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1

Lithium-Beryllium-Boron : Origin and Evolution  

E-print Network

The origin and evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron is a crossing point between different astrophysical fields : optical and gamma spectroscopy, non thermal nucleosynthesis, Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis and finally galactic evolution. We describe the production and the evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron from Big Bang up to now through the interaction of the Standard Galactic Cosmic Rays with the interstellar medium, supernova neutrino spallation and a low energy component related to supernova explosions in galactic superbubbles.

Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Michel Casse; Jean Audouze

1999-07-13

2

Cosmic Lithium-Beryllium-Boron Story  

E-print Network

Light element nucleosynthesis is an important chapter of nuclear astrophysics. Specifically, the rare and fragile light nuclei Lithium, Beryllium and Boron (LiBeB) are not generated in the normal course of stellar nucleosynthesis (except Li7) and are, in fact, destroyed in stellar interiors. This characteristic is reflected in the low abundance of these simple species. Optical measurements of the beryllium and boron abundances in halo stars have been achieved by the 10 meter KECK telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope.These observations indicate a quasi linear correlation between Be and B vs Fe, at least at low metallicity. Aside GCRs, which are accelerated in the general interstellar medium (ISM) and create LiBeB through the break up of CNO by fast protons and alphas, Wolf-Rayet stars (WR) and core collapse supernovae (SNII) grouped in superbubbles could produce copious amounts of light elements via the fragmentation in flight of rapid carbon and oxygen nuclei colliding with H and He in the ISM.

Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Michel Casse

1999-02-04

3

Lithium-Beryllium-Boron Isotopic Compositions in Meteoritic Hibonite: Implications for Origin of 10  

E-print Network

Lithium-Beryllium-Boron Isotopic Compositions in Meteoritic Hibonite: Implications for Origin of 10 hibonite grains extracted from the Murchison meteorite revealed that 10 B excesses cor- relate with the 9

Nittler, Larry R.

4

Lithium-Beryllium-Boron and Oxygen in the early Galaxy  

E-print Network

Oxygen is a much better evolutionary index than iron to follow the history of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron (LiBeB) since it is the main producer of these light elements at least in the early Galaxy. The O-Fe relation is crucial to the determination of the exact physical process responsible for the LiBeB production. Calculated nucleosynthetic yields of massive stars, estimates of the energy cost of Be production, and above all recent observations reported in this meeting seem to favor a mechanism in which fast nuclei enriched into He, C and O arising from supernovae are accelerated in superbubbles and fragment on H and He in the interstellar medium.

Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Michel Casse

2000-11-24

5

Lithium, boron and beryllium in volcanic glasses and minerals studied by nuclear microprobe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of lithium, boron and beryllium was performed using a nuclear microprobe. The ?-emission yields have been measured for the most favourable nuclear reactions: 7Li(?, ???)7Li, 7Li(p, p??)7Li, 10B(p, ??)7Be and 7Li(p, n?)7Be. The possible interferences and the minimum detection limits (MDL) are presented, at different energies and for a total integrated charge of 1 ?C. Lithium and boron,

S. Rio; N. Métrich; M. Mosbah; P. Massiot

1995-01-01

6

Production of Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron by Hypernovae  

E-print Network

We investigate a possible nucleosynthetic signature of highly energetic explosions of C-O cores ("hypernovae," HNe) which might be associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We note that the direct impact of C- and O-enriched hypernova ejecta on the ambient hydrogen and helium leads to spallation reactions which can produce large amounts of the light nuclides lithium, beryllium, and boron (LiBeB). Using analytic velocity spectra of the hypernova ejecta, we calculate the LiBeB yields of different exploding C-O cores associated with observed hypernovae. The deduced yields are $\\sim 10^3$ times higher than those produced by similar (direct) means in normal Type II supernovae, and are higher than the commonly used ones arising from shock wave acceleration induced by Type II supernova (SN) explosions. To avoid overproduction of these elements in our Galaxy, hypernovae should be rare events, with $\\la 10^{-3}$ hypernovae per supernova, assuming a constant HN/SN ratio over time. This rate is in good agreement with that of long duration GRBs if we assume that the gamma-ray emission is focussed with a beaming factor $\\Omega/4\\pi \\la 10^{-2}$. This encouraging result supports the possible HN-GRB association. Thus, Galactic LiBeB abundance measurements offer a promising way to probe the HN rate history and the possible HN-GRB correlation. On the other hand, if hypernovae are associated to very massive pregalactic stars (Population III) they would produce a LiBeB pre-enrichment in proto-galactic gas, which could show up as a plateau in the lowest metallicities of the Be-Fe relation in halo stars.

Brian D. Fields; Frederic Daigne; Michel Casse; Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam

2001-07-25

7

The Spallagenic Production Rates of Lithium, Beryllium and Boron  

E-print Network

We calculate the production rates of Li6, Li7, Be9, B10 and B11 via spallation of Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen nuclei by protons and alpha-particles and by alpha-alpha fusion reactions. We include recent measurements of the cross sections of alpha-alpha fusion reactions and find that the computations yield rates of Li6 and Li7 production that are nearly a factor of two smaller than previously calculated. We begin by using the `straight ahead' approximation for the fragment energy and the `leaky-box' model for product capture in the Galaxy. In addition we test the straight ahead approximation by recalculating the production rates using an empirical description of the fragment energy distribution and find that the results closely match. We have also calculated the rates for various cosmic ray spectra and find that the hardest spectra tested decrease the rates with CR CNO by approximately an order of magnitude relative to our chosen standard. Finally we have computed the Population I elemental ratios and the Population II scaling relations for our standard and find that our computations predict an abundance of Lithium for a given abundance of Beryllium that is 1/4 smaller than previously derived.

J. P. Kneller; J. R. Phillips; T. P. Walker

2000-08-04

8

Evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron and Oxygen in the early Galaxy  

E-print Network

Oxygen is a much better evolutionary index than iron to describe the history of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron (LiBeB) since it is the main producer of these light elements at least in the early Galaxy. The O-Fe relation is crucial to the determination of the exact physical process responsible for the LiBeB production. At low metallicity, if [O/Fe] vs [Fe/H] is flat, then the production mode is independent of the interstellar metallicity, BeB is proportional to oxygen, i.e. is of primary nature. If not, the production mode is function of the progressive enrichment in O of the interstellar medium, BeB varies rather as the square of O, i.e. is of secondary nature. In the first case, fast nuclei enriched into He, C and O injected by supernovae and accelerated in surrounding superbubbles would explain the primary trend. In the second case, the main spallative agent would be the standard galactic cosmic rays. Calculated nucleosynthetic yields of massive stars, estimates of the energy cost of production of beryllium nuclei, and above all recent observations reported in this meeting seem to favor the primary mechanism, at least in the early Galaxy.

Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Michel Casse

2001-04-11

9

A study of galactic cosmic ray propagation models based on the isotopic composition of the elements lithium, beryllium and boron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A good test for a cosmic ray propagation model is its ability to predict the abundances of the light secondary nuclei lithium, beryllium, and boron. By using measured isotopic abundances of lithium, beryllium, and boron, Garcia-Munoz et al. (1979) were able to place limits on three important parameters of a leaky box propagation model. The considered parameters include the source spectral parameter, the leakage mean free path, and the characteristic adiabatic energy loss due to solar modulation. The present investigation is concerned with a critical evaluation of the information which can be deduced about these parameters from isotopic composition alone, taking into account the effects of uncertainties in the spallation cross section data.

Hinshaw, G. F.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Greiner, D. E.

1982-01-01

10

Study of beryllium and beryllium-lithium complexes in single-crystal silicon.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When beryllium is thermally diffused into silicon, it gives rise to acceptor levels 191 and 145 meV above the valence band. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that the 145-meV level is due to a more complex beryllium configuration than the 191-meV level. When lithium is thermally diffused into a beryllium-doped silicon sample, it produces two new acceptor levels at 106 and 81 meV. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that these new levels are due to lithium forming a complex with the defects responsible for the 191- and 145-meV beryllium levels, respectively. Electrical measurements imply that the lithium impurity ions are physically close to the beryllium impurity atoms. The ground state of the 106-meV beryllium-lithium level is split into two levels, presumably by internal strains. Tentative models are proposed to explain these results.

Crouch, R. K.; Robertson, J. B.; Gilmer, T. E., Jr.

1972-01-01

11

A study of beryllium and beryllium-lithium complexes in single crystal silicon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When beryllium is thermally diffused into silicon, it gives rise to acceptor levels 191 MeV and 145 meV above the valence band. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that the 145-MeV level is due to a more complex beryllium configuration than the 191-MeV level. When lithium is thermally diffused into a beryllium-doped silicon sample, it produces two acceptor levels at 106 MeV and 81 MeV. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that these levels are due to lithium forming a complex with the defects responsible for the 191-MeV and 145-MeV beryllium levels, respectively. Electrical measurements imply that the lithium impurity ions are physically close to the beryllium impurity atoms. The ground state of the 106-MeV beryllium level is split into two levels, presumably by internal strains. Tentative models are proposed.

Crouch, R. K.; Robertson, J. B.; Gilmer, T. E., Jr.

1972-01-01

12

LITHIUM-BERYLLIUM-BORON ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS IN METEORITIC HIBONITE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ORIGIN OF {sup 10}Be AND EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM IRRADIATION  

SciTech Connect

NanoSIMS isotopic measurements of Li, Be, and B in individual hibonite grains extracted from the Murchison meteorite revealed that {sup 10}B excesses correlate with the {sup 9}Be/{sup 11}B ratios in {sup 26}Al-free PLAty hibonite Crystals. From these data, an initial {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be = (5.5 {+-} 1.6) x 10{sup -4} (2{sigma}) and {sup 10}B/{sup 11}B = 0.2508 {+-} 0.0015 can be inferred. On the other hand, chondritic boron isotopic compositions were found in {sup 26}Al-bearing Spinel-HIBonite spherules, most likely due to contamination with normal boron. No {sup 7}Li excesses due to {sup 7}Be decay were observed. When combined with previously reported data, the new data yield the best defined {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be = (5.3 {+-} 1.0) x 10{sup -4} (2{sigma}) and {sup 10}B/{sup 11}B = 0.2513 {+-} 0.0012 for PLACs. A comparison of this value and the best constrained {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be = (8.8 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup -4} in CV Ca-Al-rich inclusions supports a heterogeneous distribution of {sup 10}Be and its protosolar irradiation origin. We consider two possible irradiation scenarios that could potentially lead to the observed Li-Be-B isotopic compositions in PLACs. Although in situ irradiation of solids with hibonite chemistry seems to provide the simplest explanation, more high quality data will be needed for quantitatively constraining the irradiation history.

Liu, Ming-Chang; Nittler, Larry R.; Alexander, Conel M. O'D. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC (United States); Lee, Typhoon, E-mail: mliu@dtm.ciw.ed [Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2010-08-10

13

Production of Beryllium and Boron by Spallation in Supernova Ejecta  

E-print Network

The abundances of beryllium and boron have been measured in halo stars of metallicities as low as [Fe/H] =-3. The observations show that the ratios Be/Fe and B/Fe are independent of metallicity and approximately equal to their solar values over the entire range of observed metallicity. These observations are in contradiction with the predictions of simple models of beryllium and boron production by spallation in the interstellar medium of a well mixed galaxy. We propose that beryllium and boron are produced by spallation in the ejecta of type II supernovae. In our picture, protons and alpha particles are accelerated early in the supernova event and irradiate the heavy elements in the ejecta long before the ejecta mixes with the interstellar medium. We follow the propagation of the accelerated particles with a Monte-Carlo code and find that the energy per spallation reaction is about 5 GeV for a variety of initial particle spectra and ejecta compositions. Reproducing the observed Be/Fe and B/Fe ratios requires roughly 3 times 10^{47} ergs of accelerated protons and alphas. This is much less than the 10^{51} ergs available in a supernova explosion.

Deepa Majmudar; James H. Applegate

1997-08-01

14

Simultaneous determination of boron and lithium by charged particle activation analysis  

SciTech Connect

A systematic study of proton and deuteron activations for the determination of boron and lithium using /sup 7/Be as an indicator radionuclide is described. The interferences arising from beryllium and nitrogen in the determination of these elements are discussed. It is found that with deuteron activation the contributions from boron and lithium to the total measured activity can be distinguished. Radiochemical procedures based on solvent extraction and ion exchange for the specific separation of /sup 7/Be from irradiated niobium matrix are presented. The detection limits achievable in this matrix are at 15 ppB and 6 ppB for boron and lithium, respectively. Results obtained for niobium and the NBS standard (1571), orchard leaves, are given.

Sastri, C.S.; Caletka, R.; Krivan, V.

1981-05-01

15

Boronated mesophase pitch coke for lithium insertion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boronated carbons from mesophase pitch have been used as materials for lithium storage in Li/carbon cells. Doping by boron has been realized by co-pyrolysis of coal tar pitch with the pyridine-borane complex. Amount of boron in mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) varied from 1.4 to 1.8 wt.% affecting the texture of carbon. Optical microscopy and X-ray diffractograms have shown tendency to more disordered structure for boron-doped carbon. The values of specific reversible capacity ( x) varied from 0.7 to 1.1 depending significantly on the final temperature of pyrolysis (700-1150°C). The optimal charge/discharge performance was observed for boronated carbon heated at 1000°C.

Frackowiak, E.; Machnikowski, J.; Kaczmarska, H.; Béguin, F.

16

Beryllium, Lithium and Oxygen Abundances in F-type Stars  

E-print Network

Beryllium and oxygen abundances have been derived in a sample of F-type field stars for which lithium abundances had been measured previously, with the aim of obtaining observational constraints to discriminate between the different mixing mechanisms proposed. Mixing associated with the transport of angular momentum in the stellar interior and internal gravity waves within the framework of rotating evolutionary models, appear to be promising ways to explain the observations.

R. J. Garcia Lopez; M. C. Dominguez Herrera; M. R. Perez de Taoro; C. Casares; J. L. Rasilla; R. Rebolo; C. Allende Prieto

1997-10-07

17

Ab initio treatment of electron correlations in polymers: Lithium hydride chain and beryllium hydride polymer  

E-print Network

Ab initio treatment of electron correlations in polymers: Lithium hydride chain and berylliumH and beryllium hydride Be2H4 . First, employing a Wannier-function-based approach, the systems are studiedH and the beryllium hydride polymer Be2H4 . As a simple, but due to its ionic character, non- trivial model polymer

Birkenheuer, Uwe

18

Beryllium and iron separation and concentration from lithium nitrate by gas extraction  

SciTech Connect

The scope of application of gas extraction method for separating and concentrating beryllium and iron from lithium nitrate melt has been shown. The optimum beryllium extraction conditions have been determined. The influence of the starting pH of the liquid phase, temperature, and initial acetylacetone content in the liquid phase on the degree of extraction and coefficient of beryllium distribution has been ascertained.

Sevast'yanov, A.I.; Kovtun, L.V.; Lanskaya, N.G.; Chepovoi, V.I.

1988-11-01

19

Control of beryllium-7 in liquid lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation fields created by the production of ⁷Be in lithium of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility can be sufficiently high to prevent contact maintenance of system components. Preliminary experiments have shown that ⁷Be will adhere strongly to the FMIT piping and components and a good control method for ⁷Be must be developed. The initial experiments have been conducted

R. P. Anantatmula; W. F. Brehm; D. L. Baldwin; J. L. Bevan

1978-01-01

20

X-Ray Yields from Elements in the Range Beryllium to Aluminium  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSOLUTE measurements have been made, it is believed for the first time, of the K X-ray quantum yields resulting from electron bombardment of solid targets containing the elements beryllium, boron, oxygen and fluorine. For beryllium and boron 99 per cent pure targets were used while beryllium oxide and lithium fluoride were used for the oxygen and fluorine yields; corrections were

A. J. Campbell; R. Gibbons

1962-01-01

21

A Lithium-Beryllium Method for the Detection of Solar Neutrinos  

E-print Network

A method for the detection of solar neutrino has been developed using the laboratory bench installations. The efficiency of the extraction of beryllium from lithium as high as 96.4{%} has been achieved, and it was shown that lithium losses during the extraction were less than 1{%}. The prospects of a full-scale experiment with a 10-t lithium detector consisting of twenty 500-kg lithium modules are discussed. The technical solutions formulated on the basis of this study enable to make design of a pilot lithium installation containing 500 kg of metallic lithium

A. V. Kopylov; I. V. Orekhov; V. V. Petukhov; A. E. Solomatin

2009-10-20

22

Test fixture design for boron-aluminum and beryllium test panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed description of the test fixture design and the backup analysis of the fixture assembly and its components are presented. The test fixture is required for the separate testing of two boron-aluminum and two beryllium compression panels. This report is presented in conjunction with a complete set of design drawings on the test fixture system.

Breaux, C. G.

1973-01-01

23

Lithium-boron alloy anodes for molten salt batteries (2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium-boron alloy system has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), metallography, and X-ray analysis. The alloy is a two-phase material, consisting of a high-melting crystalline compound with a stoichiometry of Li7B6 into which has been wicker excess elemental lithium. The excess lithium, while being held immobile by the solid Li7B6 matrix, is available for anodic anodic discharge in

S. Dallek; D. W. Ernst; B. F. Larrick

1978-01-01

24

Boron nitride protective coating of beryllium window surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The use of beryllium windows on white synchrotron radiation beamlines is constrained by the fact that the downstream surfaces of these windows should not be exposed to ambient atmosphere. They should, rather, be protected by a tail-piece under vacuum or containing helium atmosphere. This tailpiece is typically capped by Kapton (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) or aluminum foil. The reason for such an arrangement is due to the health risk associated with contaminants (BeO) which from on the exposed beryllium window surfaces and due to possible loss of integrity of the windows. Such a tail-piece may, however, add unwanted complications to the beamline in the form of vacuum pumps or helium supplies and their related monitoring systems. The Kapton windows may burn through in the case of high intensity beams and lower energy radiation may be absorbed in the case of aluminum foil windows. A more ideal situation would be to provide a coating for the exposed beryllium window surface, sealing it off from the atmosphere, thus preventing contamination and/or degradation of the window, and eliminating the need for helium or vacuum equipment.

Gmuer, N.F.

1991-12-01

25

Measurement of the melting point temperature of several lithium-sodium-beryllium fluoride salt (FLINABE) mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium flourides, was studied for molten salt fission reactors and has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for the fusion applications. 2LiF-BeF melts at 460 C. LiF-BeF melts at a lower temperature, 363 C, but is rather viscous and has less lithium breeder. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program,

Timothy J. Boyle; Kenneth P. Troncosa; Richard Einar Nygren; Thomas Joseph Lutz; Jimmie M. McDonald; Tina Joan Tanaka; Michael Andrew Ulrickson

2004-01-01

26

Lithium-boron alloy anodes for molten salt batteries, 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current work is concerned with the development of a procedure for the preparation of a lithium-boron alloy suitable for use as an anode in thermal batteries. Metallography, thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction techniques are being developed as tools for studying this multiphase material. A chemical analysis is planned to identify the composition of the various phases. Once the phase

S. Dallek; D. W. Ernst; B. F. Larrick

1978-01-01

27

Sintering of Beryllium Oxide With 3 to 5 Per Cent Elemental Boron; FRITTAGE DE L'OXYDE DE BERYLLIUM A 3 ET 5 POUR CENT DE BORE ELEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to fabricate a screen absorber for neutrons of various ; energies, a mixture of a moderator and an absorbor was obtained by hot pressing a ; powder containing technical-grade beryllium oxide and boron carbide. The ; compact obtained is a briquette of 100 x 100 x 50 mm, machined on all surfaces, ; with a density of 2.85

R. Pointud; Ch. Rispal; M. Le Garec

1958-01-01

28

Beryllium bis(diazaborolyl): old neighbors finally shake hands.  

PubMed

The synthesis of a linear beryllium bis(diazaborolyl) compound featuring the first non-cluster bond between boron and beryllium has been achieved through the reaction of Yamashita's lithium diazaborolide and BeCl2. In accord with the established chemistry of beryllium, the bonding is polar covalent in character, as determined by structural and spectroscopic analysis, as well as reactivity studies. PMID:25417558

Arnold, T; Braunschweig, H; Ewing, W C; Kramer, T; Mies, J; Schuster, J K

2015-01-14

29

Isotope shifts in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy levels, normal and specific mass shift parameters as well as electronic densities at the nucleus are reported for numerous states along the beryllium, boron, carbon, and nitrogen isoelectronic sequences. Combined with nuclear data, these electronic parameters can be used to determine values of level and transition isotope shifts. The calculation of the electronic parameters is done using first-order perturbation theory with relativistic configuration interaction wavefunctions that account for valence, core-valence, and core-core correlation effects as zero-order functions. Results are compared with experimental and other theoretical values, when available.

Nazé, C.; Verdebout, S.; Rynkun, P.; Gaigalas, G.; Godefroid, M.; Jönsson, P.

2014-09-01

30

Logarithmic mean excitation energies: II. Helium, lithium, beryllium, and the 2s state of hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The four logarithmic excitation eneriges I(?) for ?=-1, 0, 1, and 2 have been calculated for helium, lithium, beryllium, and the 2s state of hydrogen. They appear in the expressions of the total cross section, the stopping power, and the straggling effect for fast charged particles, and in the expressions of the Lamb shift of atomic energy levels. The method was introduced some years ago [Rosendorff and Birman, Phys. Rev. A 31, 612 (1985)]. For hydrogen the method is rigorous. Exact one-particle wave functions given by Clementi were used. Thus, correlation and symmetrization effects were neglected. For the nonhydrogen states, the relevant differential equations were solved by using a computer. An effective charge was defined which has interesting features. It is helpful in gaining some physical insight into the results obtained for helium and the 1s and 2s states of lithium and beryllium.

Rosendorff, S.; Schlaile, H. G.

1993-10-01

31

Determination of boron and lithium by recording the products from (n, alpha) reactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Irradiation with thermal neutrons in the VVR-S reactor provides a nondestructive method for determining the presence of boron and lithium in solids. The charged particles produced in the reactions Li-6(n,alpha)H-3 and B-10(n,alpha)Li-7 were detected using CsI single crystal. For alpha-particle spectrometry in the boron determination, an ionization chamber (W and Sn electrodes, 99% Ar + 1% H2) was developed allowing both absolute and relative measurements. In determining boron in lithium-containing samples, both scintillation and ionization chambers are used. In determining lithium in minerals, the error was 1.5%, and the sensitivity 0.00005 wt.%. In the determination of boron in SiC with a concentration of boron approximately (3 plus or minus 2) the error given by the alpha-range uncertainty was 15%.

Lobanov, Y. M.; Zverev, B. P.; Simakhin, Y. F.; Usmanova, M. M.

1978-01-01

32

LITHIUM-7, BORON-10, BORON-11, and OXYGEN-17 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Lithium Borate Glasses and Related Compounds.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies of lithium borate glasses employing the two stable isotopes of boron, B('10) and B('11), were used in the formulation of a consistent structural model throughout the glass-forming region. The ideas of Krogh-Moe were used in which the glasses are viewed as mixtures of units found in corresponding crystalline compounds. For low-alkali oxide content glasses the results are in good agreement with those obtained by Jellison and Bray in sodium borate glasses. These glasses are viewed as being mixtures of boroxol, tetraborate and diborate units. Intermediate-alkali oxide content glasses satisfy a model proposed in this thesis in which diborate and tetraborate units are destroyed to form loose N('4) and metaborate units. For high-alkali oxide content glasses the results are in good agreement with a model proposed by Yun and Yun and Bray in which loose N('4), metaborate, pyroborate and orthoborate units exist. Li(,2)O, enriched in O('17), was synthesized in such a way that H(,2)O enriched to 54% O('17) was efficiently transferred into Li(,2)O. It is hypothesized that the synthesis of Li(,2)O enriched in O('17) as well as the synthesis of the other alkali oxides (e.g. Na(,2)O, K(,2)O, Rb(,2)O and Cs(,2)O) will greatly enlarge the range of O('17) NMR studies of glasses and related compounds. Li('7) and O('17) NMR studies of Li(,2)O revealed structureless derivative spectra of linewidths 9.9 gauss and 5.8 gauss, respectively. These experimental results were compared to a second-moment calculation of the linewidths using the anti-fluorite crystal structure for Li(,2)O. O('17) NMR studies of two lithium borate compounds, lithium metaborate (Li(,2)O(.)B(,2)O(,3)) and lithium orthoborate (3Li(,2)O(.)B(,2)O(,3)) were used to identify the quadrupole parameters of bridging and non-bridging oxygen atoms. These results, in conjunction with B('11) NMR results from these compounds, were used to determine charge densities associated with the boron and oxygen atoms by means of the simplifying approximations of Townes and Dailey.

Feller, Steven Allen

1980-06-01

33

Distrontium lithium beryllium triborate, Sr2LiBeB3O8  

PubMed Central

Single crystals of distrontium lithium beryllium triborate, Sr2LiBeB3O8, were obtained by spontaneous nucleation from a high-temperature melt. In the Sr2Li[BeB3O8] structure, [BeB2O7]6? rings, made up from one BeO4 tetra­hedron and two BO3 triangles, are connected to each other by [BO3] triangles to form the smallest repeat unit {[BeB3O8]8?} and then form chains along the b axis. The Sr2+ cations are seven- or eight-­coordinated and Li+ cations are tetra-­coordinated and lie between the chains. PMID:22590052

Yu, Na; Ye, Ning

2012-01-01

34

On the nature of Lithium-rich giant stars: constraints from Beryllium abundances  

E-print Network

We have derived beryllium abundances for 7 Li-rich giant (A(Li) > 1.5) stars and 10 other Li-normal giants, with the aim of investigating the origin of the Lithium in the Li-rich giants. In particular, we test the predictions of the engulfment scenario proposed by Siess & Livio (1999), where the engulfment of a brown dwarf or one or more giant planets would lead to a simultaneous enrichment of 7Li and 9Be. We show that regardless their nature, none of the stars studied in this paper were found to have detectable beryllium. Using simple dilution arguments we show that the engulfment of an external object as the sole source of Li enrichment is ruled out by the Li and Be abundance data. The present results favor the idea that Li has been produced in the interior of the stars by a Cameron-Fowler process and brought up to the surface by an extra mixing mechanism.

C. H. F. Melo; P. de Laverny; N. C. Santos; G. Israelian; S. Randich; J. D. do Nascimento Jr.; J. R. De Medeiros

2005-04-06

35

Beryllium is an inhibitor of cellular GSK-3? that is 1,000-fold more potent than lithium.  

PubMed

Glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) is a key regulator in signaling networks that control cell proliferation, metabolism, development, and other processes. Lithium chloride is a GSK-3 family inhibitor that has been a mainstay of in vitro and in vivo studies for many years. Beryllium salt has the potential to act as a lithium-like inhibitor of GSK-3, but it is not known whether this agent is effective under physiologically relevant conditions. Here we show that BeSO4 inhibits endogenous GSK-3? in cultured human cells. Exposure to 10 µM Be(2+) produced a decrease in GSK-3? kinase activity that was comparable to that produced by 10 mM Li(+), indicating that beryllium is about 1,000-fold more potent than the classical inhibitor when treating intact cells. There was a statistically significant dose-dependent reduction in specific activity of GSK-3? immunoprecipitated from cells that had been treated with either agent. Lithium inhibited GSK-3? kinase activity directly, and it also caused GSK-3? in cells to become phosphorylated at serine-9 (Ser-9), a post-translational modification that occurs as part of a well-known positive feedback loop that suppresses the kinase activity. Beryllium also inhibited the kinase directly, but unlike lithium it had little effect on Ser-9 phosphorylation in the cell types tested, suggesting that alternative modes of feedback inhibition may be elicited by this agent. These results indicate that beryllium, like lithium, can induce perturbations in the GSK-3? signaling network of treated cells. PMID:25104312

Mudireddy, Swapna R; Abdul, Ataur Rahman Mohammed; Gorjala, Priyatham; Gary, Ronald K

2014-12-01

36

Measurement of the Melting Point Temperature of Several Lithium-Sodium-Beryllium Fluoride Salt (Flinabe) Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium fluorides studied for molten salt fission reactors, has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for fusion applications. The melting points of 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} and LiF-BeF{sub 2} are 460 deg. C and 363 deg. C, but LiF-BeF{sub 2} is rather viscous and has less lithium for breeding. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing liquid for the first wall and blanket were investigated. Flinabe (a mixture of LiF, BeF{sub 2} and NaF) was selected for a molten salt design because a melting temperature below 350 deg. C appeared possible and this provided an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a stainless steel crucible under vacuum. One had an apparent melting temperature of 305 deg. C. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, melting procedures and temperature curves for the melting and cooling are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible is reported in an accompanying paper.

McDonald, J.M; Nygren, R.E.; Lutz, T.J.; Tanaka, T.J; Ulrickson, M.A.; Boyle, T.J.; Troncosa, K.P. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States)

2005-04-15

37

Potential mining of lithium, beryllium and strontium from oilfield wastewater after enrichment in constructed wetlands and ponds.  

PubMed

Shortages of resources (chemical elements) used by growing industrial activities require new techniques for their acquisition. A suitable technique could be the use of wetlands for the enrichment of elements from produced water of the oil industry. Oil industries produce very high amounts of water in the course of oil mining. These waters may contain high amounts of rare elements. To our best knowledge nothing is known about the economic potential regarding rare element mining from produced water. Therefore, we estimated the amount of harvestable rare elements remaining in the effluent of a constructed wetland-pond system which is being used to treat and evaporate vast quantities of produced waters. The examined wetland system is located in the desert of the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula. This system manages 95,000 m(3) per day within 350 ha of surface flow wetlands and 350 ha of evaporation ponds and is designed to be used for at least 20 years. We found a strong enrichment of some chemical elements in the water pathway of the system (e.g. lithium up to 896 ?g L(-1) and beryllium up to 139 ?g L(-1)). For this wetland, lithium and beryllium are the elements with the highest economic potential resulting from a high price and load. It is calculated that after 20 years retention period 131 t of lithium and 57 t of beryllium could be harvested. This technique may also be useful for acquisition of rare earth elements. Other elements (e.g. strontium) with a high calculated load of 4500 tons in 20 years are not efficiently harvestable due to a relatively low market value. In conclusion, wetland treated waters from the oil industry offer a promising new acquisition technique for elements like lithium and beryllium. PMID:25010942

Schaller, Jörg; Headley, Tom; Prigent, Stephane; Breuer, Roman

2014-09-15

38

Measurement of the melting point temperature of several lithium-sodium-beryllium fluoride salt (FLINABE) mixtures.  

SciTech Connect

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium flourides, was studied for molten salt fission reactors and has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for the fusion applications. 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at 460 C. LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at a lower temperature, 363 C, but is rather viscous and has less lithium breeder. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing ternary molten salt for the first wall surface and blanket were investigated. The molten salt (FLiNaBe, a ternary mixture of LiF, BeF2 and NaF) salt was selected because a melting temperature below 350 C that would provide an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor application appeared possible. This information came from a Russian binary phase diagram and a US ternary phase diagram in the 1960's that were not wholly consistent. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and, BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a small stainless steel crucible under vacuum. The proportions of the three salts were selected to yield conglomerate salts with as low a melting temperature as possible. The temperature of the salts and the crucible were recorded during the melting and subsequent re-solidification using a thermocouple directly in the salt pool and two thermocouples embedded in the crucible. One mixture had an apparent melting temperature of 305 C. Particular attention was paid to the cooling curve of the salt temperature to observe evidence of any mixed intermediate phases between the fully liquid and fully solid states. The clarity, texture, and thickness were observed and noted as well. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, and the melting procedure are described. The temperature curves for the melting and cooling of each of the mixtures are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible was also done and is reported in a separate paper.

Boyle, Timothy J.; Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Nygren, Richard Einar; Lutz, Thomas Joseph; McDonald, Jimmie M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

2004-09-01

39

Hyperfine structures and Landé gJ-factors for n=2 states in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy levels, hyperfine interaction constants, and Landé gJ-factors are reported for n=2 states in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations. Valence, core-valence, and core-core correlation effects are taken into account through single and double-excitations from multireference expansions to increasing sets of active orbitals. A systematic comparison of the calculated hyperfine interaction constants is made with values from the available literature.

Verdebout, S.; Nazé, C.; Jönsson, P.; Rynkun, P.; Godefroid, M.; Gaigalas, G.

2014-09-01

40

Beryllium decorated armchair boron nitride nanoribbon: A new planar tetracoordinate nitride containing system with enhanced conductivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter, a new kind of planar tetracoordinate nitride (ptN) structure is obtained via Be-decorated armchair boron nitride nanoribbon (aBNNR). The high stability of such a ptN system is confirmed by both global minimization and molecular dynamical simulation at 1500 K. The results suggest that this Be-decorated aBNNR will be a thermally stable material. The electronic property of aBNNR is significantly increased after the addition of Be atoms to the edges and the band gap decreases as the width of the ribbon decreases. Our Letter posits a new and potentially stable and useful BNNR and augments the literature on ptN.

Xiao, Bo; Yu, Xuefang; Hu, Hong; Ding, Yihong

2014-07-01

41

Method for hot pressing beryllium oxide articles  

DOEpatents

The hot pressing of beryllium oxide powder into high density compacts with little or no density gradients is achieved by employing a homogeneous blend of beryllium oxide powder with a lithium oxide sintering agent. The lithium oxide sintering agent is uniformly dispersed throughout the beryllium oxide powder by mixing lithium hydroxide in an aqueous solution with beryllium oxide powder. The lithium hydroxide is converted in situ to lithium carbonate by contacting or flooding the beryllium oxide-lithium hydroxide blend with a stream of carbon dioxide. The lithium carbonate is converted to lithium oxide while remaining fixed to the beryllium oxide particles during the hot pressing step to assure uniform density throughout the compact.

Ballard, Ambrose H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Godfrey, Jr., Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Mowery, Erb H. (Clinton, TN)

1988-01-01

42

BORON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowledge of boron chemical speciation is important in understanding bioavailability, excretion, and retention of boron derived from supplemental dietary sources. Undissociated boric acid is the predominant species of boron in most natural freshwater systems. Five antibiotics, one with apparent pote...

43

Galactic Cosmic Rays from Superbubbles and the Abundances of Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron  

E-print Network

In this article we study the galactic evolution of the LiBeB elements within the framework of a detailed model of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy that includes galactic cosmic ray nucleosynthesis by particles accelerated in superbubbles. The chemical composition of the superbubble consists of varying proportions of ISM and freshly supernova synthesized material. The observational trends of 6 LiBeB evolution are nicely reproduced by models in which GCR come from a mixture of 25% of supernova material with 75% of ISM, except for 6 Li, for which maybe an extra source is required at low metallicities. To account for 7 Li evolution several additional sources have been considered (neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis, nova outbursts, C-stars). The model fulfills the energetic requirements for GCR acceleration.

Andreu Alibes; Javier Labay; Ramon Canal

2002-02-05

44

Cosmic Ray Models for Early Galactic Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron Production  

E-print Network

To understand better the early galactic production of Li, Be, and B by cosmic ray spallation and fusion reactions, the dependence of these production rates on cosmic ray models and model parameters is examined. The sensitivity of elemental and isotopic production to the cosmic ray pathlength magnitude and energy dependence, source spectrum, spallation kinematics, and cross section uncertainties is studied. Changes in these model features, particularly those features related to confinement, are shown to alter the Be- and B-versus-Fe slopes {}from a na\\"{\\i}ve quadratic relation. The implications of our results for the diffuse $\\gamma$-ray background are examined, and the role of chemical evolution and its relation to our results is noted. It is also noted that the unmeasured high energy behavior of $\\alpha+\\alpha$ fusion can lead to effects as large as a factor of 2 in the resultant yields. Future data should enable Population II Li, Be, and B abundances to constrain cosmic ray models for the early Galaxy.

Brian Fields; Keith Olive; David Schramm

1994-05-11

45

Lithium-Beryllium-Boron Evolution: From Meneguzzi, Audouze and Reeves 1971 Up to Now  

E-print Network

We review the main sources of LiBeB production and show that a primary mechanism is at work in the early Galaxy involving both ejection and acceleration of He, C and O at moderate energy, which by nuclear interaction with H and He produce light isotopes. The precise measurement of the Be abundance at [Fe/H] = -3.3 and of $^6Li$ in halo stars find an explanation in this framework. Thus, the preservation of $^6Li$ in the atmosphere of metal poor stars implied, points toward the fact the Spite plateau reflects the primordial value of Li. Consequently, it can be used as a baryodensitometer.

M. Casse; E. Vangioni-Flam; J. Audouze

2001-01-18

46

The isotopic composition of galactic cosmic-ray lithium, beryllium, and boron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The isotopes of cosmic-ray Li, Be, and B near 100 MeV per nucleon have been measured with cosmic-ray telescopes on board the IMP-7 and IMP-8 satellites during 1973 and 1974. The measured isotopic abundances provide a stringent test for models of interstellar propagation and solar modulation. It is found that the isotopic abundances can be explained using a steady-state interstellar propagation model with a 5-g/sq cm leakage mean free path. These results, taken along with Be-10 abundance measurements, indicate a longer lifetime for cosmic rays than that predicted by the usual assumption of an average interstellar density of 1 to 3 atoms per cu cm.

Garcia-Munoz, M.; Mason, G. M.; Simpson, J. A.

1975-01-01

47

The isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray lithium, beryllium and boron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The isotopic composition of galactic-cosmic-ray Li, Be, and B has been measured near 100 MeV/nucleon by using the University of Chicago IMP 7 and IMP 8 cosmic-ray telescopes during 1973-1975. The measured abundances allow detailed checks of models of interstellar propagation and solar modulation to be made and conclusions to be drawn concerning the spectral forms at the source and the minimum solar modulation level. For example, comparing these results with local interstellar spectra calculated by using a 'leaky box' model, it is found that if solar modulation is ignored, there is no unique leakage mean free path consistent with all the observations. However, by taking account of a sizable level of residual solar modulation, excellent agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured abundances. Thus, these isotopic abundances confirm the old hypothesis that cosmic-ray Li, Be, and B are produced as secondaries in interstellar space.

Garcia-Munoz, M.; Mason, G. M.; Simpson, J. A.

1978-01-01

48

Composition dependence of hydrogen and ammonia release in the lithium-boron-nitrogen-hydrogen quaternary system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new quaternary hydride in the lithium-boron-nitrogen-hydrogen (Li-B-N-H) quaternary phase diagram forms by the reaction of lithium amide (LiNH2) and lithium borohydride (LiBH4) near the approximate composition LiB0.33N0.67H2.67. When heated, the quaternary hydride first melts and then releases greater than 10 wt% hydrogen and a small amount of ammonia (2-3 mole% of the generated gas). We studied hydrogen and ammonia release from the series of reactant mixtures (LiNH2)x(LiBH4)1-x as a function of composition using volumetric, gravimetric, mass spectrometer, and in situ x-ray diffraction measurements. We found that maximum hydrogen and minimum ammonia release do occur for x = 0.67. We observe that this composition corresponds to the ternary decomposition end product Li3BN2 rather than to the true single phase composition of the quaternary hydride as determined from our single crystal x-ray diffraction measurements.

Meisner, Gregory P.; Scullin, Matthew L.; Pinkerton, Frederick E.; Meyer, Martin S.; Balogh, Michael P.

2006-03-01

49

Acidity enhancement of unsaturated bases of group 15 by association with borane and beryllium dihydride. Unexpected boron and beryllium Brønsted acids.  

PubMed

The intrinsic acidity of CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]CHXH2, HC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CXH2 (X = N, P, As, Sb) derivatives and of their complexes with BeH2 and BH3 has been investigated by means of high-level density functional theory and molecular orbital ab initio calculations, using as a reference the ethyl saturated analogues. The acidity of the free systems steadily increases down the group for the three series of derivatives, ethyl, vinyl and ethynyl. The association with both beryllium dihydride and borane leads to a very significant acidity enhancement, being larger for BeH2 than for BH3 complexes. This acidity enhancement, for the unsaturated compounds, is accompanied by a change in the acidity trends down the group, which do not steadily decrease but present a minimum value for both the vinyl- and the ethynyl-phosphine. When the molecule acting as the Lewis acid is beryllium dihydride, the ?-type complexes in which the BeH2 molecules interact with the double or triple bond are found, in some cases, to be more stable, in terms of free energies, than the conventional complexes in which the attachment takes place at the heteroatom, X. The most important finding, however, is that P, As, and Sb ethynyl complexes with BeH2 do not behave as P, As, or Sb Brønsted acids, but unexpectedly as Be acids. PMID:25415658

Martín-Sómer, Ana; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

2015-01-21

50

Boron  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Boron is an essential micronutrient element required for plant growth. Boron deficiency is wide-spread in crop plants throughout the world especially in coarse-textured soils in humid areas. Boron toxicity can also occur, especially in arid regions under irrigation. Plants respond directly to the...

51

Structure of lithium-boron alloys and their performance as potential anodes for high power molten salt batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anodic discharge curves in the LiCl-KCl eutectic melt have been obtained for two lithium-boron alloys (70 and 80 weight % Li) between 673 and 873 K (400 and 600 C) and from 2-8 A\\/sq cm. The behavior of Li contained in wicks of porous Ni was also studied for comparison. Calculated Li contents for Li-B alloy anodes, at the main

S. D. James; L. E. Devries

1976-01-01

52

Beryllium Enhancement as Evidence for Accretion in a Lithium-Rich F Dwarf  

E-print Network

The early F dwarf star ``J37'' in the open cluster NGC6633 shows an unusual pattern of photospheric abundances, including an order of magnitude enhancement of lithium and iron-peak elements, but an under-abundance of carbon. As a consequence of its thin convection zone these anomalies have been attributed to either radiative diffusion or the accretion of hydrogen-depleted material. By comparing high resolution VLT/UVES spectra of J37 (and other F stars in NGC 6633) with syntheses of the Be ii doublet region at 3131 Ang, we establish that J37 also has a Be abundance (A(Be)=3.0+/-0.5) that is at least ten times the cosmic value. This contradicts radiative diffusion models that produce a Li over-abundance, as they also predict photospheric Be depletion. Instead, since Be is a highly refractory element, it supports the notion that J37 is the first clear example of a star that has accreted volatile-depleted material with a composition similar to chondritic meteorites, although some diffusion may be necessary to explain the low C and O abundances.

J. F. Ashwell; R. D. Jeffries; B. Smalley; C. P. Deliyannis; A. Steinhauer; J. R. King

2005-08-04

53

SYNTHESIS OF A NEW FAMILY OF FLUORINATED BORONATE COMPOUNDS AS ANION RECEPTORS AND STUDIES OF THEIR USE AS ADDITIVES IN LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTES.  

SciTech Connect

Numerous studies have been done on developing new electrolytes for lithium batteries with high ionic conductivity, and good chemical and electrochemical stability. In addition to the research on new salts and solvents, the use of cation receptors to reduce ion pairing in non-aqueous electrolytes has been considered as an approach to improve the properties of electrolytes. Although both cation and anion receptors enhance the dissociation of ion pairs and increase the conductivity of electrolytes, the use of anion receptors is more attractive for a lithium battery electrolyte because anion receptors increase the lithium transference number in the electrolyte. However, most available neutral anion receptors complex with anions through hydrogen binding and cannot be used in lithium batteries. Recently, we have reported on synthesis of a series of new neutral boron compounds as anion receptors based on the idea that electron-deficient boron would complex the anion of the ion pair. The anion complexation effect of these boron compounds was further enhanced by attaching electron-withdrawing groups. Here we report synthesis of another new family of boronate compounds. The effect of these new compounds on conductivity of lithium salts in non-aqueous solution was studied. The molecular weights of these new boronate compounds are lower than our previously reported boron compounds. Therefore, their effects on conductivity enhancement are superior. They also display high electrochemical stability up to 5 V.

MCBREEN,J.; LEE,H.S.; YANG,X.Q.

2001-06-08

54

Content of lithium, beryllium, boron, and titanium, and the isotopic composition of lithium, boron, and magnesium in Luna 16 regolith sample  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The abundance of the following elements in the L 16-19 No. 118 regolith sample, zone V was determined by isotopic dilution using a mass spectrometer equipped with a scattering ion source: Li -- 9.8, Be -- 1.2, Be -- 2.6, and Ti -- 1.92 percent. For comparison, these same elements were measured in samples of surface material returned by Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 14, and in the terrestrial reference standard diabase W-1. The content of Li, Be, and B in the Luna 16 sample is nearly the same as in the Apollo 11 surface material. The surface material returned by Apollo 12 and Apollo 14 contains two to four times more of these elements. However, the abundance ratios of Li, Be, and B are remarkably similar in the surface materials from the four different lunar regions. With respect to basaltic achondrites and especially with respect to chondrites, the lunar basalts are enriched in Li, Be, and B up to 100 times.

Eugster, O.

1974-01-01

55

Comparative studies of the electrochemical and thermal stability of two types of composite lithium battery electrolytes using boron-based anion receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative studies were done on two new types of boron based anion receptors, tris(pentafluorophenyl) borane (TFPB) and tris(pentafluorophenyl) borate (TFPBO), regarding conductivity enhancement, and electrochemical and thermal stability when used as additives in composite electrolytes for lithium batteries. Both additives enhance the ionic conductivity of electrolytes of simple lithium salts, LiF, CFâCOâLi, and CâFâCOâLi in several organic solvents\\/ The electrochemical

X. Sun; H. S. Lee; X. Q. Yang; J. McBreen

1999-01-01

56

Comparative Studies of the Electrochemical and Thermal Stability of Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Using Two Types of Boron-Based Anion Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative studies were done on two new types of boron based anion receptors, tris(pentafluorophenyl) borane (TFPB) and tris(pentafluorophenyl) borate (TFPBO), regarding conductivity enhancement electrochemical and thermal stability when used as additives in composite electrolytes for lithium batteries. Both additives enhance the ionic conductivity of electrolytes of simple lithium salts, LiF, CFâCOâLi and CâFâCOâLi in several organic solvents. The electrochemical windows

X. Q. Yang; H. S. Lee; X. Sun; J. McBreen

1999-01-01

57

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2012, estimated world lithium consumption was about 28 kt (31,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, an 8 percent increase from that of 2011. Estimated U.S. consumption was about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, the same as that of 2011. The United States was thought to rank fourth in consumption of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Rockwood Lithium Inc., produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

Jaskula, B.W.

2013-01-01

58

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2009, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1.2 kt (1,300 st) of contained lithium, a 40-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium, and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2009, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 18.7 kt (20,600 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds.

Jaskula, B.W.

2010-01-01

59

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2010, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1 kt (1,100 st) of contained lithium, a 23-percent decrease from 2009. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium. It remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2010, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 21 kt (22,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 12-percent increase from 2009.

Jaskula, B.W.

2011-01-01

60

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

Jaskula, B.W.

2012-01-01

61

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

Ober, J.A.

2006-01-01

62

Analysis of ultratrace lithium and boron by neutron activation and mass-spectrometric measurement of 3He and 4He.  

PubMed

A new technique for analysis of lithium and boron at ultratrace concentrations (less than 10(-8)g g-1) is described. The method consists of mass-spectrometric assay of 3He from decay of tritium produced by thermal-neutron reaction on 6Li, and 4He produced by thermal-neutron reaction on 10B. Two neutron-irradiation facilities were used: the McMaster reactor, which is 235U-enriched and light-water moderated; and a graphite-moderated thermal column attached to the 235U-enriched, heavy-water-moderated core at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) reactor. In the McMaster irradiations, fast neutrons (greater than 0.2 MeV) induce the reactions 14N(n, 3H)12C, 12C(n, alpha)9Be, 16O(n, alpha)13C, and 14N(n, alpha)11B. These reactions become serious sources of error in samples such as human blood which have very low concentrations of lithium and boron, and high concentrations of nitrogen, carbon and oxygen. In the NBS thermal column, fast-neutron reactions are virtually absent, and only corrections for thermal-neutron capture by deuterium, and thermal-neutron (n, alpha) reactions on oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, potassium, and calcium need to be taken into account. Results are presented for various actual samples including human blood and its components, and some standard biological reference materials, to provide a realistic base for other workers to judge the reliability of the method. PMID:2822629

Clarke, W B; Koekebakker, M; Barr, R D; Downing, R G; Fleming, R F

1987-01-01

63

Implications of the serpentine phase transition on the behaviour of beryllium and lithium-boron of subducted ultramafic rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Totalp-Platta-Malenco ophiolites in the Eastern Central Alps offer a unique opportunity to study the behaviour of Li, Be and B in ultramafic rocks in response to serpentinization and to progressive Alpine metamorphism. These units represent the remnants of a former ocean-continent transition that was intensely serpentinized during exposure on the Jurassic seafloor of the Ligurian Tethys. From north to the south, three isograd reactions ( lizardite?antigorite+brucite;lizardite+talc?antigorite;lizardite+tremolite?antigorite+diopside) have been used to quantify the evolution of the light element content of metamorphic minerals. We determined the Li, Be and B concentrations in major silicate minerals from the ultramafic bodies of Totalp, Platta and Malenco by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Mantle minerals have Be concentrations (e.g. <0.001-0.009 ?g/g in olivine) similar to the metamorphic minerals that replace them (e.g. <0.001-0.016 ?g/g in serpentine). The mantle signature of Be is thus neither erased during seafloor alteration nor by progressive metamorphism from prehnite-pumpellyite to epidote-amphibolite facies. In contrast, the Li and B inventories of metamorphic minerals are related to the lizardite-to-antigorite transition. Both elements display higher concentrations in the low-temperature serpentine polymorph lizardite (max. 156 ?g/g Li, max. 318 ?g/g B) than in antigorite (max. 0.11 ?g/g Li, max. 12 ?g/g B). Calculated average B/Li ratios for lizardite (˜1395) and antigorite (˜115) indicate that Li fractionates from B during the lizardite-to-antigorite transition during prograde metamorphism in ultramafic rocks. In subduction zones, this signature is likely to be recorded in the B-rich nature of forearc fluids. Relative to oceanic mantle the Be content of mantle clinopyroxene is much higher, but similar to Be values from mantle xenoliths and subduction-related peridotite massifs. These data support previous hypothesis that the mantle rocks from the Eastern Central Alps have a subcontinental origin. We conclude that Be behaves conservatively during subduction metamorphism of ultramafic rocks, at least at low-temperature, and thus retains the fingerprint of ancient subduction-related igneous events in mantle peridotites.

Vils, Flurin; Müntener, Othmar; Kalt, Angelika; Ludwig, Thomas

2011-03-01

64

Inhomogeneous Big Bang Nucleosynthesis: Upper Limit on Omega_b and Production of Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron  

E-print Network

We examine the Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) process in the presence of small-scale baryon inhomogeneities. Primordial abundance yields for D, He4, Li6, Li7, Be9, and B11 are computed for wide ranges of parameters characterizing the inhomogeneities taking account of all relevant diffusive and hydrodynamic processes. These calculations may be of interest due to (a) recent observations of the anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation favoring slightly larger baryonic contribution to the critical density, Omega_b, than allowed by a standard BBN scenario and (b) new observational determinations of Li6 and Be9 in metal-poor halo stars. We find considerable parameter space in which production of D and He4 is in agreement with observational constraints even for Omega_b h^2 a factor 2-3 larger than the Omega_b inferred from standard BBN. Nevertheless, in this parameter space synthesis of Li7 in excess of the inferred Li7 abundance on the Spite plateau results. Production of Li6, Be9, and B11 in inhomogeneous BBN scenarios is still typically well below the abundance of these isotopes observed in the most metal-poor stars to date thus neither confirming nor rejecting inhomogeneous BBN. In an appendix we summarize results of a reevaluation of baryon diffusion constants entering inhomogeneous BBN calculations.

K. Jedamzik; Jan B. Rehm

2001-01-17

65

Behaviour of boron, beryllium, and lithium during melting and crystallization: constraints from mineral-melt partitioning experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to provide a more substantial foundation for interpreting the behaviour of B, Be, and Li during the production and early crystallization of primitive igneous rocks, we have measured olivine-, clinopyroxene-, orthopyroxene-, and amphibole-melt partition coefficients for these elements involving broadly basaltic-andesitic melt compositions. Experiments were conducted at both one atmosphere and 1.0–1.5 GPa and employed a time-temperature history

J. M. Brenan; E. Neroda; C. C. Lundstrom; H. F. Shaw; F. J. Ryerson; D. L. Phinney

1998-01-01

66

Angular Distributions of Deuterons from (p, d) Reactions in Light Nuclei. II. Lithium, Beryllium, Boron, Fluorine, and Aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angular distributions of deuteron groups resulting from the bombardment of various elements with ~18-Mev protons have been observed. Angular distributions for reactions leading to the following final nuclei were studied: Li6, Li6* (2.2 Mev), Be8, B9, B9* (2.4 Mev), B10, F18, Al26. The observed data are fitted to theoretical (Butler) curves and in all cases, except F18 and Al26, ln

J. B. Reynolds; K. G. Standing

1956-01-01

67

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lithium industry can be divided into two sectors: ore concentrate producers and chemical producers. Ore concentrate producers mine lithium minerals. They beneficiate the ores to produce material for use in ceramics and glass manufacturing.

Ober, J.

1998-01-01

68

Structure of lithium--boron alloys and their performance as potential anodes for high power molten salt batteries. Progress report, 1 Aug 1974--30 Jun 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anodic discharge curves in the LiCl--KCl eutectic melt have been obtained for two lithium--boron alloys (70 and 80 wt % Li) between 673 and 873 K (400 and 600 C) and from 2 to 8 A\\/sq cm. The behavior of Li contained in wicks of porous Ni was also studied for comparison. Calculated Li contents for Li--B alloy anodes, at

S. D. James; L. E. DeVries

1976-01-01

69

Possible sources of the Population I lithium abundance and light-element evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One-zone numerical models of Galactic chemical evolution of the light elements (lithium, beryllium, boron, and deuterium) with a broad sample of possible stellar lithium production sites and star formation histories, including the multiple merger model of Mathews and Schramm (1992), are examined. Models with high primordial lithium are constrained by observations of lithium and potassium in the interstellar medium of the LMC to have Li abundances close to the Population I value of about 10 exp -9. Li-7 production in intermediate- or high-mass stars (greater than 4 solar masses) is found to fit observations somewhat better than production in low-mass (1-5 solar masses) stars. Since elevated levels of lithium are commonly observed in intermediate-mass stars in the LMC, it is argued that this is indeed the major source of the Population I Li-7 abundance.

Brown, Lawrence E.

1992-01-01

70

Beryllium Technology Research in the United States  

SciTech Connect

While most active research involving beryllium in the United States remains tied strongly to biological effects, there are several areas of technology development in the last two years that should be mentioned. (1) Beryllium disposed of in soil vaults at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) has been encapsulated in-situ by high-temperature and pressure injection of a proprietary wax based material to inhibit corrosion. (2) A research program to develop a process for removing heavy metals and cobalt from irradiated beryllium using solvent extraction techniques has been initiated to remove components that prevent the beryllium from being disposed of as ordinary radioactive waste. (3) The JUPITER-II program at the INL Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has addressed the REDOX reaction of beryllium in molten Flibe (a mixture of LiF and BeF2) to control tritium, particularly in the form of HF, bred in the Flibe by reactions involving both beryllium and lithium. (4) Work has been performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to produce beryllium high heat flux components by plasma spray deposition on macro-roughened substrates. Finally, (5) corrosion studies on buried beryllium samples at the RWMC have shown that the physical form of some of the corroded beryllium is very filamentary and asbestos-like. This form of beryllium may exacerbate the contraction of chronic beryllium disease.

Glen R. Longhurst; Robert A. Anderl; M. Kay Adleer-Flitton; Gretchen E. Matthern; Troy J. Tranter; Kendall J. Hollis

2005-02-01

71

Boron-doped carbon prepared from PFO as a lithium-ion battery anode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A petroleum-based Li-ion battery anode was prepared by thermal condensation of pyrolysis fuel oil (PFO) and a subsequent carbonization process. H3BO3 was used as a catalyst for efficient thermal condensation, carbonization and battery performance. The influence of the carbonization temperature on the carbon structure and battery performance was also investigated. Notably, H3BO3 promoted thermal condensation and formation of a graphitic carbon structure and acted as a boron doping agent. Boron-doping attenuated the highly active sites in carbon and effectively controlled formation of the SEI layer, which resulted in an increase in the initial efficiency of the anode. For the sample carbonized at 900 °C, a reversible capacity of 301 mAh/g and an initial efficiency of 78.6% were obtained. In addition, the samples obtained at different carbonization temperatures were all highly stable over 50 cycles, with capacity retentions greater than 90%.

Kim, Jong Gu; Liu, Fei; Lee, Chul-Wee; Lee, Young-Seak; Im, Ji Sun

2014-08-01

72

A first-principles study of lithium-decorated hybrid boron nitride and graphene domains for hydrogen storage.  

PubMed

First-principles calculations are performed to investigate the adsorption of hydrogen onto Li-decorated hybrid boron nitride and graphene domains of (BN)(x)C(1-x) complexes with x = 1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 0, and B0.125C0.875. The most stable adsorption sites for the nth hydrogen molecule in the lithium-decorated (BN)(x)C(1-x) complexes are systematically discussed. The most stable adsorption sites were affected by the charge localization, and the hydrogen molecules were favorably located above the C-C bonds beside the Li atom. The results show that the nitrogen atoms in the substrate planes could increase the hybridization between the 2p orbitals of Li and the orbitals of H2. The results revealed that the (BN)(x)C(1-x) complexes not only have good thermal stability but they also exhibit a high hydrogen storage of 8.7% because of their dehydrogenation ability. PMID:25173034

Hu, Zi-Yu; Shao, Xiaohong; Wang, Da; Liu, Li-Min; Johnson, J Karl

2014-08-28

73

Implications of a Sub-Threshold Resonance for Stellar Beryllium Depletion  

E-print Network

Abundance measurements of the light elements lithium, beryllium, and boron are playing an increasingly important role in the study of stellar physics. Because these elements are easily destroyed in stars at temperatures 2--4 million K, the abundances in the surface convective zone are diagnostics of the star's internal workings. Standard stellar models cannot explain depletion patterns observed in low mass stars, and so are not accounting for all the relevant physical processes. These processes have important implications for stellar evolution and primordial lithium production in big bang nucleosynthesis. Because beryllium is destroyed at slightly higher temperatures than lithium, observations of both light elements can differentiate between the various proposed depletion mechanisms. Unfortunately, the reaction rate for the main destruction channel, 9Be(p,alpha)6Li, is uncertain. A level in the compound nucleus 10B is only 25.7 keV below the reaction's energetic threshold. The angular momentum and parity of this level are not well known; current estimates indicate that the resonance entrance channel is either s- or d-wave. We show that an s-wave resonance can easily increase the reaction rate by an order of magnitude at temperatures of approximately 4 million K. Observations of sub-solar mass stars can constrain the strength of the resonance, as can experimental measurements at lab energies lower than 30 keV.

Edward F. Brown

1997-10-23

74

Comparison of Lateral Resolution of Fine Stripes Beryllium and Boron Implanted by Focused Ion Beam in Si-Doped AlGaAs/GaAs Multiquantum Wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using impurity controlled Al-Ga intermixing in Si-doped Multi-Quantum Wells (MQW), a highly anisotropic Be diffusion after Focused Ion Beam (FIB) implantation and thermal annealing was measured by Auger Al profiles analysis, with a Be lateral diffusion dependent on the scan speed of ion beam. Then, after the demonstration of Al-Ga intermixing suppression by Boron FIB implantation, an improved lateral pattern resolution was obtained with Boron implantation in Sidoped MQW.

Brillouet, Francois; Ishida, Koji; Morita, Tetsuo; Miyauchi, Eizo; Takamori, Takeshi; Nakashima, Hisao

1987-08-01

75

Lithium in sediments and brines--how, why and where to search  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The possibility of using lithium in batteries to power electric vehicles and as fuel for thermonuclear power has focused attention on the limited resources of lithium other than in pegmatite minerals. The Clayton Valley, Nev., subsurface lithium brine has been the major source of lithium carbonate since about 1967, but the life of this brine field is probably limited to several more decades at the present rate of production. Lithium is so highly soluble during weathering and in sedimentary environments that no lithium-rich sedimentary minerals other than clays have been identified to date. The known deposits of lithium, such as the clay mineral hectorite and the lithium-rich brines, occur in closed desert basins of the Southwest in association with nonmarine evaporites. However, the ultimate source for the lithium in these deposits may be from hydrothermal solutions. The search for previously unreported deposits of nonpegmatitic lithium should consider its probable association, not only with nonmarine evaporite minerals, but also with recent volcanic and tectonic activity, as well as with deposits of boron, beryllium, fluorine, manganese, and possibly phosphate.

Vine, James D.

1975-01-01

76

Beryllium disease  

SciTech Connect

After two workers at the nuclear weapons plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee were diagnosed earlier this year with chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a rare and sometimes fatal scarring of the lungs, the Department of Energy ordered up a 4-year probe. Now, part of that probe has begun - tests conducted by the Oak Ridge Associated Universities' Center for Epidemiological Research measuring beryllium sensitivity in 3,000 people who've been exposed to the metal's dust since Manhattan Project managers opened the Y-12 plant at Oak Ridge in 1943. Currently, 119 Y-12 employees process beryllium, which has a number of industrial uses, including rocket heat shields and nuclear weapon and electrical components. The disease often takes 20 to 25 years to develop, and the stricken employees haven't worked with beryllium for years. There is no cure for CBD, estimated to strike 2% of people exposed to the metal. Anti-inflammatory steroids alleviate such symptoms as a dry cough, weight loss, and fatigue. Like other lung-fibrosis diseases that are linked to lung cancer, some people suspect CBD might cause some lung cancer. While difficult to diagnose, about 900 cases of CBD have been reported since a Beryllium Case Registry was established in 1952. The Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that about 10,000 DOE employees and 800,000 people in private industry have worked with beryllium.

Not Available

1991-12-20

77

Method for welding beryllium  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon.

Dixon, Raymond D. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, Frank M. (Espanola, NM); O'Leary, Richard F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01

78

Insight into the effect of boron doping on sulfur/carbon cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries.  

PubMed

To exploit the high energy density of lithium-sulfur batteries, porous carbon materials have been widely used as the host materials of the S cathode. Current studies about carbon hosts are more frequently focused on the design of carbon structures rather than modification of its properties. In this study, we use boron-doped porous carbon materials as the host material of the S cathode to get an insightful investigation of the effect of B dopant on the S/C cathode. Powder electronic conductivity shows that the B-doped carbon materials exhibit higher conductivity than the pure analogous porous carbon. Moreover, by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we prove that doping with B leads to a positively polarized surface of carbon substrates and allows chemisorption of S and its polysulfides. Thus, the B-doped carbons can ensure a more stable S/C cathode with satisfactory conductivity, which is demonstrated by the electrochemical performance evaluation. The S/B-doped carbon cathode was found to deliver much higher initial capacity (1300 mA h g(-1) at 0.25 C), improved cyclic stability, and rate capability when compared with the cathode based on pure porous carbon. Electrochemical impedance spectra also indicate the low resistance of the S/B-doped C cathode and the chemisorption of polysulfide anions because of the presence of B. These features of B doping can play the positive role in the electrochemical performance of S cathodes and help to build better Li-S batteries. PMID:24764111

Yang, Chun-Peng; Yin, Ya-Xia; Ye, Huan; Jiang, Ke-Cheng; Zhang, Juan; Guo, Yu-Guo

2014-06-11

79

Piezoresistance and hole transport in beryllium-doped silicon.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The resistivity and piezoresistance of p-type silicon doped with beryllium have been studied as a function of temperature, crystal orientation, and beryllium doping concentration. It is shown that the temperature coefficient of resistance can be varied and reduced to zero near room temperature by varying the beryllium doping level. Similarly, the magnitude of the piezoresistance gauge factor for beryllium-doped silicon is slightly larger than for silicon doped with a shallow acceptor impurity such as boron, while the temperature coefficient of piezoresistance is about the same for material containing these two dopants. These results are discussed in terms of a model for the piezoresistance of compensated p-type silicon.

Littlejohn, M. A.; Robertson, J. B.

1972-01-01

80

Method for welding beryllium  

SciTech Connect

A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. Beryllium parts made using this method can be used as structural components in aircraft, satellites and space applications.

Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

1995-12-31

81

Method for welding beryllium  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

1997-04-01

82

Investigation of Isotopically Tailored Boron in Advanced Fission and Fusion Reactor Systems.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research examines the use of B^ {11}, in the form of metallic boron and boron carbide, as a moderating and reflecting material. An examination of the neutronic characteristics of the B ^{11} isotope of boron has revealed that B^{11} has neutron scattering and absorption cross sections favorably comparable to those of Be^9 and C^ {12}. Preliminary analysis of the neutronics of B ^{11} were performed by conducting one dimensional transport calculations on an infinite slab of varying thickness. Beryllium is the best of the three materials in reflecting neutrons due primarily to the contribution from (n,2n) reactions. Tailored neutron energy beam transmission experiments were carried out to experimentally verify the predicted neutronic characteristics of B^{11 }. To further examine the neutron moderating and reflecting characteristics of B^{11 }, the energy dependent neutron flux was measured as a function of position in an exponential pile constructed of B_4C isotopically enriched to 98.5 percent B^{11}. After the experimental verification of the neutronic behavior of B^{11}, further design studies were conducted using metallic boron and boron carbide enriched in the B^{11 } isotope. The use of materials isotopically enriched in B^{11} as a liner in the first wall/blanket of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor demonstrated acceptable tritium regeneration in the lithium blanket. Analysis of the effect of contaminant levels of B^{10} showed that B^{10} contents of less than 1 percent in metallic boron produced negligible adverse effects on the tritium breeding. A comparison of the effectiveness of graphite and B^{11}_4C when used as moderators in a reactor fueled with natural uranium has shown that the maximum k_infty for a given fuel rod design is approximately the same for both materials. Approximately half the volume of the moderator is required when B^{11 }_4C is substituted for graphite to obtain essentially the same K_infty . An analysis of the effectiveness of various materials as reflector control elements for a compact space reactor has shown that B^{11} is neutronically superior to graphite in these applications. Metallic boron and boron carbide isotopically enriched in B^{11} have been demonstrated to be neutronically acceptable for varied applications in advanced reactor systems. B^ {11} has been shown to be superior in performance to graphite. While only somewhat inferior to beryllium as neutron multipliers, B^ {11} and B^{11} _4C have safety, supply and cost advantage over beryllium. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.).

Domaszek, Gerald Raymond

83

Lithium Irradiation Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The subject of tritium production in the Antiproton Source Collection lens was raised in the mid-1980s during the design phase of the pbar source. Interest in it has recurred during development of the proton lens and in recent investigations to determine the feasibility of liquid lithium collection lenses for the pbar source and a muon collider project. Calculations for tritium and beryllium 7 production on lithium suffer from a lack of information on medium and high energy cross section data. In addition, knowledge of the energy spectrum within the target vault is based upon calculations. Knowledge of the low energy spectrum, important for tritium production on lithium, is limited, if not non-existent. For Collider Run II, effort is to be applied to improve the performance of the solid lithium lens. Historically, examination of failed lithium lenses has not been pursued because they have been fairly radioactive and because they are thought to contain significant quantities of the radionuclides tritium and beryllium 7. The development of methods to examine failed lithium lenses may be desirable so that the specific causes of failure can be discovered. From such studies, design improvements can be incorporated with the goal of achieving lens performances goals related to Collider Run II. The purpose of the lithium irradiation experiment is to determine the production rates of radioisotopes tritium and beryllium 7 within the lithium lens in its operating in its operating environment.

Leveling, A.F.; /Fermilab

2000-08-22

84

The role of aqueous fluids in the slab-to-mantle transfer of boron, beryllium, and lithium during subduction: experiments and models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low atomic mass elements B, Be, and Li are viewed as sensitive tracers of the involvement of subducted materials in the genesis of island arc magmas. In order to better assess the role of dense aqueous fluids in the slab-to-mantle transfer of these elements during subduction, measurements have been made of partition coefficients for B, Be, and Li between

James M. Brenan; Frederick J. Ryerson; Henry F. Shaw

1998-01-01

85

Low temperature coefficient of resistance and high gage factor in beryllium-doped silicon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gage factor and resistivity of p-type silicon doped with beryllium was studied as a function of temperature, crystal orientation, and beryllium doping concentration. It was shown that the temperature coefficient of resistance can be varied and reduced to zero near room temperature by varying the beryllium doping level. Similarly, the magnitude of the piezoresistance gage factor for beryllium-doped silicon is slightly larger than for silicon doped with a shallow acceptor impurity such as boron, whereas the temperature coefficient of piezoresistance is about the same for material containing these two dopants. These results are discussed in terms of a model for the piezoresistance of compensated p-type silicon.

Robertson, J. B.; Littlejohn, M. A.

1974-01-01

86

Testing Spallation Processes With Beryllium and Boron  

E-print Network

The nucleosynthesis of Be and B by spallation processes provides unique insight into the origin of cosmic rays. Namely, different spallation schemes predict sharply different trends for the growth of LiBeB abundances with respect to oxygen. ``Primary'' mechanisms predict BeB $\\propto$ O, and are well motivated by the data if O/Fe is constant at low metallicity. In contrast, ``secondary'' mechanisms predict BeB $\\propto$ O$^2$ and are consistent with the data if O/Fe increases towards low metallicity as some recent data suggest. Clearly, any primary mechanism, if operative, will dominate early in the history of the Galaxy. In this paper, we fit the BeB data to a two-component scheme which includes both primary and secondary trends. In this way, the data can be used to probe the period in which primary mechanisms are effective. We analyze the data using consistent stellar atmospheric parameters based on Balmer line data and the continuum infrared flux. Results depend sensitively on Pop II O abundances and, unfortunately, on the choice of stellar parameters. When using recent results which show O/Fe increasing toward lower metallicity, a two-component Be-O fits indicates that primary and secondary components contribute equally at [O/H]$_{eq}$ = -1.8 for Balmer line data; and [O/H]$_{eq}$ = -1.4 to -1.8 for IRFM. We apply these constraints to recent models for LiBeB origin. The Balmer line data does not show any evidence for primary production. On the other hand, the IRFM data does indicate a preference for a two-component model, such as a combination of standard GCR and metal-enriched particles accelerated in superbubbles. These conclusions rely on a detailed understanding of the abundance data including systematic effects which may alter the derived O-Fe and BeB-Fe relations.

Brian D. Fields; Keith A. Olive; Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Michel Casse

1999-11-17

87

Boron and beryllium in Gamma Geminorum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations have been made of the B II resonance line at 1362 A in the A0 IV star Gamma Gem with the Princeton spectrometer on the Copernicus satellite at a spectral resolution of 0.05 A. Complementary ground-based observations of the Be II resonance lines at 3130 and 3131 A have been made at Mauna Kea Observatory with a comparable resolution. A model-atmosphere abundance analysis has been done which includes the effects of the lines that blend with the B II and Be II lines. Previous data on Alpha Lyr and Alpha CMa for B II (which blends with a V III feature) have been reanalyzed with the help of new photographic and Reticon data from Mauna Kea which enable the determination of the V abundance. The results show that Gamma Gem is depleted in B by a factor of 5-10 relative to Alpha Lyr and other normal B stars and depleted in Be by at least a factor of four. By comparison, the hot Am star Alpha CMa is B-deficient by about three orders of magnitude and Be-deficient by at least fifteen times. It is suggested that the abundance deficiencies are due to diffusion, and that Alpha CMa is intrinsically a slow rotator, and Gamma Gem is a slightly evolved slow rotator where some, but not all, of the B and Be has resurfaced.

Boesgaard, A. M.; Praderie, F.

1981-01-01

88

The Galactic Evolution of Beryllium and Boron  

E-print Network

The galactic chemical evolution of Be and B provides unique information about the origin and history of cosmic rays. The available Pop II data demonstrate that Be and B have a Galactic source, probably in one or more kinds of spallation processes. However, the data are not unequivocal about the nature of Be and B origin, as encoded in the primary or secondary (linear or quadratic) scaling with metallicity. We summarize a careful analysis of the trends among Be, B, Fe, and O observations. We show that if O/Fe is constant, some other cosmic ray origin or component is needed. On the other hand, if O/Fe is not constant, as recent data suggest, then the data could indicate a standard cosmic ray origin, wherein the abundances of cosmic rays scale with those of the ISM. We suggest future observational tests which will distinguish several proposed scenarios of LiBeB and cosmic ray origin.

Brian D. Fields; Keith A. Olive

1999-03-24

89

MATERIALS ENGINEERING KEYWORDS: beryllium, stainless  

E-print Network

MATERIALS ENGINEERING KEYWORDS: beryllium, stainless steel, heat conductance EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF THE INTERFACE HEAT CONDUCTANCE BETWEEN NONCONFORMING BERYLLIUM AND TYPE 316 STAINLESS STEEL In fusion blanket designs that employ beryllium as a neutron multiplier, the interface conductance h plays

Abdou, Mohamed

90

High-power electron beam tests of a liquid-lithium target and characterization study of (7)Li(p,n) near-threshold neutrons for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.  

PubMed

A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The target is intended to demonstrate liquid-lithium target capabilities to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals. The lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power >5kW generated by high-intensity proton beams, necessary for sufficient therapeutic neutron flux. In preliminary experiments liquid lithium was flown through the target loop and generated a stable jet on the concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power densities of more than 4kW/cm(2) and volumetric power density around 2MW/cm(3) at a lithium flow of ~4m/s, while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. These power densities correspond to a narrow (?=~2mm) 1.91MeV, 3mA proton beam. A high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5MeV, 2mA) is being commissioned at the SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator. In order to determine the conditions of LiLiT proton irradiation for BNCT and to tailor the neutron energy spectrum, a characterization of near threshold (~1.91MeV) (7)Li(p,n) neutrons is in progress based on Monte-Carlo (MCNP and Geant4) simulation and on low-intensity experiments with solid LiF targets. In-phantom dosimetry measurements are performed using special designed dosimeters based on CR-39 track detectors. PMID:24387907

Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Cohen, D; Eliyahu, I; Kijel, D; Mardor, I; Silverman, I

2014-06-01

91

Beryllium: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.  

PubMed

Beryllium (Be) has physical-chemical properties, including low density and high tensile strength, which make it useful in the manufacture of products ranging from space shuttles to golf clubs. Despite its utility, a number of standard setting agencies have determined that beryllium is a carcinogen. Only a limited number of studies, however, have addressed the underlying mechanisms of the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of beryllium. Importantly, mutation and chromosomal aberration assays have yielded somewhat contradictory results for beryllium compounds and whereas bacterial tests were largely negative, mammalian test systems showed evidence of beryllium-induced mutations, chromosomal aberrations, and cell transformation. Although inter-laboratory differences may play a role in the variability observed in genotoxicity assays, it is more likely that the different chemical forms of beryllium have a significant effect on mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because workers are predominantly exposed to airborne particles which are generated during the machining of beryllium metal, ceramics, or alloys, testing of the mechanisms of the mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of beryllium should be performed with relevant chemical forms of beryllium. PMID:14643414

Gordon, Terry; Bowser, Darlene

2003-12-10

92

Boron-lithium relationships in rhyolites and associated thermal waters of young silicic calderas, with comments on incompatible element behavior  

SciTech Connect

This study had three goals: (1) to study B distribution in a rhyolitic volcanic sequence already extensively investigated for other elements; (2) to interpret the joint behavior of B and Li during the interaction of such rocks with subsurface waters; and (3) to assess the manner in which water affects the behavior of incompatible elements such as B and Gd. New B, Gd, and Sm analyses have been made on a suite of Yellowstone rhyolites, including fresh and partially devitrified glassy obsidian from surface exposures of several flows, a drill-core of increasing degrees of alteration in the Biscuit Basin Flow, and two drill-cores from other flows. Within the Biscuit Basin Flow, the Sm and Gd concentrations remain rather constant and behave conservatively, independent of alteration. Boron decreases from about 10 to 3 ppm with progressive alteration, and Li increases from about 40 ppm by a factor of 2-3 in the most altered rocks. Obsidians from the Valles and Long Valley calderas show greater Li loss during alteration. All the rhyolitic rocks lose B during aqueous alteration; the waters acquire both B and Li, but proportionately much more B. Natural waters of all kinds, including those from the three calderas, show six orders of magnitude range in aqueous B and Li, with a high degree of linear correlation and an average ratio B/Li essentially constant at 4.0. The linearity mainly expresses processes of dilution and concentration: reactions specific to B or Li engender waters with deviating B/Li.

Shaw, D.M. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)); Sturchio, N.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1992-10-01

93

Investigation of the boron-oxygen network in borate glasses by infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium borate glasses are fast ionic conductors in which the lithium ions conductivity is all the more important as the content in lithium oxide and in lithium salt is higher. In the perspective of their use as electrolytes in solid state micro-batteries, we have studied the conformation of the boron-oxygen network of lithium halides \\

M. Massot; C. Julien; M. Balkanski

1989-01-01

94

Beryllium Sensitization Progresses to Chronic Beryllium Disease A Longitudinal Study of Disease Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test is used in medical surveillance to identify both beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease. Approximately 50% of individuals with beryllium sensitization have chronic beryllium disease at the time of their initial clinical evaluation; however, the rate of progression from beryllium sensitization to chronic beryllium disease is unknown. We monitored a cohort of beryllium-sensitized patients

Lee S. Newman; Margaret M. Mroz; Ronald Balkissoon; Lisa A. Maier

2004-01-01

95

Highly enhanced low temperature discharge capacity of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 with lithium boron oxide glass modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although lithium ion battery is known to be an excellent renewable energy provider in electronic markets further application of it has been limited by its notoriously poor performance at low temperature, especially below -20 °C. In this paper, the electrochemical performance of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode materials coated by lithium boron oxide (LBO) glass was investigated at a temperature range from 20 to -40 °C. The results show that the LBO coating not only helps to improve the discharge capacity of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 at room temperature but also increase the discharge capacity retention of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from 22.5% to 57.8% at -40 °C. Electrochemical impedance spectra results reveal that the LBO coating plays an important role in reducing the charge-transfer resistance on the electrolyte-electrode interfaces and improving lithium ion diffusion coefficients. The mechanism associated with the change of the structure and electrical properties are discussed in detail.

Tan, ShuangYuan; Wang, Lei; Bian, Liang; Xu, JinBao; Ren, Wei; Hu, PengFei; Chang, AiMin

2015-03-01

96

Cooperativity in beryllium bonds.  

PubMed

A theoretical study of the beryllium bonded clusters of the (iminomethyl)beryllium hydride and (iminomethyl)beryllium fluoride [HC(BeX)=NH, X = H, F] molecules has been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) level of theory. Linear and cyclic clusters have been characterized up to the decamer. The geometric, energetic, electronic and NMR properties of the clusters clearly indicate positive cooperativity. The evolution of the molecular properties, as the size of the cluster increases, is similar to those reported in polymers held together by hydrogen bonds. PMID:24452820

Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Yáñez, Manuel; Mó, Otilia

2014-03-01

97

Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fabrications of large Beryllium optical components are fundamentally limited by available facility capabilities. To overcome this limitation, NASA funded Brush Wellman Corp to study a Be joining process. Four 76 mm diameters samples and a 0.5 mm diameter Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (JBMD) were fabricated. This presentation will review the fabrication of these samples and summarize the results of their cryogenic testing at MSFCs XRCF.

Stahl, H. Philip; Parsonage, Tom; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

98

Some Properties of Beryllium Oxide and Beryllium Oxide - Columbium Ceramals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-temperature tensile and thermal-shock investigations were conducted on beryllium oxide and beryllium oxide plus columbium metal additions. X-ray diffraction and metallographic results are given. The tensile strength of 6150 pounds per square inch for beryllium oxide at 1800 degrees F compared favorably with the zirconia bodies previously tested. Additions of 2, 5, 8, 10, 12, and 15 percent by weight of columbium metal failed to improve the shock resistance over that of pure beryllium oxide.

Robards, C F; Gangler, J J

1951-01-01

99

Containerless processing of beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Melting and solidification of a beryllium alloy containing 1.5% BeO by weight in the weightless environment of space has produced cast beryllium with a relatively uniform dispersion of BeO throughout. Examination of the cast material shows that it is coarse grained, although the BeO is not heavily agglomerated in the flight specimen. Ground based comparison experiments show extreme agglomeration and segregation of BeO, resulting in large zones which are practically free of the oxide. Several postulated hypotheses for the failure to grain refine the beryllium are formulated. These are: (1) spherodization of the BeO particles during specimen preparation and during the molten phase of the experiment; (2) loss of nucleation potency through aging in the molten phase; and (3) inability of BeO to act as a grain refiner for beryllium. Further investigation with non spherodized particles and shorter dwell times molten may delineate which of these hypotheses are valid. The results of this flight experiment indicate that the weightless environment of space is an important asset in conducting research to find grain refiners for beryllium and other metals for which cast dispersions of grain refining agents cannot be prepared terrestrially due to gravitationally driven settling and agglomeration.

Wouch, G.; Keith, G. H.; Frost, R. T.; Pinto, N. P.

1977-01-01

100

PRESSURELESS SINTERED BERYLLIUM POWDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process, termed pressureless sintering, has been established for ; the production of beryllium shapes (solid or hollow) to near theoretical density. ; It consists simply of the vacuum sintering at 1,200 deg C of loose powder of ; critical particle size distribution, without the application of pressure. ; Notable advantages are claimed over conventional powder production and ;

T. R. Barrett; G. C. Ellis; R. A. Knight

1959-01-01

101

EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF BERYLLIUM, BERYLLIUM CHLORIDE, BERYLLIUM FLUORIDE, AND BERYLLIUM NITRATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Beryllium is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B2 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). vidence on potential arcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient," and the evidence from human studies is "Inadequa...

102

An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy  

SciTech Connect

Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 10{sup 7} neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF{sub 3} composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

Mitchell, H.E.

1996-04-01

103

10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific...Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The...

2010-01-01

104

10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific...Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The...

2011-01-01

105

10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific...Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The...

2012-01-01

106

10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific...Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The...

2014-01-01

107

10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific...Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The...

2013-01-01

108

Aerosols generated during beryllium machining.  

PubMed

Some beryllium processes, especially machining, are associated with an increased risk of beryllium sensitization and disease. Little is known about exposure characteristics contributing to risk, such as particle size. This study examined the characteristics of beryllium machining exposures under actual working conditions. Stationary samples, using eight-stage Lovelace Multijet Cascade Impactors, were taken at the process point of operation and at the closest point that the worker would routinely approach. Paired samples were collected at the operator's breathing zone by using a Marple Personal Cascade Impactor and a 35-mm closed-faced cassette. More than 50% of the beryllium machining particles in the breathing zone were less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter. This small particle size may result in beryllium deposition into the deepest portion of the lung and may explain elevated rates of sensitization among beryllium machinists. PMID:10652683

Martyny, J W; Hoover, M D; Mroz, M M; Ellis, K; Maier, L A; Sheff, K L; Newman, L S

2000-01-01

109

Characterization of shocked beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. In the current work, high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. Two constitutive strength (plasticity) models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) models, were calibrated using common quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data. However, simulations with the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured experimental wave profiles. The experimental results indicate that, even if fractured by the initial shock loading, the Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading. Additional "arrested" drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

Cady, C. M.; Adams, C. D.; Hull, L. M.; Gray, G. T.; Prime, M. B.; Addessio, F. L.; Wynn, T. A.; Papin, P. A.; Brown, E. N.

2012-08-01

110

5. VIEW OF BERYLLIUM PROCESSING AREA, ROLLING MILL. BERYLLIUM FORMING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF BERYLLIUM PROCESSING AREA, ROLLING MILL. BERYLLIUM FORMING BEGAN IN SIDE A OF THE BUILDING IN 1962. (11/5/73) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

111

Ceramic-metal seals for advanced battery systems. [sodium sulfur and lithium sulfur batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The search for materials which are electrochemically compatible with the lithium sulfur and sodium sulfur systems is discussed. The use liquid or braze alloys, titanium hydrite coatings, and tungsten yttria for bonding beryllium with ceramic is examined.

Reed, L.

1978-01-01

112

Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

Johnson, Michelle Lynn

2014-07-09

113

SUIVI MEDICAL DE SALARIES EXPOSES AU BERYLLIUM : Medical follow-up of beryllium -exposed workers  

E-print Network

1 SUIVI MEDICAL DE SALARIES EXPOSES AU BERYLLIUM : Medical follow-up of beryllium - exposed workers-up of beryllium-exposed workers. Method: a medical follow-up of workers from a factory machining beryllium (Be preventive measures. Key words: beryllium, sensitisation, occupational exposure, prevention, Lymphocyte

Boyer, Edmond

114

Boron in Very Metal-Poor Stars  

E-print Network

We have observed the B I 2497 A line to derive the boron abundances of two very metal-poor stars selected to help in tracing the origin and evolution of this element in the early Galaxy: BD +23 3130 and HD 84937. The observations were conducted using the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. A very detailed abundance analysis via spectral synthesis has been carried out for these two stars, as well as for two other metal-poor objects with published spectra, using both Kurucz and OSMARCS model photospheres, and taking into account consistently the NLTE effects on the line formation. We have also re-assessed all published boron abundances of old disk and halo unevolved stars. Our analysis shows that the combination of high effective temperature (Teff > 6000 K, for which boron is mainly ionized) and low metallicity ([Fe/H]<-1) makes it difficult to obtain accurate estimates of boron abundances from the B I 2497 A line. This is the case of HD 84937 and three other published objects (including two stars with [Fe/H] ~ -3), for which only upper limits can be established. BD +23 3130, with [Fe/H] ~ -2.9 and logN(B)_NLTE=0.05+/-0.30, appears then as the most metal-poor star for which a firm measurement of the boron abundance presently exists. The evolution of the boron abundance with metallicity that emerges from the seven remaining stars with Teff < 6000 K and [Fe/H]<-1, for which beryllium abundances were derived using the same stellar parameters, shows a linear increase with a slope ~ 1. Furthermore, the B/Be ratio found is constant at a value ~ 20 for stars in the range -3<[Fe/H]<-1. These results point to spallation reactions of ambient protons and alpha particles with energetic particles enriched in CNO as the origin of boron and beryllium in halo stars.

R. J. Garcia Lopez; D. L. Lambert; B. Edvardsson; B. Gustafsson; D. Kiselman; R. Rebolo

1998-01-16

115

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR BERYLLIUM. REVIEW DRAFT  

EPA Science Inventory

The properties of beryllium resemble those of aluminum, zinc, and magnesium. The main routes of beryllium intake are inhalation and ingestion. The chemical properties of beryllium are such that transformation of soluble to insoluble forms of inhaled beryllium results in long rete...

116

Investigation of a lithium-halogen exchange flow process for the preparation of boronates by using a cryo-flow reactor.  

PubMed

Conducting low-temperature organometallic reactions under continuous flow conditions offers the potential to more accurately control exotherms and thus provide more reproducible and scalable processes. Herein, progress towards this goal with regards to the lithium-halogen exchange/borylation reaction is reported. In addition to improving the scope of substrates available on a research scale, methods to improve reaction profiles and expedite purification of the products are also described. On moving to a continuous system, thermocouple measurements have been used to track exotherms and provide a level of safety for continuous processing of organometallic reagents. The use of an in-line continuous liquid-liquid separation device to circumvent labour intensive downstream off-line processing is also reported. PMID:24339222

Newby, James A; Huck, Lena; Blaylock, D Wayne; Witt, Paul M; Ley, Steven V; Browne, Duncan L

2014-01-01

117

The solar abundance of beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar abundance of beryllium is deduced from high-resolution Kitt Peak observations of the 3130.43- and 3131.08-A lines of Be II interpreted by the method of spectrum synthesis. The results are in good agreement with those previously obtained by Grevesse (1968) and by Hauge and Engvold (1968) and indicate that in the photospheric layers, beryllium is depleted below the chondritic value by a factor of about two. It is found that the beryllium abundance is equal to logN(Be)/N(H) + 12 = 1.08 plus or minus 0.05.

Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

1974-01-01

118

Beryllium 10\\/beryllium 7 as a tracer of stratospheric transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the ratio between cosmogenic radionuclides beryllium 10 (t1\\/2=1.5×106 years) and beryllium 7 (t1\\/2=53 days) to study stratospheric transport, particularly the exchange between the tropics and the high latitudes and as an indicator of stratosphere-troposphere exchange. Both tracers are generated steadily, with maximum production occurring at midlatitudes of the stratosphere. During transport away from their source the ratio 10Be\\/7Be

Dorothy Koch; David Rind

1998-01-01

119

Electroextraction of boron from boron carbide scrap  

SciTech Connect

Studies were carried out to extract elemental boron from boron carbide scrap. The physicochemical nature of boron obtained through this process was examined by characterizing its chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size. The microstructural characteristics of the extracted boron powder were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopic examination of boron powder was also carried out to determine its crystalline form. Oxygen and carbon were found to be the major impurities in boron. Boron powder of purity ? 92 wt. % could be produced by the electroextraction process developed in this study. Optimized method could be used for the recovery of enriched boron ({sup 10}B > 20 at. %) from boron carbide scrap generated during the production of boron carbide. - Highlights: • Recovery of {sup 10}B from nuclear grade boron carbide scrap • Development of process flow sheet • Physicochemical characterization of electroextracted boron • Microscopic examination of electroextracted boron.

Jain, Ashish [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Anthonysamy, S., E-mail: sas@igcar.gov.in [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Ghosh, C. [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Ravindran, T.R. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Divakar, R.; Mohandas, E. [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India)

2013-10-15

120

Beryllium usage in fusion blankets and beryllium data needs. [None  

SciTech Connect

Increasing numbers of designers are choosing beryllium for fusion reactor blankets because it, among all nonfissile materials, produces the highest number (2.5 neutron in an infinite media) of neutrons per 14-MeV incident neutron. In amounts of about 20 cm of equivalent solid density, it can be used to produce fissile material, to breed all the tritium consumed in ITER from outboard blankets only, and in designs to produce Co-60. The problem is that predictions of neutron multiplication in beryllium are off by some 10 to 20% and appear to be on the high side, which means that better multiplication measurements and numerical methods are needed. The n,2n reactions result in two helium atoms, which cause radiation damage in the form of hardening at low temperatures (<300/degree/C) and swelling at high temperatures (>300/degree/C). The usual way beryllium parts are made is by hot pressing the powder. A lower cost method is to cold press and then sinter. There is no radiation damage data on this form of beryllium. The issues of corrosion, safety relative to the release of the tritium built-up inside beryllium, and recycle of used beryllium are also discussed. 10 figs.

Moir, R.W.

1988-04-06

121

Helioseismology and Beryllium neutrino  

E-print Network

We derive a lower limit on the Beryllium neutrino flux on earth, $\\Phi(Be)_{min} = 1\\cdot 10^9 cm^{-2} s^{-1}$, in the absence of oscillations, by using helioseismic data, the B-neutrino flux measured by Superkamiokande and the hydrogen abundance at the solar center predicted by Standard Solar Model (SSM) calculations. We emphasize that this abundance is the only result of SSMs needed for getting $\\Phi(Be)_{min}$. We also derive lower bounds for the Gallium signal, $G_{min}=(91 \\pm 3) $ SNU, and for the Chlorine signal, $C_{min}=(3.24\\pm 0.14)$ SNU, which are about $3\\sigma$ above their corresponding experimental values, $G_{exp}= (72\\pm 6)$ SNU and $C_{exp}= (2.56\\pm 0.22) $ SNU.

B. Ricci; F. L. Villante; M. Lissia

1999-04-06

122

Characterization of shocked beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosively driven arrested beryllium experiments were performed with post mortem characterization to evaluate the failure behaviors. The test samples were encapsulated in an aluminum assembly that was large relative to the sample, and the assembly features both axial and radial momentum traps. The sample carrier was inserted from the explosively-loaded end and has features to lock the carrier to the surrounding cylinder using the induced plastic flow. Calculations with Lagrangian codes showed that the tensile stresses experienced by the Be sample were below the spall stress. Metallographic characterization of the arrested Be showed radial cracks present in the samples may have been caused by bending moments. Fractography showed the fractures propagated from the side of the sample closest to the explosives, the side with the highest tensile stress. There was evidence that the fractures may have propagated from the circumferential crack outward and downward radially.

Brown, E. N.; Cady, C. M.; Gray, G. T., III; Hull, L. M.; Cooley, J. H.; Bronkhorst, C. A.; Addessio, F. L.

2014-05-01

123

Beryllium Interactions in Molten Salts  

SciTech Connect

Molten flibe (2LiF·BeF2) is a candidate as a cooling and tritium breeding media for future fusion power plants. Neutron interactions with the salt will produce tritium and release excess free fluorine ions. Beryllium metal has been demonstrated as an effective redox control agent to prevent free fluorine, or HF species, from reacting with structural metal components. The extent and rate of beryllium solubility in a pot design experiments to suppress continuously supplied hydrogen fluoride gas has been measured and modeled[ ]. This paper presents evidence of beryllium loss from specimens, a dependence of the loss upon bi-metal coupling, i.e., galvanic effect, and the partitioning of the beryllium to the salt and container materials. Various posttest investigative methods, viz., scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to explore this behavior.

G. S. Smolik; M. F. Simpson; P. J. Pinhero; M. Hara; Y. Hatano; R. A. Anderl; J. P. Sharpe; T. Terai; S. Tanaka; D. A. Petti; D.-K. Sze

2006-01-01

124

Beryllium technology workshop, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 20, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: beryllium in the ITER blanket; mechanical testing of irradiated beryllium; tritium release measurements on irradiated beryllium; beryllium needs for plasma-facing components; thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed beryllium; beryllium research at the INEL; Japanese beryllium research activities for in-pile mockup tests on ITER; a study of beryllium bonding of copper alloy; new production technologies; thermophysical properties of a new ingot metallurgy beryllium product line; implications of beryllium:steam interactions in fusion reactors; and a test program for irradiation embrittlement of beryllium at JET.

Longhurst, G.R.

1991-12-01

125

Shockless compression and release behavior of beryllium to 110 GPa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnetohydrodynamic loading technique was used to shocklessly compress beryllium to peak longitudinal stresses of 19-110 GPa and, subsequently, unload in order to determine both the compressive response and also the shear stress supported upon release. Loading strain rates were on the order of 106 s-1, while the unloading rates were nearly constant at 3 × 105 s-1. Velocimetry was used to monitor the ramp and release behavior of a beryllium/lithium fluoride window interface. After applying window corrections to infer in situ beryllium velocities, a Lagrangian analysis was employed to determine the material response. The Lagrangian wavespeed-particle velocity response is integrated to generate the stress-strain path, average change in shear stress over the elastic unloading, and estimates of the shear modulus at peak compression. These data are used to infer the pressure dependence of the flow strength at the unloading rate. Comparisons to several strength models reveal good agreement to 45 GPa, but the data indicate 20%-30% higher strength near 100 GPa.

Brown, J. L.; Knudson, M. D.; Alexander, C. S.; Asay, J. R.

2014-07-01

126

Extraction of Beryllium from Refractory Beryllium Oxide with Dilute Ammonium Bifluoride and Determination by Fluorescence: A Multiparameter Performance Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium exposure can cause a number of deleterious health effects, including beryllium sensitization and the potentially fatal chronic beryllium disease. Efficient methods for monitoring beryllium contamination in workplaces are valuable to help prevent dangerous exposures to this element. In this work, performance data on the extraction of beryllium from various size fractions of high-fired beryllium oxide (BeO) particles (from <

Michael J. Goldcamp; Diane M. Goldcamp; Kevin Ashley; Joseph E. Fernback; Anoop Agrawal; Mark Millson; David Marlow; Kenneth Harrison

2009-01-01

127

Characterization of physicochemical properties of beryllium aerosols associated with prevalence of chronic beryllium disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the physicochemical properties of beryllium aerosols associated with increased risk of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Such information is needed to evaluate whether airborne mass of beryllium is the appropriate metric of exposure or alternatively to provide a scientific basis for using information on particle size, surface area, and chemistry to support an improved

Aleksandr B. Stefaniak; Mark D. Hoover; Gregory A. Day; Robert M. Dickerson; Eric J. Peterson; Michael S. Kent; Christine R. Schuler; Patrick N. Breysseb; Ronald C. Scripsick

2004-01-01

128

PPPL-3270, Reprint: October 1997, UC-420, 421, 423 Development of Lithium Deposition Techniques for TFTR*  

E-print Network

. The probes contained 40 µm diameter boron loaded into graphite-felt using a flotation technique [4 approaches to developing STL probes were investigated; the absorption of liquid lithium into graphite- felt, the flotation of lithium carbide into graphite-felt, and the deposition of lithium vapor in graphite-felt

129

Mineral resource of the month: beryllium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The article discusses information about Beryllium. It notes that Beryllium is a light metal that has a gray color. The metal is used in the production of parts and devices including bearings, computer-chip heat sinks, and output windows of X-ray tubes. The article mentions Beryllium's discovery in 1798 by French chemist, Louis-Nicolas Vanquelin. It cites that bertrandite and beryl are the principal mineral components for the commercial production of beryllium.

U.S. Geological Survey

2013-01-01

130

Process-related risk of beryllium sensitization and disease in a copper-beryllium alloy facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), which primarily affects the lungs, occurs in sensitized beryllium-exposed individuals. At a copper-beryllium alloy strip and wire finishing facility we performed a cross-sectional survey to examine prevalences of beryllium sensitization and CBD, and relationships between sensitization and CBD and work areas\\/processes. Methods Current employees (185) were offered beryllium lymphocyte proliferation testing (BeLPT) for sensitization, clinical

Christine R. Schuler; Michael S. Kent; David C. Deubner; Michael T. Berakis; Michael McCawley; Paul K. Henneberger; Milton D. Rossman; Kathleen Kreiss

2005-01-01

131

OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms

2009-01-01

132

Beryllium—Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Beneficiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of the geology, geochemistry and mineralogy of beryllium, and methods of beneficiation of beryl including the safety measures to be adopted while crushing and grinding of beryllium minerals.A typical lithophile element, beryllium forms a characteristic four fold coordination with oxygen forming the [BeO] complex. Geochemically it accumulates in the acid and alkalic magmas during magmatic

N. Krishna Rao; T. Sreenivas

1994-01-01

133

Experimental investigation of beryllium: plans and current  

E-print Network

1 Experimental investigation of beryllium: plans and current results within the Ra;3 Beryllium is a promising candidate because of: · good "nuclear" properties; · appropriate mechanical will Beryllium be used? Application Operating conditions Proton beam parametersAvg. T (°C) Peak T (°C) Total DPA

McDonald, Kirk

134

Jeremy Carter Correctional Magnetic Coils for Beryllium-  

E-print Network

Jeremy Carter Correctional Magnetic Coils for Beryllium- based Ion Plasma Chamber Physics 492R was to develop and assemble two sets of identical magnetic coils for the Beryllium based plasma chamber. This particular plasma in nature is Beryllium based and is being studied by various professors, as well

Hart, Gus

135

Beryllium--important for national defense  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beryllium is one of the lightest and stiffest metals, but there was little industrial demand for it until the 1930s and 1940s when the aerospace, defense, and nuclear sectors began using beryllium and its compounds. Beryllium is now classified by the U.S. Department of Defense as a strategic and critical material because it is used in products that are vital to national security. The oxide form of beryllium was identified in 1797, and scientists first isolated metallic beryllium in 1828. The United States is the world's leading source of beryllium. A single mine at Spor Mountain, Utah, produced more than 85 percent of the beryllium mined worldwide in 2010. China produced most of the remainder, and less than 2 percent came from Mozambique and other countries. National stockpiles also provide significant amounts of beryllium for processing. To help predict where future beryllium supplies might be located, U.S.Geological Survey (USGS) scientists study how and where beryllium resources are concentrated in Earth's crust and use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered beryllium resources may exist. Techniques to assess mineral resources have been developed by the USGS to support the stewardship of Federal lands and to better evaluate mineral resource availability in a global context. The USGS also compiles statistics and information on the worldwide supply of, demand for, and flow of beryllium. These data are used to inform U.S. national policymaking.

Boland, M.A.

2012-01-01

136

Primordial Nucleosynthesis and the Abundances of Beryllium and Boron  

E-print Network

The ability to now make measurements of Be and B as well as put constraints on \\lisix\\ abundances in metal-poor stars has led to a detailed reexamination of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis in the $A\\groughly6$ regime. The nuclear reaction network has been significantly expanded with many new rates added. It is demonstrated that although a number of $A>7$ reaction rates are poorly determined, even with extreme values chosen, the standard homogeneous model is unable to produce significant yields (Be/H and B/H $7$. However models that fit the $A\\le7$ abundances still seem to have difficulty in obtaining significant $A>7$ yields.

David Thomas; David N. Schramm; Keith A. Olive; Brian D. Fields

1992-06-18

137

Evolution of Beryllium and Boron in the Inhomogeneous Early Galaxy  

E-print Network

A model of supernova-driven chemical evolution of the Galactic halo, recently proposed by Tsujimoto, Shigeyama, & Yoshii (1999, ApJL, 519, 64), is extended in order to investigate the evolution of light elements such as Be and B (BeB), which are produced mainly through spallative reactions with Galactic cosmic rays. In this model each supernova sweeps up the surrounding interstellar gas into a dense shell and directly enriches it with ejecta which consist of heavy elements produced in each Type II supernova with different progenitor masses. We propose a two-component source for GCRs such that both interstellar gas and fresh SN ejecta engulfed in the shell are accelerated by the shock wave. Our model results include: (1) a prediction of the intrinsic scatter in BeB and [Fe/H] abundances within the model, (2) a successful prediction of the observed linear trend between BeB and [Fe/H], (3) a proposal for using BeB as a cosmic clock, as an alternative to [Fe/H], and (4) a method for possibly constraining the BBN model from future observations of metal-poor stars.

Takeru Ken Suzuki; Yuzuru Yoshii; Toshitaka Kajino

1999-07-21

138

Cosmic Ray production of Beryllium and Boron at high redshift  

E-print Network

Recently, new observations of Li6 in Pop II stars of the galactic halo have shown a surprisingly high abundance of this isotope, about a thousand times higher than its predicted primordial value. In previous papers, a cosmological model for the cosmic ray-induced production of this isotope in the IGM has been developed to explain the observed abundance at low metallicity. In this paper, given this constraint on the Li6, we calculate the non-thermal evolution with redshift of D, Be, and B in the IGM. In addition to cosmological cosmic ray interactions in the IGM, we include additional processes driven by SN explosions: neutrino spallation and a low energy component in the structures ejected by outflows to the IGM. We take into account CNO CRs impinging on the intergalactic gas. Although subdominant in the galactic disk, this process is shown to produce the bulk of Be and B in the IGM, due to the differential metal enrichment between structures (where CRs originate) and the IGM. We also consider the resulting extragalactic gamma-ray background which we find to be well below existing data. The computation is performed in the framework of hierarchical structure formation considering several star formation histories including Pop III stars. We find that D production is negligible and that a potentially detectable Be and B plateau is produced by these processes at the time of the formation of the Galaxy (z ~ 3).

Emmanuel Rollinde; David Maurin; Elisabeth Vangioni; Keith A. Olive; Susumu Inoue

2007-07-13

139

Cryogenic Properties of Aluminum-Beryllium and Beryllium Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were obtained for the aluminum- beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 (38%Al-62%Be), at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-32O F) and (- 252.8 C) (-423 F)) temperatures, and for an optical grade beryllium, O-30H (99%Be), at -252.8 C. AlBeMet162 material was purchased to the requirements of SAE- AMs7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions". O-30H material was purchased to the requirements of Brush Wellman Inc. specification O-30H Optical Grade Beryllium. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths for extruded AlBeMet162 material increased with decreasing temperature, and the percent elongation decreased with decreasing temperature. Design properties for the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percent elongation for extruded AlBeMetl62 were generated. It was not possible to distinguish a difference in the room and cryogenic ultimate strength for the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) O-30H material. The O-30H elongation decreased with decreasing temperature.

Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

2003-01-01

140

Cryogenic Properties of Aluminum Beryllium and Beryllium Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 (38%Al-62%Be), at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-320 F) and (-252.8 C) (-423 F)) temperatures, and for an optical grade beryllium, O-30H (99%Be), at -252.8 C. AlBeMetl62 material was purchased to the requirements of SAE-AMS7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions." O-30H material was purchased to the requirements of Brush Wellman Inc. specification O-30H Optical Grade Beryllium. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths for extruded AlBeMetl62 material increased with decreasing temperature, and the percent elongation decreased with decreasing temperature. Design properties for the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percent elongation for extruded AlBeMetl62 were generated. It was not possible to distinguish a difference in the room and cryogenic ultimate strength for the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) O-30H material. The O30H elongation decreased with decreasing temperature.

Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

2003-01-01

141

Double Photoionization of Atomic Beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-photon double ionization (DPI) of beryllium represents the next step in the evolution of DPI investigations that began with helium in order to sensitively probe electron correlation. Beryllium is the simplest atomic species of the alkaline earth elements which, in general, possess two electrons outside of a fully occupied inner shell that spherically screens the nucleus. This provides a natural basis for comparison to 1s^2 helium DPI. However, the valence state of beryllium has n=2, thus making the valence excited target 2s2p more accessible relative to the 2s^2 ground state as compared to ground-state and metastable helium. Also, the symmetry of photoionizing from either the ^1S or ^1P initial state will have consequences for the angular distributions for double ionization. Triply differential cross sections (TDCS) are presented for DPI from both ground state 2s^2 and excited state 2s2p beryllium calculated using exterior complex scaling (ECS) for the valence electrons.

Yip, Frank L.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N.

2010-03-01

142

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, ?) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg 10B/g blood.

Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena

2010-06-01

143

III 1 BORON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Boron chemistry, analysis, environmental exposure, metabolism, anthropomorphic sources, beneficial physiological effects, and toxicity are reviewed. Boron is widely distributed in nature and always occurs bound to oxygen. Boron biochemistry is essentially that of boric acid, which forms ester comple...

144

Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a “window” for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in “windows” for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed.

T., A. Tomberlin

2004-11-01

145

OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

Brisson, M

2009-04-01

146

Can mirror matter solve the the cosmological lithium problem?  

SciTech Connect

The abundance of lithium-7 confronts cosmology with a long lasting inconsistency between the predictions of standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis with the baryonic density determined from the Cosmic Microwave Background observations on the one hand, and the spectroscopic determination of the lithium-7 abundance on the other hand. We investigated the influence of the existence of a mirror world, focusing on models in which mirror neutrons can oscillate into ordinary neutrons. Such a mechanism allows for an effective late time neutron injection, which induces an increase of the destruction of beryllium-7and thus a lower final lithium-7 abundance.

Coc, Alain [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris Sud 11, UMR 8609, Bâtiment 104, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris, France and Sorbonne Universités, Institut Lagrange de Paris, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

2014-05-02

147

The near-Surface Region of Cubic Boron Nitride Single Crystal from the Li3N-hBN System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cubic boron nitride single crystals are synthesized with lithium nitride as a catalyst under high pressure and high temperature. The main phases in the near-surface region, which around the single crystal are determined as a mixture of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), cubic boron nitride (cBN) and lithium boron nitride (Li3BN2). High resolution transmission electron microscopy examinations show that there exist lots of nanometer-sized cubic boron nitride nuclei in this region. The interface phase structures of cubic boron nitride crystal and its near-surface region are investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. The growth mechanism of cubic boron nitride crystal is analyzed briefly. It is supposed that Li3BN2 impels the direct conversion of hBN to cBN as a real catalyst, and cBN is homogeneously nucleated in the molten state under high pressure and high temperature.

Guo, Xiao-Fei; Xu, Bin; Wen, Zhen-Xing; Fan, Xiao-Hong; Tian, Bin

2014-04-01

148

20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30.508 Section 30.508...Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical...

2013-04-01

149

20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30.508 Section 30.508...Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical...

2012-04-01

150

20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30.508 Section 30.508...Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical...

2010-04-01

151

20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30.508 Section 30.508...Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical...

2011-04-01

152

20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2012-04-01 true What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30.508 Section 30.508...Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical...

2014-04-01

153

Brazing of beryllium for structural applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made in fabricating a beryllium compression tube structure and a stiffened beryllium panel. The compression tube was 7.6cm in diameter and 30.5cm long with titanium end fittings. The panel was 203cm long and stiffened with longitudinal stringers. Both units were assembled by brazing with BAg-18 braze alloy. The detail parts were fabricated by hot forming 0.305cm beryllium sheet and the brazing parameters established.

Vogan, J. W.

1972-01-01

154

Inhibited solid propellant composition containing beryllium hydride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An object of this invention is to provide a composition of beryllium hydride and carboxy-terminated polybutadiene which is stable. Another object of this invention is to provide a method for inhibiting the reactivity of beryllium hydride toward carboxy-terminated polybutadiene. It was found that a small amount of lecithin inhibits the reaction of beryllium hydride with the acid groups in carboxy terminated polybutadiene.

Thompson, W. W. (inventor)

1978-01-01

155

CHEMICO-SPECTROGRAPHIC METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF METALLIC BERYLLIUM AND BERYLLIUM OXIDE OF HIGH PURITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemico-spectrographic method was developed for determining 24 element ; admixtures in beryllium and beryllium oxide. To concentrate admixtures (20 to ; 25 times), beryllium is separated as base acetate by extracting with chloroform. ; The sensitivity of the determination increases up to 10⁻⁴ to 10\\/sup -5%\\/. ; The method can be used for the analytical control of the production

A. G. Karabash; Sh. I. Peizulaev; R. L. Slyusareva; V. M. Lipatova

1959-01-01

156

The effect of thermal treatment on the metallographic structure of beryllium and dilute beryllium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron microscopy and electron-probe microanalysis techniques were ; used to study the microstructure of beryllium and some dilute beryllium alloys. ; The effect of tuermal treatment on the dissemination of impurities and alloying ; elements was investigated with particular reference to the mechanical properties ; of the metal at 600 deg C. In beryllium-iron alloys annealed to improve high-; temperature

G. V. T. Ranzetta; V. D. Scott

1963-01-01

157

The Corrosion / Electrochemistry of Beryllium and Beryllium Weldments in Aqueous Chloride Environments  

E-print Network

The Corrosion / Electrochemistry of Beryllium and Beryllium Weldments in Aqueous Chloride Environments submitted by: Mary Ann Hill, Darryl P. Butt, R. Scott Lillard Materials Corrosion year. Our goals for FY '96 were two-fold: 1) develop a sensor for monitoring the corrosion of beryllium

158

MANAGING BERYLLIUM IN NUCLEAR FACILITY APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium plays important roles in nuclear facilities. Its neutron multiplication capability and low atomic weight make it very useful as a reflector in fission reactors. Its low atomic number and high chemical affinity for oxygen have led to its consideration as a plasma-facing material in fusion reactors. In both applications, the beryllium and the impurities in it become activated by neutrons, transmuting them to radionuclides, some of which are long-lived and difficult to dispose of. Also, gas production, notably helium and tritium, results in swelling, embrittlement, and cracking, which means that the beryllium must be replaced periodically, especially in fission reactors where dimensional tolerances must be maintained. It has long been known that neutron activation of inherent iron and cobalt in the beryllium results in significant {sup 60}Co activity. In 2001, it was discovered that activation of naturally occurring contaminants in the beryllium creates sufficient {sup 14}C and {sup 94}Nb to render the irradiated beryllium 'Greater-Than-Class-C' for disposal in U.S. radioactive waste facilities. It was further found that there was sufficient uranium impurity in beryllium that had been used in fission reactors up to that time that the irradiated beryllium had become transuranic in character, making it even more difficult to dispose of. In this paper we review the extent of the disposal issue, processes that have been investigated or considered for improving the disposability of irradiated beryllium, and approaches for recycling.

R. Rohe; T. N. Tranter

2011-12-01

159

Beryllium thin films for resistor applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

Fiet, O.

1972-01-01

160

Mineral resource of the month: beryllium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beryllium metal is lighter than aluminum and stiffer than steel. These and other properties, including its strength, dimensional stability, thermal properties and reflectivity, make it useful for aerospace and defense applications, such as satellite and space-vehicle structural components. Beryllium’s nuclear properties, combined with its low density, make it useful as a neutron reflector and moderator in nuclear reactors. Because it is transparent to most X rays, beryllium is used as X-ray windows in medical, industrial and analytical equipment.

Shedd, Kim B.

2006-01-01

161

Beryllium anomalies in solar-type field stars  

E-print Network

We present a study of beryllium (Be) abundances in a large sample of field solar-type dwarfs and sub-giants spanning a large range of effective temperatures. The analysis shows that Be is severely depleted for F stars, as expected by the light-element depletion models. However, we also show that Beryllium abundances decrease with decreasing temperature for stars cooler than $\\sim$6000 K, a result that cannot be explained by current theoretical models including rotational mixing, but that is, at least in part, expected from the models that take into account internal wave physics. In particular, the light element abundances of the coolest and youngest stars in our sample suggest that Be, as well as lithium (Li), has already been burned early during their evolution. Furthermore, we find strong evidence for the existence of a Be-gap for solar-temperature stars. The analysis of Li and Be abundances in the sub-giants of our sample also shows the presence of one case that has still detectable amounts of Li, while Be is severely depleted. Finally, we compare the derived Be abundances with Li abundances derived using the same set of stellar parameters. This gives us the possibility to explore the temperatures for which the onset of Li and Be depletion occurs.

N. C. Santos; G. Israelian; S. Randich; R. J. Garcia Lopez; R. Rebolo

2004-08-05

162

Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production  

DOEpatents

A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

2014-03-25

163

Brittle behavior in extruded beryllium tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of brittle fracture in extruded beryllium tubes is described following an unusual brittle fracture of a beryllium clad fuel element at plastic strain of about 0.15% produced by differential thermal contraction. A characteristic spiral form of fracture is shown to be caused by cleavage failure of the highly textured tube along (1120) planes under biaxial stress generated by

G. Sumner

1966-01-01

164

Beryllium isotope geochemistry in tropical river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributions of beryllium-9 and beryllium-10 in rivers within the Orinoco and Amazon basins have been examined to extend the understanding of their geochemical cycles and to develop their use both in geochronometry, and in studying erosional processes. Analyses of ⁹Be in dissolved and suspended material from rivers with a wide range of chemical compositions indicate that its geochemistry is

E. T. Brown; J. M. Edmond; G. M. Raisbeck; D. L. Bourles; F. Yiou; C. I. Measures

1992-01-01

165

Fracture toughness of hot-pressed beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the results of an investigation into the fracture toughness, sustained-load flaw growth, and fatigue-crack propagation resistance of S200E hot-pressed beryllium at room temperature. It also reviews the literature pertaining to the influence of various factors on the fracture toughness of hot-pressed beryllium determined using fatigue-cracked specimens.

Lemon, D. D.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

1985-01-01

166

Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate  

DOEpatents

A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

Bergeron, Charles (Baton Rouge, LA); Bullard, John E. (Kendall Park, NJ); Morgan, Evan (Lynchburg, VA)

1991-01-01

167

Carbene-stabilized beryllium borohydride.  

PubMed

The reaction of N-heterocyclic carbene, L:, with BeCl(2) quantitatively yields L:BeCl(2)1 (L: = :C{N(2,6-Pr(i)(2)C(6)H(3))CH}(2)). The carbene-stabilized beryllium borohydride monomer L:Be(BH(4))(2)2 is prepared by the reaction of 1 with LiBH(4). Compound 3, prepared by the reaction of 2 with Na(2)[Fe(CO)(4)]·dioxane, represents an unusual "dual reduction" of the imidazole ring (i.e., hydroboration of the C?C backbone and hydrogenation of the C2 carbene center). PMID:22670857

Gilliard, Robert J; Abraham, Mariham Y; Wang, Yuzhong; Wei, Pingrong; Xie, Yaoming; Quillian, Brandon; Schaefer, Henry F; Schleyer, Paul V R; Robinson, Gregory H

2012-06-20

168

This chapter describes the theory behind various aspects of nuclear astrophysics. First, a brief description of stellar evolution is given, followed by a more detailed account of the type of stellar  

E-print Network

-alpha process, which forms 12C from 4He, circumvents elements in between these cycles (lithium, beryllium a balanced equilibrium until the element fueling the reactions is depleted. Once #12;13 Figure 2.1: Detailed, and boron) from being formed with any high probability. As lithium, beryllium, and boron are highly reactive

Garcia, Alejandro

169

Lung cancer case-control study of beryllium workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Cohort mortality studies have found elevated lung cancer mortality among beryllium-exposed workers, but none evaluated the association between beryllium exposure level and lung cancer risk. A nested case-control study of lung cancer within a beryllium processing plant was conducted to investigate the relationship between level of beryllium exposure and lung cancer. Methods Lung cancer cases were identified by mortality

Wayne T. Sanderson; Elizabeth M. Ward; Kyle Steenland; Martin R. Petersen

2001-01-01

170

Constraining low-energy proton capture on beryllium-7 through charge radius measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we point out that a measurement of the charge radius of boron-8 provides indirect access to the S-factor for radiative proton capture on beryllium-7 at low energies. We use leading-order halo effective field theory to explore this correlation and we give a relation between the charge radius and the S-factor. Furthermore, we present important technical aspects relevant to the renormalization of point-like P -wave interactions in the presence of a repulsive Coulomb interaction.

Ryberg, Emil; Forssén, Christian; Hammer, H.-W.; Platter, Lucas

2014-11-01

171

Constraining Low-Energy Proton Capture on Beryllium-7 through Charge Radius Measurements  

E-print Network

In this paper, we point out that a measurement of the charge radius of Boron-8 provides indirect access to the S-factor for radiative proton capture on Beryllium-7 at low energies. We use leading-order halo effective field theory to explore this correlation and we give a relation between the charge radius and the S-factor. Furthermore, we present important technical aspects relevant to the renormalization of pointlike P-wave interactions in the presence of a repulsive Coulomb interaction.

Ryberg, Emil; Hammer, H -W; Platter, Lucas

2014-01-01

172

Nucleosynthesis of 11B-rich boron in the pre-solar cloud recorded in meteoritic chondrules  

Microsoft Academic Search

MODELS of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy, in which most elements are created inside stars and distributed by stellar winds and supernovae, cannot produce the observed abundances of boron and beryllium1. These elements have been produced continuously since the Big Bang by collisions between Galactic cosmic rays (very energetic protons and a-particles) and heavier elements, such as carbon and

Marc Chaussidon; François Robert

1995-01-01

173

Beryllium recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2004-01-01

174

Beryllium Recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2003-01-01

175

Beryllium abundances in parent stars of extrasolar planets: 16 Cyg A & B and rho 1 Cnc  

E-print Network

The Be II 3131 A doublet has been observed in the solar-type stars 16 Cyg A & B and in the late G-type star rho 1 Cnc, to derive their beryllium abundances. 16 Cyg A & B show similar (solar) beryllium abundances while 16 Cyg B, which has been proposed to have a planetary companion of ~2 M_Jup, is known to be depleted in lithium by a factor larger than 6 with respect to 16 Cyg A. Differences in their rotational histories which could induce different rates of internal mixing of material, and the ingestion of a similar planet by 16 Cyg A are discussed as potential explanations. The existence of two other solar-type stars which are candidates to harbour planetary-mass companions and which show lithium and beryllium abundances close to those of 16 Cyg A, requires a more detailed inspection of the peculiarities of the 16 Cyg system. For rho 1 Cnc, which is the coolest known object candidate to harbour a planetary-mass companion (M > 0.85 M_Jup), we establish a precise upper limit for its beryllium abundance, showing a strong Be depletion which constrains the available mixing mechanisms. Observations of similar stars without companions are required to asses the potential effects of the planetary companion on the observed depletion. It has been recently claimed that rho 1 Cnc appears to be a subgiant. If this were the case, the observed strong Li and Be depletions could be explained by a dilution process taking place during its post-main sequence evolution.

R. J. Garcia Lopez; M. R. Perez de Taoro

1998-03-03

176

40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory. ...FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming...

2014-07-01

177

THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BERYLLIUM TECHNOLOGY UPDATE  

SciTech Connect

A Beryllium Technology Update meeting was held at the Idaho National Laboratory on July 18, 2007. Participants came from the U.S., Japan, and Russia. There were two main objectives of this meeting. One was a discussion of current technologies for beryllium in fission reactors, particularly the Advanced Test Reactor and the Japan Materials Test Reactor, and prospects for material availability in the coming years. The second objective of the meeting was a discussion of a project of the International Science and Technology Center regarding treatment of irradiated beryllium for disposal. This paper highlights discussions held during that meeting and major conclusions reached

Glen R. Longhurst

2007-12-01

178

Optimizing the boron effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of boron content varying from 0.0001 to 0.0110 wt pct were studied to determine the optimum boron range for commercially desirable combinations of hardenability and notch toughness in 11\\/4 in. thick steel plate made from grade ASTM A514-J. Increasing boron content up to 0.0025 pct resulted in a gradually increasing boron hardenability factor which reached a maximum value

G. F. Melloy; P. R. Summon; P. P. Podgursky

1973-01-01

179

Optimizing the boron effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of boron content varying from 0.0001 to 0.0110 wt pct were studied to determine the optimum boron range for commercially\\u000a desirable combinations of hardenability and notch toughness in 11\\/4 in. thick steel plate made from grade ASTM A514-J. Increasing\\u000a boron content up to 0.0025 pct resulted in a gradually increasing boron hardenability factor which reached a maximum value

G. F. Melloy; P. R. Summon; P. P. Podgursky

1973-01-01

180

Temperature rise in lithium targets for accelerator based BNCT using multi-fin heat removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thick lithium targets are excellent sources of neutrons for accelerator boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), but the low melting point of lithium (181 °C) and a need for high proton currents make target heating a concern. However, because neutrons are not produced for proton energies below the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction threshold of 1.88 MeV, the lithium targets need only be thick

C. L. Lee; X.-L. Zhou; R. W. Hamm; F. Harmon; R. J. Kudchadker; Y. D. Harker

1999-01-01

181

Combined aging of beryllium bronze  

SciTech Connect

This article evaluates the possibility of increasing the resistance of beryllium bronze to small plastic deformations as a result of the application of stepped aging under stress. Low-temperature aging under conditions of bending under a stress of about 100 MPa was applied to alloy BrBNT1, 9Mg at 150, 180, and 210 /sup 0/C, high-temperature aging at 300 and 340 /sup 0/C under stress and without stress. As a result of applying stepped aging under stress, the elastic limit of the alloy BrBNT1, 9Mg was raised to 900 MPa. Stepped aging under stress has a substantial effect on the relaxation stability of the alloy. The procedure suggested in the article for aging may be used efficiently for treating elastic elements made of other brands of bronze as well.

Duraev, P.P.; Kaplun, Yu.A.; Pastukhova, Zh.P.; Rakhshtadt, A.G.

1986-01-01

182

Chemical Analysis Of Beryllium Shells  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to understand the level of high-Z impurities in Beryllium shells prepared by sputter coating. The Ignition Point Design Requirements state the following: ''Except for allowed ingredients, as listed in the ablator composition entries, the ablator material in all layers shall contain sufficiently low impurity levels that the sum over all impurities of atom fraction*Z{sup 2} shall be less than or equal to 0.2''. This is a tight specification that requires careful materials analysis. Early in the first quarter of FY06, we undertook a study of Be shell impurities via ICP-MS{sup 2} and determined that the impurity levels in the sputtered shells are very close to the specification.

Gunther, J; Cook, R

2005-11-17

183

Nitrogen reactivity toward beryllium: surface reactions.  

PubMed

Recent experiments with nitrogen as a seeding gas in fusion plasma devices together with the option of using beryllium as an armor material in the future ITER tokamak (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) have raised new interest in the interactions of beryllium surfaces with nitrogen (atomic or molecular). The strong reactivity of nitrogen implies the formation of beryllium nitrite and, in conjunction with oxygen and other possible impurities, experimentalists have to consider the probability of generating various complex moieties such as imine, amine or oxyamine, and amide radicals. This chemistry would obviously dramatically perturb the plasma, and quantum investigations can be of great predictive help. Nitrogen adsorption on beryllium basal surfaces is investigated through quantum density functional theory. Different situations are examined: molecular or atomic nitrogen reactions; nitride radical adsorption or formation on surfaces; hydrogen retention on surfaces; combined nitrogen/oxygen reactivity and hydrogen retention. A tentative comparison with experiment is also proposed. PMID:23594802

Allouche, A

2013-06-01

184

Colorimetric Method for Beryllium Surface Contamination Detection  

SciTech Connect

To address the need for real-time accurate total beryllium analyses, Savannah River Technology Center Analytical Development Section personnel evaluated and modified a colorimetric screening method developed at Los Alamos National Lab to measure beryllium on surfaces. This method was based on a color complex formed by beryllium and chromium azurol s . SRTC converted this visual method to a quantitative analysis method using spectrophotometric detection. The addition of a cationic surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) to the Be-CAS system shifted the complex absorbance away from the CAS absorbance and allowed for the detection. Assuming complete dissolution and a 10 mL rinse solution volume to remove the beryllium from the wipe, the detection limit was calculated comfortably below the free release limit. The spectrophotometric method was rugged and simple enough that it could be used as a field method.

MCWHORTER, CHRISTOPHER

2004-03-11

185

Nitrogen reactivity toward beryllium: surface reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experiments with nitrogen as a seeding gas in fusion plasma devices together with the option of using beryllium as an armor material in the future ITER tokamak (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) have raised new interest in the interactions of beryllium surfaces with nitrogen (atomic or molecular). The strong reactivity of nitrogen implies the formation of beryllium nitrite and, in conjunction with oxygen and other possible impurities, experimentalists have to consider the probability of generating various complex moieties such as imine, amine or oxyamine, and amide radicals. This chemistry would obviously dramatically perturb the plasma, and quantum investigations can be of great predictive help. Nitrogen adsorption on beryllium basal surfaces is investigated through quantum density functional theory. Different situations are examined: molecular or atomic nitrogen reactions; nitride radical adsorption or formation on surfaces; hydrogen retention on surfaces; combined nitrogen/oxygen reactivity and hydrogen retention. A tentative comparison with experiment is also proposed.

Allouche, A.

2013-06-01

186

Laboratory experiments on hydrogen and impurity behaviors in lithium-deposited environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wall conditioning with deposition of thin lithium layers gives rise to low hydrogen recycling and reduction in oxygen and carbon impurities. To understand such effects, small-scale laboratory experiments are carried out mainly focusing on the chemical state of hydrogen involved in the lithium layer. First, measurements of the methane yield from graphite walls in a hydrogen glow discharge reveal that the lithium deposition leads to ˜ 25% reduction of chemical sputtering. Second, thermal desorption of hydrogen molecules from the lithium layer suggests existence of different states of hydrogen: one is weakly bound hydrogen which is released from the lithium layer at T ˜ 200° C, and the other is attributed to lithium hydride which decomposes for T > 400° C. Finally, a new wall conditioning based on a lithium borohydride (LiBH 4) discharge is demonstrated, which enables co-deposition of lithium and boron.

Toyoda, H.; Watanabe, M.; Sugai, H.

1997-02-01

187

Carcinogenicity of beryllium: reivew of the literature  

SciTech Connect

The carcinogenicity of beryllium (Be) is reviewed. At least 17 different senior authors have published 27 different scientific articles which demonstrate the carcinogenicity of 13 different beryllium compounds. Osteogenic sarcomas can be induced in rabbits by the intravenous injection or by the inhalation of Be compounds. Lung cancer can be induced in rats and monkeys by intratracheal injections and inhalation exposures. The first published report on the carcinogenicity of Be was in 1946.

Groth, D.H.

1980-02-01

188

Chronic beryllium disease: Diagnosis and management  

SciTech Connect

Chronic beryllium disease is predominantly a pulmonary granulomatosis that was originally described in 1946. Symptoms usually include dyspnea and cough. Fever, anorexia, and weight loss are common. Skin lesions are the most common extrathoracic manifestation. Granulomatous hepatitis, hypercalcemia, and kidney stones can also occur. Radiographic and physiologic abnormalities are similar to those in sarcoidosis. While traditionally the pathologic changes included granulomas and cellular interstitial changes, the hallmark of the disease today is the well-formed granuloma. Immunologic studies have demonstrated a cell-mediated response to beryllium that is due to an accumulation of CD4{sup +} T cells at the site of disease activity. Diagnosis depends on the demonstration of pathologic changes (i.e., granuloma) and evidence that the granuloma was caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium (i.e., positive lung proliferative response to beryllium). Using these criteria, the diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease can now be made before the onset of clinical symptoms. Whether, with early diagnosis, the natural course of this condition will be the same as when it was traditionally diagnosed is not known. Currently, corticosteroids are used to treat patients with significant symptoms or evidence of progressive disease. 21 refs.

Rossman, M.D. [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1996-10-01

189

Major histocompatibility locus genetic markers of beryllium sensitization and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major histocompatibility locus genetic markers of beryllium sensitization and disease. C. Saltini, L. Richeldi, M. Losi, M. Amicosante, C. Voorter, E. van den Berg-Loonen, R.A. Dweik, H.P. Wiedemann, D.C. Deubner, C. Tinelli. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: Hypersensitivity to beryllium (Be) is found in 1-16% of exposed workers undergoing immunological screening for beryllium disease using the beryllium lym- phocyte proliferation

C. Saltini; L. Richeldi; M. Losi; M. Amicosante; C. Voorter; E. Van Den Berg-Loonen; R. A. Dweik; H. P. Wiedemann; D. C. Deubner; C. Tinelli

2001-01-01

190

Beryllium10 in Australasian tektites: evidence for a sedimentary precursor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 1 x 10⁸ atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 x 10⁶ years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in

D. K. Pal; C. Tuniz; R. K. Moniot; T. H. Kruse; G. F. Herzog

1982-01-01

191

Beryllium10 in Australasian tektites - Evidence for a sedimentary precursor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 100 micron atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 million years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere.

D. K. Pal; R. K. Moniot; T. H. Kruse; G. F. Herzog; C. Tuniz

1982-01-01

192

Beryllium10 in Australasian Tektites: Evidence for a Sedimentary Precursor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 1 × 108 atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 × 106 years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in

John A. Westgate

1982-01-01

193

Hydrogen trapping by yttrium in low temperature lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A test to determine the lithium compatibility and impurity gettering capabilities of various materials including yttrium was performed in Beryllium-7 Experimental Lithium Loop (7BELL) at 270°C. Yttrium coupons were exposed in liquid lithium for a total of 3,718 hours. X-ray diffraction and bulk chemical analysis data indicated that yttrium absorbs hydrogen from liquid lithium at 270°C and transforms to yttrium dihydride (YH 2). The transformation of yttrium to YH 2 resulted in embrittlement of the coupons and subsequent fragmentation to small pieces. Additional analysis, based on the equilibrium hydrogen pressures for the transition of yttrium to YH 2, and Sievert's relationship for hydrogen in equilibrium with hydrogen in lithium, indicates that the temperature of yttrium cannot exceed 280°C to control the hydrogen concentration in lithium at below 1 wt ppm. It is concluded in general that yttrium in sponge form is a good getter for removal of hydrogen isotopes from the lithium blanket of a fusion reactor at or below 280°C, which is in excellent agreement with the results of previous authors.

Anantatmula, R. P.; Katsuta, Hiroji

1984-05-01

194

Simulating beryllium electrorefining with AspenPlus{copyright}  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium is a lightweight, high strength metal with excellent thermal properties. It is a high cost material that has applications in electronics, the space program, and the defense industry. Beryllium is irreplaceable in several defense applications and therefore the US government maintains a reserve supply of several grades of the metal. However, the current defense industry (the largest metallic beryllium

C. E. Polston; W. J. Parkinson; S. P. Abeln; P. J. Wantuck; R. R. Corle

1998-01-01

195

Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality Division  

E-print Network

Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality Division SLAC-I-730-0A09M-001-R003 24 September 2013 #12;Publication Data This document was developed by the Beryllium program and published by ESHQ Publishing. Document Title: Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program

Wechsler, Risa H.

196

Relativistic and QED corrections for the Beryllium atom Krzysztof Pachucki  

E-print Network

Relativistic and QED corrections for the Beryllium atom Krzysztof Pachucki #3; Institute are calculated for the ground state of the beryllium atom and its positive ion. A basis set of correlated of high precision theoretical predictions for energy levels of the beryllium atom and light ions. Our

Pachucki, Krzysztof

197

Introduction to Beryllium: Uses, Regulatory History, and Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium is an ubiquitous element in the environment, and it has many commercial applications. Because of its strength, electrical and thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance, and nuclear properties, beryllium products are used in the aerospace, automotive, energy, medical, and electronics industries. What eventually came to be known as chronic beryllium disease (CBD) was first identified in the 1940s, when a cluster

Marc E. Kolanz

2001-01-01

198

REVIEWS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS: VI. BERYLLIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a review of the scientific literature on the biological and environmental effects of beryllium. Included in the review are a general summary and a comprehensive discussion of the following topics as related to beryllium and specific beryllium compounds: physical and...

199

Nuclear Transmutations in HFIR's Beryllium Reflector and Their Impact on Reactor Operation and Reflector Disposal  

SciTech Connect

The High Flux Isotope Reactor located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory utilizes a large cylindrical beryllium reflector that is subdivided into three concentric regions and encompasses the compact reactor core. Nuclear transmutations caused by neutron activation occur in the beryllium reflector regions, which leads to unwanted neutron absorbing and radiation emitting isotopes. During the past year, two topics related to the HFIR beryllium reflector were reviewed. The first topic included studying the neutron poison (helium-3 and lithium-6) buildup in the reflector regions and its affect on beginning-of-cycle reactivity. A new methodology was developed to predict the reactivity impact and estimated symmetrical critical control element positions as a function of outage time between cycles due to helium-3 buildup and was shown to be in better agreement with actual symmetrical critical control element position data than the current methodology. The second topic included studying the composition of the beryllium reflector regions at discharge as well as during decay to assess the viability of transporting, storing, and ultimately disposing the reflector regions currently stored in the spent fuel pool. The post-irradiation curie inventories were used to determine whether the reflector regions are discharged as transuranic waste or become transuranic waste during the decay period for disposal purposes and to determine the nuclear hazard category, which may affect the controls invoked for transportation and temporary storage. Two of the reflector regions were determined to be transuranic waste at discharge and the other region was determined to become transuranic waste in less than 2 years after being discharged due to the initial uranium content (0.0044 weight percent uranium). It was also concluded that all three of the reflector regions could be classified as nuclear hazard category 3 (potential for localized consequences only).

Chandler, David [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Proctor, Larry Duane [ORNL

2012-01-01

200

Preparation of high-purity beryllium foils  

SciTech Connect

A technique is described for the preparation of beryllium foils by vapor deposition. The high-purity, pinhole-free foils are vacuum tight and suitable for many x-ray analysis applications. The beryllium is evaporated from an electron beam heated crucible source onto a heated substrated. Substrate temperatures of 450 to 700/sup 0/C are necessary to obtain the desired mechanical properties of the foils. At these temperatures, contamination of the foils by diffusion of the substrate material into the beryllium can be a significant problem, as impurity levels of more than several hundred ppM are detrimental to the x-ray transparency of the windows. This problem is minimized by careful selection and preparation of the substrate. A clean deposition system and pure source material are necessary to preserve elemental integrity of the vapor-deposited foils.

Taylor, R.D.

1980-01-01

201

Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using  

E-print Network

Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using DFT Sergio Orozco Student Advisor: Chen Huang Faculty Mentor Lithium LPS Test Lithium LPS #12;Density Functional Theory (DFT) Successful quantum mechanical approach (1979) #12;Building LPS for Lithium Create a LPS using NLPS density for Lithium Test LPS by comparing

Petta, Jason

202

Alloying of aluminum-beryllium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existing phase diagrams of Al-Be- X alloys, where X is an alloying element, are analyzed. Element X is noted to poorly dissolve in both aluminum and beryllium. It is shown that the absence of intermetallic compounds in the Al-Be system affects the phase equilibria in an Al-Be- X system. Possible phase equilibria involving phases based on aluminum, beryllium, and intermetallic compounds are proposed, and the types of strengthening of Al-Be alloys by an addition of a third element are classified.

Molchanova, L. V.; Ilyushin, V. N.

2013-01-01

203

Beryllium window for synchrotron light sources  

SciTech Connect

As part of an on-going upgrade program at the National Synchrotron Light Source, a parametric study of rectangular flat and curved beryllium windows of varying thickness and heights and under varying thermal loading was undertaken. The study consisted of a series of 2D and 3D thermal stress finite element analyses to determine the relative benefit of various combinations of parameters with respect to the windows` ability to withstand thermal loads. This study includes evaluation of fixed versus flexible mounting of flat and curved beryllium windows. Buckling analyses for both types of mountings are also included.

Lynch, D.R.; Berman, L.; Montanez, P.; Pjerov, S.; Stefan, P.; Woodle, M.

1996-10-01

204

The structure of boron in boron fibres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure of noncrystalline, chemically vapour-deposited boron fibres was investigated by computer modelling the experimentally obtained X-ray diffraction patterns. The diffraction patterns from the models were computed using the Debye scattering equation. The modelling was done utilizing the minimum nearest-neighbour distance, the density of the model, and the broadening and relative intensity of the various peaks as boundary conditions. The results suggest that the fibres consist of a continuous network of randomly oriented regions of local atomic order, about 2 nm in diameter, containing boron atoms arranged in icosahedra. Approximately half of these regions have a tetragonal structure and the remaining half a distorted rhombohedral structure. The model also indicates the presence of many partial icosahedra and loose atoms not associated with any icosahedra. The partial icosahedra and loose atoms indicated in the present model are in agreement with the relaxing sub-units which have been suggested to explain the anelastic behavior of fibre boron and the loosely bound boron atoms which have been postulated to explain the strengthening mechanism in boron fibres during thermal treatment.

Bhardwaj, J.; Krawitz, A. D.

1983-01-01

205

Potential exposures and risks from beryllium-containing products.  

PubMed

Beryllium is the strongest of the lightweight metals. Used primarily in military applications prior to the end of the Cold War, beryllium is finding new applications in many commercial products, including computers, telecommunication equipment, and consumer and automotive electronics. The use of beryllium in nondefense consumer applications is of concern because beryllium is toxic. Inhalation of beryllium dust or vapor causes a chronic lung disease in some individuals at concentrations as low as 0.01 microg/m3 in air. As beryllium enters wider commerce, it is prudent to ask what risks this might present to the general public and to workers downstream of the beryllium materials industry. We address this question by evaluating the potential for beryllium exposure from the manufacturing, use, recycle, and disposal of beryllium-containing products. Combining a market study with a qualitative exposure analysis, we determine which beryllium applications and life cycle phases have the largest exposure potential. Our analysis suggests that use and maintenance of the most common types of beryllium-containing products do not result in any obvious exposures of concern, and that maintenance activities result in greater exposures than product use. Product disposal has potential to present significant individual risks, but uncertainties concerning current and future routes of product disposal make it difficult to be definitive. Overall, additional exposure and dose-response data are needed to evaluate both the health significance of many exposure scenarios, and the adequacy of existing regulations to protect workers and the public. Although public exposures to beryllium and public awareness and concern regarding beryllium risks are currently low, beryllium risks have psychometric qualities that may lead to rapidly heightened public concern. PMID:12442995

Willis, Henry H; Florig, H Keith

2002-10-01

206

Beryllium Pressure Bar Having Submicrosecond Risetime  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pressure bar gauge was constructed from beryllium. The active element is a PZT polarized ferroelectric disk. The gauge was subjected to step pressure loading; the time taken for the output signal to increase from 10 to 90% of its final steady value is 0.54 ?sec which is substantially faster than any other previously reported for a bar gauge.

Ieuan R. Jones

1966-01-01

207

THE BERYLLIUM CONTENT OF SOME METEORITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beryllium concentration of 17 meteorites was determined with ; excellent precision by a fluorometric procedure using morin as reagent. The ; average concentration found for 13 chondrites and 1 achondrite was 0.038 ppm or ; 0.64 atom per 10⁶ atoms of silicon. Two other achondrites were excluded ; from the average because of their large deviations from the mean.

C. W. Sill; C. P. Willis

1962-01-01

208

Analysis of tritium kinetics of SIBELIUS beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tritium transport model called BETTY has been developed to describe and predict the kinetics of tritium transport in irradiated beryllium in fusion blanket applications. Some USA SIBELIUS experimental data were released and provided useful input data for tritium transport models and code development. An analysis of these USA SIBELIUS experimental data was performed in this paper. A comparison of

S. Cho; M. A. Abdou

2000-01-01

209

Status of beryllium development for fusion applications  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium is a leading candidate material for the neutron multiplier of tritium breeding blankets and the plasma facing component of first wall and divertor systems. Depending on the application, the fabrication methods proposed include hot-pressing, hot-isostatic-pressing, cold isostatic pressing/sintering, rotary electrode processing and plasma spraying. Product forms include blocks, tubes, pebbles, tiles and coatings. While, in general, beryllium is not a leading structural material candidate, its mechanical performance, as well its performance with regard to sputtering, heat transport, tritium retention/release, helium-induced swelling and chemical compatibility, is an important consideration in first-wall/blanket design. Differential expansion within the beryllium causes internal stresses which may result in cracking, thereby affecting the heat transport and barrier performance of the material. Overall deformation can result in loading of neighboring structural material. Thus, in assessing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications, it is important to have a good database in all of these performance areas, as well as a set of properties correlations and models for the purpose of interpolation/extrapolation.

Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Donne, M.D. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Institut fuer Neutronphysik and Reaktortechnik; Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G. [McMaster Univ., Ontario, CA (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics

1994-05-01

210

Risks of beryllium disease related to work processes at a metal, alloy, and oxide production plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To describe relative hazards in sectors of the beryllium industry, risk factors of beryllium disease and sensitisation related to work process were sought in a beryllium manufacturing plant producing pure metal, oxide, alloys, and ceramics. METHODS: All 646 active employees were interviewed; beryllium sensitisation was ascertained with the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation blood test on 627 employees; clinical evaluation and

K Kreiss; M M Mroz; B Zhen; H Wiedemann; B Barna

1997-01-01

211

Control of beryllium powder at a DOE facility  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium is contained in a number of domestic and national defense items. Although many items might contain beryllium in some manner, few people need worry about the adverse effects caused by exposure to beryllium because it is the inhalable form of beryllium that is most toxic. Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a granulomas and fibrotic lung disease with long latency, can be developed after inhalation exposures to beryllium. It is a progressive, debilitating lung disease. Its occurrence in those exposed to beryllium has been difficult to predict because some people seem to react to low concentration exposures whereas others do not react to high concentration exposures. Onset of the disease frequently occurs between 15 to 20 years after exposure begins. Some people develop the disease after many years of low concentration exposures but others do not develop CBD even though beryllium is shown to be present in lungs and urine. Conclusions based on these experiences are that their is some immunological dependence of developing CBD in about 3--4% of the exposed population, but the exact mechanism involved has not yet been identified. Acute beryllium disease can occur after a single exposure to a concentration of greater than 0.100 mg/m3 (inhalation exposure); it is characterized by the development of chemical pneumoconiosis, a respiratory disease. The acute effect of skin contact is a dermatitis characterized by itching and reddened, elevated, or fluid-accumulated lesions which appear particularly on the exposed surfaces of the body, especially the face, neck, arms, and hands. Small particles of beryllium that enter breaks in the skin can lead to the development of granulomas and/or open sores that do not heal until the beryllium has been removed. Our interest is only airborne beryllium, which is found in areas that machine or produce beryllium.

Langner, G.C.; Creek, K.L.; Castro, R.G.

1997-12-31

212

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C1, supplkment au n "2, Tome 40,fkvrier 1979, page C1-14 HIGH-RESOLUTION AUGER SPECTRA OF L i , Be, B AND C EXCITED I N SINGLE GAS COLLISIONS  

E-print Network

Auger a' haute resolution du lithium, beryllium, bore carbone excitespar c o l l i s ~ o n gazeuse unique. Abstract. We have studied high-resolution Auger spectra o f lithium, beryllium, boron and carbon-Z elements. I n particular we have studied isoelectronic sequen- ces o f the most prominent singly core

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

213

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

2011-01-01

214

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

2010-01-01

215

40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section...Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What...

2010-07-01

216

40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

217

40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section...Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What...

2011-07-01

218

40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

219

40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section...Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What...

2014-07-01

220

40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section...Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What...

2012-07-01

221

40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section...Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What...

2013-07-01

222

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

2012-01-01

223

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

2014-01-01

224

40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

225

40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

226

40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

227

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

2013-01-01

228

Dynamic structure factor in warm dense beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the dynamic structure factor (DSF) in warm dense beryllium by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamic conductivity is derived from the Kubo-Greenwood formula, and a Drude-like behaviour is observed. The corresponding dielectric function is used to determine the DSF. Since the ab initio approach is so far only applicable for wavenumbers k = 0, the k-dependence of the dielectric function is modelled via the Mermin ansatz. We present the results for the dielectric function and DSF of warm dense beryllium and compare these with perturbative treatments such as the Born-Mermin approximation. We found considerable differences between the results of these approaches; this underlines the need for a first-principles determination of the DSF of warm dense matter.

Plagemann, K.-U.; Sperling, P.; Thiele, R.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Fortmann, C.; Döppner, T.; Lee, H. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Redmer, R.

2012-05-01

229

Lysosomal involvement in beryllium phosphate toxicity.  

PubMed Central

The fate of i.v. administered particles of beryllium phosphate (50 mumol/kg) has been investigated by electron microscopy in the liver of the rat. These particles were endocytosed by the Kupffer cells within 15 min of administration but they were never found in the endothelial or parenchymal cells of the liver. Endocytosed particles were rapidly degraded within vesicles which were identified as secondary lysosomes. Pronounced swelling of these lysosomes subsequently developed, within 60 min of administration, resulting in distension of the entire cell. This vacuolation was entirely restricted to the Kupffer cells, particularly those in the pericanalicular region of the hepatic lobules. Lysosomal swelling, or even rupture, probably resulted in the subsequent death of these cells by the intra-cytoplasmic release of beryllium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7066177

Dinsdale, D.

1982-01-01

230

An embedded atom method potential of beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an embedded atom method (EAM) potential for hexagonal beryllium, with a pair function in the form of a Morse potential and a Johnson embedding function with exponential electron density. The cohesive energy, elastic constants, lattice parameters and relaxed vacancy formation energy were used to fit the potential. The fitted-potential was validated by a comparison to first-principles and, wherever available, experimental results for the lattice energies of various crystal structures: vacancy cluster, interstitial formation and surface. Using a large cutoff distance of 5 Å, which includes interactions to approximately the eighth neighbor shell of beryllium, allows our potential to reproduce these quantities considerably better than previous EAM potentials. The accuracy obtained by our potential is similar to or in some cases even better than available modified EAM potentials, while being computationally less intensive.

Agrawal, Anupriya; Mishra, Rohan; Ward, Logan; Flores, Katharine M.; Windl, Wolfgang

2013-12-01

231

CLADDING UOâ WITH BERYLLIUM BY GAS-PRESSURE BONDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination-free beryllium-to-beryllium bonds were achieved by gas-; pressure bonding at 1550 to 1650 deg F for 4 hr at 10,000 psi. Bonds produced ; with grit-blasted surfaces exhibited up to 50 per cent grain growth across the ; interface while those produced by shapering showed less grain growth. Although ; all of the beryllium-clad UOâ fuel elements prepared possessed cracks

S. J. Paprocki; E. S. Hodge; H. D. Hanes; J. H. Peterson; G. R. Goetsch

1962-01-01

232

Density functional study of hydrogen adsorption on beryllium (0001)  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium, tungsten, and carbon are planned as wall materials for the future international tokamak. Although beryllium is not situated in a region submitted to the most dramatic plasma-wall interaction, its reactivity toward hydrogen atom impinging is of fundamental importance. This paper is devoted to theoretical study of hydrogen adsorption on the beryllium (0001) surface based on the first-principles discrete Fourier transform method. Comparison is proposed to former theoretical works and to thermal-desorption spectroscopy.

Allouche, A. [Physique des Interactions Ioniques et Moleculaires, CNRS and Universite de Provence, Campus Scientifique de Saint Jerome, service 242, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

2008-08-15

233

IN VITRO STUDIES OF GRANULOMATOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY TO BERYLLIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphocytes were obtained from normal subjects and subjects with granulomatous hypersensitivity to beryllium. Lymphocytes from sensitive persons underwent typical blastogenic transformation when exposed to BeO or BeSO4in vitro. Transformation was maximal between the fifth and sixth days of exposure and was dependent upon the concentration of beryllium.Monocytes from beryllium sensitive subjects matured into macrophages in vitro more rapidly than cells

Jon M. Hanifin; William L. Epstein; Martin J. Cline

1970-01-01

234

Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample  

DOEpatents

A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Ehler, Deborah S. (Los Alamos, NM); John, Kevin D. (Santa Fe, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Collis, Gavin E. (Los Alamos, NM); Minogue, Edel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-08-24

235

Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium windows  

SciTech Connect

It is known that various crystalline and liquid compounds form on the downstream surfaces of beryllium windows exposed to air. It is also known that the integrity of such windows may be compromised resulting in leaks through the window. The purpose of this report is to document the occurrences described as they pertain to the NSLS and to analyze, where possible, the various substances formed.

Gmur, N.F.

1986-12-01

236

Galactic Evolution of Beryllium and Oxygen  

E-print Network

We discuss the early evolution of beryllium and oxygen in our Galaxy by comparing abundances of these elements for halo and disk metal-poor stars. Both, O and Be rise as we go progressively to more metal-rich stars, showing a slope 0.41 +-0.09 ([Be/O] vs [Fe/H]) for stars with [Fe/H] < -1. This relationship provides an observational constraint to the actually proposed Galactic Cosmic Ray theories.

Garik Israelian; Ramon Garcia Lopez; Rafael Rebolo

2000-03-22

237

Electron collisions with beryllium and its ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is provided of the convergent close-coupling calculations for electron- impact on neutral beryllium, as well as its various ionic stages. The calculations were performed from near threshold to high energies with initial states having principal quantum number n <= 4. Excitation to states with n <= 5 and total ionisation cross sections have been calculated with an estimated accuracy of below 10% at all energies considered.

Bray, I.; Fursa, D. V.

2015-01-01

238

Neutron counter based on beryllium activation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction 9Be(n, ?)6He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, 6He, decays with half-life T1/2 = 0.807 s emitting ?- particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of ?-particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known ?-source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5-the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of ?- particles emitted from radioactive 6He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Scholz, M.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Igielski, A.; Karpinski, L.; Paducha, M.; Pytel, K.

2014-08-01

239

Increased radiation resistance in lithium-counterdoped silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium-counterdoped n(+)p silicon solar cells are found to exhibit significantly increased radiation resistance to 1-MeV electron irradiation when compared to boron-doped n(+)p silicon solar cells. In addition to improved radiation resistance, considerable damage recovery by annealing is observed in the counterdoped cells at T less than or equal to 100 C. Deep level transient spectroscopy measurements are used to identify the defect whose removal results in the low-temperature aneal. It is suggested that the increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is primarily due to interaction of the lithium with interstitial oxygen.

Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Mehta, S.

1984-01-01

240

Beryllium-10 in australasian tektites: evidence for a sedimentary precursor.  

PubMed

Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 1 x l0(8) atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 x 10(6) years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event. PMID:17771035

Pal, D K; Tuniz, C; Moniot, R K; Kruse, T H; Herzog, G F

1982-11-19

241

Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites: evidence for a sedimentary precursor  

SciTech Connect

Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 1 x 10/sup 8/ atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 x 10/sup 6/ years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

Pal, D.K.; Tuniz, C.; Moniot, R.K.; Kruse, T.H.; Herzog, G.F.

1982-11-19

242

The Cryogenic Properties of Several Aluminum-Beryllium Alloys and a Beryllium Oxide Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance related mechanical properties for two aluminum-beryllium (Al-Be) alloys and one beryllium-oxide (BeO) material were developed at cryogenic temperatures. Basic mechanical properties (Le., ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percent elongation, and elastic modulus were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 at cryogenic [-195.5"C (-320 F) and -252.8"C (-423"F)I temperatures. Basic mechanical properties for the Be0 material were obtained at cyrogenic [- 252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. Fracture properties were obtained for the investment cast alloy Beralcast 363 at cryogenic [-252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. The AlBeMetl62 material was extruded, the Be0 material was hot isostatic pressing (HIP) consolidated, and the Beralcast 363 material was investment cast.

Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

2003-01-01

243

Physicochemical Characteristics of Aerosol Particles Generated During the Milling of Beryllium Silicate Ores: Implications for Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhalation of beryllium dusts generated during milling of ores and cutting of beryl-containing gemstones is associated with development of beryllium sensitization and low prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Inhalation of beryllium aerosols generated during primary beryllium production and machining of the metal, alloys, and ceramics are associated with sensitization and high rates of CBD, despite similar airborne beryllium mass

Aleksandr B. Stefaniak; Steve J. Chipera; Gregory A. Day; Phil Sabey; Robert M. Dickerson; Deborah C. Sbarra; Mathew G. Duling; Robert B. Lawrence; Marcia L. Stanton; Ronald C. Scripsick

2008-01-01

244

Determination of Natural Beryllium (Be) in Soil and Swipe Samples Utilizing Yttrium/Beryllium Ratio  

SciTech Connect

1. Objective: A method to determine whether beryllium (Be) components in surface swipe samples are from a natural source is needed. 2. Methods: Soil samples and surface swipes from area facilities were analyzed for marker elements to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be). To be useful, the natural marker element must be present at reasonably consistent levels across the site, must correlate with the Be concentration, and not have the potential to be present from non-natural sources. 3. Results: The research on marker elements used to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be) concentrations demonstrates a clear correlation between Be and yttrium (Y) in natural soils on the Nevada National Security Site. The Y/Be ratio is proposed as a method to characterize the source of Be in soil and surface swipe samples and to aid in recommendations for follow up actions. Swipe samples are analyzed using an ICP/MS method and compared with results from soil samples. Natural soil constituent levels and the Y/Be Ratio range is determined for the occupied and historical facilities and surrounding areas. Y/Be ratios within the statistical range established indicate the Be is from a natural source. Y/Be ratios lower than this range indicate the presence of another Be source, and may then be correlated to alloy, ceramic, or other operational sources by the ratios of copper, nickel, cobalt, uranium, and/or niobium. Example case studies of evaluations of buildings with historical operational beryllium usage, current ongoing technical processes, and heavy equipment used in large building demolitions are included demonstrating the value of the ratio approach. 4. Conclusions: This differentiation is valuable as there is no known correlation between natural beryllium in soil and beryllium disease.

None

2010-09-30

245

Boron-Based Layered Structures for Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

Based on Density Functional Theory simulations, we have studied the boron-based graphite-like materials, i.e., LiBC and MgB2 for energy storage. First, when half of the Li-ions in the LiBC are removed, the BC layered structure is still preserved. The Li intercalation potential (equilibrium lithium-insertion voltage of 2.3-2.4 V relative to lithium metal) is significantly higher than that in graphite, allowing Li0.5BC to function as a cathode material. The reversible electrochemical reaction, LiBC = Li0.5BC + 0.5Li, enables a specific energy density of 1088 Wh/kg and a volumetric energy density of 2463 Wh/L. Second, 75% of the Mg ions in MgB2 can be removed and reversibly inserted with the layered boron structures being preserved through an in-plane topological transformation between the hexagonal lattice domains and triangular domains. The mechanism of such a charge-driven transformation originates from the versatile valence state of boron in its planar form.

Zhao, Y.; Wei, S. H.

2012-01-01

246

Boron nitride housing cools transistors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boron nitride ceramic heat sink cools transistors in r-f transmitter and receiver circuits. Heat dissipated by the transistor is conducted by the boron nitride housing to the metal chassis on which it is mounted.

1965-01-01

247

Ab initio modeling of Li-B-H boron-chain alloys for hydrogen storage applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ab initio modeling of the Li-B-H system and analysis of the available experimental data on the LixB1-x compound (x?0.53) have allowed us to identify a potential route for the synthesis of hydrogen-rich LiBH (5.4wt.%) and LiBH2 (10.2wt.%) phases. The feasibility of their formation is based on the strength of the boron-boron bonds in the parent material LixB1-x : One could expect its decomposition into lithium hydride and elemental boron upon hydrogenation to be hindered by the high kinetic barriers associated with breaking the boron chains. The proposed phases have heats of reaction of 70-90kJ/mol H2 , higher than the desired values for hydrogen storage applications. We discuss the possibility of improving the energetics of the hydrogen (de)sorption via substitutional doping of LixB1-x .

Kolmogorov, A. N.; Drautz, R.; Pettifor, D. G.

2007-11-01

248

Beryllium Metal II. A Review of the Available Toxicity Data  

PubMed Central

Beryllium metal was classified in Europe collectively with beryllium compounds, e.g. soluble salts. Toxicological equivalence was assumed despite greatly differing physicochemical properties. Following introduction of the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation, beryllium metal was classified as individual substance and more investigational efforts to appropriately characterize beryllium metal as a specific substance apart from soluble beryllium compounds was required. A literature search on toxicity of beryllium metal was conducted, and the resulting literature compiled together with the results of a recently performed study package into a comprehensive data set. Testing performed under Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development guidelines and Good Laboratory Practice concluded that beryllium metal was neither a skin irritant, an eye irritant, a skin sensitizer nor evoked any clinical signs of acute oral toxicity; discrepancies between the current legal classification of beryllium metal in the European Union (EU) and the experimental results were identified. Furthermore, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity were discussed in the context of the literature data and the new experimental data. It was concluded that beryllium metal is unlikely to be a classical nonthreshold mutagen. Effects on DNA repair and morphological cell transformation were observed but need further investigation to evaluate their relevance in vivo. Animal carcinogenicity studies deliver evidence of carcinogenicity in the rat; however, lung overload may be a species-specific confounding factor in the existing studies, and studies in other species do not give convincing evidence of carcinogenicity. Epidemiology has been intensively discussed over the last years and has the problem that the studies base on the same US beryllium production population and do not distinguish between metal and soluble compounds. It is noted that the correlation between beryllium exposure and carcinogenicity, even including the soluble compounds, remains under discussion in the scientific community and active research is continuing. PMID:21196456

Strupp, Christian

2011-01-01

249

Mineral of the month: boron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What does boron have to do with baseball, apple pie, motherhood and Chevrolet? Boron minerals and chemicals are used in the tanning of leather baseballs and gloves; in micro-fertilizer to grow apples and in the glass and enamels of bakewares to cook apple pie; in boron detergents for soaking baby clothes and diapers; and in fiberglass parts for the Chevrolet Corvette.

Lyday, Phyllis A.

2005-01-01

250

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1982-02-09

251

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1983-01-01

252

In Vivo Boron Uptake Determination for Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy  

SciTech Connect

Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) has been proposed as a new application of the boron neutron capture reaction for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In BNCS, a boron compound is injected into the joint space, where it is taken up by the synovium. The joint is then irradiated with neutrons of a desired energy range, inducing the boron neutron capture reaction in boron-loaded cells. Boron uptake by the synovium is an important parameter in the assessment of the potential of BNCS and in the determination of whether to proceed to animal irradiations for the testing of therapeutic efficacy. We present results from an investigation of boron uptake in vivo by the synovium.

Binello, Emanuela; Shortkroff, Sonya; Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

1999-06-06

253

Ultrafine Beryllium Number Concentration as a Possible Metric for Chronic Beryllium Disease Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium is a lightweight metal which causes a chronic granulomatous lung disease among workers who become sensitized to it. Recent research has shown a persistence of the disease despite efforts at control with mean exposures below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) occupational exposure limit of 2

Michael S. Kent; Michael T. Berakis

2001-01-01

254

STRUCTURE AND GROWTH OF BERYLLIUM OXIDE ON SINGLE CRYSTALS OF BERYLLIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the structure and growth of BeO films formed by heating ; single crystals of beryllium in air over a wide range of temperatures was studied ; in detail using electron diffraction, and electron microscopy. The epitaxial ; nature of the oxide formed in the temperature range 300 deg C to 400 deg C on a ; Be

V. D. Scott

1959-01-01

255

Trace-elements systematics of beryllium in terrestrial materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although often studied as key constituent in minerals, the low mass element (Z = 4; M = 9.0012182 amu) beryllium is most commonly encountered as a very low abundance trace metal in rocks and fluids. In terms of atomic structure and valence state, Be is affiliated with alkaline earth elements; but geologically and chemically beryllium shows greater affinities to the

Jeffrey G Ryan

2002-01-01

256

Simulating beryllium electrorefining with AspenPlus{copyright}  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium is a lightweight, high strength metal with excellent thermal properties. It is a high cost material that has applications in electronics, the space program, and the defense industry. Beryllium is irreplaceable in several defense applications and therefore the US government maintains a reserve supply of several grades of the metal. However, the current defense industry (the largest metallic beryllium user) use has dwindled to the point that the only metallic beryllium producer in the US, Brush Wellman Inc., continually evaluates the profitability of continued production. The production dilemma has been compounded by health concerns associated with the generation of beryllium fines during production. An electrorefining method, previously developed, shows promise for recycling low purity beryllium scraps and produces a high grade material. Recycling and purification can reduce costs and waste disposal problems and increase the beryllium reserves in the event that Brush Wellman discontinues production. In this paper, the authors demonstrate how to use a commercially available process simulator for improving a process to electrorefine both scrap and low purity beryllium into a high purity product.

Polston, C.E.; Parkinson, W.J.; Abeln, S.P.; Wantuck, P.J.; Corle, R.R.

1998-12-01

257

2. VIEW IN ROOM 111, ATOMIC ABSORPTION BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS LABORATORY. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW IN ROOM 111, ATOMIC ABSORPTION BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS LABORATORY. AIR FILTERS AND SWIPES ARE DISSOLVED WITH ACIDS AND THE REMAINING RESIDUES ARE SUSPENDED IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTION. THE SOLUTION IS PROCESSED THROUGH THE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER TO DETECT THE PRESENCE AND LEVELS OF BERYLLIUM. - Rocky Flats Plant, Health Physics Laboratory, On Central Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

258

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR BERYLLIUM (1998 FINAL REPORT)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Beryllium and Compounds: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) . The updated Summary for Beryllium and Compounds and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Data...

259

IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR BERYLLIUM AND COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's assessment of the noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of Beryllium was added to the IRIS database in 1998. The IRIS program is updating the IRIS assessment for Beryllium. This update will incorporate health effects information published since the last assess...

260

Beryllium sensitivity is linked to HLA-DP genotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) appears to arise from a combination of both exposure and genetic risk factors. A distinguishing feature of CBD is beryllium hypersensitivity, which can be measured in vitro by a lymphocyte proliferation test. The objective of this study was to determine whether certain allelic variations of the HLA-DPB1 gene, which had been observed previously in CBD, could

Zaolin Wang; Georgia M Farris; Lee S Newman; Yulin Shou; Lisa A Maier; Hugh N Smith; Babetta L Marrone

2001-01-01

261

A mortality study of workers at seven beryllium processing plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has found that the evidence for the carcinogenicity of beryllium is sufficient based on animal data but limited based on human data. This analysis reports on a retrospective cohort mortality study among 9,225 male workers employed at seven beryllium processing facilities for at least 2 days between January 1, 1940, and December

Elizabeth Ward; Andrea Okun; Avima Ruder; Marilyn Fingerhut; Kyle Steenland

1992-01-01

262

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR BERYLLIUM: REVIEW DRAFT (APRIL 1986)  

EPA Science Inventory

The chemical and geochemical properties of beryllium resemble those of aluminum, zinc, and magnesium. This resemblance is primarily due to similar ionic potentials which facilitate covalent bonding. The three most common forms of beryllium in industrial emission are the metal, th...

263

Laser welding of a beryllium/tantalum collimator  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the methods utilized in the fabrication of a collimator from 0.001 inch thick beryllium and tantalum foil. The laser welding process proved to be an acceptable method for joining the beryllium in a standing edge joint configuration.

Lingenfelter, A.C.; Anglin, C.D.

1985-01-01

264

One-dimensional two-phase reacting gas nonequilibrium performance program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program calculates the inviscid one-dimensional equilibrium, frozen, and nonequilibrium nozzle expansion of propellant exhaust mixtures containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, chlorine and either aluminum, beryllium, boron or lithium. This program performs calculations for conical nozzles only.

Cherry, S. S.; Frey, H. M.; Kliegel, J. R.; Quan, V.

1968-01-01

265

Electrochemical lithium extraction from ?-lithium nitride  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report the electrochemical characterization of mixtures of ball-milled lithium nitride and iron metal. Several samples were prepared with different lithium nitride to iron molar ratios. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra showed the presence of iron metal in all the samples and ?-lithium nitride in the samples with higher Li3N\\/Fe ratio. No evidence of other phases was detected.

Pier Paolo Prosini; Francesco Cardellini

2002-01-01

266

Boron hydride polymer coated substrates  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

Pearson, R.K.; Bystroff, R.I.; Miller, D.E.

1986-08-27

267

Hydrodynamic instabilities in beryllium targets for the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium ablators offer higher ablation velocity, rate, and pressure than their carbon-based counterparts, with the potential to increase the probability of achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We present here a detailed hydrodynamic stability analysis of low (NIF Revision 6.1) and high adiabat NIF beryllium target designs. Our targets are optimized to fully utilize the advantages of beryllium in order to suppress the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. This results in an implosion that resists breakup of the capsule, and simultaneously minimizes the amount of ablator material mixed into the fuel. We quantify the improvement in stability of beryllium targets relative to plastic ones, and show that a low adiabat beryllium capsule can be at least as stable at the ablation front as a high adiabat plastic target.

Yi, S. A., E-mail: austinyi@lanl.gov; Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Olson, R. E.; Kline, J. L.; Batha, S. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2014-09-15

268

Hydrodynamic instabilities in beryllium targets for the National Ignition Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beryllium ablators offer higher ablation velocity, rate, and pressure than their carbon-based counterparts, with the potential to increase the probability of achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We present here a detailed hydrodynamic stability analysis of low (NIF Revision 6.1) and high adiabat NIF beryllium target designs. Our targets are optimized to fully utilize the advantages of beryllium in order to suppress the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. This results in an implosion that resists breakup of the capsule, and simultaneously minimizes the amount of ablator material mixed into the fuel. We quantify the improvement in stability of beryllium targets relative to plastic ones, and show that a low adiabat beryllium capsule can be at least as stable at the ablation front as a high adiabat plastic target.

Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Olson, R. E.; Kline, J. L.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Batha, S. H.

2014-09-01

269

Method for fabricating beryllium-based multilayer structures  

DOEpatents

Beryllium-based multilayer structures and a process for fabricating beryllium-based multilayer mirrors, useful in the wavelength region greater than the beryllium K-edge (111 .ANG. or 11.1 nm). The process includes alternating sputter deposition of beryllium and a metal, typically from the fifth row of the periodic table, such as niobium (Nb), molybdenum (Mo), ruthenium (Ru), and rhodium (Rh). The process includes not only the method of sputtering the materials, but the industrial hygiene controls for safe handling of beryllium. The mirrors made in accordance with the process may be utilized in soft x-ray and extreme-ultraviolet projection lithography, which requires mirrors of high reflectivity (>60%) for x-rays in the range of 60-140 .ANG. (60-14.0 nm).

Skulina, Kenneth M. (Livermore, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Alford, Craig S. (Tracy, CA)

2003-02-18

270

Preparation and characterization of beryllium doped organic plasma polymer coatings  

SciTech Connect

We report the formation of beryllium doped plasma polymerized coatings derived from a helical resonator deposition apparatus, using diethylberyllium as the organometaric source. These coatings had an appearance not unlike plain plasma polymer and were relatively stable to ambient exposure. The coatings were characterized by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Coating rates approaching 0.7 {mu}m hr{sup {minus}1} were obtained with a beryllium-to-carbon ratio of 1:1.3. There is also a significant oxygen presence in the coating as well which is attributed to oxidation upon exposure of the coating to air. The XPS data show only one peak for beryllium with the preponderance of the XPS data suggesting that the beryllium exists as BeO. Diethylberyllium was found to be inadequate as a source for beryllium doped plasma polymer, due to thermal decomposition and low vapor recovery rates.

Brusasco, R.; Letts, S.; Miller, P.; Saculla, M.; Cook, R.

1995-10-04

271

Polarizabilities of the beryllium clock transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polarizabilities of the three lowest states of the beryllium atom are determined from a large basis configuration interaction calculation. The polarizabilities of the 2s2 1Se ground state (37.73a03) and the 2s2p 3P0o metastable state (39.04a03) are found to be very similar in size and magnitude. This leads to an anomalously small blackbody radiation shift at 300 K of -0.018(4) Hz for the 2s2 1Se-2s2p 3P0o clock transition. Magic wavelengths for simultaneous trapping of the ground and metastable states are also computed.

Mitroy, J.

2010-11-01

272

Testing of Liquid Lithium Limiters in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect

Part of the development of liquid metals as a first wall or divertor for reactor applications must involve the investigation of plasma-liquid metal interactions in a functioning tokamak. Most of the interest in liquid-metal walls has focused on lithium. Experiments with lithium limiters have now been conducted in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) device at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Initial experiments used a liquid-lithium rail limiter (L3) built by the University of California at San Diego. Spectroscopic measurements showed some reduction of impurities in CDX-U plasmas with the L3, compared to discharges with a boron carbide limiter. While no reduction in recycling was observed with the L3, which had a plasma-wet area of approximately 40 cm2, subsequent experiments with a larger area fully toroidal lithium limiter demonstrated significant reductions in both recycling and in impurity levels. Two series of experiments with the toroidal limiter have now be en performed. In each series, the area of exposed, clean lithium was increased, until in the latest experiments the liquid-lithium plasma-facing area was increased to 2000 cm2. Under these conditions, the reduction in recycling required a factor of eight increase in gas fueling in order to maintain the plasma density. The loop voltage required to sustain the plasma current was reduced from 2 V to 0.5 V. This paper summarizes the technical preparations for lithium experiments and the conditioning required to prepare the lithium surface for plasma operations. The mechanical response of the liquid metal to induced currents, especially through contact with the plasma, is discussed. The effect of the lithium-filled toroidal limiter on plasma performance is also briefly described.

R. Majeski; R. Kaita; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; T. Gray; B. Jones; D. Hoffman; H. Kugel; J. Menard; T. Munsat; A. Post-Zwicker; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; R. Maingi; M. Maiorano; S. Smith; D. Rodgers

2004-07-30

273

Main-sequence mass loss and the lithium dip  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The significant dip in observed lithium abundances for Population I stars near M about 1.3 solar mass is discussed. It is noted that this dip occurs near where the instability strip crosses the main sequence on the lower edge of the Delta Scuti stars and that stellar pulsations are expected to give rise to mass loss. A total mass loss of 0.05 solar mass over the main-sequence lifetime of these stars would be sufficient to explain the observations of lithium depletion. The absence of a dip in the Pleiades and of significant depletion of beryllium in the Hyades places tight constraints on the rate of mass loss. These constraints make unlikely the high main-sequence mass-loss rates which would significantly affect globular cluster ages.

Schramm, David N.; Steigman, Gary; Dearborn, David S. P.

1990-01-01

274

Beryllium Alters Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Intracellular Phosphorylation and Cytokine Release in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium exposure in susceptible individuals leads to the development of chronic beryllium disease, a lung disorder marked by release of inflammatory cytokine and granuloma formation. We have previously reported that beryllium induces an immune response even in blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals. In this study, we investigate the effects of beryllium on lipopolysaccharide-mediated cytokine release in blood mononuclear and

Shannon Silva; Kumkum Ganguly; Theresa M. Fresquez; Goutam Gupta; T. Mark McCleskey; Anu Chaudhary

2009-01-01

275

Beryllium and Other Trace Elements in Paragneisses and Anatectic Veins of the  

E-print Network

Beryllium and Other Trace Elements in Paragneisses and Anatectic Veins of the Ultrahigh-bearing paragneisses. KEY WORDS: Antarctica; beryllium; granulite facies; microprobe; sapphirine INTRODUCTION Beryllium in granitic pegmatites where beryllium minerals, most com- monly beryl, are found (e.g. London & Evensen, 2002

Sandiford, Mike

276

Process for microwave sintering boron carbide  

DOEpatents

A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (440 Sugarwood Dr., Knoxville, TN 37922); Morrow, Marvin S. (Rte. #3, Box 113, Kingston, TN 37763)

1993-01-01

277

Lithium Ion Production NDE  

E-print Network

, and Claus Daniel 12/9/13 EERE Quality Control Workshop #12;2 Presentation name Lithium Ion Electrode.L. Wood, "Non-destructive evaluation of slot-die-coated lithium secondary battery electrodes by in, and D.L. Wood, "Non-destructive evaluation of slot-die-coated lithium secondary battery electrodes by in

278

Thick beryllium coatings by magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

Thick (>150 {micro}m) beryllium coatings are studied as an ablator material of interest for fusion fuel capsules for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). As an added complication, the coatings are deposited on mm-scale spherical substrates, as opposed to flats. DC magnetron sputtering is used because of the relative controllability of the processing temperature and energy of the deposits. We used ultra small angle x-ray spectroscopy (USAXS) to characterize the void fraction and distribution along the spherical surface. We investigated the void structure using a combination focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results show a few volume percent of voids and a typical void diameter of less than two hundred nanometers. Understanding how the stresses in the deposited material develop with thickness is important so that we can minimize film cracking and delamination. To that end, an in-situ multiple optical beam stress sensor (MOSS) was used to measure the stress behavior of thick Beryllium coatings on flat substrates as the material was being deposited. We will show how the film stress saturates with thickness and changes with pressure.

Wu, H; Nikroo, A; Youngblood, K; Moreno, K; Wu, D; Fuller, T; Alford, C; Hayes, J; Detor, A; Wong, M; Hamza, A; van Buuren, T; Chason, E

2011-04-14

279

Sarcoidosis and chronic beryllium disease: similarities and differences.  

PubMed

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disease that may be pathologically and clinically indistinguishable from pulmonary sarcoidosis, except through use of immunologic testing, such as the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). Similar to sarcoidosis, the pulmonary manifestations of CBD are variable and overlap with other respiratory diseases. Definitive diagnosis of CBD is established by evidence of immune sensitization to beryllium and diagnostic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy. However, the diagnosis of CBD can also be established on a medically probable basis in beryllium-exposed patients with consistent radiographic imaging and clinical course. Beryllium workers exposed too much higher levels of beryllium in the past demonstrated a much more fulminant disease than is usually seen today. Some extrapulmonary manifestations similar to sarcoidosis were noted in these historic cohorts, although with a narrower spectrum. Extrapulmonary manifestations of CBD are rare today. Since lung-predominant sarcoidosis can very closely resemble CBD, CBD is still misdiagnosed as sarcoidosis when current or past exposure to beryllium is not recognized and no BeLPT is obtained. This article describes the similarities and differences between CBD and sarcoidosis, including clinical and diagnostic features that can help physicians consider CBD in patients with apparent lung-predominant sarcoidosis. PMID:25007084

Mayer, Annyce S; Hamzeh, Nabeel; Maier, Lisa A

2014-06-01

280

Impact of beryllium surface layers on deuterium retention in tungsten  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ITER mixed Be/W layers are likely to form and their retention behavior is unknown. A series of ITER-grade tungsten samples have been exposed in PISCES-B to deuterium plasma at 573 K, with and without beryllium impurity seeding of the plasma. If the beryllium concentration is small, the majority of the incident beryllium is re-eroded from the sample surface and only a few nm thick layer of mixed Be/W remains. The W samples exposed without beryllium seeding showed blister formation. The inclusion of 0.2% beryllium impurity ion fraction within the plasma eliminated the surface blisters, however did not change the amount of retained deuterium in the samples. When the beryllium impurity concentration in the plasma is large (2.5%), a beryllium layer grows as the fluence increases. The deuterium retention also increases and exceeds the amount retained in either the pure tungsten, or the thin mixed Be-W layer on tungsten, case.

Doerner, R. P.; Baldwin, M. J.; Nishijima, D.; Roth, J.; Schmid, K.

2011-08-01

281

Investigation of Zeff and impurity behaviour in lithium coating experiments with full metallic first wall in HT-7 tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The control of the impurity level in magnetically confined plasmas is a critical issue for future fusion devices. All the graphite tiles have been replaced by molybdenum tiles as limiter materials in the 2011 spring campaign in order to further reduce the recycling and hydrogen content of the plasma. A lithium coating technique has been applied as an important wall conditioning method to the HT-7 tokamak. The effective ion charge Zeff and impurity behavior with full metallic first walls of high-Z materials and lower hydrogen recycling have been investigated in a series of lithium coating experiments in this paper. Plasma performance and impurity behavior without wall coatings are studied in the early stage of the campaign. Comparison of Zeff with different plasma-facing components has been made. A typical lithium coating experiment has been analyzed in order to understand the effect of lithium coating. The evolution of main impurity line radiation, Zeff and the H/(H + D) ratio is analyzed in detail as lithium coating is repeated, indicating that lithium coating is a very effective tool to control impurity level and reduce hydrogen recycling. Furthermore, a boronization is conducted at the end of this campaign in order to make comparison with lithium coating. Experimental results show that lithium coating has much more advantages in edge recycling control, though it does not reduce impurity level as effectively as boronization.

Chen, Yingjie; Wu, Zhenwei; Liu, Xiaoju; Wang, Dongsheng; Duan, Yanmin; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Ling; Huang, Juan; Sun, Zhen; Jie, Yinxian; Zhao, Junyu

2015-02-01

282

Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium and aluminum windows  

SciTech Connect

An effort has been made to document the types of contamination which form on beryllium window surfaces due to interaction with a synchrotron radiation beam. Beryllium windows contaminated in a variety of ways (exposure to water and air) exhibited surface powders, gels, crystals and liquid droplets. These contaminants were analyzed by electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and wet chemical methods. Materials found on window surfaces include beryllium oxide, amorphous carbon, cuprous oxide, metallic copper and nitric acid. Aluminum window surface contaminants were also examined.

Gmur, N.F.

1987-06-01

283

Determination of beryllium by use of photonuclear activation techniques.  

PubMed

The possibility of using a gamma source based on 124Sb for detection and determination of beryllium contents in some standards and one mine sample has been investigated. It is concluded that by using a 124Sb source for bilateral irradiation of the samples and only one BF3 counter, beryllium could be measured to an absolute sensitivity of up to 0.4 mg. Such a facility would be capable of contributing to exploration of beryllium mines. A comparison with the ICP method shows good agreement between both measurement techniques. PMID:17905593

Moussavi-Zarandi, A

2008-02-01

284

A Novel Biomarker for Beryllium Sensitization in Humans - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This research project will determine the T-cell receptor (TCR) gene usages of beryllium reactive T-lymphocytes isolated directly from the peripheral blood of individuals exposed at a U.S. Department of Energy site. The objective is to develop a sensitive and novel biomarker for identifying early human sensitization to environmental beryllium. This is a collaborative project involving the Genetics Laboratory of the University of Vermont and both the Center for Epidemiological Research and the scientific staff of the Cytogenetics Program at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). The > 2000 beryllium exposed workers who have been contacted for participation in the ORISE study ''Follow-up of Beryllium Workers at the Y-12 Plant/Efficacy of the Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Proliferation (LPT) and other Non-Invasive Procedures for Diagnosis of Chronic Beryllium Disease'' will provide the pool of potential participants for the proposed study. Beryllium reactive T-lymphocytes will be directly isolated from peripheral blood using a novel antigen-independent method of surrogate selection for in vivo arising hprt mutants as representatives of clones that are undergoing chronic proliferation. The T-cells undergoing chronic proliferation in beryllium sensitized individuals will be enriched for beryllium reactive cells. The TCR gene usage of these T-cell isolates will be determined and their junctional (CDR3) regions sequenced. Beryllium reactive T-cell clones will also be recovered following in vitro beryllium stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes from these same individuals and the TCR gene CDR3 region sequences similarly determined. The TCR genes used by the beryllium reactive isolates and their CRD3 region sequences will be compared within (in vivo vs. in vitro derived) and among individuals with attention to kinds and durations of beryllium exposure and HPA DPB Glu 69 status. A method for quantitating total body loads of these antigen reactive T-cells in individuals will be developed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) amplification of specific TCR gene sequences. Successful achievement of this overall objective will permit future studies aimed at the elucidation of the immunological mechanisms underlying sensitization, the comparison of cells involved in pulmonary and systemic sensitization and the definition of potential targets for immunotherapy.

Albertini, R. J.

2001-04-16

285

Measurement of Beryllium in Biological Samples by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry: Applications for Studying Chronic Beryllium Disease  

SciTech Connect

A method using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has been developed for quantifying attomoles of beryllium (Be) in biological samples. This method provides the sensitivity to trace Be in biological samples at very low doses with the purpose of identifying the molecular targets involved in chronic beryllium disease. Proof of the method was tested by administering 0.001, 0.05, 0.5 and 5.0 {micro}g {sup 9}Be and {sup 10}Be by intraperitoneal injection to male mice and removing spleen, liver, femurs, blood, lung, and kidneys after 24 h exposure. These samples were prepared for AMS analysis by tissue digestion in nitric acid, followed by further organic oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and ammonium persulfate and lastly, precipitation of Be with ammonium hydroxide, and conversion to beryllium oxide at 800 C. The {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratio of the extracted beryllium oxide was measured by AMS and Be in the original sample was calculated. Results indicate that Be levels were dose-dependent in all tissues and the highest levels were measured in the spleen and liver. The measured {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios spanned 4 orders of magnitude, from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -14}, with a detection limit of 3.0 x 10{sup -14}, which is equivalent to 0.8 attomoles of {sup 10}Be. These results show that routine quantification of nanogram levels of Be in tissues is possible and that AMS is a sensitive method that can be used in biological studies to understand the molecular dosimetry of Be and mechanisms of toxicity.

Chiarappa-Zucca, M L; Finkel, R C; Martinelli, R E; McAninch, J E; Nelson, D O; Turtletaub, K W

2004-04-15

286

Radiation damage and defect behavior in proton irradiated lithium-counterdoped n+p silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two lithium-counterdoped n+p silicon solar cells with different lithium concentrations were irradiated by 10-MeV protons. Cell performance was measured as a function of fluence, and it was found that the cell with the highest concentration of lithium had the highest radiation resistance. Deep level transient spectroscopy which showed two deep level defects that were lithium related. Relating the defect energy levels obtained from this study with those from earlier work using 1-MeV electron irradiation shows no correlation of the defect energy levels. There is one marked similarity: the absence of the boron-interstitial-oxygen-interstitial defect. This consistency strengthens the belief that lithium interacts with oxygen to prevent the formation of the boron interstitial-oxygen interstitial defect. The results indicate that, in general, addition of lithium in small amounts to the p-base of a boron doped silicon solar cell such that the base remains p-type, tends to increase the radiation resistance of the cell.

Stupica, John; Goradia, Chandra; Swartz, Clifford K.; Weinberg, Irving

1987-01-01

287

Boron Nitride Nanomesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly regular mesh of hexagonal boron nitride with a 3-nanometer periodicity and a 2-nanometer hole size was formed by self-assembly on a Rh(111) single crystalline surface. Two layers of mesh cover the surface uniformly after high-temperature exposure of the clean rhodium surface to borazine (HBNH)3. The two layers are offset in such a way as to expose a minimum

Martina Corso; Willi Auwärter; Matthias Muntwiler; Anna Tamai; Thomas Greber; Jürg Osterwalder

2004-01-01

288

Preparation of selenium coatings onto beryllium foils  

SciTech Connect

A technique for preparing selenium films onto 50.8 microns thick beryllium foils is described. The selenium was deposited in vacuum from a resistance heated evaporation source. Profilometry measurements of the coatings indicate deposit thicknesses of 5.5, 12.9, 37.5, 49.8 and 74.5 microns. The control of deposition rate and of coating thickness was facilitated using a commercially available closed-loop programmable thin film controller. The x-ray transmission of the coated substrates was measured using a tritiated zirconium source. The transmissivities of the film/substrate combination are presented for the range of energies from 4 to 20 keV. 15 references, 3 figures.

Erikson, E.D.; Tassano, P.L.; Reiss, R.H.; Griggs, G.E.

1984-09-01

289

Primordial beryllium as a big bang calorimeter.  

PubMed

Many models of new physics including variants of supersymmetry predict metastable long-lived particles that can decay during or after primordial nucleosynthesis, releasing significant amounts of nonthermal energy. The hadronic energy injection in these decays leads to the formation of ?Be via the chain of nonequilibrium transformations: Energy(h)?T, ³He??He, ?Li??Be. We calculate the efficiency of this transformation and show that if the injection happens at cosmic times of a few hours the release of O(10 MeV) per baryon can be sufficient for obtaining a sizable ?Be abundance. The absence of a plateau structure in the ?Be/H abundance down to a O(10?¹?) level allows one to use beryllium as a robust constraint on new physics models with decaying or annihilating particles. PMID:21517297

Pospelov, Maxim; Pradler, Josef

2011-03-25

290

Total quadruple photoionization cross section of beryllium  

SciTech Connect

In a quasiclassical framework, we formulate the quadruple ionization by single-photon absorption of the Coulomb five-body problem. We present the quadruple photoionization total cross section of the ground state of beryllium for energies up to 620 eV. Our results for energies close to threshold are in agreement with the Wannier threshold law for four-electron escape. In addition, the agreement of our results with a shape formula provides support for the overall shape of our total quadruple cross section. Finally, we find that the photon energy where the maximum of the total photoionization cross section occurs for single, double, triple, and quadruple photoionization of H, He, Li, and Be, respectively, seems to follow a linear relation with the threshold energy for complete breakup of the respective element.

Emmanouilidou, Agapi [ITS, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403-5203 (United States)

2007-11-15

291

Stellar abundances of beryllium and CUBES  

E-print Network

Stellar abundances of beryllium are useful in different areas of astrophysics, including studies of the Galactic chemical evolution, of stellar evolution, and of the formation of globular clusters. Determining Be abundances in stars is, however, a challenging endeavor. The two Be II resonance lines useful for abundance analyses are in the near UV, a region strongly affected by atmospheric extinction. CUBES is a new spectrograph planned for the VLT that will be more sensitive than current instruments in the near UV spectral region. It will allow the observation of fainter stars, expanding the number of targets where Be abundances can be determined. Here, a brief review of stellar abundances of Be is presented together with a discussion of science cases for CUBES. In particular, preliminary simulations of CUBES spectra are presented, highlighting its possible impact in investigations of Be abundances of extremely metal-poor stars and of stars in globular clusters.

Smiljanic, R

2014-01-01

292

Primordial Beryllium as a Big Bang Calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

Many models of new physics including variants of supersymmetry predict metastable long-lived particles that can decay during or after primordial nucleosynthesis, releasing significant amounts of nonthermal energy. The hadronic energy injection in these decays leads to the formation of {sup 9}Be via the chain of nonequilibrium transformations: Energy{sub h}{yields}T, {sup 3}He{yields}{sup 6}He, {sup 6}Li{yields}{sup 9}Be. We calculate the efficiency of this transformation and show that if the injection happens at cosmic times of a few hours the release of O(10 MeV) per baryon can be sufficient for obtaining a sizable {sup 9}Be abundance. The absence of a plateau structure in the {sup 9}Be/H abundance down to a O(10{sup -14}) level allows one to use beryllium as a robust constraint on new physics models with decaying or annihilating particles.

Pospelov, Maxim [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Pradler, Josef [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

2011-03-25

293

Beryllium abundances in metal-poor stars  

E-print Network

We have determined beryllium abundances for 25 metal-poor stars based on the high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra from the VLT/UVES database. Our results confirm that Be abundances increase with Fe, supporting the global enrichment of Be in the Galaxy. Oxygen abundances based on [O I] forbidden line implies a linear relation with a slope close to one for the Be vs. O trend, which indicates that Be is probably produced in a primary process. Some strong evidences are found for the intrinsic dispersion of Be abundances at a given metallicity. The deviation of HD132475 and HD126681 from the general Be vs. Fe and Be vs. O trend favours the predictions of the superbubble model, though the possibility that such dispersion originates from the inhomogeneous enrichment in Fe and O of the protogalactic gas cannot be excluded.

K. F. Tan; J. R. Shi; G. Zhao

2008-10-15

294

Polarizabilities of the beryllium clock transition  

SciTech Connect

The polarizabilities of the three lowest states of the beryllium atom are determined from a large basis configuration interaction calculation. The polarizabilities of the 2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sup e} ground state (37.73a{sub 0}{sup 3}) and the 2s2p {sup 3}P{sub 0}{sup o} metastable state (39.04a{sub 0}{sup 3}) are found to be very similar in size and magnitude. This leads to an anomalously small blackbody radiation shift at 300 K of -0.018(4) Hz for the 2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sup e}-2s2p {sup 3}P{sub 0}{sup o} clock transition. Magic wavelengths for simultaneous trapping of the ground and metastable states are also computed.

Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia)

2010-11-15

295

Advances in beryllium powder consolidation simulation  

SciTech Connect

A fuzzy logic based multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced and the algorithm is used to optimize micromechanical densification modeling parameters for warm isopressed beryllium powder, HIPed copper powder and CIPed/sintered and HIPed tantalum powder. In addition to optimizing the main model parameters using the experimental data points as objective functions, the GA provides a quantitative measure of the sensitivity of the model to each parameter, estimates the mean particle size of the powder, and determines the smoothing factors for the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 densification. While the GA does not provide a sensitivity analysis in the strictest sense, and is highly stochastic in nature, this method is reliable and reproducible in optimizing parameters given any size data set and determining the impact on the model of slight variations in each parameter.

Reardon, B.J.

1998-12-01

296

Monte-Carlo Analysis of Big Bang Production of Beryllium and Boron  

E-print Network

There is continued interest in the possibility that big bang nucleosynthesis may produce significant quantities of Be and B. In this paper we reevaluate the primordial abundances taking into account uncertainties in reactions rates. We discuss the implications for primordial nucleosynthesis, and for galactic cosmic ray spallation.

David Thomas

1994-12-11

297

Beryllium isotope geochemistry in tropical river basins  

SciTech Connect

The distributions of beryllium-9 and beryllium-10 in rivers within the Orinoco and Amazon basins have been examined to extend the understanding of their geochemical cycles and to develop their use both in geochronometry, and in studying erosional processes. Analyses of {sup 9}Be in dissolved and suspended material from rivers with a wide range of chemical compositions indicate that its geochemistry is primarily controlled by two major factors: (1) its abundance in the rocks of the watershed and (2) the extent of its adsorption onto particle surfaces. The relative importance of these parameters in individual rivers is determined by the extent of interaction with flood-plain sediments and the riverine pH. This understanding of {sup 9}Be geochemistry forms a basis for examination of the geochemical cycling of {sup 10}Be. In rivers which are dominated by interaction with sediments, the riverine concentration of dissolved {sup 10}Be is far lower than that in the incoming rainwater, indicating that a substantial proportion of it is retained within the soils of the basin or is adsorbed onto riverine particles. However, in acidic rivers in which the stable dissolved Be concentration is determined by the Be level in the rocks of the drainage basin, dissolved {sup 10}Be has essentially the same concentration as in precipitation. These observations imply that the soil column in such regions must be saturated with respect to {sup 10}Be, and that the ratio of the inventory to the flux does not represent an age, as may be the case in temperate latitudes, but rather a residence time.

Brown, E.T.; Edmond, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States)); Raisbeck, G.M.; Bourles, D.L.; Yiou, F. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay (France)); Measures, C.I. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (United States))

1992-04-01

298

The INEL beryllium multiplication experiment: Annual report, FY88  

SciTech Connect

Activities during FY88 were devoted to the preparations for the performance of an experiment to measure the multiplication of 14-MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium. A Kaman Model A-1254 Neutron Generator was obtained as excess property from Sandia National Laboratory, refurbished, and installed at the INEL manganese bath. The necessary electronic equipment was procured, control and signal lines were run in conduit between the experimental areas and the control room, a mechanism for handling the beryllium samples was devised, a beryllium shell was obtained to fill the void in the existing set of samples, and software was written for accumulating and analyzing the data from the experiment. Preliminary estimates have been made of the nature, magnitude, and uncertainty of the various corrections that must be applied to the data. All components are now in place for the performance of the beryllium multiplication experiment. 13 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Smith, J.R.; King, J.J.

1988-10-01

299

Internal differentiation of rare-element pegmatites: Effects of boron, phosphorus, and fluorine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium-rich, rare-element pegmatites are characterized by high concentrations of B, P, and F. The interactions of these components with H 2 O and rare alkalis lower liquidas and solidus temperatures, enhance silicate liquid-H 2 O miscibility, and control partitioning and concentration of Group I elements and higher-field-strength cations. Boron, F, and perhaps P may form peralkaline Na- and Li-species that

David London

1987-01-01

300

Removing tritium and other impurities during industrial recycling of beryllium from a fusion reactor  

SciTech Connect

Recycling beryllium used in a fusion reactor might be a good way to overcome problems related to the disposal of neutron irradiated beryllium. The critical issues for the recycling of used first wall beryllium are the presence of tritium and (transuranic) impurities. High temperature annealing seems to be the most promising technique for detritiation. Purification of the de-tritiated beryllium can be achieved by chlorination of the irradiated beryllium and the subsequent reduction of beryllium chloride to highly pure metallic beryllium. After that, the beryllium can be re-fabricated into first wall tiles via powder metallurgy which is already a mature industrial practice. This paper outlines the path to define the experimental needs for beryllium recycling and tackles problems related to the detritiation and the purification via the chlorine route. (authors)

Dylst, K.; Seghers, J.; Druyts, F.; Braet, J. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

2008-07-15

301

In situ boron nitride coating and comparison with existing boronizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new types of boronization were demonstrated in a laboratory apparatus bakable up to 350°C: (i) amorphous boron nitride films (B/N?1) were deposited by a dc glow discharge of a 0.1 B 2H 6+0.3 N 2+0.6 He mixture, and (ii) decaborane B 10H 14, a less hazardous powder, was used to deposit pure boron films. A feasibility boronization of fusion devices with the new method was demonstrated by basic experiments on hydrogen recycling, helium glow conditioning, and oxygen gettering. In the laboratory experiment, time variations in relevant partial pressures were measured in pulsed glow discharges in D 2, He, and 1% O 2/He. Standard boronization and carbonization using B 2H 6 and/or CH 4 were also done in an identical apparatus at the same temperature (150 or 300°C). A comparison among them revealed that the boron nitride coating is a new candidate competing with existing boronizations. The first results of boronization using decaborane indicate the new technique to be easy and safe for hadling.

Yamage, M.; Ejima, T.; Toyoda, H.; Sugai, H.

1992-12-01

302

Thermal conductivity of boron carbide-boron nitride composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that because of their preferred orientation, the addition of boron nitride dispersions to hot-pressed boron carbide was found to result in a considerable degree of anisotropy in thermal conductivity of the resulting composite, indicated by an increase in the thermal conductivity perpendicular to the hot-pressing direction by as much as a factor of 3 at the highest

Robert Ruh; Kimberly Y. Donaldson; D. P. H. Hasselman

1992-01-01

303

Helium and tritium retention and migration in beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficiency of the application of beryllium for making such elements of ITER as neutron multiplicator, first wall coating and divertor plates depends on the helium and tritium mobility in this metal. Release parameters of helium and tritium from two grades of isotropic beryllium have been investigated after neutron irradiation at 550, 620, 780°C with fluence of 2.6·1021 cm-2 3.5-1021 cm-2

I. B. Kuprianov; V. A. Gorokhov; V. V. Vlasov

1995-01-01

304

Structure and properties of beryllium bronze microalloyed with magnesium  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The addition of a surface-active element (magnesium) increases the dispersity and uniformity of the structure, reducing the average grain size of the a-solid solution and the inclusions of excess plases in quenched beryllium bronzes.2.Microalloying of beryllium bronzes B2 and BNT1.9 with magnesium substantially improves their strength characteristics (elastic limit, relaxation resistance, cyclic strength) as the result of suppression of the

Kh. G. Tkhagapsoev; A. G. Rakhshtadt; Zh. P. Pastukhova; A. G. Karpov

1970-01-01

305

A DFT study of dodecahedral beryllium silicide cage clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density functional theory calculations have been conducted on 20- and 32-atom dodecahedral and face-capped dodecahedral cage clusters of beryllium and silicon. Stable Be24Si8, Be12Si8 and Be12Si20 cages are described, as is a stuffed cluster consisting of dodecahedral Si20 with an endohedral icosahedral Be12. Especial stability is associated with clusters in which faces are capped by silicon atoms, acting as electron donors to beryllium atoms.

Fioressi, Silvina; Bacelo, Daniel E.; Binning, R. C.

2012-06-01

306

Effects of Beryllium on Human Serum Immunoglobulin and Lymphocyte Subpopulation  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effects of short-term exposure of beryllium on the human immune system, the proportion of T-lymphocytes such as CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD95, and NK cells, andthe proportion of B cells and TNF? level in peripheral blood and immunoglobulins in the serum of 43 exposed workers and 34 healthy control subjects were studied. External exposure to beryllium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometer as recommended by the NIOSH analytical method 7300. T lymphocyte subpopulation analysis was carried out with flow cytometer. The working duration of exposed workers was less than 3 months and the mean ambient beryllium level was 3.4 ?g/m3, 112.3 ?g/m3, and 2.3 ?g/m3 in molding (furnace), deforming (grinding), and sorting processes, respectively (cited from Kim et al., 2008). However, ambient beryllium level after process change was non-detectable (< 0.1 ?g/m3). The number of T lymphocytes and the amount of immunoglobulins in the beryllium-exposed workers and control subjects were not significantly different, except for the total number of lymphocytes and CD95 (APO1/FAS). The total number of lymphocytes was higher in the beryllium-exposed individuals than in the healthy control subjects. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed lymphocytes to be affected by beryllium exposure (odd ratio = 7.293; p < 0.001). These results show that short-term exposure to beryllium does not induce immune dysfunction but is probably associated with lymphocytes proliferation. PMID:24278637

Kim, DaeSeong; Won, Yong Lim; Kang, Seong-Kyu

2013-01-01

307

Use of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in boron-10 stable isotope experiments with plants, rats, and humans.  

PubMed Central

The commercial availability of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry technology (ICP-MS) has presented the opportunity to measure the boron concentrations and isotope ratios in a large number of samples with minimal sample preparation. A typical analytical sequence for fecal samples consists of 25 acid blanks, 1 digestion blank, 5 calibration solutions, 4 standard reference material solutions, 10 samples, and 4 natural abundance bias standards. Boron detection limits (3 x 1 sigma) for acid blanks are 0.11 ppb for 10B, and 0.40 ppb for 11B. Isotope ratios were measured in fecal samples with 20 to 50 ppb boron with < 2% relative standard deviation. Rapid washout and minimal memory effects were observed for a 50 ppb beryllium internal standard, but a 200 ppb boron biological sample had a 1.0 ppb boron memory after a 6-min washout. Boron isotope ratios in geological materials are highly variable; apparently this variability is reflected in plants of a fixed natural abundance value for boron requires that a natural abundance ratio be determined for each sample or related data set. The natural abundance variability also prevents quantitation and calculation of isotope dilution by instrument-supplied software. To measure boron transport in animal systems, 20 micrograms of 10B were fed to a fasted rat. During the 3 days after a 10B oral dose, 95% of the 10B was recovered from the urine and 4% from the feces. Urinary isotope ratios, 11B/10B, changed from a natural abundance of 4.1140 to an enriched value of 0.95077, a 77% change.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889873

Vanderpool, R A; Hoff, D; Johnson, P E

1994-01-01

308

Beryllium pressure vessels for creep tests in magnetic fusion energy  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium has interesting applications in magnetic fusion experimental machines and future power-producing fusion reactors. Chief among the properties of beryllium that make these applications possible is its ability to act as a neutron multiplier, thereby increasing the tritium breeding ability of energy conversion blankets. Another property, the behavior of beryllium in a 14-MeV neutron environment, has not been fully investigated, nor has the creep behavior of beryllium been studied in an energetic neutron flux at thermodynamically interesting temperatures. This small beryllium pressure vessel could be charged with gas to test pressures around 3, 000 psi to produce stress in the metal of 15,000 to 20,000 psi. Such stress levels are typical of those that might be reached in fusion blanket applications of beryllium. After contacting R. Powell at HEDL about including some of the pressure vessels in future test programs, we sent one sample pressure vessel with a pressurizing tube attached (Fig. 1) for burst tests so the quality of the diffusion bond joints could be evaluated. The gas used was helium. Unfortunately, budget restrictions did not permit us to proceed in the creep test program. The purpose of this engineering note is to document the lessons learned to date, including photographs of the test pressure vessel that show the tooling necessary to satisfactorily produce the diffusion bonds. This document can serve as a starting point for those engineers who resume this task when funds become available.

Neef, W.S.

1990-07-20

309

Lithium Lens for Ilc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium Lens is a key element of FERMILAB proton conversion system in use for many years. We are analyzing the ILC positron source equipped with a scaled version of Lithium lens. Usage of liquid Lithium allows efficient cooling of Lithium container and entrance/exit windows. For the temperature just ~80°C higher, than the temperature of boiling water, the system for circulation of liquid Lithium is a compact and reliable. Overall efficiency of 1.5 secondary positrons per each initial electron passing the undulator is feasible with a compact Lithium lens. Axially symmetric motion of liquid Li does not perturb the field quality required for minimization of emittance of the secondary positrons/electrons polarized longitudinally.

Mikhailichenko, Alexander A.

2013-10-01

310

20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...claimant prove that the employee was a âcovered beryllium employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance...Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa §...

2012-04-01

311

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

2012-04-01

312

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

2011-04-01

313

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

2013-04-01

314

20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...claimant prove that the employee was a âcovered beryllium employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance...Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa §...

2013-04-01

315

20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...claimant prove that the employee was a âcovered beryllium employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance...Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa §...

2014-04-01

316

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

2010-04-01

317

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

2014-04-01

318

20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...claimant prove that the employee was a âcovered beryllium employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance...Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa §...

2011-04-01

319

20 CFR 30.507 - What compensation will be provided to covered Part B employees who only establish beryllium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? 30...employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? The establishment of beryllium sensitivity does not entitle a covered...

2010-04-01

320

20 CFR 30.507 - What compensation will be provided to covered Part B employees who only establish beryllium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? 30...employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? The establishment of beryllium sensitivity does not entitle a covered...

2012-04-01

321

20 CFR 30.507 - What compensation will be provided to covered Part B employees who only establish beryllium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? 30...employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? The establishment of beryllium sensitivity does not entitle a covered...

2014-04-01

322

20 CFR 30.507 - What compensation will be provided to covered Part B employees who only establish beryllium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? 30...employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? The establishment of beryllium sensitivity does not entitle a covered...

2013-04-01

323

20 CFR 30.507 - What compensation will be provided to covered Part B employees who only establish beryllium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? 30...employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? The establishment of beryllium sensitivity does not entitle a covered...

2011-04-01

324

Lithium purification technique  

DOEpatents

A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

1984-01-10

325

Lithium purification technique  

DOEpatents

A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

Keough, Robert F. (Richland, WA); Meadows, George E. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01

326

Beryllium sensitization and disease among long-term and short-term workers in a beryllium ceramics plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Workers at a beryllium ceramics plant were tested for beryllium sensitization and disease in 1998 to determine whether the\\u000a plant-wide prevalence of sensitization and disease had declined since the last screening in 1992; an elevated prevalence was\\u000a associated with specific processes or with high exposures; exposure-response relationships differed for long-term workers\\u000a hired before the last plant-wide screening and short-term

Paul K. Henneberger; Debra Cumro; David D. Deubner; Michael S. Kent; Michael McCawley; Kathleen Kreiss

2001-01-01

327

Beryllium-stimulated Release of Tumor Necrosis Factor a , Interleukin6, and Their Soluble Receptors in Chronic Beryllium Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) provides a model system in which to evaluate the antigen-stimu- lated, cell-mediated, immune response that leads to granulomatous lung disease. We hypothesized that beryllium salts would stimulate bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell release of tumor necrosis fac- tor- a (TNF- a ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and their soluble receptors, soluble TNF receptor I (sTNF RI), sTNF RII,

SALLY S. TINKLE; LEE S. NEWMAN

328

Lithium batteries: Future batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main characteristics and applications of lithium batteries are reviewed. Miniature batteries for quartz crystal watches have been developed and fabricated in Switzerland since 1970. High technology systems like lithium batteries are largely used for their low auto-discharge during storage and for their high energy density. Two kinds of lithium batteries can be distinguished concerning their place in the watch: integrated batteries; and batteries placed between motion parts and the bottom of the watchcase. Lithium batteries are also used in pocket calculators, electronic modules for integrated circuits, telephone, control systems, electronic games, bank cards, and heart stimulators.

Reiche, Harald

329

Lithium and hematopoiesis.  

PubMed Central

Some of lithium's effects on blood cell formation suggest that the element may be of value in treating hematologic disorders. Lithium enhances granulopoiesis and thereby induces neutrophilia. Two possible mechanisms of action are suggested: a direct action on the pluripotent stem cells, or an inhibition of the suppressor cells (thymus-dependent lymphocytes) that limit hematopoiesis. Lithium also inhibits erythropoiesis. Although most studies use concentrations at or above pharmacologic levels there is evidence that lithium plays a role in normal cell metabolism. PMID:6336655

Barr, R. D.; Galbraith, P. R.

1983-01-01

330

Occurrence model for volcanogenic beryllium deposits: Chapter F in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Current global and domestic mineral resources of beryllium (Be) for industrial uses are dominated by ores produced from deposits of the volcanogenic Be type. Beryllium deposits of this type can form where hydrothermal fluids interact with fluorine and lithophile-element (uranium, thorium, rubidium, lithium, beryllium, cesium, tantalum, rare earth elements, and tin) enriched volcanic rocks that contain a highly reactive lithic component, such as carbonate clasts. Volcanic and hypabyssal high-silica biotite-bearing topaz rhyolite constitutes the most well-recognized igneous suite associated with such Be deposits. The exemplar setting is an extensional tectonic environment, such as that characterized by the Basin and Range Province, where younger topaz-bearing igneous rock sequences overlie older dolomite, quartzite, shale, and limestone sequences. Mined deposits and related mineralized rocks at Spor Mountain, Utah, make up a unique economic deposit of volcanogenic Be having extensive production and proven and probable reserves. Proven reserves in Utah, as reported by the U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Information Center, total about 15,900 tons of Be that are present in the mineral bertrandite (Be4Si2O7(OH)2). At the type locality for volcanogenic Be, Spor Mountain, the tuffaceous breccias and stratified tuffs that host the Be ore formed as a result of explosive volcanism that brought carbonate and other lithic fragments to the surface through vent structures that cut the underlying dolomitic Paleozoic sedimentary rock sequences. The tuffaceous sediments and lithic clasts are thought to make up phreatomagmatic base surge deposits. Hydrothermal fluids leached Be from volcanic glass in the tuff and redeposited the Be as bertrandite upon reaction of the hydrothermal fluid with carbonate clasts in lithic-rich sections of tuff. The localization of the deposits in tuff above fluorite-mineralized faults in carbonate rocks, together with isotopic evidence for the involvement of magmatic water in an otherwise meteoric water-dominated hydrothermal system, indicate that magmatic volatiles contributed to mineralization. At the type locality, hydrothermal alteration of dolomite clasts formed layered nodules of calcite, opal, fluorite, and bertrandite, the latter occurring finely intergrown with fluorite. Alteration assemblages and elemental enrichments in the tuff and surrounding volcanic rocks include regional diagenetic clays and potassium feldspar and distinctive hydrothermal halos of anomalous fluorine, lithium, molybdenum, niobium, tin, and tantalum, and intense potassium feldspathization with sericite and lithium-smectite in the immediate vicinity of Be ore. Formation of volcanogenic Be deposits is due to the coincidence of multiple factors that include an appropriate Be-bearing source rock, a subjacent pluton that supplied volatiles and heat to drive convection of meteoric groundwater, a depositional site characterized by the intersection of normal faults with permeable tuff below a less permeable cap rock, a fluorine-rich ore fluid that facilitated Be transport (for example, BeF42- complex), and the existence of a chemical trap that caused fluorite and bertrandite to precipitate at the former site of carbonate lithic clasts in the tuff.

Foley, Nora K.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Lindsey, David A.; Seal, Robert R., II; Jaskula, Brian; Piatak, Nadine M.

2012-01-01

331

Functionalized boron nitride nanotubes  

DOEpatents

A plasma treatment has been used to modify the surface of BNNTs. In one example, the surface of the BNNT has been modified using ammonia plasma to include amine functional groups. Amine functionalization allows BNNTs to be soluble in chloroform, which had not been possible previously. Further functionalization of amine-functionalized BNNTs with thiol-terminated organic molecules has also been demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles have been self-assembled at the surface of both amine- and thiol-functionalized boron nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) in solution. This approach constitutes a basis for the preparation of highly functionalized BNNTs and for their utilization as nanoscale templates for assembly and integration with other nanoscale materials.

Sainsbury, Toby; Ikuno, Takashi; Zettl, Alexander K

2014-04-22

332

Surface area of respirable beryllium metal, oxide, and copper alloy aerosols and implications for assessment of exposure risk of chronic beryllium disease.  

PubMed

The continued occurrence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) suggests the current occupational exposure limit of 2 microg beryllium per cubic meter of air does not adequately protect workers. This study examined the morphology and measured the particle surface area of aerodynamically size-separated powders and process-sampled particles of beryllium metal, beryllium oxide, and copper-beryllium alloy. The beryllium metal powder consisted of compact particles, whereas the beryllium oxide powder and particles were clusters of smaller primary particles. Specific surface area (SSA) results for all samples (N=30) varied by a factor of 37, from 0.56 +/- 0.07 m(2)/g (for the 0.4-0.7 microm size fraction of the process-sampled reduction furnace particles) to 20.8 +/- 0.4 m(2)/g (for the beryllium metal, from 4.0 +/- 0.01 m(2)/g (for the particle size fraction >6 microm) to 20.8 +/- 0.44 m(2)/g (for the particle size fraction beryllium oxide powder and particles collected from the screening operation. The SSA of beryllium metal powder decreases with increasing particle size, as expected for compact particles, and the SSA of the beryllium oxide powders and particles remains constant as a function of particle size, which might be expected for clustered particles. These associations illustrate how process-related factors can influence the morphology and SSA of beryllium materials. To avoid errors in predicting bioavailability of beryllium and the associated risks for CBD, the mechanisms of particle formation should be understood and the SSA of beryllium particles should be measured directly. PMID:12809534

Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Hoover, Mark D; Dickerson, Robert M; Peterson, Eric J; Day, Gregory A; Breysse, Patrick N; Kent, Michael S; Scripsick, Ronald C

2003-01-01

333

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide: A View of Lithium Ion Solvation  

E-print Network

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide: A View of Lithium Ion Solvation through a Glass-Bottom Boat BRETT L and reactivities, we were drawn to lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS; (Me3Si)2NLi) by its promi- nence principles of lithium ion coordination chemistry.2 Understanding how solvation influences organolithium

Collum, David B.

334

Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis  

E-print Network

Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis Lekha Gupta, 2008 Ortholithiations of a range of arenes mediated by lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at -78 °C protocols with unpurified commercial samples of n-butyl- lithium to prepare LDA or commercially available

Collum, David B.

335

Tritium migration in the materials proposed for fusion reactors: Li2TiO3 and beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of tritium and helium gas release from lithium ceramics samples Li2TiO3 irradiated at the WWR-K reactor (Almaty, Kazakhstan) and from beryllium samples irradiated at the BN-350 reactor (Aktau, Kazakhstan) and the IVG.1M reactor (Kurchatov, Kazakhstan) are presented. Experimentally obtained thermal desorption (TDS) spectra have shown that the dependence of tritium release from lithium ceramics has a complicated behavior and to a large extent depends on lithium ceramics type. Nevertheless, it was found that the total amount of tritium released from all types of lithium ceramics has the same order of magnitude, equal to about 1011 Bq/kg. It was found that in the temperature range from 523 K to 1373 K the process of tritium release from lithium ceramics involves volume diffusion and thermoactivated tritium release from the accumulation centers generated under irradiation. TDS of beryllium samples enables us to obtain characteristics of tritium and helium release during linear heating, to determine integrated quantities of generated helium and tritium, and to determine parameters of release processes. The range of operating temperatures from 303 K to 1773 K; The pressure in the operating volume of the chamber 10-5 Pa; The accuracy in automatic temperature maintenance with respect to given temperature ±0.5 K. The experiments were carried out as follows: the sample was loaded into the crucible of the operating chamber. Then the sample was degassed at 423 K with constant pumping for 4 h. After that the sample was cooled to room temperature and the sample heating experiment was carried out. Each of the samples was heated linearly to 1523 K examining the released gases having mass numbers 2 (?2), 3 (3??), 4 (4?? + ??), 6 (?2), 18 (?2?), 20 (HTO) and 22 (?2?). The rate of linear heating ranged from 5 K/min to 20 K/min. It was taken into account that the total tritium quantity is formed by values of peaks respective to 6 and 3 mass numbers. And according to standard interpretation of spectra relative to the deposition for tritium total quantity - M6 makes 95% and M3 makes 5%, which means that M3 is formed only by 3He at missing of M6 peak.It should be noted that the experimental device for TDS studies is small (the volume of the measuring chamber and all gas paths to the mass spectrometer is 3 l at the most). The assembly is equipped with a pump with a capacity of 100 l/s. Calibration experiments using helium and hydrogen pumping did not show any substantial delay in detection of gases with different mass numbers, caused by different rates of transportation from the place of gas measurement. The observed detection delay was less than 0.1 s. The majority of helium is released from samples of DV-56 in the high temperature region. For samples of TShG-200 helium released in the high-temperature region is about ˜50% of the total release. For samples of DV-56 (irradiated to higher doses than samples of TShG-200 with a higher amount of generated tritium), tritium is released in the high temperature range as T2 (˜60%), HTO and T2O (˜30%). For samples of TShG-200 tritium is released in low temperature region as HTO and T2O. In the high temperature range the overall allocation of tritium as T2 from TShG-200 samples increases from 5% to 25%. Tritium release in the form of tritium water is caused by the tritium-oxygen (beryllium oxide) reaction. We suppose that it can have a complicated mechanism: for example, in case of direct chemical interaction of tritium with beryllium oxide (or beryllium hydroxide forming HTO) or tritium-beryllium oxide decay. This mechanism is not fully understood, which is why we have not analyzed the dependences of tritium water flux obtained in the TDS experiments. The questions of the importance of sample exposure and its influence on tritium conditions in beryllium require further explanation. For samples of DV-56 the exposure is about 17 years. The dependence of T2 release were considered in diffusion coefficient estimations.Tri

Kulsartov, T. V.; Gordienko, Yu. N.; Tazhibayeva, I. L.; Kenzhin, E. A.; Barsukov, N. I.; Sadvakasova, A. O.; Kulsartova, A. V.; Zaurbekova, Zh. A.

2013-11-01

336

Beryllium abundances in stars hosting giant planets  

E-print Network

We have derived beryllium abundances in a wide sample of stars hosting planets, with spectral types in the range F7V-K0V, aimed at studying in detail the effects of the presence of planets on the structure and evolution of the associated stars. Predictions from current models are compared with the derived abundances and suggestions are provided to explain the observed inconsistencies. We show that while still not clear, the results suggest that theoretical models may have to be revised for stars with Teff<5500K. On the other hand, a comparison between planet host and non-planet host stars shows no clear difference between both populations. Although preliminary, this result favors a ``primordial'' origin for the metallicity ``excess'' observed for the planetary host stars. Under this assumption, i.e. that there would be no differences between stars with and without giant planets, the light element depletion pattern of our sample of stars may also be used to further investigate and constraint Li and Be depletion mechanisms.

N. C. Santos; R. J. Garcia Lopez; G. Israelian; M. Mayor; R. Rebolo; A. Garcia-Gil; M. R. Perez de Taoro; S. Randich

2002-02-25

337

The unusual properties of beryllium surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Be is a ``marginal metal.`` The stable phase, hcp-Be, has a low Fermi-level density of states and very anisotropic structural and elastic properties, similar to a semiconductor`s. At the Be(0001) surface, surface states drastically increase the Fermi-level density of states. The different nature of bonding in bulk-Be and at the Be(0001) surface explains the large outward relaxation. The presence of surface states causes large surface core-level shifts by inducing a higher electrostatic potential in the surface layers and by improving the screening at the surface. The authors experimental and theoretical investigations of atomic vibrations at the Be(0001) surface demonstrate clearly that Be screening of atomic motion by the surface states makes the surface phonon dispersion fundamentally different from that of the bulk. Properties of Be(0001) are so different from those of the bulk that the surface can be considered a new ``phase`` of beryllium with unique electronic and structural characteristics. For comparison they also study Be(11{bar 2}0), a very open surface without important surface states. Be(11{bar 2}0) is the only clean s-p metal surface known to reconstruct (1 {times} 3 missing row reconstruction).

Stumpf, R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[JRCAT, Ibaraki (Japan); Hannon, J.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Plummer, E.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-12-31

338

Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project  

SciTech Connect

This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

2010-10-01

339

Detection of Neutrons Liberated from Beryllium by Gamma Rays: a New Technique for Inducing Radioactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed that a radiation emitted from beryllium under the influence of radium gamma rays excites induced radioactivity in iodine, and we conclude that neutrons are liberated from beryllium by gamma rays.

Leo Szilard; T. A. Chalmers

1934-01-01

340

Preliminary Investigation into the Corrosion of Beryllium Exposed to Celotex and Water  

E-print Network

Lillard, Mary Ann Hill, Darryl P. Butt Materials Corrosion and Environmental Effects Lab MST-6, Metallurgy.S. Lillard, D.P. Butt, "Corrosion / Electrochemistry of Beryllium and Beryllium Weldments in Aqueous Chloride

341

Identification of beryllium-dependent peptides recognized by CD4+ T cells in chronic beryllium disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous disorder characterized by an influx of beryllium (Be)-specific CD4+ T cells into the lung. The vast majority of these T cells recognize Be in an HLA-DP–restricted manner, and peptide is required for T cell recognition. However, the peptides that stimulate Be-specific T cells are unknown. Using positional scanning libraries and fibroblasts expressing HLA-DP2, the most prevalent HLA-DP molecule linked to disease, we identified mimotopes and endogenous self-peptides that bind to MHCII and Be, forming a complex recognized by pathogenic CD4+ T cells in CBD. These peptides possess aspartic and glutamic acid residues at p4 and p7, respectively, that surround the putative Be-binding site and cooperate with HLA-DP2 in Be coordination. Endogenous plexin A peptides and proteins, which share the core motif and are expressed in lung, also stimulate these TCRs. Be-loaded HLA-DP2–mimotope and HLA-DP2–plexin A4 tetramers detected high frequencies of CD4+ T cells specific for these ligands in all HLA-DP2+ CBD patients tested. Thus, our findings identify the first ligand for a CD4+ T cell involved in metal-induced hypersensitivity and suggest a unique role of these peptides in metal ion coordination and the generation of a common antigen specificity in CBD. PMID:23797096

Falta, Michael T.; Mack, Douglas G.; Tinega, Alex N.; Crawford, Frances; Giulianotti, Marc; Santos, Radleigh; Clayton, Gina M.; Wang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xuewu; Maier, Lisa A.; Marrack, Philippa; Kappler, John W.

2013-01-01

342

Cathode material for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

2013-07-23

343

Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers.

Ulrickson, M.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manly, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

1995-08-01

344

Rapid accurate isotopic measurements on boron in boric acid and boron carbide.  

PubMed

A procedure is described whereby rapid and accurate isotopic measurements can be performed on boron in boric acid and boron carbide after fusion of these compounds with calcium carbonate. It allows the determination of the isotopic composition of boron in boric acid and boron carbide and the direct assay of boron or the (10)B isotope in boron carbide by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry. PMID:18964086

Duchateau, N L; Verbruggen, A; Hendrickx, F; De Bièvre, P

1986-04-01

345

Temperature-programmed desorption of tritium loaded into beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of grain size and amount of beryllium oxide BeO on the tritium release characteristics of the S-65H and I-220H beryllium grades was investigated. The beryllium samples were loaded with hydrogen at a temperature of 1123 K for 6 h at a pressure of 4 bar in a gas mixture of molecular protium with 45 wppm tritium. The tritium release measurements were performed using a stepped heating ramp with steps of 50 K in the temperature range of 473-1373 K with a duration of each step of 1 h. Five major release peaks were observed. Interpretations of the nature of the peaks are suggested. In particular, we ascribe the low-temperature peaks (300-723 K) to desorption from the surface and connect the shift of the peak at elevated temperature (900-1000 K) with the enhanced diffusion of hydrogen along grain boundaries. The high temperature peak (1123-1373 K) is attributed to dissociation of beryllium hydroxide Be(OH)2, which is formed on the surface and grain boundaries of a sample in a reaction of hydrogen isotopes with beryllium oxide.

Chakin, V.; Rolli, R.; Vladimirov, P.; Kurinskiy, P.; Klimenkov, M.; Moeslang, A.; Ryczek, L.; Dorn, C.; Markovsky, A.

2009-12-01

346

Behavior of carboxylic acids upon complexation with beryllium compounds.  

PubMed

A significant acidity enhancement and changes on aromaticity were previously observed in squaric acid and its derivatives when beryllium bonds are present in those systems. In order to know if these changes on the chemical properties could be considered a general behavior of carboxylic acids upon complexation with beryllium compounds, complexes between a set of representative carboxylic acids RCOOH (formic acid, acetic acid, propanoic acid, benzoic acid, and oxalic acid) and beryllium compounds BeX2 (X = H, F, Cl) were studied by means of density functional theory calculations. Complexes that contain a dihydrogen bond or a OH···X interaction are the most stable in comparison with other possible BeX2 complexation patterns in which no other weak interactions are involved apart from the beryllium bond. Formic, acetic, propanoic, benzoic, and oxalic acid complexes with BeX2 are much stronger acids than their related free forms. The analysis of the topology of the electron density helps to clarify the reasons behind this acidity enhancement. Importantly, when the halogen atom is replaced by hydrogen in the beryllium compound, the dihydrogen bond complex spontaneously generates a new neutral complex [RCOO:BeH] in which a hydrogen molecule is lost. This seems to be a trend for carboxylic acids on complexing BeX2 compounds. PMID:25010490

Mykolayivna-Lemishko, Kateryna; Montero-Campillo, M Merced; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel

2014-07-31

347

PRELIMINARY STUDIES OF BONDING OF BERYLLIUM-CLAD UOâ FUEL ELEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas-pressure bonding was investigated as a fabrication technique for ; the solid-state bonding of beryllium. Bonding parameters, surface-preparation ; methods, and compatibility of beryllium with UOâ and with several container ; and barrier materials were studied. Beryllium-to-beryllium bonds were obtained ; after 2 to 4 hr at 1550 to 1650 deg F at 10,000 psi. Bonds produced with grit-; blasted

S. J. Paprocki; E. S. Hodge; J. S. Perrin

1961-01-01

348

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

2008-01-01

349

Comparison of elemental boron and boron halide implants into silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the electrical activation of boron halide molecular implants into silicon and compares them to boron implants at the same effective energy. The implanted species: B +, BF2+, BCl2+ and BBr2+ were implanted to doses of 2 × 10 14 and 1 × 10 15 B cm -2 the energy of the molecular implants was calculated to give an effective boron implant energy of 5 keV. Samples cut from the wafers were annealed for 30 s at temperatures ranging from 800 °C to 1100 °C. Hall effect measurements were used to compare and contrast the electrical activation of the boron between the different halide species and doses. It was found that molecular implants of BBr2+ and BCl2+ do not enhance the electrical activation of boron to the same extent that BF2+ implants do. The BBr2+ implants are only comparable with boron after annealing at high temperatures (above 1000 °C). The BF2+ implants show enhanced electrical activation with respect to boron for all the annealing temperatures and doses studied. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) of silicon implanted with BBr2+ to a dose of 1 × 10 15 boron atoms cm -2, shows that an amorphous region is created during the implantation. This region fully re-grows after annealing at 1100 °C; lower temperature anneals remove only part of the amorphous layer. RBS channelling shows that a fraction of the bromine takes up substitutional lattice sites upon implantation, and that this fraction increases as the samples are annealed at temperatures above 600 °C with 40% of the B being in substitutional sites after annealing at 1050 °C.

Sharp, J. A.; Gwilliam, R. M.; Sealy, B. J.; Jeynes, C.; Hamilton, J. J.; Kirkby, K. J.

2005-08-01

350

A role for cell adhesion in beryllium-mediated lung disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a debilitating lung disorder in which exposure to the lightweight metal beryllium (Be) causes the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in the lung and formation of noncaseating pulmonary granulomas. Treatment for CBD patients who exhibit progressive pulmonary decline is limited to systemic corticosteroids, which suppress the severe host inflammatory response. Studies in the past

Hong-geller

2008-01-01

351

A Role for Cell Adhesion in Beryllium-Mediated Lung Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a debilitating lung disorder in which exposure to the lightweight metal beryllium (Be) causes the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in the lung and formation of noncaseating pulmonary granulomas. Treatment for CBD patients who exhibit progressive pulmonary decline is limited to systemic corticosteroids, which suppress the severe host inflammatory response. Studies in the past

Elizabeth Hong-Geller

2009-01-01

352

Using beryllium-7 to assess cross-tropopause1 transport in global models2  

E-print Network

1 Using beryllium-7 to assess cross-tropopause1 transport in global models2 3 Hongyu Liu1 , David B, MA13 14 Short Title: Beryllium-7 and cross-tropopause transport15 Index Terms: 0368 Troposphere Initiative (GMI) modeling framework the29 utility of cosmogenic beryllium-7 (7 Be), a natural aerosol tracer

Liu, Hongyu

353

HiRadMat Beryllium ThermalShock Test Kavin Ammigan  

E-print Network

HiRadMat Beryllium ThermalShock Test Kavin Ammigan PASI 2nd Annual Meeting RAL, UK April 5, 2013 Collaboration with RAL HPTG Fracture Beryllium with one or multiple beam pulses Experimentally deduce measurements fairly comparable with numerical simulations Goal: make similar comparisons for Beryllium

McDonald, Kirk

354

Modeling Climate and Production-related Impacts on Ice-core Beryllium-10  

E-print Network

Modeling Climate and Production-related Impacts on Ice-core Beryllium-10 Christy Veeder Submitted Modeling Climate and Production-related Impacts on Ice-core Beryllium-10 Christy Veeder I use the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE general circulation model to ex- amine the how beryllium-10, a cosmogenic

355

Beryllium Material Tests HiRadMat windows and NOA fins  

E-print Network

Beryllium Material Tests HiRadMat windows and NOA fins C. Densham, A. Atherton, T. Davenne, P (FNAL) S. Roberts, V. Kuksenko (Oxford University) Motivation Beryllium is currently widely used, it is essential to understand the response and potential limits of beryllium in such extreme environments

McDonald, Kirk

356

Fusion Engineering and Design 5152 (2000) 8591 Analysis of tritium kinetics of SIBELIUS beryllium  

E-print Network

Fusion Engineering and Design 51­52 (2000) 85­91 Analysis of tritium kinetics of SIBELIUS beryllium the kinetics of tritium transport in irradiated beryllium in fusion blanket applications. Some USA SIBELIUS. © 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Tritium kinetics; SIBELIUS beryllium; BETTY

Abdou, Mohamed

357

Testing quantum electrodynamics in the lowest singlet states of beryllium atom Mariusz Puchalski and Jacek Komasa  

E-print Network

Testing quantum electrodynamics in the lowest singlet states of beryllium atom Mariusz Puchalski of the beryllium atom. Calcu- lations are performed using fully correlated Gaussian basis sets and taking predictions for the ionization potential of the beryllium ground state 75 192.696(8) cm-1 and the 21 P 21

Pachucki, Krzysztof

358

Epidemiological aspects of beryllium-induced nonmalignant lung disease: a 30-year update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unusual epidemiology of beryllium disease observed in the early studies of beryllium disease led in 1951 to the hypothesis that the chronic form of the disease is the result of an acquired sensitization to beryllium or its compounds. After 30 years, the role of sensitization has been confirmed in a number of laboratory and clinical studies. The unusual epidemiological

Merril Eisenbud; Judith Lisson

1983-01-01

359

Beryllium7 in soils and vegetation along an arid precipitation gradient in Owens Valley, California  

E-print Network

Beryllium7 in soils and vegetation along an arid precipitation gradient in Owens Valley, California; revised 29 March 2011; accepted 1 April 2011; published 7 May 2011. [1] Beryllium7 is a potentially potential as a sediment tracer in desert environments. Beryllium7 in vegetation and the upper few cm of soil

Elmore, Andrew J.

360

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF BERYLLIUM PACKED BEDS  

E-print Network

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF BERYLLIUM PACKED Angeles, CA 90095-1597 ali@fusion.ucla.edu ABSTRACT Beryllium, in its pebble form, has been proposed Beryllium (as a neutron multiplier) is considered one of the prime candidates to enhance tritium breeding

Abdou, Mohamed

361

LA CONDUCTIVIT LECTRIQUE DES COUCHES MICROCRISTALLINES DES MTAUX A CONDUCTION MIXTE (BERYLLIUM ET PLOMB)  

E-print Network

(BERYLLIUM ET PLOMB) Par R. GRIGOROVICI, A. D�V�NYI, T. BOTIL�, C. RUSU et A. VANCU, Institut de Physique de continuous beryllium and lead films deposited by vacuum evaporation have a negative temperature coefficient connue. Le beryllium nous a semblé le métal le plus indiqué pour ce dessein, car il satisfait aux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

362

Skin as a route of exposure and sensitization in chronic beryllium disease.  

PubMed

Chronic beryllium disease is an occupational lung disease that begins as a cell-mediated immune response to beryllium. Although respiratory and engineering controls have significantly decreased occupational beryllium exposures over the last decade, the rate of beryllium sensitization has not declined. We hypothesized that skin exposure to beryllium particles would provide an alternative route for sensitization to this metal. We employed optical scanning laser confocal microscopy and size-selected fluorospheres to demonstrate that 0.5- and 1.0- micro m particles, in conjunction with motion, as at the wrist, penetrate the stratum corneum of human skin and reach the epidermis and, occasionally, the dermis. The cutaneous immune response to chemical sensitizers is initiated in the skin, matures in the local lymph node (LN), and releases hapten-specific T cells into the peripheral blood. Topical application of beryllium to C3H mice generated beryllium-specific sensitization that was documented by peripheral blood and LN beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests (BeLPT) and by changes in LN T-cell activation markers, increased expression of CD44, and decreased CD62L. In a sensitization-challenge treatment paradigm, epicutaneous beryllium increased murine ear thickness following chemical challenge. These data are consistent with development of a hapten-specific, cell-mediated immune response following topical application of beryllium and suggest a mechanistic link between the persistent rate of beryllium worker sensitization and skin exposure to fine and ultrafine beryllium particles. PMID:12842774

Tinkle, Sally S; Antonini, James M; Rich, Brenda A; Roberts, Jenny R; Salmen, Rebecca; DePree, Karyn; Adkins, Eric J

2003-07-01

363

Risk-based approach for controlling beryllium exposure in a manufacturing environment  

SciTech Connect

There are many diverse uses for beryllium in both military and industrial applications. Unfortunately, there are certain worker health risks associated with the manufacture and production of beryllium products. Respiratory illnesses due to prolonged contact with beryllium particulate are of paramount concern. However, these health risks can be controlled provided that the appropriate protective measures to prevent worker exposure from beryllium are in place. But it is no1 always a straightforward process to identify exactly what the beryllium protective measures should be in order to realize a true risk savings. Without prudent attention to a systematic inquiry and suitable evaluative criteria, a program for controlling beryllium health risks can be lacking in completeness and overall effectiveness. One approach that took into account the necessary ingredients for risk-based determination of beryllium protective measures was developed for a beryllium operation at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. The methodological framework that was applied at this facility, as well as a discussion of the final beryllium protective measures that were determined by this approach will be presented. Regulatory aspects for working with beryllium, as well as a risk-assessment strategy for ranking beryllium-handling activities with respect to exposure potential will also be discussed. The presentation will conclude with a synopsis of lessons-learned as gleaned from this case study, as well as providing the participants with a constructive blueprint that can be adapted to other processes involving beryllium.

Gilmore, W. E. (Walter E.); Clawson, C. D. (Chris D.); Ellis, K. K. (Kimberly K.)

2003-01-01

364

RCRA designation of discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources  

SciTech Connect

Many sealed sources containing americium and beryllium are used throughout construction, industry, and research, and will eventually require disposal. For planning purposes it is necessary to determine whether these sources, when disposed, constitute a mixed waste, i.e., a waste containing hazardous constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and radioactive constituents regulated under the Atomic Energy Act. Waste designation criteria contained in 40 CFR 261 are evaluated in detail in this report. It is determined that discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources do not contain any wastes listed in Subpart D of 40 CFR 261, nor do the discarded sources exhibit any hazardous characteristics. Therefore, it is concluded that discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources are not a mixed waste under regulations established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Hazardous waste regulatory programs delegated to States, however, may have regulations that differ from those of the Federal government.

Kirner, N.P. [Ebasco Environmental, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1994-09-01

365

Crack toughness evaluation of hot pressed and forged beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Beryllium fracture toughness test specimens were fatigue cracked using reversed cycling with a compression load two to three times the tension load. In worked beryllium, textures may be produced which result in fatigue cracks that are out of plane with the starter notch. Specimens of hot pressed stock exhibited load displacement records which were nonlinear throughout their course. Fracture specimens of both hot pressed and forged stock showed essentially no reduction of thickness and the fracture surfaces were flat and normal to the load axis. However, the stress intensity factor at maximum load increased with decreasing thickness. Load-displacement and electric potential records for the hot pressed beryllium specimens exhibited several anomalies such as negative residual crack mouth displacements and a decrease in electrical potential with increasing load.

Jones, M. H.; Bubsey, R. T.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

1971-01-01

366

Influence of beryllium carbide formation on deuterium retention and release  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inconel cladding tiles of the ITER-like-wall to be tested at JET will be coated by a beryllium layer. Carbon containing tiles will be also present. These materials are sputtered in the high flux (1022 m-2 s-1 or higher) of the deuterium-tritium plasma. Ionized by the energetic electrons and with hydrogen isotope ions they will be implanted or re-deposited, creating composite layers.In order to study the deuterium retention and release, mixed layers were prepared using the thermionic arc method.Deuterium implantation was performed using a high current ion source at room temperature using a deuterium ion beam with energy of 200 eV/D. Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) analyses were correlated with the beryllium/carbon relative concentrations of the prepared films. At higher carbon concentrations the peak value from TDS spectra corresponding to beryllium was lower and an increased peak corresponding to the carbon was observed.

Porosnicu, C.; Anghel, A.; Sugiyama, K.; Krieger, K.; Roth, J.; Lungu, C. P.

2011-08-01

367

Spherical Torus Plasma Interactions with Large-area Liquid Lithium Surfaces in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect

The Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) device at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is a spherical torus (ST) dedicated to the exploration of liquid lithium as a potential solution to reactor first-wall problems such as heat load and erosion, neutron damage and activation, and tritium inventory and breeding. Initial lithium limiter experiments were conducted with a toroidally-local liquid lithium rail limiter (L3) from the University of California at San Diego. Spectroscopic measurements showed a clear reduction of impurities in plasmas with the L3, compared to discharges with a boron carbide limiter. The evidence for a reduction in recycling was less apparent, however. This may be attributable to the relatively small area in contact with the plasma, and the presence of high-recycling surfaces elsewhere in the vacuum chamber. This conclusion was tested in subsequent experiments with a fully toroidal lithium limiter that was installed above the floor of the vacuum vessel. The new limiter covered over ten times the area of the L3 facing the plasma. Experiments with the toroidal lithium limiter have recently begun. This paper describes the conditioning required to prepare the lithium surface for plasma operations, and effect of the toroidal liquid lithium limiter on discharge performance.

R. Kaita; R. Majeski; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; B. Jones; D. Hoffman; H. Kugel; J. Menard; T. Munsat; A. Post-Zwicker; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; M. Maiorano; S. Smith

2002-01-18

368

Modulation of Lymphocyte Proliferation by Antioxidants in Chronic Beryllium Disease  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Occupational exposure to beryllium (Be) can result in chronic granulomatous inflammation characterized by the presence of Be-specific CD4+ T cells. Studies show that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disorders. Objectives: We hypothesized that Be-induced oxidative stress modulates the proliferation of Be-specific CD4+ T cells. Methods: Thirty-three subjects with chronic beryllium disease (CBD), 15 subjects with beryllium sensitization, and 28 healthy normal control subjects were consecutively enrolled from the Occupational and Environmental Health Clinic of the National Jewish Medical and Research Center. Measurements and Main Results: All studies were performed with Ficoll-Hypaque–isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subsets of the study subjects. Decreased intracellular levels of the thiol antioxidants, glutathione and cysteine, were observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects with beryllium sensitization and CBD, as compared with healthy control subjects. Beryllium stimulation decreased intracellular thiol antioxidants by more than 40%, accompanied by increased reactive oxygen species levels and the proliferation of Be-specific blood CD4+ T cells from subjects with CBD. Be-induced T-cell proliferation was inhibited by treatment with the thiol antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or the catalytic antioxidant manganese(III) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin (MnTBAP). MnTBAP treatment also inhibited T-cell proliferation in response to the unrelated, MHC class II–restricted antigen tetanus toxoid. Treatment of CBD blood lymphocytes, but not antigen-presenting cells, with MnTBAP decreased Be-induced T-cell proliferation by more than 40%. Conclusions: Beryllium can mediate a thiol imbalance leading to oxidative stress that may modulate the proliferation and clonal expansion of Be-specific blood CD4+ T cells. These data suggest that Be-induced oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of granulomatous inflammation in CBD. PMID:18218990

Dobis, Dave R.; Sawyer, Richard T.; Gillespie, May M.; Huang, Jie; Newman, Lee S.; Maier, Lisa A.; Day, Brian J.

2008-01-01

369

DIFFUSION BONDING HIGH-TEMPERATURE ALLOYS WITH BERYLLIUM. BERYLLIUM TRANSPORT ALLOY STRIPS PRODUCE DIFFUSION-BONDED JOINTS IN 1 OVER 2 TO 5 MIN AT 1940 TO 2100 F BONDING TEMPERATURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts and advantages of diffusion bonding hightemperature alloys ; with beryllium are discussed, and a practical method for diffusion bonding is ; presented. Results show that beryllium is a useful primary diffuser element for ; diffusion-bonding iron, nickel, and cobaltbase high temperature alloys. ; Beryllium-transport alloys are also developed that facilitate preplacement of ; beryllium at interfaces between base

W. Feduska; W. L. Horigan

1962-01-01

370

Neutron detectors comprising boron powder  

SciTech Connect

High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

2013-05-21

371

Carbothermic formation of boron nitride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation of boron nitride by reaction of boric oxide with carbon and nitrogen was studied. It was found from the results of experiments conducted by holding B2O3-activated C mixtures under a flowing nitrogen atmosphere that formation of boron nitride was complete in 120 min at 1500 °C. After cleaning the reaction product from the ash of the activated carbon and from

A. Aydo?du; N. Sevinç

2003-01-01

372

CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS  

SciTech Connect

The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

Ekechukwu, A

2009-04-20

373

Fluorometric study of the beryllium-morin system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three principal beryllium-morin complexes, a (1 + 1) monomer, a (1 + 1) dimer, and a (1 + 2) complex are found and conditional equilibrium constants for their formation are evaluated. Approximate ionization constants, absorption spectra, and the relative fluorescence intensities for five ionic species of morin are also determined in a spectrophotometric and fluorometric study of morin. The following interrelationships are discussed: pH, ionization of morin, absorption spectra of the various ionic species of morin and of the berylliummorin complexes, equilibria for the reactions between beryllium and morin, the period of time between preparation of the solution and measurement of the fluorescence, and fluorescence intensity.

Fletcher, M.H.

1965-01-01

374

Elemental composition in sealed plutonium-beryllium neutron sources.  

PubMed

Five sealed plutonium-beryllium (PuBe) neutron sources from various manufacturers were disassembled. Destructive chemical analyses for recovered PuBe materials were conducted for disposition purposes. A dissolution method for PuBe alloys was developed for quantitative plutonium (Pu) and beryllium (Be) assay. Quantitation of Be and trace elements was performed using plasma based spectroscopic instruments, namely inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Pu assay was accomplished by an electrochemical method. Variations in trace elemental contents among the five PuBe sources are discussed. PMID:25464182

Xu, N; Kuhn, K; Gallimore, D; Martinez, A; Schappert, M; Montoya, D; Lujan, E; Garduno, K; Tandon, L

2014-10-22

375

Failure prediction of thin beryllium sheets used in spacecraft structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an attempt to predict failure for cross-rolled beryllium sheet structures, high order macroscopic failure criteria are used. These require the knowledge of in-plane uniaxial and shear strengths. Test results are included for in-plane biaxial tension, uniaxial compression for two different material orientations, and shear. All beryllium specimens have the same chemical composition. In addition, all experimental work was performed in a controlled laboratory environment. Numerical simulation complements these tests. A brief bibliography supplements references listed in a previous report.

Roschke, Paul N.; Papados, Photios; Mascorro, Edward

1991-01-01

376

Comparison of Cleaning Methods for Analysis of Underground Beryllium Corrosion  

SciTech Connect

The subsurface radioactive disposal site located at the Idaho National Laboratory contains neutronactivated beryllium metals from non-fuel nuclear-reactor-core components. A long-term underground corrosion test is being conducted to obtain site-specific corrosion rates of the disposed beryllium to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements in the surrounding arid vadose zone environment. During the corrosion analysis, two cleaning methods were used. This paper describes the cleaning methods and presents a comparison of the results.

M. K. Adler Flitton; T. S. Yoder

2006-03-01

377

Method for removal of beryllium contamination from an article  

DOEpatents

A method of removal of beryllium contamination from an article is disclosed. The method typically involves dissolving polyisobutylene in a solvent such as hexane to form a tackifier solution, soaking the substrate in the tackifier to produce a preform, and then drying the preform to produce the cleaning medium. The cleaning media are typically used dry, without any liquid cleaning agent to rub the surface of the article and remove the beryllium contamination below a non-detect level. In some embodiments no detectible residue is transferred from the cleaning wipe to the article as a result of the cleaning process.

Simandl, Ronald F.; Hollenbeck, Scott M.

2012-12-25

378

Initial boronization of PBX-M using ablation from solid boronized probes  

SciTech Connect

Boronization was performed by plasma ablation of two solid boronized target probes. Probe-1, in a mushroom shape, consisted of a 10.7% boronized two-dimensional carbon-carbon composite containing 3.6 g of boron in a B[sub 4]C binder. Probe-2, in a rectangular shape, consisted of an 86% boronized graphite felt composite containing 19.5 g of 40-[mu]m boron particles. Probe-1 boronization deposited [approximately]26 monolayers of boron. After boronization with Probe-1, the loop voltage in 1-MW neutral-beam-heated plasmas decreased 27%, and volt-second consumption decreased 20%. Strong peripheral spectral lines from low-Z elements decreased by factors of [approximately]5. The central oxygen density decreased 15 to 20%. Carbon levels initially increased during boronization but were significantly reduced after boronization. The total radiated power during neutral beam injection decreased by 43%. Probe-2 boronization deposited [approximately]70 monolayers. Probe-2 boronization exhibited similar improved plasma conditions, but for some parameters, a smaller percentage change occurred because of the previous boronization with Probe-1. The ablation rates of both probes were consistent with front-face temperatures above the boron melting point. The results demonstrate the performance of two different boronized probe materials and the relative simplicity and effectiveness of solid target boronization as a convenient, real-time impurity control technique. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Kugel, H.W.; Timberlake, J.; Bell, R.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Takahashi, H.; Tighe, W.; Von Goeler, S. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)) (and others)

1994-07-01

379

Lithium cell test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three lithium SO2 cells, two lithium CF cells, and a vinyl chloride cell, all with crimped seals, and all strictly experimental, were independently discharged on resistors. Three temperatures were used and several different storage temperatures. Discharge rate generally on the nominal discharges were 0.1 amp, 0.5 amp, and 1 amp. Tests results show that the crimp seals are inadequate, especially for the SO2 cells. Normal discharges present no hazards. All cells discharge to zero. The problem of lithium cell explosions, such as occurred during off-limits testing, is discussed.

Bragg, B. J.

1977-01-01

380

Design, fabrication, testing and evaluation of damage-tolerant beryllium structures. Final report, Jan 1967Jul 1968  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes an analytical and experimental research program performed to develop design concepts and design criteria for increasing the damage tolerance of beryllium structural components. Element tests were conducted to determine tensile and bend properties of the as-received beryllium and the fatigue crack propagation rate and residual static strength of cracked beryllium sheet. Following that, three beryllium damage-tolerant panel

J. M. Finn; L. C. Koch; D. L. Rich

1968-01-01

381

Characterization of Lithium Borohydride using Neutron Scattering Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium borohydride, LiBH4, is a complex metal hydride that shows great promise as a hydrogen storage medium with a volumetric hydrogen density of 122 kg H/m^3 and a gravimetric hydrogen density of 18.5 wt. %. While numerous NMR, Raman, and infrared investigations have been reported in the literature, neutron scattering investigations of LiBH4 have been limited due to the large neutron absorption cross-section of naturally occurring lithium and boron. We have recently synthesized an isotopically-enriched lithium borohydride, containing ^7Li and ^11B, which eliminates the large neutron absorption cross-section that arises from the presence of ^6Li and ^10B. The results of powder neutron diffraction, inelastic neutron scattering, and quasi-elastic neutron scattering investigations on the ^7Li^11BH4 material are presented. These measurements provide a fundamental understanding of the behavior of hydrogen within lithium borohydride, and they provide a basis to understand changes concomitant with the introduction of catalytic or destabilizing compounds.

Hartman, Michael; Rush, Jack; Udovic, Terry

2006-03-01

382

Is there a Population II analogy to the F star?lithium?dip?  

PubMed Central

Observers have found a small number of lithium-depleted halo stars in the temperature range of the Spite plateau. The current status of the mass-loss hypothesis for producing the observed lithium dip in Population (Pop) I stars is briefly discussed and extended to Pop II stars as a possible explanation for these halo objects. Based on detections of F-type main-sequence variables, mass loss is assumed to occur in a narrow temperature region corresponding to this “instability strip.” As Pop II main-sequence stars evolve to the blue, they enter this narrow temperature region, then move back through the lower temperature area of the Spite plateau. If 0.05 M? (solar mass) or more have been lost, they will show lithium depletion. This hypothesis affects the lithium-to- beryllium abundance, the ratio of high- to low-lithium stars, and the luminosity function. Constraints on the mass-loss hypothesis due to these effects are discussed. Finally, mass loss in this temperature range would operate in stars near the turnoff of metal-poor globular clusters, resulting in apparent ages 2 to 3 Gyr (gigayears) older than they actually are. PMID:11038540

Dearborn, D. S. P.; Schramm, David N.

1997-01-01

383

Beryllium in Ultra-Lithium-Deficient Halo Stars - The Blue Straggler Connection  

E-print Network

There are nine metal-deficient stars that have Li abundances well below the Li plateau that is defined by over 100 unevolved stars with temperatures above 5800 K and values of [Fe/H] $<$ $-$1.0. Abundances of Be have been determined for most of these ultra-Li-deficient stars in order to investigate the cause of the Li deficiencies. High-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra have been obtained in the Be II spectral region near 3130 \\AA for six ultra-Li-deficient stars with the Keck I telescope and its new uv-sensitive CCD on the upgraded HIRES. The spectrum synthesis technique has been used to determine Be abundances. All six stars are found to have Be deficiencies also. Two have measurable - but reduced - Be and four have only upper limits on Be. These results are consistent with the idea that these Li- and Be-deficient stars are analogous to blue stragglers. The stars have undergone mass transfer events (or mergers) which destroy or dilute both Li and Be. The findings cannot be matched by the models that predict that the deficiencies are due to extra-mixing in a subset of halo stars that were initially rapid rotators, with the possible exception of one star, G 139-8. Because the ultra-Li-deficient stars are also Be-deficient, they appear to be genuine outliers in population of halo stars used to determine the value of primordial Li; they no longer have the Li in their atmospheres that was produced in the Big Bang.

Ann Merchant Boesgaard

2007-05-10

384

Beryllium in the Ultra-Lithium-Deficient,Metal-Poor Halo Dwarf, G186-26  

E-print Network

The vast majority of low-metal halo dwarfs show a similar amount of Li; this has been attributed to the Li that was produced in the Big Bang. However, there are nine known halo stars with T $>$ 5900 K and [Fe/H] $<$ $-$1.0 that are ultra-Li-deficient. We have looked for Be in the very low metallicity star, G 186-26 at [Fe/H] = $-$2.71, which is one of the ultra-Li-deficient stars. This star is also ultra-Be deficient. Relative to Be in the Li-normal stars at [Fe/H] = $-$2.7, G 182-26 is down in Be by more than 0.8 dex. Of two potential causes for the Li-deficiency -- mass-transfer in a pre-blue straggler or extra rotationally-induced mixing in a star that was initially a very rapid rotator -- the absence of Be favors the blue-straggler hypothesis, but the rotation model cannot be ruled-out completely.

Ann Merchant Boesgaard; Megan C. Novicki

2005-09-16

385

MACHINING TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES FOR URANIUM, GRAPHITE, TITANIUM, ZIRCONIUM, THORIUM, TANTALUM, BERYLLIUM, BISMUTH, LITHIUM, AND STELLITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniqnes are presented which are applicable in machining materinls ;\\u000a such as U, graphite, Ti, Zr, Th, Ta, Be, Bi, Li, and stellite. Included in the ;\\u000a general considerations are factors related to machinability of the materials, ;\\u000a operating condition of the machines, and the condition of the cutting tools. In ;\\u000a addition, industrial hygtene and safety aspects are examined.

1952-01-01

386

MACHINING TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES FOR URANIUM, GRAPHITE, TITANIUM, ZIRCONIUM, THORIUM, TANTALUM, BERYLLIUM, BISMUTH, LITHIUM, AND STELLITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniqnes are presented which are applicable in machining materinls such as U, graphite, Ti, Zr, Th, Ta, Be, Bi, Li, and stellite. Included in the general considerations are factors related to machinability of the materials, operating condition of the machines, and the condition of the cutting tools. In addition, industrial hygtene and safety aspects are examined. The techniques for each

1952-01-01

387

Lithium in NGC 752  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Echelle spectra recorded at the Li I 6707 A line are reported for 19 main sequence members of NGC 752, an open cluster about 2.5 times older than the Hyades. A sharp decline of the lithium abundance toward cooler temperatures is found which is more pronounced than in the Hyades, as expected. The initial cluster lithium abundance is estimated at roughly 1 x 10 to the -9th. No significant increase of the lithium fraction in the gas of the Galactic disk apparently has occurred in at least the last 1.7 Gyr. Four stars in a very narrow temperature range centered near 6600 K show a deficiency of atmospheric lithium which ranges up to a factor of more than 30 compared to slightly hotter or cooler stars.

Hobbs, L. M.; Pilachowski, Catherine

1986-01-01

388

High-temperature properties of lithium tetraborate Li2B4O7  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature coherent neutron powder diffraction experiments were carried out on Li2B4O7 with boron isotope ratio 11B : 10B as high as 99.6 : 0.4%. Neither traces of phase transformations nor discontinuous changes of physical properties were observed. Anomalies in the thermal expansion of lithium tetraborate were considered in terms of first-order Grüneisen approximation. Extended bond length analysis revealed significant modifications

A Senyshyn; H Boysen; R Niewa; J Banys; M Kinka; Ya Burak; V Adamiv; F Izumi; I Chumak; H Fuess

2012-01-01

389

Movement of liquid beryllium during melt events in JET with ITER-like wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ITER-like wall recently installed in JET comprises solid beryllium limiters and a combination of bulk tungsten and tungsten-coated carbon fibre composite divertor tiles without active cooling. During a beryllium power handling qualification experiment performed in limiter configuration with 5 MW neutral beam injection input power, accidental beryllium melt events, melt layer motion and splashing were observed locally on a few beryllium limiters in the plasma contact areas. The Lorentz force is responsible for the observed melt layer movement. To move liquid beryllium against the gravity force, the current flowing from the plasma perpendicularly to the limiter surface must be higher than 6 kA m-2. The thermo-emission current at the melting point of beryllium is much lower. The upward motion of the liquid beryllium against gravity can be due to a combination of the Lorentz force from the secondary electron emission and plasma pressure force.

Sergienko, G.; Arnoux, G.; Devaux, S.; Matthews, G. F.; Nunes, I.; Riccardo, V.; Sirinelli, A.; Huber, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Coenen, J. W.; Mertens, Ph; Philipps, V.; Samm, U.; EFDA contributors, JET

2014-04-01

390

Boron doped nanostructured diamond films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chemical vapor deposition hydrogen/methane/nitrogen feed-gas mixture with unconventionally high methane (15% CH4 by volume) normally used to grow ultra-hard and smooth nanostructured diamond films on Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrates was modified to include diborane B2H6 for boron-doping of diamond films. The flow rates for B2H 6 and N2 were varied to investigate their effect on plasma chemistry, film structure, boron incorporation, and mechanical properties. It was found that boron atoms can easily be incorporated into diamond films and change the lattice constant and film structure. Nitrogen, on the other hand, competes with boron in the plasma and acts to prevent boron incorporation into the diamond structure. In addition, with the appropriate choice of deposition conditions, the film structure can be tailored to range from highly crystalline, well faceted diamond to nanocrystalline diamond. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction and Micro-Raman were used as the main tools to investigate the relation between processing and structure. An optimal N2/CH4 ratio of 0.4 was found to result in a film with a minimum in grain size and surface roughness, along with high boron incorporation (˜4 x 1020 cm-3). Mechanical properties and thermal stability of boron doped nanostructured diamond films were examined by means of nanoindentation, open air thermal annealing, and nanotribometry. It was found that the films have high hardness close to that of undoped nanostructured diamond films. Thermal stability of these films was evaluated by heating in an oxygen environment above 700°C. Improved thermal stability of boron doped nanostructured diamond films was observed. Tribological tests show that although both undoped and boron doped nanostructured diamond films show extremely low coefficient of friction and wear rate as compared with uncoated titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V) and cobalt chrome alloy (Co-Cr-Mo), a critical failure max stress of 2.2 GPa was observed for boron doped nanostructured diamond films. A FORTRAN Chemical Kinetics Package for the Analysis of Gas Phase Chemical Kinetics, gas-phase thermodynamic equilibrium calculations involving H 2/CH4/N2/B2H6 mixtures was employed to investigate the chemical interactions leading to boron incorporation and crystalline structure variations. The strong influence of the BH 3 in causing the boron incorporation and the role of CN radical in causing the nanocrystallinity are confirmed by the correlation of their modeled compositions in the gas phase with boron content and degree of nanocrystallinity as determined experimentally. A good degree of agreement was obtained between the theoretically predicted gas phase concentration of species and the experimental concentration trends as measured by the optical emission spectroscopy of the microwave plasma. Overall, high film hardness and toughness, combined with good thermal stability and low surface roughness, indicate that nanostructured boron doped diamond films can be used as wear resistant coatings that are able to withstand high temperature oxidizing environments.

Liang, Qi

391

Boron11 MRI and MRS of intact animals infused with a boron neutron capture agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) depends on the delivery of boron-containing drugs to a targeted lesion. Currently, the verification and quantification of in vivo boron content is a difficult problem. Boron-11 spectroscopy was utilized to confirm the presence of a dimeric sulfhydryl dodecaborane BNCT agent contained in an intact animal. Spectroscopy experiments revealed that the decay time of transverse magnetization

George W. Kabalka; Mark Davis; Peter Bendel

1988-01-01

392

Solid-state lithium battery  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

2014-11-04

393

Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium

John B

1994-01-01

394

Risks of beryllium disease related to work processes at a metal, alloy, and oxide production plant.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To describe relative hazards in sectors of the beryllium industry, risk factors of beryllium disease and sensitisation related to work process were sought in a beryllium manufacturing plant producing pure metal, oxide, alloys, and ceramics. METHODS: All 646 active employees were interviewed; beryllium sensitisation was ascertained with the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation blood test on 627 employees; clinical evaluation and bronchoscopy were offered to people with abnormal test results; and industrial hygiene measurements related to work processes taken in 1984-93 were reviewed. RESULTS: 59 employees (9.4%) had abnormal blood tests, 47 of whom underwent bronchoscopy. 24 new cases of beryllium disease were identified, resulting in a beryllium disease prevalence of 4.6%, including five known cases (29/632). Employees who had worked in ceramics had the highest prevalence of beryllium disease (9.0%). Employees in the pebble plant (producing beryllium metal) who had been employed after 1983 also had increased risk, with a prevalence of beryllium disease of 6.4%, compared with 1.3% of other workers hired in the same period, and a prevalence of abnormal blood tests of 19.2%. Logistic regression modelling confirmed these two risk factors for beryllium disease related to work processes and the dependence on time of the risk at the pebble plant. The pebble plant was not associated with the highest gravimetric industrial hygiene measurements available since 1984. CONCLUSION: Further characterisation of exposures in beryllium metal production may be important to understanding how beryllium exposures confer high contemporary risk of beryllium disease. PMID:9326165

Kreiss, K; Mroz, M M; Zhen, B; Wiedemann, H; Barna, B

1997-01-01

395

Comparison of lithium and the eutectic lead lithium alloy, two candidate liquid metal breeder materials for self-cooled blankets  

SciTech Connect

The main advantages of liquid metal breeders Li or PbLi, compared to solid breeders are their higher thermal conductivity, the potential for tritium self sufficiency without beryllium neutron multiplier, the immunity to irradiation damage, and the possibility to extract tritium outside the blanket. The liquid metals can serve either as breeder only, cooled by helium or water, or as breeder and coolant at the same time, circulated relatively fast to the external heat exchanger for heat removal. Both liquid metal breeders can be used in helium cooled and in self-cooled blankets, but in water cooled blankets only the lead-lithium alloy is feasible for safety reasons. A comparison is made here in regard to neutronics, magneto-hydro-dynamics, compatibility with structural material, heat extraction system, tritium control, safety, and required R&D work.

Malang, S. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Mattas, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-12-31

396

TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

Klimenkov, M.; Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A.; Rolli, R.

2014-12-01

397

REACTOR CORE SURROUNDED BY BERYLLIUM MODERATOR. CAMERA LOOKS DOWN AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REACTOR CORE SURROUNDED BY BERYLLIUM MODERATOR. CAMERA LOOKS DOWN AND TOWARD NORTH INTO LOWER GRID CASTING. HOLES OF VARIOUS SIZES ACCOMMODATE COOLANT WATER AND EXPERIMENTAL POSITIONS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4197. Unknown Photographer, 2/11/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

398

Beryllium deposits of the western Seward Peninsula, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deposits of beryllium ore in the Lost River area of the western Seward Peninsula, Alaska, consist of replacement veins, pipes, and stringer lodes is limestone in a zone about 7 miles long and 2 to 3 miles wide which is faulted and intruded by dikes and stocks. The ores are remarkably alike and typically consist of the following minerals, in percent: fluorite, 45-65; diaspore, 5-10; tourmaline, 0-10; chrysoberyl, 3-10; white mica, 0-5; small amounts of hematite, sulfide minerals, manganese oxide, other beryllium minerals; and traces of minerals not yet identified. The ores generally are cut by late veinlets which are of the same mineralogy as the groundmass ore, or which consist of fluorite, white mica, and euclase. The ores are fine grained, and many of the individual mineral grains, except fluorite, are less than 1 mm in size. The beryllium content of bulk samples of ore ranges from 0.11 to 0.54 percent (0.31 to 1.50 percent BeO). High-grade nodules, composed principally of chrysoberyl, diaspore, fluorite, and mica, contain as much as 6 percent BeO. Geochemical reconnaissance has disclosed other areas of anomalous beryllium in stream sediments elsewhere on the Seward Peninsula, generally around biotite granites that have them associated with tin deposits; additional exploration probably will disclose other deposits.

Sainsbury, C.L.

1963-01-01

399

Subscale Beryllium Mirrors Demonstrator (SBMD) Program Summary and Ball Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SBMD Program was to design, fabricate, and test a 0.5-m beryllium lightweighted mirror applicable to space deployable systems with demanding optical and areal density requirements. This presentation summarizes the program's objectives and the mirror's tested technical performance along with lessons learned. In addition, test results are compared to modeling predictions. The SBMD Program was funded by NASA MSFC.

Kendrick, Stephen; Brown, Robert; Stahl, Philip (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

400

Electron densities derived from line intensity ratios: Beryllium isoelectronic sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct method for determining electron densities from emission line intensities of ions in the beryllium isoelectronic sequence is described and then applied to the analysis of extreme ultraviolet Ciii and Ov spectra from both quiet and active areas in the solar transition region. The results are consistent with a value of NeTe = 6 × 1014 cm-3K for the

Richard H. Munro; A. K. Dupree; George L. Withbroe

1971-01-01

401

DEVELOPMENT OF A MEVVA BASED BERYLLIUM7 PLASMA SOURCE  

E-print Network

DEVELOPMENT OF A MEVVA BASED BERYLLIUM­7 PLASMA SOURCE by David K. Olson A thesis submitted Dean College of Mathematics and Physical Sciences #12;ABSTRACT DEVELOPMENT OF A MEVVA BASED BERYLLIUM­7 source designs. Our pri- mary intent with this MeVVA­type source is to create a confinable beryllium-7 (7

Hart, Gus

402

Beryllium Wipe Sampling (differing methods - differing exposure potentials)  

SciTech Connect

This research compared three wipe sampling techniques currently used to test for beryllium contamination on room and equipment surfaces in Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling without a wetting agent, with water-moistened wipe materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Analysis indicated that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed about twice as much beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes, which removed about twice as much residue as dry wipes. Criteria at 10 CFR 850.30 and .31 were established on unspecified wipe sampling method(s). The results of this study reveal a need to identify criteria-setting method and equivalency factors. As facilities change wipe sampling methods among the three compared in this study, these results may be useful for approximate correlations. Accurate decontamination decision-making depends on the selection of appropriate wetting agents for the types of residues and surfaces. Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced removal efficiency such as methanol when surface contamination includes oil mist residue.

Kerr, Kent

2005-03-09

403

The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health  

PubMed Central

Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were tabulated. Years 2001–10 gave the greatest match (45.9%) for methodological parameters, followed by 27.71% for 1991–2000. Years 1971–80 and 1981–90 were not significantly different in the information published and available whereas years 1951–1960 showed a lack of suitable articles. Some articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its biological monitoring in the workplace essential. PMID:20386622

Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian P.

2009-01-01

404

Significant Improvement from Chronic Beryllium Disease Following Corticosteroid Pulse Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a rare disease characterized by diffuse interstitial pulmonary granulomatosis. We report a case of CBD which exhibited marked improvement both subjectively and objectively following pulse therapy. The patient was a 36-year-old man whose chief complaint was dyspnea and a dry cough. Since July 1990, the patient had been working in the development of an automatic

Kaoru NAGAOKA; Tsutomu YOSHIDA; Hiroki SAKAKIBARA; Hideki KURITA; Hiroshige TANIWAKI; Yuichiro ONO

2006-01-01

405

18. VIEW OF ENGINEERING CONTROLS USED IN THE BERYLLIUM SHOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. VIEW OF ENGINEERING CONTROLS USED IN THE BERYLLIUM SHOP TO REDUCE EMPLOYEE EXPOSURE. THE LATHE IS COVERED BY A HOOD WITH A SEPARATE AIR-HANDLING SYSTEM. PRECISION EQUIPMENT IS CONTROLLED DIGITALLY. (11/13/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

406

A NOVEL BIOMARKER FOR BERYLLIUM SENSITIZATION IN HUMANS  

EPA Science Inventory

This research project will determine the T-cell receptor (TCR) gene usages of beryllium reactive T-lymphocytes isolated directly from the peripheral blood of individuals exposed at a U.S. Department of Energy site. The objective is to develop a sensitive and novel biomarker for i...

407

Angiotensin1 Converting Enzyme Polymorphisms in Chronic Beryllium Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genotype is associated with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and disease severity, we studied 50 cases of CBD and compared their ACE genotype to that of two different control groups, consisting of: ( 1 ) 50 participants from a beryl- lium machining facility; and ( 2 ) 50 participants from a

LISA A. MAIER; MARY V. RAYNOLDS; DAVID A. YOUNG; ELIZABETH A. BARKER; LEE S. NEWMAN

1999-01-01

408

9. VIEW OF FOUNDRY FURNACE, DEPLETED URANIUM INGOTS, BERYLLIUM INGOTS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF FOUNDRY FURNACE, DEPLETED URANIUM INGOTS, BERYLLIUM INGOTS, AND ALUMINUM SHAPES WERE PRODUCED IN THE FOUNDRY. (10/30/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

409

Boronated porhyrins and methods for their use  

DOEpatents

The present invention covers boronated porphyrins containing multiple carborane cages which selectively accumulate in neoplastic tissue within the irradiation volume and thus can be used in cancer therapies such as boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy. 3 figs.

Miura, M.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Slatkin, D.N.

1999-03-02

410

Synthesis and photocurrent of amorphous boron nanowires.  

PubMed

Although theoretically feasible, synthesis of boron nanostructures is challenging due to the highly reactive nature, high melting and boiling points of boron. We have developed a thermal vapor transfer approach to synthesizing amorphous boron nanowire using a solid boron source. The amorphous nature and chemical composition of boron nanowires were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Optical properties and photoconduction of boron nanowires have not yet been reported. In our investigation, the amorphous boron nanowire showed much better optical and electrical properties than previously reported photo-response of crystalline boron nanobelts. When excited by a blue LED, the photo/dark current ratio (I/I?) is 1.5 and time constants in the order of tens of seconds. I/I? is 1.17 using a green light. PMID:25061013

Ge, Liehui; Lei, Sidong; Hart, Amelia H C; Gao, Guanhui; Jafry, Huma; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M

2014-08-22

411

Hanford Site Beryllium Program: Past, Present, and Future - 12428  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a long history of beryllium use because of the element's broad application to many nuclear operations and processes. At the Hanford Site beryllium alloy was used to fabricate parts for reactors, including fuel rods for the N-Reactor during plutonium production. Because of continued confirmed cases of chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and data suggesting CBD occurs at exposures to low-level concentrations, the DOE decided to issue a rule to further protect federal and contractor workers from hazards associated with exposure to beryllium. When the beryllium rule was issued in 1999, each of the Hanford Site contractors developed a Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) and initial site wide beryllium inventories. A new site-wide CBDPP, applicable to all Hanford contractors, was issued in May, 2009. In the spring of 2010 the DOE Headquarters Office of Health, Safety, and Security (HSS) conducted an independent inspection to evaluate the status of implementation of the Hanford Site Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP). The report identified four Findings and 12 cross-cutting Opportunities for Improvement (OFIs). A corrective action plan (CAP) was developed to address the Findings and crosscutting OFIs. The DOE directed affected site contractors to identify dedicated resources to participate in development of the CAP, along with involving stakeholders. The CAP included general and contractor-specific recommendations. Following initiation of actions to implement the approved CAP, it became apparent that additional definition of product deliverables was necessary to assure that expectations were adequately addressed and CAP actions could be closed. Consequently, a supplement to the original CAP was prepared and transmitted to DOE-HQ for approval. Development of the supplemental CAP was an eight month effort. From the onset a core group of CAP development members were identified to develop a mechanism for assuring that consensus was achieved on products developed as part of the CAP and the closure process. The original CAP was developed based on a large number of actions developed from the HSS report. This was essentially a 'bottoms up' approach. The revised CAP development team concluded that a more holistic, process-based approach was appropriate to assure that the resulting deliverable resulted in a best-in-class product. Consequently, issues and recommendations contained in the HSS report were grouped into 11 program areas, specific product deliverables were identified within each of the program areas, and a work breakdown structure (WBS) was logically applied to number the groupings. While the revised approach to product development utilizes a more holistic, 'top down' approach, the intent was still to incorporate specific recommendations and address specific issues contained in the HSS report. Through implementation of this new approach, a collaborative team has been established that works together using a consensus process for ensuring product completion. Benefits of the new approach include building a level of trust amongst all parties, quality of the products have improved, and acceptance by all parties of what action will truly meet the intent of the deficiency and make the beryllium program stronger. Open dialogue occurs amongst the core Be CAP team members, Hanford contractors, and DOE. It has been a learning process and will continue to be one, but everyone shares the common goal of reducing worker exposure to beryllium. (authors)

Fisher, Mark [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Garcia, Pete [U.S. Department of Energy - Richland Office, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Goeckner, Julie [U.S. Department of Energy - HQ, EMCBC, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202 (United States); Millikin, Emily [Washington Closure Hanford, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Stoner, Mike [Mission Support Alliance, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

2012-07-01

412

First-principles studies of complex hydrides for lithium-ion battery and hydrogen storage applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ density functional theory in a computational study of two energy storage systems. In the first, we explore the thermodynamic viability of light metal hydrides as a high capacity Li-ion battery negative electrode. Given a set of solid-state and gas-phase reactants, we have determined the phase diagram in the Li-Mg-B-N-H system in the grand canonical ensemble as a function of lithium electrochemical potential. We present computational results for several new conversion reactions with predicted capacities between 2400 and 4000 mAhg-1 that are thermodynamically favorable and that do not involve gas evolution. We provide experimental evidence for the reaction pathway on delithiation for the compound Li4BN3H10 and compare with our theoretical prediction. The maximum volume increase for these materials on lithium insertion is significantly smaller than that for Si, whose 400% expansion hinders its cyclability. In the second study, we attempt to gain understanding of recent experimental results of lithium borohydride nanoconfined in highly ordered nanoporous carbon. The carbon environment is modeled as a single sheet of graphene, and adsorption energies are calculated for nanoparticles of the constituent phases of LiBH 4 desorption processes (LiBH4, LiH, lithium and boron). We find good agreement with previous studies of a single lithium atom adsorbed onto graphene. We predict that infiltrated LiBH4 will decompose such that boron is trapped in carbon vacancies, and that the resulting boron doping is required to achieve negative wetting energies for the remaining LiBH4. Desorption enthalpies are found to increase with shrinking cluster sizes, suggesting that the observed lowering of desorption temperatures is a kinetic effect although interactions with the carbon surface itself are predicted to have an overall effect of decreasing the desorption enthalpy .

Mason, Timothy Hudson

413

Atmospheric corrosion of lithium electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric corrosion of lithium during lithium-cell assembly and the dry storage of cells prior to electrolyte fill has been found to initiate lithium corrosion pits and to form corrosion products. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate lithium pitting and the white floccullent corrosion products. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Auger spectroscopy in combination with X-ray diffraction were used to characterize lithium surfaces. Lithium surfaces with corrosion products were found to be high in carbonate content indicating the presence of lithium carbonate. Lithium electrodes dry stored in unfilled batteries were found to contain high concentration of lithium flouride a possible corrosion product from gaseous materials from the carbon monofluoride cathode. Future investigations of the corrosion phenomena will emphasize the effect of the corrosion products on the electrolyte and ultimate battery performance. The need to protect lithium electrodes from atmospheric exposure is commonly recognized to minimize corrosion induced by reaction with water, oxygen, carbon dioxide or nitrogen (1). Manufacturing facilities customarily limit the relative humidity to less than two percent. Electrodes that have been manufactured for use in lithium cells are typically stored in dry-argon containers. In spite of these precautions, lithium has been found to corrode over a long time period due to residual gases or slow diffusion of the same into storage containers. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the nature of the lithium corrosion.

Johnson, C.J.

1981-10-01

414

Unsuspected exposure to beryllium: potential implications for sarcoidosis diagnoses.  

PubMed

Exposure to Beryllium (Be) can cause sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in some individuals.  Even relatively low exposures may be sufficient to generate an asymptomatic, or in some cases a symptomatic, immune response. Since the clinical presentation of CBD is similar to that of sarcoidosis, it is helpful to have information on exposure to beryllium in order to reduce misdiagnosis. The purpose of this pilot study is to explore the occurrence of Be surface deposits at worksites with little or no previous reported use of commercially available Be products.  The workplaces chosen for this study represent a convenience sample of businesses in eastern Iowa. One hundred thirty-six surface dust samples were collected from 27 businesses for analysis of Be. The results were then divided into categories by the amount of detected Be according to U.S. Department of Energy guidelines as described in 10 CFR 850.30 and 10 CFR 850.31. Overall, at least one of the samples at 78% of the work sites tested contained deposited Be above the analytical limit of quantitation (0.035 µg beryllium per sample).  Beryllium was detected in 46% of the samples collected. Twelve percent of the samples exceeded 0.2 µg/100 cm² and 4% of the samples exceeded a Be concentration of 3 µg/100 cm². The findings from this study suggest that there may be a wider range and greater number of work environments that have the potential for Be exposure than has been documented previously.  These findings could have implications for the accurate diagnosis of sarcoidosis. PMID:25078645

Laczniak, Andrew N; Gross, Nathan A; Fuortes, Laurence J; Field, R William

2014-01-01

415

Mineral resource of the month: boron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What does boron have to do with baseball, apple pie, motherhood and Chevrolet? Boron minerals and chemicals are used in the tanning of leather baseballs and gloves; in micro-fertilizer to grow apples and in the glass and enamels of bakewares to cook apple pie; in boron detergents for soaking baby clothes and diapers; and in fiberglass parts for the Chevrolet Corvette.

Lyday, Phyllis A.

2005-01-01

416

Communications CVD Growth of Boron Nitride Nanotubes  

E-print Network

Communications CVD Growth of Boron Nitride Nanotubes Oleg R. Lourie, Carolyn R. Jones, Bart M to their all-carbon analogues, boron nitride nanotubes are predicted to exhibit electronic properties that are insensitive to tube diameter and chirality.9 Boron nitride nanotubes are known to have a wide band gap of 5 e

417

Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian

2014-01-01

418

Subporphyrinato Boron(III) Hydrides.  

PubMed

Subporphyrinato boron(III) hydrides were prepared by reduction of subporphyrinato boron(III) methoxides with diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAL-H) in good yields. The authenticity of the B-H bond has been unambiguously confirmed by a (1)H NMR signal that appears as a broad quartet at -2.27 ppm with a large coupling constant with the central (11)B, characteristic B-H infrared stretching frequencies, and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Red shifts in the corresponding absorption and fluorescence profiles are accounted for in terms of the electron-donating nature of the B-hydride. The hydridic character of subporphyrinato boron(III) hydrides has been demonstrated by the production of H2 via reaction with water or HCl, and controlled reductions of aromatic aldehydes and imines in the presence of a catalytic amount of Ph3C[B(C6F5)4]. PMID:25563966

Tsurumaki, Eiji; Sung, Jooyoung; Kim, Dongho; Osuka, Atsuhiro

2015-01-28

419

Beryllium detection in human lung tissue using electron probe X-ray microanalysis.  

PubMed

Chronic berylliosis is an uncommon disease that is caused by the inhalation of beryllium particles, dust, or fumes. The distinction between chronic berylliosis and sarcoidosis can be difficult both clinically and histologically, as both entities can have similar presentations and exhibit nonnecrotizing granulomatous inflammation of the lungs. The diagnosis of chronic berylliosis relies on a history of exposure to beryllium, roentgenographic evidence of diffuse nodular disease, and demonstration of beryllium hypersensitivity by ancillary studies, such as lymphocyte proliferation testing. Additional support may be gained by the demonstration of beryllium in lung tissue. Unlike other exogenous particulates, such as asbestos, detection of beryllium in human lung tissue is problematic. The low atomic number of beryllium usually makes it unsuitable for conventional microprobe analysis. We describe a case of chronic berylliosis in which beryllium was detected in lung tissue using atmospheric thin-window energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (ATW EDXA). A woman with a history of occupational exposure to beryllium at a nuclear weapons testing facility presented with progressive cough and dyspnea and a nodular pattern on chest roentgenograph. Open lung biopsy showed nonnecrotizing granulomatous inflammation that was histologically indistinguishable from sarcoidosis. Scanning electron microscopy and ATW EDXA demonstrated particulates containing beryllium within the granulomas. This application of EDXA offers significant advantages over existing methods of beryllium detection in that it is nondestructive, more widely available, and can be performed using routine paraffin sections. PMID:14614058

Butnor, Kelly J; Sporn, Thomas A; Ingram, Peter; Gunasegaram, Sue; Pinto, John F; Roggli, Victor L

2003-11-01

420

Chronic beryllium disease and cancer risk estimates with uncertainty for beryllium released to the air from the Rocky Flats Plant.  

PubMed Central

Beryllium was released into the air from routine operations and three accidental fires at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado from 1958 to 1989. We evaluated environmental monitoring data and developed estimates of airborne concentrations and their uncertainties and calculated lifetime cancer risks and risks of chronic beryllium disease to hypothetical receptors. This article discusses exposure-response relationships for lung cancer and chronic beryllium disease. We assigned a distribution to cancer slope factor values based on the relative risk estimates from an occupational epidemiologic study used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine the slope factors. We used the regional atmospheric transport code for Hanford emission tracking atmospheric transport model for exposure calculations because it is particularly well suited for long-term annual-average dispersion estimates and it incorporates spatially varying meteorologic and environmental parameters. We accounted for model prediction uncertainty by using several multiplicative stochastic correction factors that accounted for uncertainty in the dispersion estimate, the meteorology, deposition, and plume depletion. We used Monte Carlo techniques to propagate model prediction uncertainty through to the final risk calculations. We developed nine exposure scenarios of hypothetical but typical residents of the RFP area to consider the lifestyle, time spent outdoors, location, age, and sex of people who may have been exposed. We determined geometric mean incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk estimates for beryllium inhalation for each scenario. The risk estimates were < 10(-6). Predicted air concentrations were well below the current reference concentration derived by the EPA for beryllium sensitization. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10464074

McGavran, P D; Rood, A S; Till, J E

1999-01-01

421

High-flux neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target  

SciTech Connect

A prototype compact Liquid Lithium Target (LiLiT), able to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source, was built. The neutron source is intended for nuclear astrophysical research, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in hospitals and material studies for fusion reactors. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear research Center (SNRC). The lithium target will produce neutrons through the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated by a high-intensity proton beam, necessary for intense neutron flux for the above applications. The liquid-lithium loop of LiLiT is designed to generate a stable lithium jet at high velocity on a concave supporting wall with free surface toward the incident proton beam (up to 10 kW). During off-line tests, liquid lithium was flown through the loop and generated a stable jet at velocity higher than 5 m/s on the concave supporting wall. The target is now under extensive test program using a high-power electron-gun. Up to 2 kW electron beam was applied on the lithium flow at velocity of 4 m/s without any flow instabilities or excessive evaporation. High-intensity proton beam irradiation will take place at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator currently in commissioning at SNRC.

Halfon, S. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel) and Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Feinberg, G. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel) and Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Arenshtam, A.; Berkovits, D.; Kijel, D.; Nagler, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Silverman, I. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel)

2013-04-19

422

High-flux neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype compact Liquid Lithium Target (LiLiT), able to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source, was built. The neutron source is intended for nuclear astrophysical research, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in hospitals and material studies for fusion reactors. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear research Center (SNRC). The lithium target will produce neutrons through the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated by a high-intensity proton beam, necessary for intense neutron flux for the above applications. The liquid-lithium loop of LiLiT is designed to generate a stable lithium jet at high velocity on a concave supporting wall with free surface toward the incident proton beam (up to 10 kW). During off-line tests, liquid lithium was flown through the loop and generated a stable jet at velocity higher than 5 m/s on the concave supporting wall. The target is now under extensive test program using a high-power electron-gun. Up to 2 kW electron beam was applied on the lithium flow at velocity of 4 m/s without any flow instabilities or excessive evaporation. High-intensity proton beam irradiation will take place at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator currently in commissioning at SNRC.

Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G.; Paul, M.; Arenshtam, A.; Berkovits, D.; Kijel, D.; Nagler, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Silverman, I.

2013-04-01

423

Thermal conductivity of boron carbides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knowledge of the thermal conductivity of boron carbide is necessary to evaluate its potential for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion applications. Measurements have been conducted of the thermal diffusivity of hot-pressed boron carbide BxC samples as a function of composition (x in the range from 4 to 9), temperature (300-1700 K), and temperature cycling. These data, in concert with density and specific-heat data, yield the thermal conductivities of these materials. The results are discussed in terms of a structural model that has been previously advanced to explain the electronic transport data. Some novel mechanisms for thermal conduction are briefly discussed.

Wood, C.; Emin, D.; Gray, P. E.

1985-01-01

424

Synthesis, characterization and spectroscopic studies of some boron-containing hydrogen storage materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation the synthesis and characterization of boron-related nanostructures and dehydrogenation studies of metal borohydrides using FTIR are reported. Boron-related nanostructures are of interest because of their potential applications in nanoelectronics and in hydrogen storage. A low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) apparatus was built in order to grow boron nanostructures. Various techniques, namely, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the synthesized boron and boride nanostructures, and boron coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs). By the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of diborane, at relatively low temperature, crystalline boron nanoribbons were synthesized. Nickel-catalyzed growth also produced Ca, Sr and Y boride nanowires that were found to be crystalline. Amorphous boron coated CNTs were synthesized by LPCVD. Two growth mechanisms, vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) and vapor-solid (VS) were invoked to explain the observed nanostructures. A high vacuum apparatus for FTIR studies was built. The capabilities of the apparatus were first tested by acquiring low temperature and room temperature spectra of sodium and lithium borohydrides. The metal borohydrides are of high hydrogen content and dehydrogenation studies using FTIR were done. NaBH 4 and the K2B12H12 salt were studied. It was found that above its melting point (673 K), NaBH4 is probably converted to its B12H12-2 salt, which then loses all hydrogen to produce amorphous boron. This conversion of B 12H12-2 to boron clusters was confirmed through dehydrogenation studies of K2B12H12. Both SIMS and AES are surface sensitive techniques to study thin film surfaces and interfaces at nano-dimentions. Thin (9-10 mum) cadmium telluride films have application as the buffer layer on silicon substrates to form high quality mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) films. MCT films find applications in IR detectors and in photovoltaic cells. Due to the lattice mismatch it is necessary to grow CdTe films on a monolayer of arsenic and 20 nm thick ZnTe on silicon. The purpose of this study was to show the capabilities of the Scanning Auger Multiprobe PHI 600 in the qualitative analysis of CdTe, ZnTe and As films on Si and of an MCT film surface, which was grown on CdZnTe.

Jash, Panchatapa

425

DOES SALINITY REDUCE BORON’S TOXIC EFFECT IN BROCCOLI?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High salinity and boron often occur together in irrigation water in arid climates, but very little research has been done to study the interaction of the two. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the U.S. Salinity Laboratory in sand tanks to evaluate the interactions between B and saline draina...

426

Symmetry in Nature Applications of Symmetry  

E-print Network

carbon C calcium Ca uranium U nitrogen N iron Fe chromium Cr oxygen O copper Cu lithium Li fluorine F S platinum Pt lithium Li chlorine Cl mercury Hg beryllium Be argon Ar lead Pb boron B potassium K iodine I

427

Reversibility of anodic lithium in rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.  

PubMed

Non-aqueous lithium-air batteries represent the next-generation energy storage devices with very high theoretical capacity. The benefit of lithium-air batteries is based on the assumption that the anodic lithium is completely reversible during the discharge-charge process. Here we report our investigation on the reversibility of the anodic lithium inside of an operating lithium-air battery using spatially and temporally resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction and three-dimensional micro-tomography technique. A combined electrochemical process is found, consisting of a partial recovery of lithium metal during the charging cycle and a constant accumulation of lithium hydroxide under both charging and discharging conditions. A lithium hydroxide layer forms on the anode separating the lithium metal from the separator. However, numerous microscopic 'tunnels' are also found within the hydroxide layer that provide a pathway to connect the metallic lithium with the electrolyte, enabling sustained ion-transport and battery operation until the total consumption of lithium. PMID:23929396

Shui, Jiang-Lan; Okasinski, John S; Kenesei, Peter; Dobbs, Howard A; Zhao, Dan; Almer, Jonathan D; Liu, Di-Jia

2013-01-01

428

Modeling of beryllium deposition from a beryllium-seeded deuterium plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with modeling the formation of beryllium (Be) layers deposited from a Be-seeded deuterium (D) plasma. In recent experiments at the PISCES-B divertor simulator [Y. Hirooka et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 1790 (1990)] at UC-San Diego, C targets biased at -50V were exposed to a Be-seeded D plasma in the temperature range from 500to1280K and Be plasma concentrations in the range from 0.01% to 0.4%. It was found in [K. Schmid, M. Baldwin, R. Doetner, and A. Wiltner, Nucl. Fusion 44, 815 (2004)] that even at these low Be concentrations the C samples become covered with a shielding Be layer which almost eliminates chemical and physical erosions of the C sample in the observed target temperature range. Three different approaches were used to model these experimental results: the well-established binary collision Monte Carlo code TRIDYN [W. Möller, W. E. Und, and J. P. Biersack, Comput. Phys. Commun. 51, 355 (1988)], the recently developed plasma surface interaction code GWAR, and analytical expressions were compared. The paper explains the details of the developed models and how their results compare to the experiment.

Schmid, K.; Baldwin, M.; Doerner, R.

2005-03-01

429

Early clinical experience of boron neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma multiforme  

SciTech Connect

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality that can selectively irradiate tumor tissue. BNCT uses drugs containing a stable isotope of boron. {sup 10}B, to sensitize tumor cells to irradiation by low energy (thermal) neutrons. The interaction of the {sup 10}B with a thermal neutron (neutron capture) causes the {sup 10}B nucleus to split, releasing an alpha particle and a lithium nucleus. These products of the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction are very damaging to cells but have a combined path length in tissue of approximately 14 {mu}m, or roughly the diameter of one or two cells. Thus, most of the ionizing energy imparted to tissue is localized to {sup 10}B-loaded cells.

Joel, D.D.; Bergland, R.; Capala, J. [and others

1995-12-31

430

Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries  

E-print Network

Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium** Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA Lithium cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate

Cui, Yi

431

Phenomenological theory of a single domain wall in uniaxial trigonal ferroelectrics: Lithium niobate and lithium tantalate  

E-print Network

Phenomenological theory of a single domain wall in uniaxial trigonal ferroelectrics: Lithium niobate and lithium tantalate David A. Scrymgeour and Venkatraman Gopalan Department of Materials Science, lithium niobate and lithium tantalate. The contributions to the domain- wall energy from polarization

Gopalan, Venkatraman

432

DISSOLUTION OF FB-LINE METAL RESIDUES CONTAINING BERYLLIUM IN H-CANYON  

SciTech Connect

Scrap materials containing plutonium (Pu) metal from FB-Line vaults are currently being dissolved in HB-Line for subsequent disposition through the H-Canyon facility. However, milestone and schedule commitments may require the dissolution of material containing Pu and beryllium (Be) metals in H-Canyon. To support this option, a flowsheet for dissolving Pu and Be metals in H-Canyon was demonstrated using a 4 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution containing 0.3 M fluoride (F{sup -}). The F{sup -} was added as calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}). The dissolving solution also contained 2.5 g/L boron (B), a nuclear safety contingency for the H-Canyon dissolver, and 3.9 g/L iron (Fe) to represent the dissolution of carbon steel cans. The solution was heated to 90-95 C during the 8 h dissolution cycle. Dissolution of the Be metal appeared to begin as soon as the samples were added to the dissolver. Clear, colorless bubbles generated on the surface were observed and were attributed primarily to the generation of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas. The generation of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) gas was also evident from the color of the solution. Essentially all of the Pu and Be dissolved during the first hour of the dissolution as the solution was heated to 90-95 C. The amount of residual solids collected following the dissolution was < 2% of the total metal charged to the dissolver. Examination of residual solids by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the largest dimension of the particles was less than 50 {micro}m with particles of smaller dimensions being more abundant. Energy dispersive spectra from spots on some of the particles showed the solids consisted of a small amount of undissolved material, corrosion products from the glassware, and dried salts from the dissolving solution.

Rudisill, T; Mark Crowder, M; Michael Bronikowski, M

2005-07-15

433

Lithium Dinitramide as an Additive in Lithium Power Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium dinitramide, LiN(NO2)2 has shown promise as an additive to nonaqueous electrolytes in rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion-based electrochemical power cells. Such non-aqueous electrolytes consist of lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of organic ethers, esters, carbonates, or acetals. The benefits of adding lithium dinitramide (which is also a lithium salt) include lower irreversible loss of capacity on the first charge/discharge cycle, higher cycle life, lower self-discharge, greater flexibility in selection of electrolyte solvents, and greater charge capacity. The need for a suitable electrolyte additive arises as follows: The metallic lithium in the anode of a lithium-ion-based power cell is so highly reactive that in addition to the desired main electrochemical reaction, it engages in side reactions that cause formation of resistive films and dendrites, which degrade performance as quantified in terms of charge capacity, cycle life, shelf life, first-cycle irreversible capacity loss, specific power, and specific energy. The incidence of side reactions can be reduced through the formation of a solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) a thin film that prevents direct contact between the lithium anode material and the electrolyte. Ideally, an SEI should chemically protect the anode and the electrolyte from each other while exhibiting high conductivity for lithium ions and little or no conductivity for electrons. A suitable additive can act as an SEI promoter. Heretofore, most SEI promotion was thought to derive from organic molecules in electrolyte solutions. In contrast, lithium dinitramide is inorganic. Dinitramide compounds are known as oxidizers in rocket-fuel chemistry and until now, were not known as SEI promoters in battery chemistry. Although the exact reason for the improvement afforded by the addition of lithium dinitramide is not clear, it has been hypothesized that lithium dinitramide competes with other electrolyte constituents to react with lithium on the surface of the anode to form a beneficial SEI. Apparently, nitrides and oxides that result from reduction of lithium dinitramide on the anode produce a thin, robust SEI different from the SEIs formed from organic SEI promoters. The SEI formed from lithium dinitramide is more electronically insulating than is the film formed in the presence of an otherwise identical electrolyte that does not include lithium dinitramide. SEI promotion with lithium dinitramide is useful in batteries with metallic lithium and lithium alloy anodes.

Gorkovenko, Alexander A.

2007-01-01

434

A preliminary assessment of beryllium dust oxidation during a wet bypass accident in a fusion reactor  

SciTech Connect

A beryllium dust oxidation model has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by the Fusion Safety Program (FSP) for the MELCOR safety computer code. The purpose of this model is to investigate hydrogen production from beryllium dust layers on hot surfaces inside a fusion reactor vacuum vessel (VV) during in-vessel loss-of-cooling accidents (LOCAs). This beryllium dust oxidation model accounts for the diffusion of steam into a beryllium dust layer, the oxidation of the dust particles inside this layer based on the beryllium-steam oxidation equations developed at the INL, and the effective thermal conductivity of this beryllium dust layer. This paper details this oxidation model and presents the results of the application of this model to a wet bypass accident scenario in the ITER device.

Brad J. Merrill; Richard L. Moore; J. Phillip Sharp

2008-09-01

435

Method of separating boron isotopes  

DOEpatents

A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)-dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily by achieved with CO/sub 2/ laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl/sub 3/.

Jensen, R.J.; Thorne, J.M.; Cluff, C.L.

1981-01-23

436

Method of separating boron isotopes  

DOEpatents

A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily be achieved with CO.sub.2 laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl.sub.3.

Jensen, Reed J. (Los Alamos, NM); Thorne, James M. (Provo, UT); Cluff, Coran L. (Provo, UT); Hayes, John K. (Salt Lake City, UT)

1984-01-01

437

Structure of boron nitride nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystallographic structure of boron nitride nanotubes has been investigated. Various defects that may arise during nanotube synthesis are revealed by electron microscopy. Nanotubes with different numbers of walls and different diameters are modeled by molecular dynamics methods. Structural features of single-wall nanotubes are demonstrated. The causes of certain defects in multiwall nanotubes are indicated.

Buranova, Yu. S.; Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Perezhogin, I. A.; Blank, V. D.

2015-01-01

438

A new target concept for proton accelerator driven boron neutron capture therapy applications  

SciTech Connect

A new target concept termed Discs Incorporating Sector Configured Orbiting Sources (DISCOS), is proposed for spallation applications, including BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). In the BNCT application a proton beam impacts a sequence of ultra thin lithium DISCOS targets to generate neutrons by the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. The proton beam loses only a few keV of its {approximately}MeV energy as it passes through a given target, and is re-accelerated to its initial energy, by a DC electric field between the targets.

Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Reich, M.

1998-11-01

439

[Undesirable skin reactions to lithium].  

PubMed

Lithium plays an important role in the treatment and prophylaxis of affective psychoses. Taking lithium-containing drugs by mouth can cause side effects on the skin, although severe side effects are rare. Acneiform dermatoses have been most frequently described. In addition, when taking lithium continuously, psoriasis can be triggered or worsened and the psoriasis tends to be resistant to treatment. Maculo papular eruptions, ulcers, keratosis pilaris like folliculitis, exfoliative dermatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis like eruption, and hair loss have been described. Possibly the blood level of lithium plays a decisive role in developing a dermatosis. If the skin side effect is mild, the dermatosis should be treated topically. If the dermatoses under lithium treatment are severe, a reduction in the lithium dosage should possibly be discussed with the psychiatrist. Only rarely does lithium have to be entirely discontinued. PMID:3157663

Albrecht, G

1985-02-01

440

Radiation dosimetry of a graphite moderated radium-beryllium source.  

PubMed

The Brookhaven National Laboratory Sigma Pile is a radium-beryllium neutron source imbedded in a cube of graphite blocks. The pile is approximately 2.13 m on four sides and is 3.07 m high. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to determine the neutron and gamma-ray dose rates in the pile. Gamma-ray dose rate measurements have also been made in the air outside of the pile, while the radium-beryllium neutron source was being withdrawn from the pile. The Monte Carlo code has been used to calculate the coupled neutron-photon transport. Measured dose rates at various locations agreed with the calculated values within 5% to 15%. PMID:15069300

Holden, Norman E; Reciniello, Richard N; Hu, Jih-Perng

2004-05-01

441

Transient Diffusion of Beryllium and Silicon in Gallium Arsenide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient diffusion is an increasingly important phenomenon as thermal budgets for real processes decrease and diffusion during sample growth becomes more important. To fully characterize dopant diffusion in gallium arsenide, an understanding must be developed of the dominant atomistic processes for a given dopant, as well as the sources of transient effects under a given set of experimental conditions. Theoretical, experimental, and simulation results were obtained to understand transient diffusivities of beryllium and silicon in grown-in and implanted samples. In implanted samples, by understanding implant damage and modeling the evolution of point defect populations, the observed transient effects can be explained. Such phenomena cannot account for the time-dependent diffusivity observed when the dopant is introduced during molecular beam epitaxial growth. Transient diffusivities for grown-in beryllium were investigated and explained by modeling the evolution of point defect populations as they increase beyond their equilibrium levels at the growth temperature to achieve equilibrium at the anneal temperature.

Haddara, Yaser M.; Bravman, John C.

1998-08-01

442

Beryllium reflected cavity reactor for UF6 critical experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments and theoretical studies are being conducted for NASA on critical assemblies with one-meter diam by one-meter long low-density cores surrounded by a thick beryllium reflector. These assemblies make extensive use of existing nuclear propulsion reactor components, facilities, and instrumentation. Due to excessive porosity in the reflector, the initial critical mass was 19 kg U(93.2). Addition of a 17-cm-thick by 89-cm-diam beryllium flux trap in the cavity reduced the critical mass to 7 kg when all the uranium was in the zone just outside the flux trap. A mockup aluminum UF6 container was placed inside the flux trap and fueled with uranium-graphite elements. Fission distributions and reactivity worths of fuel and structural materials are available. These results will be used to guide the design of a prototype plasma core reactor which will test energy removal by optical radiation.

Jarvis, G. A.; Bernard, W.; Helmick, H. H.; White, R.

1975-01-01

443

A joint fracture toughness evaluation of hot-pressed beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fracture toughness tests at room temperature were made on three-point bend specimens cut from hot-pressed beryllium obtained from two suppliers. The test specimens had dimensions conforming to ASTM fracture toughness standard E399-72. A total of 42 specimens were machined from each batch of material. Six specimens from each batch were then distributed to seven independent laboratories for testing. The test data from the laboratories were collected and analyzed for differences between the laboratories and the two batches of material. It is concluded that ASTM 399-72 can be used as a valid test procedure for determining the fracture toughness of beryllium, providing that Kf(max) in fatigue cracking could be up to 80 percent of the K(0) value.

Conrad, H.; Sargent, G. A.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

1977-01-01

444

Purfication kinetics of beryllium during vacuum induction melting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The kinetics of evaporation in binary alloys were quantitatively treated. The formalism so developed works well for several systems studied. The kinetics of purification of beryllium was studied through evaporation data actually acquired during vacuum induction melting. Normal evaporation equations are shown to be generally valid and useful for understanding the kinetics of beryllium purification. The normal evaporation analysis has been extended to cover cases of limited liquid diffusion. It was shown that under steady-state evaporation, the solute concentration near the surface may be up to six orders of magnitude different from the bulk concentration. Corrections for limited liquid diffusion are definitely needed for the highly evaporative solute elements, such as Zn, Mg, and Na, for which the computed evaporation times are improved by five orders of magnitude. The commonly observed logarithmic relation between evaporation time and final concentration further supports the validity of the normal evaporation equations.

Mukherjee, J. L.; Gupta, K. P.; Li, C. H.

1972-01-01

445

Beryllium dimer: a bond based on non-dynamical correlation.  

PubMed

The bond nature in beryllium dimer has been theoretically investigated using high-level ab initio methods. A series of ANO basis sets of increasing quality, going from sp to spdf ghi contractions, has been employed, combined with HF, CAS-SCF, CISD, and MRCI calculations with several different active spaces. The quality of these calculations has been checked by comparing the results with valence Full-CI calculations, performed with the same basis sets. It is shown that two quasi-degenerated partly occupied orbitals play a crucial role to give a qualitatively correct description of the bond. Their nature is similar to that of the edge orbitals that give rise to the quasi-degenerated singlet-triplet states in longer beryllium chains. PMID:24866399

El Khatib, Muammar; Bendazzoli, Gian Luigi; Evangelisti, Stefano; Helal, Wissam; Leininger, Thierry; Tenti, Lorenzo; Angeli, Celestino

2014-08-21

446

JWST: Tinsley achievements on the largest beryllium polishing project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polished 1.5m bare beryllium, off-axis aspheric mirror segments, constituting the cryogenic primary mirror of NASA's ambitious Flagship Mission, James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), have been successfully completed at L-3 Communications -Tinsley. Tinsley has finished the secondary, tertiary, fine steering and spare mirrors as well. We will describe both the end results, where it was demonstrated that visible quality mirror results can be achieved on large extremely lightweighted compliant off-axis mirrors, and the steps taken at Tinsley to achieve these results. Over 26 square-meters of bare beryllium were optically processed twice, first for room temperature figure, then for the cryo-null figure for the cryogenic differences.

Daniel, Jay; Hull, Tony; Barentine, John B.

2012-09-01

447

Elastic scattering of Beryllium isotopes near the Coulomb barrier  

SciTech Connect

In this contribution, results of experiments performed with the three Beryllium isotopes {sup 9,10,11}Be on a medium mass {sup 64}Zn target, at a center of mass energy of {approx_equal}1.4 the Coulomb barrier, will be discussed. Elastic scattering angular distributions have been measured for the {sup 9,10}Be reactions. In the {sup 11}Be case the quasielastic scattering angular distribution was obtained. In the halo nucleus case, the angular distribution exhibit a non-Fresnel-type pattern with a strong damping of the Coulomb-nuclear interference peak. Moreover, it is found that the total reaction cross-section for the halo nucleus induced collision is more than double the ones extracted in the collisions induced by the non-halo Beryllium isotopes. A large contribution to the total-reaction cross-section in the {sup 11}Be case could be attributed to transfer and/or break-up events.

Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Amorini, F.; Fisichella, M.; Lattuada, M.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Randisi, G.; Rizzo, F.; Santonocito, D.; Scalia, G.; Scuderi, V.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Papa, M. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Acosta, L.; Martel, I.; Perez-Bernal, F. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada Universidad de Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Borge, M. J. G.; Tengblad, O. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

2011-10-28

448

A NEAR REAL-TIME BERYLLIUM MONITOR WITH CAM AND WIPE ANALYSIS CAPABILITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science & Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), under contract No. DE-AC26-00NT40768, was tasked by the US Department of Energy--National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop and test a near real-time beryllium monitor for airborne and surface measurements. Recent public awareness of the health risks associated with exposure to beryllium has underscored the need for better, faster beryllium monitoring capabilities within the DOE.

D. T. Kendrick; Steven Saggese

2002-01-01

449

HLA-DPB1 Glutamate 69: A Genetic Marker of Beryllium Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a lung disorder related to beryllium exposure and is characterized by the accumulation in the lung of beryllium-specific CD4^+ major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted T lymphocytes. Evaluation of MHC class II genes in 33 CBD cases and 44 controls has shown a negative association with HLA-DPB1*0401 (P < 0.001) and a positive association with

Luca Richeldi; Rosa Sorrentino; Cesare Saltini

1993-01-01

450

Determination of beryllium in ores and rocks by a dilution-fluorometric method with morin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beryllium in concentrations as little as a few parts per million is determined fluorometrically with morin in low grade ores by a dilution method without separations. A high sensitivity is obtained by the adoption of instrumental and reaction conditions that give a satisfactory ratio of beryllium to blank fluorescence and at the same time minimize iron interference. Data on the behavior of 47 ions are given. The method is applied to ores containing bertrandite and beryl as the beryllium minerals.

May, R.; Grimaldi, F.S.

1961-01-01

451

Boron nitride: Composition, optical properties and mechanical behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low energy ion beam deposition technique was used to grow boron nitride films on quartz, germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide, and indium phosphate. The film structure was amorphous with evidence of a hexagonal phase. The peak boron concentration was 82 at %. The carbon and oxygen impurities were in the 5 to 8 at % range. Boron-nitrogen and boron-boron bonds

John J. Pouch; Samuel A. Alterovitz; Kazuhisa Miyoshi; Joseph D. Warner

1987-01-01

452

Wall Temperature Dependence of Boronization Using Decaborane and Diborane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new boronization technique based on pyrolysis of boron hydrides on hot walls was investigated in a laboratory experiment. The deposition rate of boron films through pyrolysis of decaborane was high enough to apply the pyrolysis to actual fusion devices bakable to 300°C. The hydrogen concentration of boron films prepared by the pyrolysis or conventional plasma-assisted boronization at various temperatures

Masashi Yamage; Takeshi Ejima; Masahiro Saidoh; Norio Ogiwara; Hideo Sugai

1993-01-01

453

Boron stimulates embryonic trout growth.  

PubMed

Boron is present in our soil, water and air. Cyanobacteria require it for nitrogen fixation, and vascular plants require it for the formation of cell walls and membranes. I report here how boron affects the growth of embryonic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fertilized ovum from the Mt. Whitney rainbow trout strain were incubated at (12.5 degreesC) in Type 1 ASTM ultrapure grade water supplemented with boric acid (99.5% purity) during the 1995 and 1997 spawning seasons. Boron concentrations of the incubation solutions were determined by direct measurement using the curcumin procedure or inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In the 1995 study boron ranged from 1 to 936 micromol/L. Ca, Na and Mg salts were included in the incubation solutions to approximate concentrations in natural water. In the 1997 study fertilized eggs were incubated in ultrapure water supplemented with boric acid alone over a range from 2.2 to 90.6 micromol/L. The 1995 study used 144 embryos per B concentration and the 1997 study used 96 embryos per B concentration. Growth and teratogenicity were evaluated at the eye, hatch and 2-wk posthatch developmental stages. Boron stimulated growth in a dose-dependent manner in both studies (P < 0.001), and exposure was associated with an increase in B body concentration (P < 0.05). No teratogenic or microbicidal effects were apparent. These results are consistent with those expected of an element essential for vertebrate development. J. Nutr. 2488-2493, 128: 1998 PMID:9868197

Eckhert, C D

1998-12-01

454

Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. The maximum values typically occur in the removable reflector and close to the midplane.

Ilas, Dan [ORNL

2013-10-01

455

Aging of beryllium bronze under programmed loading conditions  

SciTech Connect

Results are provided from a study of different aging methods for beryllium bronze BrBNT1.9Mg under tensile stress conditions created by an applied load. Aging, both in the original hardened condition and after low-temperature treatment, is found to lead to an increase in yield strength and elastic limit. Ultimate breaking strength, hardness, and ductility do not change. An increase in deformation resistance after aging is connected with oriented precipitation of gamma-phase particles.

Duraev, P.P.; Kaplun, Yu.A.

1987-07-01

456

The INEL beryllium multiplication experiment: Annual report, FY88  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities during FY88 were devoted to the preparations for the performance of an experiment to measure the multiplication of 14-MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium. A Kaman Model A-1254 Neutron Generator was obtained as excess property from Sandia National Laboratory, refurbished, and installed at the INEL manganese bath. The necessary electronic equipment was procured, control and signal lines were run in

J. R. Smith; J. J. King

1988-01-01

457

Cleaning and activation of beryllium-copper electron multiplier dynodes.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of a cleaning and activation procedure followed in preparing beryllium-copper dynodes for electron multipliers used in sounding-rocket experiments to detect auroral electrons. The initial degreasing step involved a 5-min bath in trichloroethylene in an ultrasonic cleaner. This was followed by an ultrasonic rinse in methanol and by a two-step acid pickling treatment to remove the oxides. Additional rinsing in water and methanol was followed by activation in a stainless-steel RF induction oven.

Pongratz, M. B.

1972-01-01

458

Beryllium systematics in young volcanic rocks: implications for 10Be  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium is an incompatible trace element that closely parallels neodymium in its geochemical behavior. Be analyses conducted on well-characterized oceanic and arc volcanic rock suites, as well as on marine sediments, suggest a bulk solid\\/liquid distribution coefficient of 0.03–0.06 for melting of the mantle and crystallization of basalts. The Be\\/Nd ratio for many volcanic rocks from diverse tectonic environments is

Jeffrey G Ryan; C. H. Langmuir

1988-01-01

459

Ionic Thermocurrents in Alkali Halide Crystals Containing Substitutional Beryllium Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric relaxations of NaCl and KCl single crystals containing beryllium ions have been studied using the technique of the ionic thermocurrents (ITC) in the range of temperatures between 1.2 and 300°K. The ITC spectra are characterized by three types of relaxations in both host crystals. The analysis of such relaxations and the observed temperature dependence of their relaxation times

Cesare Bucci

1967-01-01

460

Fracture in hexagonal closed packed metals, zinc and beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that fracture in zinc and beryllium is nucleation controlled and is independent of the nature of the barrier from which fracture nucleates. The double cantilever cleavage technique was used to determine the energy required to propagate a crack on the basal plane (0001) in single crystals. Tensile fracture data from single and asymmetric bicrystals were used to calculate the energy needed to initiate a cleavage crack on the (0001) plane.

Kamdar, M. H.

1973-01-01

461

The dynamic compressive behavior of beryllium bearing bulk metallic glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1993, a new beryllium bearing bulk metallic glass with the nominal composition of Zr{sub 41.25}Ti{sub 13.75}Cu{sub 12.5}NiBe{sub 22.5} was discovered at Caltech. This metallic glass can be cast as cylindrical rods as large as 16 mm in diameter, which permitted specimens to be fabricated with geometries suitable for dynamic testing. For the first time, the dynamic compressive yield behavior

H. A. Bruck; A. J. Rosakis; W. L. Johnson

1996-01-01

462

Some frequency and damping measuements of laminated beryllium beams  

SciTech Connect

A quantum leap in vibration performance of beryllium structure has been experimentally investigated. Laminations, segmentation, and sandwich syntactic foam core have been demonstrated to have both high specific flexural structural stiffness and high damping for reduced vibratory response. Acquisition cost, weight, machinability and environmental benefits are also expected. Applications to structure of optical and inertial navigation equipment would lead to reductions in jitter levels and other vibratory response measures.

Andriulli, J.; Rogers, L.C.

1993-01-01

463

Some frequency and damping measuements of laminated beryllium beams  

SciTech Connect

A quantum leap in vibration performance of beryllium structure has been experimentally investigated. Laminations, segmentation, and sandwich syntactic foam core have been demonstrated to have both high specific flexural structural stiffness and high damping for reduced vibratory response. Acquisition cost, weight, machinability and environmental benefits are also expected. Applications to structure of optical and inertial navigation equipment would lead to reductions in jitter levels and other vibratory response measures.

Andriulli, J.; Rogers, L.C.

1993-06-01

464

Micro-and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate  

E-print Network

Micro- and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate Vladimir Ya. Shur investigation of the domain evolution in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate during backswitched electric sources based on quasi-phase matching.11 Lithium niobate LiNbO3 (LN) and lithium tantalate LiTaO3 (LT

Byer, Robert L.

465

77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...mailpieces containing lithium metal or lithium-ion cells or batteries and applies regardless...lithium content'' for secondary lithium-ion batteries when describing maximum quantity...pounds. 10.20.6 Secondary Lithium-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries...

2012-05-14

466

Vacuum Brazing of Beryllium Copper Components for the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

A process for vacuum brazing beryllium copper anode assemblies was required for the Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell System, or PEPC, a component for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Initial problems with the joint design and wettability of the beryllium copper drove some minor design changes. Brazing was facilitated by plating the joint surface of the beryllium copper rod with silver 0.0006 inch thick. Individual air sampling during processing and swipe tests of the furnace interior after brazing revealed no traceable levels of beryllium.

Tyhurst, C.C.; Cunningham, M.A.

2002-06-04

467

Beryllium Science: US-UK agreement on the use of Atomic Energy for mutual defense  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-seven papers are presented on beryllium supply, production, fabrication, safe handling, analysis, powder technology, and coatings. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (DLC)

Hanafee, J.E. (ed.)

1988-02-19

468

The beryllium quandary: will the lower exposure limits spur new developments in sampling and analysis?  

SciTech Connect

At the time this article was written, new rulemakings were under consideration at OSHA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that would propose changes to occupational exposure limits for beryllium. Given these developments, it’s a good time to review the tools and methods available to IHs for assessing beryllium air and surface contamination in the workplace—what’s new and different, and what’s tried and true. The article discusses limit values and action levels for beryllium, problematic aspects of beryllium air sampling, sample preparation, sample analysis, and data evaluation.

Brisson, Michael

2013-06-03

469

Interaction of high flux deuterium/nitrogen plasmas with beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before nitrogen can be used as a radiator for edge plasma temperature control in experiments with beryllium as the wall material, the compatibility of nitrogen-containing plasma with beryllium has to be tested. Therefore beryllium samples were exposed to a variety of mixed N2/D2 plasmas in PISCES-B and codeposits from the sputtered material were collected. It was found that introducing N2 to a D2 plasma reduces Be erosion significantly but recovery to the pre-N2 levels is possible in pure D2 plasma. Berylliated vessel walls can be a reservoir for N2 and chemical processes probably play a significant role during nitriding and N2 removal. Nitrided target samples remain conductive and do not lead to additional arcing, but codeposits are insulating. Thermal desorption measurements of nitrided and un-nitrided target samples are comparable, while codeposits show a slightly reduced D retention. However, D release for both target and codeposits is shifted ?100 K to higher temperatures, above 510 K.

Dittmar, T.; Baldwin, M. J.; Doerner, R. P.; Nishijima, D.; Oberkofler, M.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Tabarés, F.

2011-12-01

470

Boron isotope geochemistry as a tracer for the evolution of brines and associated hot springs from the Dead Sea, Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A boron isotope study combined with analyses of elemental boron, lithium, and chlorine is used to suggest that brines from the Dead Sea and on-shore hypersaline thermal springs (Hamme Yesha, Hamme Zohar, and Hamme Mazor) are the products of interaction of evaporated seawater with detrital sediments. The high ?11B values of the Dead Sea brines (55.7 to 57.4%. versus NBS-951) and the hot springs (52.2 to 55.7%.), and low B/Li ratios (2.0 to 2.3 and 2.5 to 2.7, respectively), relative to seawater, indicate preferential removal of 10B from the brines and hence boron adsorption onto clay minerals. The brackish 'En Feshcha springs and the freshwater 'En Dawid and Nahal Arugot springs yield lower B contents and ?11B values (37.7 to 40.6%. and 33.8 to 36.9%., respectively). The ?11B values and B contents of diluted Dead Sea brines lie on calculated mixing lines between the composition of the brackish and freshwater springs with the composition of the Dead Sea. The ?11 B values of the hot springs, however, given their boron content, are significantly lower than those of the mixing lines. Thus, waters from the hot springs cannot be a mixing product of the Dead Sea brine with freshwater. Instead, the Dead Sea brine has evolved from the brines of the hot springs through further isotopic fractionation and boron adsorption onto detrital sediments.

Vengosh, Avner; Starinsky, Abraham; Kolodny, Yehoshua; Chivas, Allan R.

1991-06-01

471

XPS analysis for cubic boron nitride crystal synthesized under high pressure and high temperature using Li3N as catalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cubic boron nitride (cBN) single crystals are synthesized with lithium nitride (Li3N) as catalyst under high pressure and high temperature. The variation of electronic structures from boron nitride of different layers in coating film on the cBN single crystal has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Combining the atomic concentration analysis, it was shown that from the film/cBN crystal interface to the inner, the sp2 fractions are decreasing, and the sp3 fractions are increasing in the film at the same time. Moreover, by transmission electron microscopy, a lot of cBN microparticles are found in the interface. For there is no Li3N in the film, it is possible that Li3N first reacts with hexagonal boron nitride to produce Li3BN2 during cBN crystals synthesis under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT). Boron and nitrogen atoms, required for cBN crystals growth, could come from the direct conversion from hexagonal boron nitride with the catalysis of Li3BN2 under high pressure and high temperature, but not directly from the decomposition of Li3BN2.

Guo, Xiaofei; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Wen; Cai, Zhichao; Wen, Zhenxing

2014-12-01

472

Lithium battery management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the

Thomas J

2012-01-01

473

Lithium disulfide battery  

DOEpatents

A negative electrode limited secondary electrochemical cell having dense FeS.sub.2 positive electrode operating exclusively on the upper plateau, a Li alloy negative electrode and a suitable lithium-containing electrolyte. The electrolyte preferably is 25 mole percent LiCl, 38 mole percent LiBr and 37 mole percent KBr. The cell may be operated isothermally.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1988-01-01

474

75 FR 9147 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...descriptions for lithium metal batteries and lithium ion batteries were adopted into the UN Recommendations... Adopt shipping descriptions for lithium ion batteries including lithium ion polymer batteries (UN3480), lithium ion...

2010-03-01

475

Radiobiological evaluation of new boron delivery agents for boron neutron capture therapy  

E-print Network

This thesis evaluates the radiobiological effectiveness of three new boron compounds namely a boronated porphyrin (BOPP) and two liposome formulations for neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The methodology utilizes in vitro ...

Chung, Yoonsun

2008-01-01

476

Jaguar Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Explosives Containing Boron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jaguar product library was expanded to include boron and boron containing products by analysis of Available Hugoniot and static volumetric data to obtain constants of the Murnaghan relationships for the components. Experimental melting points were also utilized to obtain the constants of the volumetric relationships for liquid boron and boron oxide. Detonation velocities for HMX—boron mixtures calculated with these relationships using Jaguar are in closer agreement with literature values at high initial densities for inert (unreacted) boron than with the completely reacted metal. These results indicate that the boron does not react near the detonation front or that boron mixtures exhibit eigenvalue detonation behavior (as shown by some aluminized explosives), with higher detonation velocities at the initial points. Analyses of calorimetric measurements for RDX—boron mixtures indicate that at high boron contents the formation of side products, including boron nitride and boron carbide, inhibits the detonation properties of the formulation.

Stiel, L. I.; Baker, E. L.; Capellos, C.

2009-12-01

477

Thin-film lithium and lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research over the last decade at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has led to the development of solid-state thin-film lithium and lithium-ion batteries. The batteries, which are less than 15 ?m thick, have important applications in a variety of consumer and medical products, and they are useful research tools in characterizing the properties of lithium intercalation compounds in thin-film form. The

J. B. Bates; N. J. Dudney; B. Neudecker; A. Ueda; C. D. Evans

2000-01-01

478

Initial boronization of PBX-M using ablation of solid boronized probes  

SciTech Connect

The initial boronization of PBX-M was performed using the sequential ablation of two types of solid target probes. Probe-1 in a mushroom shape consisted of a 10.7% boronized 2-D C-C composite containing 3.6 g of boron in a B[sub 4]C binder. Probe-2 in a rectangular shape consisted of an 86% boronized graphite felt composite containing 19.5 g of 40 [mu] boron particles. After boronization with Probe-1, the loop voltage during 1 MW neutral beam heated plasmas decreased 27% and volt-sec consumption decreased 20%. Strong peripheral spectral lines from low-Z elements decreased by factors of about 5. The central oxygen density decreased 15--20%. The total radiated power during neutral beam injection decreased by 43%. Probe-2 boronization exhibited improved operating conditions similar to Probe-1, but for some parameters, a smaller percentage change occurred due to the residual boron from the previous boronization using Probe-1. The ablation rates of both probes were consistent with front face temperatures at or slightly above the boron melting point. These results confirm the effectiveness of the solid target boronization (STB) technique as a real-time impurity control method for replenishing boron depositions without the use of hazardous borane compounds.

Kugel, H.W.; Hirooka, Y.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Khandagle, M. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Inst. of Plasma and Fusion Research); Timberlake, J.; Bell, R.; England, A.; Isler, R.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Takahashi, H.; Tighe, W.; von Goeler, S.; Post-Zwicker, A.P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Jones, S. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1993-05-01

479

Initial boronization of PBX-M using ablation of solid boronized probes  

SciTech Connect

The initial boronization of PBX-M was performed using the sequential ablation of two types of solid target probes. Probe-1 in a mushroom shape consisted of a 10.7% boronized 2-D C-C composite containing 3.6 g of boron in a B{sub 4}C binder. Probe-2 in a rectangular shape consisted of an 86% boronized graphite felt composite containing 19.5 g of 40 {mu} boron particles. After boronization with Probe-1, the loop voltage during 1 MW neutral beam heated plasmas decreased 27% and volt-sec consumption decreased 20%. Strong peripheral spectral lines from low-Z elements decreased by factors of about 5. The central oxygen density decreased 15--20%. The total radiated power during neutral beam injection decreased by 43%. Probe-2 boronization exhibited improved operating conditions similar to Probe-1, but for some parameters, a smaller percentage change occurred due to the residual boron from the previous boronization using Probe-1. The ablation rates of both probes were consistent with front face temperatures at or slightly above the boron melting point. These results confirm the effectiveness of the solid target boronization (STB) technique as a real-time impurity control method for replenishing boron depositions without the use of hazardous borane compounds.

Kugel, H.W.; Hirooka, Y.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Khandagle, M. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Inst. of Plasma and Fusion Research; Timberlake, J.; Bell, R.; England, A.; Isler, R.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Takahashi, H.; Tighe, W.; von Goeler, S.; Post-Zwicker, A.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Jones, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1993-05-01

480

Tautomerism of anthraquinones: X. Quinizarin boron complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Products of reactions of hydroxyanthraquinones with boric acid exist as equilibrium mixtures of tautomeric boron complexes\\u000a and boric acid esters in which one or two boron atoms are not coordinated to carbonyl groups. Tautomerism is responsible for\\u000a the appearance of several ?l,? bands in the electronic absorption spectra and considerable differences in the data obtained by different authors. Boron-containing\\u000a quinizarin

V. Ya. Fain; B. E. Zaitsev; M. A. Ryabov

2010-01-01

481

An exceptionally high boron content supramolecular cuboctahedron.  

PubMed

A boron-rich supramolecular cuboctahedron containing an impressive 240 boron atoms has been synthesized via coordination-driven assembly. The cuboctahedron, which is composed of Cu(2+) paddle-wheel nodes and carborane-isophthalic acids, was obtained simply and in high purity. The ability to precisely characterize the nanostructure via X-ray diffraction makes it unique among boron-rich nanostructures. PMID:23863859

Clingerman, Daniel J; Kennedy, Robert D; Mondloch, Joseph E; Sarjeant, Amy A; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K; Mirkin, Chad A

2013-12-21

482

Experimental lithium system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

1985-04-01

483

Industries in the United States with Airborne Beryllium Exposure and Estimates of the Number of Current Workers Potentially Exposed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of the number of workers in the United States occupationally exposed to beryllium were published in the 1970s and 1980s and ranged from 21,200 to 800,000. We obtained information from several sources to identify specific industries with beryllium exposure and to estimate the number of current workers potentially exposed to beryllium. We spoke with representatives from the primary beryllium

Paul K. Henneberger; Sandra K. Goe; William E. Miller; Brent Doney; Dennis W. Groce

2004-01-01

484

Conduction mechanism in boron carbide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical conductivity, Seebeck-coefficient, and Hall-effect measurements have been made on single-phase boron carbides, B(1-x)C(x), in the compositional range from 0.1 to 0.2 X, and between room temperature and 1273 K. The results indicate that the predominant conduction mechanism is small-polaron hopping between carbon atoms at geometrically inequivalent sites.

Wood, C.; Emin, D.

1984-01-01

485

Boron removal from geothermal waters by electrocoagulation.  

PubMed

Most of the geothermal waters in Turkey contain extremely high concentration of boron when they are used for irrigation. The use of geothermal waters for irrigation can results in excess amount deposition of boron in soil. On the other hand, a minimal boron concentration is required for irrigational waters. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was selected as a treatment process for the removal of boron from thermal waters obtained from Ilica-Erzurum in Turkey. Current density (CD), pH of solution and temperature of solution were selected as operational parameters. The results showed that boron removal efficiency increased from pH 4.0 to 8.0 and decreased at pH 10.0. Although boron removal efficiency was highest at pH 8.0, energy consumption was very high at this pH value compared to other pH intervals. Boron removal efficiency reached to 95% with increasing current density from 1.5 to 6.0 mA/cm(2), but energy consumption was also increased in this interval. At higher temperatures of solution, such as 313 and 333 K, boron removal efficiency increased. At optimum conditions, boron removal efficiency in geothermal water reached up to 95%. PMID:17904734

Yilmaz, A Erdem; Boncukcuo?lu, Recep; Kocakerim, M Muhtar; Yilmaz, M Tolga; Paluluo?lu, Cihan

2008-05-01

486

Experimental observation of boron nitride chains.  

PubMed

We report the formation and characterization of boron nitride atomic chains. The chains were made from hexagonal boron nitride sheets using the electron beam inside a transmission electron microscope. We find that the stability and lifetime of the chains are significantly improved when they are supported by another boron nitride layer. With the help of first-principles calculations, we prove the heteroatomic structure of the chains and determine their mechanical and electronic properties. Our study completes the analogy between various boron nitride and carbon polymorphs, in accordance with earlier theoretical predictions. PMID:25299068

Cretu, Ovidiu; Komsa, Hannu-Pekka; Lehtinen, Ossi; Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Kaiser, Ute; Suenaga, Kazu; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V

2014-12-23

487

Mineral resource of the month: boron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The article offers information on the mineral, boron. Boron compounds, particularly borates, have more commercial applications than its elemental relative which is a metalloid. Making up the 90% of the borates that are used worldwide are colemanite, kernite, tincal, and ulexite. The main borate deposits are located in the Mojave Desert of the U.S., the Tethyan belt in southern Asia, and the Andean belt of South America. Underground and surface mining are being used in gathering boron compounds. INSETS: Fun facts;Boron production and consumption.

Crangle, Robert D., Jr.

2012-01-01

488

New Applications of Boron Dihalides and Organotrifluoroborates in Organic Synthesis.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation summarizes research focused on the use of boron dihalides and organotrifluoroborates in organic synthesis. The boron dihalide mediated aryl propargyl ether cleavage reactions… (more)

Hall, Kelly Elizabeth

2013-01-01

489

Surface Treatment of a Lithium Limiter for Spherical Torus Plasma Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The concept of a flowing lithium first wall for a fusion reactor may lead to a significant advance in reactor design, since it could virtually eliminate the concerns with power density and erosion, tritium retention, and cooling associated with solid walls. As part of investigations to determine the feasibility of this approach, plasma interaction questions in a toroidal plasma geometry are being addressed in the Current Drive eXperiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) spherical torus (ST). The first experiments involved a toroidally local lithium limiter (L3). Measurements of pumpout rates indicated that deuterium pumping was greater for the L3 compared to conventional boron carbide limiters. The difference in the pumpout rates between the two limiter types decreased with plasma exposure, but argon glow discharge cleaning was able to restore the pumping effectiveness of the L3. At no point, however, was the extremely low recycling regime reported in previous lithium experiments achieved. This may be due to the much larger lithium surfaces that were exposed to the plasma in the earlier work. The possibility will be studied in the next set of CDX-U experiments, which are to be conducted with a large area, fully toroidal lithium limiter.

Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Doerner, R.; Antar, G.; Timberlake, J.; Spaleta, J.; Hoffman, D.; Jones, B.; Munsat, T.; Kugel, H.; Taylor, G.; Stutman, D.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Maingi, R.; Molesa, S.; Efthimion, P.; Menard, J.; Finkenthal, M.; Luckhardt, S.

2001-03-20

490

High-power liquid-lithium jet target for neutron production  

E-print Network

A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center. The lithium target, to be bombarded by the high-intensity proton beam of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), will constitute an intense source of neutrons produced by the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction for nuclear astrophysics research and as a pilot setup for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The liquid-lithium jet target acts both as neutron-producing target and beam dump by removing the beam thermal power (>5 kW, >1 MW/cm3) with fast transport. The target was designed based on a thermal model, accompanied by a detailed calculation of the 7Li(p,n) neutron yield, energy distribution and angular distribution. Liquid lithium is circulated through the target loop