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1

Lithium-Beryllium-Boron : Origin and Evolution  

E-print Network

The origin and evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron is a crossing point between different astrophysical fields : optical and gamma spectroscopy, non thermal nucleosynthesis, Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis and finally galactic evolution. We describe the production and the evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron from Big Bang up to now through the interaction of the Standard Galactic Cosmic Rays with the interstellar medium, supernova neutrino spallation and a low energy component related to supernova explosions in galactic superbubbles.

Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Michel Casse; Jean Audouze

1999-07-13

2

Cosmic Lithium-Beryllium-Boron Story  

E-print Network

Light element nucleosynthesis is an important chapter of nuclear astrophysics. Specifically, the rare and fragile light nuclei Lithium, Beryllium and Boron (LiBeB) are not generated in the normal course of stellar nucleosynthesis (except Li7) and are, in fact, destroyed in stellar interiors. This characteristic is reflected in the low abundance of these simple species. Optical measurements of the beryllium and boron abundances in halo stars have been achieved by the 10 meter KECK telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope.These observations indicate a quasi linear correlation between Be and B vs Fe, at least at low metallicity. Aside GCRs, which are accelerated in the general interstellar medium (ISM) and create LiBeB through the break up of CNO by fast protons and alphas, Wolf-Rayet stars (WR) and core collapse supernovae (SNII) grouped in superbubbles could produce copious amounts of light elements via the fragmentation in flight of rapid carbon and oxygen nuclei colliding with H and He in the ISM.

Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Michel Casse

1999-02-04

3

Lithium-Beryllium-Boron and Oxygen in the early Galaxy  

E-print Network

Oxygen is a much better evolutionary index than iron to follow the history of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron (LiBeB) since it is the main producer of these light elements at least in the early Galaxy. The O-Fe relation is crucial to the determination of the exact physical process responsible for the LiBeB production. Calculated nucleosynthetic yields of massive stars, estimates of the energy cost of Be production, and above all recent observations reported in this meeting seem to favor a mechanism in which fast nuclei enriched into He, C and O arising from supernovae are accelerated in superbubbles and fragment on H and He in the interstellar medium.

Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Michel Casse

2000-11-24

4

Production of Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron by Hypernovae  

E-print Network

We investigate a possible nucleosynthetic signature of highly energetic explosions of C-O cores ("hypernovae," HNe) which might be associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We note that the direct impact of C- and O-enriched hypernova ejecta on the ambient hydrogen and helium leads to spallation reactions which can produce large amounts of the light nuclides lithium, beryllium, and boron (LiBeB). Using analytic velocity spectra of the hypernova ejecta, we calculate the LiBeB yields of different exploding C-O cores associated with observed hypernovae. The deduced yields are $\\sim 10^3$ times higher than those produced by similar (direct) means in normal Type II supernovae, and are higher than the commonly used ones arising from shock wave acceleration induced by Type II supernova (SN) explosions. To avoid overproduction of these elements in our Galaxy, hypernovae should be rare events, with $\\la 10^{-3}$ hypernovae per supernova, assuming a constant HN/SN ratio over time. This rate is in good agreement with that of long duration GRBs if we assume that the gamma-ray emission is focussed with a beaming factor $\\Omega/4\\pi \\la 10^{-2}$. This encouraging result supports the possible HN-GRB association. Thus, Galactic LiBeB abundance measurements offer a promising way to probe the HN rate history and the possible HN-GRB correlation. On the other hand, if hypernovae are associated to very massive pregalactic stars (Population III) they would produce a LiBeB pre-enrichment in proto-galactic gas, which could show up as a plateau in the lowest metallicities of the Be-Fe relation in halo stars.

Brian D. Fields; Frederic Daigne; Michel Casse; Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam

2001-07-25

5

The Spallagenic Production Rates of Lithium, Beryllium and Boron  

E-print Network

We calculate the production rates of Li6, Li7, Be9, B10 and B11 via spallation of Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen nuclei by protons and alpha-particles and by alpha-alpha fusion reactions. We include recent measurements of the cross sections of alpha-alpha fusion reactions and find that the computations yield rates of Li6 and Li7 production that are nearly a factor of two smaller than previously calculated. We begin by using the `straight ahead' approximation for the fragment energy and the `leaky-box' model for product capture in the Galaxy. In addition we test the straight ahead approximation by recalculating the production rates using an empirical description of the fragment energy distribution and find that the results closely match. We have also calculated the rates for various cosmic ray spectra and find that the hardest spectra tested decrease the rates with CR CNO by approximately an order of magnitude relative to our chosen standard. Finally we have computed the Population I elemental ratios and the Population II scaling relations for our standard and find that our computations predict an abundance of Lithium for a given abundance of Beryllium that is 1/4 smaller than previously derived.

J. P. Kneller; J. R. Phillips; T. P. Walker

2000-08-04

6

Evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron and Oxygen in the early Galaxy  

E-print Network

Oxygen is a much better evolutionary index than iron to describe the history of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron (LiBeB) since it is the main producer of these light elements at least in the early Galaxy. The O-Fe relation is crucial to the determination of the exact physical process responsible for the LiBeB production. At low metallicity, if [O/Fe] vs [Fe/H] is flat, then the production mode is independent of the interstellar metallicity, BeB is proportional to oxygen, i.e. is of primary nature. If not, the production mode is function of the progressive enrichment in O of the interstellar medium, BeB varies rather as the square of O, i.e. is of secondary nature. In the first case, fast nuclei enriched into He, C and O injected by supernovae and accelerated in surrounding superbubbles would explain the primary trend. In the second case, the main spallative agent would be the standard galactic cosmic rays. Calculated nucleosynthetic yields of massive stars, estimates of the energy cost of production of beryllium nuclei, and above all recent observations reported in this meeting seem to favor the primary mechanism, at least in the early Galaxy.

Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Michel Casse

2001-04-11

7

A study of galactic cosmic ray propagation models based on the isotopic composition of the elements lithium, beryllium and boron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A good test for a cosmic ray propagation model is its ability to predict the abundances of the light secondary nuclei lithium, beryllium, and boron. By using measured isotopic abundances of lithium, beryllium, and boron, Garcia-Munoz et al. (1979) were able to place limits on three important parameters of a leaky box propagation model. The considered parameters include the source spectral parameter, the leakage mean free path, and the characteristic adiabatic energy loss due to solar modulation. The present investigation is concerned with a critical evaluation of the information which can be deduced about these parameters from isotopic composition alone, taking into account the effects of uncertainties in the spallation cross section data.

Hinshaw, G. F.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Greiner, D. E.

1982-01-01

8

Study of beryllium and beryllium-lithium complexes in single-crystal silicon.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When beryllium is thermally diffused into silicon, it gives rise to acceptor levels 191 and 145 meV above the valence band. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that the 145-meV level is due to a more complex beryllium configuration than the 191-meV level. When lithium is thermally diffused into a beryllium-doped silicon sample, it produces two new acceptor levels at 106 and 81 meV. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that these new levels are due to lithium forming a complex with the defects responsible for the 191- and 145-meV beryllium levels, respectively. Electrical measurements imply that the lithium impurity ions are physically close to the beryllium impurity atoms. The ground state of the 106-meV beryllium-lithium level is split into two levels, presumably by internal strains. Tentative models are proposed to explain these results.

Crouch, R. K.; Robertson, J. B.; Gilmer, T. E., Jr.

1972-01-01

9

A study of beryllium and beryllium-lithium complexes in single crystal silicon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When beryllium is thermally diffused into silicon, it gives rise to acceptor levels 191 MeV and 145 meV above the valence band. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that the 145-MeV level is due to a more complex beryllium configuration than the 191-MeV level. When lithium is thermally diffused into a beryllium-doped silicon sample, it produces two acceptor levels at 106 MeV and 81 MeV. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that these levels are due to lithium forming a complex with the defects responsible for the 191-MeV and 145-MeV beryllium levels, respectively. Electrical measurements imply that the lithium impurity ions are physically close to the beryllium impurity atoms. The ground state of the 106-MeV beryllium level is split into two levels, presumably by internal strains. Tentative models are proposed.

Crouch, R. K.; Robertson, J. B.; Gilmer, T. E., Jr.

1972-01-01

10

Beryllium and Boron abundances in population II stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific focus of this program was to undertake UV spectroscopic abundance analyses of extremely metal poor stars with attention to determining abundances of light elements such as beryllium and boron. The abundances are likely to reflect primordial abundances within the early galaxy and help to constrain models for early galactic nucleosynthesis. The general metal abundances of these stars are also important for understanding stellar evolution.

1995-01-01

11

On temperature bifurcation of beryllium and lithium plasma facing components  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of temperature bifurcation of plasma contacting surfaces due to recycling of the ionized surface material vapor is considered. It is shown that this mechanism can lead to overheating of beryllium and lithium plasma facing components (in particular, in fusion devices) prior to the thermionic electron emission mechanism. The surface temperatures and the plasma parameters, at which the considered mechanism triggers the local overheating of beryllium and lithium components, are evaluated. The increase in the surface heat load due to secondary electron emission is also considered. It is shown that the combined effects of energy and impact angle distributions of the plasma electrons can increase the averaged secondary electron emission yield to values higher than unity and can lower the average electron energy, at which such yields are achieved.

Smirnov, R. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Pigarov, A. Yu. [University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2009-12-15

12

Beryllium, Lithium and Oxygen Abundances in F-type Stars  

E-print Network

Beryllium and oxygen abundances have been derived in a sample of F-type field stars for which lithium abundances had been measured previously, with the aim of obtaining observational constraints to discriminate between the different mixing mechanisms proposed. Mixing associated with the transport of angular momentum in the stellar interior and internal gravity waves within the framework of rotating evolutionary models, appear to be promising ways to explain the observations.

R. J. Garcia Lopez; M. C. Dominguez Herrera; M. R. Perez de Taoro; C. Casares; J. L. Rasilla; R. Rebolo; C. Allende Prieto

1997-10-07

13

Ab initio treatment of electron correlations in polymers: Lithium hydride chain and beryllium hydride polymer  

E-print Network

Ab initio treatment of electron correlations in polymers: Lithium hydride chain and berylliumH and beryllium hydride Be2H4 . First, employing a Wannier-function-based approach, the systems are studiedH and the beryllium hydride polymer Be2H4 . As a simple, but due to its ionic character, non- trivial model polymer

Birkenheuer, Uwe

14

A Lithium-Beryllium Method for the Detection of Solar Neutrinos  

E-print Network

A method for the detection of solar neutrino has been developed using the laboratory bench installations. The efficiency of the extraction of beryllium from lithium as high as 96.4{%} has been achieved, and it was shown that lithium losses during the extraction were less than 1{%}. The prospects of a full-scale experiment with a 10-t lithium detector consisting of twenty 500-kg lithium modules are discussed. The technical solutions formulated on the basis of this study enable to make design of a pilot lithium installation containing 500 kg of metallic lithium

A. V. Kopylov; I. V. Orekhov; V. V. Petukhov; A. E. Solomatin

2009-10-20

15

Tritium release from beryllium discs and lithium ceramics irradiated in the SIBELIUS experiment  

SciTech Connect

The SIBELIUS experiment was designed to obtain information on the compatibility between beryllium and ceramics, as well as beryllium and steel, in a neutron environment. This experiment comprised irradiation of eight capsules, seven of which were independently purged with a He/0.1% H{sub 2} gas mixture. Four capsules were used to examine beryllium/ceramic (Li{sub 2}O, LiAlO{sub 2}, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) and beryllium/steel (Types 316L and 1.4914) compacts. Isothermal anneal experiments have been run on representative beryllium and ceramic disks from each of the four capsules at 550{degrees}C to 850{degrees}C in steps of 100{degrees}C. The results indicate that tritium release from the beryllium did not exhibit burst release behavior, as previously reported, but rather a progressive release with increasing temperature. Generally, {approximately}99% of the tritium was released by 850{degrees}C. Tritium release from the ceramic discs was quite similar to the behavior shown in other dynamic tritium release experiments on lithium ceramics. The tritium content in beryllium discs adjacent to a steel sample was found to be significantly lower than that found in a beryllium disc adjacent to a ceramic sample. Recoil of tritium from the ceramic into the beryllium appears to be the source of tritium entering the beryllium, probably residing in the beryllium oxide layer.

Johnson, C.E.; Kopasz, J.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Baldwin, D.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-11-01

16

Test fixture design for boron-aluminum and beryllium test panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed description of the test fixture design and the backup analysis of the fixture assembly and its components are presented. The test fixture is required for the separate testing of two boron-aluminum and two beryllium compression panels. This report is presented in conjunction with a complete set of design drawings on the test fixture system.

Breaux, C. G.

1973-01-01

17

Development of structural test articles from magnesium-lithium and beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study on the fabrication and testing of a magnesium-lithium box beam shows the formability and machinability characteristics of that alloy to be excellent. Results of forming tests for shrink and stretch flanges show values for both flange heights that may be used in future beryllium design.

Alario, R.

1969-01-01

18

Beryllium  

SciTech Connect

In the last 50 years, beryllium has risen from a geological curiosity to become an important industrial metal. Its high strength, light weight and high thermal conductivity make it valuable in both defense and commercial applications, It is lighter than aluminum, has a higher tensile strength and melting temperature than both magnesium and aluminum, and exhibits the highest elasticity and strength-to-weight ratio of the light metals. These features, as well as beryllium`s high beat capacity and unusual nuclear properties, caused beryllium to be dubbed the {open_quotes}wonder metal{close_quotes} in the 1950s and early 1960s.

NONE

1992-12-01

19

Lithium-boron alloy anodes for molten salt batteries, 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current work is concerned with the development of a procedure for the preparation of a lithium-boron alloy suitable for use as an anode in thermal batteries. Metallography, thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction techniques are being developed as tools for studying this multiphase material. A chemical analysis is planned to identify the composition of the various phases. Once the phase

S. Dallek; D. W. Ernst; B. F. Larrick

1978-01-01

20

The shocking development of lithium (and boron) in supernovae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that significant amounts of Li-7 and B-11 are produced in Type 2 supernovae. The synthesis of these rare elements occurs as the supernova shock traverses the base of the hydrogen envelope burning He-3 to masses 7 and 11 via alpha capture. The yields in this process are sufficient to account for the difference in lithium abundance observed between Pop 2 and Pop 1 stars. Since lithium (and boron) would, in this manner, be created in the same stars that produce the bulk of the heavy elements, the lithium abundance even in old Pop 1 stars would be high (as observed). The B-11 production may remedy the long-standing problem of the traditional spallation scenario to account for the observed isotopic ratio of boron. Observational consequences of this mechanism are discussed, including the evolution of lithium and boron isotope ratios in the Galaxy and the possible use of the boron yields to constrain the number of blue progenitor Type 2 supernovae.

Dearborn, David S. P.; Schramm, David N.; Steigman, Gary; Truran, James

1989-01-01

21

Isotope Shifts in Beryllium-, Boron-, Carbon-, and Nitrogen-like Ions from Relativistic Configuration Interaction Calculations  

E-print Network

Energy levels, normal and specific mass shift parameters as well as electronic densities at the nucleus are reported for numerous states along the beryllium, boron, carbon, and nitrogen isoelectronic sequences. Combined with nuclear data, these electronic parameters can be used to determine values of level and transition isotope shifts. The calculation of the electronic parameters is done using first-order perturbation theory with relativistic configuration interaction wave functions that account for valence, core-valence and core-core correlation effects as zero-order functions. Results are compared with experimental and other theoretical values, when available.

Nazé, C; Rynkun, P; Gaigalas, G; Godefroid, M; Jönsson, P

2014-01-01

22

Beryllium electrorefining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium scrap was purified by electrorefining in a ternary salt bath containing potassium, lithium, and beryllium chloride salts. The beryllium flake produced had a purity greater than 99.95% and was produced at a direct operating cost of slightly less than $500 per pound, not including capital equipment depreciation. 2 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

D. L. Mitchell; R. G. Nieweg; J. A. Ledford; M. J. Richen; D. A. Burton; R. V. Harder; L. E. Watson; R. L. Thomas

1989-01-01

23

Beryllium electrorefining  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium scrap was purified by electrorefining in a ternary salt bath containing potassium, lithium, and beryllium chloride salts. The beryllium flake produced had a purity greater than 99.95% and was produced at a direct operating cost of slightly less than $500 per pound, not including capital equipment depreciation. 2 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Mitchell, D.L.; Nieweg, R.G.; Ledford, J.A.; Richen, M.J.; Burton, D.A.; Harder, R.V.; Watson, L.E.; Thomas, R.L. (ed.)

1989-01-30

24

Uranium extraction from lithium and beryllium fluoride melts with bismuth-lithium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium extraction from LiF-BeFâ melt containing 0.2 mole % UFâ with bismuth-lithium alloy at 600-655°C was studied. A linear dependence of the uranium distribution coefficient at 650°C on the lithium distribution coefficient with a slope ratio of approx. 3.0 was noted. At 600°C the D\\/sub U\\/ value reached 2 x 10² when the lithium concentration in the alloy was about

V. I. Silin; B. F. Myasoedov; I. A. Lebedev; S. A. Perevalov; G. N. Yakovlev

2009-01-01

25

Early-life exposure to lithium and boron from drinking water.  

PubMed

The transfer of lithium and boron from exposed mothers to fetuses and breast-fed infants was investigated in areas in northern Argentina and Chile with up to 700 ?g lithium/L and 5-10 mg boron/L in drinking water. Maternal and cord blood concentrations were strongly correlated and similar in size for both lithium (47 and 70 ?g/L, respectively) and boron (220 and 145 ?g/L, respectively). The first infant urine produced after birth contained the highest concentrations (up to 1700 ?g lithium/L and 14,000 ?g boron/L). Breast-milk contained 40 and 60% of maternal blood concentrations of lithium and boron, respectively (i.e. about 30 and 250 ?g/L, respectively, in high exposure areas), and infant urine concentrations decreased immediately after birth (120 ?g lithium/L and 920 ?g boron/L). We conclude that lithium and boron easily passed the placenta to the fetus, and that exclusively breast-fed infants seemed to have lower exposure than formula-fed infants. PMID:23017911

Harari, Florencia; Ronco, Ana María; Concha, Gabriela; Llanos, Miguel; Grandér, Margaretha; Castro, Francisca; Palm, Brita; Nermell, Barbro; Vahter, Marie

2012-12-01

26

Lithium and boron burning S(E)-factor measurements at astrophysical energies via the Trojan Horse Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The residual amount of light elements lithium, beryllium and boron (LiBeB) abundances in stellar atmospheres has been largely accepted as one of the most powerful probes for understanding stellar structure and mixing phenomena. They are in fact gradually destroyed at different depths of stellar interior mainly by (p,?), thus their fate in stars is an incomparable tool for studying mixing processes. In order to avoid extrapolation procedures on the available direct S(E)-factor measurements, the Trojan Horse Method (THM) has been developed, allowing one to measure the bare nucleus S(E)-factor for astrophysically relevant reactions without experiencing Coulomb penetrability effects. Here, a summary on the recent 6,7Li and 11B TH investigations will be given and the corresponding results discussed.

Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; Pizzone, R. G.; Cherubini, S.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Grineviciute, J.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Palmerini, S.; Pappalardo, L.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Tognelli, E.; Tumino, A.

2014-03-01

27

Determination of boron and lithium by recording the products from (n, alpha) reactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Irradiation with thermal neutrons in the VVR-S reactor provides a nondestructive method for determining the presence of boron and lithium in solids. The charged particles produced in the reactions Li-6(n,alpha)H-3 and B-10(n,alpha)Li-7 were detected using CsI single crystal. For alpha-particle spectrometry in the boron determination, an ionization chamber (W and Sn electrodes, 99% Ar + 1% H2) was developed allowing both absolute and relative measurements. In determining boron in lithium-containing samples, both scintillation and ionization chambers are used. In determining lithium in minerals, the error was 1.5%, and the sensitivity 0.00005 wt.%. In the determination of boron in SiC with a concentration of boron approximately (3 plus or minus 2) the error given by the alpha-range uncertainty was 15%.

Lobanov, Y. M.; Zverev, B. P.; Simakhin, Y. F.; Usmanova, M. M.

1978-01-01

28

Distrontium lithium beryllium triborate, Sr2LiBeB3O8  

PubMed Central

Single crystals of distrontium lithium beryllium triborate, Sr2LiBeB3O8, were obtained by spontaneous nucleation from a high-temperature melt. In the Sr2Li[BeB3O8] structure, [BeB2O7]6? rings, made up from one BeO4 tetra­hedron and two BO3 triangles, are connected to each other by [BO3] triangles to form the smallest repeat unit {[BeB3O8]8?} and then form chains along the b axis. The Sr2+ cations are seven- or eight-­coordinated and Li+ cations are tetra-­coordinated and lie between the chains. PMID:22590052

Yu, Na; Ye, Ning

2012-01-01

29

On the nature of Lithium-rich giant stars: constraints from Beryllium abundances  

E-print Network

We have derived beryllium abundances for 7 Li-rich giant (A(Li) > 1.5) stars and 10 other Li-normal giants, with the aim of investigating the origin of the Lithium in the Li-rich giants. In particular, we test the predictions of the engulfment scenario proposed by Siess & Livio (1999), where the engulfment of a brown dwarf or one or more giant planets would lead to a simultaneous enrichment of 7Li and 9Be. We show that regardless their nature, none of the stars studied in this paper were found to have detectable beryllium. Using simple dilution arguments we show that the engulfment of an external object as the sole source of Li enrichment is ruled out by the Li and Be abundance data. The present results favor the idea that Li has been produced in the interior of the stars by a Cameron-Fowler process and brought up to the surface by an extra mixing mechanism.

C. H. F. Melo; P. de Laverny; N. C. Santos; G. Israelian; S. Randich; J. D. do Nascimento Jr.; J. R. De Medeiros

2005-04-06

30

Beryllium is an inhibitor of cellular GSK-3? that is 1,000-fold more potent than lithium.  

PubMed

Glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) is a key regulator in signaling networks that control cell proliferation, metabolism, development, and other processes. Lithium chloride is a GSK-3 family inhibitor that has been a mainstay of in vitro and in vivo studies for many years. Beryllium salt has the potential to act as a lithium-like inhibitor of GSK-3, but it is not known whether this agent is effective under physiologically relevant conditions. Here we show that BeSO4 inhibits endogenous GSK-3? in cultured human cells. Exposure to 10 µM Be(2+) produced a decrease in GSK-3? kinase activity that was comparable to that produced by 10 mM Li(+), indicating that beryllium is about 1,000-fold more potent than the classical inhibitor when treating intact cells. There was a statistically significant dose-dependent reduction in specific activity of GSK-3? immunoprecipitated from cells that had been treated with either agent. Lithium inhibited GSK-3? kinase activity directly, and it also caused GSK-3? in cells to become phosphorylated at serine-9 (Ser-9), a post-translational modification that occurs as part of a well-known positive feedback loop that suppresses the kinase activity. Beryllium also inhibited the kinase directly, but unlike lithium it had little effect on Ser-9 phosphorylation in the cell types tested, suggesting that alternative modes of feedback inhibition may be elicited by this agent. These results indicate that beryllium, like lithium, can induce perturbations in the GSK-3? signaling network of treated cells. PMID:25104312

Mudireddy, Swapna R; Abdul, Ataur Rahman Mohammed; Gorjala, Priyatham; Gary, Ronald K

2014-12-01

31

Boron-carbon-nitrogen compounds as negative electrode matrices for rechargeable lithium battery systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron-carbon-nitrogen composite (BC xN) matrices (BC 3N, BC 7N, and BC 10N) for rechargeable lithium batteries are synthesized by a thermal decomposition method. BC 10NLi 0.5 is prepared by the thermal decomposition of a mixture of the starting materials for BC 10N and lithium hydroxide (LiOH). The charge/discharge behaviour of these layered-structure compounds is investigated in an organic electrolyte that contains lithium salts. The capacity increases with an increase in the carbon content. The LiOH treatment causes an increase in the discharge capacity of boron-carbon-nitrogen material.

Ishikawa, Masashi; Nakamura, Toru; Morita, Masayuki; Matsuda, Yoshiharu; Tsujioka, Sho-ichi; Kawashima, Tadayuki

32

Cell inactivation by beryllium, boron and carbon ions at the low-energy irradiation facility of the Naples University.  

PubMed

The 3MV HVEC TTT-3 Tandem accelerator at the University of Naples, already used for radiobiological studies with protons and alpha particles, was set up for irradiation of biological samples with low energy carbon, boron, and beryllium beams. Radiobiological characterisation and study of these ion beams is essential in hadrontherapy (correction of hadrotherapy) to understand, for example, the possible biological effect of the target fragmentation products. Furthermore in space radiation biology we need to know the biological effects of heavy ions, a component of cosmic radiation that can contribute to the radiobiological risk when long sojourns in space are concerned. V79 Chinese hamster cells were irradiated with the different ions and the resulting cell inactivation data are reported. PMID:11771539

Scampoli, P; Casale, M; Durante, M; Grossi, G; Pugliese, M; Gialanella, G

2001-01-01

33

Hyperfine structures and Land\\'e $g_J$-factors for $n=2$ states in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations  

E-print Network

Energy levels, hyperfine interaction constants, and Land\\'e $g_J$-factors are reported for n=2 states in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations. Valence, core-valence, and core-core correlation effects are taken into account through single and double-excitations from multireference expansions to increasing sets of active orbitals. A systematic comparison of the calculated hyperfine interaction constants is made with values from the available literature.

Verdebout, S; Jönsson, P; Rynkun, P; Godefroid, M; Gaigalas, G

2014-01-01

34

Formation of c-BN nanoparticles by helium, lithium and boron ion implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion induced phase transformation from the soft graphitic hexagonal boron nitride ( h-BN) to ultrahard cubic boron nitride ( c-BN) nanoparticles is presented in the work herein. Ion implantation was used as a technique to introduce boron lithium and helium ions, at the energy of 150 keV and fluences ranging from 1 × 10 14 to 1 × 10 16 ions/cm 2, into hot pressed, polycrystalline h-BN. Analyses using Raman Spectroscopy showed that He +, Li + and B + led to a h-BN to c-BN phase transition, evident from the longitudinal optical (LO) Raman phonon features occurring in the implanted samples' spectra. The nature of these phonon peaks and their downshifting is explained using the spatial phonon correlation model.

Aradi, Emily; Erasmus, Rudolph M.; Derry, Trevor E.

2012-02-01

35

Study on High Speed Lithium Jet For Neutron Source of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility study of a liquid lithium type proton beam target was performed for the neutron source of the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). As the candidates of the liquid lithium target, a thin sheet jet and a thin film flow on a concave wall were chosen, and a lithium flow experiment was conducted to investigate the hydrodynamic stability of the targets. The surfaces of the jets and film flows with a thickness of 0.5 mm and a width of 50 mm were observed by means of photography. It has been found that a stable sheet jet and a stable film flow on a concave wall can be formed up to certain velocities by using a straight nozzle and a curved nozzle with the concave wall, respectively.

Takahashi, Minoru; Kobayashi, Tooru; Zhang, Mingguang; Mák, Michael; Štefanica, Jirí; Dostál, Václav; Zhao, Wei

36

High-power liquid-lithium target prototype for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.  

PubMed

A prototype of a compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT), which will possibly constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals, was built. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The liquid-lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated using a high-intensity proton beam (>10 kW), necessary for sufficient neutron flux. In off-line circulation tests, the liquid-lithium loop generated a stable lithium jet at high velocity, on a concave supporting wall; the concept will first be tested using a high-power electron beam impinging on the lithium jet. High intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 2-4 mA) will take place at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) superconducting linear accelerator currently in construction at SNRC. Radiological risks due to the (7)Be produced in the reaction were studied and will be handled through a proper design, including a cold trap and appropriate shielding. A moderator/reflector assembly is planned according to a Monte Carlo simulation, to create a neutron spectrum and intensity maximally effective to the treatment and to reduce prompt gamma radiation dose risks. PMID:21459008

Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Bisyakoev, M; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Hazenshprung, N; Kijel, D; Nagler, A; Silverman, I

2011-12-01

37

Synthesis and studies of boron based anion receptors and their use in non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new family of anion receptors based on boron compounds has been synthesized. These compounds can be used as anion receptors in lithium battery electrolytes and can greatly increase solubility and ionic conductivities of various lithium salts, such as LiF, LiCl, CFâCOOLi and CâFâCOOLi, in DME solutions. Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy studies show that Cl⁻ anions

X. Sun; X. Q. Yang; H. S. Lee; J. McBreen; L. S. Choi

1998-01-01

38

Lithium-Beryllium-Boron Isotopic Compositions in Meteoritic Hibonite: Implications for Origin of 10  

E-print Network

of Washington, Washington, DC, USA Typhoon Lee Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan history. Subject headings: cosmic rays -- meteorites, meteors, meteoroids -- nuclear reactions by irradiation, and the isotopic compositions of these elements are strongly energy dependent (Ramaty et al. 1996

Nittler, Larry R.

39

Cosmic Ray Models for Early Galactic Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron Production  

E-print Network

To understand better the early galactic production of Li, Be, and B by cosmic ray spallation and fusion reactions, the dependence of these production rates on cosmic ray models and model parameters is examined. The sensitivity of elemental and isotopic production to the cosmic ray pathlength magnitude and energy dependence, source spectrum, spallation kinematics, and cross section uncertainties is studied. Changes in these model features, particularly those features related to confinement, are shown to alter the Be- and B-versus-Fe slopes {}from a na\\"{\\i}ve quadratic relation. The implications of our results for the diffuse $\\gamma$-ray background are examined, and the role of chemical evolution and its relation to our results is noted. It is also noted that the unmeasured high energy behavior of $\\alpha+\\alpha$ fusion can lead to effects as large as a factor of 2 in the resultant yields. Future data should enable Population II Li, Be, and B abundances to constrain cosmic ray models for the early Galaxy.

Brian Fields; Keith Olive; David Schramm

1994-05-11

40

The isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray lithium, beryllium and boron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The isotopic composition of galactic-cosmic-ray Li, Be, and B has been measured near 100 MeV/nucleon by using the University of Chicago IMP 7 and IMP 8 cosmic-ray telescopes during 1973-1975. The measured abundances allow detailed checks of models of interstellar propagation and solar modulation to be made and conclusions to be drawn concerning the spectral forms at the source and the minimum solar modulation level. For example, comparing these results with local interstellar spectra calculated by using a 'leaky box' model, it is found that if solar modulation is ignored, there is no unique leakage mean free path consistent with all the observations. However, by taking account of a sizable level of residual solar modulation, excellent agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured abundances. Thus, these isotopic abundances confirm the old hypothesis that cosmic-ray Li, Be, and B are produced as secondaries in interstellar space.

Garcia-Munoz, M.; Mason, G. M.; Simpson, J. A.

1978-01-01

41

The isotopic composition of galactic cosmic-ray lithium, beryllium, and boron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The isotopes of cosmic-ray Li, Be, and B near 100 MeV per nucleon have been measured with cosmic-ray telescopes on board the IMP-7 and IMP-8 satellites during 1973 and 1974. The measured isotopic abundances provide a stringent test for models of interstellar propagation and solar modulation. It is found that the isotopic abundances can be explained using a steady-state interstellar propagation model with a 5-g/sq cm leakage mean free path. These results, taken along with Be-10 abundance measurements, indicate a longer lifetime for cosmic rays than that predicted by the usual assumption of an average interstellar density of 1 to 3 atoms per cu cm.

Garcia-Munoz, M.; Mason, G. M.; Simpson, J. A.

1975-01-01

42

Neutron dosimetry in boron neutron capture therapy using aqueous solutions of lithium acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development of a dosimetry method, based on liquid scintillation (LS) counting of the tritium that is produced in aqueous solutions of lithium acetate, for the determination of the boron and nitrogen absorbed doses in-phantom in BNCT. The dosimeter is passive, integrating, approximately tissue equivalent, and insensitive to gamma rays and the elastic scattering of fast neutrons. The dosimetry method exhibits a response which is proportional to the boron and nitrogen absorbed doses and which can be calibrated to NIST standard solutions of water spiked with tritium. For 0.2 g of lithium acetate dissolved in a milliliter of water, the measured sensitivity is (1.73±0.04)×10 -9 cpm per unit of thermal neutron fluence (in neutrons/cm 2). For the LS analyzer that was used, the background signal was 12.84±0.02 cpm, yielding a thermal neutron fluence threshold for this detection method of approximately 7×10 9 neutrons/cm 2.

Rakovan, L. J.; Blue, T. E.; Vest, A. L.

43

How does the boron concentration affect hydrogen storage in lithium decorated zero- and two-dimensional boron-carbon compounds?  

PubMed

A balance between the hydrogen capacity and reversibility is a big challenge in the search for hydrogen storage materials. Using van der Waals-corrected density functional theory, we perform a detailed study of the hydrogen molecules adsorption on lithium (Li) decorated zero- and two-dimensional boron-carbon (B-C) compounds. It is found that not only the Li bond strength but also the number of adsorbed hydrogen molecules depends on the B concentration. First, the binding of Li on the B-C compounds strengthens with the increase of the B concentration due to the stronger hybridization between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of the B-C compounds and Li 2p orbitals. Thus, Li atoms are not likely to form clusters, indicating a good reversible hydrogen storage. Second, higher B concentration results in weaker electric field produced by the charge transfer from Li to the B-C compounds. Therefore, one Li atom can adsorb up to 5H(2) molecules with the B concentration less than 50%. In contrast, the adsorption number of H(2) molecules is reduced to 4 when the B concentration is greater than or equal to 50%. Third, using a statistical model parametrized by the results of ab initio calculations, the adsorption and desorption of molecular hydrogens are calculated at ambient temperature and pressure. We find that the usable number of adsorbed H(2) per Li under ambient conditions decreases with the increase of B concentration. These results can serve as a guide in the design of new hydrogen storage materials based on B-C compounds. PMID:23318411

Ye, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Jia, Ran; Zeng, Zhi; Zhong, Wei

2013-02-21

44

Beryllium Enhancement as Evidence for Accretion in a Lithium-Rich F Dwarf  

E-print Network

The early F dwarf star ``J37'' in the open cluster NGC6633 shows an unusual pattern of photospheric abundances, including an order of magnitude enhancement of lithium and iron-peak elements, but an under-abundance of carbon. As a consequence of its thin convection zone these anomalies have been attributed to either radiative diffusion or the accretion of hydrogen-depleted material. By comparing high resolution VLT/UVES spectra of J37 (and other F stars in NGC 6633) with syntheses of the Be ii doublet region at 3131 Ang, we establish that J37 also has a Be abundance (A(Be)=3.0+/-0.5) that is at least ten times the cosmic value. This contradicts radiative diffusion models that produce a Li over-abundance, as they also predict photospheric Be depletion. Instead, since Be is a highly refractory element, it supports the notion that J37 is the first clear example of a star that has accreted volatile-depleted material with a composition similar to chondritic meteorites, although some diffusion may be necessary to explain the low C and O abundances.

J. F. Ashwell; R. D. Jeffries; B. Smalley; C. P. Deliyannis; A. Steinhauer; J. R. King

2005-08-04

45

Synthesis and studies of boron based anion receptors and their use in non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

A new family of anion receptors based on boron compounds has been synthesized. These compounds can be used as anion receptors in lithium battery electrolytes and can greatly increase solubility and ionic conductivities of various lithium salts, such as LiF, LiCl, CF{sub 3}COOLi and C{sub 2}F{sub 5}COOLi, in DME solutions. Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy studies show that Cl{sup {minus}} anions of LiCl are complexed with these compounds in DME solutions. The electrochemical stability of lithium salts and one of the boron compounds in deferent solvents was studied. For the first time, LiF has been successfully used as conducting salt in a novel electrolyte with this boron compound as an additive in DME. A rechargeable Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cell using this electrolyte was successfully cycled 51 times. However, the capacity fades with cycling due to decomposition of the solvent. The cycling performance of the battery was greatly improved by replacing DME with PC-EC-DMC as the solvent.

Sun, X.; Yang, X.Q.; Lee, H.S.; McBreen, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Choi, L.S. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1998-12-31

46

SYNTHESIS OF A NEW FAMILY OF FLUORINATED BORONATE COMPOUNDS AS ANION RECEPTORS AND STUDIES OF THEIR USE AS ADDITIVES IN LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTES.  

SciTech Connect

Numerous studies have been done on developing new electrolytes for lithium batteries with high ionic conductivity, and good chemical and electrochemical stability. In addition to the research on new salts and solvents, the use of cation receptors to reduce ion pairing in non-aqueous electrolytes has been considered as an approach to improve the properties of electrolytes. Although both cation and anion receptors enhance the dissociation of ion pairs and increase the conductivity of electrolytes, the use of anion receptors is more attractive for a lithium battery electrolyte because anion receptors increase the lithium transference number in the electrolyte. However, most available neutral anion receptors complex with anions through hydrogen binding and cannot be used in lithium batteries. Recently, we have reported on synthesis of a series of new neutral boron compounds as anion receptors based on the idea that electron-deficient boron would complex the anion of the ion pair. The anion complexation effect of these boron compounds was further enhanced by attaching electron-withdrawing groups. Here we report synthesis of another new family of boronate compounds. The effect of these new compounds on conductivity of lithium salts in non-aqueous solution was studied. The molecular weights of these new boronate compounds are lower than our previously reported boron compounds. Therefore, their effects on conductivity enhancement are superior. They also display high electrochemical stability up to 5 V.

MCBREEN,J.; LEE,H.S.; YANG,X.Q.

2001-06-08

47

Tuning Hydrogen Storage in Lithium-Functionalized BC2 N Sheets by Doping with Boron and Carbon.  

PubMed

First-principles calculations are used to explore the strong binding of lithium to boron- and carbon-doped BC2 N monolayers (BC2 NBC and BC2 NCN , respectively) without the formation of lithium clusters. In comparison to BC2 N and BC2 NCB , lithium-decorated BC2 NBC and BC2 NCN systems possess stronger s-p and p-p hybridization and, hence, the binding energy is higher. Lithium becomes partially positively charged by donating electron density to the more electronegative atoms of the sheet. Attractive van der Waals interactions are responsible for binding hydrogen molecules around the lithium atoms. Each lithium atom can adsorb three hydrogen molecules on both sides of the sheet, with an average hydrogen binding energy of approximately 0.2 eV, which is in the range required for practical applications. The BC2 NBC -Li and BC2 NCN -Li complexes can serve as high-capacity hydrogen-storage media with gravimetric hydrogen capacities of 9.88 and 9.94 wt?%, respectively. PMID:25056204

Qiu, Nian-Xiang; Zhang, Cheng-Hua; Xue, Ying

2014-10-01

48

Implications of Chloride, Boron, and Lithium in Hydrothermal Systems of Jamaica, WI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloride (Cl) often termed a "relatively conservative element" served as a very useful tracer (pathfinder element) in fluids from hydrothermal systems by comparing its concentration to those of select ions in solution. The concentrations of major ions of three thermal spring water samples: Bath hot springs (BTHS and BTHN), Milk River (MKR), Windsor (WS) and a cold spring water sample-Salt River spring (SR) of Jamaica were plotted against the Cl concentration. Results of chemical analyses, graphical analyses, and hydrogeochemical modeling confirmed three water types: Na-Cl-SO4, Na-Cl, and Ca-Na-Cl. Whereas chloride concentrations at MKR, WS and SR strongly indicate the influence of sea water mixing, the concentrations at MKR and SR are spatially related to a major tectonic feature, the South Coast Fault Zone (SCFZ). A principal component analysis (PCA) performed for the water samples showed a direct correlation between the concentrations of chloride and other conservative elements: boron (B), lithium (Li), bromide (Br), strontium (Sr), arsenic (As), and cesium (Cs). Isotope results (?18O, ?2H, 3H) of the water samples implied minimal shallow mixing with deep circulating thermal fluids at the Bath site and the predominance of mixing with deep-circulating brines at the WS, MKR, and SR sites. Ionic ratios (Cl/B, Br/Cl, Li/B, have provided further interesting results for these hydrothermal systems including (1) a power series relationship between Li/B and SO4/Cl ratios; (2) the variation of B/Li versus Cl/SO4 concentrations with relatively prolonged water-rock contact time for these waters occurring at depth; and (3) low enthalpy. A discriminant analysis (DA) aided in the delineation of three independent hydrothermal systems based on processes affecting the chemical compositions of the water samples. Calculated chloride convective heat fluxes range between compared to the boron flux range of 3.41 x 104 - 1.63 x 106 Calories/second.

Wishart, D.

2012-12-01

49

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2012, estimated world lithium consumption was about 28 kt (31,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, an 8 percent increase from that of 2011. Estimated U.S. consumption was about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, the same as that of 2011. The United States was thought to rank fourth in consumption of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Rockwood Lithium Inc., produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

Jaskula, B.W.

2013-01-01

50

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2010, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1 kt (1,100 st) of contained lithium, a 23-percent decrease from 2009. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium. It remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2010, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 21 kt (22,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 12-percent increase from 2009.

Jaskula, B.W.

2011-01-01

51

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2009, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1.2 kt (1,300 st) of contained lithium, a 40-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium, and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2009, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 18.7 kt (20,600 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds.

Jaskula, B.W.

2010-01-01

52

Engineering the Work Function of Buckled Boron ?-Sheet by Lithium Adsorption: A First-Principles Investigation.  

PubMed

First-principles density functional theory calculations were performed to study the effect of Li adsorption on the structural and electronic properties, particularly the work function, of boron ?-sheet. The calculated binding energies indicated that boron ?-sheet could be well stabilized by the adsorption of Li atoms. Furthermore, the work functions of Li-adsorbed boron ?-sheets were observed to decrease drastically with increasing Li coverage. The work functions are lower than that of Mg and even, for some of them, lower than that of Ca, indicating a considerable potential application of Li-adsorbed boron ?-sheets as field-emission and electrode materials. Based on the calculated geometric and electronic structures, we discuss in details some possible aspects affecting the work function. The Li coverage dependence of the work functions of Li-adsorbed boron ?-sheets was further confirmed by electrostatic potential analyses. The relationship between the work function variation and the Fermi and vacuum energy level shifts was also discussed, and we observed that the variation of the work function is primarily associated with the shift of the Fermi energy level. It is the surface dipole formed by the interaction between adatoms and substrate that should be responsible for the observed variation of the work function, whereas the increasing negative charge and rumpling for boron ?-sheet only play minor roles. Additionally, the effect of Li adatoms on the work function of boron ?-sheet was confirmed to be much stronger than that of graphene or a graphene double layer. PMID:25333913

Zheng, Bing; Yu, Hai-Tao; Xie, Ying; Lian, Yong-Fu

2014-11-26

53

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

Jaskula, B.W.

2012-01-01

54

Behaviour of boron, beryllium, and lithium during melting and crystallization: constraints from mineral-melt partitioning experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to provide a more substantial foundation for interpreting the behaviour of B, Be, and Li during the production and early crystallization of primitive igneous rocks, we have measured olivine-, clinopyroxene-, orthopyroxene-, and amphibole-melt partition coefficients for these elements involving broadly basaltic-andesitic melt compositions. Experiments were conducted at both one atmosphere and 1.0–1.5 GPa and employed a time-temperature history

J. M. Brenan; E. Neroda; C. C. Lundstrom; H. F. Shaw; F. J. Ryerson; D. L. Phinney

1998-01-01

55

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

Ober, J.A.

2006-01-01

56

Analysis of ultratrace lithium and boron by neutron activation and mass-spectrometric measurement of 3He and 4He.  

PubMed

A new technique for analysis of lithium and boron at ultratrace concentrations (less than 10(-8)g g-1) is described. The method consists of mass-spectrometric assay of 3He from decay of tritium produced by thermal-neutron reaction on 6Li, and 4He produced by thermal-neutron reaction on 10B. Two neutron-irradiation facilities were used: the McMaster reactor, which is 235U-enriched and light-water moderated; and a graphite-moderated thermal column attached to the 235U-enriched, heavy-water-moderated core at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) reactor. In the McMaster irradiations, fast neutrons (greater than 0.2 MeV) induce the reactions 14N(n, 3H)12C, 12C(n, alpha)9Be, 16O(n, alpha)13C, and 14N(n, alpha)11B. These reactions become serious sources of error in samples such as human blood which have very low concentrations of lithium and boron, and high concentrations of nitrogen, carbon and oxygen. In the NBS thermal column, fast-neutron reactions are virtually absent, and only corrections for thermal-neutron capture by deuterium, and thermal-neutron (n, alpha) reactions on oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, potassium, and calcium need to be taken into account. Results are presented for various actual samples including human blood and its components, and some standard biological reference materials, to provide a realistic base for other workers to judge the reliability of the method. PMID:2822629

Clarke, W B; Koekebakker, M; Barr, R D; Downing, R G; Fleming, R F

1987-01-01

57

Lithium-6 filter for a fission converter-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy irradiation facility beam  

E-print Network

(cont.) A storage system was designed to contain the lithium-6 filter safely when it is not in use. A mixed field dosimetry method was used to measure the photon, thermal neutron and fast neutron dose. The measured advantage ...

Gao, Wei, Ph. D.

2005-01-01

58

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lithium industry can be divided into two sectors: ore concentrate producers and chemical producers. Ore concentrate producers mine lithium minerals. They beneficiate the ores to produce material for use in ceramics and glass manufacturing.

Ober, J.

1998-01-01

59

Boron-doped carbon prepared from PFO as a lithium-ion battery anode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A petroleum-based Li-ion battery anode was prepared by thermal condensation of pyrolysis fuel oil (PFO) and a subsequent carbonization process. H3BO3 was used as a catalyst for efficient thermal condensation, carbonization and battery performance. The influence of the carbonization temperature on the carbon structure and battery performance was also investigated. Notably, H3BO3 promoted thermal condensation and formation of a graphitic carbon structure and acted as a boron doping agent. Boron-doping attenuated the highly active sites in carbon and effectively controlled formation of the SEI layer, which resulted in an increase in the initial efficiency of the anode. For the sample carbonized at 900 °C, a reversible capacity of 301 mAh/g and an initial efficiency of 78.6% were obtained. In addition, the samples obtained at different carbonization temperatures were all highly stable over 50 cycles, with capacity retentions greater than 90%.

Kim, Jong Gu; Liu, Fei; Lee, Chul-Wee; Lee, Young-Seak; Im, Ji Sun

2014-08-01

60

High power accelerator-based boron neutron capture with a liquid lithium target and new applications to treatment of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

A new conceptual design for an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (ABNCT) facility based on the high-current low-energy proton beam driven by the linear accelerator at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) incident on a windowless forced-flow liquid-lithium target, is described. The liquid-lithium target, currently in construction at Soreq NRC, will produce a neutron field suitable for the BNCT treatment of deep-seated tumor tissues, through the reaction (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be. The liquid-lithium target is designed to overcome the major problem of solid lithium targets, namely to sustain and dissipate the power deposited by the high-intensity proton beam. Together with diseases conventionally targeted by BNCT, we propose to study the application of our setup to a novel approach in treatment of diseases associated with bacterial infections and biofilms, e.g. inflammations on implants and prosthetic devices, cystic fibrosis, infectious kidney stones. Feasibility experiments evaluating the boron neutron capture effectiveness on bacteria annihilation are taking place at the Soreq nuclear reactor. PMID:19406650

Halfon, S; Paul, M; Steinberg, D; Nagler, A; Arenshtam, A; Kijel, D; Polacheck, I; Srebnik, M

2009-07-01

61

Application of RIMS to the Study of Beryllium ChronologyApplication of RIMS to the Study of Beryllium Chronology in Early Solar System Condensatesin Early Solar System Condensates  

E-print Network

Application of RIMS to the Study of Beryllium ChronologyApplication of RIMS to the Study of Beryllium Chronology in Early Solar System Condensatesin Early Solar System Condensates K. B. Knight1, Beryllium and Boron in the Early Solar System Many unanswered questions remain concerning the timing

Grossman, Lawrence

62

Beryllium Toxicity  

MedlinePLUS

... shortness of breath, chest pains, night sweats, and fatigue. Sometimes: difficulty breathing Lung Cancer Lung cancer is ... be laundered with other family clothing to avoid cross contamination. Also, there is a beryllium exposure risk ...

63

Boron, fluoride, strontium and lithium anomalies in fresh groundwater of Lithuania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalies of certain trace elements most typical of salt water sometimes occur in fresh groundwater aquifers. For example, it is a well-known fact that Permian-Devonian aquifers contain increased concentrations of fluoride in West Lithuania. In the recent years, increased concentrations of boron and strontium have also been found there. An analysis of available data shows that natural anomalies of B, F, Sr and perhaps Li interrelate with fresh-salt water transit zones where groundwater circulates in fine-grained clayey sand or in fissured beds of limestone, dolomite or gypsum deposited in marginal parts of high salinity basins.

Klimas, Algirdas; Mališauskas, Algirdas

2008-01-01

64

A first-principles study of lithium-decorated hybrid boron nitride and graphene domains for hydrogen storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First-principles calculations are performed to investigate the adsorption of hydrogen onto Li-decorated hybrid boron nitride and graphene domains of (BN)xC1-x complexes with x = 1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 0, and B0.125C0.875. The most stable adsorption sites for the nth hydrogen molecule in the lithium-decorated (BN)xC1-x complexes are systematically discussed. The most stable adsorption sites were affected by the charge localization, and the hydrogen molecules were favorably located above the C-C bonds beside the Li atom. The results show that the nitrogen atoms in the substrate planes could increase the hybridization between the 2p orbitals of Li and the orbitals of H2. The results revealed that the (BN)xC1-x complexes not only have good thermal stability but they also exhibit a high hydrogen storage of 8.7% because of their dehydrogenation ability.

Hu, Zi-Yu; Shao, Xiaohong; Wang, Da; Liu, Li-Min; Johnson, J. Karl

2014-08-01

65

A first-principles study of lithium-decorated hybrid boron nitride and graphene domains for hydrogen storage.  

PubMed

First-principles calculations are performed to investigate the adsorption of hydrogen onto Li-decorated hybrid boron nitride and graphene domains of (BN)(x)C(1-x) complexes with x = 1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 0, and B0.125C0.875. The most stable adsorption sites for the nth hydrogen molecule in the lithium-decorated (BN)(x)C(1-x) complexes are systematically discussed. The most stable adsorption sites were affected by the charge localization, and the hydrogen molecules were favorably located above the C-C bonds beside the Li atom. The results show that the nitrogen atoms in the substrate planes could increase the hybridization between the 2p orbitals of Li and the orbitals of H2. The results revealed that the (BN)(x)C(1-x) complexes not only have good thermal stability but they also exhibit a high hydrogen storage of 8.7% because of their dehydrogenation ability. PMID:25173034

Hu, Zi-Yu; Shao, Xiaohong; Wang, Da; Liu, Li-Min; Johnson, J Karl

2014-08-28

66

A comparison of 75 MeV boron and 50 MeV lithium ion irradiation effects on 200 GHz SiGe HBTs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The third generation Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (200 GHz SiGe HBTs) were irradiated with 50 MeV Lithium and 75 MeV Boron ions in the dose ranging from 1 Mrad to 100 Mrad. The different electrical characteristics like forward-mode Gummel characteristics, inverse-mode Gummel characteristics, excess base current and current gain were studied before and after ion irradiation. The damage constants for 50 MeV Li3+ and 100 MeV B5+ ion irradiated SiGe HBTs were calculated using Messenger-Spratt equation.

Praveen, K. C.; Pushpa, N.; Shiva, H. B.; Cressler, J. D.; Tripathi, Ambuj; Gnana Prakash, A. P.

2013-02-01

67

Piezoresistance and hole transport in beryllium-doped silicon.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The resistivity and piezoresistance of p-type silicon doped with beryllium have been studied as a function of temperature, crystal orientation, and beryllium doping concentration. It is shown that the temperature coefficient of resistance can be varied and reduced to zero near room temperature by varying the beryllium doping level. Similarly, the magnitude of the piezoresistance gauge factor for beryllium-doped silicon is slightly larger than for silicon doped with a shallow acceptor impurity such as boron, while the temperature coefficient of piezoresistance is about the same for material containing these two dopants. These results are discussed in terms of a model for the piezoresistance of compensated p-type silicon.

Littlejohn, M. A.; Robertson, J. B.

1972-01-01

68

Feasibility of using beryllium as internal reference to reduce non-spectroscopic carbon species matrix effect in the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determination of boron in biological samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism by which carbon matrix species cause non-spectroscopic matrix interference on boron (B) and beryllium (Be) during the determination of B in biological samples is investigated. The study indicates that, unlike other matrix species such as Ca and Na that cause non-spectroscopic matrix interference only through space charge effect, carbon species manifest non-spectroscopic interference by two mechanisms. The minor non-spectroscopic interference of carbon is through space charge effect. However, the major non-spectroscopic effect of carbon is by a charge transfer mechanism from C +-species to B and Be atoms in the central channel of the plasma discharge. The large difference in the magnitude of the carbon charge transfer non-spectroscopic matrix interference between Be and B makes Be unsuitable as an internal reference for B in solutions containing more than 1500 ?g/ml dissolved organic carbon (DOC). This DOC content is approximately half the DOC usually present in the final sample solution for B determination in biological samples. However, Be still acts as a perfect internal reference to B in solution containing matrix elements that exert their non-spectroscopic interference effect through space charge mechanism (such as Na, K, Ca, etc.).

Al-Ammar, Assad S.; Reitznerová, Eva; Barnes, Ramon M.

1999-12-01

69

Chronic Beryllium Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... LS. Epidemiology of beryllium sensitizations and disease in nuclear workers. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 148:985- ... chronic beryllium disease. In: Rossman MD, Preuss OP, Powers MB, eds. Beryllium: Biomedical and Environmental Aspects. Baltimore: ...

70

Thermochemical properties, electronic structure and bonding of mixed lithium boron clusters (B nLi, n = 1-8) and their anions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic structure and molecular properties of a series of small mixed lithium boron clusters B nLi ( n = 1-8) in both neutral and anionic states are investigated using quantum chemical methods. The lowest-energy structures are identified. Standard heats of formation, adiabatic electron affinities (EAs) and vertical detachment energies (VDEs) are predicted using coupled-cluster theory CCSD(T)/6-311+G(d) calculations. Addition of Li to B n to form B nLi clusters marginally distorts the geometries of the parent B n. The chemical bond in B nLi has a highly ionic character in which the positive charges are located on Li. MO analysis confirms a similar degree of aromaticity between B nLi and Bn-. The relative stabilities of the clusters are evaluated using the average binding energy ( E b), second order difference in energy (? 2E), resonance energy (RE) and normalized resonance energy (NRE). Both REs and NREs quantities of the Li-doped boron clusters are consistently larger than those of the pure B n clusters. The B 3Li species exhibits a remarkably high stability within the B nLi series.

Tai, Truong Ba; Nguyen, Minh Tho

2010-09-01

71

Photoelectron spectroscopy of lithium and gold alloyed boron oxide clusters: charge transfer complexes, covalent gold, hyperhalogen, and dual three-center four-electron hyperbonds.  

PubMed

We report on the structural and electronic properties and chemical bonding in a series of lithium and gold alloyed boron oxide clusters: B2O3(-), LiB2O3(-), AuB2O3(-), and LiAuB2O3(-). The clusters have been produced by laser vaporization and characterized using photoelectron spectroscopy, in combination with the Coalescence Kick and Basin Hopping global-minimum searches and density-functional theory and molecular orbital theory calculations. Electron affinities of B2O3, LiB2O3, AuB2O3, and LiAuB2O3 neutral clusters are measured to be 1.45 ± 0.08, 4.25 ± 0.08, 6.05 ± 0.08, and 2.40 ± 0.08 eV, respectively. The experimental and computational data allow the cluster structures to be established for the anions as well as their neutrals. While B2O3(-) (C2v) is bent, the three alloy clusters, LiB2O3(-) (C?v), AuB2O3(-) (Cs), and LiAuB2O3(-) (C?v), adopt linear or quasi-linear geometries with a metal center inserted between BO and OBO subunits, featuring charge transfer complexes, covalent gold, hyperhalogen, and dual three-center four-electron (3c-4e) ? hyperbonds. The current results suggest the possibility of altering and fine-tuning the properties of boron oxides via alloying, which may lead to markedly different electronic structures and chemical reactivities. The LiB2O3 cluster belongs to the class of oxidizing agents called superhalogens, whereas AuB2O3 is a hyperhalogen species. Dual 3c-4e ? hyperbonds represent a critical bonding element in boron oxides and are considered to be the root of delocalized bonding and aromaticity therein. PMID:24480811

Tian, Wen-Juan; Xu, Hong-Guang; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Chen, Qiang; Zheng, Wei-Jun; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian

2014-03-21

72

Strengthened lithium for x-ray blast windows  

SciTech Connect

Lithium's high x-ray transparency makes it an attractive material for windows intended to protect soft x-ray diagnostics in high energy density experiments. Pure lithium is soft and weak, but lithium mixed with lithium hydride powder becomes harder and stronger, in principle without any additional x-ray absorption. A comparison with the standard material for x-ray windows, beryllium, suggests that lithium or lithium strengthened by lithium hydride may well be an excellent option for such windows.

Pereira, N. R. [Ecopulse Inc., P.O. Box 528, Springfield, Virginia 22150 (United States); Imam, M. A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2008-05-15

73

The role of aqueous fluids in the slab-to-mantle transfer of boron, beryllium, and lithium during subduction: experiments and models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low atomic mass elements B, Be, and Li are viewed as sensitive tracers of the involvement of subducted materials in the genesis of island arc magmas. In order to better assess the role of dense aqueous fluids in the slab-to-mantle transfer of these elements during subduction, measurements have been made of partition coefficients for B, Be, and Li between aqueous fluid and minerals likely to be present in the basaltic portion of the downgoing slab, namely clinopyroxene and garnet. Experiments at 900°C and 2.0 GPa reveal that the average clinopyroxene-fluid partition coefficient for Be (˜2) exceeds that for either Li (˜0.2) or B (˜0.02) and values are 100× (B,Li) to 1000× (Be) larger than partition coefficients for garnet. Clinopyroxene-fluid partition coefficients were found to vary with the alumina content of run-product clinopyroxenes, but this variation is interpreted to reflect the specific exchange reaction that governs the incorporation of these elements into the pyroxene structure, and not mineral-fluid disequilibrium. The element pairs B-Be, B-Nb, and Li-Yb are considered to be essentially unfractionated during the partial melting process, as evidence by their coherent behaviour in apparently cogenetic lavas and the similarity in their measured mineral-melt partition coefficients. A comparison of clinopyroxene-fluid partition coefficients for these elements with clinopyroxene-silicate melt values reveals that B/Be, B/Nb, and Li/Yb ratios will be significantly fractionated in coexisting aqueous fluid with respect to the residual solid. The elevated ratios of B/Be, B/Nb, and Li/Yb in island arc lavas relative to MORB are thus considered to be consistent with an origin by fluid-mediated slab-to-mantle transport. A quantitative model of slab dehydration accompanied by progressive water loss and changes in residual mineral mode reveals that source regions with B/Be and B/Nb appropriate for producing the Izu and Kurile IAB suites can be generated using available estimates for the composition of altered oceanic crust, although B abundances at the high end of published values are required. Because the highest values of B/Be and B/Nb are produced in the mantle wedge at relatively shallow depths, some additional process, such as subduction-induced flow of a hydrated mantle wedge, is required in order to transfer enriched material to depths appropriate for the formation of magmas beneath the volcanic front. Calculations indicate that by the time the slab reaches a depth of 200 km, B/Be and B/Nb in the dehydration residue has been reduced to ˜5-12% of initial values. Thus, the preferential loss of B during dehydration is viewed as a viable mechanism to prevent the excess B acquired during near-surface alteration of oceanic crust from being cycled into the mantle, thereby maintaining the distinction in B/Be and B/Nb for mantle and crustal reservoirs.

Brenan, James M.; Ryerson, Frederick J.; Shaw, Henry F.

1998-10-01

74

The role of aqueous fluids in the slab-to-mantle transfer of boron, beryllium, and lithium during subduction: experiments and models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low atomic mass elements B, Be, and Li are viewed as sensitive tracers of the involvement of subducted materials in the genesis of island arc magmas. In order to better assess the role of dense aqueous fluids in the slab-to-mantle transfer of these elements during subduction, measurements have been made of partition coefficients for B, Be, and Li between

James M. Brenan; Frederick J. Ryerson; Henry F. Shaw

1998-01-01

75

Low temperature coefficient of resistance and high gage factor in beryllium-doped silicon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gage factor and resistivity of p-type silicon doped with beryllium was studied as a function of temperature, crystal orientation, and beryllium doping concentration. It was shown that the temperature coefficient of resistance can be varied and reduced to zero near room temperature by varying the beryllium doping level. Similarly, the magnitude of the piezoresistance gage factor for beryllium-doped silicon is slightly larger than for silicon doped with a shallow acceptor impurity such as boron, whereas the temperature coefficient of piezoresistance is about the same for material containing these two dopants. These results are discussed in terms of a model for the piezoresistance of compensated p-type silicon.

Robertson, J. B.; Littlejohn, M. A.

1974-01-01

76

Testing Spallation Processes With Beryllium and Boron  

E-print Network

The nucleosynthesis of Be and B by spallation processes provides unique insight into the origin of cosmic rays. Namely, different spallation schemes predict sharply different trends for the growth of LiBeB abundances with respect to oxygen. ``Primary'' mechanisms predict BeB $\\propto$ O, and are well motivated by the data if O/Fe is constant at low metallicity. In contrast, ``secondary'' mechanisms predict BeB $\\propto$ O$^2$ and are consistent with the data if O/Fe increases towards low metallicity as some recent data suggest. Clearly, any primary mechanism, if operative, will dominate early in the history of the Galaxy. In this paper, we fit the BeB data to a two-component scheme which includes both primary and secondary trends. In this way, the data can be used to probe the period in which primary mechanisms are effective. We analyze the data using consistent stellar atmospheric parameters based on Balmer line data and the continuum infrared flux. Results depend sensitively on Pop II O abundances and, unfortunately, on the choice of stellar parameters. When using recent results which show O/Fe increasing toward lower metallicity, a two-component Be-O fits indicates that primary and secondary components contribute equally at [O/H]$_{eq}$ = -1.8 for Balmer line data; and [O/H]$_{eq}$ = -1.4 to -1.8 for IRFM. We apply these constraints to recent models for LiBeB origin. The Balmer line data does not show any evidence for primary production. On the other hand, the IRFM data does indicate a preference for a two-component model, such as a combination of standard GCR and metal-enriched particles accelerated in superbubbles. These conclusions rely on a detailed understanding of the abundance data including systematic effects which may alter the derived O-Fe and BeB-Fe relations.

Brian D. Fields; Keith A. Olive; Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Michel Casse

1999-11-17

77

Boron and beryllium in Gamma Geminorum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations have been made of the B II resonance line at 1362 A in the A0 IV star Gamma Gem with the Princeton spectrometer on the Copernicus satellite at a spectral resolution of 0.05 A. Complementary ground-based observations of the Be II resonance lines at 3130 and 3131 A have been made at Mauna Kea Observatory with a comparable resolution. A model-atmosphere abundance analysis has been done which includes the effects of the lines that blend with the B II and Be II lines. Previous data on Alpha Lyr and Alpha CMa for B II (which blends with a V III feature) have been reanalyzed with the help of new photographic and Reticon data from Mauna Kea which enable the determination of the V abundance. The results show that Gamma Gem is depleted in B by a factor of 5-10 relative to Alpha Lyr and other normal B stars and depleted in Be by at least a factor of four. By comparison, the hot Am star Alpha CMa is B-deficient by about three orders of magnitude and Be-deficient by at least fifteen times. It is suggested that the abundance deficiencies are due to diffusion, and that Alpha CMa is intrinsically a slow rotator, and Gamma Gem is a slightly evolved slow rotator where some, but not all, of the B and Be has resurfaced.

Boesgaard, A. M.; Praderie, F.

1981-01-01

78

MATERIALS ENGINEERING KEYWORDS: beryllium, stainless  

E-print Network

MATERIALS ENGINEERING KEYWORDS: beryllium, stainless steel, heat conductance EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF THE INTERFACE HEAT CONDUCTANCE BETWEEN NONCONFORMING BERYLLIUM AND TYPE 316 STAINLESS STEEL In fusion blanket designs that employ beryllium as a neutron multiplier, the interface conductance h plays

Abdou, Mohamed

79

Beryllium Sensitization Progresses to Chronic Beryllium Disease A Longitudinal Study of Disease Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test is used in medical surveillance to identify both beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease. Approximately 50% of individuals with beryllium sensitization have chronic beryllium disease at the time of their initial clinical evaluation; however, the rate of progression from beryllium sensitization to chronic beryllium disease is unknown. We monitored a cohort of beryllium-sensitized patients

Lee S. Newman; Margaret M. Mroz; Ronald Balkissoon; Lisa A. Maier

2004-01-01

80

Beryllium disease: a clinical perspective  

SciTech Connect

A relatively new occupational disease, beryllium poisoning, is discussed. The history of this respiratory disease among workers after beryllium exposure from extraction and alloy manufacturing is not well documented in the US Attempts by industry to delay investigations into beryllium toxicity are described. The specific incidents occurring at a fluorescent lamp manufacturing plant in Salem, Massachusetts are presented. Clinical observations of chronic beryllium disease are discussed. Symptoms are described. The current status of diagnosis and treatment of beryllium poisoning is presented.

Hardy, H.L.

1980-02-01

81

Cooperativity in beryllium bonds.  

PubMed

A theoretical study of the beryllium bonded clusters of the (iminomethyl)beryllium hydride and (iminomethyl)beryllium fluoride [HC(BeX)=NH, X = H, F] molecules has been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) level of theory. Linear and cyclic clusters have been characterized up to the decamer. The geometric, energetic, electronic and NMR properties of the clusters clearly indicate positive cooperativity. The evolution of the molecular properties, as the size of the cluster increases, is similar to those reported in polymers held together by hydrogen bonds. PMID:24452820

Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Yáñez, Manuel; Mó, Otilia

2014-03-01

82

Investigation of the boron-oxygen network in borate glasses by infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium borate glasses are fast ionic conductors in which the lithium ions conductivity is all the more important as the content in lithium oxide and in lithium salt is higher. In the perspective of their use as electrolytes in solid state micro-batteries, we have studied the conformation of the boron-oxygen network of lithium halides \\

M. Massot; C. Julien; M. Balkanski

1989-01-01

83

Beryllium Manufacturing Processes  

SciTech Connect

This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61 cm high), may be cut or machined into parts or be thermomechanically processed to develop the desired microstructure, properties, and shapes. Vacuum hot-isostatic pressing and cold-isostatic pressing (CIP) followed by sintering and possibly by a final HIP'ing (CIP/Sinter/HIP) are important in their use for the production of near net-shaped parts. For the same starting powder, a HIP'ed product will have less anisotropy than that obtained for a VHP'ed product. A schematic presentation illustrating the difference between VHP'ing and HIP'ing is shown in Figure I-1. The types of powders and the various beryllium grades produced from the consolidated powders and their ambient-temperature mechanical properties were presented in the consolidation report referred to above. Elevated-temperature properties and the effect of processing variables on mechanical properties are described in the mechanical properties report. Beryllium can also be deposited as coatings as well as freestanding forms. The microstructure, properties, and various methods used that are related to the deposition of beryllium are discussed in the report on beryllium coatings.

Goldberg, A

2006-06-30

84

Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fabrications of large Beryllium optical components are fundamentally limited by available facility capabilities. To overcome this limitation, NASA funded Brush Wellman Corp to study a Be joining process. Four 76 mm diameters samples and a 0.5 mm diameter Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (JBMD) were fabricated. This presentation will review the fabrication of these samples and summarize the results of their cryogenic testing at MSFCs XRCF.

Stahl, H. Philip; Parsonage, Tom; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

85

Containerless processing of beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Melting and solidification of a beryllium alloy containing 1.5% BeO by weight in the weightless environment of space has produced cast beryllium with a relatively uniform dispersion of BeO throughout. Examination of the cast material shows that it is coarse grained, although the BeO is not heavily agglomerated in the flight specimen. Ground based comparison experiments show extreme agglomeration and segregation of BeO, resulting in large zones which are practically free of the oxide. Several postulated hypotheses for the failure to grain refine the beryllium are formulated. These are: (1) spherodization of the BeO particles during specimen preparation and during the molten phase of the experiment; (2) loss of nucleation potency through aging in the molten phase; and (3) inability of BeO to act as a grain refiner for beryllium. Further investigation with non spherodized particles and shorter dwell times molten may delineate which of these hypotheses are valid. The results of this flight experiment indicate that the weightless environment of space is an important asset in conducting research to find grain refiners for beryllium and other metals for which cast dispersions of grain refining agents cannot be prepared terrestrially due to gravitationally driven settling and agglomeration.

Wouch, G.; Keith, G. H.; Frost, R. T.; Pinto, N. P.

1977-01-01

86

Beryllium disease: A clinical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relatively new occupational disease, beryllium poisoning, is discussed. The history of this respiratory disease among workers after beryllium exposure from extraction and alloy manufacturing is not well documented in the US Attempts by industry to delay investigations into beryllium toxicity are described. The specific incidents occurring at a fluorescent lamp manufacturing plant in Salem, Massachusetts are presented. Clinical observations

H. Hardy

1980-01-01

87

EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF BERYLLIUM, BERYLLIUM CHLORIDE, BERYLLIUM FLUORIDE, AND BERYLLIUM NITRATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Beryllium is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B2 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). vidence on potential arcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient," and the evidence from human studies is "Inadequa...

88

Boron nanotubes.  

PubMed

A survey of novel classes of nanotubular materials based on boron is presented. Pure boron nanotubes are a consequence of a general Aufbau principle for boron clusters and solid boron phases, which postulates various novel boron materials besides the well-known bulk phases of boron based on boron icosahedra. Furthermore, several numerical studies suggest the existence of a large family of compound nanotubular materials derived from crystalline AlB2. We compare these novel boron-based nanotubular materials to standard nanotubular systems built from carbon, and point out a number of remarkable structural and electronic properties that make boron-based nanotubular materials an ideal component for composite nanodevices and extended nanotubular networks. PMID:16208735

Quandt, Alexander; Boustani, Ihsan

2005-10-14

89

10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific...Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The...

2011-01-01

90

10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific...Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The...

2012-01-01

91

10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific...Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The...

2013-01-01

92

10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific...Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The...

2014-01-01

93

10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific...Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The...

2010-01-01

94

Synthesis of a new family of fluorinated boronate compounds as anion receptors and studies of their use as additives in lithium battery electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have been done on developing new electrolytes for lithium batteries with high ionic conductivity, and good chemical and electrochemical stability. In addition to the research on new salts and solvents, the use of cation receptors to reduce ion pairing in non-aqueous electrolytes has been considered as an approach to improve the properties of electrolytes. Although both cation and

H. S. Lee; X. Q. Yang; X. Sun; J. McBreen

2001-01-01

95

Rocky Flats beryllium health surveillance  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP), initiated in June 1991, was designed to provide medical surveillance for current and former employees exposed to beryllium. The BHSP identifies individuals who have developed beryllium sensitivity using the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). A detailed medical evaluation to determine the prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is offered to individuals identified as beryllium sensitized or to those who have chest X-ray changes suggestive of CBD. The BHSP has identified 27 cases of CBD and another 74 cases of beryllium sensitization out of 4268 individuals tested. The distribution of BeLPT values for normal, sensitized, and CBD-identified individuals is described. Based on the information collected during the first 3 1/3 years of the BHSP, the BeLPT is the most effective means for the early identification of beryllium-sensitized individuals and to identify individuals who may have CBD. The need for BeLPT retesting is demonstrated through the identification of beryllium sensitization in individuals who previously tested normal. Posterior/anterior chest X-rays were not effective in the identification of CBD. 12 refs., 8 tabs.

Stange, A.W.; Furman, F.J.; Hilmas, D.E. [Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

1996-10-01

96

Joining of Beryllium  

SciTech Connect

A handbook dealing with the many aspects of beryllium that would be important for the users of this metal is currently being prepared. With an introduction on the applications, advantages and limitations in the use of this metal the following topics will be discussed in this handbook: physical, thermal, and nuclear properties; extraction from the ores; purification and casting of ingots; production and types of beryllium powders; consolidation methods, grades, and properties; mechanical properties with emphasis on the various factors affecting these properties; forming and mechanical working; welding, brazing, bonding, and fastening; machining; powder deposition; corrosion; health aspects; and examples of production of components. This report consists of ''Section X--Joining'' from the handbook. The prefix X is maintained here for the figures, tables and references. In this section the different methods used for joining beryllium and the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each are presented. The methods discussed are fusion welding, brazing, solid state bonding (diffusion bonding and deformation bonding), soldering, and mechanical fastening. Since beryllium has a high affinity for oxygen and nitrogen with the formation of oxides and nitrides, considerable care must be taken on heating the metal, to protect it from the ambient atmosphere. In addition, mating surfaces must be cleaned and joints must be designed to minimize residual stresses as well as locations for stress concentration (notch effects). In joining any two metals the danger exists of having galvanic corrosion if the part is subjected to moisture or to any type of corroding environment. This becomes a problem if the less noble (anodic) metal has a significantly smaller area than the more noble (cathodic) metal since the ions (positive charges) from the anodic (corroding) metal must correspond to the number of electrons (negative charges) involved at the cathode. Beryllium is anodic to almost all metals; thus, when joined to other metals and exposed even to a mild environment it may be susceptible to corrosion. In designing a Be-metal joint one must also consider the environment to which the assembled component will be exposed in service.

Goldberg, A

2006-02-01

97

5. VIEW OF BERYLLIUM PROCESSING AREA, ROLLING MILL. BERYLLIUM FORMING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF BERYLLIUM PROCESSING AREA, ROLLING MILL. BERYLLIUM FORMING BEGAN IN SIDE A OF THE BUILDING IN 1962. (11/5/73) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

98

Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum 4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 {mu}m) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications.

Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.; Jacobson, L.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

1993-12-31

99

New electrolytes using Li 2O or Li 2O 2 oxides and tris(pentafluorophenyl) borane as boron based anion receptor for lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new system of electrolytes has been developed and studied for lithium-ion batteries. This new system is based on the interactions between Li2O or Li2O2 and tris(pentafluorophenyl) borane (TPFPB) in carbonate based organic solvents. This opens up a completely new approach in developing non-aqueous electrolytes. In general, the solubility of Li2O or Li2O2 is very low in organic solvents and

B. Xie; H. S. Lee; H. Li; X. Q. Yang; J. McBreen; L. Q. Chen

2008-01-01

100

RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING BERYLLIUM SHEET  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was determined that beryllium cross-rolled sheet can be resistance ; welded. Pre- and post-heating reduced the tendency for cracking by reducing the ; residual stress level during cooling. The cast nugget grain size was dependent ; on base metal grain size. Electrode sticking was reduced by improved surface ; finish. Beryllium weldments showed adequate strength only if proper design

Jahnle

1962-01-01

101

Ceramic-metal seals for advanced battery systems. [sodium sulfur and lithium sulfur batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The search for materials which are electrochemically compatible with the lithium sulfur and sodium sulfur systems is discussed. The use liquid or braze alloys, titanium hydrite coatings, and tungsten yttria for bonding beryllium with ceramic is examined.

Reed, L.

1978-01-01

102

Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of dissolved arsenic, boron, lithium, selenium, strontium, thallium, and vanadium using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The inductively coupled plasma?mass spectrometric (ICP?MS) methods have been expanded to include the determination of dissolved arsenic, boron, lithium, selenium, strontium, thallium, and vanadium in filtered, acidified natural water. Method detection limits for these elements are now 10 to 200 times lower than by former U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) methods, thus providing lower variability at ambient concentrations. The bias and variability of the method was determined by using results from spike recoveries, standard reference materials, and validation samples. Spike recoveries at 5 to 10 times the method detection limit and 75 micrograms per liter in reagent-water, surface-water, and groundwater matrices averaged 93 percent for seven replicates, although selected elemental recoveries in a ground-water matrix with an extremely high iron sulfate concentration were negatively biased by 30 percent. Results for standard reference materials were within 1 standard deviation of the most probable value. Statistical analysis of the results from about 60 filtered, acidified natural-water samples indicated that there was no significant difference between ICP?MS and former USGS official methods of analysis.

Garbarino, John R.

1999-01-01

103

SUIVI MEDICAL DE SALARIES EXPOSES AU BERYLLIUM : Medical follow-up of beryllium -exposed workers  

E-print Network

1 SUIVI MEDICAL DE SALARIES EXPOSES AU BERYLLIUM : Medical follow-up of beryllium - exposed workers-up of beryllium-exposed workers. Method: a medical follow-up of workers from a factory machining beryllium (Be preventive measures. Key words: beryllium, sensitisation, occupational exposure, prevention, Lymphocyte

Boyer, Edmond

104

BERYLLIUM EXTRACTED BY THE FLUORIDE PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steps used in producing high-purity BeO and beryllium metal, ; including recent modifications to production processes, are described. ; Particular emphasis is placed on the fluoride extraction process in which ; beryllium is attacked preferentially, and beryllium oxide is converted into a ; water-soluble form of beryllium fluoride so that no additional chemicals are ; required to react with

S. J. Morana; G. F. Simons

1962-01-01

105

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR BERYLLIUM. REVIEW DRAFT  

EPA Science Inventory

The properties of beryllium resemble those of aluminum, zinc, and magnesium. The main routes of beryllium intake are inhalation and ingestion. The chemical properties of beryllium are such that transformation of soluble to insoluble forms of inhaled beryllium results in long rete...

106

Boron reclamation  

SciTech Connect

A process to recover high purity /sup 10/B enriched crystalline boron powder from a polymeric matrix was developed on a laboratory basis and ultimately scaled up to production capacity. The process is based on controlled pyrolysis of boron-filled scrap followed by an acid leach and dry sieving operation to return the powder to the required purity and particle size specifications. Typically, the recovery rate of the crystalline powder is in excess of 98.5 percent, and some of the remaining boron is recovered in the form of boric acid. The minimum purity requirement of the recovered product is 98.6 percent total boron.

Smith, R.M.

1980-07-01

107

Cell and defect behavior in lithium-counterdoped solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some n(+)/p cells in which lithium is introduced as a counterdopant, by ion-implantation, into the cell's boron-doped p-region were studied. To determine if the cells radiation resistance could be significantly improved by lithium counterdoping. Defect behavior was related to cell performance using deep level transient spectroscopy. Results indicate a significantly increased radiation resistance for the lithium counterdoped cells when compared to the boron doped 1 ohm-cm control cell. The increased radiation resistance of the lithium counterdoped cells is due to the complexing of lithium with divacancies and boron. It is speculated that complexing with oxygen and single vacancies also contributes to the increased radiation resistance. Counterdoping silicon with lithium results in a different set of defects.

Weinberg, I.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C. K.

1984-01-01

108

The solar abundance of beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar abundance of beryllium is deduced from high-resolution Kitt Peak observations of the 3130.43- and 3131.08-A lines of Be II interpreted by the method of spectrum synthesis. The results are in good agreement with those previously obtained by Grevesse (1968) and by Hauge and Engvold (1968) and indicate that in the photospheric layers, beryllium is depleted below the chondritic value by a factor of about two. It is found that the beryllium abundance is equal to logN(Be)/N(H) + 12 = 1.08 plus or minus 0.05.

Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

1974-01-01

109

The natural history of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of in vitro immunologic testing, we can now detect exposed individuals who are sensitized to beryllium and those who have chronic beryllium disease (CBD) with lung pathology and impairment. Earlier detection and more accurate diagnostic tools raise new questions about the natural history of sensitization and granulomatous disease. Preliminary data suggest that early detection identifies people who are sensitized to beryllium and that these individuals are at risk for progressing into clinical disease. This article discusses the historical, recent, and ongoing studies germane to our understanding of CBD natural history, including the immunologic and inflammatory basis of the disease, the environmental and host risk factors for disease progression, biological markers of disease severity and activity that may help predict outcome, and the implications for broad-based workplace screening to identify patients at the earliest stages of beryllium sensitization and disease. 29 refs., 2 figs.

Newman, L.S. [National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States); Lloyd, J.; Daniloff, E. [National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, Denver, CO (United States)

1996-10-01

110

Beryllium 10\\/beryllium 7 as a tracer of stratospheric transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the ratio between cosmogenic radionuclides beryllium 10 (t1\\/2=1.5×106 years) and beryllium 7 (t1\\/2=53 days) to study stratospheric transport, particularly the exchange between the tropics and the high latitudes and as an indicator of stratosphere-troposphere exchange. Both tracers are generated steadily, with maximum production occurring at midlatitudes of the stratosphere. During transport away from their source the ratio 10Be\\/7Be

Dorothy Koch; David Rind

1998-01-01

111

Beryllium Health Effects in the Era of the Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) has revolutionized our approach to the diagnosis, screening, and surveillance of beryllium health effects. Based on the development of a beryllium-specific cell-mediated immune response, the BeLPT has allowed us to define early health effects of beryllium, including beryllium sensitization (BeS), and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) at a subclinical stage. The use of this test

Lisa A. Maier

2001-01-01

112

Analogies between boron and carbon.  

PubMed

The structural connections between the compounds of boron and carbon are extended using the mno rule beyond the borane-carbocation continuum, the lithium boride-polycarbyne analogy, and the magnesium boride (MgB(2))-graphite equivalence to beta-rhombohedral boron and fullerenes. The structural similarity of the pentagonal pyramidal C(6)H(6)(2+) and MgB(4) is established. An interesting electronic structural relationship between the B(84) fragment of the beta-rhombohedral boron and the fulleride anion, C(60)(12-), is derived by replacing the 12 pentagonal pyramidal B(6)(4-) units by isoelectronic C(5)(-) units and removing the central B(12) from the electron-deficient B(84) unit. This relationship is well supported by the experimental realization of C(60)M(12) (M = Li, K) and C(48)N(12). PMID:14622028

Jemmis, Eluvathingal D; Jayasree, Elambalassery G

2003-11-01

113

Beryllium technology workshop, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 20, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: beryllium in the ITER blanket; mechanical testing of irradiated beryllium; tritium release measurements on irradiated beryllium; beryllium needs for plasma-facing components; thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed beryllium; beryllium research at the INEL; Japanese beryllium research activities for in-pile mockup tests on ITER; a study of beryllium bonding of copper alloy; new production technologies; thermophysical properties of a new ingot metallurgy beryllium product line; implications of beryllium:steam interactions in fusion reactors; and a test program for irradiation embrittlement of beryllium at JET.

Longhurst, G.R.

1991-12-01

114

Microstructure and electrochemical properties of boron-doped mesocarbon microbeads  

SciTech Connect

The microstructure and electrochemical properties of pristine and boron-doped mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) were comparatively studied by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electrochemical measurements. The authors examined the correlation between the boron-doping effect and the electrochemical properties of boron-doped MCMBs prepared at different heat-treatment temperatures. It was found that boron doping in MCMBs starts above 1,800 C, and then the substitution reaction proceeds with increasing heat-treatment temperature. The effect of boron doping is to accelerate graphitization of MCMBs for heat-treatment temperatures in the range from 1,800 to 2,500 C. Electrochemical lithium intercalation takes place at a higher potential in boron-doped MCMBs than in undoped MCMBs, presumably because the substitutional boron acts as an electron acceptor in the MCMBs.

Kim, C.; Fujino, T.; Miyashita, K.; Hayashi, T.; Endo, M.; Dresselhaus, M.S.

2000-04-01

115

Boron Clusters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The May featured molecules are discussed in the Viewpoints article "Boron Clusters Come of Age". The review paper by Russell N. Grimes on boron clusters reminds us both of the past impact that these interesting structures have had on the development of our understanding of cluster chemistry and on the future development of what one might refer to as "post-fullerene" clusters. The wide range of structures found in this paper admirably illustrate the structural flexibility arising from clusters of a variety of symmetries and degrees of boron replacement with carbon and other atoms.

116

Electronic structure and thermochemical properties of small neutral and cationic lithium clusters and boron-doped lithium clusters: Li(n)(0/+) and Li(n)B(0/+) (n = 1-8).  

PubMed

The stability, electronic structure, and thermochemical properties of the pure Li(n) and boron-doped Li(n)B (n = 1-8) clusters in both neutral and cationic states are studied using electronic structure methods. The global equilibrium structures are established, and their heats of formation are evaluated using the G3B3 and CCSD(T)/CBS methods based on the density functional theory geometries. Theoretical adiabatic ionization energies (IE(a)) for the Li(n) clusters are in good agreement with experiment: Li(2) (G3B3, 5.21 eV; CCSD(T), 5.14 eV; expt, 5.1127 ± 0.0003 eV), Li(3) (4.16, 4.11, 4.08 ± 0.10), Li(4) (4.76, 4.68, 4.70 ± 0.05), Li(5) (4.11, 4.06, 4.02 ± 0.10), Li(6) (4.46, 4.32, 4.20 ± 0.10), Li(7) (4.07, 3.99, 3.94 ± 0.10), and Li(8) (4.49, 4.31, 4.16 ± 0.10). The Li(4) experimental IE(a) has been revised on the basis of the Franck-Condon simulations. Species Li(5)B, Li(6)B(+), Li(7)B, and Li(8)B(+) exhibit high stability as compared to their neighbors, which can be understood by considering the magic numbers of the phenomenological shell model (PSM). PMID:21671620

Tai, Truong Ba; Nhat, Pham Vu; Nguyen, Minh Tho; Li, Shenggang; Dixon, David A

2011-07-01

117

Characterization of physicochemical properties of beryllium aerosols associated with prevalence of chronic beryllium disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the physicochemical properties of beryllium aerosols associated with increased risk of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Such information is needed to evaluate whether airborne mass of beryllium is the appropriate metric of exposure or alternatively to provide a scientific basis for using information on particle size, surface area, and chemistry to support an improved

Aleksandr B. Stefaniak; Mark D. Hoover; Gregory A. Day; Robert M. Dickerson; Eric J. Peterson; Michael S. Kent; Christine R. Schuler; Patrick N. Breysseb; Ronald C. Scripsick

2004-01-01

118

Plutonium Sphere Reflected by Reflected by Beryllium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This experiment with an alpha-phase plutonium sphere reflected by beryllium was performed using the Planet critical assembly at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF). The beryllium reflector consisted of a pair of inner and outer hemisphere...

D. Loaiza, J. Hutchinson

2013-01-01

119

Mineral resource of the month: beryllium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The article discusses information about Beryllium. It notes that Beryllium is a light metal that has a gray color. The metal is used in the production of parts and devices including bearings, computer-chip heat sinks, and output windows of X-ray tubes. The article mentions Beryllium's discovery in 1798 by French chemist, Louis-Nicolas Vanquelin. It cites that bertrandite and beryl are the principal mineral components for the commercial production of beryllium.

2013-01-01

120

Process-related risk of beryllium sensitization and disease in a copper-beryllium alloy facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), which primarily affects the lungs, occurs in sensitized beryllium-exposed individuals. At a copper-beryllium alloy strip and wire finishing facility we performed a cross-sectional survey to examine prevalences of beryllium sensitization and CBD, and relationships between sensitization and CBD and work areas\\/processes. Methods Current employees (185) were offered beryllium lymphocyte proliferation testing (BeLPT) for sensitization, clinical

Christine R. Schuler; Michael S. Kent; David C. Deubner; Michael T. Berakis; Michael McCawley; Paul K. Henneberger; Milton D. Rossman; Kathleen Kreiss

2005-01-01

121

OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms

2009-01-01

122

Beryllium-aluminum alloys for investment castings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium-aluminum alloys containing greater than 60 wt % beryllium are very favorable materials for applications requiring light weight and high stiffness. However, when produced by traditional powder metallurgical methods, these alloys are expensive and have limited applications. To reduce the cost of making beryllium-aluminum components, Nuclear Metals Inc. (NMI) and Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles have recently developed a family

W. T. Nachtrab; N. Levoy

1997-01-01

123

Experimental investigation of beryllium: plans and current  

E-print Network

1 Experimental investigation of beryllium: plans and current results within the Ra;3 Beryllium is a promising candidate because of: · good "nuclear" properties; · appropriate mechanical will Beryllium be used? Application Operating conditions Proton beam parametersAvg. T (°C) Peak T (°C) Total DPA

McDonald, Kirk

124

Jeremy Carter Correctional Magnetic Coils for Beryllium-  

E-print Network

Jeremy Carter Correctional Magnetic Coils for Beryllium- based Ion Plasma Chamber Physics 492R was to develop and assemble two sets of identical magnetic coils for the Beryllium based plasma chamber. This particular plasma in nature is Beryllium based and is being studied by various professors, as well

Hart, Gus

125

Cosmic Ray production of Beryllium and Boron at high redshift  

E-print Network

Recently, new observations of Li6 in Pop II stars of the galactic halo have shown a surprisingly high abundance of this isotope, about a thousand times higher than its predicted primordial value. In previous papers, a cosmological model for the cosmic ray-induced production of this isotope in the IGM has been developed to explain the observed abundance at low metallicity. In this paper, given this constraint on the Li6, we calculate the non-thermal evolution with redshift of D, Be, and B in the IGM. In addition to cosmological cosmic ray interactions in the IGM, we include additional processes driven by SN explosions: neutrino spallation and a low energy component in the structures ejected by outflows to the IGM. We take into account CNO CRs impinging on the intergalactic gas. Although subdominant in the galactic disk, this process is shown to produce the bulk of Be and B in the IGM, due to the differential metal enrichment between structures (where CRs originate) and the IGM. We also consider the resulting extragalactic gamma-ray background which we find to be well below existing data. The computation is performed in the framework of hierarchical structure formation considering several star formation histories including Pop III stars. We find that D production is negligible and that a potentially detectable Be and B plateau is produced by these processes at the time of the formation of the Galaxy (z ~ 3).

Emmanuel Rollinde; David Maurin; Elisabeth Vangioni; Keith A. Olive; Susumu Inoue

2007-07-13

126

Beryllium and boron constraints on an early Galactic bright phase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent observations of Be and B in metal-deficient halo dwarfs are used to constrain a 'bright phase' of enhanced cosmic-ray flux in the early Galaxy. Assuming that this Be and B arises from cosmic-ray spallation in the early Galaxy, limits are placed on the intensity of the early (Population II) cosmic-ray flux relative to the present (Population I) flux. A simple estimate of bounds on the flux ratio is 1 - 40. This upper bound would restrict galaxies like our own from producing neutrino fluxes that would be detectable in any currently proposed detectors. It is found that the relative enhancement of the early flux varies inversely with the relative time of enhancement. It is noted that associated gamma-ray production via pp - pi sup 0 pp may be a significant contribution to the gamma-ray background above 100 MeV.

Fields, Brian D.; Schramm, David N.; Truran, James W.

1993-01-01

127

Cryogenic Properties of Aluminum-Beryllium and Beryllium Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were obtained for the aluminum- beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 (38%Al-62%Be), at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-32O F) and (- 252.8 C) (-423 F)) temperatures, and for an optical grade beryllium, O-30H (99%Be), at -252.8 C. AlBeMet162 material was purchased to the requirements of SAE- AMs7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions". O-30H material was purchased to the requirements of Brush Wellman Inc. specification O-30H Optical Grade Beryllium. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths for extruded AlBeMet162 material increased with decreasing temperature, and the percent elongation decreased with decreasing temperature. Design properties for the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percent elongation for extruded AlBeMetl62 were generated. It was not possible to distinguish a difference in the room and cryogenic ultimate strength for the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) O-30H material. The O-30H elongation decreased with decreasing temperature.

Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

2003-01-01

128

Cryogenic Properties of Aluminum Beryllium and Beryllium Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 (38%Al-62%Be), at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-320 F) and (-252.8 C) (-423 F)) temperatures, and for an optical grade beryllium, O-30H (99%Be), at -252.8 C. AlBeMetl62 material was purchased to the requirements of SAE-AMS7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions." O-30H material was purchased to the requirements of Brush Wellman Inc. specification O-30H Optical Grade Beryllium. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths for extruded AlBeMetl62 material increased with decreasing temperature, and the percent elongation decreased with decreasing temperature. Design properties for the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percent elongation for extruded AlBeMetl62 were generated. It was not possible to distinguish a difference in the room and cryogenic ultimate strength for the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) O-30H material. The O30H elongation decreased with decreasing temperature.

Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

2003-01-01

129

A Reconsideration of Acute Beryllium Disease  

PubMed Central

Context Although chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is clearly an immune-mediated granulomatous reaction to beryllium, acute beryllium disease (ABD) is commonly considered an irritative chemical phenomenon related to high exposures. Given reported new cases of ABD and projected increased demand for beryllium, we aimed to reevaluate the patho physiologic associations between ABD and CBD using two cases identified from a survey of beryllium production facility workers. Case Presentation Within weeks after exposure to beryllium fluoride began, two workers had systemic illness characterized by dermal and respiratory symptoms and precipitous declines in pulmonary function. Symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities improved with cessation of exposure and, in one worker, recurred with repeat exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analyses and blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests revealed lymphocytic alveolitis and cellular immune recognition of beryllium. None of the measured air samples exceeded 100 ?g/m3, and most were < 10 ?g/m3, lower than usually described. In both cases, lung biopsy about 18 months after acute illness revealed noncaseating granulomas. Years after first exposure, the workers left employment because of CBD. Discussion Contrary to common understanding, these cases suggest that ABD and CBD represent a continuum of disease, and both involve hypersensitivity reactions to beryllium. Differences in disease presentation and progression are likely influenced by the solubility of the beryllium compound involved. Relevance to Practice ABD may occur after exposures lower than the high concentrations commonly described. Prudence dictates limitation of further beryllium exposure in both ABD and CBD. PMID:19672405

Cummings, Kristin J.; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Virji, M. Abbas; Kreiss, Kathleen

2009-01-01

130

US Beryllium Case Registry through 1977  

SciTech Connect

A synopsis of the cases reported to the Beryllium Case Registry between 1973 and 1977 is presented. As of 1973, there were 832 cases of beryllium disease entered into the Registry. In the five years since that report, 55 additional cases have been added, 40 men and 15 women. Exposures occured in the electronics and nuclear industries in the production and use of beryllium containing alloys and beryllium oxide ceramis. Pathological changes in the lung tissue are described. Cases continue to be reported in which the diagnosis was sarcoidosis until the history of beryllium exposure led to the finding of beryllium in the lung tissue or mediastinal lymph node biopsy. Data from the Registry support the fact that chronic beryllium disease is a continued occupational hazard.

Sprince, N.L.; Kazemi, H.

1980-02-01

131

Galvanic corrosion of beryllium welds  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium is difficult to weld because it is highly susceptible to cracking. The most commonly used filler metal in beryllium welds is Al-12 wt.% Si. Beryllium has been successfully welded using Al-Si filler metal with more than 30 wt.% Al. This filler creates an aluminum-rich fusion zone with a low melting point that tends to backfill cracks. Drawbacks to adding a filler metal include a reduction in service temperature, a lowering of the tensile strength of the weld, and the possibility for galvanic corrosion to occur at the weld. To evaluate the degree of interaction between Be and Al-Si in an actual weld, sections from a mock beryllium weldment were exposed to 0.1 M Cl{sup {minus}} solution. Results indicate that the galvanic couple between Be and the Al-Si weld material results in the cathodic protection of the weld and of the anodic dissolution of the bulk Be material. While the cathodic protection of Al is generally inefficient, the high anodic dissolution rate of the bulk Be during pitting corrosion combined with the insulating properties of the Be oxide afford some protection of the Al-Si weld material. Although dissolution of the Be precipitate in the weld material does occur, no corrosion of the Al-Si matrix was observed.

Hill, M.A.; Butt, D.P.; Lillard, R.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Corrosion and Environmental Effects Lab.

1997-12-01

132

Notes on UHV beryllium windows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques are described for making large ultrahigh vacuum beryllium windows for use in synchrotron radiation installations. Procedures are given for affecting both hard brazed seals and demountable seals involving either lead or copper gaskets. Brazed seals can be made to either stainless steel or copper. Possible alternative methods are suggested.

Hartman, Paul L.

1986-10-01

133

Iron and Steel Phosphate Rock  

E-print Network

Kyanite Lead Lime Lithium Magnesium Manganese Mercury Mica Molybdenum Nickel Nitrogen Peat Perlite Graphite Peat Sulfur Beryllium Gypsum Perlite Talc Bismuth Hafnium Phosphate Rock Tantalum Boron Helium

Torgersen, Christian

134

OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

Brisson, M

2009-04-01

135

Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a “window” for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in “windows” for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed.

T., A. Tomberlin

2004-11-01

136

Defense programs beryllium good practice guide  

SciTech Connect

Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is likely to generate dusts, mists, fumes, or small particulates. A beryllium exposure control program should minimize airborne concentrations, the potential for and spread of contamination, the number of times individuals are exposed to beryllium, and the number of employees who may be potentially exposed.

Herr, M.

1997-07-01

137

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme  

SciTech Connect

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, {alpha}) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg {sup 10}B/g blood.

Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

2010-06-22

138

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, ?) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg 10B/g blood.

Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena

2010-06-01

139

10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The...

2011-01-01

140

10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The...

2012-01-01

141

20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?  

...2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30.508 Section...for Certain Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of...

2014-04-01

142

20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30.508 Section...for Certain Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of...

2012-04-01

143

20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30.508 Section...for Certain Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of...

2011-04-01

144

20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30.508 Section...for Certain Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of...

2013-04-01

145

10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The...

2013-01-01

146

10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The...

2014-01-01

147

20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30.508 Section...for Certain Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of...

2010-04-01

148

10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The...

2010-01-01

149

Brazing of beryllium for structural applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made in fabricating a beryllium compression tube structure and a stiffened beryllium panel. The compression tube was 7.6cm in diameter and 30.5cm long with titanium end fittings. The panel was 203cm long and stiffened with longitudinal stringers. Both units were assembled by brazing with BAg-18 braze alloy. The detail parts were fabricated by hot forming 0.305cm beryllium sheet and the brazing parameters established.

Vogan, J. W.

1972-01-01

150

Inhibited solid propellant composition containing beryllium hydride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An object of this invention is to provide a composition of beryllium hydride and carboxy-terminated polybutadiene which is stable. Another object of this invention is to provide a method for inhibiting the reactivity of beryllium hydride toward carboxy-terminated polybutadiene. It was found that a small amount of lecithin inhibits the reaction of beryllium hydride with the acid groups in carboxy terminated polybutadiene.

Thompson, W. W. (inventor)

1978-01-01

151

Mineral resource of the month: beryllium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beryllium metal is lighter than aluminum and stiffer than steel. These and other properties, including its strength, dimensional stability, thermal properties and reflectivity, make it useful for aerospace and defense applications, such as satellite and space-vehicle structural components. Beryllium’s nuclear properties, combined with its low density, make it useful as a neutron reflector and moderator in nuclear reactors. Because it is transparent to most X rays, beryllium is used as X-ray windows in medical, industrial and analytical equipment.

Shedd, Kim B.

2006-01-01

152

MANAGING BERYLLIUM IN NUCLEAR FACILITY APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium plays important roles in nuclear facilities. Its neutron multiplication capability and low atomic weight make it very useful as a reflector in fission reactors. Its low atomic number and high chemical affinity for oxygen have led to its consideration as a plasma-facing material in fusion reactors. In both applications, the beryllium and the impurities in it become activated by neutrons, transmuting them to radionuclides, some of which are long-lived and difficult to dispose of. Also, gas production, notably helium and tritium, results in swelling, embrittlement, and cracking, which means that the beryllium must be replaced periodically, especially in fission reactors where dimensional tolerances must be maintained. It has long been known that neutron activation of inherent iron and cobalt in the beryllium results in significant {sup 60}Co activity. In 2001, it was discovered that activation of naturally occurring contaminants in the beryllium creates sufficient {sup 14}C and {sup 94}Nb to render the irradiated beryllium 'Greater-Than-Class-C' for disposal in U.S. radioactive waste facilities. It was further found that there was sufficient uranium impurity in beryllium that had been used in fission reactors up to that time that the irradiated beryllium had become transuranic in character, making it even more difficult to dispose of. In this paper we review the extent of the disposal issue, processes that have been investigated or considered for improving the disposability of irradiated beryllium, and approaches for recycling.

R. Rohe; T. N. Tranter

2011-12-01

153

Beryllium Use in the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) began operation in 1967. It makes use of a unique serpentine fuel core design and a beryllium reflector. Reactor control is achieved with rotating beryllium cylinders to which have been fastened plates of hafnium. Over time, the beryllium develops rather high helium content because of nuclear transmutations and begins to swell. The beryllium must be replaced at nominally 10-year intervals. Determination of when the replacement is made is by visual observation using a periscope to examine the beryllium surface for cracking and swelling. Disposition of the irradiated beryllium was once accomplished in the INL’s Radioactive Waste Management Complex, but that is no longer possible. Among contributing reasons are high levels of specific radioactive contaminants including transuranics. The INL is presently considering disposition pathways for this irradiated beryllium, but presently is storing it in the canal adjacent to the reactor. Numerous issues are associated with this situation including (1) Is there a need for ultra-low uranium material? (2) Is there a need to recover tritium from irradiated beryllium either because this is a strategic material resource or in preparation for disposal? (3) Is there a need to remove activation and fission products from irradiated beryllium? (4) Will there be enough material available to meet requirements for research reactors (fission and fusion)? In this paper will be discussed the present status of considerations on these issues.

Glen R. Longhurst

2007-12-01

154

Beryllium anomalies in solar-type field stars  

E-print Network

We present a study of beryllium (Be) abundances in a large sample of field solar-type dwarfs and sub-giants spanning a large range of effective temperatures. The analysis shows that Be is severely depleted for F stars, as expected by the light-element depletion models. However, we also show that Beryllium abundances decrease with decreasing temperature for stars cooler than $\\sim$6000 K, a result that cannot be explained by current theoretical models including rotational mixing, but that is, at least in part, expected from the models that take into account internal wave physics. In particular, the light element abundances of the coolest and youngest stars in our sample suggest that Be, as well as lithium (Li), has already been burned early during their evolution. Furthermore, we find strong evidence for the existence of a Be-gap for solar-temperature stars. The analysis of Li and Be abundances in the sub-giants of our sample also shows the presence of one case that has still detectable amounts of Li, while Be is severely depleted. Finally, we compare the derived Be abundances with Li abundances derived using the same set of stellar parameters. This gives us the possibility to explore the temperatures for which the onset of Li and Be depletion occurs.

N. C. Santos; G. Israelian; S. Randich; R. J. Garcia Lopez; R. Rebolo

2004-08-05

155

Accelerator-driven boron neutron capture therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is a binary treatment for certain types of cancer. It works by loading the cancerous cells with a boron-10 carrying compound. This isotope has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the reaction producing a lithium nucleus and alpha particle that kill the cell in which they are produced. Recent studies of the boron carrier compound indicate that the uptake process works best in particularly aggressive cancers. Most studied is glioblastoma multiforme and a trial using a combination of BNCT and X-ray radiotherapy has shown an increase of nearly a factor of two in mean survival over the state of the art. However, the main technical problem with BNCT remains producing a sufficient flux of neutrons for a reasonable treatment duration in a hospital environment. This paper discusses this issue.

Edgecock, Rob

2014-05-01

156

Lithium-6 : Evolution from Big Bang to Present  

E-print Network

The primordial abundances of Deuterium, he4, and li7 are crucial to determination of the baryon density of the Universe in the framework of standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). li6 which is only produced in tiny quantities and it is generally not considered to be a cosmological probe. However, recent major observational advances have produced an estimate of the li6/li7 ratio in a few very old stars in the galactic halo which impacts the question whether or not the lithium isotopes are depleted in the outer layers of halo stars, through proton induced reactions at the base of (or below) the convective zone. li6 is a pure product of spallation through the major production reactions, fast oxygen and alphas interacting on interstellar H, He (especially in the early Galaxy). The rapid nuclei are both synthesized and accelerated by SN II. In this context, the \\li6 evolution should go in step with that of beryllium and boron, recently observed by the Keck and HST telescopes. Li6 adds a new constraint on the early spallation in the Galaxy. In particular, if confirmed, the Li6/Be9 ratio observed in two halo stars (HD 84937, BD +263578) gives strong boundary conditions on the composition and the spectrum of the rapid particles involved. We show that Li6 is essentially intact in halo stars, and a fortiori \\li7. We can define a range of the Li6 abundance in the very early Galaxy consistent with Big Bang nucleosynthesis (5.6 10(-14) to 3. 10(-13) . Following the evolution at increasing metallicity, we explain the abundance in the solar system within a factor of about 2.

Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Michel Casse; Roger Cayrel; Jean Audouze; Monique Spite; Francois Spite

1998-11-20

157

ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDIES OF IRRADIATED BERYLLIUM METAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

When beryllium is irradiated by fast neutrons, helium is produced by the ; (n,2n) and (n, alpha ) transmutation reactions. Electron microscopy techniques ; were used to study the nucleation and distribution of helium bubbles in several ; different grades of beryllium, after irradiation at temperatures in the range 75 ; to 700 deg C. The effect of post-irradiation annealing

Chute

1963-01-01

158

Fracture toughness of hot-pressed beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the results of an investigation into the fracture toughness, sustained-load flaw growth, and fatigue-crack propagation resistance of S200E hot-pressed beryllium at room temperature. It also reviews the literature pertaining to the influence of various factors on the fracture toughness of hot-pressed beryllium determined using fatigue-cracked specimens.

Lemon, D. D.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

1985-01-01

159

Beryllium isotope geochemistry in tropical river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributions of beryllium-9 and beryllium-10 in rivers within the Orinoco and Amazon basins have been examined to extend the understanding of their geochemical cycles and to develop their use both in geochronometry, and in studying erosional processes. Analyses of ⁹Be in dissolved and suspended material from rivers with a wide range of chemical compositions indicate that its geochemistry is

E. T. Brown; J. M. Edmond; G. M. Raisbeck; D. L. Bourles; F. Yiou; C. I. Measures

1992-01-01

160

BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES  

SciTech Connect

Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

2011-02-18

161

Use of Beryllium and Beryllium Oxide in Space Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium and beryllium oxide are attractive candidate materials for neutron reflector application in space reactors due to their beneficial combination of low density and high neutron moderation and reflection capabilities. Drawbacks to their use include the expense of working with toxic materials, a limited industrial infrastructure, and material properties that are challenging in the non-irradiated state and seriously degrade under neutron irradiation. As an example of neutron effects, mechanical properties degrade under relevant conditions to the point where encasement in structural alloys is necessary. Such measures are required if neutron fluence exceeds {approx}1x1024 n/m2 (E>0.1 MeV). At high temperatures (>500 deg. C for Be and >600 deg. C for BeO), irradiation-induced swelling may also limit the maximum allowable dose without additional engineering measures. Significant volumetric swelling (>5%) can occur in these materials during neutron irradiation at elevated temperatures for neutron fluences above 1x1025 n/m2. This paper will review Be and BeO fabrication considerations, and summarize the effects of neutron irradiation on material properties.

Snead, L. L.; Zinkle, S. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, OakRidge, TN 37831-6138 (United States)

2005-02-06

162

Postirradiation examination of beryllium pebbles  

SciTech Connect

Postirradiation examinations of COBRA-1A beryllium pebbles irradiated in the EBR-II fast reactor at neutron fluences which generated 2700--3700 appm helium have been performed. Measurements included density change, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The major change in microstructure is development of unusually shaped helium bubbles forming as highly non-equiaxed thin platelet-like cavities on the basal plane. Measurement of the swelling due to cavity formation was in good agreement with density change measurements.

Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1998-03-01

163

Boron Nitride Nanotubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor)

2012-01-01

164

Defect-induced Symmetry Distortions in Doped Cubic Boron Nitride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the substitution of silicon and beryllium for boron in cubic boron nitride with several first-principles methods. The Be and Si defects are proto-typical p- and n-type dopants respectively.(O. Mishima, S. Yamoka, and O. Fukunaga, Science 238), 181 (1987). The substitutionals have orbitally degenerate ground states leading to symmetry-lowering distortions of the Td point-group symmetry about the boron sites. Calculated IR absorption modes associated with the defects are compared with recent experimental determination of bulk modes.(M. I. Eremets, M. Gauthier, A. Polian, J. C. Chervin, J. M. Besson, G. A. Dubitskii, and Y. Y. Semenova, Phys. Rev. B 52), 8854 (1995). Changes in Fermi contact interaction terms as an effect of the distortions are discussed as a possible way of characterizing the distortions experimentally.

Patton, David C.; Harrison, Joseph G.

1996-03-01

165

Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented.

McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wolfer, W.; Fulton, F.J.; Lee, J.D.; Maninger, R.C.; Moir, R.W.; Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.

1985-01-01

166

Lung cancer case-control study of beryllium workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Cohort mortality studies have found elevated lung cancer mortality among beryllium-exposed workers, but none evaluated the association between beryllium exposure level and lung cancer risk. A nested case-control study of lung cancer within a beryllium processing plant was conducted to investigate the relationship between level of beryllium exposure and lung cancer. Methods Lung cancer cases were identified by mortality

Wayne T. Sanderson; Elizabeth M. Ward; Kyle Steenland; Martin R. Petersen

2001-01-01

167

Beryllium Recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2003-01-01

168

Beryllium recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2004-01-01

169

Constraining Low-Energy Proton Capture on Beryllium-7 through Charge Radius Measurements  

E-print Network

In this paper, we point out that a measurement of the charge radius of Boron-8 provides indirect access to the S-factor for radiative proton capture on Beryllium-7 at low energies. We use leading-order halo effective field theory to explore this correlation and we give a relation between the charge radius and the S-factor. Furthermore, we present important technical aspects relevant to the renormalization of pointlike P-wave interactions in the presence of a repulsive Coulomb interaction.

Emil Ryberg; Christian Forssén; H. -W. Hammer; Lucas Platter

2014-06-26

170

Constraining Low-Energy Proton Capture on Beryllium-7 through Charge Radius Measurements  

E-print Network

In this paper, we point out that a measurement of the charge radius of Boron-8 provides indirect access to the S-factor for radiative proton capture on Beryllium-7 at low energies. We use leading-order halo effective field theory to explore this correlation and we give a relation between the charge radius and the S-factor. Furthermore, we present important technical aspects relevant to the renormalization of pointlike P-wave interactions in the presence of a repulsive Coulomb interaction.

Ryberg, Emil; Hammer, H -W; Platter, Lucas

2014-01-01

171

40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. 421...NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421...Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory....

2011-07-01

172

40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. 421...NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421...Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory....

2013-07-01

173

40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. 421...NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421...Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory....

2010-07-01

174

40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. 421...NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421...Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory....

2012-07-01

175

Beryllium abundances in parent stars of extrasolar planets: 16 Cyg A & B and rho 1 Cnc  

E-print Network

The Be II 3131 A doublet has been observed in the solar-type stars 16 Cyg A & B and in the late G-type star rho 1 Cnc, to derive their beryllium abundances. 16 Cyg A & B show similar (solar) beryllium abundances while 16 Cyg B, which has been proposed to have a planetary companion of ~2 M_Jup, is known to be depleted in lithium by a factor larger than 6 with respect to 16 Cyg A. Differences in their rotational histories which could induce different rates of internal mixing of material, and the ingestion of a similar planet by 16 Cyg A are discussed as potential explanations. The existence of two other solar-type stars which are candidates to harbour planetary-mass companions and which show lithium and beryllium abundances close to those of 16 Cyg A, requires a more detailed inspection of the peculiarities of the 16 Cyg system. For rho 1 Cnc, which is the coolest known object candidate to harbour a planetary-mass companion (M > 0.85 M_Jup), we establish a precise upper limit for its beryllium abundance, showing a strong Be depletion which constrains the available mixing mechanisms. Observations of similar stars without companions are required to asses the potential effects of the planetary companion on the observed depletion. It has been recently claimed that rho 1 Cnc appears to be a subgiant. If this were the case, the observed strong Li and Be depletions could be explained by a dilution process taking place during its post-main sequence evolution.

R. J. Garcia Lopez; M. R. Perez de Taoro

1998-03-03

176

Accelerator-based epithermal neutron sources for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the development of low-energy light ion accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs) for the treatment of brain tumors through an intact scalp and skull using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A major advantage of an ABNS for BNCT over reactor-based neutron sources is the potential for siting within a hospital. Consequently, light-ion accelerators that are injectors to larger machines in high-energy physics facilities are not considered. An ABNS for BNCT is composed of: (1) the accelerator hardware for producing a high current charged particle beam, (2) an appropriate neutron-producing target and target heat removal system (HRS), and (3) a moderator/reflector assembly to render the flux energy spectrum of neutrons produced in the target suitable for patient irradiation. As a consequence of the efforts of researchers throughout the world, progress has been made on the design, manufacture, and testing of these three major components. Although an ABNS facility has not yet been built that has optimally assembled these three components, the feasibility of clinically useful ABNSs has been clearly established. Both electrostatic and radio frequency linear accelerators of reasonable cost (approximately 1.5 M dollars) appear to be capable of producing charged particle beams, with combinations of accelerated particle energy (a few MeV) and beam currents (approximately 10 mA) that are suitable for a hospital-based ABNS for BNCT. The specific accelerator performance requirements depend upon the charged particle reaction by which neutrons are produced in the target and the clinical requirements for neutron field quality and intensity. The accelerator performance requirements are more demanding for beryllium than for lithium as a target. However, beryllium targets are more easily cooled. The accelerator performance requirements are also more demanding for greater neutron field quality and intensity. Target HRSs that are based on submerged-jet impingement and the use of microchannels have emerged as viable target cooling options. Neutron fields for reactor-based neutron sources provide an obvious basis of comparison for ABNS field quality. This paper compares Monte Carlo calculations of neutron field quality for an ABNS and an idealized standard reactor neutron field (ISRNF). The comparison shows that with lithium as a target, an ABNS can create a neutron field with a field quality that is significantly better (by a factor of approximately 1.2, as judged by the relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-dose that can be delivered to a tumor at a depth of 6cm) than that for the ISRNF. Also, for a beam current of 10 mA, the treatment time is calculated to be reasonable (approximately 30 min) for the boron concentrations that have been assumed. PMID:12749700

Blue, Thomas E; Yanch, Jacquelyn C

2003-01-01

177

Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report  

SciTech Connect

This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

Lee, S

2012-03-29

178

MANUFACTURE OF PLUTONIUM-BERYLLIUM NEUTRON SOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manufacture of several neutron sources by the reduction of PuOâ with beryllium is outlined, the handling techniques discussed and compared with those developed by other laboratories, and the problem of setting up a production routine considered. (auth)

M. J. F. Notley; J. Sheldon

1961-01-01

179

Development of aluminum beryllium for structural applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A newly developed family of Aluminum Beryllium (AlBeMetTM) metal matrix composite materials has been developed for use in satellite structures to address the needs of the designer for lightweight, stiff, thermally stable structures. This paper will present an overview of the development of these metal matrix composites materials and their use in satellite structures. Lightweight and high modulus Aluminum-Beryllium composites offer significant performance advantages over traditional aluminum and organic composite materials. Aluminum-Beryllium composites also can be fabricated using conventional aluminum machining, joining, and coating technologies thereby reducing the cost of the final assembly, and eliminating any special tooling or non destructive testing that is sometimes required when designing and fabricating structures out of fiber reinforced composites. This paper will present the thermal, physical, and mechanical properties of these composites, as well as providing structural test data for satellite components that have utilized Aluminum-Beryllium materials, such as the ORBCOMMsm satellites.

Parsonage, Thomas B.

1997-09-01

180

Nitrogen reactivity toward beryllium: surface reactions.  

PubMed

Recent experiments with nitrogen as a seeding gas in fusion plasma devices together with the option of using beryllium as an armor material in the future ITER tokamak (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) have raised new interest in the interactions of beryllium surfaces with nitrogen (atomic or molecular). The strong reactivity of nitrogen implies the formation of beryllium nitrite and, in conjunction with oxygen and other possible impurities, experimentalists have to consider the probability of generating various complex moieties such as imine, amine or oxyamine, and amide radicals. This chemistry would obviously dramatically perturb the plasma, and quantum investigations can be of great predictive help. Nitrogen adsorption on beryllium basal surfaces is investigated through quantum density functional theory. Different situations are examined: molecular or atomic nitrogen reactions; nitride radical adsorption or formation on surfaces; hydrogen retention on surfaces; combined nitrogen/oxygen reactivity and hydrogen retention. A tentative comparison with experiment is also proposed. PMID:23594802

Allouche, A

2013-06-01

181

Beryllium-aluminum alloys for investment castings  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium-aluminum alloys containing greater than 60 wt % beryllium are very favorable materials for applications requiring light weight and high stiffness. However, when produced by traditional powder metallurgical methods, these alloys are expensive and have limited applications. To reduce the cost of making beryllium-aluminum components, Nuclear Metals Inc. (NMI) and Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles have recently developed a family of patented beryllium-aluminum alloys that can be investment cast. Designated Beralcast, the alloys can achieve substantial weight savings because of their high specific strength and stiffness. In some cases, weight has been reduced by up to 50% over aluminum investment casting. Beralcast is now being used to make thin wall precision investment castings for several advanced aerospace applications, such as the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter and F-22 jet fighter. This article discusses alloy compositions, properties, casting method, and the effects of cobalt additions on strength.

Nachtrab, W.T.; Levoy, N. [Nuclear Metals Inc., Concord, MA (United States)

1997-05-01

182

Transgenic Mouse Model of Chronic Beryllium Disease  

SciTech Connect

Animal models provide powerful tools for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new treatment paradigms. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships is severely limited by a general inability to develop a sufficient chronic beryllium disease animal model. Discovery of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) - DPB1Glu69 genetic susceptibility component of chronic beryllium disease permitted the addition of this human beryllium antigen presentation molecule to an animal genome which may permit development of a better animal model for chronic beryllium disease. Using FVB/N inbred mice, Drs. Rubin and Zhu, successfully produced three strains of HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 transgenic mice. Each mouse strain contains a haplotype of the HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 gene that confers a different magnitude of odds ratio (OR) of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR = 240). In addition, Drs. Rubin and Zhu developed transgenic mice with the human CD4 gene to permit better transmission of signals between T cells and antigen presenting cells. This project has maintained the colonies of these transgenic mice and tested the functionality of the human transgenes.

Gordon, Terry

2009-05-26

183

Boron Fixation by Illites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of boron uptake by clays, especially illitic clays, and the factors which control such uptake have long been debated issues. In an attempt to answer some of the questions of the controversy, three illites were treated in solutions containing boron. In the study, boron concen- tration, salinity, temperature, and time were varied independently over rather wide ranges. For

Elton L. Couch; RALPH E. GRIM

1968-01-01

184

Boron and boron carbide coatings by vapor deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Mines investigated the formation of boron and boron-carbide coatings by vaporphase reactions. Optimum parameters\\u000a were determined for hydrogen reduction of boron trichloride and for the formation of boron-carbide coatings on graphite by\\u000a reaction with the deposited boron. At 1300°C, about 85 pct of the boron was deposited. Tungsten substrates did not react with\\u000a the boron deposit; other

Andrew A. Cochran; James B. Stephenson

1970-01-01

185

The Corrosion / Electrochemistry of Beryllium and Beryllium Weldments in Aqueous Chloride Environments  

E-print Network

of corrosion between this galvanic couple is detected by current flow through a zero resistance ammeterThe Corrosion / Electrochemistry of Beryllium and Beryllium Weldments in Aqueous Chloride Environments submitted by: Mary Ann Hill, Darryl P. Butt, R. Scott Lillard Materials Corrosion

186

Liposomal boron delivery for neutron capture therapy.  

PubMed

Tumor cell destruction in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between (10)B and thermal neutrons. The thermal neutrons have an energy of 0.025 eV, clearly below the threshold energy required to ionize tissue components. However, neutron capture by (10)B produces lithium ion and helium (alpha-particles), which are high linear energy transfer (LET) particles, and dissipate their kinetic energy before traveling one cell diameter (5-9 microm) in biological tissues, ensuring their potential for precise cell killing. BNCT has been applied clinically for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, malignant melanoma, head and neck cancer, and hepatoma using two boron compounds: sodium borocaptate (Na(2)(10)B(12)H(11)SH; Na(2)(10)BSH) and l-p-boronophenylalanine (l-(10)BPA). These low molecular weight compounds are cleared easily from the cancer cells and blood. Therefore, high accumulation and selective delivery of boron compounds into tumor tissues are most important to achieve effective BNCT and to avoid damage of adjacent healthy cells. Much attention has been focused on the liposomal drug delivery system (DDS) as an attractive, intelligent technology of targeting and controlled release of (10)B compounds. Two approaches have been investigated for incorporation of (10)B into liposomes: (1) encapsulation of (10)B compounds into liposomes and (2) incorporation of (10)B-conjugated lipids into the liposomal bilayer. Our laboratory has developed boron ion cluster lipids for application of the latter approach. In this chapter, our boron lipid liposome approaches as well as recent developments of the liposomal boron delivery system are summarized. PMID:19913168

Nakamura, Hiroyuki

2009-01-01

187

Beryllium colorimetric detection for high speed monitoring of laboratory environments.  

PubMed

The health consequences of beryllium (Be2+) exposure can be severe. Beryllium is responsible for a debilitating and potentially fatal lung disease, chronic beryllium disease (CBD) resulting from inhalation of beryllium particles. The US Code of Federal Register (CFR), 10 CFR 850, has established a limit of 0.2 microg beryllium/100 cm(2) as the maximum amount of beryllium allowable on surfaces to be released from beryllium work areas in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The analytical technique described herein reduces the time and cost of detecting beryllium on laboratory working surfaces substantially. The technique provides a positive colorimetric response to the presence of beryllium on a 30.5 cm x 30.5 cm (1 ft(2)) surface at a minimum detection of 0.2 microg/100 cm(2). The method has been validated to provide positive results for beryllium in the presence of excess iron, calcium, magnesium, copper, nickel, chromium and lead at concentrations 100 times that of beryllium and aluminum and uranium (UO2(2+)) at lesser concentrations. The colorimetric detection technique has also been validated to effectively detect solid forms of beryllium including Be(OH)2, BeCl2, BeSO4, beryllium metal and BeO. PMID:12137989

Taylor, Tammy P; Sauer, Nancy N

2002-08-01

188

Chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of, and physical tests on, beryllium oxide powder  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium oxide is used in the fabrication of nuclear components. In order to be suitable for this purpose, the material must meet certain criteria for impurity content and physical properties. The analytical and physical testing procedures in this standard are designed to show whether or not a given material meets accepted specifications. Test methods described in detail are: total carbon by the combustion-thermal conductivity method; iron by colorimetric (orthophenanthroline) method; nitride nitrogen by the micro Kjeldahl method; chloride by nephelometry; lithium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry; sulfur by combustion-iodometric titration method; beryllium oxide in beryllium oxide powders by impurity correction method; trace elements by the complete-burning spectrochemical method; impurity elements by a spark-source mass spectrographic method; density by toluene displacement method; density (pour and tap) by the tap-pak volumetric method; particle size distribution analysis by the coulter counter method; sieve analysis; bulk and real densities, porosity, and pore size-pore volume distribution mercury-penetration porosimetry; surface area by nitrogen absorption method. (JMT)

Not Available

1981-01-01

189

Considerations in the use of beryllium for mirrors.  

PubMed

Some practical problems associated with the use of beryllium as a mirror substrate material are analyzed, with particular emphasis on nonelastic strains that may affect mirror performance. Present information on the nonelastic behavior of beryllium is summarized. PMID:20057650

Barnes, W P

1966-12-01

190

Illness absences among beryllium sensitized workers.  

PubMed

Objectives. This study examined absence rates among US Department of Energy workers who had beryllium sensitization (BeS) or were diagnosed with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) compared with those of other workers. Methods. We used the lymphocyte proliferation test to determine beryllium sensitivity. In addition, we applied multivariable logistic regression to compare absences from 2002 to 2011 between workers with BeS or CBD to those without, and survival analysis to compare time to first absence by beryllium sensitization status. Finally, we examined beryllium status by occupational group. Results. Fewer than 3% of the 19?305 workers were BeS, and workers with BeS or CBD had more total absences (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.18, 1.46) and respiratory absences (OR?=?1.51; 95% CI?=?1.24, 1.84) than did other workers. Time to first absence for all causes and for respiratory conditions occurred earlier for workers with BeS or CBD than for other workers. Line operators and crafts personnel were at increased risk for BeS or CBD. Conclusions. Although not considered "diseased," workers with BeS have higher absenteeism compared with nonsensitized workers. PMID:25211750

Watkins, Janice P; Ellis, Elizabeth D; Girardi, David J; Cragle, Donna L; Richter, Bonnie S

2014-11-01

191

Chronic beryllium disease: Diagnosis and management  

SciTech Connect

Chronic beryllium disease is predominantly a pulmonary granulomatosis that was originally described in 1946. Symptoms usually include dyspnea and cough. Fever, anorexia, and weight loss are common. Skin lesions are the most common extrathoracic manifestation. Granulomatous hepatitis, hypercalcemia, and kidney stones can also occur. Radiographic and physiologic abnormalities are similar to those in sarcoidosis. While traditionally the pathologic changes included granulomas and cellular interstitial changes, the hallmark of the disease today is the well-formed granuloma. Immunologic studies have demonstrated a cell-mediated response to beryllium that is due to an accumulation of CD4{sup +} T cells at the site of disease activity. Diagnosis depends on the demonstration of pathologic changes (i.e., granuloma) and evidence that the granuloma was caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium (i.e., positive lung proliferative response to beryllium). Using these criteria, the diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease can now be made before the onset of clinical symptoms. Whether, with early diagnosis, the natural course of this condition will be the same as when it was traditionally diagnosed is not known. Currently, corticosteroids are used to treat patients with significant symptoms or evidence of progressive disease. 21 refs.

Rossman, M.D. [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1996-10-01

192

Major histocompatibility locus genetic markers of beryllium sensitization and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major histocompatibility locus genetic markers of beryllium sensitization and disease. C. Saltini, L. Richeldi, M. Losi, M. Amicosante, C. Voorter, E. van den Berg-Loonen, R.A. Dweik, H.P. Wiedemann, D.C. Deubner, C. Tinelli. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: Hypersensitivity to beryllium (Be) is found in 1-16% of exposed workers undergoing immunological screening for beryllium disease using the beryllium lym- phocyte proliferation

C. Saltini; L. Richeldi; M. Losi; M. Amicosante; C. Voorter; E. Van Den Berg-Loonen; R. A. Dweik; H. P. Wiedemann; D. C. Deubner; C. Tinelli

2001-01-01

193

Properties of boron/boron-nitride multilayers  

SciTech Connect

Boron-Nitride films are of interest for their high hardness and wear resistance. Large intrinsic stresses and poor adhesion which often accompany high hardness materials can be moderated through the use of a layered structure. Alternate layers of boron (B) and boron-nitride (BN) are formed by modulating the composition of the sputter gas during deposition from a pure B target. The thin films are characterized with TEM to evaluate the microstructure and with nanoindentation to determine hardness. Layer pair spacing and continuity effects on hardness are evaluated for the B/BN films.

Jankowski, A.F.; Wall, M.A.; Hayes, J.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Alexander, K.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-06-01

194

Evaluation of three beryllium sequestering agents by isothermal titration calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure to beryllium may cause Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD), a granulomatous interstitial pneumonitis. Molecular epidemiological studies indicate charge interaction between beryllium and a specific MHC class II human leukocyte antigen as a factor in disease susceptibility. Therefore, increased research efforts are focusing on the development of a CBD treatment by chelation therapy. In this work, we use direct and

Chadi H. Stephan; Michel Fournier; Pauline Brousseau

195

April 7, 1998 Studies of Coolant Compatibility with Beryllium  

E-print Network

CBX 98­8 April 7, 1998 D.Cinabro S.McGee Studies of Coolant Compatibility with Beryllium Abstract A study of the petroleum­based coolant, PF200, has found it to be chemically compat­ ible with beryllium. These features make PF200 a suitable substitute for water in the coolant system of CLEO's beryllium beam pipe. 1

Cinabro, David

196

Introduction to Beryllium: Uses, Regulatory History, and Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium is an ubiquitous element in the environment, and it has many commercial applications. Because of its strength, electrical and thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance, and nuclear properties, beryllium products are used in the aerospace, automotive, energy, medical, and electronics industries. What eventually came to be known as chronic beryllium disease (CBD) was first identified in the 1940s, when a cluster

Marc E. Kolanz

2001-01-01

197

Relativistic and QED corrections for the Beryllium atom Krzysztof Pachucki  

E-print Network

Relativistic and QED corrections for the Beryllium atom Krzysztof Pachucki #3; Institute are calculated for the ground state of the beryllium atom and its positive ion. A basis set of correlated of high precision theoretical predictions for energy levels of the beryllium atom and light ions. Our

Pachucki, Krzysztof

198

Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality Division  

E-print Network

Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality Division SLAC-I-730-0A09M-001-R003 24 September 2013 #12;Publication Data This document was developed by the Beryllium program and published by ESHQ Publishing. Document Title: Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program

Wechsler, Risa H.

199

REVIEWS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS: VI. BERYLLIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a review of the scientific literature on the biological and environmental effects of beryllium. Included in the review are a general summary and a comprehensive discussion of the following topics as related to beryllium and specific beryllium compounds: physical and...

200

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Cancer: Current Status and Future Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) isbased on the nuclear reaction that occurswhen boron-10 isirradiated with low-energy thermal neutronsto yield high linear energy transferA particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT hasfocused primarily on the treatment of high-grade gliomas and either cutaneous primaries or cerebral metastases of mel- anoma, most recently, head and neck and liver cancer. Neutron

Rolf F. Barth; Jeffrey A. Coderre; M. GraaH

2005-01-01

201

Nuclear Transmutations in HFIR's Beryllium Reflector and Their Impact on Reactor Operation and Reflector Disposal  

SciTech Connect

The High Flux Isotope Reactor located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory utilizes a large cylindrical beryllium reflector that is subdivided into three concentric regions and encompasses the compact reactor core. Nuclear transmutations caused by neutron activation occur in the beryllium reflector regions, which leads to unwanted neutron absorbing and radiation emitting isotopes. During the past year, two topics related to the HFIR beryllium reflector were reviewed. The first topic included studying the neutron poison (helium-3 and lithium-6) buildup in the reflector regions and its affect on beginning-of-cycle reactivity. A new methodology was developed to predict the reactivity impact and estimated symmetrical critical control element positions as a function of outage time between cycles due to helium-3 buildup and was shown to be in better agreement with actual symmetrical critical control element position data than the current methodology. The second topic included studying the composition of the beryllium reflector regions at discharge as well as during decay to assess the viability of transporting, storing, and ultimately disposing the reflector regions currently stored in the spent fuel pool. The post-irradiation curie inventories were used to determine whether the reflector regions are discharged as transuranic waste or become transuranic waste during the decay period for disposal purposes and to determine the nuclear hazard category, which may affect the controls invoked for transportation and temporary storage. Two of the reflector regions were determined to be transuranic waste at discharge and the other region was determined to become transuranic waste in less than 2 years after being discharged due to the initial uranium content (0.0044 weight percent uranium). It was also concluded that all three of the reflector regions could be classified as nuclear hazard category 3 (potential for localized consequences only).

Chandler, David [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Proctor, Larry Duane [ORNL

2012-01-01

202

Incipient toxicity of lithium to freshwater organisms representing a salmonid habitat  

SciTech Connect

Because the eventual development of fusion power reactors could increase the mining, use and disposal of lithium five-fold by the year 2000, potential effects from unusual amounts of lithium in aquatic environments were investigated. Freshwater oganisms representing a Pacific Northwest salmonid habitat were exposed to elevated conentrations of lithium. Nine parameters were used to determine the incipient toxicity of lithium to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), insect larvae (Chironomus sp.), and Columbia River periphyton. All three groups of biota were incipiently sensitive to lithium at concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results correspond with the incipient toxicity of beryllium, a chemically similar component of fusion reactor cores. A maximum lithium concentration of 0.01 mg/L occurs naturally in most freshwater environments (beryllium is rarer). Therefore, a concentration range of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L may be regarded as approaching toxic concentrations when assessing the hazards of lithium in freshwaters.

Emery, R.; Klopfer, D.C.; Skalski, J.R.

1981-07-01

203

Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using  

E-print Network

Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using DFT Sergio Orozco Student Advisor: Chen Huang Faculty Mentor Lithium LPS Test Lithium LPS #12;Density Functional Theory (DFT) Successful quantum mechanical approach (1979) #12;Building LPS for Lithium Create a LPS using NLPS density for Lithium Test LPS by comparing

Petta, Jason

204

Synthesis of lithium nitride for neutron production target of BNCT by in situ lithium deposition and ion implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve high performance of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) device, Li3N/Li/Pd/Cu four layered Li target was designed and the structures of the synthesized four layered target were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. For the purpose of avoiding the radiation blistering and lithium evaporation, in situ vacuum deposition and nitridation techniques were established for in situ production and repairing maintenance of the lithium target. Following conclusions were derived: Uniform lithium layer of a few hundreds nanometer was formed on Pd/Cu multilayer surface by in situ vacuum deposition technique using metallic lithium as a source material. Lithium nitrides were formed by in situ nitridation reaction by the implantation of low-energy nitrogen ions on the deposited lithium layer surface. The chemical states of the nitridated zone were close to the stoichiometric lithium nitride, Li3N. This nitridated zone formed on surface of four layered lithium target is stable for a long time in air condition. The in situ nitridation is effective to protect lithium target from degradation by unfavorable reactions.

Ishiyama, S.; Baba, Y.; Fujii, R.; Nakamura, M.; Imahori, Y.

2012-12-01

205

Determination of boron in aluminum and aluminum-magnesium alloy by charged particle activation analysis  

SciTech Connect

Charge particle activation analysis is applied to the determination of boron in aluminum and aluminum-magnesium alloy. The /sup 10/B(p,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Be, the /sup 10/B(d,..cap alpha..n)/sup 7/Be, and the /sup 10/B(d,n)/sup 11/C reactions are used. Proton activation allows an instrumental determination. When the /sup 10/B(d,..cap alpha..n)/sup 7/Be reaction is used, beryllium-7 is separated from the matrix by liquid-liquid extraction; beryllium acetylacetonate is extracted with carbon tetrachloride after complexation of other metal ions with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. After back extraction beryllium is precipitated as beryllium hydroxide and heated to beryllium oxide. When the /sup 10/B(d,n)/sup 11/C reaction is used, carbon-11 is separated as carbon dioxide by dissolution of the sample in a mixture of sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, water, and potassium dichromate. The chemical yield of both separation methods was determined. The results obtained have a relative standard deviation of 5-9% at the 1-33 ..mu..g/g concentration. The different nuclear reactions yield results that are in good mutual agreement and also agree satisfactorily with those of nonnuclear analytical methods.

Mortier, R.; Vandecasteele, C.; Strijckmans, K.; Hoste, J.

1984-10-01

206

THE BERYLLIUM CONTENT OF SOME METEORITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beryllium concentration of 17 meteorites was determined with ; excellent precision by a fluorometric procedure using morin as reagent. The ; average concentration found for 13 chondrites and 1 achondrite was 0.038 ppm or ; 0.64 atom per 10⁶ atoms of silicon. Two other achondrites were excluded ; from the average because of their large deviations from the mean.

C. W. Sill; C. P. Willis

1962-01-01

207

Lithium and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... lithium? Lithium is a medication used to treat bipolar disorder, which is also called manic-depression. Lithium may ... associated with relapse of symptoms in individuals with bipolar disorder and is not recommended. If you continue on ...

208

Dose point kernel for boron-11 decay and the cellular S values in boron neutron capture therapy  

SciTech Connect

The study of the radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy is based on the cellular level dosimetry of boron-10's thermal neutron capture reaction {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li, in which one 1.47 MeV helium-4 ion and one 0.84 MeV lithium-7 ion are spawned. Because of the chemical preference of boron-10 carrier molecules, the dose is heterogeneously distributed in cells. In the present work, the (scaled) dose point kernel of boron-11 decay, called {sup 11}B-DPK, was calculated by GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code. The DPK curve drops suddenly at the radius of 4.26 {mu}m, the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) range of a lithium-7 ion. Then, after a slight ascending, the curve decreases to near zero when the radius goes beyond 8.20 {mu}m, which is the CSDA range of a 1.47 MeV helium-4 ion. With the DPK data, S values for nuclei and cells with the boron-10 on the cell surface are calculated for different combinations of cell and nucleus sizes. The S value for a cell radius of 10 {mu}m and a nucleus radius of 5 {mu}m is slightly larger than the value published by Tung et al. [Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 739-743 (2004)]. This result is potentially more accurate than the published value since it includes the contribution of a lithium-7 ion as well as the alpha particle.

Ma Yunzhi; Geng Jinpeng; Gao Song; Bao Shanglian [Research Center for Tumor Diagnosis and Radiotherapy Physics and Laboratory of Medical Physics and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Nuclear Physics, Chinese Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing, 102413 (China); Research Center for Tumor Diagnosis and Radiotherapy Physics and Laboratory of Medical Physics and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2006-12-15

209

Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position

Lyday

1990-01-01

210

Boron in the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron has recently come to the attention of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a possible contaminant worthy of regulation, but questions must still be addressed before a regulatory determination can take place. This article reviews current knowledge about boron as it pertains to water treatment and the environment so that informed decisions can be made regarding regulations and direction

JEFFREY L. PARKS; MARC EDWARDS

2005-01-01

211

Risks of beryllium disease related to work processes at a metal, alloy, and oxide production plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To describe relative hazards in sectors of the beryllium industry, risk factors of beryllium disease and sensitisation related to work process were sought in a beryllium manufacturing plant producing pure metal, oxide, alloys, and ceramics. METHODS: All 646 active employees were interviewed; beryllium sensitisation was ascertained with the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation blood test on 627 employees; clinical evaluation and

K Kreiss; M M Mroz; B Zhen; H Wiedemann; B Barna

1997-01-01

212

Magnetron sputtered boron films  

DOEpatents

A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 8 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

1998-06-16

213

Magnetron sputtered boron films  

DOEpatents

A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01

214

Beryllium surface levels in a military ammunition plant.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the presence of beryllium surface contamination in a U.S. conventional munitions plant as an indicator of possible past beryllium airborne and skin exposure and used these measurements to classify job categories by potential level of exposure. Surface samples were collected from production and nonproduction areas of the plant and at regional industrial reference sites with no known history of beryllium use. Surface samples of premoistened wiping material were analyzed for beryllium mass content using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and results expressed as micrograms of beryllium per 100 square centimeters (micro g/100 cm(2)). Beryllium was detected in 87% of samples collected at the munitions plant and in 72% of the samples collected at regional reference sites. Two munitions plant samples from areas near sanders and grinders were above 3.0 micro g/100 cm(2) (U.S. Department of Energy surface contamination limit). The highest surface level found at the reference sites was 0.44 micro g/100 cm(2). Workers in areas where beryllium-containing alloy tools were sanded or ground, but not other work areas, may have been exposed to airborne beryllium concentrations above levels encountered in other industries where metal work is conducted. Surface sampling provided information useful for categorizing munitions plant jobs by level of past beryllium airborne and skin exposure and, subsequently, for identifying employees within exposure strata to be screened for beryllium sensitization. PMID:18569510

Sanderson, Wayne T; Leonard, Stephanie; Ott, Darrin; Fuortes, Laurence; Field, William

2008-07-01

215

Beryllium contamination inside vehicles of machine shop workers  

SciTech Connect

Inhalation of beryllium particles causes a chronic, debilitating lung disease--chronic beryllium disease (CBD)--in immunologically sensitized workers. Evidence that very low concentrations of beryllium may initiate this chronic disease is provided by incidences of the illness in family members exposed to beryllium dust from workers` clothes and residents in neighborhoods surrounding beryllium refineries. This article describes the results of a cross-sectional survey to evaluate potential take-home beryllium exposures by measuring surface concentrations on the hands and in vehicles of workers at a precision machine shop where cases of CBD had recently been diagnosed. Many workers did not change out of their work clothes and shoes at the end of their shift, increasing the risk of taking beryllium home to their families. Wipe samples collected from workers` hands and vehicle surfaces were analyzed for beryllium content by inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results ranged widely, from nondetectable to 40 {micro}g/ft{sup 2} on workers` hands and up to 714 {micro}g/fg{sup 2} inside their vehicles, demonstrating that many workers carried residual beryllium on their hands and contaminated the inside of their vehicles when leaving work. The highest beryllium concentrations inside the workers` vehicles were found on the drivers` floor (GM = 19 {micro}g/ft{sup 2}, GSD = 4.9), indicating that workers were carrying beryllium on their shoes into their vehicles. A safe level of beryllium contamination on surfaces is not known, but it is prudent to reduce the potential for workers to carry beryllium away from the work site.

Sanderson, W.T. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Div. of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies] [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Div. of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies; Henneberger, P.K. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States). Div. of Respiratory Disease Studies] [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States). Div. of Respiratory Disease Studies; Martyny, J. [Tri-County Health Dept., Commerce, CO (United States)] [Tri-County Health Dept., Commerce, CO (United States); Ellis, K. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health] [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health; Mroz, M.M. [National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO (United States)] [National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO (United States); Newman, L.S. [National jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO (United States)] [National jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO (United States); [Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO (United States)

1999-04-01

216

Lithium target for accelerator based BNCT neutron source: Influence by the proton irradiation on lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is in the transition stage from nuclear reactor to accelerator based neutron source. Generation of low energy neutron can be achieved by 7Li (p, n) 7Be reaction using accelerator based neutron source. Development of small-scale and safe neutron source is within reach. The melting point of lithium that is used for the target is low, and durability is questioned for an extended use at a high current proton beam. In order to test its durability, we have irradiated lithium with proton beam at the same level as the actual current density, and found no deterioration after 3 hours of continuous irradiation. As a result, it is suggested that lithium target can withstand proton irradiation at high current, confirming suitability as accelerator based neutron source for BNCT.

Fujii, R.; Imahori, Y.; Nakakmura, M.; Takada, M.; Kamada, S.; Hamano, T.; Hoshi, M.; Sato, H.; Itami, J.; Abe, Y.; Fuse, M.

2012-12-01

217

Results from the CDX-U Lithium Wall and NSTX Lithium Pallet Injection and Evaporation Experiments  

SciTech Connect

CDX-U has been operated with the vacuum vessel wall and limiter surfaces nearly completely coated with lithium, producing dramatic improvements to plasma performance. Discharges achieved global energy confinement times up to 6 ms, exceeding previous CDX-U results by a factor of 5, and ITER98P(y,1) scaling by 2-3. Lithium wall coatings up to 1000 {angstrom} thick were applied between discharges by electron-beam-induced evaporation of a lithium-filled limiter and vapor deposition from a resistively heated oven. The e-beam power was modest (1.6 kW) but it produced up to 60 MW/m2 power density in a 0.3 cm{sup 2} spot; the duration was up to 300 s. Convective transport of heat away from the beam spot was so effective that the entire lithium inventory (140 g) was heated to evaporation (400-500 C) and there was no observable hot spot on the lithium surface within the beam footprint. These results are promising for use of lithium plasma-facing components in reactor scale devices. Lithium coating has also been applied to NSTX carbon plasma-facing surfaces, to control the density rise during long-duration H-modes for non-inductive current sustainment. First, lithium pellets were injected into sequences of Ohmically heated helium plasmas in both center stack limiter (CSL) and lower single-null divertor (LSND) configurations to deposit a total of 25-30 mg of lithium on the respective plasma contact areas. In both cases, the first subsequent L mode, deuterium discharge with NBI showed a reduction in the volume-average density by a factor {approx}3 compared to similar discharges before the lithium coating. Recently, a lithium evaporator was installed aimed toward the graphite tiles of the lower center stack and divertor. Twelve depositions, ranging from about 10 mg to 5 g of lithium, were performed. The effects on LSND L-mode, double-null divertor (DND) H-mode, and DND reversed-shear plasmas were variable but, immediately after coating, there were decreases in the density and significant increases in electron and ion temperature, neutron rate, confinement time, and edge flow velocity, and reductions in H-mode ELM frequency. For several days of operation after lithium coating, the ratio of oxygen to carbon emission was lower than with boronization.

Majeski, R; Kugel, H; Bell, M; Bell, R; Beiersdorfer, P; Bush, C; Doerner, R; Gates, D; Gray, T; Kaita, R; LeBlanc, B; Maingi, R; Mansfield, D; Menard, J; Mueller, D; Paul, S; Raman, R; Roquemore, A; Skinner, C; Sabbagh, S; Souskhanovskii, V; Spaleta, J; Stevenson, T; Timberlake, J; Zakharov, L

2006-10-05

218

Characterization of Plasma Sprayed Beryllium ITER First Wall Mockups  

SciTech Connect

ITER first wall beryllium mockups, which were fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying the beryllium armor, have survived 3000 thermal fatigue cycles at 1 MW/sq m without damage during high heat flux testing at the Plasma Materials Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. The thermal and mechanical properties of the plasma sprayed beryllium armor have been characterized. Results are reported on the chemical composition of the beryllium armor in the as-deposited condition, the through thickness and normal to the through thickness thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, the four-point bend flexure strength and edge-notch fracture toughness of the beryllium armor, the bond strength between the beryllium armor and the underlying heat sink material, and ultrasonic C-scans of the Be/heat sink interface.

Castro, Richard G.; Vaidya, Rajendra U.; Hollis, Kendall J.

1997-12-31

219

Boron isotopic compositions of some boron minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron minerals that have different structural formulae but are supposed to have the same geologic origin have been collected and analyzed for the 11 B \\/ 10 B isotopic ratio. It has been reconfirmed that minerals of marine origin have higher 11 B \\/ 10 B ratios than those of nonmarine origin. It has been found that the sequence of

Takao Oi; Masao Nomura; Masaaki Musashi; Tomoko Ossaka; Makoto Okamoto; Hidetake Kakihana

1989-01-01

220

Dynamic structure factor in warm dense beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the dynamic structure factor (DSF) in warm dense beryllium by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamic conductivity is derived from the Kubo-Greenwood formula, and a Drude-like behaviour is observed. The corresponding dielectric function is used to determine the DSF. Since the ab initio approach is so far only applicable for wavenumbers k = 0, the k-dependence of the dielectric function is modelled via the Mermin ansatz. We present the results for the dielectric function and DSF of warm dense beryllium and compare these with perturbative treatments such as the Born-Mermin approximation. We found considerable differences between the results of these approaches; this underlines the need for a first-principles determination of the DSF of warm dense matter.

Plagemann, K.-U.; Sperling, P.; Thiele, R.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Fortmann, C.; Döppner, T.; Lee, H. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Redmer, R.

2012-05-01

221

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...beryllium, additional examinations will be recommended. If additional tests indicate I do have a beryllium sensitization or CBD, the Site Occupational Medical Director may recommend that I be removed from working with beryllium. If I agree to be...

2013-01-01

222

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...beryllium, additional examinations will be recommended. If additional tests indicate I do have a beryllium sensitization or CBD, the Site Occupational Medical Director may recommend that I be removed from working with beryllium. If I agree to be...

2011-01-01

223

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...beryllium, additional examinations will be recommended. If additional tests indicate I do have a beryllium sensitization or CBD, the Site Occupational Medical Director may recommend that I be removed from working with beryllium. If I agree to be...

2010-01-01

224

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...beryllium, additional examinations will be recommended. If additional tests indicate I do have a beryllium sensitization or CBD, the Site Occupational Medical Director may recommend that I be removed from working with beryllium. If I agree to be...

2012-01-01

225

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form  

...I understand that my employer will be notified of my diagnosis only if I have a beryllium sensitization or chronic beryllium disease. My employer will not receive the results or diagnoses of any health conditions not related to beryllium...

2014-01-01

226

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

2014-01-01

227

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

2011-01-01

228

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

2012-01-01

229

40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?  

...false What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section...Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What...

2014-07-01

230

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

2013-01-01

231

40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.  

...Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

232

Neutron counter based on beryllium activation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction 9Be(n, ?)6He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, 6He, decays with half-life T1/2 = 0.807 s emitting ?- particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of ?-particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known ?-source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5-the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of ?- particles emitted from radioactive 6He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Scholz, M.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Igielski, A.; Karpinski, L.; Paducha, M.; Pytel, K.

2014-08-01

233

Beryllium pressure vessels for creep tests in magnetic fusion energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium has interesting applications in magnetic fusion experimental machines and future power-producing fusion reactors. Chief among the properties of beryllium that make these applications possible is its ability to act as a neutron multiplier, thereby increasing the tritium breeding ability of energy conversion blankets. Another property, the behavior of beryllium in a 14-MeV neutron environment, has not been fully investigated,

Neef

1990-01-01

234

IN VITRO STUDIES OF GRANULOMATOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY TO BERYLLIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphocytes were obtained from normal subjects and subjects with granulomatous hypersensitivity to beryllium. Lymphocytes from sensitive persons underwent typical blastogenic transformation when exposed to BeO or BeSO4in vitro. Transformation was maximal between the fifth and sixth days of exposure and was dependent upon the concentration of beryllium.Monocytes from beryllium sensitive subjects matured into macrophages in vitro more rapidly than cells

Jon M. Hanifin; William L. Epstein; Martin J. Cline

1970-01-01

235

Density functional study of hydrogen adsorption on beryllium (0001)  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium, tungsten, and carbon are planned as wall materials for the future international tokamak. Although beryllium is not situated in a region submitted to the most dramatic plasma-wall interaction, its reactivity toward hydrogen atom impinging is of fundamental importance. This paper is devoted to theoretical study of hydrogen adsorption on the beryllium (0001) surface based on the first-principles discrete Fourier transform method. Comparison is proposed to former theoretical works and to thermal-desorption spectroscopy.

Allouche, A. [Physique des Interactions Ioniques et Moleculaires, CNRS and Universite de Provence, Campus Scientifique de Saint Jerome, service 242, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

2008-08-15

236

Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample  

DOEpatents

A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Ehler, Deborah S. (Los Alamos, NM); John, Kevin D. (Santa Fe, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Collis, Gavin E. (Los Alamos, NM); Minogue, Edel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-08-24

237

The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site beryllium characterization project  

SciTech Connect

A site beryllium characterization project was completed at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in 1997. Information from historical reviews, previous sampling surveys, and a new sampling survey were used to establish a more comprehensive understanding of the locations and levels of beryllium contamination in 35 buildings. A feature of the sampling strategy was to test if process knowledge was a good predictor of where beryllium contamination could be found. Results revealed that this technique was effective at identifying where surface contamination levels might exceed the RFETS smear control level but that it was not effective in identifying where low concentrations of beryllium might be found.

Morrell, D.M. [Kaiser-Hill Co. LLC, Golden, CO (United States); Miller, J.R. [Radian International LLC, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Allen, D.F. [Radian International LLC, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1999-06-01

238

Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites - Evidence for a sedimentary precursor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 100 micron atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 million years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

Pal, D. K.; Moniot, R. K.; Kruse, T. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Tuniz, C.

1982-01-01

239

High-temperature properties of lithium tetraborate Li2B4O7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature coherent neutron powder diffraction experiments were carried out on Li2B4O7 with boron isotope ratio 11B?:?10B as high as 99.6?:?0.4%. Neither traces of phase transformations nor discontinuous changes of physical properties were observed. Anomalies in the thermal expansion of lithium tetraborate were considered in terms of first-order Grüneisen approximation. Extended bond length analysis revealed significant modifications of the boron-oxygen framework which is supplemented by dynamic lithium disorder. Impedance spectroscopy studies revealed a complicated conduction mechanism in single crystalline lithium tetraborate. The lithium diffusion pathway for bulk conductivity along the polar axis was established using both maximum entropy and anharmonic refinement techniques.

Senyshyn, A.; Boysen, H.; Niewa, R.; Banys, J.; Kinka, M.; Burak, Ya; Adamiv, V.; Izumi, F.; Chumak, I.; Fuess, H.

2012-05-01

240

Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/coron mixtures  

DOEpatents

A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod.

Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ); Manos, Dennis (Williamsburg, VA); Nartowitz, Ed (Edison, NJ)

1994-01-01

241

Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/carbon mixtures  

SciTech Connect

A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached and coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod.

Timberlake, J.R.; Manos, D.; Nartowitz, E.

1993-12-31

242

Molecular Structure of boron  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boron was founded in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy and Gay-Lussac and Thenard. It occurs as orthoboric acid in volcanic spring waters and as borates in Boron and colematic. Some sources can also be found in the Mohave Desert. It is used when making glass to keep the glass from breaking under temperature stress. Also if combined with sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide it makes bleach.

2002-08-26

243

A pentafluorophenylboron oxalate additive in non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel compound named pentafluorophenylboron oxalate (PFPBO) has been synthesized. PFPBO has a unique molecular structure containing a boron atom center with electron deficiency and an oxalate group. It is found that when PFPBO is used as additive, the solubility of lithium fluoride (LiF) or lithium oxide (Li2O, Li2O2) in propylene carbonate (PC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) solvents can be

L. F. Li; H. S. Lee; X. Q. Yang; X. J. Huang

2009-01-01

244

Beryllium Metal II. A Review of the Available Toxicity Data  

PubMed Central

Beryllium metal was classified in Europe collectively with beryllium compounds, e.g. soluble salts. Toxicological equivalence was assumed despite greatly differing physicochemical properties. Following introduction of the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation, beryllium metal was classified as individual substance and more investigational efforts to appropriately characterize beryllium metal as a specific substance apart from soluble beryllium compounds was required. A literature search on toxicity of beryllium metal was conducted, and the resulting literature compiled together with the results of a recently performed study package into a comprehensive data set. Testing performed under Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development guidelines and Good Laboratory Practice concluded that beryllium metal was neither a skin irritant, an eye irritant, a skin sensitizer nor evoked any clinical signs of acute oral toxicity; discrepancies between the current legal classification of beryllium metal in the European Union (EU) and the experimental results were identified. Furthermore, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity were discussed in the context of the literature data and the new experimental data. It was concluded that beryllium metal is unlikely to be a classical nonthreshold mutagen. Effects on DNA repair and morphological cell transformation were observed but need further investigation to evaluate their relevance in vivo. Animal carcinogenicity studies deliver evidence of carcinogenicity in the rat; however, lung overload may be a species-specific confounding factor in the existing studies, and studies in other species do not give convincing evidence of carcinogenicity. Epidemiology has been intensively discussed over the last years and has the problem that the studies base on the same US beryllium production population and do not distinguish between metal and soluble compounds. It is noted that the correlation between beryllium exposure and carcinogenicity, even including the soluble compounds, remains under discussion in the scientific community and active research is continuing. PMID:21196456

Strupp, Christian

2011-01-01

245

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR BERYLLIUM: REVIEW DRAFT (APRIL 1986)  

EPA Science Inventory

The chemical and geochemical properties of beryllium resemble those of aluminum, zinc, and magnesium. This resemblance is primarily due to similar ionic potentials which facilitate covalent bonding. The three most common forms of beryllium in industrial emission are the metal, th...

246

Recovery of plutonium from plutonium-beryllium neutron sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Los Alamos National Laboratory, plutonium-beryllium neutron sources have traditionally been processed for plutonium recovery by precipitating the plutonium as plutonium oxalate, calcining to plutonium dioxide, redissolving the oxide and then precipitating as oxalate again. In most cases three dissolutions of the oxide are required to reduce beryllium content enough to meet specifications. We first introduced an ion-exchange process

1990-01-01

247

Simulating beryllium electrorefining with AspenPlus{copyright}  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium is a lightweight, high strength metal with excellent thermal properties. It is a high cost material that has applications in electronics, the space program, and the defense industry. Beryllium is irreplaceable in several defense applications and therefore the US government maintains a reserve supply of several grades of the metal. However, the current defense industry (the largest metallic beryllium user) use has dwindled to the point that the only metallic beryllium producer in the US, Brush Wellman Inc., continually evaluates the profitability of continued production. The production dilemma has been compounded by health concerns associated with the generation of beryllium fines during production. An electrorefining method, previously developed, shows promise for recycling low purity beryllium scraps and produces a high grade material. Recycling and purification can reduce costs and waste disposal problems and increase the beryllium reserves in the event that Brush Wellman discontinues production. In this paper, the authors demonstrate how to use a commercially available process simulator for improving a process to electrorefine both scrap and low purity beryllium into a high purity product.

Polston, C.E.; Parkinson, W.J.; Abeln, S.P.; Wantuck, P.J.; Corle, R.R.

1998-12-01

248

Modeling Airborne Beryllium Concentrations From Open Air Dynamic Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A heightened awareness of airborne beryllium contamination from industrial activities was reestablished during the late 1980's and early 1990's when it became recognized that Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD) had not been eradicated, and that the Occupational Health and Safety Administration standards for occupational air exposure to beryllium may not be sufficiently protective. This was in response to the observed CBD increase in multiple industrial settings where beryllium was manufactured and/or machined, thus producing beryllium particulates which are then available for redistribution by airborne transport. Sampling and modeling design activities were expanded at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico to evaluate potential airborne beryllium exposure to workers who might be exposed during dynamic testing activities associated with nuclear weapons Stockpile Stewardship. Herein is presented the results of multiple types of collected air measurements that were designed to characterize the production and dispersion of beryllium used in components whose performance is evaluated during high explosive detonation at open air firing sites. Data from fallout, high volume air, medium volume air, adhesive film, particle size impactor, and fine-particulate counting techniques will be presented, integrated, and applied in dispersion modeling to assess potential onsite and offsite personal exposures resulting from dynamic testing activities involving beryllium.

Becker, N. M.

2003-12-01

249

A mortality study of workers at seven beryllium processing plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has found that the evidence for the carcinogenicity of beryllium is sufficient based on animal data but limited based on human data. This analysis reports on a retrospective cohort mortality study among 9,225 male workers employed at seven beryllium processing facilities for at least 2 days between January 1, 1940, and December

Elizabeth Ward; Andrea Okun; Avima Ruder; Marilyn Fingerhut; Kyle Steenland

1992-01-01

250

Beryllium sensitivity is linked to HLA-DP genotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) appears to arise from a combination of both exposure and genetic risk factors. A distinguishing feature of CBD is beryllium hypersensitivity, which can be measured in vitro by a lymphocyte proliferation test. The objective of this study was to determine whether certain allelic variations of the HLA-DPB1 gene, which had been observed previously in CBD, could

Zaolin Wang; Georgia M Farris; Lee S Newman; Yulin Shou; Lisa A Maier; Hugh N Smith; Babetta L Marrone

2001-01-01

251

IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR BERYLLIUM AND COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's assessment of the noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of Beryllium was added to the IRIS database in 1998. The IRIS program is updating the IRIS assessment for Beryllium. This update will incorporate health effects information published since the last assess...

252

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR BERYLLIUM (1998 FINAL REPORT)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Beryllium and Compounds: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) . The updated Summary for Beryllium and Compounds and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Data...

253

Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron  

DOEpatents

This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01

254

Boron-Based Layered Structures for Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

Based on Density Functional Theory simulations, we have studied the boron-based graphite-like materials, i.e., LiBC and MgB2 for energy storage. First, when half of the Li-ions in the LiBC are removed, the BC layered structure is still preserved. The Li intercalation potential (equilibrium lithium-insertion voltage of 2.3-2.4 V relative to lithium metal) is significantly higher than that in graphite, allowing Li0.5BC to function as a cathode material. The reversible electrochemical reaction, LiBC = Li0.5BC + 0.5Li, enables a specific energy density of 1088 Wh/kg and a volumetric energy density of 2463 Wh/L. Second, 75% of the Mg ions in MgB2 can be removed and reversibly inserted with the layered boron structures being preserved through an in-plane topological transformation between the hexagonal lattice domains and triangular domains. The mechanism of such a charge-driven transformation originates from the versatile valence state of boron in its planar form.

Zhao, Y.; Wei, S. H.

2012-01-01

255

Method for fabricating beryllium-based multilayer structures  

DOEpatents

Beryllium-based multilayer structures and a process for fabricating beryllium-based multilayer mirrors, useful in the wavelength region greater than the beryllium K-edge (111 .ANG. or 11.1 nm). The process includes alternating sputter deposition of beryllium and a metal, typically from the fifth row of the periodic table, such as niobium (Nb), molybdenum (Mo), ruthenium (Ru), and rhodium (Rh). The process includes not only the method of sputtering the materials, but the industrial hygiene controls for safe handling of beryllium. The mirrors made in accordance with the process may be utilized in soft x-ray and extreme-ultraviolet projection lithography, which requires mirrors of high reflectivity (>60%) for x-rays in the range of 60-140 .ANG. (60-14.0 nm).

Skulina, Kenneth M. (Livermore, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Alford, Craig S. (Tracy, CA)

2003-02-18

256

Hydrodynamic instabilities in beryllium targets for the National Ignition Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beryllium ablators offer higher ablation velocity, rate, and pressure than their carbon-based counterparts, with the potential to increase the probability of achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We present here a detailed hydrodynamic stability analysis of low (NIF Revision 6.1) and high adiabat NIF beryllium target designs. Our targets are optimized to fully utilize the advantages of beryllium in order to suppress the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. This results in an implosion that resists breakup of the capsule, and simultaneously minimizes the amount of ablator material mixed into the fuel. We quantify the improvement in stability of beryllium targets relative to plastic ones, and show that a low adiabat beryllium capsule can be at least as stable at the ablation front as a high adiabat plastic target.

Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Olson, R. E.; Kline, J. L.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Batha, S. H.

2014-09-01

257

Beryllium isotope geochemistry in tropical river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distributions of beryllium-9 and beryllium-10 in rivers within the Orinoco and Amazon basins have been examined to extend our understanding of their geochemical cycles and to develop their use both in geochronometry, and in studying erosional processes. Beryllium-9, the stable isotope, is weathered from mineral lattices before entering the riverine dissolved or exchangeable phase. The cosmogenic radioisotope 10Be ( t 1/2 = 1.5 Myr) is produced primarily in the atmosphere and is brought into riverine systems, via rainfall, in dissolved or exchangeable form; it may be used to examine the processes which affect beryllium partitioning between the dissolved and particulate phases. Ancillary data, such as major ion distributions, provide a basis for selecting regions in which riverine chemistry is dominated by a single geochemical process, allowing examination of its effects on Be distributions in isolation. Analyses of 9Be in dissolved and suspended material from rivers with a wide range of chemical compositions indicate that its geochemistry is primarily controlled by two major factors: (1) its abundance in the rocks of the watershed and (2) the extent of its adsorption onto particle surfaces. The relative importance of these parameters in individual rivers is determined by the extent of interaction with flood-plain sediments and the riverine pH. This understanding of 9Be geochemistry forms a basis for examination of the geochemical cycling of 10Be. In rivers which are dominated by interaction with sediments, the riverine concentration of dissolved 10Be is far lower than that in the incoming rainwater, indicating that a substantial proportion of it is retained within the soils of the basin or is adsorbed onto riverine particles. However, in acidic rivers in which the stable dissolved Be concentration is determined by the Be level in the rocks of the drainage basin, dissolved 10Be has essentially the same concentration as in precipitation. These observations imply that the soil column in such regions must be saturated with respect to 10Be, and that the ratio of the inventory to the flux does not represent an age, as may be the case in temperate latitudes, but rather a residence time.

Thorson Brown, Erik; Edmond, John M.; Raisbeck, Grant M.; Bourlès, Didier L.; Yiou, Françoise; Measures, Christopher I.

1992-04-01

258

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1982-02-09

259

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1983-01-01

260

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

1980-07-18

261

Boronated liposome development and evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The boronated liposome development and evaluation effort consists of two separate tasks. The first is the development of new boron compounds and the synthesis of known boron species with BNCT potential. These compounds are then encapsulated within liposomes for the second task, biodistribution testing in tumor-bearing mice, which examines the potential for the liposomes and their contents to concentrate boron in cancerous tissues.

Hawthorne, M.F. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1995-11-01

262

Mineral of the month: boron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What does boron have to do with baseball, apple pie, motherhood and Chevrolet? Boron minerals and chemicals are used in the tanning of leather baseballs and gloves; in micro-fertilizer to grow apples and in the glass and enamels of bakewares to cook apple pie; in boron detergents for soaking baby clothes and diapers; and in fiberglass parts for the Chevrolet Corvette.

Lyday, Phyllis A.

2005-01-01

263

Beryllium and Other Trace Elements in Paragneisses and Anatectic Veins of the  

E-print Network

Beryllium and Other Trace Elements in Paragneisses and Anatectic Veins of the Ultrahigh-bearing paragneisses. KEY WORDS: Antarctica; beryllium; granulite facies; microprobe; sapphirine INTRODUCTION Beryllium in granitic pegmatites where beryllium minerals, most com- monly beryl, are found (e.g. London & Evensen, 2002

Sandiford, Mike

264

Improved rechargeable lithium electrode  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the research were (1) to demonstrate that a synthetically generated lithium-ion-conducting interphase could extend the cycle life of the lithium electrode; and (2) to determine whether an organic solvent's stability toward lithium is intrinsic or simply due to mediating surface films. The presence of superoxide ion was found to quadruple the life of LiAlCl4/tetrahydrofuran electrolyte and to allow lithium to be cycled to LiAlCl4/2-methyl tetrahydrofuran. The discovery that 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran is more stable toward lithium-mercury amalgam than is tetrahydrofuran suggests that structural features of a solvent molecule may be manipulated so as to decrease its propensity for reduction by lithium metal. These results are said to provide a basis upon which solvents and the lithium solvent interface may be modified, leading to a practical secondary lithium electrode for use in rechargeable high-energy-density batteries.

Koch, V.R.

1983-04-01

265

Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron  

SciTech Connect

U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position as a source of sodium borate products and boric acid exported to foreign markets. Supplementary U.S. imports of Turkish calcium borate and calcium-sodium borate ores, borax, and boric acid, primarily for various glass uses, continued.

Lyday, P.A.

1990-08-01

266

Structure of Liquid Boron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure factor S\\(Q\\) and the pair distribution function g\\(r\\) has been measured for liquid boron in the temperature range 2600-2000 K, extending over both the normal and supercooled liquid states. The bond length and coordination number of the first coordination shell are similar to those reported for the crystalline and amorphous solid forms, but the second and third coordination shells are broader and shifted to higher distances. The insulator-metal transition that takes place in boron upon melting is associated with a relatively small change in both volume and short-range order.

Krishnan, S.; Ansell, S.; Felten, J. J.; Volin, K. J.; Price, D. L.

1998-07-01

267

Structure of Liquid Boron  

SciTech Connect

The structure factor S(Q) and the pair distribution function g(r) has been measured for liquid boron in the temperature range 2600{endash}2000thinspthinspK, extending over both the normal and supercooled liquid states. The bond length and coordination number of the first coordination shell are similar to those reported for the crystalline and amorphous solid forms, but the second and third coordination shells are broader and shifted to higher distances. The insulator-metal transition that takes place in boron upon melting is associated with a relatively small change in both volume and short-range order. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Krishnan, S.; Felten, J.J. [Containerless Research, Inc., 906 University Place, Evanston, Illinois 60201 (United States)] [Containerless Research, Inc., 906 University Place, Evanston, Illinois 60201 (United States); Ansell, S.; Volin, K.J.; Price, D.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

1998-07-01

268

Beryllium medical surveillance at a former nuclear weapons facility during cleanup operations.  

PubMed

Despite increasing need to remediate beryllium-contaminated buildings in industry, little is known about the magnitude of risk associated with beryllium abatement or the merits of beryllium medical surveillance for cleanup workers. We examined beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests and reviewed medical evaluations on workers at a nuclear weapons facility during the process of decontamination and decommissioning. Of 2,221 workers, 19 (0.8%) were beryllium sensitized based on two or more abnormal beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests. Eight of 19 sensitized individuals underwent full clinical evaluation, of whom two were diagnosed with chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Notably, seven beryllium sensitized and CBD cases were hired after the start of cleanup operations. Beryllium medical surveillance detects sensitization and CBD in cleanup workers. Exposure controls and medical surveillance need to be 'broad-based' to include all cleanup workers involved in beryllium-contaminated building remediation. PMID:15354061

Sackett, Holly M; Maier, Lisa A; Silveira, Lori J; Mroz, Margaret M; Ogden, Lorraine G; Murphy, James R; Newman, Lee S

2004-09-01

269

Boron Requirement in Cyanobacteria 1  

PubMed Central

The effect of boron on heterocystous and nonheterocystous dinitrogen fixing Cyanobacteria was examined. The absence of boron in culture media inhibited growth and nitrogenase activity in Nodularia sp., Chlorogloeopsis sp., and Nostoc sp. cultures. Examinations of boron-deficient cultures showed changes in heterocyst morphology. However, cultures of nonheterocystous Cyanobacteria, Gloeothece sp. and Plectonema sp., grown in the absence of boron did not show any alteration in growth or nitrogenase activity. These results suggest a requirement of boron only by heterocystous Cyanobacteria. A possible role for this element in the early evolution of photosynthetic organisms is proposed. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16667889

Bonilla, Ildefonso; Garcia-Gonzalez, Mercedes; Mateo, Pilar

1990-01-01

270

Electronic structures of boron nanoribbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using first principles calculations, we investigate the electronic properties of boron nanoribbons. The boron nanoribbons are constructed from the stable boron sheet. The bare boron nanoribbons with different edges are metals. The boron nanoribbons with two-hydrogen passivated on the zigzag edges become semiconductors and are more stable than the one-hydrogen passivated ones. The band gaps are within the range of 0.5eV and there is an oscillatory variation in the band gaps with the change of widths due to the even-odd number of nanoribbon widths.

Ding, Yi; Yang, Xiaobao; Ni, Jun

2008-07-01

271

A general method for Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions using lithium triisopropyl borates.  

PubMed

Conditions for the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of lithium triisopropyl borates are reported, as well as a procedure for a one-pot lithiation, borylation, and subsequent Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of various heterocycles with aryl halides. These borate species are much more stable toward protodeboronation than the corresponding boronic acids and can conveniently be stored on benchtop at room temperature. PMID:22894743

Oberli, Matthias A; Buchwald, Stephen L

2012-09-01

272

Investigation of ITER candidate beryllium grades irradiated at high temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beryllium is one of the main candidate materials both for the neutron multiplier in a solid breeding blanket and for the plasma facing components. That is why the investigation of beryllium behaviour under the typical for fusion reactor loading, in particular under the neutron irradiation, is of a great importance. This paper presents some results of investigation of five beryllium grades (DshG-200, TR-30, TshG-56, TRR, TE-30, TIP-30) fabricated by VNIINM, Russia, and one (S-65) fabricated by Brush Wellman, USA. The average grain size of the investigated beryllium grades varied from 8 to 40 ?m, beryllium oxide content was 0.7-3.2 wt.%, initial tensile strength 250-680 MPa. All the samples were irradiated in active zone of SM-3 reactor of 650-700°C up to the fast neutron fluence (5.5-6.2) × 10 21 cm -2 (2.7-3.0 dpa, helium content up to 1150 appm), E > 0.1 MeV. Irradiation swelling of the materials was revealed to be in the range of 0.3-1.7%. Beryllium grades TR-30 and TRR having the smallest grain size and highest beryllium oxide content, demonstrated minimal swelling, which did not exceed 0.3% at 700°C and fluence 5.5 × 10 21 cm -2. Mechanical properties and microstructure parameters measured before and after irradiation are also presented.

Kupriyanov, I. B.; Gorokhov, V. A.; Melder, R. R.; Ostrovsky, Z. E.; Gervash, A. A.

1998-10-01

273

Direct Drive Beryllium Ablator Capsules for the Omega Laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are designing direct drive beryllium ablator capsules for the Omega laser as part of our effort to develop beryllium ablator ignition capsules for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The main goals for this experimental campaign is to develop the fabrication expertise for roughly NIF size capsules and obtain experimental data on how the copper- brazed joint between the beryllium hemispheres affects the implosion. Our proposed design calls for an 1180 micron outisde diameter capsule with 40 micron thick beryllium walls containing 50 atm of deuterium gas. Some of the capsules will also have 0.05 atm of argon. We plan to image the joints with argon fluorescence from inside the capsule. Our plan is to use a 1 ns square pulse with 30 kJ of laser energy. With this drive, we expect the convergence ratio to be about 6.5 to 7. Depending on the capsule design details, we expect that the peak temperature will be 490 ± 40 eV, and the neutron yield will be anywhere from 1× 10^8 to 8× 10^8 neutrons. Some of the uncertainty comes from whether or not we use argon and questions about how much mix the copper-brazed joint will cause. The yield also depends strongly on which beryllium alloy we use. We calculate better implosions in direct drive with pure beryllium, but requirements on allowable grain size may force us to use copper-doped beryllium, which would reduce the yield by about 50%.

Bradley, P. A.; Wilson, D. C.; Cobble, J. A.; Murphy, T. J.; Cooley, J. C.; Salazar, M. A.; Rivera Nobile, G., Jr.

2001-10-01

274

Sarcoidosis and chronic beryllium disease: similarities and differences.  

PubMed

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disease that may be pathologically and clinically indistinguishable from pulmonary sarcoidosis, except through use of immunologic testing, such as the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). Similar to sarcoidosis, the pulmonary manifestations of CBD are variable and overlap with other respiratory diseases. Definitive diagnosis of CBD is established by evidence of immune sensitization to beryllium and diagnostic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy. However, the diagnosis of CBD can also be established on a medically probable basis in beryllium-exposed patients with consistent radiographic imaging and clinical course. Beryllium workers exposed too much higher levels of beryllium in the past demonstrated a much more fulminant disease than is usually seen today. Some extrapulmonary manifestations similar to sarcoidosis were noted in these historic cohorts, although with a narrower spectrum. Extrapulmonary manifestations of CBD are rare today. Since lung-predominant sarcoidosis can very closely resemble CBD, CBD is still misdiagnosed as sarcoidosis when current or past exposure to beryllium is not recognized and no BeLPT is obtained. This article describes the similarities and differences between CBD and sarcoidosis, including clinical and diagnostic features that can help physicians consider CBD in patients with apparent lung-predominant sarcoidosis. PMID:25007084

Mayer, Annyce S; Hamzeh, Nabeel; Maier, Lisa A

2014-06-01

275

Molten Salt Lithium Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in th...

I. D. Raistrick, J. Poris, R. A. Huggins

1980-01-01

276

Lithium Ion Production NDE  

E-print Network

Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations David Wood, Debasish Mohanty, Jianlin Li, and Claus Daniel 12/9/13 EERE Quality Control Workshop #12;2 Presentation name Lithium Ion Electrode to be meaningful and provide electrode and cell QC. #12;3 Presentation name New Directions in Lithium Ion Electrode

277

Lithium ion conducting electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group

C. A. Angell; C. Liu

1996-01-01

278

Lithium nephrotoxicity revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium is widely used to treat bipolar disorder. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is the most common adverse effect of lithium and occurs in up to 40% of patients. Renal lithium toxicity is characterized by increased water and sodium diuresis, which can result in mild dehydration, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and renal tubular acidosis. The concentrating defect and natriuretic effect develop within

Bernard C. Rossier; Jean-Pierre Grünfeld

2009-01-01

279

Fabrication of boron sputter targets  

DOEpatents

A process for fabricating high density boron sputtering targets with sufficient mechanical strength to function reliably at typical magnetron sputtering power densities and at normal process parameters. The process involves the fabrication of a high density boron monolithe by hot isostatically compacting high purity (99.9%) boron powder, machining the boron monolithe into the final dimensions, and brazing the finished boron piece to a matching boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) piece, by placing aluminum foil there between and applying pressure and heat in a vacuum. An alternative is the application of aluminum metallization to the back of the boron monolithe by vacuum deposition. Also, a titanium based vacuum braze alloy can be used in place of the aluminum foil.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01

280

Fabrication of boron sputter targets  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for fabricating high density boron sputtering targets with sufficient mechanical strength to function reliably at typical magnetron sputtering power densities and at normal process parameters. The process involves the fabrication of a high density boron monolithe by hot isostatically compacting high purity (99.9%) boron powder, machining the boron monolithe into the final dimensions, and brazing the finished boron piece to a matching boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) piece, by placing aluminum foil there between and applying pressure and heat in a vacuum. An alternative is the application of aluminum metallization to the back of the boron monolithe by vacuum deposition. Also, a titanium based vacuum braze alloy can be used in place of the aluminum foil. 7 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.

1995-02-28

281

Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force  

SciTech Connect

On December 8, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) published Title 10 CFR 850 (hereafter referred to as the Rule) to establish a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) to: {sm_bullet} reduce the number of workers currently exposed to beryllium in the course of their work at DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors, {sm_bullet} minimize the levels of, and potential for, expos exposure to beryllium, and {sm_bullet} establish medical surveillance requirements to ensure early detection of the disease.

MacQueen, D H

2007-02-21

282

Sublimation of Boron.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Torsion-effusion and mass spectrometric techniques were used to study the vaporization of beta -rhombohedral boron over the temperature range 1823 to 2253 exp 0 K. The pressure-temperature data were fitted by the equation ln P(Pa) = -(66.8 +- 1.4) 10 exp ...

R. W. Mar, R. G. Bedford

1976-01-01

283

Lithium use in batteries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

Goonan, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

284

Process for microwave sintering boron carbide  

DOEpatents

A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

Holcombe, C.E.; Morrow, M.S.

1993-10-12

285

Process for microwave sintering boron carbide  

DOEpatents

A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (440 Sugarwood Dr., Knoxville, TN 37922); Morrow, Marvin S. (Rte. #3, Box 113, Kingston, TN 37763)

1993-01-01

286

Primordial beryllium as a big bang calorimeter  

E-print Network

Many models of new physics including variants of supersymmetry predict metastable long-lived particles that can decay during or after primordial nucleosynthesis, releasing significant amounts of non-thermal energy. The hadronic energy injection in these decays leads to the formation of ^9Be via the chain of non-equilibrium transformations: Energy_h -> T, ^3He -> ^6He, ^6Li -> ^9Be. We calculate the efficiency of this transformation and show that if the injection happens at cosmic times of a few hours, the release of 10 MeV per baryon can be sufficient for obtaining a sizable ^9Be abundance. The absence of a plateau-structure in the ^9Be/H abundance down to a 10^{-14} level allows one to use beryllium as a robust constraint on new physics models with decaying or annihilating particles.

Maxim Pospelov; Josef Pradler

2010-10-20

287

Primordial Beryllium as a Big Bang Calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

Many models of new physics including variants of supersymmetry predict metastable long-lived particles that can decay during or after primordial nucleosynthesis, releasing significant amounts of nonthermal energy. The hadronic energy injection in these decays leads to the formation of {sup 9}Be via the chain of nonequilibrium transformations: Energy{sub h}{yields}T, {sup 3}He{yields}{sup 6}He, {sup 6}Li{yields}{sup 9}Be. We calculate the efficiency of this transformation and show that if the injection happens at cosmic times of a few hours the release of O(10 MeV) per baryon can be sufficient for obtaining a sizable {sup 9}Be abundance. The absence of a plateau structure in the {sup 9}Be/H abundance down to a O(10{sup -14}) level allows one to use beryllium as a robust constraint on new physics models with decaying or annihilating particles.

Pospelov, Maxim [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Pradler, Josef [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

2011-03-25

288

Advances in beryllium powder consolidation simulation  

SciTech Connect

A fuzzy logic based multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced and the algorithm is used to optimize micromechanical densification modeling parameters for warm isopressed beryllium powder, HIPed copper powder and CIPed/sintered and HIPed tantalum powder. In addition to optimizing the main model parameters using the experimental data points as objective functions, the GA provides a quantitative measure of the sensitivity of the model to each parameter, estimates the mean particle size of the powder, and determines the smoothing factors for the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 densification. While the GA does not provide a sensitivity analysis in the strictest sense, and is highly stochastic in nature, this method is reliable and reproducible in optimizing parameters given any size data set and determining the impact on the model of slight variations in each parameter.

Reardon, B.J.

1998-12-01

289

Growth of defining relations of beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results for construction of defining relations of beryllium. The phenomenological elastic-plastic relaxation model is utilized to calculate the deviatoric component of a shear stress. A spherical component of stress tensor is expressed through the equation of state of state in the form of Mie-Gruneisen. Melting temperature dependence on density is determined on the basis of the equation of Lindeman. The model takes account of strain hardening and compression hardening, thermal softening, stress history, as well as relaxation of elastic stress. The parametric identification of equations was implemented based on the great number of experiments: static compression-tension diagrams, created at various temperatures; split-Hopkinson bar method; Taylor method; recording of free surface velocity via laser interferometer VISAR; method for recording of perturbations growth; method of principal stresses; measurements of shock wave thickness; measurements of shock-wave compressibility.

Olga, Ignatova; Vicktor, Raevsky; Sergey, Nadyozhin

2011-06-01

290

Stellar abundances of beryllium and CUBES  

E-print Network

Stellar abundances of beryllium are useful in different areas of astrophysics, including studies of the Galactic chemical evolution, of stellar evolution, and of the formation of globular clusters. Determining Be abundances in stars is, however, a challenging endeavor. The two Be II resonance lines useful for abundance analyses are in the near UV, a region strongly affected by atmospheric extinction. CUBES is a new spectrograph planned for the VLT that will be more sensitive than current instruments in the near UV spectral region. It will allow the observation of fainter stars, expanding the number of targets where Be abundances can be determined. Here, a brief review of stellar abundances of Be is presented together with a discussion of science cases for CUBES. In particular, preliminary simulations of CUBES spectra are presented, highlighting its possible impact in investigations of Be abundances of extremely metal-poor stars and of stars in globular clusters.

Smiljanic, R

2014-01-01

291

Stellar abundances of beryllium and CUBES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stellar abundances of beryllium are useful in different areas of astrophysics, including studies of the Galactic chemical evolution, of stellar evolution, and of the formation of globular clusters. Determining Be abundances in stars is, however, a challenging endeavor. The two Be II resonance lines useful for abundance analyses are in the near UV, a region strongly affected by atmospheric extinction. CUBES is a new spectrograph planned for the VLT that will be more sensitive than current instruments in the near UV spectral region. It will allow the observation of fainter stars, expanding the number of targets where Be abundances can be determined. Here, a brief review of stellar abundances of Be is presented together with a discussion of science cases for CUBES. In particular, preliminary simulations of CUBES spectra are presented, highlighting its possible impact in investigations of Be abundances of extremely metal-poor stars and of stars in globular clusters.

Smiljanic, R.

2014-11-01

292

Beryllium abundances in metal-poor stars  

E-print Network

We have determined beryllium abundances for 25 metal-poor stars based on the high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra from the VLT/UVES database. Our results confirm that Be abundances increase with Fe, supporting the global enrichment of Be in the Galaxy. Oxygen abundances based on [O I] forbidden line implies a linear relation with a slope close to one for the Be vs. O trend, which indicates that Be is probably produced in a primary process. Some strong evidences are found for the intrinsic dispersion of Be abundances at a given metallicity. The deviation of HD132475 and HD126681 from the general Be vs. Fe and Be vs. O trend favours the predictions of the superbubble model, though the possibility that such dispersion originates from the inhomogeneous enrichment in Fe and O of the protogalactic gas cannot be excluded.

K. F. Tan; J. R. Shi; G. Zhao

2008-10-15

293

A Pentafluorophenylboron Oxalate Additive in Non-aqueous Electrolytes 3 for Lithium Batteries  

SciTech Connect

A novel compound named pentafluorophenylboron oxalate (PFPBO) has been synthesized. PFPBO has a unique molecular structure containing a boron atom center with electron deficiency and an oxalate group. It is found that when PFPBO is used as additive, the solubility of lithium fluoride (LiF) or lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in propylene carbonate (PC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) solvents can be increased dramatically. The new electrolytes show high ionic conductivity, high lithium ion transference number and good compatibility with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode and MCMB anode. PFPBO was synthesized with the designed structure to act as a bi-functional additive: boron-based anion receptor (BBAR) additive and stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation additive in PC-based electrolytes. The results show it does possess these two desired functionalities.

Yang, X.Q.; Li, L.F.; Lee, H.S.; Li, H.; Huang, X.J.

2009-12-01

294

Beryllium isotope geochemistry in tropical river basins  

SciTech Connect

The distributions of beryllium-9 and beryllium-10 in rivers within the Orinoco and Amazon basins have been examined to extend the understanding of their geochemical cycles and to develop their use both in geochronometry, and in studying erosional processes. Analyses of {sup 9}Be in dissolved and suspended material from rivers with a wide range of chemical compositions indicate that its geochemistry is primarily controlled by two major factors: (1) its abundance in the rocks of the watershed and (2) the extent of its adsorption onto particle surfaces. The relative importance of these parameters in individual rivers is determined by the extent of interaction with flood-plain sediments and the riverine pH. This understanding of {sup 9}Be geochemistry forms a basis for examination of the geochemical cycling of {sup 10}Be. In rivers which are dominated by interaction with sediments, the riverine concentration of dissolved {sup 10}Be is far lower than that in the incoming rainwater, indicating that a substantial proportion of it is retained within the soils of the basin or is adsorbed onto riverine particles. However, in acidic rivers in which the stable dissolved Be concentration is determined by the Be level in the rocks of the drainage basin, dissolved {sup 10}Be has essentially the same concentration as in precipitation. These observations imply that the soil column in such regions must be saturated with respect to {sup 10}Be, and that the ratio of the inventory to the flux does not represent an age, as may be the case in temperate latitudes, but rather a residence time.

Brown, E.T.; Edmond, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States)); Raisbeck, G.M.; Bourles, D.L.; Yiou, F. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay (France)); Measures, C.I. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (United States))

1992-04-01

295

Recovery of plutonium from plutonium-beryllium neutron sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the Los Alamos National Laboratory, plutonium-beryllium neutron sources have traditionally been processed for plutonium recovery by precipitating the plutonium as plutonium oxalate, calcining to plutonium dioxide, redissolving the oxide and then precip...

M. J. Palmer

1990-01-01

296

Determination of Plutonium-Beryllium Source Strength by Manganese Activation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study the manganese-sulfate-bath technique was used to determine the total neutron output of a Plutonium-Beryllium neutron source. Activation trials were conducted using 4 different concentrations of manganese sulfate and 3 different size containe...

P. F. Whitworth

1988-01-01

297

Boron isotopic compositions of some boron minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron minerals that have different structural formulae but are supposed to have the same geologic origin have been collected and analyzed for the 11B /10B isotopic ratio. It has been reconfirmed that minerals of marine origin have higher 11B /10B ratios than those of nonmarine origin. It has been found that the sequence of decreasing 11B /10B values among the minerals with the same geologic origin is; borax, tincal, kernite (Na borates) > ulexite ( Na/Ca borate) > colemanite, iyoite, meyerhofferite (Ca borates). This sequence is explainable on the basis of the difference in crystal structure among the minerals. That is, minerals with higher BO 3/BO 4 ratios, (the ratio of the number of the BO 3 triangle units to the number of the BO 4 tetrahedron units in the structural formula of a mineral) have higher 11B /10B ratios.

Oi, Takao; Nomura, Masao; Musashi, Masaaki; Ossaka, Tomoko; Okamoto, Makoto; Kakihana, Hidetake

1989-12-01

298

Development of Biomarkers for Chronic Beryllium Disease in Mice  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium is a strategic metal, indispensable for national defense programs in aerospace, telecommunications, electronics, and weaponry. Exposure to beryllium is an extensively documented occupational hazard that causes irreversible, debilitating granulomatous lung disease in as much as 3 - 5% of exposed workers. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships has been severely limited by a general lack of a sufficient CBD animal model. We have now developed and tested an animal model which can be used for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new diagnostic and treatment paradigms. We have created 3 strains of transgenic mice in which the human antigen-presenting moiety, HLA-DP, was inserted into the mouse genome. Each mouse strain contains HLA-DPB1 alleles that confer different magnitude of risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD): HLA-DPB1*0401 (odds ratio = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (odds ratio = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (odds ratio = 240). Our preliminary work has demonstrated that the *1701 allele, as predicted by human studies, results in the greatest degree of sensitization in a mouse ear swelling test. We have also completed dose-response experiments examining beryllium-induced lung granulomas and identified susceptible and resistant inbred strains of mice (without the human transgenes) as well as quantitative trait loci that may contain gene(s) that modify the immune response to beryllium. In this grant application, we propose to use the transgenic and Â?normal inbred strains of mice to identify biomarkers for the progression of beryllium sensitization and CBD. To achieve this goal, we propose to compare the sensitivity and accuracy of the lymphocyte proliferation test (blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) with the ELISPOT test in the three HLA-DP transgenic mice strains throughout a 6 month treatment with beryllium particles. Because of the availability of high-throughput proteomics, we will also identify changes in potential protein biomarkers in beryllium-treated mice. We will correlate these findings with the ability of the transgenic mice to develop a beryllium-specific adaptive immune response in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. We will also determine whether beryllium-responsive CD4+ T cells in blood and BAL correlate with the onset of granuloma formation. Thus, we will provide the scientific community with biomarkers of sensitization and disease progression for CBD. These biomarkers will serve as critical tools for development of improved industrial hygiene and therapeutic interventions.

Gordon, Terry

2013-01-25

299

PLUTONIUM-BERYLLIUM NEUTRON SOURCES THEIR FABRICATION AND THEIR YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigntion of the plutonium-beryllium phase diagram demonstrates ;\\u000a the suitability of these alloys and most particularly the intermetallic compound ;\\u000a PuBeââ for stable neutron sources. These sources are superior to polonium-;\\u000a beryllium sources in respect to sthbility of neutron yield as a iunction of time ;\\u000a and the prediotability of neutroc yield as a function of mass. The gamma-ray

R. E. Tate; A. S. Coffinberry

1958-01-01

300

Beryllium Binding by Functionalized Polyethylenimine Water-Soluble Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of polyethylenimine (PEI)-based water-soluble polymers (WSPs) were prepared by attaching functional groups (beta-diketones, carboxylic acid, salicylic acids) to the polymer backbone, with the goal of characterizing the interaction between beryllium and the various polymers. The extraction of beryllium from aqueous solutions by the WSPs was examined as a function of pH and ionic strength to evaluate the potential

Tammy P. Taylor; Quyen T. H. Le; Deborah S. Ehler; Nancy N. Sauer

2003-01-01

301

Effects of Beryllium on Human Serum Immunoglobulin and Lymphocyte Subpopulation  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effects of short-term exposure of beryllium on the human immune system, the proportion of T-lymphocytes such as CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD95, and NK cells, andthe proportion of B cells and TNF? level in peripheral blood and immunoglobulins in the serum of 43 exposed workers and 34 healthy control subjects were studied. External exposure to beryllium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometer as recommended by the NIOSH analytical method 7300. T lymphocyte subpopulation analysis was carried out with flow cytometer. The working duration of exposed workers was less than 3 months and the mean ambient beryllium level was 3.4 ?g/m3, 112.3 ?g/m3, and 2.3 ?g/m3 in molding (furnace), deforming (grinding), and sorting processes, respectively (cited from Kim et al., 2008). However, ambient beryllium level after process change was non-detectable (< 0.1 ?g/m3). The number of T lymphocytes and the amount of immunoglobulins in the beryllium-exposed workers and control subjects were not significantly different, except for the total number of lymphocytes and CD95 (APO1/FAS). The total number of lymphocytes was higher in the beryllium-exposed individuals than in the healthy control subjects. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed lymphocytes to be affected by beryllium exposure (odd ratio = 7.293; p < 0.001). These results show that short-term exposure to beryllium does not induce immune dysfunction but is probably associated with lymphocytes proliferation. PMID:24278637

Kim, DaeSeong; Won, Yong Lim; Kang, Seong-Kyu

2013-01-01

302

Animal models of beryllium-induced lung disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) is conducting research to improve the understanding of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and beryllium-induced lung cancer. Initial animal studies examined beagle dogs that inhaled BeO calcined at either 500 or 1000°C. At similar lung burdens, the 500°C BeO induced more severe and extensive granulomatous pneumonia, lymphocytic infiltration into the lung, and positive Be-specific lymphocyte

G. L. Finch; M. D. Hoover; F. F. Hahn

1996-01-01

303

Effect of electroslag remelting on the properties of beryllium bronze  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The use of ESR for beryllium bronze eliminates resegregation, reduces the oxygen content, refines inclusions, and improves the ductility. This makes it possible to increase the annual output and to use greater reductions (~90%).2.After quenching and aging or MTT of beryllium bronze BNT1.9Mg melted by ESR the bronze has a higher elastic limit and relaxation resistance under conditions of cyclic

Zh. P. Pastukhova; A. G. Rakhshtadt; Yu. I. Zarembo; V. N. Kravchenko; V. P. Masyukov; L. I. Kachur

1979-01-01

304

Impact of boron dilution accidents on low boron PWR safety  

SciTech Connect

In conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR) designs, soluble boron is used for reactivity control over core fuel cycle. As an inadvertent reduction of the boron concentration during a boron dilution accident could introduce positive reactivity and have a negative impact on PWR safety, design changes to reduce boron concentration in the reactor coolant are of general interest. In the framework of an investigation into the feasibility of low boron design, a PWR core configuration based on fuel with higher gadolinium (Gd) load has been developed which permits to reduce the natural boron concentration at begin of cycle (BOC) to 518 ppm. For the assessment of the potential safety advantages, a boron dilution accident due to small break loss-of-coolant-accident (SBLOCA) has been simulated with the system code ATHLET for two PWR core designs: a low boron design and a standard core design. The results from the comparative analyses showed that the impact of the boron dilution accident on the new PWR design safety is significantly lower in comparison with the standard design. The new reactor design provided at least 4, 4% higher reactivity margin to recriticality during the whole accident which is equivalent to the negative reactivity worth of additional 63% of all control rods fully inserted in to the core. (authors)

Papukchiev, A.; Liu, Y. [Dept. of Reactor Dynamics and Reactor Safety, Technical Univ. Munich, Walther Meissner-Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schaefer, A. [ISaR Inst. for Safety and Reliability, Walther Meissner-Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2006-07-01

305

Removing tritium and other impurities during industrial recycling of beryllium from a fusion reactor  

SciTech Connect

Recycling beryllium used in a fusion reactor might be a good way to overcome problems related to the disposal of neutron irradiated beryllium. The critical issues for the recycling of used first wall beryllium are the presence of tritium and (transuranic) impurities. High temperature annealing seems to be the most promising technique for detritiation. Purification of the de-tritiated beryllium can be achieved by chlorination of the irradiated beryllium and the subsequent reduction of beryllium chloride to highly pure metallic beryllium. After that, the beryllium can be re-fabricated into first wall tiles via powder metallurgy which is already a mature industrial practice. This paper outlines the path to define the experimental needs for beryllium recycling and tackles problems related to the detritiation and the purification via the chlorine route. (authors)

Dylst, K.; Seghers, J.; Druyts, F.; Braet, J. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

2008-07-15

306

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)\\/(2+x)M'.sub.2x\\/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)\\/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic

Michael M. Thackeray; Jeom-Soo Kim; Christopher S. Johnson

2008-01-01

307

Pulmonary function in beryllium workers: assessment of exposure.  

PubMed Central

The inhalation of beryllium causes a serious lung disease characterised by pronounced radiographic and functional impairments and occurs in workers engaged in the extraction and manufacture of the metal. This paper describes the beryllium exposure levels and refining processes in a large beryllium factory operating since the 1930s. Lifetime beryllium exposure histories were estimated for the 309 workers present at a health survey conducted in 1977. Beryllium exposure levels in the plant were high for many years, with some estimated exposure levels in excess of 100 micrograms/m3. As late as 1975, there were exposures to beryllium above 10 micrograms/m3 in some jobs. After about 1977, the plant was in compliance with the permissible exposure limit of 2.0 micrograms/m3. The median cumulative exposure in this cohort was 65 micrograms/m3-years and the median duration of exposure was 17 years. From these data a series of exposure parameters, functions of the exposure histories that characterise biologically important dimensions of exposure were calculated for each worker. PMID:3342199

Kriebel, D; Sprince, N L; Eisen, E A; Greaves, I A

1988-01-01

308

Significance of the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test  

SciTech Connect

The blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) is an in vitro measure of the beryllium antigen-specific cell-mediated immune response. This response to beryllium is now understood to play a central role in the immunopathogenesis of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Although there remain some unresolved methodologic issues with testing, the blood BeLPT has already undergone sufficient development and field assessment to lead to a number of important conclusions: (a) The BeLPT identifies beryllium sensitization and CBD earlier and better than any other clinical test presently available. (b) The CBD cases identified with the blood test are clinically significant. (c) A subset of the people identified by the BeLPT who do not yet have clinical disease will progress and require treatment with corticosteroids for impairing illness. (d) The BeLPT can be used to improve clinical diagnostic accuracy and to correct mistaken diagnoses. (e) The blood test can be used in screening large numbers of exposed workers because it is sensitive and specific and has high positive and negative predictive value for CBD. (f) In every workforce studied to date, the BeLPT has identified beryllium sensitization and CBD that had been missed by conventional screening efforts. (g) Worker populations that have been characterized using the BeLPT can help to elucidate the role of exposure genetics and dysregulated inflammation in the genesis of occupational lung disease. 28 refs., 1 tab.

Newman, L.S. [Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)

1996-10-01

309

Electrochemistry of a lithium electrode in lithium polysulfide solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of lithium polysulfides on the cycling of a lithium electrode and the corrosion rate of lithium cathodic deposits\\u000a in sulfolane electrolytes is studied. Lithium polysulfides are found to affect the shape of polarization curves, the overpotential\\u000a of electrode processes, and the cycling time. The presence of lithium polysulfides in electrolyte systems increases the cycling\\u000a time of a lithium

V. S. Kolosnitsyn; E. V. Karaseva; A. L. Ivanov

2008-01-01

310

Exposure and genetics increase risk of beryllium sensitisation and chronic beryllium disease in the nuclear weapons industry  

Beryllium sensitisation (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) are caused by exposure to beryllium with susceptibility affected by at least one well-studied genetic host factor, a glutamic acid residue at position 69 (E69) of the HLA-DPb chain (DPbE69). However, the nature of the relationship between exposure and carriage of the DPbE69 genotype has not been well studied. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between DP{beta}E69 and exposure in BeS and CBD. Current and former workers (n=181) from a US nuclear weapons production facility, the Y-12 National Security Complex (Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA), were enrolled in a case-control study including 35 individuals with BeS and 19 with CBD. HLA-DPB1 genotypes were determined by PCR-SSP. Beryllium exposures were assessed through worker interviews and industrial hygiene assessment of work tasks. After removing the confounding effect of potential beryllium exposure at another facility, multivariate models showed a sixfold (OR 6.06, 95% CI 1.96 to 18.7) increased odds for BeS and CBD combined among DP{beta}E69 carriers and a fourfold (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.43 to 11.0) increased odds for those exposed over an assigned lifetime-weighted average exposure of 0.1 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. Those with both risk factors had higher increased odds (OR 24.1, 95% CI 4.77 to 122). DP{beta}E69 carriage and high exposure to beryllium appear to contribute individually to the development of BeS and CBD. Among workers at a beryllium-using facility, the magnitude of risk associated with either elevated beryllium exposure or carriage of DP{beta}E69 alone appears to be similar.

Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, John W; Mroz, M M; Silveira, L J; Strand, M; Cragle, D L; Tankersley, W G; Wells, S M; Newman, L S; Maier, L A

2011-04-02

311

Beryllium-stimulated Release of Tumor Necrosis Factor a , Interleukin6, and Their Soluble Receptors in Chronic Beryllium Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) provides a model system in which to evaluate the antigen-stimu- lated, cell-mediated, immune response that leads to granulomatous lung disease. We hypothesized that beryllium salts would stimulate bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell release of tumor necrosis fac- tor- a (TNF- a ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and their soluble receptors, soluble TNF receptor I (sTNF RI), sTNF RII,

SALLY S. TINKLE; LEE S. NEWMAN

312

Beryllium sensitization and disease among long-term and short-term workers in a beryllium ceramics plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Workers at a beryllium ceramics plant were tested for beryllium sensitization and disease in 1998 to determine whether the\\u000a plant-wide prevalence of sensitization and disease had declined since the last screening in 1992; an elevated prevalence was\\u000a associated with specific processes or with high exposures; exposure-response relationships differed for long-term workers\\u000a hired before the last plant-wide screening and short-term

Paul K. Henneberger; Debra Cumro; David D. Deubner; Michael S. Kent; Michael McCawley; Kathleen Kreiss

2001-01-01

313

20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...  

...claimant prove that the employee was a âcovered beryllium employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance...Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa §...

2014-04-01

314

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

2014-04-01

315

20 CFR 30.507 - What compensation will be provided to covered Part B employees who only establish beryllium...  

...Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA...Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? The establishment of beryllium sensitivity does not entitle...

2014-04-01

316

20 CFR 30.507 - What compensation will be provided to covered Part B employees who only establish beryllium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA...Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? The establishment of beryllium sensitivity does not entitle...

2012-04-01

317

20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...claimant prove that the employee was a âcovered beryllium employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance...Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa §...

2013-04-01

318

20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...claimant prove that the employee was a âcovered beryllium employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance...Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa §...

2011-04-01

319

20 CFR 30.507 - What compensation will be provided to covered Part B employees who only establish beryllium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA...Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? The establishment of beryllium sensitivity does not entitle...

2013-04-01

320

20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...claimant prove that the employee was a âcovered beryllium employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance...Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa §...

2010-04-01

321

20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...claimant prove that the employee was a âcovered beryllium employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance...Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa §...

2012-04-01

322

20 CFR 30.507 - What compensation will be provided to covered Part B employees who only establish beryllium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA...Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? The establishment of beryllium sensitivity does not entitle...

2011-04-01

323

20 CFR 30.507 - What compensation will be provided to covered Part B employees who only establish beryllium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA...Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? The establishment of beryllium sensitivity does not entitle...

2010-04-01

324

Lithium Lens for Ilc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium Lens is a key element of FERMILAB proton conversion system in use for many years. We are analyzing the ILC positron source equipped with a scaled version of Lithium lens. Usage of liquid Lithium allows efficient cooling of Lithium container and entrance/exit windows. For the temperature just ~80°C higher, than the temperature of boiling water, the system for circulation of liquid Lithium is a compact and reliable. Overall efficiency of 1.5 secondary positrons per each initial electron passing the undulator is feasible with a compact Lithium lens. Axially symmetric motion of liquid Li does not perturb the field quality required for minimization of emittance of the secondary positrons/electrons polarized longitudinally.

Mikhailichenko, Alexander A.

2013-10-01

325

Lithium purification technique  

DOEpatents

A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

Keough, Robert F. (Richland, WA); Meadows, George E. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01

326

Lithium purification technique  

DOEpatents

A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

1984-01-10

327

Lithium ion conducting electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of

C. Austen Angell; Changle Liu

1996-01-01

328

Lithium ion cell safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The safety characteristics of recent commercial lithium ion cells are examined in relation to their use for cellular phones. These are prismatic cells with an aluminum cell housing (can) and a 500-600 mA h capacity. They have one of two types of 4-V class cathodes, lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2) or lithium manganese oxide (LiMn 2O 4). This report provides results of the safety tests that we performed on lithium ion cells and outlines our views regarding their safety.

Tobishima, Shin-ichi; Takei, Koji; Sakurai, Yoji; Yamaki, Jun-ichi

329

20 CFR 30.207 - How does a claimant prove a diagnosis of a beryllium disease covered under Part B?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...showing changes consistent with chronic beryllium disease; or (iii) Pulmonary function or exercise testing showing pulmonary deficits consistent with chronic beryllium disease. (2) For diagnoses before January 1,...

2013-04-01

330

20 CFR 30.207 - How does a claimant prove a diagnosis of a beryllium disease covered under Part B?  

...showing changes consistent with chronic beryllium disease; or (iii) Pulmonary function or exercise testing showing pulmonary deficits consistent with chronic beryllium disease. (2) For diagnoses before January 1,...

2014-04-01

331

20 CFR 30.207 - How does a claimant prove a diagnosis of a beryllium disease covered under Part B?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...showing changes consistent with chronic beryllium disease; or (iii) Pulmonary function or exercise testing showing pulmonary deficits consistent with chronic beryllium disease. (2) For diagnoses before January 1,...

2011-04-01

332

20 CFR 30.207 - How does a claimant prove a diagnosis of a beryllium disease covered under Part B?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...showing changes consistent with chronic beryllium disease; or (iii) Pulmonary function or exercise testing showing pulmonary deficits consistent with chronic beryllium disease. (2) For diagnoses before January 1,...

2012-04-01

333

Identification of electron and hole traps in lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7) crystals: Oxygen vacancies and lithium vacancies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) are used to identify and characterize electrons trapped by oxygen vacancies and holes trapped by lithium vacancies in lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7) crystals. Our study includes a crystal with the natural abundances of B10 and B11 and a crystal highly enriched with B10. The as-grown crystals contain isolated oxygen vacancies, lithium vacancies, and copper impurities, all in nonparamagnetic charge states. During an irradiation at 77 K with 60 kV x-rays, doubly ionized oxygen vacancies trap electrons while singly ionized lithium vacancies and monovalent copper impurities trap holes. The vacancies return to their preirradiation charge states when the temperature of the sample is increased to approximately 90 K. Hyperfine interactions with B10 and B11 nuclei, observed between 13 and 40 K in the radiation-induced EPR and ENDOR spectra, provide models for the two vacancy-related defects. The electron trapped by an oxygen vacancy is localized primarily on only one of the two neighboring boron ions while the hole stabilized by a lithium vacancy is localized on a neighboring oxygen ion with nearly equal interactions with the two boron ions adjacent to the oxygen ion.

Swinney, M. W.; McClory, J. W.; Petrosky, J. C.; Yang, Shan; Brant, A. T.; Adamiv, V. T.; Burak, Ya. V.; Dowben, P. A.; Halliburton, L. E.

2010-06-01

334

Beryllium abundances in stars hosting giant planets  

E-print Network

We have derived beryllium abundances in a wide sample of stars hosting planets, with spectral types in the range F7V-K0V, aimed at studying in detail the effects of the presence of planets on the structure and evolution of the associated stars. Predictions from current models are compared with the derived abundances and suggestions are provided to explain the observed inconsistencies. We show that while still not clear, the results suggest that theoretical models may have to be revised for stars with Teff<5500K. On the other hand, a comparison between planet host and non-planet host stars shows no clear difference between both populations. Although preliminary, this result favors a ``primordial'' origin for the metallicity ``excess'' observed for the planetary host stars. Under this assumption, i.e. that there would be no differences between stars with and without giant planets, the light element depletion pattern of our sample of stars may also be used to further investigate and constraint Li and Be depletion mechanisms.

N. C. Santos; R. J. Garcia Lopez; G. Israelian; M. Mayor; R. Rebolo; A. Garcia-Gil; M. R. Perez de Taoro; S. Randich

2002-02-25

335

Boron Clusters Come of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Boron is the only element other than carbon that can build molecules of unlimited size by covalently boding to itself, a property known as catenation. In contrast to the chains and rings favored by carbon, boron arguably adopts a cluster motif that is reflected in the various forms of the pure element and in the huge area of polyhedral borane…

Grimes, Russell N.

2004-01-01

336

40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities...

2013-07-01

337

40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities...

2012-07-01

338

Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project  

SciTech Connect

This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

2010-10-01

339

Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components  

SciTech Connect

Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included.

Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

1993-07-01

340

The structure, properties and performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium for fusion applications  

SciTech Connect

Plasma-spray technology is under investigation as a method for producing high thermal conductivity beryllium coatings for use in magnetic fusion applications. Recent investigations have focused on optimizing the plasma-spray process for depositing beryllium coatings on damaged beryllium surfaces. Of particular interest has been optimizing the processing parameters to maximize the through-thickness thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. Experimental results will be reported on the use of secondary H{sub 2} gas additions to improve the melting of the beryllium powder and transferred-arc cleaning to improve the bonding between the beryllium coatings and the underlying surface. Information will also be presented on thermal fatigue tests which were done on beryllium coated ISX-B beryllium limiter tiles using 10 sec cycle times with 60 sec cooldowns and an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) relevant divertor heat flux slightly in excess of 5 MW/m{sup 2}.

Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E. [and others

1995-09-01

341

40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What General Provisions apply to...

2011-07-01

342

40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What General Provisions apply to...

2010-07-01

343

Boron-Lined Multitube Neutron Proportional Counter Test  

SciTech Connect

Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride (BF3)-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated non-scintillating plastic fibers. In addition, a few other companies have detector technologies that might be competitive in the near term as an alternative technology. Reported here are the results of tests of a boron-lined, “multitube” proportional counter manufactured by Centronic Ltd. (Surry, U.K. and Houston, TX). This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma-ray rejection capabilities of the detector.

Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

2010-09-07

344

Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis  

E-print Network

Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis Lekha Gupta, 2008 Ortholithiations of a range of arenes mediated by lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at -78 °C protocols with unpurified commercial samples of n-butyl- lithium to prepare LDA or commercially available

Collum, David B.

345

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide: A View of Lithium Ion Solvation  

E-print Network

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide: A View of Lithium Ion Solvation through a Glass-Bottom Boat BRETT L and reactivities, we were drawn to lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS; (Me3Si)2NLi) by its promi- nence principles of lithium ion coordination chemistry.2 Understanding how solvation influences organolithium

Collum, David B.

346

Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers.

Ulrickson, M.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manly, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

1995-08-01

347

IL4 fails to regulate in vitro beryllium-induced cytokines in berylliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from patients with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) have been used to evaluate the beryllium-specific immune response and potential immunotherapeutics. Beryllium induces interferon-c (IFN-c), interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumour necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) from BAL cells. An antibody to IL-2 and recombinant human (rHu) IL-10 is able to partially suppress the beryllium-stimulated immune response. To

L. A. Maier; R. T. Sawyer; S. S. Tinkle; L. A. Kittle; E. A. Barker; R. Balkissoon; C. Rose; L. S. Newman

2001-01-01

348

Temperature rise in lithium targets for accelerator based BNCT using multi-fin heat removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thick lithium targets are excellent sources of neutrons for accelerator boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), but the low melting point of lithium (181 °C) and a need for high proton currents make target heating a concern. However, because neutrons are not produced for proton energies below the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction threshold of 1.88 MeV, the lithium targets need only be thick enough to slow the proton beam past this energy. This allows the majority of the proton energy deposition, including the Bragg peak, to occur in the copper backing, whose superior thermal properties reduce the total temperature rise. We have developed a model for predicting temperature rises in a BNCT target design that utilizes multiple rectangular fins. A theoretical model of the multi-fin heat removal is presented. Experiments confirm the results of these calculations, which indicate that multi-fin lithium targets for BNCT can successfully cool milliamp level proton beams.

Lee, C. L.; Zhou, X.-L.; Hamm, R. W.; Harmon, F.; Kudchadker, R. J.; Harker, Y. D.

1999-06-01

349

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) bring together two components that when kept separate have only minor effects on normal cells. The first component is a stable isotope of boron (boron 10) that can be concentrated in tumor cells. The second is a beam of low-energy neutrons that produces short-range radiation when absorbed, or captured, by the boron. The combination of

Rolf F. Barth; Albert H. Soloway; Ralph G. Fairchild

1990-01-01

350

Mania Pre-Lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes that lithium brought are most fully understood when we grasp the difficulties for management that acute mania presented. Restraint in canvas camisoles, padded cells, paraldehyde, water-baths and salts—Epsom, not Lithium—met mania in echos of Bedlam still heard in the early 1950s. It is a part of psychiatric history important to remember.

John Cawte

1999-01-01

351

XD(TM) reinforced beryllium-based composites. Final report, Mar 89Aug 90  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven beryllium castings were made by Brush Wellman using dispersoid materials provided by Martin Marietta Laboratories. Eight castings had a beryllium matrix, while three had a NiBe matrix. Each casting was analyzed metallographically. It was found that all the selected dispersoid materials reacted with the beryllium matrix. Little grain refinement was observed in the castings. Slabs cut from the cast

W. Meyerer; A. Bopp; F. Grensing

1990-01-01

352

Dose Rates from Plutonium Metal and Beryllium Metal in a 9975 Shipping Container  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parametric study was performed of the radiation dose rates that might be produced if plutonium metal and beryllium metal were shipped in the 9975 shipping package. These materials consist of heterogeneous combinations plutonium metal and beryllium. The plutonium metal content varies up to 4.4 kilograms while the beryllium metal varies up to 4 kilograms. This paper presents the results

Nathan

2002-01-01

353

METHOD OF MAKING ALLOYS OF BERYLLIUM WITH PLUTONIUM AND THE LIKE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production or alloys of beryllium with one or more of the metals ; uranium, plutonium, actinium, americium, curium, thorium, and cerium is described. ; A halide salt or the metal to be alloyed with the beryllium is heated at l3O0 deg ; C in the presence of beryllium to reduce the halide to metal and cause the latter ;

Runnals; O. J. C

1959-01-01

354

METHOD OF MAKING ALLOYS OF BERYLLIUM WITH PLUTONIUM AND THE LIKE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of alloys of beryllium with one or more of the metals ; uranium, plutonium, actinium, americium, curium, thorium, and cerium are ; described. A halide salt of the metal to be alloyed with the beryllium is heated ; at 1300 deg C in the presence of beryllium to reduce the halide to metal and ; cause the latter

Runnals; O. J. C

1959-01-01

355

Investigation of the Dashigil mud volcano (Azerbaijan) using beryllium-10 K.J. Kim a,  

E-print Network

Investigation of the Dashigil mud volcano (Azerbaijan) using beryllium-10 K.J. Kim a, , M. Baskaran: Mud volcano Hydrothermal Beryllium-10 Beryllium isotopes Subduction Cosmogenic nuclide a b s t r a c t We collected and analyzed five sediments from three mud volcano (MV) vents and six suspended

356

Risk-based approach for controlling beryllium exposure in a manufacturing environment  

SciTech Connect

There are many diverse uses for beryllium in both military and industrial applications. Unfortunately, there are certain worker health risks associated with the manufacture and production of beryllium products. Respiratory illnesses due to prolonged contact with beryllium particulate are of paramount concern. However, these health risks can be controlled provided that the appropriate protective measures to prevent worker exposure from beryllium are in place. But it is no1 always a straightforward process to identify exactly what the beryllium protective measures should be in order to realize a true risk savings. Without prudent attention to a systematic inquiry and suitable evaluative criteria, a program for controlling beryllium health risks can be lacking in completeness and overall effectiveness. One approach that took into account the necessary ingredients for risk-based determination of beryllium protective measures was developed for a beryllium operation at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. The methodological framework that was applied at this facility, as well as a discussion of the final beryllium protective measures that were determined by this approach will be presented. Regulatory aspects for working with beryllium, as well as a risk-assessment strategy for ranking beryllium-handling activities with respect to exposure potential will also be discussed. The presentation will conclude with a synopsis of lessons-learned as gleaned from this case study, as well as providing the participants with a constructive blueprint that can be adapted to other processes involving beryllium.

Gilmore, W. E. (Walter E.); Clawson, C. D. (Chris D.); Ellis, K. K. (Kimberly K.)

2003-01-01

357

Fabrication and Metrology of Ignition Design Graded Copper Doped Beryllium Capsules With Fill Tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graded doped beryllium is currently the baseline ablator in designs for achieving ignition in the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In this paper, we report on the progress towards fabricating and characterizing such beryllium capsules for NIF ignition designs. We have eliminated the unanticipated gas leakage observed in graded copper doped beryllium capsules made by sputter coating by ion-assisted deposition. Polishing

A. Nikroo; M. S. Conyers; S. A. Eddinger; A. C. Forsman; H. Huang; E. H. Lundgren; K. A. Moreno; H. Xu; K. P. Youngblood; Z. A. Zimmerer; S. D. Bhandarkar; C. S. Alford; S. A. Letts; J. L. Reynolds

2007-01-01

358

Skin as a route of exposure and sensitization in chronic beryllium disease.  

PubMed Central

Chronic beryllium disease is an occupational lung disease that begins as a cell-mediated immune response to beryllium. Although respiratory and engineering controls have significantly decreased occupational beryllium exposures over the last decade, the rate of beryllium sensitization has not declined. We hypothesized that skin exposure to beryllium particles would provide an alternative route for sensitization to this metal. We employed optical scanning laser confocal microscopy and size-selected fluorospheres to demonstrate that 0.5- and 1.0- micro m particles, in conjunction with motion, as at the wrist, penetrate the stratum corneum of human skin and reach the epidermis and, occasionally, the dermis. The cutaneous immune response to chemical sensitizers is initiated in the skin, matures in the local lymph node (LN), and releases hapten-specific T cells into the peripheral blood. Topical application of beryllium to C3H mice generated beryllium-specific sensitization that was documented by peripheral blood and LN beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests (BeLPT) and by changes in LN T-cell activation markers, increased expression of CD44, and decreased CD62L. In a sensitization-challenge treatment paradigm, epicutaneous beryllium increased murine ear thickness following chemical challenge. These data are consistent with development of a hapten-specific, cell-mediated immune response following topical application of beryllium and suggest a mechanistic link between the persistent rate of beryllium worker sensitization and skin exposure to fine and ultrafine beryllium particles. PMID:12842774

Tinkle, Sally S; Antonini, James M; Rich, Brenda A; Roberts, Jenny R; Salmen, Rebecca; DePree, Karyn; Adkins, Eric J

2003-01-01

359

Beryllium Material Tests HiRadMat windows and NOA fins  

E-print Network

Beryllium Material Tests HiRadMat windows and NOA fins C. Densham, A. Atherton, T. Davenne, P (FNAL) S. Roberts, V. Kuksenko (Oxford University) Motivation Beryllium is currently widely used, it is essential to understand the response and potential limits of beryllium in such extreme environments

McDonald, Kirk

360

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF BERYLLIUM PACKED BEDS  

E-print Network

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF BERYLLIUM PACKED Angeles, CA 90095-1597 ali@fusion.ucla.edu ABSTRACT Beryllium, in its pebble form, has been proposed Beryllium (as a neutron multiplier) is considered one of the prime candidates to enhance tritium breeding

Abdou, Mohamed

361

Modeling Climate and Production-related Impacts on Ice-core Beryllium-10  

E-print Network

Modeling Climate and Production-related Impacts on Ice-core Beryllium-10 Christy Veeder Submitted Modeling Climate and Production-related Impacts on Ice-core Beryllium-10 Christy Veeder I use the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE general circulation model to ex- amine the how beryllium-10, a cosmogenic

362

Preliminary Investigation into the Corrosion of Beryllium Exposed to Celotex and Water  

E-print Network

Preliminary Investigation into the Corrosion of Beryllium Exposed to Celotex and Water R. Scott , it was uncertain in the LLNL work if accelerate corrosion would result when beryllium was exposed to Celotex the corrosion rate of beryllium. While preliminary, these results indicate that storage conditions which may

363

HiRadMat Beryllium ThermalShock Test Kavin Ammigan  

E-print Network

HiRadMat Beryllium ThermalShock Test Kavin Ammigan PASI 2nd Annual Meeting RAL, UK April 5, 2013 Collaboration with RAL HPTG Fracture Beryllium with one or multiple beam pulses Experimentally deduce measurements fairly comparable with numerical simulations Goal: make similar comparisons for Beryllium

McDonald, Kirk

364

Epidemiological aspects of beryllium-induced nonmalignant lung disease: a 30-year update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unusual epidemiology of beryllium disease observed in the early studies of beryllium disease led in 1951 to the hypothesis that the chronic form of the disease is the result of an acquired sensitization to beryllium or its compounds. After 30 years, the role of sensitization has been confirmed in a number of laboratory and clinical studies. The unusual epidemiological

Merril Eisenbud; Judith Lisson

1983-01-01

365

LA CONDUCTIVIT LECTRIQUE DES COUCHES MICROCRISTALLINES DES MTAUX A CONDUCTION MIXTE (BERYLLIUM ET PLOMB)  

E-print Network

(BERYLLIUM ET PLOMB) Par R. GRIGOROVICI, A. D�V�NYI, T. BOTIL�, C. RUSU et A. VANCU, Institut de Physique de continuous beryllium and lead films deposited by vacuum evaporation have a negative temperature coefficient connue. Le beryllium nous a semblé le métal le plus indiqué pour ce dessein, car il satisfait aux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

366

Using beryllium-7 to assess cross-tropopause1 transport in global models2  

E-print Network

1 Using beryllium-7 to assess cross-tropopause1 transport in global models2 3 Hongyu Liu1 , David B, MA13 14 Short Title: Beryllium-7 and cross-tropopause transport15 Index Terms: 0368 Troposphere Initiative (GMI) modeling framework the29 utility of cosmogenic beryllium-7 (7 Be), a natural aerosol tracer

Liu, Hongyu

367

Beryllium7 in soils and vegetation along an arid precipitation gradient in Owens Valley, California  

E-print Network

Beryllium7 in soils and vegetation along an arid precipitation gradient in Owens Valley, California; revised 29 March 2011; accepted 1 April 2011; published 7 May 2011. [1] Beryllium7 is a potentially potential as a sediment tracer in desert environments. Beryllium7 in vegetation and the upper few cm of soil

Elmore, Andrew J.

368

Fusion Engineering and Design 5152 (2000) 8591 Analysis of tritium kinetics of SIBELIUS beryllium  

E-print Network

Fusion Engineering and Design 51­52 (2000) 85­91 Analysis of tritium kinetics of SIBELIUS beryllium the kinetics of tritium transport in irradiated beryllium in fusion blanket applications. Some USA SIBELIUS. © 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Tritium kinetics; SIBELIUS beryllium; BETTY

Abdou, Mohamed

369

Testing quantum electrodynamics in the lowest singlet states of beryllium atom Mariusz Puchalski and Jacek Komasa  

E-print Network

Testing quantum electrodynamics in the lowest singlet states of beryllium atom Mariusz Puchalski of the beryllium atom. Calcu- lations are performed using fully correlated Gaussian basis sets and taking predictions for the ionization potential of the beryllium ground state 75 192.696(8) cm-1 and the 21 P 21

Pachucki, Krzysztof

370

Cathode material for lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

2013-07-23

371

Tokamaks with lithium covered walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic aspects of tokamaks with the lithium covered walls are presented. They include a) magnetic propulsion of intense lithium streams along the plasma facing surface of the first wall, which gives a new, consistent with reactor environment, approach for the power extraction from the tokamak reactors; b) stabilization of resistive wall modes by the lithium streams; c) physics of lithium

Leonid E. Zakharov

2000-01-01

372

Crack toughness evaluation of hot pressed and forged beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Beryllium fracture toughness test specimens were fatigue cracked using reversed cycling with a compression load two to three times the tension load. In worked beryllium, textures may be produced which result in fatigue cracks that are out of plane with the starter notch. Specimens of hot pressed stock exhibited load displacement records which were nonlinear throughout their course. Fracture specimens of both hot pressed and forged stock showed essentially no reduction of thickness and the fracture surfaces were flat and normal to the load axis. However, the stress intensity factor at maximum load increased with decreasing thickness. Load-displacement and electric potential records for the hot pressed beryllium specimens exhibited several anomalies such as negative residual crack mouth displacements and a decrease in electrical potential with increasing load.

Jones, M. H.; Bubsey, R. T.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

1971-01-01

373

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

2008-01-01

374

Sulfonate pseudohalides of boron subphthalocyanine.  

PubMed

The crystal structures of three sulfonate pseudohalide derivatives of boron subphthalocyanine (BsubPc) are described and compared with four structures of three published sulfonate derivatives. Benzenesulfonate boron subphthalocyanine [(benzenesulfonato)(subphthalocyaninato)boron, C(30)H(17)BN(6)O(3)S, (I)] crystallizes in the space group P-1 with Z = 2. The structure contains two centrosymmetric ?-stacking interactions between the concave faces of the isoindoline units in the BsubPc ligands. 3-Nitrobenzenesulfonate boron subphthalocyanine [(3-nitrobenzenesulfonato)(subphthalocyaninato)boron, C(30)H(16)BN(7)O(5)S, (II)] crystallizes in the space group P2(1)/c with Z = 4. The structure contains an intermolecular S-O···? interaction from the sulfonate group to a five-membered N-containing ring of an isoindoline unit on the concave side of a neighbouring BsubPc ligand, at a distance of 3.151 (3) Å. The crystal of methanesulfonate boron subphthalocyanine [(methanesulfonato)(subphthalocyaninato)boron, C(25)H(15)BN(6)O(3)S, (III)] was produced via sublimation and it is not a solvate, in contrast with two previously published structures of the same compound. Compound (III) crystallizes in the space group P2(1)/n with Z = 2, and its structure is similar to that of the more common compound Cl-BsubPc. PMID:23124463

Paton, Andrew S; Lough, Alan J; Bender, Timothy P

2012-11-01

375

Method for removal of beryllium contamination from an article  

SciTech Connect

A method of removal of beryllium contamination from an article is disclosed. The method typically involves dissolving polyisobutylene in a solvent such as hexane to form a tackifier solution, soaking the substrate in the tackifier to produce a preform, and then drying the preform to produce the cleaning medium. The cleaning media are typically used dry, without any liquid cleaning agent to rub the surface of the article and remove the beryllium contamination below a non-detect level. In some embodiments no detectible residue is transferred from the cleaning wipe to the article as a result of the cleaning process.

Simandl, Ronald F.; Hollenbeck, Scott M.

2012-12-25

376

Fluorometric study of the beryllium-morin system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three principal beryllium-morin complexes, a (1 + 1) monomer, a (1 + 1) dimer, and a (1 + 2) complex are found and conditional equilibrium constants for their formation are evaluated. Approximate ionization constants, absorption spectra, and the relative fluorescence intensities for five ionic species of morin are also determined in a spectrophotometric and fluorometric study of morin. The following interrelationships are discussed: pH, ionization of morin, absorption spectra of the various ionic species of morin and of the berylliummorin complexes, equilibria for the reactions between beryllium and morin, the period of time between preparation of the solution and measurement of the fluorescence, and fluorescence intensity.

Fletcher, M. H.

1965-01-01

377

CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS  

SciTech Connect

The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

Ekechukwu, A

2009-04-20

378

Failure prediction of thin beryllium sheets used in spacecraft structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an attempt to predict failure for cross-rolled beryllium sheet structures, high order macroscopic failure criteria are used. These require the knowledge of in-plane uniaxial and shear strengths. Test results are included for in-plane biaxial tension, uniaxial compression for two different material orientations, and shear. All beryllium specimens have the same chemical composition. In addition, all experimental work was performed in a controlled laboratory environment. Numerical simulation complements these tests. A brief bibliography supplements references listed in a previous report.

Roschke, Paul N.; Papados, Photios; Mascorro, Edward

1991-01-01

379

Surface tension of molten mixtures of fluorides of lithium, beryllium, and thorium  

Microsoft Academic Search

measured by the maximum-pressure method in a gas bubble. The salts investigated were placed in glass-carbon crucibles. The material used for the capillaries was nickel, which is resistant to the action of fluoride melts. As the working gas, we used argon from which the traces of moisture and oxygen had first been removed. In determining the surface tension, we used

A. A. Klimenkov; N. N. Kurbatov; S. P. Raspopin; Yu. F. Chervinskii

1984-01-01

380

Vapor liquid equilibria on the ternary lithium fluoride-sodium fluoride-beryllium fluoride system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molten mixtures of LiF, NaF, and BeF2 (FLiNaBe) have been proposed as a liquid first wall for selected fusion reactor designs. Because currently envisaged reactor technologies for igniting and/or sustaining a, fusion reaction require vacuum conditions, the volatility of these liquids is an issue for concern. Many physical properties of the ternary LiF-NaF-BeF 2 (FLiNaBe) system have already been studied as part of the molten salt reactor program, but the vapor pressure has not been measured. A study of the vapor liquid equilibrium of FLiNaBe by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry (KCMS) is presented. The ternary system is treated as a pseudo-binary system by fixing the ratio of LiF:NaF and varying the amount of BeF2. Measurements have been performed over a composition range of 0.3--0.8 mole fraction BeF2 and from 875--975K. Experimental data, are correlated in terms of the BeF 2 activity coefficient. Measurements were also carried out on the binary systems LiF-BeF2 and NaF-BeF2. Measured values of the BeF2 activity coefficient in the binary LiF-BeF2 and NaF-BeF2 systems compare satisfactorily with previous results published in the research literature. The vapor phase of FLiNaBe was found to consist of primarily the species BeF2, LiBeF3, and NaBeF 3 over the temperature and composition range studied. Mixtures of BeF2-containing fluoride salts are highly non-ideal; the BeF2 activity coefficient exhibits both positive and negative deviations from ideality over the composition range studied. An associated solution model with 3 adjustable parameters is used to fit the BeF2 activity coefficient data of the LiF-BeF2 and NaF-BeF2 systems. The parameters obtained from fitting binary data are then used to fit the ternary system. The extension of the model to the ternary system results in a single additional parameter that can only be determined from fitting ternary data. Overall the agreement between the model and experimental data is within ˜30% and the model can be used to predict the vapor pressure over a wide composition range.

Fukuda, Grant Takeshi

381

Beryllium in Ultra-Lithium-Deficient Halo Stars - The Blue Straggler Connection  

E-print Network

There are nine metal-deficient stars that have Li abundances well below the Li plateau that is defined by over 100 unevolved stars with temperatures above 5800 K and values of [Fe/H] $<$ $-$1.0. Abundances of Be have been determined for most of these ultra-Li-deficient stars in order to investigate the cause of the Li deficiencies. High-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra have been obtained in the Be II spectral region near 3130 \\AA for six ultra-Li-deficient stars with the Keck I telescope and its new uv-sensitive CCD on the upgraded HIRES. The spectrum synthesis technique has been used to determine Be abundances. All six stars are found to have Be deficiencies also. Two have measurable - but reduced - Be and four have only upper limits on Be. These results are consistent with the idea that these Li- and Be-deficient stars are analogous to blue stragglers. The stars have undergone mass transfer events (or mergers) which destroy or dilute both Li and Be. The findings cannot be matched by the models that predict that the deficiencies are due to extra-mixing in a subset of halo stars that were initially rapid rotators, with the possible exception of one star, G 139-8. Because the ultra-Li-deficient stars are also Be-deficient, they appear to be genuine outliers in population of halo stars used to determine the value of primordial Li; they no longer have the Li in their atmospheres that was produced in the Big Bang.

Ann Merchant Boesgaard

2007-05-10

382

Beryllium in the Ultra-Lithium-Deficient,Metal-Poor Halo Dwarf, G186-26  

E-print Network

The vast majority of low-metal halo dwarfs show a similar amount of Li; this has been attributed to the Li that was produced in the Big Bang. However, there are nine known halo stars with T $>$ 5900 K and [Fe/H] $<$ $-$1.0 that are ultra-Li-deficient. We have looked for Be in the very low metallicity star, G 186-26 at [Fe/H] = $-$2.71, which is one of the ultra-Li-deficient stars. This star is also ultra-Be deficient. Relative to Be in the Li-normal stars at [Fe/H] = $-$2.7, G 182-26 is down in Be by more than 0.8 dex. Of two potential causes for the Li-deficiency -- mass-transfer in a pre-blue straggler or extra rotationally-induced mixing in a star that was initially a very rapid rotator -- the absence of Be favors the blue-straggler hypothesis, but the rotation model cannot be ruled-out completely.

Ann Merchant Boesgaard; Megan C. Novicki

2005-09-16

383

Lithium cell test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three lithium SO2 cells, two lithium CF cells, and a vinyl chloride cell, all with crimped seals, and all strictly experimental, were independently discharged on resistors. Three temperatures were used and several different storage temperatures. Discharge rate generally on the nominal discharges were 0.1 amp, 0.5 amp, and 1 amp. Tests results show that the crimp seals are inadequate, especially for the SO2 cells. Normal discharges present no hazards. All cells discharge to zero. The problem of lithium cell explosions, such as occurred during off-limits testing, is discussed.

Bragg, B. J.

1977-01-01

384

Spherical Torus Plasma Interactions with Large-area Liquid Lithium Surfaces in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect

The Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) device at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is a spherical torus (ST) dedicated to the exploration of liquid lithium as a potential solution to reactor first-wall problems such as heat load and erosion, neutron damage and activation, and tritium inventory and breeding. Initial lithium limiter experiments were conducted with a toroidally-local liquid lithium rail limiter (L3) from the University of California at San Diego. Spectroscopic measurements showed a clear reduction of impurities in plasmas with the L3, compared to discharges with a boron carbide limiter. The evidence for a reduction in recycling was less apparent, however. This may be attributable to the relatively small area in contact with the plasma, and the presence of high-recycling surfaces elsewhere in the vacuum chamber. This conclusion was tested in subsequent experiments with a fully toroidal lithium limiter that was installed above the floor of the vacuum vessel. The new limiter covered over ten times the area of the L3 facing the plasma. Experiments with the toroidal lithium limiter have recently begun. This paper describes the conditioning required to prepare the lithium surface for plasma operations, and effect of the toroidal liquid lithium limiter on discharge performance.

R. Kaita; R. Majeski; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; B. Jones; D. Hoffman; H. Kugel; J. Menard; T. Munsat; A. Post-Zwicker; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; M. Maiorano; S. Smith

2002-01-18

385

Uptake, distribution and binding of beryllium to organelles of the rat liver cell  

PubMed Central

1. Male rats were injected intravenously with amounts ranging from 0·08 to 111·0?moles of [7Be]beryllium sulphate/kg. body wt. The distribution in the rat and the subcellular distribution of beryllium in the liver were determined. 2. Within the entire dose range a higher specific activity of beryllium was present in a mitochondrial fraction containing the lysosomes. Purification of this fraction confirmed that beryllium is taken up by lysosomes. 3. With doses approaching the LD50, beryllium was also found in increasing amounts to be present in the liver cell nuclei. Beryllium also showed affinity towards isolated cell nuclei in vitro. Evidence is presented that they have one class of binding sites for beryllium. Mitochondria have less affinity for beryllium. 4. No evidence could be obtained of an affinity of beryllium for DNA or RNA by fractionation of nuclei and dialysis experiments. 5. The presence of beryllium in liver cell nuclei may be relevant to the effects of beryllium on nuclear structure and function. PMID:5637364

Witschi, H. P.; Aldridge, W. N.

1968-01-01

386

Movement of liquid beryllium during melt events in JET with ITER-like wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ITER-like wall recently installed in JET comprises solid beryllium limiters and a combination of bulk tungsten and tungsten-coated carbon fibre composite divertor tiles without active cooling. During a beryllium power handling qualification experiment performed in limiter configuration with 5 MW neutral beam injection input power, accidental beryllium melt events, melt layer motion and splashing were observed locally on a few beryllium limiters in the plasma contact areas. The Lorentz force is responsible for the observed melt layer movement. To move liquid beryllium against the gravity force, the current flowing from the plasma perpendicularly to the limiter surface must be higher than 6 kA m-2. The thermo-emission current at the melting point of beryllium is much lower. The upward motion of the liquid beryllium against gravity can be due to a combination of the Lorentz force from the secondary electron emission and plasma pressure force.

Sergienko, G.; Arnoux, G.; Devaux, S.; Matthews, G. F.; Nunes, I.; Riccardo, V.; Sirinelli, A.; Huber, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Coenen, J. W.; Mertens, Ph; Philipps, V.; Samm, U.; EFDA contributors, JET

2014-04-01

387

The development of beryllium plasma spray technology for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)  

SciTech Connect

Over the past five years, four international parties, which include the European Communities, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States, have been collaborating on the design and development of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the next generation magnetic fusion energy device. During the ITER Engineering Design Activity (EDA), beryllium plasma spray technology was investigated by Los Alamos National Laboratory as a method for fabricating and repairing and the beryllium first wall surface of the ITER tokamak. Significant progress has been made in developing beryllium plasma spraying technology for this application. Information will be presented on the research performed to improve the thermal properties of plasma sprayed beryllium coatings and a method that was developed for cleaning and preparing the surface of beryllium prior to depositing plasma sprayed beryllium coatings. Results of high heat flux testing of the beryllium coatings using electron beam simulated ITER conditions will also be presented.

Castro, R.G.; Elliott, K.E.; Hollis, K.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Material Science and Technology Div.; Bartlett, A.H. [Norsam Technologies Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Watson, R.D. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Fusion Technology Dept.

1999-02-01

388

Reducing Boron Toxicity by Microbial Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

While electricity is a clean source of energy, methods of electricity-production, such as the use of coal-fired power plants, often result in significant environmental damage. Coal-fired electrical power plants produce air pollution, while contaminating ground water and soils by build-up of boron, which enters surrounding areas through leachate. Increasingly high levels of boron in soils eventually overcome boron tolerance levels in plants and trees, resulting in toxicity. Formation of insoluble boron precipitates, mediated by mineral-precipitating bacteria, may sequester boron into more stable forms that are less available and toxic to vegetation. Results have provided evidence of microbially-facilitated sequestration of boron into insoluble mineral precipitates. Analyses of water samples taken from ponds with high boron concentrations showed that algae present contained 3-5 times more boron than contained in the water in the samples. Boron sequestration may also be facilitated by the incorporation of boron within algal cells. Experiments examining boron sequestration by algae are in progress. In bacterial experiments with added ferric citrate, the reduction of iron by the bacteria resulted in an ironcarbonate precipitate containing boron. An apparent color change showing the reduction of amorphous iron, as well as the precipitation of boron with iron, was more favorable at higher pH. Analysis of precipitates by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy revealed mineralogical composition and biologicallymediated accumulation of boron precipitates in test-tube experiments.

Hazen, T.; Phelps, T.J.

2002-01-01

389

Boron isotope application for tracing sources of contamination in groundwater.  

E-print Network

Boron isotope application for tracing sources of contamination in groundwater. Abstract: Boron isotope composition and concentration of sewage effluent and pristine and contaminated groundwater from. Anthropogenic boron in wastewater is isotopically distinct from natural boron in groundwater and thus can

Kasher, Roni

390

Neutron detectors comprising boron powder  

DOEpatents

High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

2013-05-21

391

Molecular Structure of Boron trifluoride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boron trifluoride has a trigonal pryamidal shape and dissolves in diethyl ether. Normally a gas, boron trifluoride is a hard and strong Lewis acid with a high affinity in displacement reactions and is therefore used mainly as a catalyst in alkylations, polymerizations and esterifications. It extracts bases bound to carbon and produces carbocations. Also it is used as a fumigant and in the magnesium industry because its anti-oxidant properties.

2002-08-15

392

Boron diffusion in silicon devices  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are various embodiments that include a process, an arrangement, and an apparatus for boron diffusion in a wafer. In one representative embodiment, a process is provided in which a boric oxide solution is applied to a surface of the wafer. Thereafter, the wafer is subjected to a fast heat ramp-up associated with a first heating cycle that results in a release of an amount of boron for diffusion into the wafer.

Rohatgi, Ajeet (Atlanta, GA); Kim, Dong Seop (Atlanta, GA); Nakayashiki, Kenta (Smyrna, GA); Rounsaville, Brian (Stockbridge, GA)

2010-09-07

393

TRANSMISSION OF SLOW NEUTRONS THROUGH POLYCRYSTALLINE BERYLLIUM OXIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation of total scattering cross section with energy of beryllium ; oxide has been measured using a slow chopper neutron velocity spectrometer and ; the results are compared with that of the only previous reported measurements of ; Fermi et al. in 1947. (auth);

N. Sarma; K. Satyanarayana; C. S. Somanathan; K. Usha

1959-01-01

394

Beryllium Wipe Sampling (differing methods - differing exposure potentials)  

SciTech Connect

This research compared three wipe sampling techniques currently used to test for beryllium contamination on room and equipment surfaces in Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling without a wetting agent, with water-moistened wipe materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Analysis indicated that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed about twice as much beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes, which removed about twice as much residue as dry wipes. Criteria at 10 CFR 850.30 and .31 were established on unspecified wipe sampling method(s). The results of this study reveal a need to identify criteria-setting method and equivalency factors. As facilities change wipe sampling methods among the three compared in this study, these results may be useful for approximate correlations. Accurate decontamination decision-making depends on the selection of appropriate wetting agents for the types of residues and surfaces. Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced removal efficiency such as methanol when surface contamination includes oil mist residue.

Kerr, Kent

2005-03-09

395

MIXED RADIATION DOSIMETRY OF A PLUTONIUM-BERYLLIUM NEUTRON SOURCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dose rate delivered to an assumed standard tissue by the fast-; neutron and gamma -radiation from a standard 1 c plutonium-beryllium neutron ; source was determined by measurements with ethylene-filled polyethylene and CO\\/; sub 2-\\/ filled Teflon ionization chambers. The resulting ionization currents as ; measured with a calibrated vibrating-reed electrometer were used to obtain a ; measure of

Donald C. Lawrence

1962-01-01

396

Dissolution of FB-Line Residues Containing Beryllium Metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scrap materials containing plutonium (Pu) metal were dissolved at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of a program to disposition nuclear materials during the deactivation of the FB-Line facility. Some of these items contained both Pu and beryllium (Be) metal as a composite material. The Pu and Be metals were physically separated to minimize the amount of Be associated

TRACY S. RUDISILL; MARK L. CROWDER

2005-01-01

397

Dissolution of Fissile Materials Containing Plutonium and Beryllium Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scrap materials containing plutonium (Pu) metal were dissolved at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of a program to disposition nuclear materials during the deactivation of the FB?Line facility. Some of these items contained both Pu and beryllium (Be) metal as a composite material. The Pu and Be metals were physically separated to minimize the amount of Be associated

Tracy S. Rudisill; Mark L. Crowder

2006-01-01

398

A NOVEL BIOMARKER FOR BERYLLIUM SENSITIZATION IN HUMANS  

EPA Science Inventory

This research project will determine the T-cell receptor (TCR) gene usages of beryllium reactive T-lymphocytes isolated directly from the peripheral blood of individuals exposed at a U.S. Department of Energy site. The objective is to develop a sensitive and novel biomarker for i...

399

SESAME equation of state number 7611, beryllium oxide  

SciTech Connect

A new equation of state (EOS) for beryllium oxide (BeO) has been constructed for the SESAME library as material number 7611. Unlike the existing EOS for BeO in the library (7610), this new EOS incorporates the effect of a structural phase transition which has been predicted by two independent theoretical calculations. 9 refs., 1 fig.

Boettger, J.C.; Willis, J.M.

1990-04-01

400

SESAME equation of state number 7611, beryllium oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new equation of state (EOS) for beryllium oxide (BeO) has been constructed for the SESAME library as material number 7611. Unlike the existing EOS for BeO in the library (7610), this new EOS incorporates the effect of a structural phase transition which has been predicted by two independent theoretical calculations. 9 refs., 1 fig.

J. C. Boettger; J. M. Willis

1990-01-01

401

The adequacy of joints in beryllium NIF capsules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many NIF ignition capsule designs use a copper doped beryllium shell surrounding DT fuel. A NIF size (2200? m dia., 155 ? m thick)Be shell has been built by diffusion brazing machined beryllium hemi-shells. The joint is formed by coating 0.1 ? m of Cu on each surface and holding the hemi-shells together at 900 C for 6 hours. Radiography of planar joints in standard purity beryllium show that Cu diffuses into the beryllium to produce an approximately linear decrease of Cu mass to a distance of 130 ? m from the joint. The diffusion distance for a pure Au joint, 80 ? m, was slightly less than that of a pure Cu joint. An 80%/20% by weight Au/Cu braze extends to 200 ? m, farther than either a pure Cu or pure Au braze. Both density and opacity perturbations remain which may degrade the capsule implosion. By applying these results to a joint in Be/6%Cu hemi-shells and using the LASNEX code we can estimate whether these perturbations will grow to large enough amplitude to degrade significantly the capsule ignition and yield. In addition we can evaluate whether the greater extent of the Au/Cu diffusion with its higher opacity causes less perturbation that the pure Cu braze.

Wilson, D. C.; Goldman, S. R.; Margevicius, R. E.; Stephens, R. B.

1998-11-01

402

TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

Klimenkov, M.; Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A.; Rolli, R.

2014-12-01

403

The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health  

PubMed Central

Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were tabulated. Years 2001–10 gave the greatest match (45.9%) for methodological parameters, followed by 27.71% for 1991–2000. Years 1971–80 and 1981–90 were not significantly different in the information published and available whereas years 1951–1960 showed a lack of suitable articles. Some articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its biological monitoring in the workplace essential. PMID:20386622

Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian P.

2009-01-01

404

REACTOR CORE SURROUNDED BY BERYLLIUM MODERATOR. CAMERA LOOKS DOWN AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REACTOR CORE SURROUNDED BY BERYLLIUM MODERATOR. CAMERA LOOKS DOWN AND TOWARD NORTH INTO LOWER GRID CASTING. HOLES OF VARIOUS SIZES ACCOMMODATE COOLANT WATER AND EXPERIMENTAL POSITIONS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4197. Unknown Photographer, 2/11/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

405

Biological exposure metrics of beryllium-exposed dental technicians.  

PubMed

Beryllium is commonly used in the dental industry. This study investigates the association between particle size and shape in induced sputum (IS) with beryllium exposure and oxidative stress in 83 dental technicians. Particle size and shape were defined by laser and video, whereas beryllium exposure data came from self-reports and beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) results. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) gene expression in IS was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A high content of particles (92%) in IS >5 ? in size is correlated to a positive BeLPT risk (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9-13). Use of masks, hoods, and type of exposure yielded differences in the transparency of IS particles (gray level) and modulate HO1 levels. These results indicate that parameters of size and shape of particles in IS are sensitive to workplace hygiene, affect the level of oxidative stress, and may be potential markers for monitoring hazardous dust exposures. PMID:24205960

Stark, Moshe; Lerman, Yehuda; Kapel, Arik; Pardo, Asher; Schwarz, Yehuda; Newman, Lee; Maier, Lisa; Fireman, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

406

Subscale Beryllium Mirrors Demonstrator (SBMD) Program Summary and Ball Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SBMD Program was to design, fabricate, and test a 0.5-m beryllium lightweighted mirror applicable to space deployable systems with demanding optical and areal density requirements. This presentation summarizes the program's objectives and the mirror's tested technical performance along with lessons learned. In addition, test results are compared to modeling predictions. The SBMD Program was funded by NASA MSFC.

Kendrick, Stephen; Brown, Robert; Stahl, Philip (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

407

Electron densities derived from line intensity ratios: Beryllium isoelectronic sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct method for determining electron densities from emission line intensities of ions in the beryllium isoelectronic sequence is described and then applied to the analysis of extreme ultraviolet Ciii and Ov spectra from both quiet and active areas in the solar transition region. The results are consistent with a value of NeTe = 6 × 1014 cm-3K for the

Richard H. Munro; A. K. Dupree; George L. Withbroe

1971-01-01

408

Beryllium deposits of the western Seward Peninsula, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deposits of beryllium ore in the Lost River area of the western Seward Peninsula, Alaska, consist of replacement veins, pipes, and stringer lodes is limestone in a zone about 7 miles long and 2 to 3 miles wide which is faulted and intruded by dikes and stocks. The ores are remarkably alike and typically consist of the following minerals, in percent: fluorite, 45-65; diaspore, 5-10; tourmaline, 0-10; chrysoberyl, 3-10; white mica, 0-5; small amounts of hematite, sulfide minerals, manganese oxide, other beryllium minerals; and traces of minerals not yet identified. The ores generally are cut by late veinlets which are of the same mineralogy as the groundmass ore, or which consist of fluorite, white mica, and euclase. The ores are fine grained, and many of the individual mineral grains, except fluorite, are less than 1 mm in size. The beryllium content of bulk samples of ore ranges from 0.11 to 0.54 percent (0.31 to 1.50 percent BeO). High-grade nodules, composed principally of chrysoberyl, diaspore, fluorite, and mica, contain as much as 6 percent BeO. Geochemical reconnaissance has disclosed other areas of anomalous beryllium in stream sediments elsewhere on the Seward Peninsula, generally around biotite granites that have them associated with tin deposits; additional exploration probably will disclose other deposits.

Sainsbury, C.L.

1963-01-01

409

Lithium intercalation from aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

Lithium can be intercalated into a wide variety of materials using nonaqueous electrochemical cells. The use of aqueous methods is less common because of the reactivity of many lithium intercalation compounds with water. Here the authors show that lithium can be intercalated into host compounds from aqueous LiOH solution, provided the chemical potential of the intercalated lithium is sufficiently lower than the chemical potential of lithium in lithium metal. Using LiMn[sub 2]O[sub 4] as the host, the authors formed Li[sub 2]Mn[sub 2]O[sub 4] by intercalating Li from LiOH solution in an aqueous cell. This method may prove to be an economical way of preparing lithium transition metal oxides with high lithium contents for lithium-ion cell cathodes.

Li, W.; Dahn, J.R. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Physics); McKinnon, W.R. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Inst. of Microstructural Sciences)

1994-09-01

410

Characterization of electrodeposited elemental boron  

SciTech Connect

Elemental boron was produced through electrowinning from potassium fluoroborate dissolved in a mixture of molten potassium fluoride and potassium chloride. The characteristics of the electrodeposited boron (raw boron) as well as the water and acid-leached product (processed boron) were studied. The chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size of the boron powders were investigated. The morphology of the deposits was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical state of the matrix, as well as the impurity phases present in them, was established using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In order to interpret and understand the results obtained, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out. The gas-phase corrosion in the head space as well as the chemistry behind the leaching process were interpreted using this analysis. The ease of oxidation of these powders in air was investigated using differential thermal analysis (DTA) coupled with thermogravimetry (TG). From the results obtained in this study it was established that elemental boron powder with a purity of 95-99% could be produced using a high temperature molten salt electrowinning process. The major impurities were found to be oxygen, carbon, iron and nickel.

Jain, Ashish [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Anthonysamy, S. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India)], E-mail: sas@igcar.gov.in; Ananthasivan, K.; Ranganathan, R. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Mittal, Vinit; Narasimhan, S.V. [Water and Steam Chemistry Division, BARC (F), Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Vasudeva Rao, P.R. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India)

2008-07-15

411

Effect of lithium on the power exhaust channel in NST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NSTX has been shown [1] to have peak heat fluxes up to 15 MW/m^2 where the heat flux width, when magnetically mapped to the midplane, decreases strongly with Ip (lambdaq^mid IP-1.6) during high performance (Ip = 1.2 MA, PNBI = 6 MW, ? 0.7) H-mode discharges with boronization. However, with lithium wall conditioning, the effect on NSTX discharges has been to improve energy confinement [2], reduce ohmic flux consumption therefore extending the discharge lifetime, and the elimination of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) when sufficient lithium is applied [3]. However, with significant lithium wall deposition, lambdaq^mid contracts by 50-60% and the dependence on IP is reduced (lambdaq^mid IP^- 0.4). A similar trend is observed in the profile width of divertor D? profiles with significant lithium deposition. Measurements from flush mounted divertor Langmuir probes show a slight increase in electron density but electron temperature, Te is unchanged at ˜20eV. The scaling of the heat flux width will be reported as a function of pedestal parameters under lithiated conditions.

Gray, Travis; McLean, Adam; Maingi, Rajesh; Jaworski, Michael; Osborne, Tom; Soukanouvskii, Vlad

2011-11-01

412

On the properties of the negatively charged lithium ions and evaluation of the half-life of the ${}^{7}$Be atom(s)  

E-print Network

Bound state properties of the ground $2^1S-$state in the four-electron lithium ion Li$^{-}$ (or ${}^{7}$Li$^{-}$ ion) are determined from the results of accurate, variational computations. We also determine such properties for the ground $2^1S-$state(s) in the ${}^{6}$Li$^{-}$ and ${}^{7}$Li$^{-}$ ions with the finite nuclear masses. Another closely related problem discussed in this study is accurate numerical evaluation of the half-life of the beryllium-7 isotope.

Frolov, Alexei M

2014-01-01

413

Microdosimetric evaluations of boron compound efficacy  

SciTech Connect

The ideal boron compound for application in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) should be selectively accumulated in tumor with concomitantly low concentrations in neighboring normal tissues and blood. As the presumed target of lethal radiation is the nucleus, an intracellular and, optimally, intranuclear localization of boron would be preferred. Boronated nucleosides, nucleotides, and DNA-intercalators have been synthesized in pursuit of this goal. This paper describes an approach to predict the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for such boron compounds. The results of this study may prove useful for future boron compound development for BNCT.

Yam, C.S. [Massschusets Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Zamenhof, R.G.; Solares, G.R. [Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

1995-12-31

414

Lithium battery management system  

DOEpatents

Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

Dougherty, Thomas J. (Waukesha, WI)

2012-05-08

415

Unsuspected exposure to beryllium: potential implications for sarcoidosis diagnoses.  

PubMed

Exposure to Beryllium (Be) can cause sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in some individuals.  Even relatively low exposures may be sufficient to generate an asymptomatic, or in some cases a symptomatic, immune response. Since the clinical presentation of CBD is similar to that of sarcoidosis, it is helpful to have information on exposure to beryllium in order to reduce misdiagnosis. The purpose of this pilot study is to explore the occurrence of Be surface deposits at worksites with little or no previous reported use of commercially available Be products.  The workplaces chosen for this study represent a convenience sample of businesses in eastern Iowa. One hundred thirty-six surface dust samples were collected from 27 businesses for analysis of Be. The results were then divided into categories by the amount of detected Be according to U.S. Department of Energy guidelines as described in 10 CFR 850.30 and 10 CFR 850.31. Overall, at least one of the samples at 78% of the work sites tested contained deposited Be above the analytical limit of quantitation (0.035 µg beryllium per sample).  Beryllium was detected in 46% of the samples collected. Twelve percent of the samples exceeded 0.2 µg/100 cm² and 4% of the samples exceeded a Be concentration of 3 µg/100 cm². The findings from this study suggest that there may be a wider range and greater number of work environments that have the potential for Be exposure than has been documented previously.  These findings could have implications for the accurate diagnosis of sarcoidosis. PMID:25078645

Laczniak, Andrew N; Gross, Nathan A; Fuortes, Laurence J; Field, R William

2014-01-01

416

Aluminum-lithium for aerospace  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum-lithium alloys were developed primarily to reduce the weight of aircraft and aerospace structures. Lithium is the lightest metallic element, and each 1% of lithium added to aluminum reduces alloy density by about 3% and increases modulus by about 5%. Though lithium has a solubility limit of 4.2% in aluminum, the amount of lithium ranges between 1 and 3% in commercial alloys. Aluminum-lithium alloys are most often selected for aerospace components because of their low density, high strength, and high specific modulus. However, other applications now exploit their excellent fatigue resistance and cryogenic toughness.

Fielding, P.S.; Wolf, G.J. [Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond, VA (United States)

1996-10-01

417

Structural studies of lead lithium borate glasses doped with silver oxide.  

PubMed

Silver oxide doped lead lithium borate (LLB) glasses have been prepared and characterized. Structural and composition characterization were accessed by XRD, FTIR, Raman, SEM and EDS. Results from FTIR and Raman spectra indicate that Ag(2)O acts as a network modifier even at small quantities by converting three coordinated to four coordinated boron atoms. Other physical properties, such as density, molar volume and optical basicity are also evaluated. Furthermore, they are also affected by the silver oxide composition. PMID:22088558

Coelho, João; Freire, Cristina; Hussain, N Sooraj

2012-02-01

418

Novel Lithium Salt and Polymer Electrolytes for Polymer Lithium Batteries.  

E-print Network

?? Synthesis and characterization of a novel lithium salt that operates on the principle of steric occlusion was conducted. Lithium tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate (LiTMPB) incorporating a bulky… (more)

Lin, Jian

2008-01-01

419

Chronic beryllium disease and cancer risk estimates with uncertainty for beryllium released to the air from the Rocky Flats Plant.  

PubMed Central

Beryllium was released into the air from routine operations and three accidental fires at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado from 1958 to 1989. We evaluated environmental monitoring data and developed estimates of airborne concentrations and their uncertainties and calculated lifetime cancer risks and risks of chronic beryllium disease to hypothetical receptors. This article discusses exposure-response relationships for lung cancer and chronic beryllium disease. We assigned a distribution to cancer slope factor values based on the relative risk estimates from an occupational epidemiologic study used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine the slope factors. We used the regional atmospheric transport code for Hanford emission tracking atmospheric transport model for exposure calculations because it is particularly well suited for long-term annual-average dispersion estimates and it incorporates spatially varying meteorologic and environmental parameters. We accounted for model prediction uncertainty by using several multiplicative stochastic correction factors that accounted for uncertainty in the dispersion estimate, the meteorology, deposition, and plume depletion. We used Monte Carlo techniques to propagate model prediction uncertainty through to the final risk calculations. We developed nine exposure scenarios of hypothetical but typical residents of the RFP area to consider the lifestyle, time spent outdoors, location, age, and sex of people who may have been exposed. We determined geometric mean incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk estimates for beryllium inhalation for each scenario. The risk estimates were < 10(-6). Predicted air concentrations were well below the current reference concentration derived by the EPA for beryllium sensitization. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10464074

McGavran, P D; Rood, A S; Till, J E

1999-01-01

420

Application of beryllium antibodies in risk assessment and health surveillance: two case studies.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates that current standards used by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to establish an area free from potential beryllium contamination may be inadequate. Using the Beryllium Antibody Assay, it was shown that workers exposed to former beryllium work areas, thought to be sanitized and to meet OSHA standards, experienced statistically significant rises in blood beryllium antibody titers. This finding raises the question of whether the equipment currently required to protect workers in beryllium-laden environments is sufficient. The project mission of decommissioning/decontaminating the former nuclear weapons plant at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), instituted in 1992, has necessitated development of new technology directed toward safe and responsible cleanup. Challenges have been posed not only by the need to dispose of radioactive and chemical waste, but also by the problem of cleaning up hazardous metals such as the element beryllium. Beryllium was used extensively in research and the manufacture of nuclear weapons components at Rocky Flats for over 40 years. Since inhalation of this element can induce chronic beryllium disease (Eisenbud and Lisson, 1983), an antibody assay was developed to screen workers for internal exposure to beryllium. Exposure is indicated by a titer of antibodies greater than two standard deviations above a normal population control (defined as the mean titer of pooled samples from 51 individuals with no known exposure to beryllium) and a p-value of < 0.05. This paper describes two new applications for the assay: risk assessment and health surveillance. Case study 1 involves a team of three workers who cleaned a beryllium plenum and whose beryllium antibody titers provided a quantitative assessment of their exposure. Case study 2 describes the use of the antibody assay to determine the probable manner in which one worker was exposed to beryllium while performing his duties as an architectural engineer. PMID:8748421

Clarke, S M; Thurlow, S M; Hilmas, D E

1995-01-01

421

First-principles studies of complex hydrides for lithium-ion battery and hydrogen storage applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ density functional theory in a computational study of two energy storage systems. In the first, we explore the thermodynamic viability of light metal hydrides as a high capacity Li-ion battery negative electrode. Given a set of solid-state and gas-phase reactants, we have determined the phase diagram in the Li-Mg-B-N-H system in the grand canonical ensemble as a function of lithium electrochemical potential. We present computational results for several new conversion reactions with predicted capacities between 2400 and 4000 mAhg-1 that are thermodynamically favorable and that do not involve gas evolution. We provide experimental evidence for the reaction pathway on delithiation for the compound Li4BN3H10 and compare with our theoretical prediction. The maximum volume increase for these materials on lithium insertion is significantly smaller than that for Si, whose 400% expansion hinders its cyclability. In the second study, we attempt to gain understanding of recent experimental results of lithium borohydride nanoconfined in highly ordered nanoporous carbon. The carbon environment is modeled as a single sheet of graphene, and adsorption energies are calculated for nanoparticles of the constituent phases of LiBH 4 desorption processes (LiBH4, LiH, lithium and boron). We find good agreement with previous studies of a single lithium atom adsorbed onto graphene. We predict that infiltrated LiBH4 will decompose such that boron is trapped in carbon vacancies, and that the resulting boron doping is required to achieve negative wetting energies for the remaining LiBH4. Desorption enthalpies are found to increase with shrinking cluster sizes, suggesting that the observed lowering of desorption temperatures is a kinetic effect although interactions with the carbon surface itself are predicted to have an overall effect of decreasing the desorption enthalpy .

Mason, Timothy Hudson

422

Synthesis and photocurrent of amorphous boron nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although theoretically feasible, synthesis of boron nanostructures is challenging due to the highly reactive nature, high melting and boiling points of boron. We have developed a thermal vapor transfer approach to synthesizing amorphous boron nanowire using a solid boron source. The amorphous nature and chemical composition of boron nanowires were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Optical properties and photoconduction of boron nanowires have not yet been reported. In our investigation, the amorphous boron nanowire showed much better optical and electrical properties than previously reported photo-response of crystalline boron nanobelts. When excited by a blue LED, the photo/dark current ratio (I/I0) is 1.5 and time constants in the order of tens of seconds. I/I0 is 1.17 using a green light.

Ge, Liehui; Lei, Sidong; Hart, Amelia H. C.; Gao, Guanhui; Jafry, Huma; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

2014-08-01

423

Boronated porhyrins and methods for their use  

DOEpatents

The present invention covers boronated porphyrins containing multiple carborane cages which selectively accumulate in neoplastic tissue within the irradiation volume and thus can be used in cancer therapies such as boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy.

Miura, Michiko (Hampton Bays, NY); Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Slatkin, Daniel N. (Southhold, NY)

1999-03-02

424

Boronated porhyrins and methods for their use  

DOEpatents

The present invention covers boronated porphyrins containing multiple carborane cages which selectively accumulate in neoplastic tissue within the irradiation volume and thus can be used in cancer therapies such as boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy. 3 figs.

Miura, M.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Slatkin, D.N.

1999-03-02

425

US Navy lithium cell applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of lithium systems that are already in the fleet are discussed. The approach that the Navy is taking in the control of the introduction of lithium batteries into the fleet is also discussed.

Bowers, F. M.

1978-01-01

426

Methods for boron delivery to mammalian tissue  

DOEpatents

Boron neutron capture therapy can be used to destroy tumors. This treatment modality is enhanced by delivering compounds to the tumor site where the compounds have high concentrations of boron, the boron compounds being encapsulated in the bilayer of a liposome or in the bilayer as well as the internal space of the liposomes. Preferred compounds, include carborane units with multiple boron atoms within the carborane cage structure. Liposomes with increased tumor specificity may also be used.

Hawthorne, M. Frederick (Encino, CA); Feaks, Debra A. (Los Angeles, CA); Shelly, Kenneth J. (Los Angeles, CA)

2003-01-01

427

Mineral resource of the month: boron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What does boron have to do with baseball, apple pie, motherhood and Chevrolet? Boron minerals and chemicals are used in the tanning of leather baseballs and gloves; in micro-fertilizer to grow apples and in the glass and enamels of bakewares to cook apple pie; in boron detergents for soaking baby clothes and diapers; and in fiberglass parts for the Chevrolet Corvette.

Lyday, Phyllis A.

2005-01-01

428

Removal of beryllium from drinking water by chemical coagulation and lime softening  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. Jar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride) and lime softening performed in removing beryllium from spiked waters. Centrifugation was used to simulate filtration. The two source waters used were raw Ohio River water and groundwater from the Great Miami Aquifer. The impact of initial beryllium concentration, coagulant dose, turbidity and pH on beryllium removal was examined and optimum treatment conditions were determined. Jar tests using alum and ferric chloride coagulants were able to achieve 95% and 85% removal of beryllium respectively from surface water. Removal efficiency increased as the pH was increased. Based on the data collected in the study, coprecipitation and precipitation are the two likely mechanisms responsible for beryllium removal.

Lytle, D.A.; Summers, R.S.; Sorg, T.J.

1992-01-01

429

A preliminary assessment of beryllium dust oxidation during a wet bypass accident in a fusion reactor  

SciTech Connect

A beryllium dust oxidation model has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by the Fusion Safety Program (FSP) for the MELCOR safety computer code. The purpose of this model is to investigate hydrogen production from beryllium dust layers on hot surfaces inside a fusion reactor vacuum vessel (VV) during in-vessel loss-of-cooling accidents (LOCAs). This beryllium dust oxidation model accounts for the diffusion of steam into a beryllium dust layer, the oxidation of the dust particles inside this layer based on the beryllium-steam oxidation equations developed at the INL, and the effective thermal conductivity of this beryllium dust layer. This paper details this oxidation model and presents the results of the application of this model to a wet bypass accident scenario in the ITER device.

Brad J. Merrill; Richard L. Moore; J. Phillip Sharp

2008-09-01

430

Boron doping a semiconductor particle  

SciTech Connect

A method of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried, with the boron film then being driven into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out into piles and melted/fused with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements. 2 figs.

Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.; Brown, L.K.

1998-06-09

431

Boron doping a semiconductor particle  

DOEpatents

A method (10,30) of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried (16), with the boron film then being driven (18) into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out (38) into piles and melted/fused (40) with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements.

Stevens, Gary Don (18912 Ravenglen Ct., Dallas, TX 75287); Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott (703 Horizon, Murphy, TX 75094); Brown, Louanne Kay (2530 Poplar Tr., Garland, TX 75042)

1998-06-09

432

DISSOLUTION OF FB-LINE METAL RESIDUES CONTAINING BERYLLIUM IN H-CANYON  

SciTech Connect

Scrap materials containing plutonium (Pu) metal from FB-Line vaults are currently being dissolved in HB-Line for subsequent disposition through the H-Canyon facility. However, milestone and schedule commitments may require the dissolution of material containing Pu and beryllium (Be) metals in H-Canyon. To support this option, a flowsheet for dissolving Pu and Be metals in H-Canyon was demonstrated using a 4 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution containing 0.3 M fluoride (F{sup -}). The F{sup -} was added as calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}). The dissolving solution also contained 2.5 g/L boron (B), a nuclear safety contingency for the H-Canyon dissolver, and 3.9 g/L iron (Fe) to represent the dissolution of carbon steel cans. The solution was heated to 90-95 C during the 8 h dissolution cycle. Dissolution of the Be metal appeared to begin as soon as the samples were added to the dissolver. Clear, colorless bubbles generated on the surface were observed and were attributed primarily to the generation of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas. The generation of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) gas was also evident from the color of the solution. Essentially all of the Pu and Be dissolved during the first hour of the dissolution as the solution was heated to 90-95 C. The amount of residual solids collected following the dissolution was < 2% of the total metal charged to the dissolver. Examination of residual solids by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the largest dimension of the particles was less than 50 {micro}m with particles of smaller dimensions being more abundant. Energy dispersive spectra from spots on some of the particles showed the solids consisted of a small amount of undissolved material, corrosion products from the glassware, and dried salts from the dissolving solution.

Rudisill, T; Mark Crowder, M; Michael Bronikowski, M

2005-07-15

433

Risk of Chronic Beryllium Disease by HLA-DPB1 E69 Genotype and Beryllium Exposure in Nuclear Workers  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) are determined by at least one genetic factor, a glutamic acid at position 69 (E69) of the HLA-DPB1 gene, and by exposure to beryllium. The relationship between exposure and the E69 genotype has not been well characterized. Objectives: The study goal was to define the relationship between beryllium exposure and E69 for CBD and BeS. Methods: Workers (n = 386) from a U.S. nuclear weapons facility were enrolled into a case–control study (70 BeS, 61 CBD, and 255 control subjects). HLA-DPB1 genotypes were determined by sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction. Beryllium exposures were reconstructed on the basis of worker interviews and historical exposure measurements. Measurements and Main Results: Any E69 carriage increased odds for CBD (odds ratio [OR], 7.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.66–15.84) and each unit increase in lifetime weighted average exposure increased the odds for CBD (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.26–4.09). Compared with E69-negative genotypes, a single E69-positive *02 allele increased the odds for BeS (OR, 12.01; 95% CI, 4.28–33.71) and CBD (OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.42–8.43). A single non-*02 E69 allele further increased the odds for BeS (OR, 29.54; 95% CI, 10.33–84.53) and CBD (OR, 11.97; 95% CI, 5.12–28.00) and two E69 allele copies conferred the highest odds for BeS (OR, 55.68; 95% CI, 14.80–209.40) and CBD (OR, 22.54; 95% CI, 7.00–72.62). Conclusions: E69 and beryllium exposure both contribute to the odds of CBD. The increased odds for CBD and BeS due to E69 appear to be differentially distributed by genotype, with non-*02 E69 carriers and E69 homozygotes at higher odds than those with *02 genotypes. PMID:21471109

Van Dyke, Mike V.; Martyny, John W.; Mroz, Margaret M.; Silveira, Lori J.; Strand, Matt; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Sato, Hiroe; Newman, Lee S.; Maier, Lisa A.

2011-01-01

434

High-flux neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype compact Liquid Lithium Target (LiLiT), able to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source, was built. The neutron source is intended for nuclear astrophysical research, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in hospitals and material studies for fusion reactors. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear research Center (SNRC). The lithium target will produce neutrons through the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated by a high-intensity proton beam, necessary for intense neutron flux for the above applications. The liquid-lithium loop of LiLiT is designed to generate a stable lithium jet at high velocity on a concave supporting wall with free surface toward the incident proton beam (up to 10 kW). During off-line tests, liquid lithium was flown through the loop and generated a stable jet at velocity higher than 5 m/s on the concave supporting wall. The target is now under extensive test program using a high-power electron-gun. Up to 2 kW electron beam was applied on the lithium flow at velocity of 4 m/s without any flow instabilities or excessive evaporation. High-intensity proton beam irradiation will take place at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator currently in commissioning at SNRC.

Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G.; Paul, M.; Arenshtam, A.; Berkovits, D.; Kijel, D.; Nagler, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Silverman, I.

2013-04-01

435

JWST: Tinsley achievements on the largest beryllium polishing project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polished 1.5m bare beryllium, off-axis aspheric mirror segments, constituting the cryogenic primary mirror of NASA's ambitious Flagship Mission, James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), have been successfully completed at L-3 Communications -Tinsley. Tinsley has finished the secondary, tertiary, fine steering and spare mirrors as well. We will describe both the end results, where it was demonstrated that visible quality mirror results can be achieved on large extremely lightweighted compliant off-axis mirrors, and the steps taken at Tinsley to achieve these results. Over 26 square-meters of bare beryllium were optically processed twice, first for room temperature figure, then for the cryo-null figure for the cryogenic differences.

Daniel, Jay; Hull, Tony; Barentine, John B.

2012-09-01

436

A joint fracture toughness evaluation of hot-pressed beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fracture toughness tests at room temperature were made on three-point bend specimens cut from hot-pressed beryllium obtained from two suppliers. The test specimens had dimensions conforming to ASTM fracture toughness standard E399-72. A total of 42 specimens were machined from each batch of material. Six specimens from each batch were then distributed to seven independent laboratories for testing. The test data from the laboratories were collected and analyzed for differences between the laboratories and the two batches of material. It is concluded that ASTM 399-72 can be used as a valid test procedure for determining the fracture toughness of beryllium, providing that Kf(max) in fatigue cracking could be up to 80 percent of the K(0) value.

Conrad, H.; Sargent, G. A.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

1977-01-01

437

Ultrasonic evaluation of beryllium-copper diffusion bonds  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to compare the effectiveness of several advanced ultrasonic techniques when used to determine the strength of diffusion bonded beryllium-copper, which heretofore have each been applied to only a few material systems. The use of integrated backscatter calculations, frequency domain reflection coefficients, and time-of-flight variance was compared in their ability to characterize the bond strength in a series of beryllium-copper diffusion bond samples having a wide variation in bond quality. Correlation of integrated backscatter calculations and time-of-flight variance with bond strength was good. Some correlation of the slope of the frequency based reflection coefficient was shown for medium and high strength bonds, while its Y-intercept showed moderate correlation for all bond strengths.

Jamieson, E.E.

2000-06-08

438

Parity violation in beryllium-like heavy ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel scheme is proposed for studying the parity-violating (PV) effects in beryllium-like heavy ions. It is based on the application of circularly polarized ultraviolet light for inducing a single-photon transition between the metastable 1s22s2p?3P0 and the short-lived 1s22s2p?3P1 states. We argue that the cross section of such a photoabsorption process is sensitive to the mixing between the allowed magnetic dipole (M1) and the PV electric dipole (E1) excitation channels. Based on relativistic calculations, we find that the PV-mixing may influence the cross section at the level of 10-5% for beryllium-like uranium, U88+.

Surzhykov, A.; Maiorova, A. V.; Shabaev, V. M.; Stöhlker, Th; Fritzsche, S.

2013-09-01

439

Purfication kinetics of beryllium during vacuum induction melting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The kinetics of evaporation in binary alloys were quantitatively treated. The formalism so developed works well for several systems studied. The kinetics of purification of beryllium was studied through evaporation data actually acquired during vacuum induction melting. Normal evaporation equations are shown to be generally valid and useful for understanding the kinetics of beryllium purification. The normal evaporation analysis has been extended to cover cases of limited liquid diffusion. It was shown that under steady-state evaporation, the solute concentration near the surface may be up to six orders of magnitude different from the bulk concentration. Corrections for limited liquid diffusion are definitely needed for the highly evaporative solute elements, such as Zn, Mg, and Na, for which the computed evaporation times are improved by five orders of magnitude. The commonly observed logarithmic relation between evaporation time and final concentration further supports the validity of the normal evaporation equations.

Mukherjee, J. L.; Gupta, K. P.; Li, C. H.

1972-01-01

440

Final Results of the Ball AMSD Beryllium Mirror  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1.4-meter semi-rigid, beryllium Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) mirror completed initial cryogenic testing at Marshall's X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) in August of 2003. Results of this testing show the mirror to have very low cryogenic surface deformation and possess exceptional figure stability. Subsequent to this cryogenic testing beryllium was selected as the material of choice for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) multi-segment primary mirror. Therefore, the AMSD mirror was sent back to SSG-Tinsley for additional ambient polishing to JWST requirements. The mirror was successfully polished to less than 22nm rms of low frequency error. Those additional results are presented with comparisons to the JWST requirements.

Chaney, David M.

2004-01-01

441

Beryllium reflected cavity reactor for UF6 critical experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments and theoretical studies are being conducted for NASA on critical assemblies with one-meter diam by one-meter long low-density cores surrounded by a thick beryllium reflector. These assemblies make extensive use of existing nuclear propulsion reactor components, facilities, and instrumentation. Due to excessive porosity in the reflector, the initial critical mass was 19 kg U(93.2). Addition of a 17-cm-thick by 89-cm-diam beryllium flux trap in the cavity reduced the critical mass to 7 kg when all the uranium was in the zone just outside the flux trap. A mockup aluminum UF6 container was placed inside the flux trap and fueled with uranium-graphite elements. Fission distributions and reactivity worths of fuel and structural materials are available. These results will be used to guide the design of a prototype plasma core reactor which will test energy removal by optical radiation.

Jarvis, G. A.; Bernard, W.; Helmick, H. H.; White, R.

1975-01-01

442

Elastic scattering of Beryllium isotopes near the Coulomb barrier  

SciTech Connect

In this contribution, results of experiments performed with the three Beryllium isotopes {sup 9,10,11}Be on a medium mass {sup 64}Zn target, at a center of mass energy of {approx_equal}1.4 the Coulomb barrier, will be discussed. Elastic scattering angular distributions have been measured for the {sup 9,10}Be reactions. In the {sup 11}Be case the quasielastic scattering angular distribution was obtained. In the halo nucleus case, the angular distribution exhibit a non-Fresnel-type pattern with a strong damping of the Coulomb-nuclear interference peak. Moreover, it is found that the total reaction cross-section for the halo nucleus induced collision is more than double the ones extracted in the collisions induced by the non-halo Beryllium isotopes. A large contribution to the total-reaction cross-section in the {sup 11}Be case could be attributed to transfer and/or break-up events.

Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Amorini, F.; Fisichella, M.; Lattuada, M.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Randisi, G.; Rizzo, F.; Santonocito, D.; Scalia, G.; Scuderi, V.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Papa, M. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Acosta, L.; Martel, I.; Perez-Bernal, F. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada Universidad de Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Borge, M. J. G.; Tengblad, O. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

2011-10-28

443

Reversibility of anodic lithium in rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.  

PubMed

Non-aqueous lithium-air batteries represent the next-generation energy storage devices with very high theoretical capacity. The benefit of lithium-air batteries is based on the assumption that the anodic lithium is completely reversible during the discharge-charge process. Here we report our investigation on the reversibility of the anodic lithium inside of an operating lithium-air battery using spatially and temporally resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction and three-dimensional micro-tomography technique. A combined electrochemical process is found, consisting of a partial recovery of lithium metal during the charging cycle and a constant accumulation of lithium hydroxide under both charging and discharging conditions. A lithium hydroxide layer forms on the anode separating the lithium metal from the separator. However, numerous microscopic 'tunnels' are also found within the hydroxide layer that provide a pathway to connect the metallic lithium with the electrolyte, enabling sustained ion-transport and battery operation until the total consumption of lithium. PMID:23929396

Shui, Jiang-Lan; Okasinski, John S; Kenesei, Peter; Dobbs, Howard A; Zhao, Dan; Almer, Jonathan D; Liu, Di-Jia

2013-01-01

444

First-Principles Investigation on Boron Nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First-principles calculations based on density functional theory are employed to study and predict the properties of boron and Mg boride nanostructures. For boron nanostructures, two-dimensional boron sheets are found to be metallic and made of mixtures of triangles and hexagons which benefit from the balance of two-center bonding and three-center bonding. This unusual bonding in boron sheets results in a self-doping picture where adding atoms to the hexagon centers does not change the number of bonding states but merely increases the electron count. Boron sheets can be either flat or buckled depending on the ratio between hexagons and triangles. Formed by stacking two identical boron sheets, double-layered boron sheets can form interlayer bonds, and the most stable one is semiconducting. Built from single-layered boron sheets, single-walled boron nanotubes have smaller curvature energies than carbon nanotubes and undergo a metal-to-semiconductor transition once the diameter is smaller than ˜20 A. Optimal double-walled boron nanotubes with inter-walled bonds formed are metallic and always more stable than single-walled ones. For Mg boride nanostructures, certain Mg boride sheets prefer to curve themselves into nanotubes, which is explained via Mg-Mg interactions governed by the charge state of Mg. In addition, optimal Mg boride sheet structures are explored with a genetic algorithm. Phase diagrams for Mg boride sheet structures are constructed and stable phases under boron-rich environments are identified. Curvature effects on the phase diagram of Mg boride nanotubes are also discussed. As a natural extension to boron sheets, layered boron crystals based on boron sheets are then presented and are shown to be stable under high pressure. Finally, this thesis ends with an investigation of hydrogen-storage properties of pristine and metal doped boron nanostructures.

Tang, Hui

445

Some frequency and damping measuements of laminated beryllium beams  

SciTech Connect

A quantum leap in vibration performance of beryllium structure has been experimentally investigated. Laminations, segmentation, and sandwich syntactic foam core have been demonstrated to have both high specific flexural structural stiffness and high damping for reduced vibratory response. Acquisition cost, weight, machinability and environmental benefits are also expected. Applications to structure of optical and inertial navigation equipment would lead to reductions in jitter levels and other vibratory response measures.

Andriulli, J.; Rogers, L.C.

1993-01-01

446

Some frequency and damping measuements of laminated beryllium beams  

SciTech Connect

A quantum leap in vibration performance of beryllium structure has been experimentally investigated. Laminations, segmentation, and sandwich syntactic foam core have been demonstrated to have both high specific flexural structural stiffness and high damping for reduced vibratory response. Acquisition cost, weight, machinability and environmental benefits are also expected. Applications to structure of optical and inertial navigation equipment would lead to reductions in jitter levels and other vibratory response measures.

Andriulli, J.; Rogers, L.C.

1993-06-01

447

NEUTRON SPECTRUM OF A PLUTONIUM-BERYLLIUM SOURCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron spectrum of a plutonium-beryllium source was obtained with ; the use of nuclear emulsions. Intensity maxima exist at less than 1.0 and at ; 3.2, 4.7, 7.7, and 9.7 Mev. Maxima at 4.7, 7.7, and 9.7 Mev are well accounted ; for in a calculated spectrum. Those at less than 1.0 and at 3.2 Mev are ; partially

M Edward Anderson; W. H. Jr. Bond

1963-01-01

448

Extraction of beryllium from Indian beryl by ammonium hydrofluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique of decomposing beryl ore at low temperature with ammonium hydrofluoride (NH4HF2) is proposed. Removing the fluorides of silicon and aluminium from the reaction product as volatile and insoluble compounds, respectively, have been investigated experimentally and the feasibility of the process has been established to extract beryllium fluoride (BeF2) as a soluble compound. The sequence of reaction of

D. D. Thorat; B. M. Tripathi; D. Sathiyamoorthy

2011-01-01

449

Bound exciton recombination in beryllium-doped silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-temperature photoluminescence of beryllium-doped silicon is dominated by a system with sharp no-phonon lines at approximately 1.077 eV with well resolved phonon-assisted replicas at lower energies. The temperature dependence of the relative intensities of the no-phonon lines and of the phonon-assisted structure is similar to that which has been observed for electron-hole recombination at axial isoelectronic traps in gallium

M. O. Henry; E. C. Lightowlers; N. Killoran; D. J. Dunstan; B. C. Cavenett

1981-01-01

450

The dynamic compressive behavior of beryllium bearing bulk metallic glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1993, a new beryllium bearing bulk metallic glass with the nominal composition of Zr{sub 41.25}Ti{sub 13.75}Cu{sub 12.5}NiBe{sub 22.5} was discovered at Caltech. This metallic glass can be cast as cylindrical rods as large as 16 mm in diameter, which permitted specimens to be fabricated with geometries suitable for dynamic testing. For the first time, the dynamic compressive yield behavior

H. A. Bruck; A. J. Rosakis; W. L. Johnson

1996-01-01

451

High flux isotope reactor redesigned beryllium reflector thermal stress calculations  

SciTech Connect

The Beryllium reflector of the High Flux Isotope Reactor is currently redesigned for upgrading the capability of the reactor. The original design criteria are adopted in the redesign analysis. Both nuclear heating and thermal stress calculations are revised. The results show that more margin of safety have been achieved and the updated design assures more precise design estimates for the reflector thermal stress conditions. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Chang, S.J.

1996-06-01

452

Fracture in hexagonal closed packed metals, zinc and beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that fracture in zinc and beryllium is nucleation controlled and is independent of the nature of the barrier from which fracture nucleates. The double cantilever cleavage technique was used to determine the energy required to propagate a crack on the basal plane (0001) in single crystals. Tensile fracture data from single and asymmetric bicrystals were used to calculate the energy needed to initiate a cleavage crack on the (0001) plane.

Kamdar, M. H.

1973-01-01

453

Beryllium systematics in young volcanic rocks: implications for 10Be  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium is an incompatible trace element that closely parallels neodymium in its geochemical behavior. Be analyses conducted on well-characterized oceanic and arc volcanic rock suites, as well as on marine sediments, suggest a bulk solid\\/liquid distribution coefficient of 0.03–0.06 for melting of the mantle and crystallization of basalts. The Be\\/Nd ratio for many volcanic rocks from diverse tectonic environments is

Jeffrey G Ryan; C. H. Langmuir

1988-01-01

454

Ionic Thermocurrents in Alkali Halide Crystals Containing Substitutional Beryllium Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric relaxations of NaCl and KCl single crystals containing beryllium ions have been studied using the technique of the ionic thermocurrents (ITC) in the range of temperatures between 1.2 and 300°K. The ITC spectra are characterized by three types of relaxations in both host crystals. The analysis of such relaxations and the observed temperature dependence of their relaxation times

Cesare Bucci

1967-01-01

455

Dose Rates from Plutonium Metal and Beryllium Metal in a 9975 Shipping Container  

SciTech Connect

A parametric study was performed of the radiation dose rates that might be produced if plutonium metal and beryllium metal were shipped in the 9975 shipping package. These materials consist of heterogeneous combinations plutonium metal and beryllium. The plutonium metal content varies up to 4.4 kilograms while the beryllium metal varies up to 4 kilograms. This paper presents the results of that study.

Nathan, S.J.

2002-02-04

456

HLA-DPB1 and Chronic Beryllium Disease: A HuGE Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex is a series of genes located on chromosome 6 that are important in normal immune function. Susceptibility to chronic beryllium disease, a granulomatous lung disease that appears in workers exposed to beryllium, is modified by genetic variants of the HLA-DP subregion. Evaluation of HLA-DPB1 sequence motifs in current and former beryllium workers implicated a

Erin C. McCanlies; Kathleen Kreiss; Michael Andrew; Ainsley Weston

2003-01-01

457

Optical emission diagnostic of thermionic vacuum arc plasma during beryllium film formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium is a candidate plasma-facing material for the main chamber wall in ITER. It will also be at JET during the ITER-Like Wall (ILW) Project aiming at tokamak operation with a full metal wall. Special marker tiles will be used in order to assess the beryllium erosion. These will be solid beryllium tiles coated first with a thin high-Z metal

C. P. Lungu; I. Mustata; V. Zaroschi; A. M. Lungu; P. Chiru; A. Anghel; G. Burcea; V. Bailescu; G. Dinuta; F. Din

458

HLA-DPB1 Glutamate 69: A Genetic Marker of Beryllium Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a lung disorder related to beryllium exposure and is characterized by the accumulation in the lung of beryllium-specific CD4^+ major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted T lymphocytes. Evaluation of MHC class II genes in 33 CBD cases and 44 controls has shown a negative association with HLA-DPB1*0401 (P < 0.001) and a positive association with

Luca Richeldi; Rosa Sorrentino; Cesare Saltini

1993-01-01

459

Determination of beryllium in ores and rocks by a dilution-fluorometric method with morin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beryllium in concentrations as little as a few parts per million is determined fluorometrically with morin in low grade ores by a dilution method without separations. A high sensitivity is obtained by the adoption of instrumental and reaction conditions that give a satisfactory ratio of beryllium to blank fluorescence and at the same time minimize iron interference. Data on the behavior of 47 ions are given. The method is applied to ores containing bertrandite and beryl as the beryllium minerals.

May, R.; Grimaldi, F.S.

1961-01-01

460

A review of lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major aspects related to lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries are reviewed. For lithium-ion batteries with carbonaceous anode, lithium deposition may occur under harsh charging conditions such as overcharging or charging at low temperatures. The major technical solutions include: (1) applying electrochemical models to predict the critical conditions for deposition initiation; (2) preventions by improved battery design and material modification; (3) applying adequate charging protocols to inhibit lithium deposition. For lithium metal secondary batteries, the lithium deposition is the inherent reaction during charging. The major technical solutions include: (1) the use of mechanistic models to elucidate and control dendrite initiation and growth; (2) engineering surface morphology of the lithium deposition to avoid dendrite formation via adjusting the composition and concentration of the electrolyte; (3) controlling battery working conditions. From a survey of the literature, the areas that require further study are proposed; e.g., refining the lithium deposition criteria, developing an effective AC self pre-heating method for low-temperature charging of lithium-ion batteries, and clarifying the role the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) plays in determining the deposition morphology; to facilitate a refined control of the lithium deposition.

Li, Zhe; Huang, Jun; Yann Liaw, Bor; Metzler, Viktor; Zhang, Jianbo

2014-05-01

461

Boron recovery, application and economic significance: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron compounds are widely used raw materials in various industries. However, high boron concentration in aqueous systems may be harmful to both humans and plants. Many treatment technologies have shown wide limitations in the removal of boron from wastewater and boronic wastes due to the complex boron chemistry. Boron exists as boric acid at pH9.2. Recovery of boron is one

Ezerie Henry Ezechi; Mohamed Hasnain Isa; Shamsul Rahman Kutty; Nasiman B. Sapari

2011-01-01

462

Lung injury in mice and rats acutely exposed to beryllium  

SciTech Connect

The effect of lung injury, in rats and mice, exposed to an aerosol of beryllium sulfate (BE) for one hour, through nose-only inhalation, was evaluated by the methods of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung cell kinetics. The BAL in rats, sacrificed over a 21 day period following exposure, showed lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (Alk Pase) activities as the most sensitive indicators of lung damage. LDH activity peaked at day 8 while Alk Pase activity peaked at day 5, both being 30 times greater than comparable control values. Acid phosphatase activity and albumin levels were also increased, but not to the same extent as LDH and Alk Pase. The BAL of mice showed LDH activity as the most sensitive indicator of lung damage, with a maximum response 3 times greater than controls at day 5. In another series of experiments, animals were treated with three agents capable of inducing fibrosis: beryllium sulfate, bleomycin, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Cy A completely inhibited the fibrogenic effects of BHT in mice, as measured through total lung hydroxyproline content. Bleomycin-induced fibrosis was significantly reduced by Cy A treatment in rats, but showed no effect in mice. Additionally, the effect of iron salt administration to rats decreased the intravenous LD/sub 50/ dose, and significantly reduced the inhalation toxicity, of beryllium sulfate. The protective mechanism of iron salt administration, through the induction of ferritin synthesis, is postulated.

Sendelbach, L.E. Jr.

1985-01-01

463

Chemoselective boronic ester synthesis by controlled speciation.  

PubMed

Control of boronic acid solution speciation is presented as a new strategy for the chemoselective synthesis of boronic esters. Manipulation of the solution equilibria within a cross-coupling milieu enables the formal homologation of aryl and alkenyl boronic acid pinacol esters. The generation of a new, reactive boronic ester in the presence of an active palladium catalyst also facilitates streamlined iterative catalytic C?C bond formation and provides a method for the controlled oligomerization of sp(2) -hybridized boronic esters. PMID:25267096

Fyfe, James W B; Seath, Ciaran P; Watson, Allan J B

2014-11-01

464

Lithium Ion Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

1997-01-01

465

Beryllium in soils of the Nevada Test Site: A preliminary assessment  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary assessment of the occurrence and distribution of beryllium in soils of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was conducted by identifying sites on the NTS where beryllium might have been used in past operations and measuring current soil beryllium concentrations at those sites. Eighty-one soil samples were collected from six sites on the NTS. The six sites were chosen after interviews with persons who are or were involved with NTS operations and stated that beryllium might have been used in operations at those sites. The soil samples were prepared for analysis using EPA procedures and analyzed by flame-atomic-absorption spectrophometry. Beryllium concentrations in the soil samples ranged from the analytical detection limit of 0.46 parts-per-million (ppM) to 4.65 ppM. The beryllium concentrations in NTS soils may be higher than estimated local background soil beryllium concentrations, but in concentrations that fall within the range found in surface soils of the United States. Air beryllium concentrations were conservatively estimated to be considerably lower than regulatory exposure limits. Further work is recommended in assessing the spatial distribution of beryllium in soils around several of the sites, with a sampling design that incorporates statistical procedures to ensure statistically valid results.

Patton, S.E.

1992-07-01

466

The beryllium quandary: will the lower exposure limits spur new developments in sampling and analysis?  

SciTech Connect

At the time this article was written, new rulemakings were under consideration at OSHA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that would propose changes to occupational exposure limits for beryllium. Given these developments, it’s a good time to review the tools and methods available to IHs for assessing beryllium air and surface contamination in the workplace—what’s new and different, and what’s tried and true. The article discusses limit values and action levels for beryllium, problematic aspects of beryllium air sampling, sample preparation, sample analysis, and data evaluation.

Brisson, Michael

2013-06-03

467

Alternatives to the Americium-Beryllium Neutron Source for the Compensated Neutron Porosity Log.  

E-print Network

??Monte Carlo simulations of neutron porosity logs were performed to examine the possibility of replacing the standard Americium-Beryllium neutron source. The candidate replacement sources were… (more)

Peeples, Cody Ryan

2007-01-01

468

Thermionic properties of the molybdenum boron system  

SciTech Connect

The thermionic work function has been measured as a function of composition within the various two phase regions between Mo and MoB/sub 2/. Values at the low boron and high boron phase boundaries for the various compounds were obtained by extrapolation. The following effective work functions were obtained: Mo/sub 2/B (low boron) = 3.08 eV; Mo/sub 2/B (high boron) = 3.63 eV; ..cap alpha..-MoB (low boron) = 3.38 eV; ..cap alpha..-MoB (high boron) = 4.30 eV; ..beta..-MoB (low boron) = 2.83 eV; ..beta..-MoB (high boron) = 3.92; Mo/sub 2/B/sub 3/ (low boron) = 4.65 eV; Mo/sub 2/B/sub 3/ (high boron) = 3.85 eV; and MoB/sub 2/ (low boron) = 3.52 eV. Because the composition range of these compounds is very narrow, the work function is very sensitive to the composition within the single phase regions.

Storms, E.K.

1980-01-01

469

Early clinical experience of boron neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma multiforme  

SciTech Connect

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality that can selectively irradiate tumor tissue. BNCT uses drugs containing a stable isotope of boron. {sup 10}B, to sensitize tumor cells to irradiation by low energy (thermal) neutrons. The interaction of the {sup 10}B with a thermal neutron (neutron capture) causes the {sup 10}B nucleus to split, releasing an alpha particle and a lithium nucleus. These products of the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction are very damaging to cells but have a combined path length in tissue of approximately 14 {mu}m, or roughly the diameter of one or two cells. Thus, most of the ionizing energy imparted to tissue is localized to {sup 10}B-loaded cells.

Joel, D.D.; Bergland, R.; Capala, J. [and others

1995-12-31

470

Introduction to beryllium: uses, regulatory history, and disease.  

PubMed

Beryllium is an ubiquitous element in the environment, and it has many commercial applications. Because of its strength, electrical and thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance, and nuclear properties, beryllium products are used in the aerospace, automotive, energy, medical, and electronics industries. What eventually came to be known as chronic beryllium disease (CBD) was first identified in the 1940s, when a cluster of cases was observed in workers from the fluorescent light industry. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission recommended the first 8-hour occupational exposure limit (OEL) for beryllium of 2.0 microg/m3 in 1949, which was later reviewed and accepted by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the vast majority of countries and standard-setting bodies worldwide. The 2.0 microg/m3 standard has been in use by the beryllium industry for more than 50 years and has been considered adequate to protect workers against clinical CBD. Recently, improved diagnostic techniques, including immunological testing and safer bronchoscopy, have enhanced our ability to identify subclinical CBD cases that would have formerly remained unidentified. Some recent epidemiological studies have suggested that some workers may develop CBD at exposures less than 2.0 microg/m3. ACGIH is currently reevaluating the adequacy of the current 2.0 microg/m3 guideline, and a plethora of research initiatives are under way to provide a better understanding of the cause of CBD. The research is focusing on the risk factors and exposure metrics that could be associated with CBD, as well as on efforts to better characterize the natural history of CBD. There is growing evidence that particle size and chemical form may be important factors that influence the risk of developing CBD. These research efforts are expected to provide data that will help identify a scientifically based OEL that will protect workers against CBD. PMID:11370935

Kolanz, M E

2001-05-01

471

Micro-and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate  

E-print Network

Micro- and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate Vladimir Ya. Shur investigation of the domain evolution in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate during backswitched electric sources based on quasi-phase matching.11 Lithium niobate LiNbO3 (LN) and lithium tantalate LiTaO3 (LT

Byer, Robert L.

472

Boron translocation in coffee trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron deficiency in coffee trees (Coffea arabica) is widespread, however, responses to B fertilizer have been erratic, depending on the year, method, and time of application. A better understanding of B uptake, distribution, and remobilization within the plant is important in developing a rational fertilization program. Field\\u000a and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study B distribution and remobilization in coffee

Vagner M. Leite; Patrick H. Brown; Ciro A. Rosolem

2007-01-01

473

Primary system boron dilution analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results are presented for an analysis conducted to determine the potential paths through which nonborated water or water with insufficient boron concentration might enter the LOFT primary coolant piping system or reactor vessel to cause dilution of the borated primary coolant water. No attempt was made in the course of this analysis to identify possible design modifications nor to

R. J. Crump; C. J. Naretto; R. A. Borgen; H. C. Rockhold

1978-01-01

474

Lithium battery management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the

Thomas J

2012-01-01

475

Balanced Lithium Ion Battery,.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A battery system uses passive nonlinear electronic devices, such as zener diodes, respectively connected in parallel to each of the serially connected battery cells, such as lithium ion battery cells, connected in a string, to maintain all of the cells at...

A. H. Zimmerman

2004-01-01

476

RED Facts: Lithium Hypochlorite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium hypochlorite is an algicide, disinfectant, fungicide and food contact surface sanitizer. Its primary pesticidal use is to control algae, bacteria and mildew in swimming pool water systems, hot tubs and spas; approximately 2,000,000 pounds of the a...

1993-01-01

477

Lithium iodate, intracavity upconversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes an internal CW parametric upconverter which uses a lithium iodate crystal and a CW argon laser. The upconversion reported demonstrates a noise equivalent power (NEP) of 5 x 10 to the -14th W/Hz to the 1/2th at 3.39-micron wavelength. Noise properties of the upconverter are outlined.

See, Y. C.; Falk, J.

1980-01-01

478

Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of materials electrochemistry represents a fusion of solid-state chemistry and electrochemistry. The commercial success of the world's first rechargeable lithium battery, introduced recently by Sony, is a triumph of materials electrochemistry. By developing radically new anodes, cathodes and electrolytes, a cell has been produced which can store three times the energy per unit weight and volume compared with conventional

Peter G. Bruce

1996-01-01

479

Beryllium Metal I. Experimental Results on Acute Oral Toxicity, Local Skin and Eye Effects, and Genotoxicity  

PubMed Central

The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral toxic properties. PMID:21196457

Strupp, Christian

2011-01-01