite blocks. The pile is approximately 2.13 m on four sides and is 3.07 m high. Absolute and relative thermal neutron flux measurements have been made using gold and indium foils, which were both bare and cadmium covered. Thermo-luminescent dosimeters were used to determine the neutron and gamma-ray dose rates in the pile. Gamma-ray dose rate measurements have also been made in the air outside of the pile, while the Radium-Beryllium neutron source was being withdrawn from the pile. The Monte Carlo MCNP code has been used to calculate the coupled neutron-photon transport. Measured dose rates at various locations agreed with the calculated values within 5% to 15%.

HOLDEN,N.E.; RECINIELLO,R.N.; HU,J.P.; RORER,D.C.

2002-08-18

423

JWST: Tinsley achievements on the largest beryllium polishing project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polished 1.5m bare beryllium, off-axis aspheric mirror segments, constituting the cryogenic primary mirror of NASA's ambitious Flagship Mission, James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), have been successfully completed at L-3 Communications -Tinsley. Tinsley has finished the secondary, tertiary, fine steering and spare mirrors as well. We will describe both the end results, where it was demonstrated that visible quality mirror results can be achieved on large extremely lightweighted compliant off-axis mirrors, and the steps taken at Tinsley to achieve these results. Over 26 square-meters of bare beryllium were optically processed twice, first for room temperature figure, then for the cryo-null figure for the cryogenic differences.

Daniel, Jay; Hull, Tony; Barentine, John B.

2012-09-01

424

Ultrasonic evaluation of beryllium-copper diffusion bonds  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to compare the effectiveness of several advanced ultrasonic techniques when used to determine the strength of diffusion bonded beryllium-copper, which heretofore have each been applied to only a few material systems. The use of integrated backscatter calculations, frequency domain reflection coefficients, and time-of-flight variance was compared in their ability to characterize the bond strength in a series of beryllium-copper diffusion bond samples having a wide variation in bond quality. Correlation of integrated backscatter calculations and time-of-flight variance with bond strength was good. Some correlation of the slope of the frequency based reflection coefficient was shown for medium and high strength bonds, while its Y-intercept showed moderate correlation for all bond strengths.

Jamieson, E.E.

2000-06-08

425

The effect of processing parameters on plasma sprayed beryllium for fusion applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma spraying is being investigated as a potential coating technique for applying thin (0.1--5mm) layers of beryllium on plasma facing surfaces of blanket modules in ITER and also as an in-situ repair technique for repairing eroded beryllium surfaces in high heat flux divertor regions. High density spray deposits (>98% of theoretical density) of beryllium will be required in order to

R. G. Castro; P. W. Stanek; L. A. Jacobson; D. F. Cowgill; L. L. Snead

1993-01-01

426

Protection of beryllium metal against microbial influenced corrosion using silane self-assembled monolayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of a self-assembled silane monolayer as protection for beryllium against microbiologically influenced corrosion\\u000a (MIC) was demonstrated. Four-point bend tests on coated and uncoated beryllium samples were conducted after microbiological\\u000a exposures, and the effectiveness of these coatings as MIC protection was reported through mechanical property evaluations.\\u000a Application of the silane monolayer to the beryllium surfaces was found to prevent

Rajendra U. Vaidya; Alina Deshpande; Larry Hersman; Susan M. Brozik; DARRYL P. BUTT

1999-01-01

427

Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a series of normal-incidence reflectance measurements at wavelengths just longer than the beryllium K-edge (11.1 nm) from molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors. The highest peak reflectance was 68.7 +/- 0.2% at lambda = 11.3 nm obtained from a mirror with 70 bilayers ending in beryllium. To our knowledge, this is the highest normal-incidence reflectance that has been demonstrated in the 1-80-nm spectral range.

Skulina, K. M.; Alford, C. S.; Bionta, R. M.; Makowiecki, D. M.; Gullikson, E. M.; Soufli, R.; Kortright, J. B.; Underwood, J. H.

1995-07-01

428

Examination and sensitivity study of the KOVEC constitutive model for beryllium  

SciTech Connect

We have checked the consistency of the KOVEC constitutive model for beryllium with experimental data, by examining work hardening, the temperature dependence of the yield strength, strain-rate effects, and the Hugoniot (U/sub s/-U/sub p/) relations. We have examined the sensitivity of simulations of uniaxial strain plate impact experiments, in which beryllium was used, to changes in the beryllium constitutive model. We also discuss the nonuniqueness of constitutive models. 17 figures.

Moss, W.C.; Glenn, L.A.

1983-01-01

429

Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet.  

PubMed

We report on a series of normal-incidence reflectance measurements at wavelengths just longer than the beryllium K-edge (11.1 nm) from molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors. The highest peak reflectance was 68.7 0.2% at ? = 11.3 nm obtained from a mirror with 70 bilayers ending in beryllium. To our knowledge, this is the highest normal-incidence reflectance that has been demonstrated in the 1-80-nm spectral range. PMID:21052194

Skulina, K M; Alford, C S; Bionta, R M; Makowiecki, D M; Gullikson, E M; Soufli, R; Kortright, J B; Underwood, J H

1995-07-01

430

Molybdenum\\/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a series of normal-incidence reflectance measurements at wavelengths just longer than the beryllium {ital K}-edge (11.1 nm) from molybdenum\\/beryllium multilayer mirrors. The highest peak reflectance was 68.7 ± 0.2% at λ = 11.3 nm obtained from a mirror with 70 bilayers ending in beryllium. To our knowledge, this is the highest normal-incidence reflectance that has been demonstrated

K. M. Skulina; C. S. Alford; R. M. Bionta; D. M. Makowiecki; E. M. Gullikson; R. Soufli; J. B. Kortright; J. H. Underwood

1995-01-01

431

Determination of beryllium in ores and rocks by a dilution-fluorometric method with morin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beryllium in concentrations as little as a few parts per million is determined fluorometrically with morin in low grade ores by a dilution method without separations. A high sensitivity is obtained by the adoption of instrumental and reaction conditions that give a satisfactory ratio of beryllium to blank fluorescence and at the same time minimize iron interference. Data on the behavior of 47 ions are given. The method is applied to ores containing bertrandite and beryl as the beryllium minerals.

May, R.; Grimaldi, F. S.

1961-01-01

432

Dose Rates from Plutonium Metal and Beryllium Metal in a 9975 Shipping Container  

SciTech Connect

A parametric study was performed of the radiation dose rates that might be produced if plutonium metal and beryllium metal were shipped in the 9975 shipping package. These materials consist of heterogeneous combinations plutonium metal and beryllium. The plutonium metal content varies up to 4.4 kilograms while the beryllium metal varies up to 4 kilograms. This paper presents the results of that study.

Nathan, S.J.

2002-02-04

433

DISSOLUTION OF FB-LINE METAL RESIDUES CONTAINING BERYLLIUM IN H-CANYON  

SciTech Connect

Scrap materials containing plutonium (Pu) metal from FB-Line vaults are currently being dissolved in HB-Line for subsequent disposition through the H-Canyon facility. However, milestone and schedule commitments may require the dissolution of material containing Pu and beryllium (Be) metals in H-Canyon. To support this option, a flowsheet for dissolving Pu and Be metals in H-Canyon was demonstrated using a 4 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution containing 0.3 M fluoride (F{sup -}). The F{sup -} was added as calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}). The dissolving solution also contained 2.5 g/L boron (B), a nuclear safety contingency for the H-Canyon dissolver, and 3.9 g/L iron (Fe) to represent the dissolution of carbon steel cans. The solution was heated to 90-95 C during the 8 h dissolution cycle. Dissolution of the Be metal appeared to begin as soon as the samples were added to the dissolver. Clear, colorless bubbles generated on the surface were observed and were attributed primarily to the generation of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas. The generation of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) gas was also evident from the color of the solution. Essentially all of the Pu and Be dissolved during the first hour of the dissolution as the solution was heated to 90-95 C. The amount of residual solids collected following the dissolution was < 2% of the total metal charged to the dissolver. Examination of residual solids by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the largest dimension of the particles was less than 50 {micro}m with particles of smaller dimensions being more abundant. Energy dispersive spectra from spots on some of the particles showed the solids consisted of a small amount of undissolved material, corrosion products from the glassware, and dried salts from the dissolving solution.

Rudisill, T; Mark Crowder, M; Michael Bronikowski, M

2005-07-15

434

Spherical Torus Plasma Interactions with Large-area Liquid Lithium Surfaces in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect

The Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) device at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is a spherical torus (ST) dedicated to the exploration of liquid lithium as a potential solution to reactor first-wall problems such as heat load and erosion, neutron damage and activation, and tritium inventory and breeding. Initial lithium limiter experiments were conducted with a toroidally-local liquid lithium rail limiter (L3) from the University of California at San Diego. Spectroscopic measurements showed a clear reduction of impurities in plasmas with the L3, compared to discharges with a boron carbide limiter. The evidence for a reduction in recycling was less apparent, however. This may be attributable to the relatively small area in contact with the plasma, and the presence of high-recycling surfaces elsewhere in the vacuum chamber. This conclusion was tested in subsequent experiments with a fully toroidal lithium limiter that was installed above the floor of the vacuum vessel. The new limiter covered over ten times the area of the L3 facing the plasma. Experiments with the toroidal lithium limiter have recently begun. This paper describes the conditioning required to prepare the lithium surface for plasma operations, and effect of the toroidal liquid lithium limiter on discharge performance.

R. Kaita; R. Majeski; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; B. Jones; D. Hoffman; H. Kugel; J. Menard; T. Munsat; A. Post-Zwicker; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; M. Maiorano; S. Smith

2002-01-18

435

Boronated porhyrins and methods for their use  

DOEpatents

The present invention covers boronated porphyrins containing multiple carborane cages which selectively accumulate in neoplastic tissue within the irradiation volume and thus can be used in cancer therapies such as boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy.

Miura, Michiko (Hampton Bays, NY); Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Slatkin, Daniel N. (Southhold, NY)

1999-03-02

436

Synthesis and photocurrent of amorphous boron nanowires.  

PubMed

Although theoretically feasible, synthesis of boron nanostructures is challenging due to the highly reactive nature, high melting and boiling points of boron. We have developed a thermal vapor transfer approach to synthesizing amorphous boron nanowire using a solid boron source. The amorphous nature and chemical composition of boron nanowires were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Optical properties and photoconduction of boron nanowires have not yet been reported. In our investigation, the amorphous boron nanowire showed much better optical and electrical properties than previously reported photo-response of crystalline boron nanobelts. When excited by a blue LED, the photo/dark current ratio (I/I0) is 1.5 and time constants in the order of tens of seconds. I/I0 is 1.17 using a green light. PMID:25061013

Ge, Liehui; Lei, Sidong; Hart, Amelia H C; Gao, Guanhui; Jafry, Huma; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M

2014-08-22

437

Boronated porhyrins and methods for their use  

DOEpatents

The present invention covers boronated porphyrins containing multiple carborane cages which selectively accumulate in neoplastic tissue within the irradiation volume and thus can be used in cancer therapies such as boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy. 3 figs.

Miura, M.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Slatkin, D.N.

1999-03-02

438

Is there a Population II analogy to the F star lithium dip?  

PubMed Central

Observers have found a small number of lithium-depleted halo stars in the temperature range of the Spite plateau. The current status of the mass-loss hypothesis for producing the observed lithium dip in Population (Pop) I stars is briefly discussed and extended to Pop II stars as a possible explanation for these halo objects. Based on detections of F-type main-sequence variables, mass loss is assumed to occur in a narrow temperature region corresponding to this instability strip. As Pop II main-sequence stars evolve to the blue, they enter this narrow temperature region, then move back through the lower temperature area of the Spite plateau. If 0.05 M? (solar mass) or more have been lost, they will show lithium depletion. This hypothesis affects the lithium-to- beryllium abundance, the ratio of high- to low-lithium stars, and the luminosity function. Constraints on the mass-loss hypothesis due to these effects are discussed. Finally, mass loss in this temperature range would operate in stars near the turnoff of metal-poor globular clusters, resulting in apparent ages 2 to 3 Gyr (gigayears) older than they actually are.

Dearborn, D. S. P.; Schramm, David N.

1997-01-01

439

The INEL beryllium multiplication experiment annual report FY89  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a report of activities during the second year of a three-year program to measure the multiplication of 14-MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium. The operating parameters of the neutron generator were established. The manganese sulfate solution was chemically characterized. A ²⁵²Cf neutron source was acquired for use in studying the systematics of the experimental setup. Measurements were made of

J. R. Smith; J. J. King

1989-01-01

440

Shock-wave compression of single-crystal beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium single crystals were shock loaded by planar impact along the a and c axes as well as along off-axis directions. The orientation of primary (basal), secondary (first-order prism), and tertiary (second-order pyramidal) slip systems, in addition to the relative magnitudes of their yield stresses, permits the study of dynamic yield behavior on each system separately. Slip on the primary

L. E. Pope; J. N. Johnson

1975-01-01

441

Shock?wave compression of single?crystal beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium single crystals were shock loaded by planar impact along the a and c axes as well as along off?axis directions. The orientation of primary (basal), secondary (first?order prism), and tertiary (second?order pyramidal) slip systems, in addition to the relative magnitudes of their yield stresses, permits the study of dynamic yield behavior on each system separately. Slip on the primary

L. E. Pope; J. N. Johnson

1975-01-01

442

Some frequency and damping measuements of laminated beryllium beams  

SciTech Connect

A quantum leap in vibration performance of beryllium structure has been experimentally investigated. Laminations, segmentation, and sandwich syntactic foam core have been demonstrated to have both high specific flexural structural stiffness and high damping for reduced vibratory response. Acquisition cost, weight, machinability and environmental benefits are also expected. Applications to structure of optical and inertial navigation equipment would lead to reductions in jitter levels and other vibratory response measures.

Andriulli, J.; Rogers, L.C.

1993-01-01

443

Some frequency and damping measuements of laminated beryllium beams  

SciTech Connect

A quantum leap in vibration performance of beryllium structure has been experimentally investigated. Laminations, segmentation, and sandwich syntactic foam core have been demonstrated to have both high specific flexural structural stiffness and high damping for reduced vibratory response. Acquisition cost, weight, machinability and environmental benefits are also expected. Applications to structure of optical and inertial navigation equipment would lead to reductions in jitter levels and other vibratory response measures.

Andriulli, J.; Rogers, L.C.

1993-06-01

444

Statistical methods for the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test.  

PubMed Central

The blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) is a modification of the standard lymphocyte proliferation test that is used to identify persons who may have chronic beryllium disease. A major problem in the interpretation of BeLPT test results is outlying data values among the replicate well counts (approximately 7%). A long-linear regression model is used to describe the expected well counts for each set of Be exposure conditions, and the variance of the well counts is proportional to the square of the expected count. Two outlier-resistant regression methods are used to estimate stimulation indices (SIs) and the coefficient of variation. The first approach uses least absolute values (LAV) on the log of the well counts as a method for estimation; the second approach uses a resistant regression version of maximum quasi-likelihood estimation. A major advantage of these resistant methods is that they make it unnecessary to identify and delete outliers. These two new methods for the statistical analysis of the BeLPT data and the current outlier rejection method are applied to 173 BeLPT assays. We strongly recommend the LAV method for routine analysis of the BeLPT. Outliers are important when trying to identify individuals with beryllium hypersensitivity, since these individuals typically have large positive SI values. A new method for identifying large Sls using combined data from the nonexposed group and the beryllium workers is proposed. The log(SI)s are described with a Gaussian distribution with location and scale parameters estimated using resistant methods. This approach is applied to the test data and results are compared with those obtained from the current method.

Frome, E L; Smith, M H; Littlefield, L G; Neubert, R L; Colyer, S P

1996-01-01

445

Modeling conversion efficiency experiments in gold beryllium disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of disks, varying from pure beryllium to pure gold, has been illuminated by 1 ns flat topped pulses of 3 light at intensities of 5 10¹⁴ W\\/cm² on the NOVA laser. This paper compares LASNEX models to the experimental data. Time integrated M-band spectra have been measured from both the front and back sides of a disk

S. H. Langer; D. R. Kania; R. L. Kauffman; H. N. Kornblum; F. Ze

1990-01-01

446

Plasma-beryllium interactions research in the SAPFIR device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of the plasma-beryllium interaction under steady-state high power density plasma flow in SAPFIR device has started. The main parameters of the SAPFIR device in this experiments were: power density of the plasma flow up to 6 MW\\/m2 at ion energy up to 8.5 keV. The radial profile of the power density was measured in different regimes. The optimal

A. P. Belocurov; G. G. Checalin; L. I. Elizarov; M. I. Martynov; V. I. Pistunovich

1995-01-01

447

Fracture in hexagonal closed packed metals, zinc and beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that fracture in zinc and beryllium is nucleation controlled and is independent of the nature of the barrier from which fracture nucleates. The double cantilever cleavage technique was used to determine the energy required to propagate a crack on the basal plane (0001) in single crystals. Tensile fracture data from single and asymmetric bicrystals were used to calculate the energy needed to initiate a cleavage crack on the (0001) plane.

Kamdar, M. H.

1973-01-01

448

Metalographic observation of cleaved grains in polycrystalline beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent studies of cleaved grain densities in CIP\\/HIP P-1 beryllium, different densities were observed for the same amount of plastic deformation in samples prepared by two different metallographic procedures. One polishing procedure was exclusively mechanical while the other included a final etch-polish step. The reason for the difference in observed cleaved grain densities is addressed. Results showed that stress

C. R. Heiple; J. E. Smugeresky; J. F. Capes

1978-01-01

449

Mechanical properties of diffusion bonded beryllium ingot sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for producing thick beryllium plate from ingot source material by diffusion-bonding together thin sheets is described.\\u000a The bonds produced are at least as strong as the matrix, and are produced under conditions where no significant grain growth\\u000a occurs. The laminated plate has better mechanical properties than the sheet from which it was made, and properties substantially\\u000a superior to

Clinton R. Heiple

1972-01-01

450

Mechanical properties evaluation of some commercial beryllium materials  

SciTech Connect

The integrity of a beryllium component that had developed questionable etching patterns on chemical milling is evaluated. The tensile properties of the beryllium material, which was vacuum hot-pressed (VHP), and the same material after an additional hot isostatic pressing (VHP/HIP) were compared to the properties obtained on two acceptable beryllium materials. Tensile testing was performed under strain-rate control conditions at approx. 1 x 10/sup -4/ and 2 x 10/sup -2//s at -22/sup 0/, 22/sup 0/, and 55/sup 0/C. The tensile properties of the four materials fell within specifications and no obvious differences in their ductilities were observed. However, differences in strength values were obtained. In addition, yield drops were observed for the reference materials, while the VHP and VHP/HIP materials showed only a small inflection in strain-hardening following initial yielding. Both the yield drop and inflection in strain-hardening became more pronounced with an increase in temperature.

Goldberg, A.; Hanafee, J.E.; Scott, R.G.

1982-06-30

451

Methods for boron delivery to mammalian tissue  

DOEpatents

Boron neutron capture therapy can be used to destroy tumors. This treatment modality is enhanced by delivering compounds to the tumor site where the compounds have high concentrations of boron, the boron compounds being encapsulated in the bilayer of a liposome or in the bilayer as well as the internal space of the liposomes. Preferred compounds, include carborane units with multiple boron atoms within the carborane cage structure. Liposomes with increased tumor specificity may also be used.

Hawthorne, M. Frederick (Encino, CA); Feaks, Debra A. (Los Angeles, CA); Shelly, Kenneth J. (Los Angeles, CA)

2003-01-01

452

Methods and compositions for boronizing metallic surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The present disclosure is directed to methods and compositions for boronizing metal and in particular ferrous surfaces. It has been discovered that if hydrocarbons are processed in metallic equipment which have been previously boronized, that coke formation and deposition which is commonly experienced at high temperatures can be minimized if not totally eliminated. The compositions utilized for this purpose are comprised of boron or boron compounds contained in an organic solvent or carrier together with specific activating materials.

Reid, D. K.

1985-11-26

453

Beryllium Science: US-UK agreement on the use of Atomic Energy for mutual defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-seven papers are presented on beryllium supply, production, fabrication, safe handling, analysis, powder technology, and coatings. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (DLC)

Hanafee

1988-01-01

454

Beryllium in soils of the Nevada Test Site: A preliminary assessment  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary assessment of the occurrence and distribution of beryllium in soils of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was conducted by identifying sites on the NTS where beryllium might have been used in past operations and measuring current soil beryllium concentrations at those sites. Eighty-one soil samples were collected from six sites on the NTS. The six sites were chosen after interviews with persons who are or were involved with NTS operations and stated that beryllium might have been used in operations at those sites. The soil samples were prepared for analysis using EPA procedures and analyzed by flame-atomic-absorption spectrophometry. Beryllium concentrations in the soil samples ranged from the analytical detection limit of 0.46 parts-per-million (ppM) to 4.65 ppM. The beryllium concentrations in NTS soils may be higher than estimated local background soil beryllium concentrations, but in concentrations that fall within the range found in surface soils of the United States. Air beryllium concentrations were conservatively estimated to be considerably lower than regulatory exposure limits. Further work is recommended in assessing the spatial distribution of beryllium in soils around several of the sites, with a sampling design that incorporates statistical procedures to ensure statistically valid results.

Patton, S.E.

1992-07-01

455

Vacuum Brazing of Beryllium Copper Components for the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

A process for vacuum brazing beryllium copper anode assemblies was required for the Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell System, or PEPC, a component for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Initial problems with the joint design and wettability of the beryllium copper drove some minor design changes. Brazing was facilitated by plating the joint surface of the beryllium copper rod with silver 0.0006 inch thick. Individual air sampling during processing and swipe tests of the furnace interior after brazing revealed no traceable levels of beryllium.

Tyhurst, C.C.; Cunningham, M.A.

2002-06-04

456

The beryllium quandary: will the lower exposure limits spur new developments in sampling and analysis?  

SciTech Connect

At the time this article was written, new rulemakings were under consideration at OSHA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that would propose changes to occupational exposure limits for beryllium. Given these developments, its a good time to review the tools and methods available to IHs for assessing beryllium air and surface contamination in the workplacewhats new and different, and whats tried and true. The article discusses limit values and action levels for beryllium, problematic aspects of beryllium air sampling, sample preparation, sample analysis, and data evaluation.

Brisson, Michael

2013-06-03

457

Beryllium Science: US-UK agreement on the use of Atomic Energy for mutual defense  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-seven papers are presented on beryllium supply, production, fabrication, safe handling, analysis, powder technology, and coatings. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (DLC)

Hanafee, J.E. (ed.)

1988-02-19

458

Boron Fullerenes: An Electronic Structure Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using ab initio calculations, we study electronic structure and frequency modes of B80, a member of boron fullerene family made from boron isomorphs of carbon fullerenes with additional atoms in the centers of hexagons. We also investigate geometrical and electronic structural properties of double-rings with various diameters, which are important as building blocks of boron nanotubes, and as the most

Arta Sadrzadeh; Olga Pupysheva; Ihsan Boustani; Boris Yakobson

2008-01-01

459

BORON IS REQUIRED FOR ZEBRAFISH EMBRYOGENESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron is the only element known to be essential for plants, but only circumstantial evidence for essentiality exists in animals. We report here that boron is essential for the embryonic development of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish were maintained in water with a boron concentration of 0.1 ?mol l-1 or supplemented to a concentration of 45 ?mol l-1 using ultrapure boric

RUBY I. ROWE; CURTIS D. ECKHERT

460

Boron removal from geothermal waters by electrocoagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the geothermal waters in Turkey contain extremely high concentration of boron when they are used for irrigation. The use of geothermal waters for irrigation can results in excess amount deposition of boron in soil. On the other hand, a minimal boron concentration is required for irrigational waters. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was selected as a treatment process

A. Erdem Yilmaz; Recep Boncukcuo?lu; M. Muhtar Kocakerim; M. Tolga Yilmaz; Cihan Paluluo?lu

2008-01-01

461

Lithium cell test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three lithium SO2 cells, two lithium CF cells, and a vinyl chloride cell, all with crimped seals, and all strictly experimental, were independently discharged on resistors. Three temperatures were used and several different storage temperatures. Discharge rate generally on the nominal discharges were 0.1 amp, 0.5 amp, and 1 amp. Tests results show that the crimp seals are inadequate, especially for the SO2 cells. Normal discharges present no hazards. All cells discharge to zero. The problem of lithium cell explosions, such as occurred during off-limits testing, is discussed.

Bragg, B. J.

1977-01-01

462

Potential Lithium Requirements for Fusion Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discussion of lithium requirements and supply suggests that the lithium usage anticipated by the developing fusion power industry may require lithium production well beyond current production growth rates. Present U.S. lithium resources appear sufficien...

J. N. Hartley B. F. Gore J. R. Young

1977-01-01

463

Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride.  

PubMed

The field of graphene research has developed rapidly since its first isolation by mechanical exfoliation in 2004. Due to the relativistic Dirac nature of its charge carriers, graphene is both a promising material for next-generation electronic devices and a convenient low-energy testbed for intrinsically high-energy physical phenomena. Both of these research branches require the facile fabrication of clean graphene devices so as not to obscure its intrinsic physical properties. Hexagonal boron nitride has emerged as a promising substrate for graphene devices as it is insulating, atomically flat and provides a clean charge environment for the graphene. Additionally, the interaction between graphene and boron nitride provides a path for the study of new physical phenomena not present in bare graphene devices. This review focuses on recent advancements in the study of graphene on hexagonal boron nitride devices from the perspective of scanning tunneling microscopy with highlights of some important results from electrical transport measurements. PMID:24994551

Yankowitz, Matthew; Xue, Jiamin; LeRoy, B J

2014-07-30

464

Boron doping a semiconductor particle  

SciTech Connect

A method (10,30) of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried (16), with the boron film then being driven (18) into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out (38) into piles and melted/fused (40) with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements.

Stevens, Gary Don (18912 Ravenglen Ct., Dallas, TX 75287); Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott (703 Horizon, Murphy, TX 75094); Brown, Louanne Kay (2530 Poplar Tr., Garland, TX 75042)

1998-06-09

465

Boron doping a semiconductor particle  

SciTech Connect

A method of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried, with the boron film then being driven into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out into piles and melted/fused with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements. 2 figs.

Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.; Brown, L.K.

1998-06-09

466

Structural studies of lead lithium borate glasses doped with silver oxide.  

PubMed

Silver oxide doped lead lithium borate (LLB) glasses have been prepared and characterized. Structural and composition characterization were accessed by XRD, FTIR, Raman, SEM and EDS. Results from FTIR and Raman spectra indicate that Ag(2)O acts as a network modifier even at small quantities by converting three coordinated to four coordinated boron atoms. Other physical properties, such as density, molar volume and optical basicity are also evaluated. Furthermore, they are also affected by the silver oxide composition. PMID:22088558

Coelho, Joo; Freire, Cristina; Hussain, N Sooraj

2012-02-01

467

Semiconductor Lithium-Ion Drift Diodes as High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Pair Spectrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germanium and silicon p-i-n diodes with active volumes up to 2 cm3 have been fabricated using the lithium-ion drift technique. p-type germanium doped with either gallium or zinc (5-10 ohm-cm) and boron-doped silicon (1100 ohm-cm) were the base materials. Diodes were operated at 77K in conjunction with a low noise amplifier system (270 RMS electron-holes). They have been used as

A. J. Tavendale

1964-01-01

468

First-Principles Investigation on Boron Nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First-principles calculations based on density functional theory are employed to study and predict the properties of boron and Mg boride nanostructures. For boron nanostructures, two-dimensional boron sheets are found to be metallic and made of mixtures of triangles and hexagons which benefit from the balance of two-center bonding and three-center bonding. This unusual bonding in boron sheets results in a self-doping picture where adding atoms to the hexagon cent