Science.gov

Sample records for lithium beryllium boron

  1. Lithium-Beryllium-Boron : Origin and Evolution

    E-print Network

    Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Michel Casse; Jean Audouze

    1999-07-13

    The origin and evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron is a crossing point between different astrophysical fields : optical and gamma spectroscopy, non thermal nucleosynthesis, Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis and finally galactic evolution. We describe the production and the evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron from Big Bang up to now through the interaction of the Standard Galactic Cosmic Rays with the interstellar medium, supernova neutrino spallation and a low energy component related to supernova explosions in galactic superbubbles.

  2. Cosmic Lithium-Beryllium-Boron Story

    E-print Network

    Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Michel Casse

    1999-02-04

    Light element nucleosynthesis is an important chapter of nuclear astrophysics. Specifically, the rare and fragile light nuclei Lithium, Beryllium and Boron (LiBeB) are not generated in the normal course of stellar nucleosynthesis (except Li7) and are, in fact, destroyed in stellar interiors. This characteristic is reflected in the low abundance of these simple species. Optical measurements of the beryllium and boron abundances in halo stars have been achieved by the 10 meter KECK telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope.These observations indicate a quasi linear correlation between Be and B vs Fe, at least at low metallicity. Aside GCRs, which are accelerated in the general interstellar medium (ISM) and create LiBeB through the break up of CNO by fast protons and alphas, Wolf-Rayet stars (WR) and core collapse supernovae (SNII) grouped in superbubbles could produce copious amounts of light elements via the fragmentation in flight of rapid carbon and oxygen nuclei colliding with H and He in the ISM.

  3. Lithium-Beryllium-Boron and Oxygen in the early Galaxy

    E-print Network

    Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Michel Casse

    2000-11-24

    Oxygen is a much better evolutionary index than iron to follow the history of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron (LiBeB) since it is the main producer of these light elements at least in the early Galaxy. The O-Fe relation is crucial to the determination of the exact physical process responsible for the LiBeB production. Calculated nucleosynthetic yields of massive stars, estimates of the energy cost of Be production, and above all recent observations reported in this meeting seem to favor a mechanism in which fast nuclei enriched into He, C and O arising from supernovae are accelerated in superbubbles and fragment on H and He in the interstellar medium.

  4. A study of galactic cosmic ray propagation models based on the isotopic composition of the elements lithium, beryllium and boron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G. F.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Greiner, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    A good test for a cosmic ray propagation model is its ability to predict the abundances of the light secondary nuclei lithium, beryllium, and boron. By using measured isotopic abundances of lithium, beryllium, and boron, Garcia-Munoz et al. (1979) were able to place limits on three important parameters of a leaky box propagation model. The considered parameters include the source spectral parameter, the leakage mean free path, and the characteristic adiabatic energy loss due to solar modulation. The present investigation is concerned with a critical evaluation of the information which can be deduced about these parameters from isotopic composition alone, taking into account the effects of uncertainties in the spallation cross section data.

  5. Double Photoionization of excited Lithium and Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, Frank L.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2010-05-20

    We present total, energy-sharing and triple differential cross sections for one-photon, double ionization of lithium and beryllium starting from aligned, excited P states. We employ a recently developed hybrid atomic orbital/ numerical grid method based on the finite-element discrete-variable representation and exterior complex scaling. Comparisons with calculated results for the ground-state atoms, as well as analogous results for ground-state and excited helium, serve to highlight important selection rules and show some interesting effects that relate to differences between inter- and intra-shell electron correlation.

  6. Study of beryllium and beryllium-lithium complexes in single-crystal silicon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, R. K.; Robertson, J. B.; Gilmer, T. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    When beryllium is thermally diffused into silicon, it gives rise to acceptor levels 191 and 145 meV above the valence band. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that the 145-meV level is due to a more complex beryllium configuration than the 191-meV level. When lithium is thermally diffused into a beryllium-doped silicon sample, it produces two new acceptor levels at 106 and 81 meV. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that these new levels are due to lithium forming a complex with the defects responsible for the 191- and 145-meV beryllium levels, respectively. Electrical measurements imply that the lithium impurity ions are physically close to the beryllium impurity atoms. The ground state of the 106-meV beryllium-lithium level is split into two levels, presumably by internal strains. Tentative models are proposed to explain these results.

  7. A study of beryllium and beryllium-lithium complexes in single crystal silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, R. K.; Robertson, J. B.; Gilmer, T. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    When beryllium is thermally diffused into silicon, it gives rise to acceptor levels 191 MeV and 145 meV above the valence band. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that the 145-MeV level is due to a more complex beryllium configuration than the 191-MeV level. When lithium is thermally diffused into a beryllium-doped silicon sample, it produces two acceptor levels at 106 MeV and 81 MeV. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that these levels are due to lithium forming a complex with the defects responsible for the 191-MeV and 145-MeV beryllium levels, respectively. Electrical measurements imply that the lithium impurity ions are physically close to the beryllium impurity atoms. The ground state of the 106-MeV beryllium level is split into two levels, presumably by internal strains. Tentative models are proposed.

  8. LITHIUM-BERYLLIUM-BORON ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS IN METEORITIC HIBONITE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ORIGIN OF {sup 10}Be AND EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ming-Chang; Nittler, Larry R.; Alexander, Conel M. O'D.; Lee, Typhoon

    2010-08-10

    NanoSIMS isotopic measurements of Li, Be, and B in individual hibonite grains extracted from the Murchison meteorite revealed that {sup 10}B excesses correlate with the {sup 9}Be/{sup 11}B ratios in {sup 26}Al-free PLAty hibonite Crystals. From these data, an initial {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be = (5.5 {+-} 1.6) x 10{sup -4} (2{sigma}) and {sup 10}B/{sup 11}B = 0.2508 {+-} 0.0015 can be inferred. On the other hand, chondritic boron isotopic compositions were found in {sup 26}Al-bearing Spinel-HIBonite spherules, most likely due to contamination with normal boron. No {sup 7}Li excesses due to {sup 7}Be decay were observed. When combined with previously reported data, the new data yield the best defined {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be = (5.3 {+-} 1.0) x 10{sup -4} (2{sigma}) and {sup 10}B/{sup 11}B = 0.2513 {+-} 0.0012 for PLACs. A comparison of this value and the best constrained {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be = (8.8 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup -4} in CV Ca-Al-rich inclusions supports a heterogeneous distribution of {sup 10}Be and its protosolar irradiation origin. We consider two possible irradiation scenarios that could potentially lead to the observed Li-Be-B isotopic compositions in PLACs. Although in situ irradiation of solids with hibonite chemistry seems to provide the simplest explanation, more high quality data will be needed for quantitatively constraining the irradiation history.

  9. Beryllium and Boron abundances in population II stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The scientific focus of this program was to undertake UV spectroscopic abundance analyses of extremely metal poor stars with attention to determining abundances of light elements such as beryllium and boron. The abundances are likely to reflect primordial abundances within the early galaxy and help to constrain models for early galactic nucleosynthesis. The general metal abundances of these stars are also important for understanding stellar evolution.

  10. Production of beryllium and boron by spallation in supernova ejecta

    SciTech Connect

    Majmudar, Deepa; Applegate, James H.

    1997-05-10

    The abundances of beryllium and boron have been measured in halo stars of metallicities as low as [Fe/H]=-3. The observations show that the ratios Be/Fe and B/Fe are independent of metallicity and approximately equal to their solar values over the entire range of observed metallicity. These observations are in contradiction with the predictions of simple models of beryllium and boron production by spallation in the interstellar medium of a well mixed galaxy. We propose that beryllium and boron are produced by spallation in the ejecta of type II supernovae. In our picture, protons and alpha particles are accelerated early in the supernova event and irradiate the heavy elements in the ejecta long before the ejecta mixes with the interstellar medium. We follow the propagation of the accelerated particles with a Monte-Carlo code and find that the energy per spallation reaction is about 5 GeV for a variety of initial particle spectra and ejecta compositions. Reproducing the observed Be/Fe and B/Fe ratios requires roughly 3x10{sup 47} ergs of accelerated protons and alphas. This is much less than the 10{sup 51} ergs available in a supernova explosion.

  11. Production of Beryllium and Boron by Spallation in Supernova Ejecta

    E-print Network

    Majmudar, D; Majmudar, Deepa; Applegate, James H.

    1997-01-01

    The abundances of beryllium and boron have been measured in halo stars of metallicities as low as [Fe/H] =-3. The observations show that the ratios Be/Fe and B/Fe are independent of metallicity and approximately equal to their solar values over the entire range of observed metallicity. These observations are in contradiction with the predictions of simple models of beryllium and boron production by spallation in the interstellar medium of a well mixed galaxy. We propose that beryllium and boron are produced by spallation in the ejecta of type II supernovae. In our picture, protons and alpha particles are accelerated early in the supernova event and irradiate the heavy elements in the ejecta long before the ejecta mixes with the interstellar medium. We follow the propagation of the accelerated particles with a Monte-Carlo code and find that the energy per spallation reaction is about 5 GeV for a variety of initial particle spectra and ejecta compositions. Reproducing the observed Be/Fe and B/Fe ratios requires...

  12. Production of Beryllium and Boron by Spallation in Supernova Ejecta

    E-print Network

    Deepa Majmudar; James H. Applegate

    1997-08-01

    The abundances of beryllium and boron have been measured in halo stars of metallicities as low as [Fe/H] =-3. The observations show that the ratios Be/Fe and B/Fe are independent of metallicity and approximately equal to their solar values over the entire range of observed metallicity. These observations are in contradiction with the predictions of simple models of beryllium and boron production by spallation in the interstellar medium of a well mixed galaxy. We propose that beryllium and boron are produced by spallation in the ejecta of type II supernovae. In our picture, protons and alpha particles are accelerated early in the supernova event and irradiate the heavy elements in the ejecta long before the ejecta mixes with the interstellar medium. We follow the propagation of the accelerated particles with a Monte-Carlo code and find that the energy per spallation reaction is about 5 GeV for a variety of initial particle spectra and ejecta compositions. Reproducing the observed Be/Fe and B/Fe ratios requires roughly 3 times 10^{47} ergs of accelerated protons and alphas. This is much less than the 10^{51} ergs available in a supernova explosion.

  13. Boron, beryllium, and lithium, partitioning in olivine

    SciTech Connect

    Neroda, Elizabeth

    1996-05-01

    A one atmosphere experimental study was performed to determine the mineral/melt partition coefficients for B, Be, and Li in forsteritic olivine. Two compositions were chosen along the 1350{degrees}C isotherm, 1b (Fo{sub 17.3} Ab{sub 82.7} An{sub 0} by weight) and 8c (Fo{sub 30} Ab{sub 23.3} An{sub 47.8}, by weight) were then combined in equal amounts to form a composition was doped with 25ppm Li, B, Yb, Nb, Zr, Sr, and Hf, 50ppm Sm, and 100ppm Be, Nd, Ce, and Rb. Electron and ion microprobe analyses showed that the olivine crystals and surrounding glasses were homogeneous with respect to major and trace elements. Partition coefficients calculated from these analyses are as follows: 1b: D{sub B} = 4.41 ({+-} 2.3) E-03, D{sub Be} = 2.86 ({+-} 0.45) E-03, D{sub Li} = 1.54 ({+-} 0.21) E-01, 50/50: D{sub B} = 2.86 ({+-} 0.5) E-03, D{sub Be} = 2.07 ({+-} 0.09) E-03, D{sub Li} = 1.51 ({+-} 0.18) E-01, 8c: D{sub B} = 6.05 ({+-} 1.5) E-03, D{sub Be} = 1.81 ({+-} 0.03) E-03, D{sub Li} = 1.31 ({+-} 0.09) E-01. The results of this study will combined with similar data for other minerals as part of a larger study to understand the partitioning behavior of B, Be, and Li in melting of the upper mantle at subduction zones.

  14. On temperature bifurcation of beryllium and lithium plasma facing components

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, R. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Pigarov, A. Yu.

    2009-12-15

    The mechanism of temperature bifurcation of plasma contacting surfaces due to recycling of the ionized surface material vapor is considered. It is shown that this mechanism can lead to overheating of beryllium and lithium plasma facing components (in particular, in fusion devices) prior to the thermionic electron emission mechanism. The surface temperatures and the plasma parameters, at which the considered mechanism triggers the local overheating of beryllium and lithium components, are evaluated. The increase in the surface heat load due to secondary electron emission is also considered. It is shown that the combined effects of energy and impact angle distributions of the plasma electrons can increase the averaged secondary electron emission yield to values higher than unity and can lower the average electron energy, at which such yields are achieved.

  15. Beryllium, Lithium and Oxygen Abundances in F-type Stars

    E-print Network

    R. J. Garcia Lopez; M. C. Dominguez Herrera; M. R. Perez de Taoro; C. Casares; J. L. Rasilla; R. Rebolo; C. Allende Prieto

    1997-10-07

    Beryllium and oxygen abundances have been derived in a sample of F-type field stars for which lithium abundances had been measured previously, with the aim of obtaining observational constraints to discriminate between the different mixing mechanisms proposed. Mixing associated with the transport of angular momentum in the stellar interior and internal gravity waves within the framework of rotating evolutionary models, appear to be promising ways to explain the observations.

  16. Inorganic arrangement crystal beryllium, lithium, selenium and silicon

    E-print Network

    Gobato, Ricardo; Fedrigo, Desire Francine Gobato

    2015-01-01

    The use of inorganic crystals technology has been widely date. Since quartz crystals for watches in the nineteenth century, and common way radio in the early twentieth century, to computer chips with new semiconductor materials. Chemical elements such as beryllium, lithium, selenium and silicon, are widely used in technology. The development of new crystals arising from that arrangement can bring technological advances in several areas of knowledge. The likely difficulty of finding such crystals in nature or synthesized, suggest an advanced study of the subject. A study using computer programs with ab initio method was applied. As a result of the likely molecular structure of the arrangement of a crystal was obtained.

  17. Comparison of beryllium oxide and pyrolytic graphite crucibles for boron doped silicon epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Dyan; Richardson, Christopher J. K.

    2012-11-15

    This article reports on the comparison of beryllium oxide and pyrolytic graphite as crucible liners in a high-temperature effusion cell used for boron doping in silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis indicates decomposition of the beryllium oxide liner, leading to significant incorporation of beryllium and oxygen in the grown films. The resulting films are of poor crystal quality with rough surfaces and broad x-ray diffraction peaks. Alternatively, the use of pyrolytic graphite crucible liners results in higher quality films.

  18. Test fixture design for boron-aluminum and beryllium test panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaux, C. G.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed description of the test fixture design and the backup analysis of the fixture assembly and its components are presented. The test fixture is required for the separate testing of two boron-aluminum and two beryllium compression panels. This report is presented in conjunction with a complete set of design drawings on the test fixture system.

  19. A Lithium-Beryllium Method for the Detection of Solar Neutrinos

    E-print Network

    A. V. Kopylov; I. V. Orekhov; V. V. Petukhov; A. E. Solomatin

    2009-10-20

    A method for the detection of solar neutrino has been developed using the laboratory bench installations. The efficiency of the extraction of beryllium from lithium as high as 96.4{%} has been achieved, and it was shown that lithium losses during the extraction were less than 1{%}. The prospects of a full-scale experiment with a 10-t lithium detector consisting of twenty 500-kg lithium modules are discussed. The technical solutions formulated on the basis of this study enable to make design of a pilot lithium installation containing 500 kg of metallic lithium

  20. The shocking development of lithium (and boron) in supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearborn, David S. P.; Schramm, David N.; Steigman, Gary; Truran, James

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that significant amounts of Li-7 and B-11 are produced in Type 2 supernovae. The synthesis of these rare elements occurs as the supernova shock traverses the base of the hydrogen envelope burning He-3 to masses 7 and 11 via alpha capture. The yields in this process are sufficient to account for the difference in lithium abundance observed between Pop 2 and Pop 1 stars. Since lithium (and boron) would, in this manner, be created in the same stars that produce the bulk of the heavy elements, the lithium abundance even in old Pop 1 stars would be high (as observed). The B-11 production may remedy the long-standing problem of the traditional spallation scenario to account for the observed isotopic ratio of boron. Observational consequences of this mechanism are discussed, including the evolution of lithium and boron isotope ratios in the Galaxy and the possible use of the boron yields to constrain the number of blue progenitor Type 2 supernovae.

  1. Boron nitride protective coating of beryllium window surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gmuer, N.F.

    1991-12-01

    The use of beryllium windows on white synchrotron radiation beamlines is constrained by the fact that the downstream surfaces of these windows should not be exposed to ambient atmosphere. They should, rather, be protected by a tail-piece under vacuum or containing helium atmosphere. This tailpiece is typically capped by Kapton (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) or aluminum foil. The reason for such an arrangement is due to the health risk associated with contaminants (BeO) which from on the exposed beryllium window surfaces and due to possible loss of integrity of the windows. Such a tail-piece may, however, add unwanted complications to the beamline in the form of vacuum pumps or helium supplies and their related monitoring systems. The Kapton windows may burn through in the case of high intensity beams and lower energy radiation may be absorbed in the case of aluminum foil windows. A more ideal situation would be to provide a coating for the exposed beryllium window surface, sealing it off from the atmosphere, thus preventing contamination and/or degradation of the window, and eliminating the need for helium or vacuum equipment.

  2. Isotope Shifts in Beryllium-, Boron-, Carbon-, and Nitrogen-like Ions from Relativistic Configuration Interaction Calculations

    E-print Network

    Nazé, C; Rynkun, P; Gaigalas, G; Godefroid, M; Jönsson, P

    2014-01-01

    Energy levels, normal and specific mass shift parameters as well as electronic densities at the nucleus are reported for numerous states along the beryllium, boron, carbon, and nitrogen isoelectronic sequences. Combined with nuclear data, these electronic parameters can be used to determine values of level and transition isotope shifts. The calculation of the electronic parameters is done using first-order perturbation theory with relativistic configuration interaction wave functions that account for valence, core-valence and core-core correlation effects as zero-order functions. Results are compared with experimental and other theoretical values, when available.

  3. Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-01

    In the last 50 years, beryllium has risen from a geological curiosity to become an important industrial metal. Its high strength, light weight and high thermal conductivity make it valuable in both defense and commercial applications, It is lighter than aluminum, has a higher tensile strength and melting temperature than both magnesium and aluminum, and exhibits the highest elasticity and strength-to-weight ratio of the light metals. These features, as well as beryllium`s high beat capacity and unusual nuclear properties, caused beryllium to be dubbed the {open_quotes}wonder metal{close_quotes} in the 1950s and early 1960s.

  4. Beryllium

    Cancer.gov

    Beryllium is a metal that is found in nature, especially in beryl and bertrandite rock. It is extremely lightweight and hard, is a good conductor of electricity and heat, and is non-magnetic. Because of these properties, beryllium is used in high-technology consumer and commercial products, including aerospace components, transistors, nuclear reactors, and golf clubs.

  5. Halo effective field theory constrains the solar Beryllium-7 + proton -> Boron-8 + photon rate

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Xilin; Phillips, D R

    2015-01-01

    We report an improved low-energy extrapolation of the cross section for the process Beryllium-7+proton -> Boron-8+photon, which determines the Boron-8 neutrino flux from the Sun. Our extrapolant is derived from Halo Effective Field Theory (EFT) at next-to-leading order. We apply Bayesian methods to determine the EFT parameters and the low-energy S-factor, using measured cross sections and scattering lengths as inputs. Asymptotic normalization coefficients of Boron-8 are tightly constrained by existing radiative capture data, and contributions to the cross section beyond external direct capture are detected in the data at E < 0.5 MeV. Most importantly, the S-factor at zero energy is constrained to be S(0)= 21.3 + - 0.7 eV b, which is an uncertainty smaller by a factor of two than previously recommended. That recommendation was based on the full range for S(0) obtained among a discrete set of models judged to be reasonable. In contrast, Halo EFT subsumes all models into a controlled low-energy approximant, w...

  6. Beryllium bis(diazaborolyl): old neighbors finally shake hands.

    PubMed

    Arnold, T; Braunschweig, H; Ewing, W C; Kramer, T; Mies, J; Schuster, J K

    2015-01-14

    The synthesis of a linear beryllium bis(diazaborolyl) compound featuring the first non-cluster bond between boron and beryllium has been achieved through the reaction of Yamashita's lithium diazaborolide and BeCl2. In accord with the established chemistry of beryllium, the bonding is polar covalent in character, as determined by structural and spectroscopic analysis, as well as reactivity studies. PMID:25417558

  7. Distrontium lithium beryllium triborate, Sr2LiBeB3O8

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Na; Ye, Ning

    2012-01-01

    Single crystals of distrontium lithium beryllium triborate, Sr2LiBeB3O8, were obtained by spontaneous nucleation from a high-temperature melt. In the Sr2Li[BeB3O8] structure, [BeB2O7]6? rings, made up from one BeO4 tetra­hedron and two BO3 triangles, are connected to each other by [BO3] triangles to form the smallest repeat unit {[BeB3O8]8?} and then form chains along the b axis. The Sr2+ cations are seven- or eight-­coordinated and Li+ cations are tetra-­coordinated and lie between the chains. PMID:22590052

  8. Beryllium is an inhibitor of cellular GSK-3? that is 1,000-fold more potent than lithium.

    PubMed

    Mudireddy, Swapna R; Abdul, Ataur Rahman Mohammed; Gorjala, Priyatham; Gary, Ronald K

    2014-12-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) is a key regulator in signaling networks that control cell proliferation, metabolism, development, and other processes. Lithium chloride is a GSK-3 family inhibitor that has been a mainstay of in vitro and in vivo studies for many years. Beryllium salt has the potential to act as a lithium-like inhibitor of GSK-3, but it is not known whether this agent is effective under physiologically relevant conditions. Here we show that BeSO4 inhibits endogenous GSK-3? in cultured human cells. Exposure to 10 µM Be(2+) produced a decrease in GSK-3? kinase activity that was comparable to that produced by 10 mM Li(+), indicating that beryllium is about 1,000-fold more potent than the classical inhibitor when treating intact cells. There was a statistically significant dose-dependent reduction in specific activity of GSK-3? immunoprecipitated from cells that had been treated with either agent. Lithium inhibited GSK-3? kinase activity directly, and it also caused GSK-3? in cells to become phosphorylated at serine-9 (Ser-9), a post-translational modification that occurs as part of a well-known positive feedback loop that suppresses the kinase activity. Beryllium also inhibited the kinase directly, but unlike lithium it had little effect on Ser-9 phosphorylation in the cell types tested, suggesting that alternative modes of feedback inhibition may be elicited by this agent. These results indicate that beryllium, like lithium, can induce perturbations in the GSK-3? signaling network of treated cells. PMID:25104312

  9. Development of a high-power water cooled beryllium target for use in accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, B W; Yanch, J C; Klinkowstein, R E

    1998-10-01

    In order for ABNCT (accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy) to be successful, 10-16 kW or more must be dissipated from a target. Beryllium is well suited as a high-power target material. Beryllium has a thermal conductivity of 200 W/mK at 300 K which is comparable to aluminum, and it has one of the highest strength to weight ratios of any metal even at high temperatures (100 MPa at 600 degrees C). Submerged jet impingement cooling has been investigated as an effective means to remove averaged power densities on the order of 2 x 10(7) W/m2 with local power densities as high as 6 x 10(7) W/m2. Water velocities required to remove these power levels are in excess of 24 m/s with volumetric flow rates of nearly 100 GPM. Tests on a prototype target revealed that the heat transfer coefficient scaled as Re0.6. With jet-Reynolds numbers as high as 5.5 x 10(5) heat transfer coefficients of 2.6 x 10(5) W/m2K were achieved. With this type of cooling configuration 30 kW of power could be effectively removed from a beryllium target placed on the end of an accelerator. A beryllium target utilizing a proton beam of 3.7 MeV and cooled by submerged jet impingement could be used to deliver a dose of 13 RBE cGy/min mA to a tumor at a depth of 4 cm. With a beam power of 30 kW, 1500 cGy could be delivered in 14.2 min. PMID:9800705

  10. Lithium tetra-(8-hydroxy-quinolinato) boron for blue electroluminescent applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, X. T.; Suzuki, H.; Wada, T.; Sasabe, H.; Miyata, S.

    1999-09-01

    We report the optical and electroluminescent properties of the organometallic complex lithium tetra-(8-hydroxy-quinolinato) boron (LiBq4). The complex was prepared by the reaction of lithium borohydride with 8-hydroxyquinoline and shows absorption cutoff wavelength of 410 nm and bright blue photoluminescence with a peak wavelength at 466 nm. The ionization potential of LiBq4 was determined to be ˜5.6 eV by a photoemission apparatus. Electroluminescence (EL) properties of three-layer light-emitting diodes (LED) of ITO/PVK:TPD/LiBq4/Alq3/Mg with LiBq4 as the active layer were characterized. The EL spectra of the three-layer device are similar to the PL spectrum of the single layer LiBq4 but with peak wavelength at 475 nm. The results indicate that boron complexes are potential blue emitters for LED applications.

  11. Hyperfine structures and Land\\'e $g_J$-factors for $n=2$ states in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations

    E-print Network

    Verdebout, S; Jönsson, P; Rynkun, P; Godefroid, M; Gaigalas, G

    2014-01-01

    Energy levels, hyperfine interaction constants, and Land\\'e $g_J$-factors are reported for n=2 states in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations. Valence, core-valence, and core-core correlation effects are taken into account through single and double-excitations from multireference expansions to increasing sets of active orbitals. A systematic comparison of the calculated hyperfine interaction constants is made with values from the available literature.

  12. High-power liquid-lithium target prototype for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Bisyakoev, M; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Hazenshprung, N; Kijel, D; Nagler, A; Silverman, I

    2011-12-01

    A prototype of a compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT), which will possibly constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals, was built. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The liquid-lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated using a high-intensity proton beam (>10 kW), necessary for sufficient neutron flux. In off-line circulation tests, the liquid-lithium loop generated a stable lithium jet at high velocity, on a concave supporting wall; the concept will first be tested using a high-power electron beam impinging on the lithium jet. High intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 2-4 mA) will take place at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) superconducting linear accelerator currently in construction at SNRC. Radiological risks due to the (7)Be produced in the reaction were studied and will be handled through a proper design, including a cold trap and appropriate shielding. A moderator/reflector assembly is planned according to a Monte Carlo simulation, to create a neutron spectrum and intensity maximally effective to the treatment and to reduce prompt gamma radiation dose risks. PMID:21459008

  13. Effect of Boron-Doping on the Graphene Aerogel Used as Cathode for the Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yang; Meng, Zhen; Cai, Tingwei; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2015-11-18

    A porous interconnected 3D boron-doped graphene aerogel (BGA) was prepared via a one-pot hydrothermal treatment. The BGA material was first loaded with sulfur to serve as cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries. Boron was positively polarized on the graphene framework, allowing for chemical adsorption of negative polysufide species. Compared with nitrogen-doped and undoped graphene aerogel, the BGA-S cathode could deliver a higher capacity of 994 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C after 100 cycles, as well as an outstanding rate capability, which indicated the BGA was an ideal cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. PMID:26544917

  14. Boron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron is an essential micronutrient element required for plant growth. Boron deficiency is wide-spread in crop plants throughout the world especially in coarse-textured soils in humid areas. Boron toxicity can also occur, especially in arid regions under irrigation. Plants respond directly to the...

  15. Production of Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron from Baryon inhomogeneous primordial nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David; Schramm, David N.; Olive, Keith A.; Mathews, Grant J.; Meyer, Bradley S.; Fields, Brian D.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis may eventually be used to explain the abundances of Li-6, Be-9, and B in Population II stars. The present work differs from previous studies in that we have used a more extensive reaction network. It is demonstrated that in the simplest scenario the abundances of the light elements with A less than or = 7 constrain the separation of inhomogeneities to sufficently small scales that the model is indistinguishable from homogeneous nucleosynthesis and that the abundnace of Li-6, Be-9, and B are then below observations by several orders of magnitude. This conclusion does not depend on the Li-7 constraint. We also examine alternative scenarios which involve a post-nucleosynthesis reprocessing of the light elements to reproduce the observed abundances of Li and B, while allowing for a somewhat higher baryon density (still well below the cosmological critical density). Future B/H measurements may be able to exclude even this exotic scenario and further restrict primirdial nucleosynthesis to approach the homogeneous model conclusions.

  16. Lithium-Beryllium-Boron Evolution: From Meneguzzi, Audouze and Reeves 1971 Up to Now

    E-print Network

    M. Casse; E. Vangioni-Flam; J. Audouze

    2001-01-18

    We review the main sources of LiBeB production and show that a primary mechanism is at work in the early Galaxy involving both ejection and acceleration of He, C and O at moderate energy, which by nuclear interaction with H and He produce light isotopes. The precise measurement of the Be abundance at [Fe/H] = -3.3 and of $^6Li$ in halo stars find an explanation in this framework. Thus, the preservation of $^6Li$ in the atmosphere of metal poor stars implied, points toward the fact the Spite plateau reflects the primordial value of Li. Consequently, it can be used as a baryodensitometer.

  17. The isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray lithium, beryllium and boron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Mason, G. M.; Simpson, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The isotopic composition of galactic-cosmic-ray Li, Be, and B has been measured near 100 MeV/nucleon by using the University of Chicago IMP 7 and IMP 8 cosmic-ray telescopes during 1973-1975. The measured abundances allow detailed checks of models of interstellar propagation and solar modulation to be made and conclusions to be drawn concerning the spectral forms at the source and the minimum solar modulation level. For example, comparing these results with local interstellar spectra calculated by using a 'leaky box' model, it is found that if solar modulation is ignored, there is no unique leakage mean free path consistent with all the observations. However, by taking account of a sizable level of residual solar modulation, excellent agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured abundances. Thus, these isotopic abundances confirm the old hypothesis that cosmic-ray Li, Be, and B are produced as secondaries in interstellar space.

  18. The isotopic composition of galactic cosmic-ray lithium, beryllium, and boron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Mason, G. M.; Simpson, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    The isotopes of cosmic-ray Li, Be, and B near 100 MeV per nucleon have been measured with cosmic-ray telescopes on board the IMP-7 and IMP-8 satellites during 1973 and 1974. The measured isotopic abundances provide a stringent test for models of interstellar propagation and solar modulation. It is found that the isotopic abundances can be explained using a steady-state interstellar propagation model with a 5-g/sq cm leakage mean free path. These results, taken along with Be-10 abundance measurements, indicate a longer lifetime for cosmic rays than that predicted by the usual assumption of an average interstellar density of 1 to 3 atoms per cu cm.

  19. Cosmic ray models for early galactic lithium, beryllium, and boron production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.

    1994-01-01

    To better understand the early galactic production of Li, Be, and B by cosmic ray spallation and fusion reactions, the dependence of these production rates on cosmic ray models and model parameters is examined. The sensitivity of elemental and isotropic production to the cosmic ray pathlength magnitude and energy dependence, source spectrum spallation kinematics, and cross section uncertainties is studied. Changes in these model features, particularly those features related to confinement, are shown to alter the Be- and B-versus-Fe slopes from a naive quadratic relation. The implications of our results for the diffuse gamma-ray background are examined, and the role of chemical evolution and its relation to our results is noted. It is also noted that the unmeasured high energy behavior of alpha + alpha fusion can lead to effects as large as a factor of 2 in the resultant yields. Future data should enable Population II Li, Be, and B abundances to constrain cosmic ray models for the early Galaxy.

  20. Cosmic-ray models for early Galactic Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.

    1994-01-01

    To understand better the early Galactic production of Li, Be, and B by comsmic-ray spallation and fusion reactions, the dependence of these production rates on cosmic-ray models and model parameters is examined. The sensitivity of elemental and isotopic production to the cosmic-ray path length magnitude and energy dependence, source spectrum, spallation kinematics, and cross section uncertainties is studied. Changes in these model features, particularly those features related to confinement, are shown to alter the Be- and B- versus-Fe slopes from a naive quadratic relation. The implications of our results for the diffuse gamma-ray background are examined, and the role of chemical evolution and its relation to our results is noted. It is also noted that the unmeasured high-energy behavior of alpha + alpha fusion can lead to effects as large as a factor of 2 in the resultant yields. Future data should enable Population II Li, Be, and B abundances to constrain cosmic-ray models for the early Galaxy.

  1. Boron-doped, carbon-coated SnO2/graphene nanosheets for enhanced lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxin; Liu, Ping; Wu, Dongqing; Huang, Yanshan; Tang, Yanping; Su, Yuezeng; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2015-03-27

    Heteroatom doping is an effective method to adjust the electrochemical behavior of carbonaceous materials. In this work, boron-doped, carbon-coated SnO2 /graphene hybrids (BCTGs) were fabricated by hydrothermal carbonization of sucrose in the presence of SnO2/graphene nanosheets and phenylboronic acid or boric acid as dopant source and subsequent thermal treatment. Owing to their unique 2D core-shell architecture and B-doped carbon shells, BCTGs have enhanced conductivity and extra active sites for lithium storage. With phenylboronic acid as B source, the resulting hybrid shows outstanding electrochemical performance as the anode in lithium-ion batteries with a highly stable capacity of 1165?mA?h?g(-1) at 0.1?A?g(-1) after 360 cycles and an excellent rate capability of 600?mA?h?g(-1) at 3.2?A?g(-1), and thus outperforms most of the previously reported SnO2-based anode materials. PMID:25694249

  2. B - Be (Boron - Beryllium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predel, B.

    This document is part of Volume 12 Phase Equilibria, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data of Binary Alloys', Subvolume B 'B - Ba … Cu - Zr, Supplement to Subvolumes IV/5B, IV/5C and IV/5D', of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'.

  3. SYNTHESIS OF A NEW FAMILY OF FLUORINATED BORONATE COMPOUNDS AS ANION RECEPTORS AND STUDIES OF THEIR USE AS ADDITIVES IN LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTES.

    SciTech Connect

    MCBREEN,J.; LEE,H.S.; YANG,X.Q.

    2001-06-08

    Numerous studies have been done on developing new electrolytes for lithium batteries with high ionic conductivity, and good chemical and electrochemical stability. In addition to the research on new salts and solvents, the use of cation receptors to reduce ion pairing in non-aqueous electrolytes has been considered as an approach to improve the properties of electrolytes. Although both cation and anion receptors enhance the dissociation of ion pairs and increase the conductivity of electrolytes, the use of anion receptors is more attractive for a lithium battery electrolyte because anion receptors increase the lithium transference number in the electrolyte. However, most available neutral anion receptors complex with anions through hydrogen binding and cannot be used in lithium batteries. Recently, we have reported on synthesis of a series of new neutral boron compounds as anion receptors based on the idea that electron-deficient boron would complex the anion of the ion pair. The anion complexation effect of these boron compounds was further enhanced by attaching electron-withdrawing groups. Here we report synthesis of another new family of boronate compounds. The effect of these new compounds on conductivity of lithium salts in non-aqueous solution was studied. The molecular weights of these new boronate compounds are lower than our previously reported boron compounds. Therefore, their effects on conductivity enhancement are superior. They also display high electrochemical stability up to 5 V.

  4. Acidity enhancement of unsaturated bases of group 15 by association with borane and beryllium dihydride. Unexpected boron and beryllium Brønsted acids.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sómer, Ana; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-21

    The intrinsic acidity of CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]CHXH2, HC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CXH2 (X = N, P, As, Sb) derivatives and of their complexes with BeH2 and BH3 has been investigated by means of high-level density functional theory and molecular orbital ab initio calculations, using as a reference the ethyl saturated analogues. The acidity of the free systems steadily increases down the group for the three series of derivatives, ethyl, vinyl and ethynyl. The association with both beryllium dihydride and borane leads to a very significant acidity enhancement, being larger for BeH2 than for BH3 complexes. This acidity enhancement, for the unsaturated compounds, is accompanied by a change in the acidity trends down the group, which do not steadily decrease but present a minimum value for both the vinyl- and the ethynyl-phosphine. When the molecule acting as the Lewis acid is beryllium dihydride, the ?-type complexes in which the BeH2 molecules interact with the double or triple bond are found, in some cases, to be more stable, in terms of free energies, than the conventional complexes in which the attachment takes place at the heteroatom, X. The most important finding, however, is that P, As, and Sb ethynyl complexes with BeH2 do not behave as P, As, or Sb Brønsted acids, but unexpectedly as Be acids. PMID:25415658

  5. Boron

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and muscle coordination. Women sometimes use capsules containing boric acid, the most common form of boron, inside the vagina to treat yeast infections. People also apply boric acid to the skin as an astringent or to ...

  6. Boron

    MedlinePLUS

    ... form of boron, inside the vagina to treat yeast infections. People also apply boric acid to the ... acid, used inside the vagina, can successfully treat yeast infections (candidiasis), including infections that do not seem ...

  7. Method for hot pressing beryllium oxide articles

    DOEpatents

    Ballard, Ambrose H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Godfrey, Jr., Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Mowery, Erb H. (Clinton, TN)

    1988-01-01

    The hot pressing of beryllium oxide powder into high density compacts with little or no density gradients is achieved by employing a homogeneous blend of beryllium oxide powder with a lithium oxide sintering agent. The lithium oxide sintering agent is uniformly dispersed throughout the beryllium oxide powder by mixing lithium hydroxide in an aqueous solution with beryllium oxide powder. The lithium hydroxide is converted in situ to lithium carbonate by contacting or flooding the beryllium oxide-lithium hydroxide blend with a stream of carbon dioxide. The lithium carbonate is converted to lithium oxide while remaining fixed to the beryllium oxide particles during the hot pressing step to assure uniform density throughout the compact.

  8. Erosion and re-deposition of lithium and boron coatings under high-flux plasma bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, Tyler Wayne

    Lithium and boron coatings are applied to the walls of many tokamaks to enhance performance and protect the underlying substrates. Li and B-coated high-Z substrates are planned for use in NSTX-U and are a candidate plasma-facing component (PFC) for DEMO. However, previous measurements of Li evaporation and thermal sputtering on low-flux devices indicate that the Li temperature permitted on such devices may be unacceptably low. Thus it is crucial to characterize gross and net Li erosion rates under high-flux plasma bombardment. Additionally, no quantitative measurements have been performed of the erosion rate of a boron-coated PFC during plasma bombardment. A realistic model for the compositional evolution of a Li layer under D bombardment was developed that incorporates adsorption, implantation, and diffusion. A model was developed for temperature-dependent mixed-material Li-D erosion that includes evaporation, physical sputtering, chemical sputtering, preferential sputtering, and thermal sputtering. The re-deposition fraction of a Li coating intersecting a linear plasma column was predicted using atomic physics information and by solving the Li continuity equation. These models were tested in the Magnum-PSI linear plasma device at ion fluxes of 1023-1024 m-2 s-1 and Li surface temperatures less than 800 degrees C. Li erosion was measured during bombardment with a neon plasma that will not chemically react with Li and the results agreed well with the erosion model. Next the ratio of the total D fluence to the areal density of the Li coating was varied to quantify differences in Li erosion under D plasma bombardment as a function of the D concentration. The ratio of D/Li atoms was calculated using the results of MD simulations and good agreement is observed between measurements and the predictions of the mixed-material erosion model. Li coatings are observed to disappear from graphite much faster than from TZM Mo, indicating that fast Li diffusion into the bulk graphite substrate occurred, as predicted. Li re-deposition fractions very close to unity are observed in Magnum-PSI, as predicted by modeling. Finally, predictions of Li coating lifetimes in the NSTX-U divertor are calculated. The gross erosion rate of boron coatings was also measured for the first time in a high-flux plasma device.

  9. Beryllium Enhancement as Evidence for Accretion in a Lithium-Rich F Dwarf

    E-print Network

    J. F. Ashwell; R. D. Jeffries; B. Smalley; C. P. Deliyannis; A. Steinhauer; J. R. King

    2005-08-04

    The early F dwarf star ``J37'' in the open cluster NGC6633 shows an unusual pattern of photospheric abundances, including an order of magnitude enhancement of lithium and iron-peak elements, but an under-abundance of carbon. As a consequence of its thin convection zone these anomalies have been attributed to either radiative diffusion or the accretion of hydrogen-depleted material. By comparing high resolution VLT/UVES spectra of J37 (and other F stars in NGC 6633) with syntheses of the Be ii doublet region at 3131 Ang, we establish that J37 also has a Be abundance (A(Be)=3.0+/-0.5) that is at least ten times the cosmic value. This contradicts radiative diffusion models that produce a Li over-abundance, as they also predict photospheric Be depletion. Instead, since Be is a highly refractory element, it supports the notion that J37 is the first clear example of a star that has accreted volatile-depleted material with a composition similar to chondritic meteorites, although some diffusion may be necessary to explain the low C and O abundances.

  10. Content of lithium, beryllium, boron, and titanium, and the isotopic composition of lithium, boron, and magnesium in Luna 16 regolith sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eugster, O.

    1974-01-01

    The abundance of the following elements in the L 16-19 No. 118 regolith sample, zone V was determined by isotopic dilution using a mass spectrometer equipped with a scattering ion source: Li -- 9.8, Be -- 1.2, Be -- 2.6, and Ti -- 1.92 percent. For comparison, these same elements were measured in samples of surface material returned by Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 14, and in the terrestrial reference standard diabase W-1. The content of Li, Be, and B in the Luna 16 sample is nearly the same as in the Apollo 11 surface material. The surface material returned by Apollo 12 and Apollo 14 contains two to four times more of these elements. However, the abundance ratios of Li, Be, and B are remarkably similar in the surface materials from the four different lunar regions. With respect to basaltic achondrites and especially with respect to chondrites, the lunar basalts are enriched in Li, Be, and B up to 100 times.

  11. Polymer composite electrolytes having core-shell silica fillers with anion-trapping boron moiety in the shell layer for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jimin; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kim, Hee Joong; Lee, Jin Hong; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2015-04-15

    Core-shell silica particles with ion-conducting poly(ethylene glycol) and anion-trapping boron moiety in the shell layer were prepared to be used as fillers for polymer composite electrolytes based on organic/inorganic hybrid branched copolymer as polymer matrix for all-solid-state lithium-ion battery applications. The core-shell silica particles were found to improve mechanical strength and thermal stability of the polymer matrix and poly(ethylene glycol) and boron moiety in the shell layer increase compatibility between filler and polymer matrix. Furthermore, boron moiety in the shell layer increases both ionic conductivity and lithium transference number of the polymer matrix because lithium salt can be more easily dissociated by the anion-trapping boron. Interfacial compatibility with lithium metal anode is also improved because well-dispersed silica particles serve as protective layer against interfacial side reactions. As a result, all-solid-state battery performance was found to be enhanced when the copolymer having core-shell silica particles with the boron moiety was used as solid polymer electrolyte. PMID:25805120

  12. The boron-to-beryllium ratio in halo stars - A signature of cosmic-ray nucleosynthesis in the early Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Schramm, D. N.; Olive, K. A.; Fields, B.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) spallation production of Li, Be, and B in the early Galaxy with particular attention to the uncertainties in the predictions of this model. The observed correlation between the Be abundance and the metallicity in metal-poor Population II stars requires that Be was synthesized in the early Galaxy. We show that the observations and such Population II GCR synthesis of Be are quantitatively consistent with the big bang nucleosynthesis production of Li-7. We find that there is a nearly model independent lower bound to B/Be of about 7 for GCR synthesis. Recent measurements of B/Be about 10 in HD 140283 are in excellent agreement with the predictions of Population II GCR nucleosynthesis. Measurements of the boron abundance in additional metal-poor halo stars is a key diagnostic of the GCR spallation mechanism. We also show that Population II GCR synthesis can produce amounts of Li-6 which may be observed in the hottest halo stars.

  13. Beryllium Toxicity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Beryllium Toxicity Patient Education Care Instruction Sheet Course : WB ... Patient Education Sheet [PDF - 48 KB] What Is Beryllium? Beryllium is a mineral found in nature. It ...

  14. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1 kt (1,100 st) of contained lithium, a 23-percent decrease from 2009. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium. It remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2010, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 21 kt (22,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 12-percent increase from 2009.

  15. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, estimated world lithium consumption was about 28 kt (31,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, an 8 percent increase from that of 2011. Estimated U.S. consumption was about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, the same as that of 2011. The United States was thought to rank fourth in consumption of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Rockwood Lithium Inc., produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  16. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1.2 kt (1,300 st) of contained lithium, a 40-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium, and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2009, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 18.7 kt (20,600 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds.

  17. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  18. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

  19. High power accelerator-based boron neutron capture with a liquid lithium target and new applications to treatment of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Steinberg, D; Nagler, A; Arenshtam, A; Kijel, D; Polacheck, I; Srebnik, M

    2009-07-01

    A new conceptual design for an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (ABNCT) facility based on the high-current low-energy proton beam driven by the linear accelerator at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) incident on a windowless forced-flow liquid-lithium target, is described. The liquid-lithium target, currently in construction at Soreq NRC, will produce a neutron field suitable for the BNCT treatment of deep-seated tumor tissues, through the reaction (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be. The liquid-lithium target is designed to overcome the major problem of solid lithium targets, namely to sustain and dissipate the power deposited by the high-intensity proton beam. Together with diseases conventionally targeted by BNCT, we propose to study the application of our setup to a novel approach in treatment of diseases associated with bacterial infections and biofilms, e.g. inflammations on implants and prosthetic devices, cystic fibrosis, infectious kidney stones. Feasibility experiments evaluating the boron neutron capture effectiveness on bacteria annihilation are taking place at the Soreq nuclear reactor. PMID:19406650

  20. Beryllium disease.

    PubMed Central

    Jones Williams, W.

    1988-01-01

    The increasing use of beryllium in a variety of industries continues to be a hazard. New cases are still being reported to the UK Beryllium Case Registry, now numbering 60 in the period 1945-1988. The majority of cases follow inhalation which results in acute beryllium disease (chemical pneumonitis) or more commonly chronic beryllium disease--a granulomatous pneumonitis. Granulomatous skin nodules also occur following local implantation. The clinical and radiological features are briefly described with the emphasis on pathology and immunology. Laser microprobe mass spectrometry analysis of tissue sections is a major advance in diagnosis. Detection of beryllium distinguishes the granulomas of chronic beryllium disease from other diseases, in particular sarcoidosis. The role of beryllium lymphocyte transformation tests is discussed. Chronic beryllium disease is steroid dependent and local excision of skin lesions appears to be curative. There is no evidence that beryllium is carcinogenic. Images Figure 1 PMID:3074283

  1. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.

    1998-01-01

    The lithium industry can be divided into two sectors: ore concentrate producers and chemical producers. Ore concentrate producers mine lithium minerals. They beneficiate the ores to produce material for use in ceramics and glass manufacturing.

  2. From Wade-Mingos to Zintl-Klemm at 100 GPa: binary compounds of boron and lithium.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Andreas; McSorley, Alexandra; Ashcroft, N W; Hoffmann, Roald

    2012-11-14

    Structural diversity and a variety of bonding schemes emerge as characteristics of the Li-B phase diagram in this ground-state theoretical investigation. We studied stoichiometries ranging from LiB(15) to Li(5)B, over a pressure range from 1 atm to 300 GPa. At P = 1 atm, stability is found for the experimentally known LiB(0.8-1.0), LiB(3), and Li(3)B(14) phases. As the pressure rises, the latter two structures are no longer even metastable, while the LiB(0.8-1.0) structures change in geometry and narrow their range of off-stoichiometry, eventually coming at high pressure to a diamondoid NaTl-type LiB. This phase then dominates the convex hull of stability. Other phases emerge as stable points at some pressure: LiB(4), Li(3)B(2), Li(2)B, and Li(5)B. At the boron-rich end, one obtains structures expectedly containing polyhedral motifs, and geometries are governed by Wade-Mingos electron counts; LiB(4) has a BaAl(4) structure. In the center and on the lithium-rich side of the phase diagram, Zintl-phase considerations, i.e., bonding between B(n-) entities, give us insight into the structures-tetrahedral B(-) networks in LiB; B pairs to isolated bonds in Li(5)B. PMID:23066852

  3. A comparison of 75 MeV boron and 50 MeV lithium ion irradiation effects on 200 GHz SiGe HBTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, K. C.; Pushpa, N.; Shiva, H. B.; Cressler, J. D.; Tripathi, Ambuj; Gnana Prakash, A. P.

    2013-02-01

    The third generation Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (200 GHz SiGe HBTs) were irradiated with 50 MeV Lithium and 75 MeV Boron ions in the dose ranging from 1 Mrad to 100 Mrad. The different electrical characteristics like forward-mode Gummel characteristics, inverse-mode Gummel characteristics, excess base current and current gain were studied before and after ion irradiation. The damage constants for 50 MeV Li3+ and 100 MeV B5+ ion irradiated SiGe HBTs were calculated using Messenger-Spratt equation.

  4. Target Studies for the Production of Lithium8 for Neutrino Physics Using a Low Energy Cyclotron

    E-print Network

    Adriana Bungau; Roger Barlow; Michael Shaevitz; Janet Conrad; Joshua Spitz

    2012-05-25

    Lithium 8 is a short lived beta emitter producing a high energy anti-neutrino, which is very suitable for making several measurements of fundamental quantities. It is proposed to produce Lithium 8 with a commercially available 60 MeV cyclotron using protons or alpha particles on a Beryllium 9 target. We have used the GEANT4 program to model these processes, and calculate the anti-neutrino fluxes that could be obtained in a practical system. We also calculate the production of undesirable contaminants such as Boron 8, and show that these can be reduced to a very low level.

  5. Development of beryllium-based neutron target system with three-layer structure for accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Kurihara, Toshikazu; Yoshioka, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Sugano, Tomei; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Takeji; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-12-01

    The iBNCT project team with University of Tsukuba is developing an accelerator-based neutron source. Regarding neutron target material, our project has applied beryllium. To deal with large heat load and blistering of the target system, we developed a three-layer structure for the target system that includes a blistering mitigation material between the beryllium used as the neutron generator and the copper heat sink. The three materials were bonded through diffusion bonding using a hot isostatic pressing method. Based on several verifications, our project chose palladium as the intermediate layer. A prototype of the neutron target system was produced. We will verify that sufficient neutrons for BNCT treatment are generated by the device in the near future. PMID:26260448

  6. Boron and Lithium Isotope Determinations in Minerals from Subduction-Related Rocks by LA-MC-ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, C.; Harlow, G. E.; Ponzevera, E.; Marschall, H.

    2014-12-01

    Lithium (Li) and boron (B) are incompatible light elements that preferentially partition into the fluid phase, whether melt or aqueous liquid, and thus are useful for tracking fluid-related processes in rocks. Currently, most of the Li isotopic data available on subduction-related rocks are whole-rock analysis; and the few B isotopic analyses on subduction material have been carried out on whole-rock or in-situ in accessory phase (tourmaline). The new method presented here couples an ESI New Wave UP-193-FX ArF* (193 nm) excimer laser ablation microscope with a Neptune Plus (Thermo Scientific) MC-ICP-MS. In situ B and Li isotopic analyses were carried out on mica and pyroxenes from jadeitites and albite mica-rocks from a subduction-related mélange. These results have been compared with SIMS analyses for B on the same mineral samples and with MC-ICP-MS analyses for Li on whole-rock or a mineral separate from the same sample. The results show that for B concentrations above 15 ?g/g, the data obtained by LA-MC-ICPMS and by SIMS are similar within error, for both mica and pyroxene. The significant improvement of LA-MC-ICPMS compared to SIMS is the duration of measurements: one analysis takes 3 minutes by LA-MC-ICPMS, and 32 minutes by SIMS. Such a method therefore permits multiplying the number of isotopic analyses, providing a better interpretation of the studied samples, with a lateral resolution and an error on each measurement similar to those obtained with SIMS. The results show that for Li concentrations above 10?g/g, the data obtained by LA-MC-ICPMS and by MC-ICP-MS are also similar within error, for both mica and pyroxene. The significant improvement of LA-MC-ICPMS compared to MC-ICP-MS is better spatial resolution. Indeed, many of the mineral phases encountered in subduction-related rocks display a strong chemical zoning, and the analyses carried out by wet chemistry and MC-ICP-MS average the isotopic values of the different zones. This newly developed method permits in-situ analysis of B and Li isotopes in a short time in subduction rock-forming minerals, with an error equal or lower than methods used previously.

  7. Demonstration of a high-intensity neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target for Accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    PubMed

    Halfon, S; Arenshtam, A; Kijel, D; Paul, M; Weissman, L; Berkovits, D; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Kreisel, A; Mardor, I; Shimel, G; Shor, A; Silverman, I; Tessler, M

    2015-12-01

    A free surface liquid-lithium jet target is operating routinely at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), bombarded with a ~1.91MeV, ~1.2mA continuous-wave narrow proton beam. The experiments demonstrate the liquid lithium target (LiLiT) capability to constitute an intense source of epithermal neutrons, for Accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The target dissipates extremely high ion beam power densities (>3kW/cm(2), >0.5MW/cm(3)) for long periods of time, while maintaining stable conditions and localized residual activity. LiLiT generates ~3×10(10)n/s, which is more than one order of magnitude larger than conventional (7)Li(p,n)-based near threshold neutron sources. A shield and moderator assembly for BNCT, with LiLiT irradiated with protons at 1.91MeV, was designed based on Monte Carlo (MCNP) simulations of BNCT-doses produced in a phantom. According to these simulations it was found that a ~15mA near threshold proton current will apply the therapeutic doses in ~1h treatment duration. According to our present results, such high current beams can be dissipated in a liquid-lithium target, hence the target design is readily applicable for accelerator-based BNCT. PMID:26300076

  8. Lithium in sediments and brines--how, why and where to search

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vine, James D.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of using lithium in batteries to power electric vehicles and as fuel for thermonuclear power has focused attention on the limited resources of lithium other than in pegmatite minerals. The Clayton Valley, Nev., subsurface lithium brine has been the major source of lithium carbonate since about 1967, but the life of this brine field is probably limited to several more decades at the present rate of production. Lithium is so highly soluble during weathering and in sedimentary environments that no lithium-rich sedimentary minerals other than clays have been identified to date. The known deposits of lithium, such as the clay mineral hectorite and the lithium-rich brines, occur in closed desert basins of the Southwest in association with nonmarine evaporites. However, the ultimate source for the lithium in these deposits may be from hydrothermal solutions. The search for previously unreported deposits of nonpegmatitic lithium should consider its probable association, not only with nonmarine evaporite minerals, but also with recent volcanic and tectonic activity, as well as with deposits of boron, beryllium, fluorine, manganese, and possibly phosphate.

  9. Beryllium disease

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-20

    After two workers at the nuclear weapons plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee were diagnosed earlier this year with chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a rare and sometimes fatal scarring of the lungs, the Department of Energy ordered up a 4-year probe. Now, part of that probe has begun - tests conducted by the Oak Ridge Associated Universities' Center for Epidemiological Research measuring beryllium sensitivity in 3,000 people who've been exposed to the metal's dust since Manhattan Project managers opened the Y-12 plant at Oak Ridge in 1943. Currently, 119 Y-12 employees process beryllium, which has a number of industrial uses, including rocket heat shields and nuclear weapon and electrical components. The disease often takes 20 to 25 years to develop, and the stricken employees haven't worked with beryllium for years. There is no cure for CBD, estimated to strike 2% of people exposed to the metal. Anti-inflammatory steroids alleviate such symptoms as a dry cough, weight loss, and fatigue. Like other lung-fibrosis diseases that are linked to lung cancer, some people suspect CBD might cause some lung cancer. While difficult to diagnose, about 900 cases of CBD have been reported since a Beryllium Case Registry was established in 1952. The Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that about 10,000 DOE employees and 800,000 people in private industry have worked with beryllium.

  10. Beryllium Technology Research in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst; Robert A. Anderl; M. Kay Adleer-Flitton; Gretchen E. Matthern; Troy J. Tranter; Kendall J. Hollis

    2005-02-01

    While most active research involving beryllium in the United States remains tied strongly to biological effects, there are several areas of technology development in the last two years that should be mentioned. (1) Beryllium disposed of in soil vaults at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) has been encapsulated in-situ by high-temperature and pressure injection of a proprietary wax based material to inhibit corrosion. (2) A research program to develop a process for removing heavy metals and cobalt from irradiated beryllium using solvent extraction techniques has been initiated to remove components that prevent the beryllium from being disposed of as ordinary radioactive waste. (3) The JUPITER-II program at the INL Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has addressed the REDOX reaction of beryllium in molten Flibe (a mixture of LiF and BeF2) to control tritium, particularly in the form of HF, bred in the Flibe by reactions involving both beryllium and lithium. (4) Work has been performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to produce beryllium high heat flux components by plasma spray deposition on macro-roughened substrates. Finally, (5) corrosion studies on buried beryllium samples at the RWMC have shown that the physical form of some of the corroded beryllium is very filamentary and asbestos-like. This form of beryllium may exacerbate the contraction of chronic beryllium disease.

  11. Application of RIMS to the Study of Beryllium ChronologyApplication of RIMS to the Study of Beryllium Chronology in Early Solar System Condensatesin Early Solar System Condensates

    E-print Network

    Application of RIMS to the Study of Beryllium ChronologyApplication of RIMS to the Study of Beryllium Chronology in Early Solar System Condensatesin Early Solar System Condensates K. B. Knight1, Beryllium and Boron in the Early Solar System Many unanswered questions remain concerning the timing

  12. Method for welding beryllium

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, Raymond D. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, Frank M. (Espanola, NM); O'Leary, Richard F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon.

  13. The role of aqueous fluids in the slab-to-mantle transfer of boron, beryllium, and lithium during subduction: Experiments and models

    SciTech Connect

    Brenan, J.M.; Ryerson, F.J.; Shaw, H.F.

    1998-10-01

    The low atomic mass elements B, Be, and Li are viewed as sensitive tracers of the involvement of subducted materials in the genesis of island arc magmas. In order to better assess the role of dense aqueous fluids in the slab-to-mantle transfer of these elements during subduction, measurements have been made of partition coefficients for B, Be, and Li between aqueous fluid and minerals likely to be present in the basaltic portion of the downgoing slab, namely clinopyroxene and garnet. Experiments at 900 C and 2.0 GPa reveal that the average clinopyroxene-fluid partition coefficient for Be ({approximately}2) exceeds that for either Li ({approximately}0.2) or B ({approximately}0.02) and values are 100{times} (B,Li) to 1,000{times} (Be) larger than partition coefficients for garnet. Clinopyroxene-fluid partition coefficients were found to vary with the alumina content of run-product clinopyroxenes, but this variation is interpreted to reflect the specific exchange reaction that governs the incorporation of these elements into the pyroxene structure, and not mineral-fluid disequilibrium. Calculations indicate that by the time the slab reaches a depth of 200 km, B/Be and B/Nb in the dehydration residue has been reduced to {approximately}5--12% of initial values. Thus, the preferential loss of B during dehydration is viewed as a viable mechanism to prevent the excess B acquired during near-surface alteration of oceanic crust from being cycled into the mantle, thereby maintaining the distinction in B/Be and B/Nb for mantle and crustal reservoirs.

  14. Improved electrochemical performance of boron-doped SiO negative electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Jihoon; Baek, Seong-Ho; Park, Jung-Soo; Jeong, Young-Min; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a one-step process that consists of thermal disproportionation and impurity doping to enhance the reversible capacity and electrical conductivity of silicon monoxide (SiO)-based negative electrode materials in Li-ion batteries. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results reveal that thermally treated SiO at 900 °C (H-SiO) consists of uniformly dispersed nano-crystalline Si (nc-Si) in an amorphous silicon oxide (SiOx) matrix. Compared to that of prinstine SiO, the electrochemical performance of H-SiO shows improved specific capacity, due mainly to the increased reversible capacity by nc-Si and to the reduced volume expansion by thermally disproportionated SiOx matrix. Further electrochemical improvements can be obtained by boron-doping on SiO (HB-SiO) using solution dopant during thermal disproportionation. HB-SiO electrode without carbon coating exhibits significantly enhanced specific capacity superior to that of undoped H-SiO electrode, having 947 mAh g-1 at 0.5C rate and excellent capacity retention of 93.3% over 100 cycles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement reveals that the internal resistance of the HB-SiO electrode is significantly reduced by boron doping.

  15. Piezoresistance and hole transport in beryllium-doped silicon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlejohn, M. A.; Robertson, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    The resistivity and piezoresistance of p-type silicon doped with beryllium have been studied as a function of temperature, crystal orientation, and beryllium doping concentration. It is shown that the temperature coefficient of resistance can be varied and reduced to zero near room temperature by varying the beryllium doping level. Similarly, the magnitude of the piezoresistance gauge factor for beryllium-doped silicon is slightly larger than for silicon doped with a shallow acceptor impurity such as boron, while the temperature coefficient of piezoresistance is about the same for material containing these two dopants. These results are discussed in terms of a model for the piezoresistance of compensated p-type silicon.

  16. Method for welding beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1995-12-31

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. Beryllium parts made using this method can be used as structural components in aircraft, satellites and space applications.

  17. Method for welding beryllium

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1997-04-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

  18. Lithium Irradiation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Leveling, A.F.

    2000-08-22

    The subject of tritium production in the Antiproton Source Collection lens was raised in the mid-1980s during the design phase of the pbar source. Interest in it has recurred during development of the proton lens and in recent investigations to determine the feasibility of liquid lithium collection lenses for the pbar source and a muon collider project. Calculations for tritium and beryllium 7 production on lithium suffer from a lack of information on medium and high energy cross section data. In addition, knowledge of the energy spectrum within the target vault is based upon calculations. Knowledge of the low energy spectrum, important for tritium production on lithium, is limited, if not non-existent. For Collider Run II, effort is to be applied to improve the performance of the solid lithium lens. Historically, examination of failed lithium lenses has not been pursued because they have been fairly radioactive and because they are thought to contain significant quantities of the radionuclides tritium and beryllium 7. The development of methods to examine failed lithium lenses may be desirable so that the specific causes of failure can be discovered. From such studies, design improvements can be incorporated with the goal of achieving lens performances goals related to Collider Run II. The purpose of the lithium irradiation experiment is to determine the production rates of radioisotopes tritium and beryllium 7 within the lithium lens in its operating in its operating environment.

  19. Boron and beryllium in Gamma Geminorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesgaard, A. M.; Praderie, F.

    1981-01-01

    Observations have been made of the B II resonance line at 1362 A in the A0 IV star Gamma Gem with the Princeton spectrometer on the Copernicus satellite at a spectral resolution of 0.05 A. Complementary ground-based observations of the Be II resonance lines at 3130 and 3131 A have been made at Mauna Kea Observatory with a comparable resolution. A model-atmosphere abundance analysis has been done which includes the effects of the lines that blend with the B II and Be II lines. Previous data on Alpha Lyr and Alpha CMa for B II (which blends with a V III feature) have been reanalyzed with the help of new photographic and Reticon data from Mauna Kea which enable the determination of the V abundance. The results show that Gamma Gem is depleted in B by a factor of 5-10 relative to Alpha Lyr and other normal B stars and depleted in Be by at least a factor of four. By comparison, the hot Am star Alpha CMa is B-deficient by about three orders of magnitude and Be-deficient by at least fifteen times. It is suggested that the abundance deficiencies are due to diffusion, and that Alpha CMa is intrinsically a slow rotator, and Gamma Gem is a slightly evolved slow rotator where some, but not all, of the B and Be has resurfaced.

  20. Boron and beryllium in gamma Geminorum

    SciTech Connect

    Boesgaard, A.M.; Praderie, F.

    1981-04-01

    Observations have been made of the B II resonance line at 1362 A inthe A0 IV star ..gamma.. Gem with the Princeton spectrometer on the Copernicus satellite at a spectral resolution of 0.05 A. Complementary ground-based observations of the Be II resonance lines at 3130 and 3131 A have been made at Mauna Kea Observatory with a comparable resolution. A model-atmosphere abundance analysis has been done which includes the effects of the lines that blend with the B II and Be II lines. Previous data on ..cap alpha.. Lyr and ..cap alpha.. CMa for B II (which blends with a V III feature) have been reanalyzed with the help of new photographic and Reticon data from Mauna Kea which enable us to determine the V abundance. The results show that ..gamma.. Gem is depleted in B by a factor of 5--10 relative to ..cap alpha.. Lyr and other normal B stars and depleted in Be by at least a factor of 4. By comparison, the hot Am star ..cap alpha.. CMa is B-deficient by about 3 orders of magnitude and Be-deficient by at least 15 times. It is suggested that the abundance deficiencies are due to diffusion, and that ..cap alpha.. CMa is intrinsically a slow rotator, and ..gamma.. Gem is a slightly evolved slow rotator where some, but not all, of the B and Be has resurfaced.

  1. High-power electron beam tests of a liquid-lithium target and characterization study of (7)Li(p,n) near-threshold neutrons for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Cohen, D; Eliyahu, I; Kijel, D; Mardor, I; Silverman, I

    2014-06-01

    A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The target is intended to demonstrate liquid-lithium target capabilities to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals. The lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power >5kW generated by high-intensity proton beams, necessary for sufficient therapeutic neutron flux. In preliminary experiments liquid lithium was flown through the target loop and generated a stable jet on the concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power densities of more than 4kW/cm(2) and volumetric power density around 2MW/cm(3) at a lithium flow of ~4m/s, while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. These power densities correspond to a narrow (?=~2mm) 1.91MeV, 3mA proton beam. A high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5MeV, 2mA) is being commissioned at the SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator. In order to determine the conditions of LiLiT proton irradiation for BNCT and to tailor the neutron energy spectrum, a characterization of near threshold (~1.91MeV) (7)Li(p,n) neutrons is in progress based on Monte-Carlo (MCNP and Geant4) simulation and on low-intensity experiments with solid LiF targets. In-phantom dosimetry measurements are performed using special designed dosimeters based on CR-39 track detectors. PMID:24387907

  2. Boron-lithium relationships in rhyolites and associated thermal waters of young silicic calderas, with comments on incompatible element behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, D.M. ); Sturchio, N.C. )

    1992-10-01

    This study had three goals: (1) to study B distribution in a rhyolitic volcanic sequence already extensively investigated for other elements; (2) to interpret the joint behavior of B and Li during the interaction of such rocks with subsurface waters; and (3) to assess the manner in which water affects the behavior of incompatible elements such as B and Gd. New B, Gd, and Sm analyses have been made on a suite of Yellowstone rhyolites, including fresh and partially devitrified glassy obsidian from surface exposures of several flows, a drill-core of increasing degrees of alteration in the Biscuit Basin Flow, and two drill-cores from other flows. Within the Biscuit Basin Flow, the Sm and Gd concentrations remain rather constant and behave conservatively, independent of alteration. Boron decreases from about 10 to 3 ppm with progressive alteration, and Li increases from about 40 ppm by a factor of 2-3 in the most altered rocks. Obsidians from the Valles and Long Valley calderas show greater Li loss during alteration. All the rhyolitic rocks lose B during aqueous alteration; the waters acquire both B and Li, but proportionately much more B. Natural waters of all kinds, including those from the three calderas, show six orders of magnitude range in aqueous B and Li, with a high degree of linear correlation and an average ratio B/Li essentially constant at 4.0. The linearity mainly expresses processes of dilution and concentration: reactions specific to B or Li engender waters with deviating B/Li.

  3. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... processes at a metal, alloy and oxide production plant. Occup Environ Med 1997; 54:605-612. Mroz ... for chronic beryllium disease in a beryllium machining plant. J Occup Environ Med 2001; 43:231-237. ...

  4. Highly enhanced low temperature discharge capacity of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 with lithium boron oxide glass modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, ShuangYuan; Wang, Lei; Bian, Liang; Xu, JinBao; Ren, Wei; Hu, PengFei; Chang, AiMin

    2015-03-01

    Although lithium ion battery is known to be an excellent renewable energy provider in electronic markets further application of it has been limited by its notoriously poor performance at low temperature, especially below -20 °C. In this paper, the electrochemical performance of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode materials coated by lithium boron oxide (LBO) glass was investigated at a temperature range from 20 to -40 °C. The results show that the LBO coating not only helps to improve the discharge capacity of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 at room temperature but also increase the discharge capacity retention of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from 22.5% to 57.8% at -40 °C. Electrochemical impedance spectra results reveal that the LBO coating plays an important role in reducing the charge-transfer resistance on the electrolyte-electrode interfaces and improving lithium ion diffusion coefficients. The mechanism associated with the change of the structure and electrical properties are discussed in detail.

  5. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Domestic production and consumption of beryllium ore decreased in 1988, but beryllium alloys garnered new applications in automotive electronics and increased their usage in computer systems. Following the significant increase in exports of beryllium in 1987, exports in 1988 returned to normal levels. Beryl ore imports declined significantly and reflected a decrease in apparent consumption. Contents include: Domestic data coverage; legislation and government programs; domestic production; consumption and uses; prices and specifications; foreign trade; world capacity; world review; and technology.

  6. Low temperature coefficient of resistance and high gage factor in beryllium-doped silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, J. B.; Littlejohn, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The gage factor and resistivity of p-type silicon doped with beryllium was studied as a function of temperature, crystal orientation, and beryllium doping concentration. It was shown that the temperature coefficient of resistance can be varied and reduced to zero near room temperature by varying the beryllium doping level. Similarly, the magnitude of the piezoresistance gage factor for beryllium-doped silicon is slightly larger than for silicon doped with a shallow acceptor impurity such as boron, whereas the temperature coefficient of piezoresistance is about the same for material containing these two dopants. These results are discussed in terms of a model for the piezoresistance of compensated p-type silicon.

  7. MATERIALS ENGINEERING KEYWORDS: beryllium, stainless

    E-print Network

    Abdou, Mohamed

    MATERIALS ENGINEERING KEYWORDS: beryllium, stainless steel, heat conductance EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF THE INTERFACE HEAT CONDUCTANCE BETWEEN NONCONFORMING BERYLLIUM AND TYPE 316 STAINLESS STEEL In fusion blanket designs that employ beryllium as a neutron multiplier, the interface conductance h plays

  8. Beryllium Manufacturing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, A

    2006-06-30

    This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61 cm high), may be cut or machined into parts or be thermomechanically processed to develop the desired microstructure, properties, and shapes. Vacuum hot-isostatic pressing and cold-isostatic pressing (CIP) followed by sintering and possibly by a final HIP'ing (CIP/Sinter/HIP) are important in their use for the production of near net-shaped parts. For the same starting powder, a HIP'ed product will have less anisotropy than that obtained for a VHP'ed product. A schematic presentation illustrating the difference between VHP'ing and HIP'ing is shown in Figure I-1. The types of powders and the various beryllium grades produced from the consolidated powders and their ambient-temperature mechanical properties were presented in the consolidation report referred to above. Elevated-temperature properties and the effect of processing variables on mechanical properties are described in the mechanical properties report. Beryllium can also be deposited as coatings as well as freestanding forms. The microstructure, properties, and various methods used that are related to the deposition of beryllium are discussed in the report on beryllium coatings.

  9. Beryllium copper alloy (2%) causes chronic beryllium disease.

    PubMed

    Balkissoon, R C; Newman, L S

    1999-04-01

    We describe two newly confirmed cases of chronic beryllium disease who presented to our clinic from a facility that only used 2% beryllium copper alloy. These cases illustrate that the 2% beryllium copper alloy continues to cause chronic beryllium disease and that appropriate preventive measures must be taken to control exposures and educate industries and their workers about the hazards of beryllium alloys. PMID:10224597

  10. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health ® at 1.800.222.5864. References Mroz MM, Balkissoon R, Newman LS. Beryllium. In: Bringham E, ... Med 1999; 41: 304-308. Kreiss K, Mroz MM, Ahen B, Martyny JW, Newman LS. Epidemiology of ...

  11. Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Parsonage, Tom; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fabrications of large Beryllium optical components are fundamentally limited by available facility capabilities. To overcome this limitation, NASA funded Brush Wellman Corp to study a Be joining process. Four 76 mm diameters samples and a 0.5 mm diameter Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (JBMD) were fabricated. This presentation will review the fabrication of these samples and summarize the results of their cryogenic testing at MSFCs XRCF.

  12. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of dissolved arsenic, boron, lithium, selenium, strontium, thallium, and vanadium using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garbarino, John R.

    1999-01-01

    The inductively coupled plasma?mass spectrometric (ICP?MS) methods have been expanded to include the determination of dissolved arsenic, boron, lithium, selenium, strontium, thallium, and vanadium in filtered, acidified natural water. Method detection limits for these elements are now 10 to 200 times lower than by former U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) methods, thus providing lower variability at ambient concentrations. The bias and variability of the method was determined by using results from spike recoveries, standard reference materials, and validation samples. Spike recoveries at 5 to 10 times the method detection limit and 75 micrograms per liter in reagent-water, surface-water, and groundwater matrices averaged 93 percent for seven replicates, although selected elemental recoveries in a ground-water matrix with an extremely high iron sulfate concentration were negatively biased by 30 percent. Results for standard reference materials were within 1 standard deviation of the most probable value. Statistical analysis of the results from about 60 filtered, acidified natural-water samples indicated that there was no significant difference between ICP?MS and former USGS official methods of analysis.

  13. Containerless processing of beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wouch, G.; Keith, G. H.; Frost, R. T.; Pinto, N. P.

    1977-01-01

    Melting and solidification of a beryllium alloy containing 1.5% BeO by weight in the weightless environment of space has produced cast beryllium with a relatively uniform dispersion of BeO throughout. Examination of the cast material shows that it is coarse grained, although the BeO is not heavily agglomerated in the flight specimen. Ground based comparison experiments show extreme agglomeration and segregation of BeO, resulting in large zones which are practically free of the oxide. Several postulated hypotheses for the failure to grain refine the beryllium are formulated. These are: (1) spherodization of the BeO particles during specimen preparation and during the molten phase of the experiment; (2) loss of nucleation potency through aging in the molten phase; and (3) inability of BeO to act as a grain refiner for beryllium. Further investigation with non spherodized particles and shorter dwell times molten may delineate which of these hypotheses are valid. The results of this flight experiment indicate that the weightless environment of space is an important asset in conducting research to find grain refiners for beryllium and other metals for which cast dispersions of grain refining agents cannot be prepared terrestrially due to gravitationally driven settling and agglomeration.

  14. Electroextraction of boron from boron carbide scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashish; Anthonysamy, S.; Ghosh, C.; Ravindran, T.R.; Divakar, R.; Mohandas, E.

    2013-10-15

    Studies were carried out to extract elemental boron from boron carbide scrap. The physicochemical nature of boron obtained through this process was examined by characterizing its chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size. The microstructural characteristics of the extracted boron powder were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopic examination of boron powder was also carried out to determine its crystalline form. Oxygen and carbon were found to be the major impurities in boron. Boron powder of purity ? 92 wt. % could be produced by the electroextraction process developed in this study. Optimized method could be used for the recovery of enriched boron ({sup 10}B > 20 at. %) from boron carbide scrap generated during the production of boron carbide. - Highlights: • Recovery of {sup 10}B from nuclear grade boron carbide scrap • Development of process flow sheet • Physicochemical characterization of electroextracted boron • Microscopic examination of electroextracted boron.

  15. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, H.E.

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 10{sup 7} neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF{sub 3} composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  16. Beryllium and compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Beryllium and compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 41 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  17. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF BERYLLIUM, BERYLLIUM CHLORIDE, BERYLLIUM FLUORIDE, AND BERYLLIUM NITRATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beryllium is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B2 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). vidence on potential arcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient," and the evidence from human studies is "Inadequa...

  18. Designer ligands for beryllium: Stability and detection of beryllium?

    SciTech Connect

    Keizer, T. S.; Scott, B. L.; Sauer, N. N.; McCleskey, T. M.

    2004-01-01

    With the incorporation of beryllium into mainstream consumer products, there is a concern with the environmental and health implications of wide spread beryllium use. With little experimental research undertaken to address the toxic nature of beryllium (the worst case leading to chronic beryllium disease), there is a need for a fundamental understanding of the way the metal interacts with the environment and it's interaction within the human body. In addition, a better insight into beryllium interactions can lead to improvements in detection methods, which are vital with respect to preventing exposure and for the rapid clean up of beryllium in the environment. The MHC-class II receptor has been identified as the receptor that binds Be in the body. The proposed key binding sites in the antigen consist of two sections of the sequence, and each section contains three carboxylates in a row. Therefore, efforts in characterization of compounds with multiple carboxylates and hydroxides species are pursued.

  19. Characterization of Shocked Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Cady, Carl M; Adams, Chris D; Hull, Lawrence M; Gray III, George T; Prime, Michael B; Addessio, Francis L; Wynn, Thomas A; Brown, Eric N

    2012-08-24

    Beryllium metal has many excellent structural properties in addition to its unique radiation characteristics, including: high elastic modulus, low Poisson's ratio, low density, and high melting point. However, it suffers from several major mechanical drawbacks: 1) high anisotropy - due to its hexagonal lattice structure and its susceptibility to crystallographic texturing; 2) susceptibility to impurity-induced fracture - due to grain boundary segregation; and 3) low intrinsic ductility at ambient temperatures thereby limiting fabricability. While large ductility results from deformation under the conditions of compression, the material can exhibit a brittle behavior under tension. Furthermore, there is a brittle to ductile transition at approximately 200 C under tensile conditions. While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. The beryllium used in this study was Grade S200-F (Brush Wellman, Inc., Elmore, OH) material. The work focused on high strain rate deformation and examine the validity of constitutive models in deformation rate regimes, including shock, the experiments were modeled using a Lagrangian hydrocode. Two constitutive strength (plasticity) models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) models, were calibrated using the same set of quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data taken at temperatures from 77K to 873K and strain rates from 0.001/sec to 4300/sec. In spite of being calibrated on the same data, the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured wave profiles. These high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Preliminary analysis of the results appears to indicate that, if fractured by the initial shock loading, the S200F Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading of the material. Additional 'arrested' drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

  20. Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/boron mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, J.R.; Manos, D.; Nartowitz, E.

    1994-12-13

    A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod. 2 figures.

  1. [Immunotoxicity of beryllium].

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, T; Sakaguchi, S; Kudo, Y

    1998-01-01

    The lymphocyte transformation test and the macrophage migration inhibition test are quantitative methods invaluable for examination of beryllium (hereafter referred to as Be) effects on cell-mediated immunity. We recognized that the Be sensitizing ability was related to active as well as passive cell-mediated immunity in mice subcutaneously injected with Be once a week over a 6-week period. Be also affects B cells, and it increases the amount of immunoglobulins in sera. In the study of immunological health surveys of Be workers in a copper-beryllium casting factory, the serum complement titer tended to be lower in Be workers than in the controls. In mice, injected with Be once a week over a 12-week period, serum complement titers decreased. Correlation coefficients of the experimental parameters showed a significant negative correlation between the complement titers and the prothrombin time or the coagulation time for factor VII, using mice injected with 5 micrograms of Be. It was suggested that increases in the complement titers after Be administration may be induced by temporarily-activated plasma serin protease, which is a component of blood coagulation factor VII. The delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and porphobilinogen deaminase activities were significantly elevated in the pregnant untreated group, compared with the nonpregnant mice (the control group). However, it was noted that these values in the pregnant mice injected with 50 micrograms of Be were almost the same as the values of the controls. It suggests that Be suppressed the expected pregnancy-induced increase in hematopoietic function. There are at least two risk factors induced in the effects of beryllium on organisms-exposure to the metal and inheritance of the genetic marker. It is necessary to reduce exposure, to give preventive education and to carry out periodic health examinations for the prevention of disease induced by Be. PMID:9528258

  2. Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Stange, A W; Furman, F J; Hilmas, D E

    1996-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP), initiated in June 1991, was designed to provide medical surveillance for current and former employees exposed to beryllium. The BHSP identifies individuals who have developed beryllium sensitivity using the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). A detailed medical evaluation to determine the prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is offered to individuals identified as beryllium sensitized or to those who have chest X-ray changes suggestive of CBD. The BHSP has identified 27 cases of CBD and another 74 cases of beryllium sensitization out of 4268 individuals tested. The distribution of BeLPT values for normal, sensitized, and CBD-identified individuals is described. Based on the information collected during the first 3 1/3 years of the BHSP, the BeLPT is the most effective means for the early identification of beryllium-sensitized individuals and to identify individuals who may have CBD. The need for BeLPT retesting is demonstrated through the identification of beryllium sensitization in individuals who previously tested normal. Posterior/anterior chest X-rays were not effective in the identification of CBD. PMID:8933045

  3. 5. VIEW OF BERYLLIUM PROCESSING AREA, ROLLING MILL. BERYLLIUM FORMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF BERYLLIUM PROCESSING AREA, ROLLING MILL. BERYLLIUM FORMING BEGAN IN SIDE A OF THE BUILDING IN 1962. (11/5/73) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. III 1 BORON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron chemistry, analysis, environmental exposure, metabolism, anthropomorphic sources, beneficial physiological effects, and toxicity are reviewed. Boron is widely distributed in nature and always occurs bound to oxygen. Boron biochemistry is essentially that of boric acid, which forms ester comple...

  5. Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.; Jacobson, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum 4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 {mu}m) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications.

  6. Machining of beryllium with the LLNL Precision Engineering Research Lathe

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.J.

    1985-04-01

    In August 1984, six flat samples of beryllium, which were prepared by Brush-Wellmen Corp. using various pressing and sintering processes, were machined at LLNL on the recently completed Precision Engineering Research Lathe (PERL). The purpose of this study, which was conducted in cooperation with the Hughes Aircraft Corporation and partially funded by that organization, was to determine the optical properties of machined beryllium surfaces when prepared under highly controlled conditions using high quality machine tools and CBN (cubic boron nitrite) cutting tools. This report will summarize the materials properties, the machining conditions used on the PERL and a comparison of the completed samples using optical measuring techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mirror surface reflecting measurements in the IR region are to be made by the group at Hughes Aircraft and will be exchanged with LLNL as a part of this joint technical effort. 3 refs., 14 figs.

  7. 10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section 850.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The...

  8. 10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section 850.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The...

  9. 10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific...Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The...

  10. 10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific...Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The...

  11. 10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific...Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The...

  12. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena

    2010-06-22

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, {alpha}) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg {sup 10}B/g blood.

  13. Evolution of Beryllium and Boron in the Inhomogeneous Early Galaxy

    E-print Network

    Takeru Ken Suzuki; Yuzuru Yoshii; Toshitaka Kajino

    1999-07-21

    A model of supernova-driven chemical evolution of the Galactic halo, recently proposed by Tsujimoto, Shigeyama, & Yoshii (1999, ApJL, 519, 64), is extended in order to investigate the evolution of light elements such as Be and B (BeB), which are produced mainly through spallative reactions with Galactic cosmic rays. In this model each supernova sweeps up the surrounding interstellar gas into a dense shell and directly enriches it with ejecta which consist of heavy elements produced in each Type II supernova with different progenitor masses. We propose a two-component source for GCRs such that both interstellar gas and fresh SN ejecta engulfed in the shell are accelerated by the shock wave. Our model results include: (1) a prediction of the intrinsic scatter in BeB and [Fe/H] abundances within the model, (2) a successful prediction of the observed linear trend between BeB and [Fe/H], (3) a proposal for using BeB as a cosmic clock, as an alternative to [Fe/H], and (4) a method for possibly constraining the BBN model from future observations of metal-poor stars.

  14. Primordial nucleosynthesis and the abundances of beryllium and boron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David; Schramm, David N.; Olive, Keith A.; Fields, Brian D.

    1993-01-01

    The recently attained ability to make measurements of Be and B as well as to put constraints on Li-6 abundances in metal-poor stars has led to a detailed reexamination of big bang nucleosynthesis in the A is greater than about 6 regime. The nuclear reaction network has been significantly expanded, with many new rates added. It is demonstrated that although a number of A is greater than 7 reaction rates are poorly determined, even with extreme values chosen, the standard homogeneous model is unable to produce significant yields above A = 7, and the (Li-7)/(Li-6) ratio always exceeds 500. We also preliminarily explore inhomogeneous models, such as those inspired by a first-order quark-hadron phase transition, where regions with high neutron/proton ratios can allow some leakage up to A is greater than 7. However, models that fit the A is not greater than 7 abundances still seem to have difficulty in obtaining significant A is greater than 7 yields.

  15. Cosmic Ray production of Beryllium and Boron at high redshift

    E-print Network

    Emmanuel Rollinde; David Maurin; Elisabeth Vangioni; Keith A. Olive; Susumu Inoue

    2007-07-13

    Recently, new observations of Li6 in Pop II stars of the galactic halo have shown a surprisingly high abundance of this isotope, about a thousand times higher than its predicted primordial value. In previous papers, a cosmological model for the cosmic ray-induced production of this isotope in the IGM has been developed to explain the observed abundance at low metallicity. In this paper, given this constraint on the Li6, we calculate the non-thermal evolution with redshift of D, Be, and B in the IGM. In addition to cosmological cosmic ray interactions in the IGM, we include additional processes driven by SN explosions: neutrino spallation and a low energy component in the structures ejected by outflows to the IGM. We take into account CNO CRs impinging on the intergalactic gas. Although subdominant in the galactic disk, this process is shown to produce the bulk of Be and B in the IGM, due to the differential metal enrichment between structures (where CRs originate) and the IGM. We also consider the resulting extragalactic gamma-ray background which we find to be well below existing data. The computation is performed in the framework of hierarchical structure formation considering several star formation histories including Pop III stars. We find that D production is negligible and that a potentially detectable Be and B plateau is produced by these processes at the time of the formation of the Galaxy (z ~ 3).

  16. Beryllium and boron constraints on an early Galactic bright phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Brian D.; Schramm, David N.; Truran, James W.

    1993-01-01

    The recent observations of Be and B in metal-deficient halo dwarfs are used to constrain a 'bright phase' of enhanced cosmic-ray flux in the early Galaxy. Assuming that this Be and B arises from cosmic-ray spallation in the early Galaxy, limits are placed on the intensity of the early (Population II) cosmic-ray flux relative to the present (Population I) flux. A simple estimate of bounds on the flux ratio is 1 - 40. This upper bound would restrict galaxies like our own from producing neutrino fluxes that would be detectable in any currently proposed detectors. It is found that the relative enhancement of the early flux varies inversely with the relative time of enhancement. It is noted that associated gamma-ray production via pp - pi sup 0 pp may be a significant contribution to the gamma-ray background above 100 MeV.

  17. Helioseismology and Beryllium neutrino

    E-print Network

    B. Ricci; F. L. Villante; M. Lissia

    1999-04-06

    We derive a lower limit on the Beryllium neutrino flux on earth, $\\Phi(Be)_{min} = 1\\cdot 10^9 cm^{-2} s^{-1}$, in the absence of oscillations, by using helioseismic data, the B-neutrino flux measured by Superkamiokande and the hydrogen abundance at the solar center predicted by Standard Solar Model (SSM) calculations. We emphasize that this abundance is the only result of SSMs needed for getting $\\Phi(Be)_{min}$. We also derive lower bounds for the Gallium signal, $G_{min}=(91 \\pm 3) $ SNU, and for the Chlorine signal, $C_{min}=(3.24\\pm 0.14)$ SNU, which are about $3\\sigma$ above their corresponding experimental values, $G_{exp}= (72\\pm 6)$ SNU and $C_{exp}= (2.56\\pm 0.22) $ SNU.

  18. The near-Surface Region of Cubic Boron Nitride Single Crystal from the Li3N-hBN System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiao-Fei; Xu, Bin; Wen, Zhen-Xing; Fan, Xiao-Hong; Tian, Bin

    2014-04-01

    Cubic boron nitride single crystals are synthesized with lithium nitride as a catalyst under high pressure and high temperature. The main phases in the near-surface region, which around the single crystal are determined as a mixture of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), cubic boron nitride (cBN) and lithium boron nitride (Li3BN2). High resolution transmission electron microscopy examinations show that there exist lots of nanometer-sized cubic boron nitride nuclei in this region. The interface phase structures of cubic boron nitride crystal and its near-surface region are investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. The growth mechanism of cubic boron nitride crystal is analyzed briefly. It is supposed that Li3BN2 impels the direct conversion of hBN to cBN as a real catalyst, and cBN is homogeneously nucleated in the molten state under high pressure and high temperature.

  19. Accelerator-driven boron neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgecock, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is a binary treatment for certain types of cancer. It works by loading the cancerous cells with a boron-10 carrying compound. This isotope has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the reaction producing a lithium nucleus and alpha particle that kill the cell in which they are produced. Recent studies of the boron carrier compound indicate that the uptake process works best in particularly aggressive cancers. Most studied is glioblastoma multiforme and a trial using a combination of BNCT and X-ray radiotherapy has shown an increase of nearly a factor of two in mean survival over the state of the art. However, the main technical problem with BNCT remains producing a sufficient flux of neutrons for a reasonable treatment duration in a hospital environment. This paper discusses this issue.

  20. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2014-07-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  1. Beryllium strain under dynamic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkov, Victor; Yurlov, Alexey; Okinchits, Andrew; Naydanova, Tatiana

    2015-09-01

    There are some data (not much) on dynamic characteristics of beryllium that are important, for example, when estimating construction performance at NPP emergencies. A number of data on stress-strain curves, spall strength, shear strength, fracture and structure responses of shock loaded beryllium have obtained in US and Russian laboratories. For today the model description of this complex metal behavior does not have a reasonable agreement with the experimental data, thus a wider spectrum of experimental data is required. This work presents data on dynamic compression-test diagrams of Russian beryllium. Experiments are performed using Hopkinson bar method (SHPB). Strain rates were ? ˜ 103 s-1.

  2. The solar abundance of beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    The solar abundance of beryllium is deduced from high-resolution Kitt Peak observations of the 3130.43- and 3131.08-A lines of Be II interpreted by the method of spectrum synthesis. The results are in good agreement with those previously obtained by Grevesse (1968) and by Hauge and Engvold (1968) and indicate that in the photospheric layers, beryllium is depleted below the chondritic value by a factor of about two. It is found that the beryllium abundance is equal to logN(Be)/N(H) + 12 = 1.08 plus or minus 0.05.

  3. Ceramic-metal seals for advanced battery systems. [sodium sulfur and lithium sulfur batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, L.

    1978-01-01

    The search for materials which are electrochemically compatible with the lithium sulfur and sodium sulfur systems is discussed. The use liquid or braze alloys, titanium hydrite coatings, and tungsten yttria for bonding beryllium with ceramic is examined.

  4. Beryllium usage in fusion blankets and beryllium data needs. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1988-04-06

    Increasing numbers of designers are choosing beryllium for fusion reactor blankets because it, among all nonfissile materials, produces the highest number (2.5 neutron in an infinite media) of neutrons per 14-MeV incident neutron. In amounts of about 20 cm of equivalent solid density, it can be used to produce fissile material, to breed all the tritium consumed in ITER from outboard blankets only, and in designs to produce Co-60. The problem is that predictions of neutron multiplication in beryllium are off by some 10 to 20% and appear to be on the high side, which means that better multiplication measurements and numerical methods are needed. The n,2n reactions result in two helium atoms, which cause radiation damage in the form of hardening at low temperatures (<300/degree/C) and swelling at high temperatures (>300/degree/C). The usual way beryllium parts are made is by hot pressing the powder. A lower cost method is to cold press and then sinter. There is no radiation damage data on this form of beryllium. The issues of corrosion, safety relative to the release of the tritium built-up inside beryllium, and recycle of used beryllium are also discussed. 10 figs.

  5. Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  6. Boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Michael W. (Newport News, VA); Jordan, Kevin (Newport News, VA); Park, Cheol (Yorktown, VA)

    2012-06-06

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  7. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR BERYLLIUM. REVIEW DRAFT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The properties of beryllium resemble those of aluminum, zinc, and magnesium. The main routes of beryllium intake are inhalation and ingestion. The chemical properties of beryllium are such that transformation of soluble to insoluble forms of inhaled beryllium results in long rete...

  8. Beryllium Related Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, R F

    2008-12-23

    In recent months, LLNL has identified, commenced, and implemented a series of interim controls, compensatory measures, and initiatives to ensure worker safety, and improve safety processes with regards to potential worker exposure to beryllium. Many of these actions have been undertaken in response to the NNSA Independent Review (COR-TS-5/15/2008-8550) received by LLNL in November of 2008. Others are the result of recent discoveries, events or incidents, and lessons learned, or were scheduled corrective actions from earlier commitments. Many of these actions are very recent in nature, or are still in progress, and vary in the formality of implementation. Actions are being reviewed for effectiveness as they progress. The documentation of implementation, and review of effectiveness, when appropriate, of these actions will be addressed as part of the formal Corrective Action Plan addressing the Independent Review. The mitigating actions taken fall into the following categories: (1) Responses to specific events/concerns; (2) Development of interim controls; (3) Review of ongoing activities; and (4) Performance improvement measures.

  9. NIFTI and DISCOS: New concepts for a compact accelerator neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Reich, M.

    1995-06-01

    Two new concepts, NIFTI and DISCOS, are described. These concepts enable the efficient production of epithermal neutrons for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) medical treatment, utilizing a low current, low energy proton beam impacting on a lithium target. The NIFTI concept uses fluoride compounds, such as lead or beryllium fluoride, to efficiently degrade high energy neutrons from the lithium target to the lower energies required for BNCT. The fluoride compounds are in turn encased in an iron layer that strongly impedes the transmission of neutrons with energies above 24 KeV. Lower energy neutrons readily pass through this iron filter, which has a deep window in its scattering cross section at 24 KeV. The DISCOS concept uses a rapidly rotating, high g disc to create a series of thin ({approximately} 1 micron thickness) liquid lithium targets in the form of continuous films or sheets of discrete droplets--through which the proton beam passes. The average energy lost by a proton as it passes through a single target is small, approximately 10 KeV. Between the targets, the proton beam is re-accelerated by an applied DC electric field. The DISCOS approach enables the accelerator--target facility to operate with a beam energy only slightly above the threshold value for neutron production--resulting in an output beam of low-energy epithermal neutrons--while achieving a high yield of neutrons per milliamp of proton beam current. Parametric trade studies of the NIFTI and DISCOS concepts are described. These include analyses of a broad range of NIFTI designs using the Monte carlo MCNP neutronics code, as well as mechanical and thermal-hydraulic analyses of various DISCOS designs.

  10. Methods of forming boron nitride

    DOEpatents

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  11. 40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section 421.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium... beryllium by primary beryllium facilities processing beryllium ore concentrates or beryllium hydroxide...

  12. 40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section 421.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium... beryllium by primary beryllium facilities processing beryllium ore concentrates or beryllium hydroxide...

  13. 40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section 421.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium... beryllium by primary beryllium facilities processing beryllium ore concentrates or beryllium hydroxide...

  14. 40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section 421.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium... beryllium by primary beryllium facilities processing beryllium ore concentrates or beryllium hydroxide...

  15. 40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section 421.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium... beryllium by primary beryllium facilities processing beryllium ore concentrates or beryllium hydroxide...

  16. Shockless compression and release behavior of beryllium to 110?GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J. L.; Knudson, M. D.; Alexander, C. S.; Asay, J. R.

    2014-07-21

    A magnetohydrodynamic loading technique was used to shocklessly compress beryllium to peak longitudinal stresses of 19–110?GPa and, subsequently, unload in order to determine both the compressive response and also the shear stress supported upon release. Loading strain rates were on the order of 10{sup 6?}s{sup ?1}, while the unloading rates were nearly constant at 3?×?10{sup 5?}s{sup ?1}. Velocimetry was used to monitor the ramp and release behavior of a beryllium/lithium fluoride window interface. After applying window corrections to infer in situ beryllium velocities, a Lagrangian analysis was employed to determine the material response. The Lagrangian wavespeed-particle velocity response is integrated to generate the stress-strain path, average change in shear stress over the elastic unloading, and estimates of the shear modulus at peak compression. These data are used to infer the pressure dependence of the flow strength at the unloading rate. Comparisons to several strength models reveal good agreement to 45?GPa, but the data indicate 20%–30% higher strength near 100?GPa.

  17. Cryogenic Properties of Aluminum Beryllium and Beryllium Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 (38%Al-62%Be), at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-320 F) and (-252.8 C) (-423 F)) temperatures, and for an optical grade beryllium, O-30H (99%Be), at -252.8 C. AlBeMetl62 material was purchased to the requirements of SAE-AMS7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions." O-30H material was purchased to the requirements of Brush Wellman Inc. specification O-30H Optical Grade Beryllium. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths for extruded AlBeMetl62 material increased with decreasing temperature, and the percent elongation decreased with decreasing temperature. Design properties for the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percent elongation for extruded AlBeMetl62 were generated. It was not possible to distinguish a difference in the room and cryogenic ultimate strength for the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) O-30H material. The O30H elongation decreased with decreasing temperature.

  18. Cryogenic Properties of Aluminum-Beryllium and Beryllium Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were obtained for the aluminum- beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 (38%Al-62%Be), at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-32O F) and (- 252.8 C) (-423 F)) temperatures, and for an optical grade beryllium, O-30H (99%Be), at -252.8 C. AlBeMet162 material was purchased to the requirements of SAE- AMs7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions". O-30H material was purchased to the requirements of Brush Wellman Inc. specification O-30H Optical Grade Beryllium. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths for extruded AlBeMet162 material increased with decreasing temperature, and the percent elongation decreased with decreasing temperature. Design properties for the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percent elongation for extruded AlBeMetl62 were generated. It was not possible to distinguish a difference in the room and cryogenic ultimate strength for the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) O-30H material. The O-30H elongation decreased with decreasing temperature.

  19. Mineral resource of the month: beryllium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses information about Beryllium. It notes that Beryllium is a light metal that has a gray color. The metal is used in the production of parts and devices including bearings, computer-chip heat sinks, and output windows of X-ray tubes. The article mentions Beryllium's discovery in 1798 by French chemist, Louis-Nicolas Vanquelin. It cites that bertrandite and beryl are the principal mineral components for the commercial production of beryllium.

  20. Beryllium technology workshop, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 20, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: beryllium in the ITER blanket; mechanical testing of irradiated beryllium; tritium release measurements on irradiated beryllium; beryllium needs for plasma-facing components; thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed beryllium; beryllium research at the INEL; Japanese beryllium research activities for in-pile mockup tests on ITER; a study of beryllium bonding of copper alloy; new production technologies; thermophysical properties of a new ingot metallurgy beryllium product line; implications of beryllium:steam interactions in fusion reactors; and a test program for irradiation embrittlement of beryllium at JET.

  1. Galvanic corrosion of beryllium welds

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.A.; Butt, D.P.; Lillard, R.S.

    1997-12-01

    Beryllium is difficult to weld because it is highly susceptible to cracking. The most commonly used filler metal in beryllium welds is Al-12 wt.% Si. Beryllium has been successfully welded using Al-Si filler metal with more than 30 wt.% Al. This filler creates an aluminum-rich fusion zone with a low melting point that tends to backfill cracks. Drawbacks to adding a filler metal include a reduction in service temperature, a lowering of the tensile strength of the weld, and the possibility for galvanic corrosion to occur at the weld. To evaluate the degree of interaction between Be and Al-Si in an actual weld, sections from a mock beryllium weldment were exposed to 0.1 M Cl{sup {minus}} solution. Results indicate that the galvanic couple between Be and the Al-Si weld material results in the cathodic protection of the weld and of the anodic dissolution of the bulk Be material. While the cathodic protection of Al is generally inefficient, the high anodic dissolution rate of the bulk Be during pitting corrosion combined with the insulating properties of the Be oxide afford some protection of the Al-Si weld material. Although dissolution of the Be precipitate in the weld material does occur, no corrosion of the Al-Si matrix was observed.

  2. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environment, Safety, Health & Quality

    2009-12-28

    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, “Minnema Report.”

  3. Boron and Boron Carbide Materials: Nanostructures and Crystalline Solids

    E-print Network

    Pandey, Ravi

    Boron and Boron Carbide Materials: Nanostructures and Crystalline Solids Kah Chun Lau, Yoke Khin popularity between the boron and carbon in the scientific literature. Carbon-based structures are well studied compared with boron-based structures. Consequently, understanding of the role played by boron

  4. Experimental investigation of beryllium: plans and current

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    1 Experimental investigation of beryllium: plans and current results within the Ra;3 Beryllium is a promising candidate because of: · good "nuclear" properties; · appropriate mechanical will Beryllium be used? Application Operating conditions Proton beam parametersAvg. T (°C) Peak T (°C) Total DPA

  5. Possibility for irradiated beryllium at CERN

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Possibility for irradiated beryllium at CERN RaDIATE meeting, 22nd July 2013 M. Calviani (CERN ­ Engineering Department ­ Sources, Target and Interactions Group) #12;Irradiated beryllium at CERN 2 Two possibilities exists at CERN to obtain irradiated beryllium for testing: beam windows, and in particular

  6. 10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Beryllium emergencies. (a) The responsible employer must comply with 29 CFR 1910.120(l) for handling... employer must comply with 29 CFR 1910.120(q) for handling beryllium emergencies related to all other... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section 850.33...

  7. 10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Beryllium emergencies. (a) The responsible employer must comply with 29 CFR 1910.120(l) for handling... employer must comply with 29 CFR 1910.120(q) for handling beryllium emergencies related to all other... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section 850.33...

  8. 10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Beryllium emergencies. (a) The responsible employer must comply with 29 CFR 1910.120(l) for handling... employer must comply with 29 CFR 1910.120(q) for handling beryllium emergencies related to all other... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section 850.33...

  9. 10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Beryllium emergencies. (a) The responsible employer must comply with 29 CFR 1910.120(l) for handling... employer must comply with 29 CFR 1910.120(q) for handling beryllium emergencies related to all other... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section 850.33...

  10. 10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Beryllium emergencies. (a) The responsible employer must comply with 29 CFR 1910.120(l) for handling... employer must comply with 29 CFR 1910.120(q) for handling beryllium emergencies related to all other... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section 850.33...

  11. Beryllium--important for national defense

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boland, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Beryllium is one of the lightest and stiffest metals, but there was little industrial demand for it until the 1930s and 1940s when the aerospace, defense, and nuclear sectors began using beryllium and its compounds. Beryllium is now classified by the U.S. Department of Defense as a strategic and critical material because it is used in products that are vital to national security. The oxide form of beryllium was identified in 1797, and scientists first isolated metallic beryllium in 1828. The United States is the world's leading source of beryllium. A single mine at Spor Mountain, Utah, produced more than 85 percent of the beryllium mined worldwide in 2010. China produced most of the remainder, and less than 2 percent came from Mozambique and other countries. National stockpiles also provide significant amounts of beryllium for processing. To help predict where future beryllium supplies might be located, U.S.Geological Survey (USGS) scientists study how and where beryllium resources are concentrated in Earth's crust and use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered beryllium resources may exist. Techniques to assess mineral resources have been developed by the USGS to support the stewardship of Federal lands and to better evaluate mineral resource availability in a global context. The USGS also compiles statistics and information on the worldwide supply of, demand for, and flow of beryllium. These data are used to inform U.S. national policymaking.

  12. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  13. Tritium behavior in ITER beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1990-10-01

    The beryllium neutron multiplier in the ITER breeding blanket will generate tritium through transmutations. That tritium constitutes a safety hazard. Experiments evaluating tritium storage and release mechanisms have shown that most of the tritium comes out in a burst during thermal ramping. A small fraction of retained tritium is released by thermally activated processes. Analysis of recent experimental data shows that most of the tritium resides in helium bubbles. That tritium is released when the bubbles undergo swelling sufficient to develop porosity that connects with the surface. That appears to occur when swelling reaches about 10--15%. Other tritium appears to be stored chemically at oxide inclusions, probably as Be(OT){sub 2}. That component is released by thermal activation. There is considerable variation in published values for tritium diffusion through the beryllium and solubility in it. Data from experiments using highly irradiated beryllium from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory showed diffusivity generally in line with the most commonly accepted values for fully dense material. Lower density material, planned for use in the ITER blanket may have very short diffusion times because of the open structure. The beryllium multiplier of the ITER breeding blanket was analyzed for tritium release characteristics using temperature and helium production figures at the midplane generated in support of the ITER Summer Workshop, 1990 in Garching. Ordinary operation, either in Physics or Technology phases, should not result in the release of tritium trapped in the helium bubbles. Temperature excursions above 600{degree}C result in large-scale release of that tritium. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Vacuum brazing beryllium to Monel

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, T.G.; Grotsky, V.K.; Keller, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    The tensile strength of beryllium to Monel vacuum furnace brazed joints was studied. The filler used was the 72% Ag-28%Cu(BAg-8) alloy. The strength of these joints, which require the use of a titanium hydride powder or physical vapor deposited titanium wetting agent on the beryllium, was found to approach the yield strength of the base metals. Strength was found to be reduced by the interaction of increased titanium hydride quantity and brazing time. Metallographic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies correlated these effects with microstructure. The formation of the brittle copper-beryllium delta phase was found to require conditions of high brazing temperature and the presence of a reservoir of the copper-containing filler such as found in fillet areas. Two other filler metals: pure silver, and a 60% Ag-30% Cu-10%Sn (BAg-17) alloy were shown to be acceptable alternatives to the BAg-8 alloy in cases where the filler metal can be preplaced between the base metal surfaces.

  15. Can mirror matter solve the the cosmological lithium problem?

    SciTech Connect

    Coc, Alain

    2014-05-02

    The abundance of lithium-7 confronts cosmology with a long lasting inconsistency between the predictions of standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis with the baryonic density determined from the Cosmic Microwave Background observations on the one hand, and the spectroscopic determination of the lithium-7 abundance on the other hand. We investigated the influence of the existence of a mirror world, focusing on models in which mirror neutrons can oscillate into ordinary neutrons. Such a mechanism allows for an effective late time neutron injection, which induces an increase of the destruction of beryllium-7and thus a lower final lithium-7 abundance.

  16. Beryllium in the environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Tammy P; Ding, Mei; Ehler, Deborah S; Foreman, Trudi M; Kaszuba, John P; Sauer, Nancy N

    2003-02-01

    Beryllium is an important industrial metal because of its unusual material properties: it is lighter than aluminum and six times stronger than steel. Often alloyed with other metals such as copper, beryllium is a key component of materials used in the aerospace and electronics industries. Beryllium has a small neutron cross-section, which makes it useful in the production of nuclear weapons and in sealed neutron sources. Unfortunately, beryllium is one of the most toxic elements in the periodic table. It is responsible for the often-fatal lung disease, Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD) or berylliosis, and is listed as a Class A EPA carcinogen. Coal-fired power plants, industrial manufacturing and nuclear weapons production and disposal operations have released beryllium to the environment. This contamination has the potential to expose workers and the public to beryllium. Despite the increasing use of beryllium in industry, there is surprisingly little published information about beryllium fate and transport in the environment. This information is crucial for the development of strategies that limit worker and public exposure. This review summarizes the current understanding of beryllium health hazards, current regulatory mandates, environmental chemistry, geochemistry and environmental contamination. PMID:12638707

  17. Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect

    T., A. Tomberlin

    2004-11-01

    Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a “window” for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in “windows” for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed.

  18. OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Brisson, M

    2009-04-01

    Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

  19. Lithium nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Azab, Abed N; Shnaider, Alla; Osher, Yamima; Wang, Dana; Bersudsky, Yuly; Belmaker, R H

    2015-12-01

    Reports of toxic effects on the kidney of lithium treatment emerged very soon after lithium therapy was introduced. Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is usually self-limiting or not clinically dangerous. Some reports of irreversible chronic kidney disease and renal failure were difficult to attribute to lithium treatment since chronic kidney disease and renal failure exist in the population at large. In recent years, large-scale epidemiological studies have convincingly shown that lithium treatment elevates the risk of chronic kidney disease and renal failure. Most patients do not experience renal side effects. The most common side effect of polyuria only weakly predicts increasing creatinine or reduced kidney function. Among those patients who do experience decrease in creatinine clearance, some may require continuation of lithium treatment even as their creatinine increases. Other patients may be able to switch to a different mood stabilizer medication, but kidney function may continue to deteriorate even after lithium cessation. Most, but not all, evidence today recommends using a lower lithium plasma level target for long-term maintenance and thereby reducing risks of severe nephrotoxicity. PMID:26043842

  20. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    SciTech Connect

    Herr, M.

    1997-07-01

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is likely to generate dusts, mists, fumes, or small particulates. A beryllium exposure control program should minimize airborne concentrations, the potential for and spread of contamination, the number of times individuals are exposed to beryllium, and the number of employees who may be potentially exposed.

  1. Effect of electric field on the band structure of graphene/boron nitride and boron nitride/boron nitride bilayers

    E-print Network

    Pandey, Ravi

    Effect of electric field on the band structure of graphene/boron nitride and boron nitride/boron of electric field on the band structure of graphene/boron nitride and boron nitride/boron nitride bilayers of electric field on the band structures of graphene/boron nitride (BN) and BN/BN bilayers is investigated

  2. Brazing of beryllium for structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogan, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Progress made in fabricating a beryllium compression tube structure and a stiffened beryllium panel. The compression tube was 7.6cm in diameter and 30.5cm long with titanium end fittings. The panel was 203cm long and stiffened with longitudinal stringers. Both units were assembled by brazing with BAg-18 braze alloy. The detail parts were fabricated by hot forming 0.305cm beryllium sheet and the brazing parameters established.

  3. Inhibited solid propellant composition containing beryllium hydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. W. (inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An object of this invention is to provide a composition of beryllium hydride and carboxy-terminated polybutadiene which is stable. Another object of this invention is to provide a method for inhibiting the reactivity of beryllium hydride toward carboxy-terminated polybutadiene. It was found that a small amount of lecithin inhibits the reaction of beryllium hydride with the acid groups in carboxy terminated polybutadiene.

  4. The structure of boron in boron fibres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, J.; Krawitz, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The structure of noncrystalline, chemically vapour-deposited boron fibres was investigated by computer modelling the experimentally obtained X-ray diffraction patterns. The diffraction patterns from the models were computed using the Debye scattering equation. The modelling was done utilizing the minimum nearest-neighbour distance, the density of the model, and the broadening and relative intensity of the various peaks as boundary conditions. The results suggest that the fibres consist of a continuous network of randomly oriented regions of local atomic order, about 2 nm in diameter, containing boron atoms arranged in icosahedra. Approximately half of these regions have a tetragonal structure and the remaining half a distorted rhombohedral structure. The model also indicates the presence of many partial icosahedra and loose atoms not associated with any icosahedra. The partial icosahedra and loose atoms indicated in the present model are in agreement with the relaxing sub-units which have been suggested to explain the anelastic behavior of fibre boron and the loosely bound boron atoms which have been postulated to explain the strengthening mechanism in boron fibres during thermal treatment.

  5. Accelerator-based epithermal neutron sources for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Blue, Thomas E; Yanch, Jacquelyn C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of low-energy light ion accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs) for the treatment of brain tumors through an intact scalp and skull using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A major advantage of an ABNS for BNCT over reactor-based neutron sources is the potential for siting within a hospital. Consequently, light-ion accelerators that are injectors to larger machines in high-energy physics facilities are not considered. An ABNS for BNCT is composed of: (1) the accelerator hardware for producing a high current charged particle beam, (2) an appropriate neutron-producing target and target heat removal system (HRS), and (3) a moderator/reflector assembly to render the flux energy spectrum of neutrons produced in the target suitable for patient irradiation. As a consequence of the efforts of researchers throughout the world, progress has been made on the design, manufacture, and testing of these three major components. Although an ABNS facility has not yet been built that has optimally assembled these three components, the feasibility of clinically useful ABNSs has been clearly established. Both electrostatic and radio frequency linear accelerators of reasonable cost (approximately 1.5 M dollars) appear to be capable of producing charged particle beams, with combinations of accelerated particle energy (a few MeV) and beam currents (approximately 10 mA) that are suitable for a hospital-based ABNS for BNCT. The specific accelerator performance requirements depend upon the charged particle reaction by which neutrons are produced in the target and the clinical requirements for neutron field quality and intensity. The accelerator performance requirements are more demanding for beryllium than for lithium as a target. However, beryllium targets are more easily cooled. The accelerator performance requirements are also more demanding for greater neutron field quality and intensity. Target HRSs that are based on submerged-jet impingement and the use of microchannels have emerged as viable target cooling options. Neutron fields for reactor-based neutron sources provide an obvious basis of comparison for ABNS field quality. This paper compares Monte Carlo calculations of neutron field quality for an ABNS and an idealized standard reactor neutron field (ISRNF). The comparison shows that with lithium as a target, an ABNS can create a neutron field with a field quality that is significantly better (by a factor of approximately 1.2, as judged by the relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-dose that can be delivered to a tumor at a depth of 6cm) than that for the ISRNF. Also, for a beam current of 10 mA, the treatment time is calculated to be reasonable (approximately 30 min) for the boron concentrations that have been assumed. PMID:12749700

  6. Use of Beryllium and Beryllium Oxide in Space Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, L. L.; Zinkle, S. J.

    2005-02-06

    Beryllium and beryllium oxide are attractive candidate materials for neutron reflector application in space reactors due to their beneficial combination of low density and high neutron moderation and reflection capabilities. Drawbacks to their use include the expense of working with toxic materials, a limited industrial infrastructure, and material properties that are challenging in the non-irradiated state and seriously degrade under neutron irradiation. As an example of neutron effects, mechanical properties degrade under relevant conditions to the point where encasement in structural alloys is necessary. Such measures are required if neutron fluence exceeds {approx}1x1024 n/m2 (E>0.1 MeV). At high temperatures (>500 deg. C for Be and >600 deg. C for BeO), irradiation-induced swelling may also limit the maximum allowable dose without additional engineering measures. Significant volumetric swelling (>5%) can occur in these materials during neutron irradiation at elevated temperatures for neutron fluences above 1x1025 n/m2. This paper will review Be and BeO fabrication considerations, and summarize the effects of neutron irradiation on material properties.

  7. Beryllium thin films for resistor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiet, O.

    1972-01-01

    Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

  8. Mineral resource of the month: beryllium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedd, Kim B.

    2006-01-01

    Beryllium metal is lighter than aluminum and stiffer than steel. These and other properties, including its strength, dimensional stability, thermal properties and reflectivity, make it useful for aerospace and defense applications, such as satellite and space-vehicle structural components. Beryllium’s nuclear properties, combined with its low density, make it useful as a neutron reflector and moderator in nuclear reactors. Because it is transparent to most X rays, beryllium is used as X-ray windows in medical, industrial and analytical equipment.

  9. Beryllium Use in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-12-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) began operation in 1967. It makes use of a unique serpentine fuel core design and a beryllium reflector. Reactor control is achieved with rotating beryllium cylinders to which have been fastened plates of hafnium. Over time, the beryllium develops rather high helium content because of nuclear transmutations and begins to swell. The beryllium must be replaced at nominally 10-year intervals. Determination of when the replacement is made is by visual observation using a periscope to examine the beryllium surface for cracking and swelling. Disposition of the irradiated beryllium was once accomplished in the INL’s Radioactive Waste Management Complex, but that is no longer possible. Among contributing reasons are high levels of specific radioactive contaminants including transuranics. The INL is presently considering disposition pathways for this irradiated beryllium, but presently is storing it in the canal adjacent to the reactor. Numerous issues are associated with this situation including (1) Is there a need for ultra-low uranium material? (2) Is there a need to recover tritium from irradiated beryllium either because this is a strategic material resource or in preparation for disposal? (3) Is there a need to remove activation and fission products from irradiated beryllium? (4) Will there be enough material available to meet requirements for research reactors (fission and fusion)? In this paper will be discussed the present status of considerations on these issues.

  10. MANAGING BERYLLIUM IN NUCLEAR FACILITY APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Rohe; T. N. Tranter

    2011-12-01

    Beryllium plays important roles in nuclear facilities. Its neutron multiplication capability and low atomic weight make it very useful as a reflector in fission reactors. Its low atomic number and high chemical affinity for oxygen have led to its consideration as a plasma-facing material in fusion reactors. In both applications, the beryllium and the impurities in it become activated by neutrons, transmuting them to radionuclides, some of which are long-lived and difficult to dispose of. Also, gas production, notably helium and tritium, results in swelling, embrittlement, and cracking, which means that the beryllium must be replaced periodically, especially in fission reactors where dimensional tolerances must be maintained. It has long been known that neutron activation of inherent iron and cobalt in the beryllium results in significant {sup 60}Co activity. In 2001, it was discovered that activation of naturally occurring contaminants in the beryllium creates sufficient {sup 14}C and {sup 94}Nb to render the irradiated beryllium 'Greater-Than-Class-C' for disposal in U.S. radioactive waste facilities. It was further found that there was sufficient uranium impurity in beryllium that had been used in fission reactors up to that time that the irradiated beryllium had become transuranic in character, making it even more difficult to dispose of. In this paper we review the extent of the disposal issue, processes that have been investigated or considered for improving the disposability of irradiated beryllium, and approaches for recycling.

  11. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined form the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing(HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified.

  12. Characterization of physicochemical properties of beryllium aerosols associated with prevalence of chronic beryllium disease.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Hoover, Mark D; Day, Gregory A; Dickerson, Robert M; Peterson, Eric J; Kent, Michael S; Schuler, Christine R; Breysse, Patrick N; Scripsick, Ronald C

    2004-06-01

    Little is known about the physicochemical properties of beryllium aerosols associated with increased risk of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Such information is needed to evaluate whether airborne mass of beryllium is the appropriate metric of exposure or alternatively to provide a scientific basis for using information on particle size, surface area, and chemistry to support an improved exposure limit based on bioavailability through the inhalation and dermal routes of exposure. Thus, we used a suite of analytical techniques to characterize aerodynamically size-fractionated beryllium particles and powders that have been associated in epidemiological studies with higher prevalence of CBD. Aerosol particles were sampled from the ventilation systems of production lines for powders of beryllium metal and beryllium oxide and for ingots of copper-beryllium alloy. End product powders from the metal and oxide production lines were also collected. Particles released during production of beryllium metal were found to be complex, having heterogeneous composition, including reactive species such as fluorine. Powders from beryllium metal production were of high purity with only a minor component of beryllium oxide. Both particles and powders from oxide production were high-purity oxide. Particles released during production of copper-beryllium alloy were heterogeneous, being predominantly copper oxides. Thus, all particles and powders contain at least some beryllium in the form of beryllium oxide. These data justify efforts to thoroughly characterize beryllium aerosol properties when performing exposure assessments. The data also suggest that differences in particle chemical composition, size, number, and surface area may influence bioavailability of beryllium and contribute to risk of CBD. However, a scientific basis does not yet exist to replace mass as the current metric of exposure. PMID:15173904

  13. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  14. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1998-06-16

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 8 figs.

  15. Beryllium anomalies in solar-type field stars

    E-print Network

    N. C. Santos; G. Israelian; S. Randich; R. J. Garcia Lopez; R. Rebolo

    2004-08-05

    We present a study of beryllium (Be) abundances in a large sample of field solar-type dwarfs and sub-giants spanning a large range of effective temperatures. The analysis shows that Be is severely depleted for F stars, as expected by the light-element depletion models. However, we also show that Beryllium abundances decrease with decreasing temperature for stars cooler than $\\sim$6000 K, a result that cannot be explained by current theoretical models including rotational mixing, but that is, at least in part, expected from the models that take into account internal wave physics. In particular, the light element abundances of the coolest and youngest stars in our sample suggest that Be, as well as lithium (Li), has already been burned early during their evolution. Furthermore, we find strong evidence for the existence of a Be-gap for solar-temperature stars. The analysis of Li and Be abundances in the sub-giants of our sample also shows the presence of one case that has still detectable amounts of Li, while Be is severely depleted. Finally, we compare the derived Be abundances with Li abundances derived using the same set of stellar parameters. This gives us the possibility to explore the temperatures for which the onset of Li and Be depletion occurs.

  16. Microwave sintering of boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

    1988-06-10

    A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

  17. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory....

  18. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory....

  19. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30.508 Section...for Certain Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of...

  20. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The...

  1. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The...

  2. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The...

  3. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30.508 Section...for Certain Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of...

  4. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30.508 Section...for Certain Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of...

  5. Radiation damage and defect behavior in ion-implanted, lithium counterdoped silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    Boron doped silicon n+p solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implanation and the resultant n+p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. The function of fluence and a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) was studied to correlate defect behavior with cell performance. It was found that the lithium counterdoped cells exhibited significantly increased radiation resistance when compared to boron doped control cells. It is concluded that the annealing behavior is controlled by dissociation and recombination of defects. The DLTS studies show that counterdoping with lithium eliminates at least three deep level defects and results in three new defects. It is speculated that the increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is due primarily to the interaction of lithium with oxygen, single vacancies and divacancies and that the lithium-oxygen interaction is the most effective in contributing to the increased radiation resistance.

  6. Constraining Low-Energy Proton Capture on Beryllium-7 through Charge Radius Measurements

    E-print Network

    Ryberg, Emil; Hammer, H -W; Platter, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we point out that a measurement of the charge radius of Boron-8 provides indirect access to the S-factor for radiative proton capture on Beryllium-7 at low energies. We use leading-order halo effective field theory to explore this correlation and we give a relation between the charge radius and the S-factor. Furthermore, we present important technical aspects relevant to the renormalization of pointlike P-wave interactions in the presence of a repulsive Coulomb interaction.

  7. Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate

    DOEpatents

    Bergeron, Charles (Baton Rouge, LA); Bullard, John E. (Kendall Park, NJ); Morgan, Evan (Lynchburg, VA)

    1991-01-01

    A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

  8. Fracture toughness of hot-pressed beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemon, D. D.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the fracture toughness, sustained-load flaw growth, and fatigue-crack propagation resistance of S200E hot-pressed beryllium at room temperature. It also reviews the literature pertaining to the influence of various factors on the fracture toughness of hot-pressed beryllium determined using fatigue-cracked specimens.

  9. Boron and the kidney.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Madeleine V; Culver, B Dwight; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2005-10-01

    Boron, the fifth element in the periodic table, is ubiquitous in nature. It is present in food and in surface and ocean waters, and is frequently used in industrial, cosmetic, and medical settings. Exposure to boron and related compounds has been recently implicated as a potential cause of chronic kidney disease in Southeast Asia. This observation prompted the present review of the published data on the effects of acute and chronic exposure to boron on renal function and structure in human beings and in experimental animals. PMID:16198928

  10. Hydrometallurgical process for the production of beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Copenhafer, W.C.

    1988-03-08

    A hydrometallurgical process for producing solid beryllium hydroxide from an ore containing a beryllium silicate mineral is described which comprises: (a) leaching the ore by simultaneously contacting with effective amounts of a concentrated caustic solution and lime or lime hydrate, with agitation in a closed reactor at elevated temperature and autogenous pressure, until a slurry is formed containing dissolved beryllium hydroxide and by-product solids comprising waste gangue and calcium-sodium silicates; (b) reducing the pressure to about one atmosphere and maintaining the temperature below the boiling point of the caustic solution; (c) separating the by-product solids from the slurry to leave a pregnant leach liquor; (d) diluting and heating the pregnant leach liquor to precipitate the beryllium hydroxide and to leave a mother liquor containing caustic; and (e) separating the beryllium hydroxide.

  11. BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES

    SciTech Connect

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-02-18

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  12. Helioseismic determination of Beryllium neutrinos produced in the Sun

    E-print Network

    B. Ricci; F. L. Villante

    2000-05-26

    We provide a determination of the Beryllium neutrino luminosity directly by means of helioseismology, without using additional assumptions. We have constructed solar models where Beryllium neutrino, ($\

  13. Beryllium-10 from the Sun.

    PubMed

    Nishiizumi, K; Caffee, M W

    2001-10-12

    Beryllium-10 (10Be) in excess of that expected from in situ cosmic ray spallation reactions is present in lunar surface soil 78481; its presence was revealed with a sequential leaching technique. This excess 10Be, representing only 0.7 to 1.1% of the total 10Be inventory, is associated with surface layers (<1 micrometer) of the mineral grains composing 78481. This excess 10Be and its association with surficial layers corresponds to (1.9 +/- 0.8) x 10(8) atoms per square centimeter, requiring a 10Be implantation rate of (2.9 +/- 1.2) x 10(-6) atoms per square centimeter per second on the surface of the Moon. The most likely site for the production of this excess (10)Be is the Sun's atmosphere. The 10Be is entrained into the solar wind and transported to the lunar surface. PMID:11598295

  14. Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/coron mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ); Manos, Dennis (Williamsburg, VA); Nartowitz, Ed (Edison, NJ)

    1994-01-01

    A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod.

  15. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Glass-fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The report discusses the following: domestic data coverage; legislation and government programs; domestic production; comsumption and uses; prices; foreign trade; world capacity; world review--Argentina, Chile, France, Italy, Turkey, United Kingdom; Technology.

  16. The light element abundances. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, P.

    The following topics were discussed at this conference: light elements in the early universe, light elements at high redshifts, galactic evolution, helium abundances, deuterium and 3He abundances, lithium abundances, lithium isotopes, beryllium and boron.

  17. Beryllium at Argonne East, past and present

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, J.L.; Davis, J.T.

    1998-07-01

    The focus of this presentation is the present activities at Argonne related to the control of beryllium exposure. However, since present activities involve some of the past uses of beryllium, the authors will review briefly the history as they have been able to resurrect it from records, memory and interviews with some of the people involved. The goal of the program is to identify past contaminated areas for remedial action, identify employees with past and current exposure who may benefit from additional medical monitoring and provide guidance and support so that any ongoing activities involving beryllium can be conducted safely.

  18. Carbon monoxide adsorption on beryllium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouche, A.

    2013-02-01

    Density functional calculations are here carried out to study the carbon monoxide molecule adsorption on pristine, hydrogenated and hydroxylated beryllium Be (0001) surfaces. The adsorption energies and structures, the activation barriers to molecular adsorption and dissociation are calculated. These reactions are described in terms of potential energy surfaces and electronic density of states. The quantum results are discussed along two directions: the beryllium surface reactivity in the domain of nuclear fusion devices and the possible usage of beryllium as a catalyst of Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis.

  19. THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BERYLLIUM TECHNOLOGY UPDATE

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-12-01

    A Beryllium Technology Update meeting was held at the Idaho National Laboratory on July 18, 2007. Participants came from the U.S., Japan, and Russia. There were two main objectives of this meeting. One was a discussion of current technologies for beryllium in fission reactors, particularly the Advanced Test Reactor and the Japan Materials Test Reactor, and prospects for material availability in the coming years. The second objective of the meeting was a discussion of a project of the International Science and Technology Center regarding treatment of irradiated beryllium for disposal. This paper highlights discussions held during that meeting and major conclusions reached

  20. Beryllium abundances in parent stars of extrasolar planets: 16 Cyg A & B and rho 1 Cnc

    E-print Network

    R. J. Garcia Lopez; M. R. Perez de Taoro

    1998-03-03

    The Be II 3131 A doublet has been observed in the solar-type stars 16 Cyg A & B and in the late G-type star rho 1 Cnc, to derive their beryllium abundances. 16 Cyg A & B show similar (solar) beryllium abundances while 16 Cyg B, which has been proposed to have a planetary companion of ~2 M_Jup, is known to be depleted in lithium by a factor larger than 6 with respect to 16 Cyg A. Differences in their rotational histories which could induce different rates of internal mixing of material, and the ingestion of a similar planet by 16 Cyg A are discussed as potential explanations. The existence of two other solar-type stars which are candidates to harbour planetary-mass companions and which show lithium and beryllium abundances close to those of 16 Cyg A, requires a more detailed inspection of the peculiarities of the 16 Cyg system. For rho 1 Cnc, which is the coolest known object candidate to harbour a planetary-mass companion (M > 0.85 M_Jup), we establish a precise upper limit for its beryllium abundance, showing a strong Be depletion which constrains the available mixing mechanisms. Observations of similar stars without companions are required to asses the potential effects of the planetary companion on the observed depletion. It has been recently claimed that rho 1 Cnc appears to be a subgiant. If this were the case, the observed strong Li and Be depletions could be explained by a dilution process taking place during its post-main sequence evolution.

  1. Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using DFT Sergio Orozco Student Advisor: Chen Huang Faculty Mentor Lithium LPS Test Lithium LPS #12;Density Functional Theory (DFT) Successful quantum mechanical approach (1979) #12;Building LPS for Lithium Create a LPS using NLPS density for Lithium Test LPS by comparing

  2. Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01

    This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

  3. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wolfer, W.; Fulton, F.J.; Lee, J.D.; Maninger, R.C.; Moir, R.W.; Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented.

  4. Beryllium-aluminum alloys for investment castings

    SciTech Connect

    Nachtrab, W.T.; Levoy, N.

    1997-05-01

    Beryllium-aluminum alloys containing greater than 60 wt % beryllium are very favorable materials for applications requiring light weight and high stiffness. However, when produced by traditional powder metallurgical methods, these alloys are expensive and have limited applications. To reduce the cost of making beryllium-aluminum components, Nuclear Metals Inc. (NMI) and Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles have recently developed a family of patented beryllium-aluminum alloys that can be investment cast. Designated Beralcast, the alloys can achieve substantial weight savings because of their high specific strength and stiffness. In some cases, weight has been reduced by up to 50% over aluminum investment casting. Beralcast is now being used to make thin wall precision investment castings for several advanced aerospace applications, such as the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter and F-22 jet fighter. This article discusses alloy compositions, properties, casting method, and the effects of cobalt additions on strength.

  5. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  6. A study on the beryllium lymphocyte transformation test and the beryllium levels in working environment.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Shima, S; Nagaoka, K; Taniwaki, H; Wada, A; Kurita, H; Morita, K

    1997-07-01

    The relationship between airborne concentration of beryllium in the working environment and workers' beryllium lymphocyte transformation test (Be-LTT) values was examined based on data obtained from a four-year survey (1992-1995) conducted at beryllium-copper alloy manufacturing factories. This study showed that the T cells of workers continuously exposed to beryllium of more than 0.01 microgram/m3 could be activated and that the cell-mediated immune response of workers could be promoted. On the other hand, the Be-LTT of workers exposed to beryllium levels of less than 0.01 microgram/m3 was shown to be unaffected by beryllium. These findings suggest that beryllium sensitization is not manifested when level of beryllium in working environment are less than 0.01 microgram/m3. Therefore, in such cases workers do not develop Chronic beryllium disease (CBD). We concluded that the Be-LTT can be applied as a medical indicator to detect the development of CBD. PMID:9248221

  7. Beryllium Recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Larry D.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

  8. Beryllium recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Larry D.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

  9. Boronated liposome development and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, M.F.

    1995-11-01

    The boronated liposome development and evaluation effort consists of two separate tasks. The first is the development of new boron compounds and the synthesis of known boron species with BNCT potential. These compounds are then encapsulated within liposomes for the second task, biodistribution testing in tumor-bearing mice, which examines the potential for the liposomes and their contents to concentrate boron in cancerous tissues.

  10. Transgenic Mouse Model of Chronic Beryllium Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Terry

    2009-05-26

    Animal models provide powerful tools for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new treatment paradigms. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships is severely limited by a general inability to develop a sufficient chronic beryllium disease animal model. Discovery of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) - DPB1Glu69 genetic susceptibility component of chronic beryllium disease permitted the addition of this human beryllium antigen presentation molecule to an animal genome which may permit development of a better animal model for chronic beryllium disease. Using FVB/N inbred mice, Drs. Rubin and Zhu, successfully produced three strains of HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 transgenic mice. Each mouse strain contains a haplotype of the HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 gene that confers a different magnitude of odds ratio (OR) of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR = 240). In addition, Drs. Rubin and Zhu developed transgenic mice with the human CD4 gene to permit better transmission of signals between T cells and antigen presenting cells. This project has maintained the colonies of these transgenic mice and tested the functionality of the human transgenes.

  11. Mineral of the month: boron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyday, Phyllis A.

    2005-01-01

    What does boron have to do with baseball, apple pie, motherhood and Chevrolet? Boron minerals and chemicals are used in the tanning of leather baseballs and gloves; in micro-fertilizer to grow apples and in the glass and enamels of bakewares to cook apple pie; in boron detergents for soaking baby clothes and diapers; and in fiberglass parts for the Chevrolet Corvette.

  12. Boron-Based Layered Structures for Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.; Wei, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Based on Density Functional Theory simulations, we have studied the boron-based graphite-like materials, i.e., LiBC and MgB2 for energy storage. First, when half of the Li-ions in the LiBC are removed, the BC layered structure is still preserved. The Li intercalation potential (equilibrium lithium-insertion voltage of 2.3-2.4 V relative to lithium metal) is significantly higher than that in graphite, allowing Li0.5BC to function as a cathode material. The reversible electrochemical reaction, LiBC = Li0.5BC + 0.5Li, enables a specific energy density of 1088 Wh/kg and a volumetric energy density of 2463 Wh/L. Second, 75% of the Mg ions in MgB2 can be removed and reversibly inserted with the layered boron structures being preserved through an in-plane topological transformation between the hexagonal lattice domains and triangular domains. The mechanism of such a charge-driven transformation originates from the versatile valence state of boron in its planar form.

  13. In Vivo Boron Uptake Determination for Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Binello, Emanuela; Shortkroff, Sonya; Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    1999-06-06

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) has been proposed as a new application of the boron neutron capture reaction for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In BNCS, a boron compound is injected into the joint space, where it is taken up by the synovium. The joint is then irradiated with neutrons of a desired energy range, inducing the boron neutron capture reaction in boron-loaded cells. Boron uptake by the synovium is an important parameter in the assessment of the potential of BNCS and in the determination of whether to proceed to animal irradiations for the testing of therapeutic efficacy. We present results from an investigation of boron uptake in vivo by the synovium.

  14. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, R.K.; Bystroff, R.I.; Miller, D.E.

    1986-08-27

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  15. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); Bystroff, Roman I. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Dale E. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  16. Fabrication of boron sputter targets

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A process for fabricating high density boron sputtering targets with sufficient mechanical strength to function reliably at typical magnetron sputtering power densities and at normal process parameters. The process involves the fabrication of a high density boron monolithe by hot isostatically compacting high purity (99.9%) boron powder, machining the boron monolithe into the final dimensions, and brazing the finished boron piece to a matching boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) piece, by placing aluminum foil there between and applying pressure and heat in a vacuum. An alternative is the application of aluminum metallization to the back of the boron monolithe by vacuum deposition. Also, a titanium based vacuum braze alloy can be used in place of the aluminum foil.

  17. Fabrication of boron sputter targets

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.

    1995-02-28

    A process is disclosed for fabricating high density boron sputtering targets with sufficient mechanical strength to function reliably at typical magnetron sputtering power densities and at normal process parameters. The process involves the fabrication of a high density boron monolithe by hot isostatically compacting high purity (99.9%) boron powder, machining the boron monolithe into the final dimensions, and brazing the finished boron piece to a matching boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) piece, by placing aluminum foil there between and applying pressure and heat in a vacuum. An alternative is the application of aluminum metallization to the back of the boron monolithe by vacuum deposition. Also, a titanium based vacuum braze alloy can be used in place of the aluminum foil. 7 figs.

  18. Boron-Lined Multichamber and Conventional Neutron Proportional Counter Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2010-09-07

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride (BF3)-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated non-scintillating plastic fibers. In addition, a few other companies have detector technologies that might be competitive in the near term as an alternative technology. Reported here are the results of tests of a boron-lined, multichamber proportional counter manufactured by LND, Inc. Also reported are results obtained with an earlier design of conventional, boron-lined, proportional counters from LND. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma-ray rejection capabilities of the detectors.

  19. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (440 Sugarwood Dr., Knoxville, TN 37922); Morrow, Marvin S. (Rte. #3, Box 113, Kingston, TN 37763)

    1993-01-01

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  20. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Morrow, M.S.

    1993-10-12

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  1. A novel diagnostic for time-resolved spectroscopic argon and lithium density measurements

    E-print Network

    Abdou, Mohamed

    , current-stabilized hollow cathode/anode discharge is use to ionize the gas and/or trace impurity absolutely calibrated lithium and beryllium density measurements. Hollow cathode discharges [3,4] have been, and easily assembled. Due to the high ionization efficiency of the hollow cathode/anode geometry, relatively

  2. Plasma boron and the effects of boron supplementation in males.

    PubMed Central

    Green, N R; Ferrando, A A

    1994-01-01

    Recently, a proliferation of athletic supplements has been marketed touting boron as an ergogenic aid capable of increasing testosterone. The effect of boron supplementation was investigated in male bodybuilders. Ten male bodybuilders (aged 20 to 26) were given a 2.5-mg boron supplement, while nine male bodybuilders (aged 21 to 27) were given a placebo for 7 weeks. Plasma total and free testosterone, plasma boron, lean body mass, and strength measurements were determined on day 1 and day 49 of the study. A microwave digestion procedure followed by inductively coupled argon plasma spectroscopy was used for boron determination. Twelve subjects had boron values at or above the detection limit with median value of 25 ng/ml (16 ng/ml lower quartile and 33 ng/ml upper quartile). Of the ten subjects receiving boron supplements, six had an increase in their plasma boron. Analysis of variance indicated no significant effect of boron supplementation on any of the other dependent variables. Both groups demonstrated significant increases in total testosterone (p < 0.01), lean body mass (p < 0.01), and one repetition maximum (RM) squat (p < 0.001) and one RM bench press (p < 0.01). The findings suggest that 7 weeks of bodybuilding can increase total testosterone, lean body mass, and strength in lesser-trained bodybuilders, but boron supplementation affects these variables not at all. PMID:7889885

  3. Boron and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA 635 / 04 / 052 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF BORON AND COMPOUNDS ( CAS No . 7440 - 42 - 8 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2004 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed

  4. Chronic beryllium disease: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Rossman, M D

    1996-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease is predominantly a pulmonary granulomatosis that was originally described in 1946. Symptoms usually include dyspnea and cough. Fever, anorexia, and weight loss are common. Skin lesions are the most common extrathoracic manifestation. Granulomatous hepatitis, hypercalcemia, and kidney stones can also occur. Radiographic and physiologic abnormalities are similar to those in sarcoidosis. While traditionally the pathologic changes included granulomas and cellular interstitial changes, the hallmark of the disease today is the well-formed granuloma. Immunologic studies have demonstrated a cell-mediated response to beryllium that is due to an accumulation of CD4+ T cells at the site of disease activity. Diagnosis depends on the demonstration of pathologic changes (i.e., granuloma) and evidence that the granuloma was caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium (i.e., positive lung proliferative response to beryllium). Using these criteria, the diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease can now be made before the onset of clinical symptoms. Whether, with early diagnosis, the natural course of this condition will be the same as when it was traditionally diagnosed is not known. Currently, corticosteroids are used to treat patients with significant symptoms or evidence of progressive disease. PMID:8933039

  5. Reaction of porous beryllium in steam

    SciTech Connect

    Smolik, G.R.; Merrill, B.J.; Wallace, R.S.

    1992-07-01

    This report presents the findings of some additional investigations into the reaction of beryllium of approximately 88% theoretical density with steam. An earlier investigation had shown this material to be extremely reactive compared to dense beryllium. Inductively heated samples developed self-sustaining reactions due to the exothermic heat of reaction at temperatures between 600[degrees]C and 700[degrees]C. These initial tests did not completely explain the mechanisms causing this behavior. The onset of thermal instability appeared to have a temperature dependent incubation period and some dependence upon specimen geometry. Additional tests have clarified this behavior. We have also obtained measurements of emissivity and permeability. This information will be helpful in the future in modeling reactor accident scenarios. The high effective surface area of porous beryllium has also allowed reaction rates to be obtained at temperatures as low as 400[degrees]C. This information for porous beryllium was then used to extend relationships for the reaction rates of dense beryllium in steam to these lower temperatures.

  6. Chronic beryllium disease: Diagnosis and management

    SciTech Connect

    Rossman, M.D.

    1996-10-01

    Chronic beryllium disease is predominantly a pulmonary granulomatosis that was originally described in 1946. Symptoms usually include dyspnea and cough. Fever, anorexia, and weight loss are common. Skin lesions are the most common extrathoracic manifestation. Granulomatous hepatitis, hypercalcemia, and kidney stones can also occur. Radiographic and physiologic abnormalities are similar to those in sarcoidosis. While traditionally the pathologic changes included granulomas and cellular interstitial changes, the hallmark of the disease today is the well-formed granuloma. Immunologic studies have demonstrated a cell-mediated response to beryllium that is due to an accumulation of CD4{sup +} T cells at the site of disease activity. Diagnosis depends on the demonstration of pathologic changes (i.e., granuloma) and evidence that the granuloma was caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium (i.e., positive lung proliferative response to beryllium). Using these criteria, the diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease can now be made before the onset of clinical symptoms. Whether, with early diagnosis, the natural course of this condition will be the same as when it was traditionally diagnosed is not known. Currently, corticosteroids are used to treat patients with significant symptoms or evidence of progressive disease. 21 refs.

  7. Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers

    DOEpatents

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2015-12-01

    Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a boron oxide gas within a temperature range of from approximately 1400.degree. C. to approximately 2200.degree. C. Continuous boron carbide fibers, continuous fibers comprising boron carbide, and articles including at least a boron carbide coating are also disclosed.

  8. Evaluation of beryllium for space shuttle components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trapp, A. E.

    1972-01-01

    Application of beryllium to specific full-scale space shuttle structural components and assemblies was studied. Material evaluations were conducted to check the mechanical properties of as-received material to gain design information on characteristics needed for the material in the space shuttle environment, and to obtain data needed for evaluating component and panel tests. Four beryllium structural assemblies were analyzed and designed. Selected components of these assemblies, representing areas of critical loading or design/process uncertainty, were designed and tested, and two panel assemblies were fabricated. Trends in cost and weight factors were determined by progressive estimation at key points of preliminary design, final design, and fabrication to aid in a cost/weight evaluation of the use of beryllium.

  9. [Chronic Beryllium disease after exposure to low-beryllium-content copper].

    PubMed

    Hasejima, N; Kobayashi, H; Takezawa, S; Yamato, K; Kadoyama, C; Kawano, Y

    1995-10-01

    A 24-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of exertional dyspnea and abnormal shadows on chest X-ray film. He worked in a factory, where he was exposed to 1.8% beryllium-copper alloys. His job was to draw out heated beryllium-copper wire to make it more fine. Chest X-ray film and chest CT scan showed left-sided pneumothorax, diffuse fine reticulonodular shadows, and several cysts. Pulmonary-function tests showed a restrictive disorder and a low diffusing capacity. A specimen obtained by open-lung biopsy showed epithelioid cell granuloma and alveolitis, which were compatible with chronic beryllium disease. The beryllium content of the lung tissue was 0.045 microgram/gram. Beryllium lymphocyte transformation tests on blood and on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were positive. Based on these findings, chronic beryllium disease was diagnosed. After treatment with 1 mg/kg of prednisolone daily, dyspnea disappeared. Then the dose was tapered slowly. In Japan, chronic beryllium disease is extremely rare, and to our knowledge only 22 other cases have been reported. PMID:8544383

  10. Thermal neutron scintillators using unenriched boron nitride and zinc sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, J. E.; Cole, A. J.; Kirby, A.; Marsden, E.

    2015-06-01

    Thermal neutron detectors based on powdered zinc sulfide intimately mixed with a neutron capture compound have a history as long as scintillation technique itself. We show that using unenriched boron nitride powder, rather than the more commonly used enriched lithium fluoride, results in detection screens which produce less light but which are very considerably cheaper. Methods of fabricating large areas of this material are presented. The screens are intended for the production of large area low cost neutron detectors as a replacement for helium-3 proportional tubes.

  11. Beryllium window for synchrotron light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, D.R.; Berman, L.; Montanez, P.; Pjerov, S.; Stefan, P.; Woodle, M.

    1996-10-01

    As part of an on-going upgrade program at the National Synchrotron Light Source, a parametric study of rectangular flat and curved beryllium windows of varying thickness and heights and under varying thermal loading was undertaken. The study consisted of a series of 2D and 3D thermal stress finite element analyses to determine the relative benefit of various combinations of parameters with respect to the windows` ability to withstand thermal loads. This study includes evaluation of fixed versus flexible mounting of flat and curved beryllium windows. Buckling analyses for both types of mountings are also included.

  12. Beryllium colorimetric detection for high speed monitoring of laboratory environments.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Tammy P; Sauer, Nancy N

    2002-08-01

    The health consequences of beryllium (Be2+) exposure can be severe. Beryllium is responsible for a debilitating and potentially fatal lung disease, chronic beryllium disease (CBD) resulting from inhalation of beryllium particles. The US Code of Federal Register (CFR), 10 CFR 850, has established a limit of 0.2 microg beryllium/100 cm(2) as the maximum amount of beryllium allowable on surfaces to be released from beryllium work areas in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The analytical technique described herein reduces the time and cost of detecting beryllium on laboratory working surfaces substantially. The technique provides a positive colorimetric response to the presence of beryllium on a 30.5 cm x 30.5 cm (1 ft(2)) surface at a minimum detection of 0.2 microg/100 cm(2). The method has been validated to provide positive results for beryllium in the presence of excess iron, calcium, magnesium, copper, nickel, chromium and lead at concentrations 100 times that of beryllium and aluminum and uranium (UO2(2+)) at lesser concentrations. The colorimetric detection technique has also been validated to effectively detect solid forms of beryllium including Be(OH)2, BeCl2, BeSO4, beryllium metal and BeO. PMID:12137989

  13. Boron isotopic compositions of some boron minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oi, Takao; Nomura, Masao; Musashi, Masaaki; Ossaka, Tomoko; Okamoto, Makoto; Kakihana, Hidetake

    1989-12-01

    Boron minerals that have different structural formulae but are supposed to have the same geologic origin have been collected and analyzed for the 11B /10B isotopic ratio. It has been reconfirmed that minerals of marine origin have higher 11B /10B ratios than those of nonmarine origin. It has been found that the sequence of decreasing 11B /10B values among the minerals with the same geologic origin is; borax, tincal, kernite (Na borates) > ulexite ( Na/Ca borate) > colemanite, iyoite, meyerhofferite (Ca borates). This sequence is explainable on the basis of the difference in crystal structure among the minerals. That is, minerals with higher BO 3/BO 4 ratios, (the ratio of the number of the BO 3 triangle units to the number of the BO 4 tetrahedron units in the structural formula of a mineral) have higher 11B /10B ratios.

  14. Exploration of Boron Nitride By Louis Baum

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angles, University of

    Exploration of Boron Nitride By Louis Baum Department of Physics examples of these crystals are graphene and boron nitride. Graphene is a single, and graphite. Boron nitride, often called white graphene, has a similar structure

  15. Minerals Yearbook 1989: Lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The United States led the world in lithium mineral and compound production and consumption. Estimated consumption increased slightly, and world production also grew. Sales increased for domestic producers, who announced price increases for the third consecutive year. Because lithium is electrochemically reactive and has other unique properties, there are many commercial lithium products. Producers sold lithium as mineral concentrate, brine, compound, or metal, depending upon the end use. Most lithium compounds were consumed in the production of ceramics, glass, and primary aluminum.

  16. Summary of beryllium specifications, current and historical

    SciTech Connect

    Abeln, S.P.; Kyed, P.

    1990-12-28

    This report summarizes beryllium properties included in producer, Department of Energy, and government specifications. The specifications are divided into two major categories: current and historical. Within each category the data are arranged primarily according to increasing purity and secondarily by increasing tensile properties. Qualitative comments on formability and weldability are included. Also, short summaries of powder production and consolidation techniques are provided.

  17. REVIEWS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS: VI. BERYLLIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a review of the scientific literature on the biological and environmental effects of beryllium. Included in the review are a general summary and a comprehensive discussion of the following topics as related to beryllium and specific beryllium compounds: physical and...

  18. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of...

  19. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of...

  20. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30... and Offsets; Overpayments Payment of Claims and Offset for Certain Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical examinations to confirm...

  1. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30... and Offsets; Overpayments Payment of Claims and Offset for Certain Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical examinations to confirm...

  2. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30... and Offsets; Overpayments Payment of Claims and Offset for Certain Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical examinations to confirm...

  3. Relativistic and QED corrections for the Beryllium atom Krzysztof Pachucki

    E-print Network

    Pachucki, Krzysztof

    Relativistic and QED corrections for the Beryllium atom Krzysztof Pachucki #3; Institute are calculated for the ground state of the beryllium atom and its positive ion. A basis set of correlated of high precision theoretical predictions for energy levels of the beryllium atom and light ions. Our

  4. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of...

  5. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30... and Offsets; Overpayments Payment of Claims and Offset for Certain Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical examinations to confirm...

  6. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of...

  7. April 7, 1998 Studies of Coolant Compatibility with Beryllium

    E-print Network

    Cinabro, David

    CBX 98­8 April 7, 1998 D.Cinabro S.McGee Studies of Coolant Compatibility with Beryllium Abstract A study of the petroleum­based coolant, PF200, has found it to be chemically compat­ ible with beryllium. These features make PF200 a suitable substitute for water in the coolant system of CLEO's beryllium beam pipe. 1

  8. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of...

  9. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30... and Offsets; Overpayments Payment of Claims and Offset for Certain Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical examinations to confirm...

  10. Nuclear Transmutations in HFIR's Beryllium Reflector and Their Impact on Reactor Operation and Reflector Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, David; Maldonado, G Ivan; Primm, Trent; Proctor, Larry Duane

    2012-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory utilizes a large cylindrical beryllium reflector that is subdivided into three concentric regions and encompasses the compact reactor core. Nuclear transmutations caused by neutron activation occur in the beryllium reflector regions, which leads to unwanted neutron absorbing and radiation emitting isotopes. During the past year, two topics related to the HFIR beryllium reflector were reviewed. The first topic included studying the neutron poison (helium-3 and lithium-6) buildup in the reflector regions and its affect on beginning-of-cycle reactivity. A new methodology was developed to predict the reactivity impact and estimated symmetrical critical control element positions as a function of outage time between cycles due to helium-3 buildup and was shown to be in better agreement with actual symmetrical critical control element position data than the current methodology. The second topic included studying the composition of the beryllium reflector regions at discharge as well as during decay to assess the viability of transporting, storing, and ultimately disposing the reflector regions currently stored in the spent fuel pool. The post-irradiation curie inventories were used to determine whether the reflector regions are discharged as transuranic waste or become transuranic waste during the decay period for disposal purposes and to determine the nuclear hazard category, which may affect the controls invoked for transportation and temporary storage. Two of the reflector regions were determined to be transuranic waste at discharge and the other region was determined to become transuranic waste in less than 2 years after being discharged due to the initial uranium content (0.0044 weight percent uranium). It was also concluded that all three of the reflector regions could be classified as nuclear hazard category 3 (potential for localized consequences only).

  11. Solvent removal of beryllium from surfaces of equipment made of beryllium copper.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, A; Turcotte, V; Golshahi, H; Viau, S; Perrault, G; Dion, C

    2009-06-01

    Exposure to beryllium compounds, both by inhalation and skin contact, may result in immune sensitization and chronic beryllium disease. The objective of the present research work was to study the feasibility of removing beryllium compounds from the surfaces of devices made of Be-Cu alloy and to estimate the frequency at which the surfaces had to be rubbed in order to evaluate the likelihood that beryllium can be removed from the surfaces by serial wipe sampling at concentrations exceeding the US Department of Energy (DOE) standard limit of 0.2 microg per 100 cm2. The standard limit was exceeded after successive cleanings of moulds and plates made of Be-Cu alloy with solvents such Citranox, an acidic solvent, Alconox, Z-99 and Fantastik, basic solvents, or more neutral solvents such as Luminox and water. Citranox was the best solvent for extracting beryllium from the tested surfaces, while Alconox seemed to be the second best one. In general, warm water, Luminox and Z-99 seemed to be less efficient for extracting Be from all equipment. The results of the present study suggest that Ghost Wipes, when passed across a surface under the firm pressure of an individual's hand, can be used to detect beryllium contamination. However, they seem to show low reliability for quantification. From a safety standpoint in occupational settings, workers should be offered skin protection and respiratory protection if they have to handle devices made of Be-Cu alloy. PMID:19254960

  12. Method of fabricating boron containing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1999-04-27

    Hard coatings are fabricated from boron nitride, cubic boron nitride, and multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron is formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron and cubic boron nitride, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be discrete or of a blended or graded composition. 3 figs.

  13. Method of fabricating boron containing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Hard coatings are fabricated from boron nitride, cubic boron nitride, and multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron is formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron and cubic boron nitride, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be discrete or of a blended or graded composition.

  14. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas (Great Salt Lake, Searles Lake), geothermal systems (Salton Sea) and oil fields contain lithium, but in low concentrations that add relatively little to estimated global resources. Igneous deposits, which constitute 26% of estimated global resources, consist largely of pegmatites, including past and present producers at Kings Mountain-Bessemer City (USA), Greenbushes (Australia) and Bikita (Zimbabwe), as well as numerous active prospects, especially in Canada and China. Amenability of these deposits to economic extraction is controlled by mineralogy and zoning of lithium, which vary considerably from deposit to deposit. An additional 8% of global lithium resources is estimated to be present in unusual deposits including largely hectorite clays in volcaniclastic rocks at Kings Valley (USA) and jadarite in lacustrine evaporite deposits (Serbia), which present new challenges to both mining and processing. If this highly varied population of deposits can be converted to reserves, lithium supplies for the 21st century EV market are relatively secure.

  15. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  16. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  17. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  18. Testing of Liquid Lithium Limiters in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect

    R. Majeski; R. Kaita; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; T. Gray; B. Jones; D. Hoffman; H. Kugel; J. Menard; T. Munsat; A. Post-Zwicker; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; R. Maingi; M. Maiorano; S. Smith; D. Rodgers

    2004-07-30

    Part of the development of liquid metals as a first wall or divertor for reactor applications must involve the investigation of plasma-liquid metal interactions in a functioning tokamak. Most of the interest in liquid-metal walls has focused on lithium. Experiments with lithium limiters have now been conducted in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) device at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Initial experiments used a liquid-lithium rail limiter (L3) built by the University of California at San Diego. Spectroscopic measurements showed some reduction of impurities in CDX-U plasmas with the L3, compared to discharges with a boron carbide limiter. While no reduction in recycling was observed with the L3, which had a plasma-wet area of approximately 40 cm2, subsequent experiments with a larger area fully toroidal lithium limiter demonstrated significant reductions in both recycling and in impurity levels. Two series of experiments with the toroidal limiter have now be en performed. In each series, the area of exposed, clean lithium was increased, until in the latest experiments the liquid-lithium plasma-facing area was increased to 2000 cm2. Under these conditions, the reduction in recycling required a factor of eight increase in gas fueling in order to maintain the plasma density. The loop voltage required to sustain the plasma current was reduced from 2 V to 0.5 V. This paper summarizes the technical preparations for lithium experiments and the conditioning required to prepare the lithium surface for plasma operations. The mechanical response of the liquid metal to induced currents, especially through contact with the plasma, is discussed. The effect of the lithium-filled toroidal limiter on plasma performance is also briefly described.

  19. Historical analysis of airborne beryllium concentrations at a copper beryllium machining facility (1964-2000).

    PubMed

    McAtee, B L; Donovan, E P; Gaffney, S H; Frede, W; Knutsen, J S; Paustenbach, D J

    2009-06-01

    Copper beryllium alloys are the most commonly used form of beryllium; however, there have been few studies assessing occupational exposure in facilities that worked exclusively with this alloy versus those where pure metal or beryllium oxide may also have been present. In this paper, we evaluated the airborne beryllium concentrations at a machining plant using historical industrial hygiene samples collected between 1964 and 2000. With the exception of a few projects conducted in the 1960s, it is believed that >95% of the operations used copper beryllium alloy exclusively. Long-term (>120 min) and short-term (<120 min) personal and area samples were collected during a variety of activities including machining of copper beryllium-containing parts, as well as finishing operations (e.g., deburring and polishing) and decontamination of machinery. A total of 580 beryllium air samples were analyzed (311 personal and 269 area samples). The average concentration based on area samples (1964-2000) was 0.021 microg m(-3) (SD 0.17 microg m(-3); range 0.00012-2.5 microg m(-3)); 68.8% were below the analytical limit of detection (LOD). The average airborne beryllium concentration, based on all personal samples available from 1964 through the end of 2000 (n = 311), was 0.026 microg m(-3) (SD 0.059 microg m(-3); range 0.019-0.8 microg m(-3)); 97.4% were below the LOD. Personal samples collected from machinists (n = 78) had an average airborne concentration of 0.021 microg m(-3) (SD 0.014 microg m(-3); range 0.019-0.14 microg m(-3)); 97.4% were below the LOD. Airborne concentrations were consistently below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit for beryllium (2 microg m(-3)). Overall, the data indicate that for machining operations involving copper beryllium, the airborne concentrations for >95% of the samples were below the contemporaneous occupational exposure limits or the 1999 Department of Energy action level of 0.2 microg m(-3) and, in most cases, were below the LOD. PMID:19383942

  20. Boron Clusters Come of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Russell N.

    2004-01-01

    Boron is the only element other than carbon that can build molecules of unlimited size by covalently boding to itself, a property known as catenation. In contrast to the chains and rings favored by carbon, boron arguably adopts a cluster motif that is reflected in the various forms of the pure element and in the huge area of polyhedral borane…

  1. Boron containing multilayer coatings and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Hard coatings are fabricated from multilayer boron/boron carbide, boron carbide/cubic boron nitride, and boron/boron nitride/boron carbide, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron and boron carbide used in forming the multilayers are formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/boron carbide, and boron carbide/cubic boron nitride is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron, cubic boron nitride or boron carbide, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be of a discrete or a blended or graded composition.

  2. Structure and Local Chemical Properties of Boron-Terminated Tetravacancies in Hexagonal Boron Nitride

    E-print Network

    Structure and Local Chemical Properties of Boron-Terminated Tetravacancies in Hexagonal Boron of boron-terminated tetravacancies in hexagonal boron nitride. We confirm earlier theoretical predictions boron nitride (h-BN) has gained a lot of attention following a considerable amount of work on graphene

  3. Functionalized boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Sainsbury, Toby; Ikuno, Takashi; Zettl, Alexander K

    2014-04-22

    A plasma treatment has been used to modify the surface of BNNTs. In one example, the surface of the BNNT has been modified using ammonia plasma to include amine functional groups. Amine functionalization allows BNNTs to be soluble in chloroform, which had not been possible previously. Further functionalization of amine-functionalized BNNTs with thiol-terminated organic molecules has also been demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles have been self-assembled at the surface of both amine- and thiol-functionalized boron nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) in solution. This approach constitutes a basis for the preparation of highly functionalized BNNTs and for their utilization as nanoscale templates for assembly and integration with other nanoscale materials.

  4. Boron-Lined Multitube Neutron Proportional Counter Test

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2010-09-07

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride (BF3)-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated non-scintillating plastic fibers. In addition, a few other companies have detector technologies that might be competitive in the near term as an alternative technology. Reported here are the results of tests of a boron-lined, “multitube” proportional counter manufactured by Centronic Ltd. (Surry, U.K. and Houston, TX). This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma-ray rejection capabilities of the detector.

  5. Beryllium window for an APS diagnostics beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, I.C.; Yang, B.X.; Sharma, Y.S.

    1997-09-01

    A beryllium (Be) window for an Advanced Photon Source (APS) diagnostics beamline has been designed and built. The window, which has a double concave axisymmetrical profile with a thickness of 0.5 mm at the center, receives 160 W/mm{sup 2} (7 GeV/100 mA stored beam) from an undulator beam. The window design as well as thermal and thermomechanical analyses, including thermal buckling of the Be window, are presented.

  6. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium windows

    SciTech Connect

    Gmur, N.F.

    1986-12-01

    It is known that various crystalline and liquid compounds form on the downstream surfaces of beryllium windows exposed to air. It is also known that the integrity of such windows may be compromised resulting in leaks through the window. The purpose of this report is to document the occurrences described as they pertain to the NSLS and to analyze, where possible, the various substances formed.

  7. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation

    SciTech Connect

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Paducha, M.; Scholz, M.; Igielski, A.; Karpinski, L.; Pytel, K.

    2014-08-21

    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction {sup 9}Be(n, ?){sup 6}He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, {sup 6}He, decays with half-life T{sub 1/2} = 0.807 s emitting ?{sup ?} particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of ?–particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known ?–source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5–the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of ?{sup ?} particles emitted from radioactive {sup 6}He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  8. Investigation of Zeff and impurity behaviour in lithium coating experiments with full metallic first wall in HT-7 tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yingjie; Wu, Zhenwei; Liu, Xiaoju; Wang, Dongsheng; Duan, Yanmin; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Ling; Huang, Juan; Sun, Zhen; Jie, Yinxian; Zhao, Junyu

    2015-02-01

    The control of the impurity level in magnetically confined plasmas is a critical issue for future fusion devices. All the graphite tiles have been replaced by molybdenum tiles as limiter materials in the 2011 spring campaign in order to further reduce the recycling and hydrogen content of the plasma. A lithium coating technique has been applied as an important wall conditioning method to the HT-7 tokamak. The effective ion charge Zeff and impurity behavior with full metallic first walls of high-Z materials and lower hydrogen recycling have been investigated in a series of lithium coating experiments in this paper. Plasma performance and impurity behavior without wall coatings are studied in the early stage of the campaign. Comparison of Zeff with different plasma-facing components has been made. A typical lithium coating experiment has been analyzed in order to understand the effect of lithium coating. The evolution of main impurity line radiation, Zeff and the H/(H + D) ratio is analyzed in detail as lithium coating is repeated, indicating that lithium coating is a very effective tool to control impurity level and reduce hydrogen recycling. Furthermore, a boronization is conducted at the end of this campaign in order to make comparison with lithium coating. Experimental results show that lithium coating has much more advantages in edge recycling control, though it does not reduce impurity level as effectively as boronization.

  9. Interaction of nitrogen ions with beryllium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobes, Katharina; Köppen, Martin; Oberkofler, Martin; Lungu, Cristian P.; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Höschen, Till; Meisl, Gerd; Linsmeier, Christian; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of energetic nitrogen projectiles with a beryllium surface is studied using a highly sensitive quartz crystal microbalance technique. The overall mass change rate of the beryllium sample under N2+ ion impact at an ion energy of 5000 eV (i.e. 2500 eV per N) is investigated in situ and in real-time. A strong dependency of the observed mass change rate on the nitrogen fluence (at constant flux) is found and can be attributed to the formation of a nitrogen-containing mixed material layer within the ion penetration depth. The presented data elucidate the dynamics of the interaction process and the surface saturation with increasing nitrogen fluence in a unique way. Basically, distinct interaction regimes can be discriminated, which can be linked to the evolution of the surface composition upon nitrogen impact. Steady state surface conditions are obtained at a total cumulative nitrogen fluence of ?80 × 1016 N atoms per cm2. In dynamic equilibrium, the interaction is marked by continuous surface erosion. In this case, the observed total sputtering yield becomes independent from the applied nitrogen fluence and is of the order of 0.4 beryllium atoms per impinging nitrogen atom.

  10. Radiation damage and defect behavior in proton irradiated lithium-counterdoped n+p silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stupica, John; Goradia, Chandra; Swartz, Clifford K.; Weinberg, Irving

    1987-01-01

    Two lithium-counterdoped n+p silicon solar cells with different lithium concentrations were irradiated by 10-MeV protons. Cell performance was measured as a function of fluence, and it was found that the cell with the highest concentration of lithium had the highest radiation resistance. Deep level transient spectroscopy which showed two deep level defects that were lithium related. Relating the defect energy levels obtained from this study with those from earlier work using 1-MeV electron irradiation shows no correlation of the defect energy levels. There is one marked similarity: the absence of the boron-interstitial-oxygen-interstitial defect. This consistency strengthens the belief that lithium interacts with oxygen to prevent the formation of the boron interstitial-oxygen interstitial defect. The results indicate that, in general, addition of lithium in small amounts to the p-base of a boron doped silicon solar cell such that the base remains p-type, tends to increase the radiation resistance of the cell.

  11. Rechargeable lithium battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Slane, S.M.; Plichta, E.J.

    1991-01-08

    This patent describes a rechargeable lithium battery system that contains no metallic lithium. It comprises: a transition metal sulfide anode, a lithiated transition metal oxide cathode, and a solution of a lithium salt in an aprotic organic solvent as the electrolyte.

  12. Beryllium surface levels in a military ammunition plant.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Wayne T; Leonard, Stephanie; Ott, Darrin; Fuortes, Laurence; Field, William

    2008-07-01

    This study evaluated the presence of beryllium surface contamination in a U.S. conventional munitions plant as an indicator of possible past beryllium airborne and skin exposure and used these measurements to classify job categories by potential level of exposure. Surface samples were collected from production and nonproduction areas of the plant and at regional industrial reference sites with no known history of beryllium use. Surface samples of premoistened wiping material were analyzed for beryllium mass content using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and results expressed as micrograms of beryllium per 100 square centimeters (micro g/100 cm(2)). Beryllium was detected in 87% of samples collected at the munitions plant and in 72% of the samples collected at regional reference sites. Two munitions plant samples from areas near sanders and grinders were above 3.0 micro g/100 cm(2) (U.S. Department of Energy surface contamination limit). The highest surface level found at the reference sites was 0.44 micro g/100 cm(2). Workers in areas where beryllium-containing alloy tools were sanded or ground, but not other work areas, may have been exposed to airborne beryllium concentrations above levels encountered in other industries where metal work is conducted. Surface sampling provided information useful for categorizing munitions plant jobs by level of past beryllium airborne and skin exposure and, subsequently, for identifying employees within exposure strata to be screened for beryllium sensitization. PMID:18569510

  13. Functionally Graded Nanophase Beryllium/Carbon Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Beryllium, beryllium alloys, beryllium carbide, and carbon are the ingredients of a class of nanophase Be/Be2C/C composite materials that can be formulated and functionally graded to suit a variety of applications. In a typical case, such a composite consists of a first layer of either pure beryllium or a beryllium alloy, a second layer of B2C, and a third layer of nanophase sintered carbon derived from fullerenes and nanotubes. The three layers are interconnected through interpenetrating spongelike structures. These Be/Be2C/C composite materials are similar to Co/WC/diamond functionally graded composite materials, except that (1) W and Co are replaced by Be and alloys thereof and (2) diamond is replaced by sintered carbon derived from fullerenes and nanotubes. (Optionally, one could form a Be/Be2C/diamond composite.) Because Be is lighter than W and Co, the present Be/Be2C/C composites weigh less than do the corresponding Co/WC/diamond composites. The nanophase carbon is almost as hard as diamond. WC/Co is the toughest material. It is widely used for drilling, digging, and machining. However, the fact that W is a heavy element (that is, has high atomic mass and mass density) makes W unattractive for applications in which weight is a severe disadvantage. Be is the lightest tough element, but its toughness is less than that of WC/Co alloy. Be strengthened by nanophase carbon is much tougher than pure or alloy Be. The nanophase carbon has an unsurpassed strength-to-weight ratio. The Be/Be2C/C composite materials are especially attractive for terrestrial and aerospace applications in which there are requirements for light weight along with the high strength and toughness of the denser Co/WC/diamond materials. These materials could be incorporated into diverse components, including cutting tools, bearings, rocket nozzles, and shields. Moreover, because Be and C are effective as neutron moderators, Be/Be2C/C composites could be attractive for some nuclear applications.

  14. How well do we understand Beryllium-7 + proton -> Boron-8 + photon? An Effective Field Theory perspective

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Xilin; Phillips, D R

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the 7Be(p,photon)8B reaction in the Halo effective field theory (EFT) framework. The leading order (LO) results were published in Phys.Rev.C89,051602(2014) after the isospin mirror process, 7Li(n,photon)8Li, was addressed in Phys.Rev.C89,024613(2014). In both calculations, one key step was using the final shallow bound state asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANCs) computed by ab initio methods to fix the EFT couplings. Recently we have developed the next-to-LO (NLO) formalism (to appear soon), which could reproduce other model results by no worse than 1% when the 7Be-p energy was between 0 and 0.5 MeV. In our recent report (arXiv:1507.07239), a different approach from that in Phys.Rev.C89,051602(2014) was used. We applied Bayesian analysis to constrain all the NLO-EFT parameters based on measured S-factors, and found tight constraints on the S-factor at solar energies. Our S(E=0 MeV)= 21.3 + - 0.7 eV b. The uncertainty is half of that previously recommended. In this proceeding, we provide...

  15. Control of beryllium powder at a DOE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, G.C.; Creek, K.L.; Castro, R.G.

    1997-12-31

    Beryllium is contained in a number of domestic and national defense items. Although many items might contain beryllium in some manner, few people need worry about the adverse effects caused by exposure to beryllium because it is the inhalable form of beryllium that is most toxic. Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a granulomas and fibrotic lung disease with long latency, can be developed after inhalation exposures to beryllium. It is a progressive, debilitating lung disease. Its occurrence in those exposed to beryllium has been difficult to predict because some people seem to react to low concentration exposures whereas others do not react to high concentration exposures. Onset of the disease frequently occurs between 15 to 20 years after exposure begins. Some people develop the disease after many years of low concentration exposures but others do not develop CBD even though beryllium is shown to be present in lungs and urine. Conclusions based on these experiences are that their is some immunological dependence of developing CBD in about 3--4% of the exposed population, but the exact mechanism involved has not yet been identified. Acute beryllium disease can occur after a single exposure to a concentration of greater than 0.100 mg/m3 (inhalation exposure); it is characterized by the development of chemical pneumoconiosis, a respiratory disease. The acute effect of skin contact is a dermatitis characterized by itching and reddened, elevated, or fluid-accumulated lesions which appear particularly on the exposed surfaces of the body, especially the face, neck, arms, and hands. Small particles of beryllium that enter breaks in the skin can lead to the development of granulomas and/or open sores that do not heal until the beryllium has been removed. Our interest is only airborne beryllium, which is found in areas that machine or produce beryllium.

  16. Marked tachypnea in siblings with chronic beryllium disease due to copper-beryllium alloy.

    PubMed

    Tarlo, S M; Rhee, K; Powell, E; Amer, E; Newman, L; Liss, G; Jones, N

    2001-02-01

    Two biological sisters working at the same factory for > 9 years developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD) from a copper-beryllium alloy. Both had marked tachypnea (36 breaths/min and 45 breaths/min at rest, respectively), persisting over 8 years. Ventilation during exercise (assessed in one sibling) was grossly excessive (57 L/min, expected 23 L/min) with a respiratory rate of 64 breaths/min even with normal baseline routine pulmonary function tests. Blood beryllium lymphocyte transformation test and lung biopsies confirmed the diagnosis. No other cases of CBD have been reported from this plant among about 120 workers. These cases support the genetic basis for berylliosis and illustrate the marked tachypnea that may accompany this disease. PMID:11171753

  17. The Cryogenic Properties of Several Aluminum-Beryllium Alloys and a Beryllium Oxide Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Performance related mechanical properties for two aluminum-beryllium (Al-Be) alloys and one beryllium-oxide (BeO) material were developed at cryogenic temperatures. Basic mechanical properties (Le., ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percent elongation, and elastic modulus were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 at cryogenic [-195.5"C (-320 F) and -252.8"C (-423"F)I temperatures. Basic mechanical properties for the Be0 material were obtained at cyrogenic [- 252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. Fracture properties were obtained for the investment cast alloy Beralcast 363 at cryogenic [-252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. The AlBeMetl62 material was extruded, the Be0 material was hot isostatic pressing (HIP) consolidated, and the Beralcast 363 material was investment cast.

  18. Lithium use in batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Determination of Natural Beryllium (Be) in Soil and Swipe Samples Utilizing Yttrium/Beryllium Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-30

    1. Objective: A method to determine whether beryllium (Be) components in surface swipe samples are from a natural source is needed. 2. Methods: Soil samples and surface swipes from area facilities were analyzed for marker elements to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be). To be useful, the natural marker element must be present at reasonably consistent levels across the site, must correlate with the Be concentration, and not have the potential to be present from non-natural sources. 3. Results: The research on marker elements used to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be) concentrations demonstrates a clear correlation between Be and yttrium (Y) in natural soils on the Nevada National Security Site. The Y/Be ratio is proposed as a method to characterize the source of Be in soil and surface swipe samples and to aid in recommendations for follow up actions. Swipe samples are analyzed using an ICP/MS method and compared with results from soil samples. Natural soil constituent levels and the Y/Be Ratio range is determined for the occupied and historical facilities and surrounding areas. Y/Be ratios within the statistical range established indicate the Be is from a natural source. Y/Be ratios lower than this range indicate the presence of another Be source, and may then be correlated to alloy, ceramic, or other operational sources by the ratios of copper, nickel, cobalt, uranium, and/or niobium. Example case studies of evaluations of buildings with historical operational beryllium usage, current ongoing technical processes, and heavy equipment used in large building demolitions are included demonstrating the value of the ratio approach. 4. Conclusions: This differentiation is valuable as there is no known correlation between natural beryllium in soil and beryllium disease.

  20. Implications of beryllium : steam interactions in fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolik, G. R.; Merrill, B. J.; Wallace, R. S.

    1992-09-01

    Reaction rates were determined for fully dense and porous 88% dense beryllium in steam between 600 and 1230°C. These materials could represent high or low quality plasma-sprayed beryllium on plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a fusion reactor. Reaction rates for the porous material were 200 times higher than those for solid material at comparable temperatures. The porous material also developed self-sustaining reactions at temperatures as low as 600°C. First wall temperatures calculated for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) during a worst-case loss of coolant accident (LOCA) indicate that 2 mm thick layers of either dense or porous beryllium would completely react. The generation of over 640 kg of hydrogen and aerosols containing 68 kg of beryllium presents serious safety concerns. The poor thermal stability of porous beryllium, which could also represent blanket material, suggests that a more stable form or compound of beryllium should be used for these applications.

  1. Characterization of Plasma Sprayed Beryllium ITER First Wall Mockups

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Richard G.; Vaidya, Rajendra U.; Hollis, Kendall J.

    1997-12-31

    ITER first wall beryllium mockups, which were fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying the beryllium armor, have survived 3000 thermal fatigue cycles at 1 MW/sq m without damage during high heat flux testing at the Plasma Materials Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. The thermal and mechanical properties of the plasma sprayed beryllium armor have been characterized. Results are reported on the chemical composition of the beryllium armor in the as-deposited condition, the through thickness and normal to the through thickness thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, the four-point bend flexure strength and edge-notch fracture toughness of the beryllium armor, the bond strength between the beryllium armor and the underlying heat sink material, and ultrasonic C-scans of the Be/heat sink interface.

  2. Electrochemical sensing using boronic acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Zhu, Weihong; Marken, Frank; James, Tony D

    2015-10-01

    Boronic acids can bind with 1,2- or 1,3-diols to form five or six-membered cyclic complexes and also can interact with Lewis bases to generate boronate anions. Therefore, boronic acid functionalised compounds and materials are highly topical and now employed in (i) functional materials, (ii) for attaching/sensing bio-molecules and proteins, and (iii) for microbial electrochemistry as well as being widely developed as chemical sensors and tools in health diagnostics. In this review, we address the recent progress of boronic acid-based electrochemical sensors both in solution processes and surface processes for the detection of biological analytes. This feature article will be of interest to chemists, chemical engineers, biochemists, the sensor community, but also researchers working with protein and microbial systems. PMID:26344155

  3. Density functional study of hydrogen adsorption on beryllium (0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Allouche, A.

    2008-08-15

    Beryllium, tungsten, and carbon are planned as wall materials for the future international tokamak. Although beryllium is not situated in a region submitted to the most dramatic plasma-wall interaction, its reactivity toward hydrogen atom impinging is of fundamental importance. This paper is devoted to theoretical study of hydrogen adsorption on the beryllium (0001) surface based on the first-principles discrete Fourier transform method. Comparison is proposed to former theoretical works and to thermal-desorption spectroscopy.

  4. Prevalence of beryllium sensitization among aluminium smelter workers

    PubMed Central

    Slade, M. D.; Cantley, L. F.; Kirsche, S. R.; Wesdock, J. C.; Cullen, M. R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Beryllium exposure occurs in aluminium smelters from natural contamination of bauxite, the principal source of aluminium. Aims To characterize beryllium exposure in aluminium smelters and determine the prevalence rate of beryllium sensitization (BeS) among aluminium smelter workers. Methods A population of 3185 workers from nine aluminium smelters owned by four different aluminium-producing companies were determined to have significant beryllium exposure. Of these, 1932 workers participated in medical surveillance programmes that included the serum beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), confirmation of sensitization by at least two abnormal BeLPT test results and further evaluation for chronic beryllium disease in workers with BeS. Results Personal beryllium samples obtained from the nine aluminium smelters showed a range of <0.01–13.00 ?g/m3 time-weighted average with an arithmetic mean of 0.25 ?g/m3 and geometric mean of 0.06 ?g/m3. Nine workers were diagnosed with BeS (prevalence rate of 0.47%, 95% confidence interval = 0.21–0.88%). Conclusions BeS can occur in aluminium smelter workers through natural beryllium contamination of the bauxite and further concentration during the refining and smelting processes. Exposure levels to beryllium observed in aluminium smelters are similar to those seen in other industries that utilize beryllium. However, compared with beryllium-exposed workers in other industries, the rate of BeS among aluminium smelter workers appears lower. This lower observed rate may be related to a more soluble form of beryllium found in the aluminium smelting work environment as well as the consistent use of respiratory protection. PMID:20610489

  5. Reducing Boron Toxicity by Microbial Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.; Phelps, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    While electricity is a clean source of energy, methods of electricity-production, such as the use of coal-fired power plants, often result in significant environmental damage. Coal-fired electrical power plants produce air pollution, while contaminating ground water and soils by build-up of boron, which enters surrounding areas through leachate. Increasingly high levels of boron in soils eventually overcome boron tolerance levels in plants and trees, resulting in toxicity. Formation of insoluble boron precipitates, mediated by mineral-precipitating bacteria, may sequester boron into more stable forms that are less available and toxic to vegetation. Results have provided evidence of microbially-facilitated sequestration of boron into insoluble mineral precipitates. Analyses of water samples taken from ponds with high boron concentrations showed that algae present contained 3-5 times more boron than contained in the water in the samples. Boron sequestration may also be facilitated by the incorporation of boron within algal cells. Experiments examining boron sequestration by algae are in progress. In bacterial experiments with added ferric citrate, the reduction of iron by the bacteria resulted in an ironcarbonate precipitate containing boron. An apparent color change showing the reduction of amorphous iron, as well as the precipitation of boron with iron, was more favorable at higher pH. Analysis of precipitates by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy revealed mineralogical composition and biologicallymediated accumulation of boron precipitates in test-tube experiments.

  6. Boron diffusion in silicon devices

    DOEpatents

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Atlanta, GA); Kim, Dong Seop (Atlanta, GA); Nakayashiki, Kenta (Smyrna, GA); Rounsaville, Brian (Stockbridge, GA)

    2010-09-07

    Disclosed are various embodiments that include a process, an arrangement, and an apparatus for boron diffusion in a wafer. In one representative embodiment, a process is provided in which a boric oxide solution is applied to a surface of the wafer. Thereafter, the wafer is subjected to a fast heat ramp-up associated with a first heating cycle that results in a release of an amount of boron for diffusion into the wafer.

  7. Neutron detectors comprising boron powder

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

    2013-05-21

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  8. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes. PMID:26081242

  9. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes.

  10. Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites: evidence for a sedimentary precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, D.K.; Tuniz, C.; Moniot, R.K.; Kruse, T.H.; Herzog, G.F.

    1982-11-19

    Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 1 x 10/sup 8/ atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 x 10/sup 6/ years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

  11. Beryllium-10 in australasian tektites: evidence for a sedimentary precursor.

    PubMed

    Pal, D K; Tuniz, C; Moniot, R K; Kruse, T H; Herzog, G F

    1982-11-19

    Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 1 x l0(8) atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 x 10(6) years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event. PMID:17771035

  12. Possible health risks from low level exposure to beryllium.

    PubMed

    Stange, A W; Hilmas, D E; Furman, F J

    1996-07-17

    The first case of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) was diagnosed in a machinist in 1984. Rocky Flats, located 16 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado, is part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex. Research and development operations using beryllium began at Rocky Flats in 1953, and beryllium production operations began in 1957. Exposures could have occurred during foundry operations, casting, shearing, rolling, cutting, welding, machining, sanding, polishing, assembly, and chemical analysis operations. The Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP) was established in June 1991 at Rocky Flats to provide health surveillance for beryllium exposed employees using the Lymphocyte Proliferation Test (LPT) to identify sensitized individuals. Of the 29 cases of CBD and 76 cases of beryllium sensitization identified since 1991, several cases appear to have had only minimal opportunistic exposures to beryllium, since they were employed in administrative functions rather than primary beryllium operations. In conjunction with other health surveillance programs, a questionnaire and interview are administered to obtain detailed work and health histories. These histories, along with other data, are utilized to estimate the extent of an individual's exposure. Additional surveillance is in progress to attempt to characterize the possible risks from intermittent or brief exposures to beryllium in the workplace. PMID:8711738

  13. Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites - Evidence for a sedimentary precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, D. K.; Moniot, R. K.; Kruse, T. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Tuniz, C.

    1982-01-01

    Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 100 micron atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 million years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

  14. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site beryllium characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Morrell, D.M.; Miller, J.R.; Allen, D.F.

    1999-06-01

    A site beryllium characterization project was completed at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in 1997. Information from historical reviews, previous sampling surveys, and a new sampling survey were used to establish a more comprehensive understanding of the locations and levels of beryllium contamination in 35 buildings. A feature of the sampling strategy was to test if process knowledge was a good predictor of where beryllium contamination could be found. Results revealed that this technique was effective at identifying where surface contamination levels might exceed the RFETS smear control level but that it was not effective in identifying where low concentrations of beryllium might be found.

  15. Initial boronization of PBX-M using ablation from solid boronized probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H.W.; Timberlake, J.; Bell, R.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Takahashi, H.; Tighe, W.; Von Goeler, S. )

    1994-07-01

    Boronization was performed by plasma ablation of two solid boronized target probes. Probe-1, in a mushroom shape, consisted of a 10.7% boronized two-dimensional carbon-carbon composite containing 3.6 g of boron in a B[sub 4]C binder. Probe-2, in a rectangular shape, consisted of an 86% boronized graphite felt composite containing 19.5 g of 40-[mu]m boron particles. Probe-1 boronization deposited [approximately]26 monolayers of boron. After boronization with Probe-1, the loop voltage in 1-MW neutral-beam-heated plasmas decreased 27%, and volt-second consumption decreased 20%. Strong peripheral spectral lines from low-Z elements decreased by factors of [approximately]5. The central oxygen density decreased 15 to 20%. Carbon levels initially increased during boronization but were significantly reduced after boronization. The total radiated power during neutral beam injection decreased by 43%. Probe-2 boronization deposited [approximately]70 monolayers. Probe-2 boronization exhibited similar improved plasma conditions, but for some parameters, a smaller percentage change occurred because of the previous boronization with Probe-1. The ablation rates of both probes were consistent with front-face temperatures above the boron melting point. The results demonstrate the performance of two different boronized probe materials and the relative simplicity and effectiveness of solid target boronization as a convenient, real-time impurity control technique. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. New decade of shaped beryllium blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiguchi, Don H.; Heberling, Jody; Campbell, Jeffrey; Morales, Amanda; Sayer, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    Near-net-shape powder consolidation technology has been developing over the past 30+ years. One relatively recent example is production of hexagonal shaped beryllium mirror blanks made for the James Webb Space Telescope. More cost saving examples, specifically from the past decade, utilizing growing experience and lesson's learned whether from a mirror substrate or structure will be discussed to show the latitude of production technology. Powder consolidation techniques include Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) for either round or shaped blanks and Vacuum Hot Pressing (VHP) consolidation for round blanks. The range of sizes will be presented to further illustrate the latitude of current production capability.

  17. Beryllium particulate exposure and disease relations in a beryllium machining plant.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, P C; Martyny, J W; Mroz, M M; Maier, L A; Ruttenber, A J; Young, D A; Newman, L S

    2001-03-01

    We examined the relationship between exposure to beryllium and the presence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers in a beryllium precision machining facility. Twenty workers with BeS or CBD (cases) were compared with 206 worker-controls in a case-control study. Exposure for each job title was measured using cascade impactors placed in the workers' breathing zone to measure total beryllium exposure and exposure to particles < 6 microns and < 1 micron in aerodynamic diameter. Cumulative exposure was calculated as sigma (job title exposure estimate x years in job title). Individual lifetime-weighted (LTW) exposure was calculated as sigma [(job title exposure x years in job title) divided by total years employment)]. Workers in the case group were more likely to have worked as machinists (odds ratio, 4.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 17.5) than those in the control group. The median cumulative exposure was consistently greater in the cases compared with the controls for all exposure estimates and particle size fractions, although this was not statistically significant. The median cumulative exposure was 2.9 micrograms/m3-years in the cases versus 1.2 micrograms/m3-years in the controls for total exposure, and 1.7 micrograms/m3-years in the cases versus 0.5 microgram/m3-years in the controls for exposure to particles < 6 microns in diameter. With cumulative exposure categorized into low-, intermediate-, and high-exposure groups, the odds ratios were 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 0.7 to 8.2) for the intermediate-exposure group and 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.4 to 4.2) for the high-exposure group compared with the low-exposure group. The median LTW exposure was 0.25 microgram/m3 in both groups. The median LTW exposure to particles < 6 microns was 0.20 microgram/m3 in the cases compared with 0.14 microgram/m3 in the controls. The differences in cumulative and LTW exposure were not statistically significant. None of the 22 workers with LTW exposure < 0.02 microgram/m3 had BeS or CBD. Twelve workers (60%) in the case group had LTW exposures > 0.20. In conclusion, increased cumulative and LTW exposure to total and respirable beryllium was observed in workers with CBD or BeS compared with the controls. These results support efforts to control beryllium exposure in the workplace. PMID:11285872

  18. Beryllium Metal II. A Review of the Available Toxicity Data

    PubMed Central

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Beryllium metal was classified in Europe collectively with beryllium compounds, e.g. soluble salts. Toxicological equivalence was assumed despite greatly differing physicochemical properties. Following introduction of the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation, beryllium metal was classified as individual substance and more investigational efforts to appropriately characterize beryllium metal as a specific substance apart from soluble beryllium compounds was required. A literature search on toxicity of beryllium metal was conducted, and the resulting literature compiled together with the results of a recently performed study package into a comprehensive data set. Testing performed under Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development guidelines and Good Laboratory Practice concluded that beryllium metal was neither a skin irritant, an eye irritant, a skin sensitizer nor evoked any clinical signs of acute oral toxicity; discrepancies between the current legal classification of beryllium metal in the European Union (EU) and the experimental results were identified. Furthermore, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity were discussed in the context of the literature data and the new experimental data. It was concluded that beryllium metal is unlikely to be a classical nonthreshold mutagen. Effects on DNA repair and morphological cell transformation were observed but need further investigation to evaluate their relevance in vivo. Animal carcinogenicity studies deliver evidence of carcinogenicity in the rat; however, lung overload may be a species-specific confounding factor in the existing studies, and studies in other species do not give convincing evidence of carcinogenicity. Epidemiology has been intensively discussed over the last years and has the problem that the studies base on the same US beryllium production population and do not distinguish between metal and soluble compounds. It is noted that the correlation between beryllium exposure and carcinogenicity, even including the soluble compounds, remains under discussion in the scientific community and active research is continuing. PMID:21196456

  19. High Precision Spectroscopy of Neutral Beryllium-9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Chui Yu; Williams, Will

    2015-05-01

    We report on the progress of high precision spectroscopy of the 2s2p singlet and triplet states in beryllium-9. Our goal is to improve the experimental precision on the energy levels of the 2s2p triplet J = 0, 1, and 2 states by a factor of 500, 100, and 500 respectively in order to delineate various theoretical predictions. The goal for the 2s2p singlet (J = 1) state is to improve the experimental precision on the energy level by a factor of 600 as a test of quantum electrodynamics. Our experimental setup consists of an oven capable of 1400 C that produces a collimated beam of neutral beryllium-9. The triplet states are probed with a 455 nm ECDL stabilized to a tellurium-210 line. The singlet state is probed with 235nm light from a frequency quadrupled titanium sapphire laser, where the frequency doubled light at 470 nm is stabilized to another tellurium-210 line. We also present our progress on improving the absolute accuracy of our frequency reference by using an ultrastable/low drift fiber coupled cavity.

  20. Thick beryllium coatings by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H; Nikroo, A; Youngblood, K; Moreno, K; Wu, D; Fuller, T; Alford, C; Hayes, J; Detor, A; Wong, M; Hamza, A; van Buuren, T; Chason, E

    2011-04-14

    Thick (>150 {micro}m) beryllium coatings are studied as an ablator material of interest for fusion fuel capsules for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). As an added complication, the coatings are deposited on mm-scale spherical substrates, as opposed to flats. DC magnetron sputtering is used because of the relative controllability of the processing temperature and energy of the deposits. We used ultra small angle x-ray spectroscopy (USAXS) to characterize the void fraction and distribution along the spherical surface. We investigated the void structure using a combination focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results show a few volume percent of voids and a typical void diameter of less than two hundred nanometers. Understanding how the stresses in the deposited material develop with thickness is important so that we can minimize film cracking and delamination. To that end, an in-situ multiple optical beam stress sensor (MOSS) was used to measure the stress behavior of thick Beryllium coatings on flat substrates as the material was being deposited. We will show how the film stress saturates with thickness and changes with pressure.

  1. One-dimensional two-phase reacting gas nonequilibrium performance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, S. S.; Frey, H. M.; Kliegel, J. R.; Quan, V.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program calculates the inviscid one-dimensional equilibrium, frozen, and nonequilibrium nozzle expansion of propellant exhaust mixtures containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, chlorine and either aluminum, beryllium, boron or lithium. This program performs calculations for conical nozzles only.

  2. Elementary Reactions of Boron Atoms with HydrocarbonssToward the Formation of Organo-Boron Compounds

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Elementary Reactions of Boron Atoms with HydrocarbonssToward the Formation of Organo-Boron 96822 Received December 16, 2009 Contents 1. Introduction 5107 1.1. Organo-Boron Molecules in Combustion Systems 5107 1.2. Organo-Boron Molecules on Chemical Vapor Deposition and Material Sciences 5108 1

  3. Lithium purification technique

    DOEpatents

    Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

    1984-01-10

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  4. Lithium purification technique

    DOEpatents

    Keough, Robert F. (Richland, WA); Meadows, George E. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  5. 40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. The...

  6. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

  7. 40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section...Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What...

  8. 40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section...Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What...

  9. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

  10. 40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section...Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What...

  11. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

  12. 40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. The...

  13. 40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. The...

  14. 40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section...Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What...

  15. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

  16. 40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. The...

  17. 40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section...Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What...

  18. 40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. The...

  19. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Pt. 850, App. A Appendix A to Part 850—Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Pt. 850, App. A Appendix A to Part 850—Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Pt. 850, App. A Appendix A to Part 850—Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Pt. 850, App. A Appendix A to Part 850—Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Pt. 850, App. A Appendix A to Part 850—Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent...

  5. Synthesis and photocurrent of amorphous boron nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Liehui; Lei, Sidong; Hart, Amelia H. C.; Gao, Guanhui; Jafry, Huma; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2014-08-01

    Although theoretically feasible, synthesis of boron nanostructures is challenging due to the highly reactive nature, high melting and boiling points of boron. We have developed a thermal vapor transfer approach to synthesizing amorphous boron nanowire using a solid boron source. The amorphous nature and chemical composition of boron nanowires were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Optical properties and photoconduction of boron nanowires have not yet been reported. In our investigation, the amorphous boron nanowire showed much better optical and electrical properties than previously reported photo-response of crystalline boron nanobelts. When excited by a blue LED, the photo/dark current ratio (I/I0) is 1.5 and time constants in the order of tens of seconds. I/I0 is 1.17 using a green light.

  6. Decreasing the leachibility of boron wood preservatives 

    E-print Network

    Gezer, Engin Derya

    1996-01-01

    The use of boron in wood preservatives has been growing since the 1930s, primarily in various boric acid/borax mixtures. Boron preservatives have several advantages for application as wood preservatives including a broad spectrum of activity...

  7. Boronated porhyrins and methods for their use

    DOEpatents

    Miura, M.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1999-03-02

    The present invention covers boronated porphyrins containing multiple carborane cages which selectively accumulate in neoplastic tissue within the irradiation volume and thus can be used in cancer therapies such as boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy. 3 figs.

  8. Boronated porhyrins and methods for their use

    DOEpatents

    Miura, Michiko (Hampton Bays, NY); Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Slatkin, Daniel N. (Southhold, NY)

    1999-03-02

    The present invention covers boronated porphyrins containing multiple carborane cages which selectively accumulate in neoplastic tissue within the irradiation volume and thus can be used in cancer therapies such as boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy.

  9. Main-sequence mass loss and the lithium dip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.; Steigman, Gary; Dearborn, David S. P.

    1990-01-01

    The significant dip in observed lithium abundances for Population I stars near M about 1.3 solar mass is discussed. It is noted that this dip occurs near where the instability strip crosses the main sequence on the lower edge of the Delta Scuti stars and that stellar pulsations are expected to give rise to mass loss. A total mass loss of 0.05 solar mass over the main-sequence lifetime of these stars would be sufficient to explain the observations of lithium depletion. The absence of a dip in the Pleiades and of significant depletion of beryllium in the Hyades places tight constraints on the rate of mass loss. These constraints make unlikely the high main-sequence mass-loss rates which would significantly affect globular cluster ages.

  10. Modeling Airborne Beryllium Concentrations From Open Air Dynamic Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, N. M.

    2003-12-01

    A heightened awareness of airborne beryllium contamination from industrial activities was reestablished during the late 1980's and early 1990's when it became recognized that Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD) had not been eradicated, and that the Occupational Health and Safety Administration standards for occupational air exposure to beryllium may not be sufficiently protective. This was in response to the observed CBD increase in multiple industrial settings where beryllium was manufactured and/or machined, thus producing beryllium particulates which are then available for redistribution by airborne transport. Sampling and modeling design activities were expanded at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico to evaluate potential airborne beryllium exposure to workers who might be exposed during dynamic testing activities associated with nuclear weapons Stockpile Stewardship. Herein is presented the results of multiple types of collected air measurements that were designed to characterize the production and dispersion of beryllium used in components whose performance is evaluated during high explosive detonation at open air firing sites. Data from fallout, high volume air, medium volume air, adhesive film, particle size impactor, and fine-particulate counting techniques will be presented, integrated, and applied in dispersion modeling to assess potential onsite and offsite personal exposures resulting from dynamic testing activities involving beryllium.

  11. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR BERYLLIUM: REVIEW DRAFT (APRIL 1986)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical and geochemical properties of beryllium resemble those of aluminum, zinc, and magnesium. This resemblance is primarily due to similar ionic potentials which facilitate covalent bonding. The three most common forms of beryllium in industrial emission are the metal, th...

  12. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR BERYLLIUM (1998 FINAL REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Beryllium and Compounds: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Beryllium and Compounds and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Data...

  13. Dissolution of beryllium in artificial lung alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

    2011-05-01

    Dissolution of a lung burden of poorly soluble beryllium particles is hypothesized to be necessary for development of chronic beryllium lung disease (CBD) in humans. As such, particle dissolution rate must be sufficient to activate the lung immune response and dissolution lifetime sufficient to maintain chronic inflammation for months to years to support development of disease. The purpose of this research was to investigate the hypothesis that poorly soluble beryllium compounds release ions via dissolution in lung fluid. Dissolution kinetics of 17 poorly soluble particulate beryllium materials that span extraction through ceramics machining (ores, hydroxide, metal, copper-beryllium [CuBe] fume, oxides) and three CuBe alloy reference materials (chips, solid block) were measured over 31 d using artificial lung alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid (pH 4.5). Differences in beryllium-containing particle physicochemical properties translated into differences in dissolution rates and lifetimes in artificial phagolysosomal fluid. Among all materials, dissolution rate constant values ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-10)gcm(-2)d(-1) and half-times ranged from tens to thousands of days. The presence of magnesium trisilicate in some beryllium oxide materials may have slowed dissolution rates. Materials associated with elevated prevalence of CBD had faster beryllium dissolution rates [10(-7)-10(-8)gcm(-2)d(-1)] than materials not associated with elevated prevalence (p<0.05). PMID:21251696

  14. 75 FR 80734 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) (63 FR 66940). After considering the comments received, DOE published its final rule establishing CBDPP on December 8, 1999 (64 FR 68854). At that time, DOE sought to... Part 850 RIN 1992-AA39 Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program AGENCY: Office of Health,...

  15. 2. VIEW IN ROOM 111, ATOMIC ABSORPTION BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS LABORATORY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW IN ROOM 111, ATOMIC ABSORPTION BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS LABORATORY. AIR FILTERS AND SWIPES ARE DISSOLVED WITH ACIDS AND THE REMAINING RESIDUES ARE SUSPENDED IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTION. THE SOLUTION IS PROCESSED THROUGH THE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER TO DETECT THE PRESENCE AND LEVELS OF BERYLLIUM. - Rocky Flats Plant, Health Physics Laboratory, On Central Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR BERYLLIUM AND COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's assessment of the noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of Beryllium was added to the IRIS database in 1998. The IRIS program is updating the IRIS assessment for Beryllium. This update will incorporate health effects information published since the last assess...

  17. Methods for boron delivery to mammalian tissue

    DOEpatents

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick (Encino, CA); Feaks, Debra A. (Los Angeles, CA); Shelly, Kenneth J. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2003-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy can be used to destroy tumors. This treatment modality is enhanced by delivering compounds to the tumor site where the compounds have high concentrations of boron, the boron compounds being encapsulated in the bilayer of a liposome or in the bilayer as well as the internal space of the liposomes. Preferred compounds, include carborane units with multiple boron atoms within the carborane cage structure. Liposomes with increased tumor specificity may also be used.

  18. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Ehler, Deborah S. (Los Alamos, NM); John, Kevin D. (Santa Fe, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Collis, Gavin E. (Los Alamos, NM); Minogue, Edel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  19. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.

    2006-10-31

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  20. Hydrodynamic instabilities in beryllium targets for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, S. A. Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Olson, R. E.; Kline, J. L.; Batha, S. H.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J.

    2014-09-15

    Beryllium ablators offer higher ablation velocity, rate, and pressure than their carbon-based counterparts, with the potential to increase the probability of achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We present here a detailed hydrodynamic stability analysis of low (NIF Revision 6.1) and high adiabat NIF beryllium target designs. Our targets are optimized to fully utilize the advantages of beryllium in order to suppress the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. This results in an implosion that resists breakup of the capsule, and simultaneously minimizes the amount of ablator material mixed into the fuel. We quantify the improvement in stability of beryllium targets relative to plastic ones, and show that a low adiabat beryllium capsule can be at least as stable at the ablation front as a high adiabat plastic target.

  1. Method for fabricating beryllium-based multilayer structures

    DOEpatents

    Skulina, Kenneth M. (Livermore, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Alford, Craig S. (Tracy, CA)

    2003-02-18

    Beryllium-based multilayer structures and a process for fabricating beryllium-based multilayer mirrors, useful in the wavelength region greater than the beryllium K-edge (111 .ANG. or 11.1 nm). The process includes alternating sputter deposition of beryllium and a metal, typically from the fifth row of the periodic table, such as niobium (Nb), molybdenum (Mo), ruthenium (Ru), and rhodium (Rh). The process includes not only the method of sputtering the materials, but the industrial hygiene controls for safe handling of beryllium. The mirrors made in accordance with the process may be utilized in soft x-ray and extreme-ultraviolet projection lithography, which requires mirrors of high reflectivity (>60%) for x-rays in the range of 60-140 .ANG. (60-14.0 nm).

  2. NEW ADVANCES IN BORON SOIL CHEMISTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron is an essential micronutrient element required for plant growth. Boron deficiency is wide-spread in crop plants throughout the world especially in coarse-textured soils in humid areas. Boron toxicity can also occur, especially in arid regions under irrigation. Plants respond directly to the...

  3. Crystalline Boron Nanoribbons: Synthesis and Characterization

    E-print Network

    Crystalline Boron Nanoribbons: Synthesis and Characterization Terry T. Xu, Jian-Guo Zheng-free growth of boron nanoribbons was observed by pyrolysis of diborane at 630-750 °C and 200 mTorr in a quartz tube furnace. Nanodiffraction analysis indicates the nanoribbons are single crystal r-tetragonal boron

  4. Mineral resource of the month: boron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyday, Phyllis A.

    2005-01-01

    What does boron have to do with baseball, apple pie, motherhood and Chevrolet? Boron minerals and chemicals are used in the tanning of leather baseballs and gloves; in micro-fertilizer to grow apples and in the glass and enamels of bakewares to cook apple pie; in boron detergents for soaking baby clothes and diapers; and in fiberglass parts for the Chevrolet Corvette.

  5. Large-area beryllium metal foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoner, J. O., Jr.

    1997-02-01

    To manufacture beryllium filters having diameters up to 82 mm and thicknesses in the range 0.1-1 ?m, it was necessary to construct apparatus in which the metal could safely be evaporated, and then to find an acceptable substrate and evaporation procedure. The metal was evaporated resistively from a tantalum dimple boat mounted in a baffled enclosure that could be placed in a conventional vacuum bell jar, obviating the need for a dedicated complete vacuum system. Substrates were 102 mm × 127 mm × 0.05 mm cleaved mica sheets, coated with 0.1 ?m of NaCl, then with approximately 50 ?g/cm 2 of cellulose nitrate. These were mounted on poly(methyl methacrylate) sheets 3 mm thick that were in turn clamped to a massive aluminum block for thermal stability. Details of the processes for evaporation, float off, and mounting are given, and the resulting foils described.

  6. Primordial beryllium as a big bang calorimeter

    E-print Network

    Pospelov, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    Many models of new physics including variants of supersymmetry predict metastable long-lived particles that can decay during or after primordial nucleosynthesis, releasing significant amounts of non-thermal energy. The hadronic energy injection in these decays leads to the formation of ^9Be via the chain of non-equilibrium transformations: Energy_h -> T, ^3He -> ^6He, ^6Li -> ^9Be. We calculate the efficiency of this transformation and show that if the injection happens at cosmic times of a few hours, the release of 10 MeV per baryon can be sufficient for obtaining a sizable ^9Be abundance. The absence of a plateau-structure in the ^9Be/H abundance down to a 10^{-14} level allows one to use beryllium as a robust constraint on new physics models with decaying or annihilating particles.

  7. Polarizabilities of the beryllium clock transition

    SciTech Connect

    Mitroy, J.

    2010-11-15

    The polarizabilities of the three lowest states of the beryllium atom are determined from a large basis configuration interaction calculation. The polarizabilities of the 2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sup e} ground state (37.73a{sub 0}{sup 3}) and the 2s2p {sup 3}P{sub 0}{sup o} metastable state (39.04a{sub 0}{sup 3}) are found to be very similar in size and magnitude. This leads to an anomalously small blackbody radiation shift at 300 K of -0.018(4) Hz for the 2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sup e}-2s2p {sup 3}P{sub 0}{sup o} clock transition. Magic wavelengths for simultaneous trapping of the ground and metastable states are also computed.

  8. Primordial beryllium as a big bang calorimeter.

    PubMed

    Pospelov, Maxim; Pradler, Josef

    2011-03-25

    Many models of new physics including variants of supersymmetry predict metastable long-lived particles that can decay during or after primordial nucleosynthesis, releasing significant amounts of nonthermal energy. The hadronic energy injection in these decays leads to the formation of ?Be via the chain of nonequilibrium transformations: Energy(h)?T, ³He??He, ?Li??Be. We calculate the efficiency of this transformation and show that if the injection happens at cosmic times of a few hours the release of O(10 MeV) per baryon can be sufficient for obtaining a sizable ?Be abundance. The absence of a plateau structure in the ?Be/H abundance down to a O(10?¹?) level allows one to use beryllium as a robust constraint on new physics models with decaying or annihilating particles. PMID:21517297

  9. Beryllium abundances in metal-poor stars

    E-print Network

    K. F. Tan; J. R. Shi; G. Zhao

    2008-10-15

    We have determined beryllium abundances for 25 metal-poor stars based on the high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra from the VLT/UVES database. Our results confirm that Be abundances increase with Fe, supporting the global enrichment of Be in the Galaxy. Oxygen abundances based on [O I] forbidden line implies a linear relation with a slope close to one for the Be vs. O trend, which indicates that Be is probably produced in a primary process. Some strong evidences are found for the intrinsic dispersion of Be abundances at a given metallicity. The deviation of HD132475 and HD126681 from the general Be vs. Fe and Be vs. O trend favours the predictions of the superbubble model, though the possibility that such dispersion originates from the inhomogeneous enrichment in Fe and O of the protogalactic gas cannot be excluded.

  10. Primordial beryllium as a big bang calorimeter

    E-print Network

    Maxim Pospelov; Josef Pradler

    2011-03-23

    Many models of new physics including variants of supersymmetry predict metastable long-lived particles that can decay during or after primordial nucleosynthesis, releasing significant amounts of non-thermal energy. The hadronic energy injection in these decays leads to the formation of ^9Be via the chain of non-equilibrium transformations: Energy_h -> T, ^3He -> ^6He, ^6Li -> ^9Be. We calculate the efficiency of this transformation and show that if the injection happens at cosmic times of a few hours, the release of 10 MeV per baryon can be sufficient for obtaining a sizable ^9Be abundance. The absence of a plateau-structure in the ^9Be/H abundance down to a 10^{-14} level allows one to use beryllium as a robust constraint on new physics models with decaying or annihilating particles.

  11. Stellar abundances of beryllium and CUBES

    E-print Network

    Smiljanic, R

    2014-01-01

    Stellar abundances of beryllium are useful in different areas of astrophysics, including studies of the Galactic chemical evolution, of stellar evolution, and of the formation of globular clusters. Determining Be abundances in stars is, however, a challenging endeavor. The two Be II resonance lines useful for abundance analyses are in the near UV, a region strongly affected by atmospheric extinction. CUBES is a new spectrograph planned for the VLT that will be more sensitive than current instruments in the near UV spectral region. It will allow the observation of fainter stars, expanding the number of targets where Be abundances can be determined. Here, a brief review of stellar abundances of Be is presented together with a discussion of science cases for CUBES. In particular, preliminary simulations of CUBES spectra are presented, highlighting its possible impact in investigations of Be abundances of extremely metal-poor stars and of stars in globular clusters.

  12. Primordial Beryllium as a Big Bang Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Pospelov, Maxim; Pradler, Josef

    2011-03-25

    Many models of new physics including variants of supersymmetry predict metastable long-lived particles that can decay during or after primordial nucleosynthesis, releasing significant amounts of nonthermal energy. The hadronic energy injection in these decays leads to the formation of {sup 9}Be via the chain of nonequilibrium transformations: Energy{sub h}{yields}T, {sup 3}He{yields}{sup 6}He, {sup 6}Li{yields}{sup 9}Be. We calculate the efficiency of this transformation and show that if the injection happens at cosmic times of a few hours the release of O(10 MeV) per baryon can be sufficient for obtaining a sizable {sup 9}Be abundance. The absence of a plateau structure in the {sup 9}Be/H abundance down to a O(10{sup -14}) level allows one to use beryllium as a robust constraint on new physics models with decaying or annihilating particles.

  13. Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis

    E-print Network

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis Lekha Gupta, 2008 Ortholithiations of a range of arenes mediated by lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at -78 °C protocols with unpurified commercial samples of n-butyl- lithium to prepare LDA or commercially available

  14. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Gary Don (18912 Ravenglen Ct., Dallas, TX 75287); Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott (703 Horizon, Murphy, TX 75094); Brown, Louanne Kay (2530 Poplar Tr., Garland, TX 75042)

    1998-06-09

    A method (10,30) of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried (16), with the boron film then being driven (18) into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out (38) into piles and melted/fused (40) with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements.

  15. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.; Brown, L.K.

    1998-06-09

    A method of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried, with the boron film then being driven into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out into piles and melted/fused with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements. 2 figs.

  16. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Jolodosky, A.; Fratoni, M.

    2015-09-22

    Lithium is often the preferred choice as breeder and coolant in fusion blankets as it offers excellent heat transfer and corrosion properties, and most importantly, it has a very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and exacerbates plant safety concerns. For this reason, over the years numerous blanket concepts have been proposed with the scope of reducing concerns associated with lithium. The European helium cooled pebble bed breeding blanket (HCPB) physically confines lithium within ceramic pebbles. The pebbles reside within a low activation martensitic ferritic steel structure and are cooled by helium. The blanket is composed of the tritium breeding lithium ceramic pebbles and neutron multiplying beryllium pebbles. Other blanket designs utilize lead to lower chemical reactivity; LiPb alone can serve as a breeder, coolant, neutron multiplier, and tritium carrier. Blankets employing LiPb coolants alongside silicon carbide structural components can achieve high plant efficiency, low afterheat, and low operation pressures. This alloy can also be used alongside of helium such as in the dual-coolant lead-lithium concept (DCLL); helium is utilized to cool the first wall and structural components made up of low-activation ferritic steel, whereas lithium-lead (LiPb) acts as a self-cooled breeder in the inner channels of the blanket. The helium-cooled steel and lead-lithium alloy are separated by flow channel inserts (usually made out of silicon carbide) which thermally insulate the self-cooled breeder region from the helium cooled steel walls. This creates a LiPb breeder with a much higher exit temperature than the steel which increases the power cycle efficiency and also lowers the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop [6]. Molten salt blankets with a mixture of lithium, beryllium, and fluorides (FLiBe) offer good tritium breeding, low electrical conductivity and therefore low MHD pressure drop, low chemical reactivity, and extremely low tritium inventory; the addition of sodium (FLiNaBe) has been considered because it retains the properties of FliBe but also lowers the melting point. Although many of these blanket concepts are promising, challenges still remain. The limited amount of beryllium available poses a problem for ceramic breeders such as the HCPB. FLiBe and FLiNaBe are highly viscous and have a low thermal conductivity. Lithium lead possesses a poor thermal conductivity which can cause problems in both DCLL and LiPb blankets. Additionally, the tritium permeation from these two blankets into plant components can be a problem and must be reduced. Consequently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is attempting to develop a lithium-based alloy—most likely a ternary alloy—which maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) while reducing overall flammability concerns for use in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. The LLNL concept employs inertial confinement fusion (ICF) through the use of lasers aimed at an indirect-driven target composed of deuterium-tritium fuel. The fusion driver/target design implements the same physics currently experimented at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The plant uses lithium in both the primary coolant and blanket; therefore, lithium-related hazards are of primary concern. Although reducing chemical reactivity is the primary motivation for the development of new lithium alloys, the successful candidates will have to guarantee acceptable performance in all their functions. The scope of this study is to evaluate the neutronics performance of a large number of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of the IFE engine and assess their properties upon activation. This manuscript is organized as follows: Section 12 presents the models and methodologies used for the analysis; Section 3 discusses the results; Section 4 summarizes findings and future work.

  17. Exposure pathway assessment at a copper-beryllium alloy facility.

    PubMed

    Day, Gregory A; Dufresne, André; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Schuler, Christine R; Stanton, Marcia L; Miller, William E; Kent, Michael S; Deubner, David C; Kreiss, Kathleen; Hoover, Mark D

    2007-01-01

    Controlling beryllium inhalation exposures to comply with regulatory levels (2 micro g m(-3) of air) does not appear to prevent beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Additionally, it has proven difficult to establish a clear inhalation exposure-response relationship for beryllium sensitization and CBD. Thus, skin may be an important route of exposure that leads to beryllium sensitization. A 2000 survey had identified prevalence of sensitization (7%) and CBD (4%) in a beryllium alloy facility. An improved particulate migration control program, including dermal protection in production areas, was completed in 2002 at the facility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate levels of beryllium in workplace air, on work surfaces, on cotton gloves worn by employees over nitrile gloves, and on necks and faces of employees subsequent to implementation of the program. Over a 6 day period, we collected general area air samples (n = 10), wipes from routinely handled work surfaces (n = 252), thin cotton glove samples (n = 113) worn by employees, and neck wipes (n = 109) and face wipes (n = 109) from the same employees. In production, production support and office areas geometric mean (GM) levels of beryllium were 0.95, 0.59 and 0.05 micro g per 100 cm(2) on work surfaces; 42.8, 73.8 and 0.07 micro g per sample on cotton gloves; 0.07, 0.09 and 0.003 micro g on necks; and 0.07, 0.12 and 0.003 micro g on faces, respectively. Correlations were strong between beryllium in air and on work surfaces (r = 0.79), and between beryllium on cotton gloves and on work surfaces (0.86), necks (0.87) and faces (0.86). This study demonstrates that, even with the implementation of control measures to reduce skin contact with beryllium as part of a comprehensive workplace protection program, measurable levels of beryllium continue to reach the skin of workers in production and production support areas. Based on our current understanding of the multiple exposure pathways that may lead to sensitization, we support prudent control practices such as use of protective gloves to minimize skin exposure to beryllium salts and fine particles. PMID:16844720

  18. Modelling of lithium erosion and transport in FTU lithium experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, R.; Maddaluno, G.; Apicella, M. L.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Kirschner, A.; Chen, J. L.; Li, J. G.; Luo, G.-N.

    2013-07-01

    The ERO code has been used to simulate lithium erosion, transport and re-deposition from liquid lithium limiter experiments in FTU. Two different operational cases from LLL experiments with different plasma parameters and surface temperature are modelled. According to the effective lithium sputtering yields, for both cases the lithium erosion is mainly due to physical sputtering rather than evaporation. Furthermore, the modelled re-deposition fraction of evaporated lithium is much higher than that of sputtered lithium, which is due to the shorter ionisation mean free path of thermal lithium atoms. Therefore, the evaporation erosion effect can be neglected compared to physical sputtering when the surface temperature is below 450 °C. According to the simulations, most of the lithium impurities exist in the form of Li+, and the main plasma contamination by lithium ions is low because most of eroded lithium particles are not transported into the core plasma and stay outside of the LCFS.

  19. Mania pre-lithium.

    PubMed

    Cawte, J

    1999-12-01

    The changes that lithium brought are most fully understood when we grasp the difficulties for management that acute mania presented. Restraint in canvas camisoles, padded cells, paraldehyde, water-baths and salts-Epsom, not Lithium-met mania in echos of Bedlam still heard in the early 1950s. It is a part of psychiatric history important to remember. PMID:10622174

  20. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  1. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-13

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  2. A new class of electrochemically and thermally stable lithium salts for lithium battery electrolytes. 1: Synthesis and properties of lithium bis[1,2-benzenediolato(2-)-O,O{prime}]borate

    SciTech Connect

    Barthel, J.; Wuehr, M.; Buestrich, R.; Gores, H.J.

    1995-08-01

    Disclosed is a new class of nontoxic thermally, chemically, and electrochemically stable, inexpensive lithium salts based on a chelate complex anion of boron with aromatic or aliphatic diols or carboxylic acids. The synthesis, purification and analysis of the first member of this class, lithium bis[1,2-benzenediolato(2-)-O,O{prime}]borate (Li[B(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}){sub 2}]) is described and some results are given from electrochemical experiments of its solution in various aprotic solvents. The voltage window of Li[B(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}){sub 2}] based solutions is limited by the oxidation of the borate at about 3.6 V vs. lithium. Lithium can be cycled in solutions of lithium bis[1,2-benzenediolato(2-)-O,O{prime}]borate based on different aprotic solvents. Cycling efficiencies depend strongly on the solvents used, but scarcely on contact times of the solution with lithium, or on the use of mixed electrolytes (Li[B(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}){sub 2}]/[N(CH{sub 3}){sub 4}][B(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}){sub 2}]).

  3. DOES SALINITY REDUCE BORON’S TOXIC EFFECT IN BROCCOLI?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High salinity and boron often occur together in irrigation water in arid climates, but very little research has been done to study the interaction of the two. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the U.S. Salinity Laboratory in sand tanks to evaluate the interactions between B and saline draina...

  4. Analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from boron silicate glass film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurachi, Ikuo; Yoshioka, Kentaro

    2015-09-01

    An analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from a boron silicate glass (BSG) film has been proposed in terms of enhanced diffusion due to boron-silicon interstitial pair formation. The silicon interstitial generation is considered to be a result of the silicon kick-out mechanism by the diffused boron at the surface. The additional silicon interstitial generation in the bulk silicon is considered to be the dissociation of the diffused pairs. The former one causes the surface boron concentration dependent diffusion. The latter one causes the local boron concentration dependent diffusion. The calculated boron profiles based on the diffusivity model are confirmed to agree with the actual diffusion profiles measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for a wide range of the BSG boron concentration. This analytical diffusivity model is a helpful tool for p+ boron diffusion process optimization of n-type solar cell manufacturing.

  5. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  6. Ab initio study of hydrogen on beryllium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachurin, D. V.; Vladimirov, P. V.

    2015-11-01

    Static ab initio calculations were performed for five principal hexagonal close-packed beryllium surfaces: basal, prismatic (type I and II) and pyramidal (type I and II). The basal plane was found to be the most energetically favorable, while the energies of the prismatic (type I) and pyramidal (type I) planes were slightly higher followed by the type II planes. Beryllium is known to show extreme interlayer distance relaxation near the surface. Up to five outermost atomic layers were involved in surface relaxation. The presence of hydrogen on the beryllium surfaces led to a noticeable reduction of the surface energy.

  7. Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force

    SciTech Connect

    MacQueen, D H

    2007-02-21

    On December 8, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) published Title 10 CFR 850 (hereafter referred to as the Rule) to establish a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) to: {sm_bullet} reduce the number of workers currently exposed to beryllium in the course of their work at DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors, {sm_bullet} minimize the levels of, and potential for, expos exposure to beryllium, and {sm_bullet} establish medical surveillance requirements to ensure early detection of the disease.

  8. Thermoelectric properties of boron carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Aselage, T.; Emin, D.; Wood, C.

    1988-01-01

    Boron carbides are ceramic materials with unusual properties and applications. These refractory materials (T/sub m/ > 2600K) exist as a single phase over a wide range of stoichiometries, from 20 a/o carbon to less than 10 a/o carbon (Bouchacourt and Thevenot 1981). The relatively low density (approx.2.5 g/cm/sup 3/) and exceptional hardness lead to applications in the area of ceramic armor. In addition, /sup 10/B has a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons. This fact, along with the robust nature of the structure in a high radiation environment, leads to the use of boron carbides as nuclear reactor control materials. Because of a combination of unusual high temperature electronic and thermal properties, boron carbides also make efficient very high temperature (p-type) thermoelectrics. In this paper, we shall review the electrical and thermal properties of boron carbides and describe recent progress in understanding these properties. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Method of separating boron isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, R.J.; Thorne, J.M.; Cluff, C.L.

    1981-01-23

    A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)-dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily by achieved with CO/sub 2/ laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl/sub 3/.

  10. Method of separating boron isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Reed J. (Los Alamos, NM); Thorne, James M. (Provo, UT); Cluff, Coran L. (Provo, UT); Hayes, John K. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1984-01-01

    A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily be achieved with CO.sub.2 laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl.sub.3.

  11. Early clinical experience of boron neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Joel, D.D.; Bergland, R.; Capala, J.

    1995-12-31

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality that can selectively irradiate tumor tissue. BNCT uses drugs containing a stable isotope of boron. {sup 10}B, to sensitize tumor cells to irradiation by low energy (thermal) neutrons. The interaction of the {sup 10}B with a thermal neutron (neutron capture) causes the {sup 10}B nucleus to split, releasing an alpha particle and a lithium nucleus. These products of the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction are very damaging to cells but have a combined path length in tissue of approximately 14 {mu}m, or roughly the diameter of one or two cells. Thus, most of the ionizing energy imparted to tissue is localized to {sup 10}B-loaded cells.

  12. Target studies for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Reich, M.

    1996-03-01

    Two new concepts, NIFTI and DISCOS, are described. These concepts enable the efficient production of epithermal neutrons for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) medical treatment, utilizing a low current, low energy proton beam impacting on a lithium target. The NIFTI concept uses an iron layer that strongly impedes the transmission of neutrons with energies above 24 KeV. Lower energy neutrons readily pass through this iron ``filter``, which has a deep ``window`` in its scattering cross section at 24 KeV. The DISCOS concept uses a rapidly rotating, high g disc to create a series of thin ({approximately} 1 micron thickness) liquid lithium targets in the form of continuous films through which the proton beam passes. The average energy lost by a proton as it passes through a single target is small, approximately 10 KeV. Between the targets, the proton beam is reaccelerated by an applied DC electric field. The DISCOS approach enables the accelerator -- target facility to operate with a beam energy only slightly above the threshold value for neutron production -- resulting in an output beam of low-energy epithermal neutrons -- while achieving a high yield of neutrons per milliamp of proton beam current.

  13. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section 468.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20 Applicability; description of the beryllium copper... introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from the forming of beryllium copper alloys....

  14. Beryllium and Other Trace Elements in Paragneisses and Anatectic Veins of the

    E-print Network

    Sandiford, Mike

    Beryllium and Other Trace Elements in Paragneisses and Anatectic Veins of the Ultrahigh-bearing paragneisses. KEY WORDS: Antarctica; beryllium; granulite facies; microprobe; sapphirine INTRODUCTION Beryllium in granitic pegmatites where beryllium minerals, most com- monly beryl, are found (e.g. London & Evensen, 2002

  15. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section 468.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20 Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming... of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from the forming of beryllium copper alloys....

  16. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section 468.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20 Applicability; description of the beryllium copper... introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from the forming of beryllium copper alloys....

  17. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section 468.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20 Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming... of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from the forming of beryllium copper alloys....

  18. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section 468.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20 Applicability; description of the beryllium copper... introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from the forming of beryllium copper alloys....

  19. Mortality study of beryllium industry workers' occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, T.F.

    1980-02-01

    A cohort of 3685 white males employed during 1937 to 1948 in two major industries manufacturing beryllium was followed to the end of 1976 to evaluate lung cancer mortality experience. Lung cancer mortality among beryllium-exposed workers was contrasted with that of workers employed in the viscose rayon industry. Study results demonstrated that lung cancer mortality among berylliumm-exposed workers was significantly greater than that expected on the basis of lung cancer mortality experience of workers in the viscose rayon industry having similar employment patterns. The results of the present study are consistent with earlier animal bioassay studies and recent epidemiologic studies indicating that beryllium is carcinogenic. The results of the present study are not consistent with speculation attributing the excessive lung cancer mortality among beryllium-exposed workers to personal characteristics of individuals having unstable employment patterns.

  20. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...LABOR ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 CLAIMS...UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000, AS...covered Part B employee has established chronic beryllium...

  1. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...LABOR ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 CLAIMS...UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000, AS...covered Part B employee has established chronic beryllium...

  2. The mechanical behavior of cross-rolled beryllium sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henkener, J. A.; Spiker, I. K.; Castner, W. L.

    1992-01-01

    In response to the failure of a conical section of the Insat C satellite during certification testing, the use of beryllium for payload structures, particularly in sheet product form, is being reevaluated. A test program was initiated to study the tensile, shear, and out-of-plane failure modes of beryllium cross-rolled sheet and to apply data to the development of an appropriate failure criterion. Tensile test results indicated that sanding the surface of beryllium sheet has no significant effect on yield strength but can produce a profound reduction in ultimate strength and results obtained by finite element analysis. Critical examination of these test results may contribute to the modification of a JSC policy for the use of beryllium in orbiter and payload structures.

  3. Lithium Dendrite Formation

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-06

    Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory have captured the first real-time nanoscale images of lithium dendrite structures known to degrade lithium-ion batteries. The ORNL team’s electron microscopy could help researchers address long-standing issues related to battery performance and safety. Video shows annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging (ADF STEM) of lithium dendrite nucleation and growth from a glassy carbon working electrode and within a 1.2M LiPF6 EC:DM battery electrolyte.

  4. First-principles studies of complex hydrides for lithium-ion battery and hydrogen storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Timothy Hudson

    We employ density functional theory in a computational study of two energy storage systems. In the first, we explore the thermodynamic viability of light metal hydrides as a high capacity Li-ion battery negative electrode. Given a set of solid-state and gas-phase reactants, we have determined the phase diagram in the Li-Mg-B-N-H system in the grand canonical ensemble as a function of lithium electrochemical potential. We present computational results for several new conversion reactions with predicted capacities between 2400 and 4000 mAhg-1 that are thermodynamically favorable and that do not involve gas evolution. We provide experimental evidence for the reaction pathway on delithiation for the compound Li4BN3H10 and compare with our theoretical prediction. The maximum volume increase for these materials on lithium insertion is significantly smaller than that for Si, whose 400% expansion hinders its cyclability. In the second study, we attempt to gain understanding of recent experimental results of lithium borohydride nanoconfined in highly ordered nanoporous carbon. The carbon environment is modeled as a single sheet of graphene, and adsorption energies are calculated for nanoparticles of the constituent phases of LiBH 4 desorption processes (LiBH4, LiH, lithium and boron). We find good agreement with previous studies of a single lithium atom adsorbed onto graphene. We predict that infiltrated LiBH4 will decompose such that boron is trapped in carbon vacancies, and that the resulting boron doping is required to achieve negative wetting energies for the remaining LiBH4. Desorption enthalpies are found to increase with shrinking cluster sizes, suggesting that the observed lowering of desorption temperatures is a kinetic effect although interactions with the carbon surface itself are predicted to have an overall effect of decreasing the desorption enthalpy .

  5. Beryllium-Induced TNF-? Production Is Transcription-Dependent in Chronic Beryllium Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Richard T.; Fontenot, Andrew P.; Barnes, Tristan A.; Parsons, Charles E.; Tooker, Brian C.; Maier, Lisa A.; Gillespie, May M.; Gottschall, E. Brigitte; Silveira, Lori; Hagman, James; Newman, Lee S.

    2007-01-01

    Beryllium (Be)-antigen presentation to Be-specific CD4+ T cells from the lungs of patients with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) results in T cell proliferation and TNF-? secretion. We tested the hypothesis that Be-induced, CBD bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) T cell, transcription-dependent, TNF-? secretion was accompanied by specific transcription factor upregulation. After 6 h of Be stimulation, CBD BAL cells produced a median of 883 pg/ml TNF-? (range, 608–1,275 pg/ml) versus 198 pg/ml (range, 116–245 pg/ml) by unstimulated cells. After 12 h CBD BAL cells produced a median of 2,963 pg/ml (range, 99–9,424 pg/ml) TNF-? versus 55 pg/ml (range, 0–454) by unstimulated cells. Using real-time RT-PCR, Be-stimulated TNF-? production at 6 h was preceded by a 5-fold increase in TNF-? pre-mRNA copy number:?-actin copy number (Be median ratio 0.21; unstimulated median ratio 0.04). The median ratio of mature TNF-? mRNA:?-actin mRNA was upregulated 1.4-fold (Be median ratio 0.17; unstimulated median ratio 0.12). Be exposure in the presence of the transcription inhibitor pentoxifylline (PTX) decreased CBD BAL cell TNF-? pre-mRNA levels > 60%, whereas treatment with the mRNA splicing inhibitor 2-aminopurine (2AP) decreased levels 40% relative to Be exposure alone. PTX treatment decreased mature TNF-? mRNA levels 50% while 2AP decreased levels > 80%, relative to Be exposure alone. Beryllium exposure specifically upregulated transcription factors AP-1 and NF-?B. The data suggest that Be exposure induces transcription-dependent TNF-? production, potentially due to upregulation of specific transcription factors. PMID:16980557

  6. Development of Biomarkers for Chronic Beryllium Disease in Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Terry

    2013-01-25

    Beryllium is a strategic metal, indispensable for national defense programs in aerospace, telecommunications, electronics, and weaponry. Exposure to beryllium is an extensively documented occupational hazard that causes irreversible, debilitating granulomatous lung disease in as much as 3 - 5% of exposed workers. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships has been severely limited by a general lack of a sufficient CBD animal model. We have now developed and tested an animal model which can be used for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new diagnostic and treatment paradigms. We have created 3 strains of transgenic mice in which the human antigen-presenting moiety, HLA-DP, was inserted into the mouse genome. Each mouse strain contains HLA-DPB1 alleles that confer different magnitude of risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD): HLA-DPB1*0401 (odds ratio = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (odds ratio = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (odds ratio = 240). Our preliminary work has demonstrated that the *1701 allele, as predicted by human studies, results in the greatest degree of sensitization in a mouse ear swelling test. We have also completed dose-response experiments examining beryllium-induced lung granulomas and identified susceptible and resistant inbred strains of mice (without the human transgenes) as well as quantitative trait loci that may contain gene(s) that modify the immune response to beryllium. In this grant application, we propose to use the transgenic and Â?normal inbred strains of mice to identify biomarkers for the progression of beryllium sensitization and CBD. To achieve this goal, we propose to compare the sensitivity and accuracy of the lymphocyte proliferation test (blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) with the ELISPOT test in the three HLA-DP transgenic mice strains throughout a 6 month treatment with beryllium particles. Because of the availability of high-throughput proteomics, we will also identify changes in potential protein biomarkers in beryllium-treated mice. We will correlate these findings with the ability of the transgenic mice to develop a beryllium-specific adaptive immune response in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. We will also determine whether beryllium-responsive CD4+ T cells in blood and BAL correlate with the onset of granuloma formation. Thus, we will provide the scientific community with biomarkers of sensitization and disease progression for CBD. These biomarkers will serve as critical tools for development of improved industrial hygiene and therapeutic interventions.

  7. The unusual properties of beryllium surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Stumpf, R. ||; Hannon, J.B. |; Plummer, E.W. |

    1994-12-31

    Be is a ``marginal metal.`` The stable phase, hcp-Be, has a low Fermi-level density of states and very anisotropic structural and elastic properties, similar to a semiconductor`s. At the Be(0001) surface, surface states drastically increase the Fermi-level density of states. The different nature of bonding in bulk-Be and at the Be(0001) surface explains the large outward relaxation. The presence of surface states causes large surface core-level shifts by inducing a higher electrostatic potential in the surface layers and by improving the screening at the surface. The authors experimental and theoretical investigations of atomic vibrations at the Be(0001) surface demonstrate clearly that Be screening of atomic motion by the surface states makes the surface phonon dispersion fundamentally different from that of the bulk. Properties of Be(0001) are so different from those of the bulk that the surface can be considered a new ``phase`` of beryllium with unique electronic and structural characteristics. For comparison they also study Be(11{bar 2}0), a very open surface without important surface states. Be(11{bar 2}0) is the only clean s-p metal surface known to reconstruct (1 {times} 3 missing row reconstruction).

  8. Beryllium abundances in stars hosting giant planets

    E-print Network

    N. C. Santos; R. J. Garcia Lopez; G. Israelian; M. Mayor; R. Rebolo; A. Garcia-Gil; M. R. Perez de Taoro; S. Randich

    2002-02-25

    We have derived beryllium abundances in a wide sample of stars hosting planets, with spectral types in the range F7V-K0V, aimed at studying in detail the effects of the presence of planets on the structure and evolution of the associated stars. Predictions from current models are compared with the derived abundances and suggestions are provided to explain the observed inconsistencies. We show that while still not clear, the results suggest that theoretical models may have to be revised for stars with Teff<5500K. On the other hand, a comparison between planet host and non-planet host stars shows no clear difference between both populations. Although preliminary, this result favors a ``primordial'' origin for the metallicity ``excess'' observed for the planetary host stars. Under this assumption, i.e. that there would be no differences between stars with and without giant planets, the light element depletion pattern of our sample of stars may also be used to further investigate and constraint Li and Be depletion mechanisms.

  9. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  10. Beryllium contamination and exposure monitoring in an inhalation laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Muller, Caroline; Audusseau, Séverine; Salehi, Fariba; Truchon, Ginette; Chevalier, Gaston; Mazer, Bruce; Kennedy, Greg; Zayed, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Beryllium (Be) is used in several forms: pure metal, beryllium oxide, and as an alloy with copper, aluminum, or nickel. Beryllium oxide, beryllium metal, and beryllium alloys are the main forms present in the workplace, with inhalation being the primary route of exposure. Cases of workers with sensitization or chronic beryllium disease challenge the scientific community for a better understanding of Be toxicity. Therefore, a toxicological inhalation study using a murine model was performed in our laboratory in order to identify the toxic effects related to different particle sizes and chemical forms of Be. This article attempts to provide information regarding the relative effectiveness of the environmental monitoring and exposure protection program that was enacted to protect staff (students and researchers) in this controlled animal beryllium inhalation exposure experiment. This includes specific attention to particle migration control through intensive housekeeping and systematic airborne and surface monitoring. Results show that the protective measures applied during this research have been effective. The highest airborne Be concentration in the laboratory was less than one-tenth of the Quebec OEL (occupational exposure limit) of 0.15 microg/m(3). Considering the protection factor of 10(3) of the powered air-purifying respirator used in this research, the average exposure level would be 0.03 x 10(- 4) microg/m(3), which is extremely low. Moreover, with the exception of one value, all average Be concentrations on surfaces were below the Quebec Standard guideline level of 3 microg/100 cm(2) for Be contamination. Finally, all beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests for the staff were not higher than controls. PMID:20056744

  11. Actinide/beryllium neutron sources with reduced dispersion characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Louis D.

    2012-08-14

    Neutron source comprising a composite, said composite comprising crystals comprising BeO and AmBe.sub.13, and an excess of beryllium, wherein the crystals have an average size of less than 2 microns; the size distribution of the crystals is less than 2 microns; and the beryllium is present in a 7-fold to a 75-fold excess by weight of the amount of AmBe.sub.13; and methods of making thereof.

  12. A new target concept for proton accelerator driven boron neutron capture therapy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Reich, M.

    1998-11-01

    A new target concept termed Discs Incorporating Sector Configured Orbiting Sources (DISCOS), is proposed for spallation applications, including BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). In the BNCT application a proton beam impacts a sequence of ultra thin lithium DISCOS targets to generate neutrons by the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. The proton beam loses only a few keV of its {approximately}MeV energy as it passes through a given target, and is re-accelerated to its initial energy, by a DC electric field between the targets.

  13. Beryllium pressure vessels for creep tests in magnetic fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Neef, W.S.

    1990-07-20

    Beryllium has interesting applications in magnetic fusion experimental machines and future power-producing fusion reactors. Chief among the properties of beryllium that make these applications possible is its ability to act as a neutron multiplier, thereby increasing the tritium breeding ability of energy conversion blankets. Another property, the behavior of beryllium in a 14-MeV neutron environment, has not been fully investigated, nor has the creep behavior of beryllium been studied in an energetic neutron flux at thermodynamically interesting temperatures. This small beryllium pressure vessel could be charged with gas to test pressures around 3, 000 psi to produce stress in the metal of 15,000 to 20,000 psi. Such stress levels are typical of those that might be reached in fusion blanket applications of beryllium. After contacting R. Powell at HEDL about including some of the pressure vessels in future test programs, we sent one sample pressure vessel with a pressurizing tube attached (Fig. 1) for burst tests so the quality of the diffusion bond joints could be evaluated. The gas used was helium. Unfortunately, budget restrictions did not permit us to proceed in the creep test program. The purpose of this engineering note is to document the lessons learned to date, including photographs of the test pressure vessel that show the tooling necessary to satisfactorily produce the diffusion bonds. This document can serve as a starting point for those engineers who resume this task when funds become available.

  14. Determination of beryllium by using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zawisza, Beata

    2008-03-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry method is subject to certain difficulties and inconveniences for the elements having the atomic number 9 or less. These difficulties become progressively more severe as the atomic number decreases, and are quite serious for beryllium, which is practically indeterminable directly by XRF. Therefore, an indirect determination of beryllium that is based on the evaluation of cobalt in the precipitate is taken into consideration. In the thesis below, there is a description of a new, simple, and precise method by selective precipitation using hexamminecobalt(III) chloride and ammonium carbonate-EDTA solution as a complexing agent for the determining of a trace amount of beryllium using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The optimum conditions for [Co(NH(3))(6)][Be(2)(OH)(3)(CO(3))(2)(H(2)O)(2)].(3)H(2)O complex formation were studied. The complex was collected on the membrane filter, and the Co Kalpha line was measured by XRF. The method presents the advantages of the sample preparation and the elimination of the matrix effects due to the thin film obtained. The detection limit of the proposed method is 0.2 mg of beryllium. The method was successfully applied to beryllium determination in copper/ beryllium/cobalt alloys. PMID:18247483

  15. Occurrence model for volcanogenic beryllium deposits: Chapter F in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Nora K.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Lindsey, David A.; Seal, Robert R., II; Jaskula, Brian; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2012-01-01

    Current global and domestic mineral resources of beryllium (Be) for industrial uses are dominated by ores produced from deposits of the volcanogenic Be type. Beryllium deposits of this type can form where hydrothermal fluids interact with fluorine and lithophile-element (uranium, thorium, rubidium, lithium, beryllium, cesium, tantalum, rare earth elements, and tin) enriched volcanic rocks that contain a highly reactive lithic component, such as carbonate clasts. Volcanic and hypabyssal high-silica biotite-bearing topaz rhyolite constitutes the most well-recognized igneous suite associated with such Be deposits. The exemplar setting is an extensional tectonic environment, such as that characterized by the Basin and Range Province, where younger topaz-bearing igneous rock sequences overlie older dolomite, quartzite, shale, and limestone sequences. Mined deposits and related mineralized rocks at Spor Mountain, Utah, make up a unique economic deposit of volcanogenic Be having extensive production and proven and probable reserves. Proven reserves in Utah, as reported by the U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Information Center, total about 15,900 tons of Be that are present in the mineral bertrandite (Be4Si2O7(OH)2). At the type locality for volcanogenic Be, Spor Mountain, the tuffaceous breccias and stratified tuffs that host the Be ore formed as a result of explosive volcanism that brought carbonate and other lithic fragments to the surface through vent structures that cut the underlying dolomitic Paleozoic sedimentary rock sequences. The tuffaceous sediments and lithic clasts are thought to make up phreatomagmatic base surge deposits. Hydrothermal fluids leached Be from volcanic glass in the tuff and redeposited the Be as bertrandite upon reaction of the hydrothermal fluid with carbonate clasts in lithic-rich sections of tuff. The localization of the deposits in tuff above fluorite-mineralized faults in carbonate rocks, together with isotopic evidence for the involvement of magmatic water in an otherwise meteoric water-dominated hydrothermal system, indicate that magmatic volatiles contributed to mineralization. At the type locality, hydrothermal alteration of dolomite clasts formed layered nodules of calcite, opal, fluorite, and bertrandite, the latter occurring finely intergrown with fluorite. Alteration assemblages and elemental enrichments in the tuff and surrounding volcanic rocks include regional diagenetic clays and potassium feldspar and distinctive hydrothermal halos of anomalous fluorine, lithium, molybdenum, niobium, tin, and tantalum, and intense potassium feldspathization with sericite and lithium-smectite in the immediate vicinity of Be ore. Formation of volcanogenic Be deposits is due to the coincidence of multiple factors that include an appropriate Be-bearing source rock, a subjacent pluton that supplied volatiles and heat to drive convection of meteoric groundwater, a depositional site characterized by the intersection of normal faults with permeable tuff below a less permeable cap rock, a fluorine-rich ore fluid that facilitated Be transport (for example, BeF42- complex), and the existence of a chemical trap that caused fluorite and bertrandite to precipitate at the former site of carbonate lithic clasts in the tuff.

  16. Radiobiological evaluation of new boron delivery agents for boron neutron capture therapy

    E-print Network

    Chung, Yoonsun

    2008-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the radiobiological effectiveness of three new boron compounds namely a boronated porphyrin (BOPP) and two liposome formulations for neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The methodology utilizes in vitro ...

  17. XPS analysis for cubic boron nitride crystal synthesized under high pressure and high temperature using Li3N as catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaofei; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Wen; Cai, Zhichao; Wen, Zhenxing

    2014-12-01

    Cubic boron nitride (cBN) single crystals are synthesized with lithium nitride (Li3N) as catalyst under high pressure and high temperature. The variation of electronic structures from boron nitride of different layers in coating film on the cBN single crystal has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Combining the atomic concentration analysis, it was shown that from the film/cBN crystal interface to the inner, the sp2 fractions are decreasing, and the sp3 fractions are increasing in the film at the same time. Moreover, by transmission electron microscopy, a lot of cBN microparticles are found in the interface. For there is no Li3N in the film, it is possible that Li3N first reacts with hexagonal boron nitride to produce Li3BN2 during cBN crystals synthesis under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT). Boron and nitrogen atoms, required for cBN crystals growth, could come from the direct conversion from hexagonal boron nitride with the catalysis of Li3BN2 under high pressure and high temperature, but not directly from the decomposition of Li3BN2.

  18. Jaguar Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Explosives Containing Boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, L. I.; Baker, E. L.; Capellos, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Jaguar product library was expanded to include boron and boron containing products by analysis of Available Hugoniot and static volumetric data to obtain constants of the Murnaghan relationships for the components. Experimental melting points were also utilized to obtain the constants of the volumetric relationships for liquid boron and boron oxide. Detonation velocities for HMX—boron mixtures calculated with these relationships using Jaguar are in closer agreement with literature values at high initial densities for inert (unreacted) boron than with the completely reacted metal. These results indicate that the boron does not react near the detonation front or that boron mixtures exhibit eigenvalue detonation behavior (as shown by some aluminized explosives), with higher detonation velocities at the initial points. Analyses of calorimetric measurements for RDX—boron mixtures indicate that at high boron contents the formation of side products, including boron nitride and boron carbide, inhibits the detonation properties of the formulation.

  19. Beryllium in the Ultra-Lithium-Deficient,Metal-Poor Halo Dwarf, G186-26

    E-print Network

    Ann Merchant Boesgaard; Megan C. Novicki

    2005-09-16

    The vast majority of low-metal halo dwarfs show a similar amount of Li; this has been attributed to the Li that was produced in the Big Bang. However, there are nine known halo stars with T $>$ 5900 K and [Fe/H] $<$ $-$1.0 that are ultra-Li-deficient. We have looked for Be in the very low metallicity star, G 186-26 at [Fe/H] = $-$2.71, which is one of the ultra-Li-deficient stars. This star is also ultra-Be deficient. Relative to Be in the Li-normal stars at [Fe/H] = $-$2.7, G 182-26 is down in Be by more than 0.8 dex. Of two potential causes for the Li-deficiency -- mass-transfer in a pre-blue straggler or extra rotationally-induced mixing in a star that was initially a very rapid rotator -- the absence of Be favors the blue-straggler hypothesis, but the rotation model cannot be ruled-out completely.

  20. Beryllium in Ultra-Lithium-Deficient Halo Stars - The Blue Straggler Connection

    E-print Network

    Ann Merchant Boesgaard

    2007-05-10

    There are nine metal-deficient stars that have Li abundances well below the Li plateau that is defined by over 100 unevolved stars with temperatures above 5800 K and values of [Fe/H] $<$ $-$1.0. Abundances of Be have been determined for most of these ultra-Li-deficient stars in order to investigate the cause of the Li deficiencies. High-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra have been obtained in the Be II spectral region near 3130 \\AA for six ultra-Li-deficient stars with the Keck I telescope and its new uv-sensitive CCD on the upgraded HIRES. The spectrum synthesis technique has been used to determine Be abundances. All six stars are found to have Be deficiencies also. Two have measurable - but reduced - Be and four have only upper limits on Be. These results are consistent with the idea that these Li- and Be-deficient stars are analogous to blue stragglers. The stars have undergone mass transfer events (or mergers) which destroy or dilute both Li and Be. The findings cannot be matched by the models that predict that the deficiencies are due to extra-mixing in a subset of halo stars that were initially rapid rotators, with the possible exception of one star, G 139-8. Because the ultra-Li-deficient stars are also Be-deficient, they appear to be genuine outliers in population of halo stars used to determine the value of primordial Li; they no longer have the Li in their atmospheres that was produced in the Big Bang.

  1. Lithium drifted germanium system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fjarlie, E. J.

    1969-01-01

    General characteristics of the lithium-drifted germanium photodiode-Dewar-preamplifier system and particular operating instructions for the device are given. Information is included on solving operational problems.

  2. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J. (Waukesha, WI)

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  3. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOEpatents

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  4. Lithium Isotope Effects upon Electrochemical Release from Lithium Cobalt Oxide to Non-Lithium Electrolyte Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takami, Yuta; Yanase, Satoshi; Oi, Takao

    2014-02-01

    Lithium was electrochemically released from a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathode to an ethylene carbonate-based organic electrolyte solution containing no lithium ions, and the change in the lithium isotope composition of the cathode was measured. The 7Li/6Li isotopic ratio of the electrode was practically unchanged before and after the 45% - 62% lithium release, which meant that the lithium release accompanied no isotope preference. This result is quite contrastive to the previous one; when lithium was released to an organic electrolyte solution containing lithium ions, the 7Li/6Li ratio of the cathode became 1.018 to 1.033 times smaller than that before the release. It was induced that the kind of electrolyte solution controlled the attainment of the lithium isotope exchange equilibrium between the cathode and the electrolyte solution.

  5. Computational study of boron nitride nanotube synthesis: How catalyst morphology stabilizes the boron nitride bond

    E-print Network

    Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

    Computational study of boron nitride nanotube synthesis: How catalyst morphology stabilizes the boron nitride bond S. Riikonen,1 A. S. Foster,1,2 A. V. Krasheninnikov,1,3 and R. M. Nieminen1,* 1 COMP methods for the growth of boron nitride nanotubes work much worse than for their carbon counterparts, we

  6. Synthesis, Properties, and Applications Of Boron Nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes synthesis, properties, and applications of boron nitride. Especially in thin-film form. Boron nitride films useful as masks in x-ray lithography; as layers for passivation of high-speed microelectronic circuits; insulating films; hard, wear-resistant, protective films for optical components; lubricants; and radiation detectors. Present status of single-crystal growth of boron nitride indicates promising candidate for use in high-temperature semiconductor electronics.

  7. Toxic effects of boron on mallard reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.J.; Anders, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    Boron, a naturally occurring trace element generally considered environmentally innocuous, was documented to severely impair mallard reproduction. Boron is leached from irrigated agricultural soils and transported in drainage water that contaminates wetlands. Until now, only the selenium accumulated in aquatic food chains has been documented to pose a toxic hazard to wildlife in drainage water wetlands. Management of drainage water-contaminated environments must now also consider the adverse effects of boron, as well as the possible interactions of drainage water contaminants.

  8. Lattice constants of boron carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Aselage, T.L.; Tissot, R.G. )

    1992-08-01

    In this paper, the lattice constants of boron carbides are determined by powder X-ray diffraction for samples with compositions between about 7.7 and 20.5 at.% carbon. The boundaries of the single-phase region are at about 9 at.% carbon and near, but likely somewhat less than 20 at.% carbon. The composition dependence of the lattice constants thus established provides a method of assessing the carbon concentration of unknown materials. In particular, assignment of the approximate composition of single crystals used in previous studies allows for a systematic examination of changes in interatomic separation as a function of composition. These changes are discussed in terms of a structural model of the boron carbide solid solution.

  9. Boron-10 ABUNCL Active Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2013-07-09

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results from testing of the active mode of the General Electric Reuter-Stokes Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) at Los Alamos National Laboratory using sources and fuel pins.

  10. Boron clusters in luminescent materials.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sanjoy; Thilagar, Pakkirisamy

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, luminescent materials with tunable emission properties have found applications in almost all aspects of modern material sciences. Any discussion on the recent developments in luminescent materials would be incomplete if one does not account for the versatile photophysical features of boron containing compounds. Apart from triarylboranes and tetra-coordinate borate dyes, luminescent materials consisting of boron clusters have also found immense interest in recent times. Recent studies have unveiled the opportunities hidden within boranes, carboranes and metalloboranes, etc. as active constituents of luminescent materials. From simple illustrations of luminescence, to advanced applications in LASERs, OLEDs and bioimaging, etc., the unique features of such compounds and their promising versatility have already been established. In this review, recent revelations about the excellent photophysical properties of such materials are discussed. PMID:26574714

  11. Boron mullite: Formation and basic characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lührs, Hanna; Fischer, Reinhard X.; Schneider, Hartmut; Universität Köln, Institut für Kristallographie, Greinstraße 6, D-50939 Kölm

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Decrease of B-mullite formation temperature with increasing boron content. ? Decrease of lattice parameters b and c with increasing boron content. ? Significant reduction of thermal expansion (?15%) due to incorporation of boron. ? Decomposition of B-mullite at 1400 °C, long-term stability at 800 °C. -- Abstract: A series of boron doped mullites (B-mullite) was prepared from single-phase gels with initial compositions based on a 1:1 isomorphous substitution of Si by B, starting from a 3:2 mullite composition (Al{sub 4.5}Si{sub 1.5}O{sub 9.75}). A high amount of boron (>10 mol.%) can be incorporated into the crystal structure of mullite where it most likely replaces Si. In situ phase formation of B-mullites was studied with high temperature X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. A decrease of the formation temperature for B-mullite with increasing boron content was observed. With increasing boron content lattice parameters b and c significantly decrease, while no systematic evolution of a is observed. Long annealing at 1400 °C results in decomposition of B-mullite to boron free mullite and ?-alumina. At 800 °C B-mullite appears to be stable over a period of at least 12 days. The mean thermal expansion coefficient was reduced by 15% upon incorporation of boron which makes the material technologically interesting.

  12. Mineral resource of the month: boron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crangle, Robert D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on the mineral, boron. Boron compounds, particularly borates, have more commercial applications than its elemental relative which is a metalloid. Making up the 90% of the borates that are used worldwide are colemanite, kernite, tincal, and ulexite. The main borate deposits are located in the Mojave Desert of the U.S., the Tethyan belt in southern Asia, and the Andean belt of South America. Underground and surface mining are being used in gathering boron compounds. INSETS: Fun facts;Boron production and consumption.

  13. Producing carbon stripper foils containing boron

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, J. O. Jr.

    2012-12-19

    Parameters being actively tested by the accelerator community for the purpose of extending carbon stripper foil lifetimes in fast ion beams include methods of deposition, parting agents, mounting techniques, support (fork) materials, and inclusion of alloying elements, particularly boron. Specialized production apparatus is required for either sequential deposition or co-deposition of boron in carbon foils. A dual-use vacuum evaporator for arc evaporation of carbon and electron-beam evaporation of boron and other materials has been built for such development. Production of both carbon and boron foils has begun and improvements are in progress.

  14. Boron containing multilayer coatings and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1997-09-23

    Hard coatings are fabricated from multilayer boron/boron carbide, boron carbide/cubic boron nitride, and boron/boron nitride/boron carbide, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron and boron carbide used in forming the multilayers are formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/boron carbide, and boron carbide/cubic boron nitride is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron, cubic boron nitride or boron carbide, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be of a discrete or a blended or graded composition. 6 figs.

  15. High-flux neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G.; Paul, M.; Arenshtam, A.; Berkovits, D.; Kijel, D.; Nagler, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Silverman, I.

    2013-04-01

    A prototype compact Liquid Lithium Target (LiLiT), able to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source, was built. The neutron source is intended for nuclear astrophysical research, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in hospitals and material studies for fusion reactors. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear research Center (SNRC). The lithium target will produce neutrons through the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated by a high-intensity proton beam, necessary for intense neutron flux for the above applications. The liquid-lithium loop of LiLiT is designed to generate a stable lithium jet at high velocity on a concave supporting wall with free surface toward the incident proton beam (up to 10 kW). During off-line tests, liquid lithium was flown through the loop and generated a stable jet at velocity higher than 5 m/s on the concave supporting wall. The target is now under extensive test program using a high-power electron-gun. Up to 2 kW electron beam was applied on the lithium flow at velocity of 4 m/s without any flow instabilities or excessive evaporation. High-intensity proton beam irradiation will take place at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator currently in commissioning at SNRC.

  16. High-flux neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target

    SciTech Connect

    Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G.; Paul, M.; Arenshtam, A.; Berkovits, D.; Kijel, D.; Nagler, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Silverman, I.

    2013-04-19

    A prototype compact Liquid Lithium Target (LiLiT), able to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source, was built. The neutron source is intended for nuclear astrophysical research, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in hospitals and material studies for fusion reactors. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear research Center (SNRC). The lithium target will produce neutrons through the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated by a high-intensity proton beam, necessary for intense neutron flux for the above applications. The liquid-lithium loop of LiLiT is designed to generate a stable lithium jet at high velocity on a concave supporting wall with free surface toward the incident proton beam (up to 10 kW). During off-line tests, liquid lithium was flown through the loop and generated a stable jet at velocity higher than 5 m/s on the concave supporting wall. The target is now under extensive test program using a high-power electron-gun. Up to 2 kW electron beam was applied on the lithium flow at velocity of 4 m/s without any flow instabilities or excessive evaporation. High-intensity proton beam irradiation will take place at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator currently in commissioning at SNRC.

  17. Making Microscopic Cubes Of Boron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulkner, Joseph M.

    1993-01-01

    Production of finely divided cubes of boron involves vacuum-deposition technology and requires making of template. Template supports pattern of checkered squares 25 micrometers on side, which are etched 25 micrometers into template material. Template coasted uniformly with paralyene or some similar vacuum coating with low coefficient of adhesion. Intended application to solid rocket fuels, explosives, and pyrotechnics; process used for other applications, from manufacture of pharmaceuticals to processing of nuclear materials.

  18. US Navy lithium cell applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, F. M.

    1978-01-01

    Applications of lithium systems that are already in the fleet are discussed. The approach that the Navy is taking in the control of the introduction of lithium batteries into the fleet is also discussed.

  19. Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

  20. X-ray blast windows with mechanically strengthened lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Nino

    2006-10-01

    Z-pinch- and laser-produced X-ray sources not only emit the few-keV X-rays that are intended, but also X-rays that are much softer than desired, plasma, and hot gas. An X-ray filter along the line of sight easily suppresses the softer X-rays, but when the pulse is powerful enough it evaporates, to become a secondary source of material that must be stopped by an X-ray transmitting blast window. For the X-ray filter the best material is lithium metal: Li has the highest mass per unit area and largest heat capacity for a given X-ray transmission. Li would be a good candidate material for the blast window too if it were mechanically stronger. We show initial results on the strengthening of lithium by mixing it with lithium hydride powder, the only ceramic that would not decrease Li's X-ray transmission. Cooling the resulting Li-LiH cermet to 77 K increases the strength more than an order of magnitude (compared to room-temperature Li): cryogenically cooled Li-LiH is then just as strong, or perhaps stronger, than beryllium.

  1. Boron coating on boron nitride coated nuclear fuels by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durmazuçar, Hasan H.; Gündüz, Güngör

    2000-12-01

    Uranium dioxide-only and uranium dioxide-gadolinium oxide (5% and 10%) ceramic nuclear fuel pellets which were already coated with boron nitride were coated with thin boron layer by chemical vapor deposition to increase the burn-up efficiency of the fuel during reactor operation. Coating was accomplished from the reaction of boron trichloride with hydrogen at 1250 K in a tube furnace, and then sintering at 1400 and 1525 K. The deposited boron was identified by infrared spectrum. The morphology of the coating was studied by using scanning electron microscope. The plate, grainy and string (fiber)-like boron structures were observed.

  2. Removing tritium and other impurities during industrial recycling of beryllium from a fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Dylst, K.; Seghers, J.; Druyts, F.; Braet, J.

    2008-07-15

    Recycling beryllium used in a fusion reactor might be a good way to overcome problems related to the disposal of neutron irradiated beryllium. The critical issues for the recycling of used first wall beryllium are the presence of tritium and (transuranic) impurities. High temperature annealing seems to be the most promising technique for detritiation. Purification of the de-tritiated beryllium can be achieved by chlorination of the irradiated beryllium and the subsequent reduction of beryllium chloride to highly pure metallic beryllium. After that, the beryllium can be re-fabricated into first wall tiles via powder metallurgy which is already a mature industrial practice. This paper outlines the path to define the experimental needs for beryllium recycling and tackles problems related to the detritiation and the purification via the chlorine route. (authors)

  3. Tritium migration in the materials proposed for fusion reactors: Li2TiO3 and beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulsartov, T. V.; Gordienko, Yu. N.; Tazhibayeva, I. L.; Kenzhin, E. A.; Barsukov, N. I.; Sadvakasova, A. O.; Kulsartova, A. V.; Zaurbekova, Zh. A.

    2013-11-01

    The results of tritium and helium gas release from lithium ceramics samples Li2TiO3 irradiated at the WWR-K reactor (Almaty, Kazakhstan) and from beryllium samples irradiated at the BN-350 reactor (Aktau, Kazakhstan) and the IVG.1M reactor (Kurchatov, Kazakhstan) are presented. Experimentally obtained thermal desorption (TDS) spectra have shown that the dependence of tritium release from lithium ceramics has a complicated behavior and to a large extent depends on lithium ceramics type. Nevertheless, it was found that the total amount of tritium released from all types of lithium ceramics has the same order of magnitude, equal to about 1011 Bq/kg. It was found that in the temperature range from 523 K to 1373 K the process of tritium release from lithium ceramics involves volume diffusion and thermoactivated tritium release from the accumulation centers generated under irradiation. TDS of beryllium samples enables us to obtain characteristics of tritium and helium release during linear heating, to determine integrated quantities of generated helium and tritium, and to determine parameters of release processes. The range of operating temperatures from 303 K to 1773 K; The pressure in the operating volume of the chamber 10-5 Pa; The accuracy in automatic temperature maintenance with respect to given temperature ±0.5 K. The experiments were carried out as follows: the sample was loaded into the crucible of the operating chamber. Then the sample was degassed at 423 K with constant pumping for 4 h. After that the sample was cooled to room temperature and the sample heating experiment was carried out. Each of the samples was heated linearly to 1523 K examining the released gases having mass numbers 2 (?2), 3 (3??), 4 (4?? + ??), 6 (?2), 18 (?2?), 20 (HTO) and 22 (?2?). The rate of linear heating ranged from 5 K/min to 20 K/min. It was taken into account that the total tritium quantity is formed by values of peaks respective to 6 and 3 mass numbers. And according to standard interpretation of spectra relative to the deposition for tritium total quantity - M6 makes 95% and M3 makes 5%, which means that M3 is formed only by 3He at missing of M6 peak.It should be noted that the experimental device for TDS studies is small (the volume of the measuring chamber and all gas paths to the mass spectrometer is 3 l at the most). The assembly is equipped with a pump with a capacity of 100 l/s. Calibration experiments using helium and hydrogen pumping did not show any substantial delay in detection of gases with different mass numbers, caused by different rates of transportation from the place of gas measurement. The observed detection delay was less than 0.1 s. The majority of helium is released from samples of DV-56 in the high temperature region. For samples of TShG-200 helium released in the high-temperature region is about ˜50% of the total release. For samples of DV-56 (irradiated to higher doses than samples of TShG-200 with a higher amount of generated tritium), tritium is released in the high temperature range as T2 (˜60%), HTO and T2O (˜30%). For samples of TShG-200 tritium is released in low temperature region as HTO and T2O. In the high temperature range the overall allocation of tritium as T2 from TShG-200 samples increases from 5% to 25%. Tritium release in the form of tritium water is caused by the tritium-oxygen (beryllium oxide) reaction. We suppose that it can have a complicated mechanism: for example, in case of direct chemical interaction of tritium with beryllium oxide (or beryllium hydroxide forming HTO) or tritium-beryllium oxide decay. This mechanism is not fully understood, which is why we have not analyzed the dependences of tritium water flux obtained in the TDS experiments. The questions of the importance of sample exposure and its influence on tritium conditions in beryllium require further explanation. For samples of DV-56 the exposure is about 17 years. The dependence of T2 release were considered in diffusion coefficient estimations.Tri

  4. Structure/property relationships in multipass GMA welding of beryllium.

    SciTech Connect

    Hochanadel, P. W.; Hults, W. L.; Thoma, D. J.; Dave, V. R.; Kelly, A. M.; Pappin, P. A.; Cola, M. J.; Burgardt, P.

    2001-01-01

    Beryllium is an interesting metal that has a strength to weight ratio six times that of steel. Because of its unique mechanical properties, beryllium is used in aerospace applications such as satellites. In addition, beryllium is also used in x-ray windows because it is nearly transparent to x-rays. Joining of beryllium has been studied for decades (Ref.l). Typically joining processes include braze-welding (either with gas tungsten arc or gas metal arc), soldering, brazing, and electron beam welding. Cracking which resulted from electron beam welding was recently studied to provide structure/property relationships in autogenous welds (Ref. 2). Braze-welding utilizes a welding arc to melt filler, and only a small amount of base metal is melted and incorporated into the weld pool. Very little has been done to characterize the braze-weld in terms of the structure/property relationships, especially with reference to multipass welding. Thus, this investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effects of multiple passes on microstructure, weld metal composition, and resulting material properties for beryllium welded with aluminum-silicon filler metal.

  5. Pores and cracks in highly neutron irradiated beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakin, V.; Rolli, R.; Schneider, H.-C.; Moeslang, A.; Kurinskiy, P.; Renterghem, W. Van

    2011-09-01

    Beryllium, irradiated in the SM and BR2 research nuclear reactors at 323-343 K up to neutron fluences of (0.4-14.4) × 10 22 cm -2 ( E > 0.1 MeV), was investigated. The dependences of beryllium swelling, brittle strength and microhardness on fast neutron fluence are presented. Three intervals can be outlined where the swelling has the various rates of increase with the growth of the neutron fluence that is connected with accumulation of radiogenic helium in beryllium and evolution of grain boundaries pores to cracks with the formation of a volume-connected network of cracks. The key points for the crack formation and propagation in beryllium under irradiation are the presence of beryllium oxide particles on boundaries and compression of the hexagonal grains along parameter " c" owing to radiation growth. The annealing at 1123 K for 5 h results in an increase of the helium amount on grain boundaries and an evolution of the pores to gas bubbles.

  6. Erosion of beryllium under ITER - Relevant transient plasma loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupriyanov, I. B.; Nikolaev, G. N.; Kurbatova, L. A.; Porezanov, N. P.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Muzichenko, A. D.; Zhitlukhin, A. M.; Gervash, A. A.; Safronov, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2-0.5 MJ/m2 at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology.

  7. Beryllium and titanium cost-adjustment report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, John; Ulph, Eric, Sr.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes cost adjustment factors for beryllium (Be, S200) and titanium (Ti, 6Al-4V) that were derived relative to aluminum (Al, 7075-T6). Aluminum is traditionally the material upon which many of the Cost Analysis Office, Missile Division cost estimating relationships (CERs) are based. The adjustment factors address both research and development and production (Q > 100) quantities. In addition, the factors derived include optical elements, normal structure, and structure with special requirements for minimal microcreep, such as sensor assembly parts and supporting components. Since booster cost per payload pound is an even larger factor in total missile launch costs than was initially presumed, the primary cost driver for all materials compared was the missiles' booster cost per payload pound for both R&D and production quantities. Al and Ti are 1.5 and 2.4 times more dense, respectively, than Be, and the cost to lift the heavier materials results in greater booster expense. In addition, Al and Ti must be 2.1 and 2.8, respectively, times the weight of a Be component to provide equivalent stiffness, based on the example component addressed in the report. These factors also increase booster costs. After review of the relative factors cited above, especially the lower costs for Be when stiffness and booster costs are taken into consideration, affordability becomes an important issue. When this study was initiated, both government and contractor engineers said that Be was the material to be used as a last resort because of its prohibitive cost and extreme toxicity. Although the initial price of Be may lead one to believe that any Be product would be extremely expensive, the total cost of Be used for space applications is actually competitive with or less costly than either Al or Ti. Also, the Be toxicity problem has turned out to be a non-issue for purchasers of finished Be components since no machining or grinding operations are required on the finished components. Several new costing techniques are developed which provide quantitative measures of the cost of material stiffness, costs related to payload weight, and costs associated with the relative temperature stability of different materials. In addition, use is made of the Design/Cost Trade Model developed by Applied Research, Inc., to determine the booster cost differential relative to changes in payload weight, and a mirror fabrication cost model, developed by OCA Applied Optics, was used for mirror costing. This report is a summary of an extensive study done by the U.S. Army Strategic Defense Command, Huntsville, Alabama.

  8. Cold Lithium Atom Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassella, Kayleigh; Copenhaver, Eric; Lai, Chen; Hamilton, Paul; Estey, Brian; Feng, Yanying; Mueller, Holger

    2015-05-01

    Atom interferometers often use heavy alkali atoms such as rubidium or cesium. In contrast, interferometry with light atoms offers a larger recoil velocity and recoil energy, yielding a larger interference signal. This would allow for sensitive measurements of the fine structure constant, gravity gradients and spatially varying potentials. We have built the first light-pulse cold-atom interferometer with lithium in a Mach-Zehnder geometry based on short (100 ns), intense (2.5 W/cm2) pulses. We initially capture approximately 107 lithium atoms at a temperature of about 300 ?K in a magneto-optical trap. To perform interferometry, we couple the F = 1 and F = 2 hyperfine levels of the ground state with a sequence of two-photon Raman transitions, red-detuned from lithium's unresolved 2P3/2 state. Cold lithium atoms offer a broad range of new possibilities for atom interferometry including a large recoil velocity and a fermionic and bosonic isotope. Lithium's isotopes also allow for independent measurements of gravity thus constraining the equivalence principle violations predicted by the Standard-Model Extension. In the near future, we plan to perform a recoil measurement using a Ramsey-Bordé interferometer.

  9. Boron chemicals in diagnosis and therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Das, Bhaskar C; Thapa, Pritam; Karki, Radha; Schinke, Caroline; Das, Sasmita; Kambhampati, Suman; Banerjee, Sushanta K; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Verma, Amit; Weiss, Louis M; Evans, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the field of boron chemistry have expanded the application of boron from material use to medicine. Boron-based drugs represent a new class of molecules that possess several biomedical applications including use as imaging agents for both optical and nuclear imaging as well as therapeutic agents with anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and other disease-specific activities. For example, bortezomib (Velcade®), the only drug in clinical use with boron as an active element, was approved in 2003 as a proteasome inhibitor for the treatment of multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Several other boron-based compounds are in various phases of clinical trials, which illustrates the promise of this approach for medicinal chemists working in the area of boron chemistry. It is expected that in the near future, several boron-containing drugs should become available in the market with better efficacy and potency than existing drugs. This article discusses the current status of the development of boron-based compounds as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in humans. PMID:23617429

  10. Boron Carbides As Thermo-electric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles

    1988-01-01

    Report reviews recent theoretical and experimental research on thermoelectric materials. Recent work with narrow-band semiconductors demonstrated possibility of relatively high thermoelectric energy-conversion efficiencies in materials withstanding high temperatures needed to attain such efficiencies. Among promising semiconductors are boron-rich borides, especially boron carbides.

  11. New techniques for producing thin boron films

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A review will be presented of methods for producing thin boron films using an electron gun. Previous papers have had the problem of spattering of the boron source during the evaporation. Methods for reducing this problem will also be presented. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Porphyrins for boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, Michiko (Center Moriches, NY); Gabel, Detlef (Bremen, DE)

    1990-01-01

    Novel compounds for treatment of brain tumors in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy are disclosed. A method for preparing the compounds as well as pharmaceutical compositions containing said compounds are also disclosed. The compounds are water soluble, non-toxic and non-labile boronated porphyrins which show significant uptake and retention in tumors.

  13. Ultratough single crystal boron-doped diamond

    DOEpatents

    Hemley, Russell J [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC (United States); Mao, Ho-Kwang [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC (United States); Yan, Chih-Shiue [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC (United States); Liang, Qi [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-05-05

    The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 .mu.m/h.

  14. Crack toughness evaluation of hot pressed and forged beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. H.; Bubsey, R. T.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Beryllium fracture toughness test specimens were fatigue cracked using reversed cycling with a compression load two to three times the tension load. In worked beryllium, textures may be produced which result in fatigue cracks that are out of plane with the starter notch. Specimens of hot pressed stock exhibited load displacement records which were nonlinear throughout their course. Fracture specimens of both hot pressed and forged stock showed essentially no reduction of thickness and the fracture surfaces were flat and normal to the load axis. However, the stress intensity factor at maximum load increased with decreasing thickness. Load-displacement and electric potential records for the hot pressed beryllium specimens exhibited several anomalies such as negative residual crack mouth displacements and a decrease in electrical potential with increasing load.

  15. Estimation of beryllium ground state energy by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, K. M. Ariful; Halder, Amal

    2015-05-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo method represent a powerful and broadly applicable computational tool for finding very accurate solution of the stationary Schrödinger equation for atoms, molecules, solids and a variety of model systems. Using variational Monte Carlo method we have calculated the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom. Our calculation are based on using a modified four parameters trial wave function which leads to good result comparing with the few parameters trial wave functions presented before. Based on random Numbers we can generate a large sample of electron locations to estimate the ground state energy of Beryllium. Our calculation gives good estimation for the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom comparing with the corresponding exact data.

  16. Coercive fields in ferroelectrics: A case study in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate

    E-print Network

    Gopalan, Venkatraman

    Coercive fields in ferroelectrics: A case study in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate Sungwon lithium niobate (LiNbO3) and lithium tantalate (LiTaO3), which are technologically important,6,7 and typi

  17. Surface area of respirable beryllium metal, oxide, and copper alloy aerosols and implications for assessment of exposure risk of chronic beryllium disease.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Hoover, Mark D; Dickerson, Robert M; Peterson, Eric J; Day, Gregory A; Breysse, Patrick N; Kent, Michael S; Scripsick, Ronald C

    2003-01-01

    The continued occurrence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) suggests the current occupational exposure limit of 2 microg beryllium per cubic meter of air does not adequately protect workers. This study examined the morphology and measured the particle surface area of aerodynamically size-separated powders and process-sampled particles of beryllium metal, beryllium oxide, and copper-beryllium alloy. The beryllium metal powder consisted of compact particles, whereas the beryllium oxide powder and particles were clusters of smaller primary particles. Specific surface area (SSA) results for all samples (N=30) varied by a factor of 37, from 0.56 +/- 0.07 m(2)/g (for the 0.4-0.7 microm size fraction of the process-sampled reduction furnace particles) to 20.8 +/- 0.4 m(2)/g (for the beryllium metal, from 4.0 +/- 0.01 m(2)/g (for the particle size fraction >6 microm) to 20.8 +/- 0.44 m(2)/g (for the particle size fraction beryllium oxide powder and particles collected from the screening operation. The SSA of beryllium metal powder decreases with increasing particle size, as expected for compact particles, and the SSA of the beryllium oxide powders and particles remains constant as a function of particle size, which might be expected for clustered particles. These associations illustrate how process-related factors can influence the morphology and SSA of beryllium materials. To avoid errors in predicting bioavailability of beryllium and the associated risks for CBD, the mechanisms of particle formation should be understood and the SSA of beryllium particles should be measured directly. PMID:12809534

  18. CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-04-20

    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  19. Method for removal of beryllium contamination from an article

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Hollenbeck, Scott M.

    2012-12-25

    A method of removal of beryllium contamination from an article is disclosed. The method typically involves dissolving polyisobutylene in a solvent such as hexane to form a tackifier solution, soaking the substrate in the tackifier to produce a preform, and then drying the preform to produce the cleaning medium. The cleaning media are typically used dry, without any liquid cleaning agent to rub the surface of the article and remove the beryllium contamination below a non-detect level. In some embodiments no detectible residue is transferred from the cleaning wipe to the article as a result of the cleaning process.

  20. Fluorometric study of the beryllium-morin system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, M.H.

    1965-01-01

    Three principal beryllium-morin complexes, a (1 + 1) monomer, a (1 + 1) dimer, and a (1 + 2) complex are found and conditional equilibrium constants for their formation are evaluated. Approximate ionization constants, absorption spectra, and the relative fluorescence intensities for five ionic species of morin are also determined in a spectrophotometric and fluorometric study of morin. The following interrelationships are discussed: pH, ionization of morin, absorption spectra of the various ionic species of morin and of the berylliummorin complexes, equilibria for the reactions between beryllium and morin, the period of time between preparation of the solution and measurement of the fluorescence, and fluorescence intensity.

  1. Failure prediction of thin beryllium sheets used in spacecraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roschke, Paul N.; Papados, Photios; Mascorro, Edward

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to predict failure for cross-rolled beryllium sheet structures, high order macroscopic failure criteria are used. These require the knowledge of in-plane uniaxial and shear strengths. Test results are included for in-plane biaxial tension, uniaxial compression for two different material orientations, and shear. All beryllium specimens have the same chemical composition. In addition, all experimental work was performed in a controlled laboratory environment. Numerical simulation complements these tests. A brief bibliography supplements references listed in a previous report.

  2. Is there a Population II analogy to the F star?lithium?dip?

    PubMed Central

    Dearborn, D. S. P.; Schramm, David N.

    1997-01-01

    Observers have found a small number of lithium-depleted halo stars in the temperature range of the Spite plateau. The current status of the mass-loss hypothesis for producing the observed lithium dip in Population (Pop) I stars is briefly discussed and extended to Pop II stars as a possible explanation for these halo objects. Based on detections of F-type main-sequence variables, mass loss is assumed to occur in a narrow temperature region corresponding to this “instability strip.” As Pop II main-sequence stars evolve to the blue, they enter this narrow temperature region, then move back through the lower temperature area of the Spite plateau. If 0.05 M? (solar mass) or more have been lost, they will show lithium depletion. This hypothesis affects the lithium-to- beryllium abundance, the ratio of high- to low-lithium stars, and the luminosity function. Constraints on the mass-loss hypothesis due to these effects are discussed. Finally, mass loss in this temperature range would operate in stars near the turnoff of metal-poor globular clusters, resulting in apparent ages 2 to 3 Gyr (gigayears) older than they actually are. PMID:11038540

  3. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  4. 20 CFR 30.507 - What compensation will be provided to covered Part B employees who only establish beryllium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA...Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? The establishment of beryllium sensitivity does not entitle...

  5. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

  6. 20 CFR 30.507 - What compensation will be provided to covered Part B employees who only establish beryllium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA...Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? The establishment of beryllium sensitivity does not entitle...

  7. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

  8. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

  9. 20 CFR 30.507 - What compensation will be provided to covered Part B employees who only establish beryllium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA...Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? The establishment of beryllium sensitivity does not entitle...

  10. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

  11. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

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  12. 20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance of duty...employee” exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance of duty...during a period when beryllium dust, particles, or vapor may have been...

  13. 20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance of duty...employee” exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance of duty...during a period when beryllium dust, particles, or vapor may have been...

  14. 20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

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  15. 20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance of duty...employee” exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance of duty...during a period when beryllium dust, particles, or vapor may have been...

  16. 20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance of duty...employee” exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance of duty...during a period when beryllium dust, particles, or vapor may have been...

  17. 20 CFR 30.205 - What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa...benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA...cells. (2) Established chronic beryllium disease. (3) Any injury, illness, impairment, or...

  18. 20 CFR 30.205 - What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa...benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA...cells. (2) Established chronic beryllium disease. (3) Any injury, illness, impairment, or...

  19. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, James D; Hallis, Lydia J; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  20. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  1. Black Phosphorus Boron Nitride Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillgren, Nathaniel; Barlas, Yafis; Shi, Yanmeng; Yang, Jiawei; Taniguchi, Takashi; Lau, Chun Ning (Jeanie)

    2015-03-01

    There has been significant recent interest in black phosphorus as a candidate for future electronics applications, as it possesses both a layered-tunable band gap and a relatively high mobility (compared to other 2D candidates). However, black phosphorus' degradation in ambient conditions constitutes a major road block in future applications. As a potential solution for this problem we explore the effects of encapsulating black phosphorus between hexagonal boron nitride. We will present the effects of this heterostructure on both the stability and transport properties of thin black phosphorus devices.

  2. Experimental boron neutron capture therapy for melanoma: Systemic delivery of boron to melanotic and amelanotic melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Greenberg, D. ); Packer, S. North Shore University Hospital Manhasset, NY )

    1990-01-01

    The boron-containing melanin precursor analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) has previously been shown to selectively deliver boron to pigmented murine melanomas when administered in a single intragastric dose. If boron neutron capture therapy is to become a clinically useful method of radiation therapy for human malignant melanoma, the boron carrier must be capable of delivering useful amounts of boron to remote tumor sites (metastases) and to poorly pigmented melanomas. The authors have now determined the ability of BPA to accumulate in several nonpigmented melanoma models including human melanoma xenografts in nude mice. The absolute amount of boron in the nonpigmented melanomas was about 50% of the observed in the pigmented counterparts but was still selectively concentrated in the tumor relative to normal tissues in amounts sufficient for effective neutron capture therapy. Single intragastric doses of BPA resulted in selective localization of boron in the amelanotic Greene melanoma carried in the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye and in a pigmented murine melanoma growing in the lungs. The ratio of the boron concentration in these tumors to the boron concentration in the immediately adjacent normal tissue was in the range of 3:1 to 4:1. These distribution studies support the proposal that boron neutron capture therapy may be useful as a regional therapy for malignant melanoma.

  3. Micro-and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate

    E-print Network

    Byer, Robert L.

    Micro- and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate Vladimir Ya. Shur investigation of the domain evolution in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate during backswitched electric sources based on quasi-phase matching.11 Lithium niobate LiNbO3 (LN) and lithium tantalate LiTaO3 (LT

  4. The geochemistry of Boron-rich groundwater of the Karlovassi Basin, Samos Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatakis, Michael G.; Tziritis, Evangelos P.; Evelpidou, Niki

    2009-06-01

    The upper Miocene of Karlovassi Basin, Samos Island, Greece, contain continental evaporites such as colemanite, ulexite, celestite, gypsum and thenardite. These evaporites are related with volcanic tuffs, diagenetically altered in a saline-alkaline lake environment. The aim of the present paper is to: a) define the impact of the already known and possible buried borates and other evaporites to the geochemistry of the hydrogeological system of Karlovassi Basin, and; b) to assess the correlation between surface and underground evaporite deposits considering the spatial changes in the concentrations of the examined physicochemical parameters. Fieldwork, laboratory measurements and literature data revealed elevated boron values (2136-33012 ?/L) in the central part of Karlovassi Basin. In the same area, high amounts of strontium, sodium, lithium and sulfates also occur. It is proposed that these ions originate from the leaching of evaporites and authigenic minerals such as the Sr-rich clinoptilolite and the boron-bearing potassium feldspar. Boron values are abnormally high for freshwater aquifers, and are indicative of the presence of buried evaporites in the basin with unknown significance.

  5. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... for mailpieces containing lithium metal or lithium-ion cells or batteries and applies regardless of...'' instead of ``lithium content'' for secondary lithium-ion batteries when describing maximum quantity limits...-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries Small consumer-type lithium-ion cells and batteries like...

  6. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1993-07-01

    Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included.

  7. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20...

  8. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20...

  9. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20...

  10. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20...

  11. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20...

  12. Validation of cleaning method for various parts fabricated at a Beryllium facility

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Cynthia M.

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated and documented a cleaning process that is used to clean parts that are fabricated at a beryllium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of evaluating this cleaning process was to validate and approve it for future use to assure beryllium surface levels are below the Department of Energy’s release limits without the need to sample all parts leaving the facility. Inhaling or coming in contact with beryllium can cause an immune response that can result in an individual becoming sensitized to beryllium, which can then lead to a disease of the lungs called chronic beryllium disease, and possibly lung cancer. Thirty aluminum and thirty stainless steel parts were fabricated on a lathe in the beryllium facility, as well as thirty-two beryllium parts, for the purpose of testing a parts cleaning method that involved the use of ultrasonic cleaners. A cleaning method was created, documented, validated, and approved, to reduce beryllium contamination.

  13. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  14. Differences in dissolution behavior in a phagolysosomal simulant fluid for single-constituent and multi-constituent materials associated with beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Day, Gregory A; Hoover, Mark D; Breysse, Patrick N; Scripsick, Ronald C

    2006-02-01

    Particle dissolution within macrophage phagolysosomes is hypothesized to be an important source of dissolved beryllium for input to the cell-mediated immune reaction associated with development of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease (CBD). To better understand the dissolution of beryllium materials associated with elevated prevalence of sensitization and CBD, single-constituent (beryllium oxide (BeO) particles sampled from a screener operation, finished product BeO powder, finish product beryllium metal powder) and multi-constituent (particles sampled from an arc furnace during processing of copper-beryllium alloy) aerosol materials were studied. Dissolution rates were measured using phagolysosomal simulant fluid (PSF) in a static dissolution technique and then normalized to measured values of specific surface area to calculate a chemical dissolution rate constant (k) for each material. Values of k, in g/(cm2 day), for screener BeO particles (1.3 +/- 1.9 x 10(-8)) and for BeO powder (1.1 +/- 0.5 x 10(-8)) were similar (p = 0.45). The value of k observed for beryllium metal powder (1.1 +/- 1.4 x 10(-7)) was significantly greater than observed for the BeO materials (p < 0.0003). For arc furnace particles, k (1.6 +/- 0.6 x 10(-7)) was significantly greater than observed for the BeO materials (p < 0.00001), despite the fact that the chemical form of beryllium in the aerosol was BeO. These results suggest that dissolution of beryllium differs among physicochemical forms of beryllium and direct measurement of dissolution is needed for multi-constituent aerosol. Additional studies of the dissolution behavior of beryllium materials in a variety of mixture configurations will aid in developing exposure-response models to improve understanding of the risk of beryllium sensitization and CBD. PMID:16061346

  15. Lithium disulfide battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A negative electrode limited secondary electrochemical cell having dense FeS.sub.2 positive electrode operating exclusively on the upper plateau, a Li alloy negative electrode and a suitable lithium-containing electrolyte. The electrolyte preferably is 25 mole percent LiCl, 38 mole percent LiBr and 37 mole percent KBr. The cell may be operated isothermally.

  16. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  17. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  18. Boron-Loaded Silicone Rubber Scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Z.W.; Maya, L.; Brown, G.M.; Sloop, F.V.Jr

    2003-05-12

    Silicone rubber received attention as an alternative to polyvinyltoluene in applications in which the scintillator is exposed to high doses because of the increased resistance of the rubber to the formation of blue-absorbing color centers. Work by Bowen, et al., and Harmon, et al., demonstrated their properties under gamma/x-ray irradiation, and Bell, et al. have shown their response to thermal neutrons. This last work, however, provided an example of a silicone in which both the boron and the scintillator were contained in the rubber as solutes, a formulation which led to the precipitation of solids and sublimation of the boron component. In the present work we describe a scintillator in which the boron is chemically bonded to the siloxane and so avoids the problem of precipitation and loss of boron to sublimation. Material containing up to 18% boron, by weight, was prepared, mounted on photomultipliers, and exposed to both neutron and gamma fluxes. Pulse height spectra showing the neutron and photon response were obtained, and although the light output was found to be much poorer than from samples in which boron was dissolved, the higher boron concentrations enabled essentially 100% neutron absorption in only a few millimeters' thickness of rubber.

  19. Combustion synthesis of novel boron carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harini, R. Saai; Manikandan, E.; Anthonysamy, S.; Chandramouli, V.; Eswaramoorthy, D.

    2013-02-01

    The solid-state boron carbide is one of the hardest materials known, ranking third behind diamond and cubic boron nitride. Boron carbide (BxCx) enriched in the 10B isotope is used as a control rod material in the nuclear industry due to its high neutron absorption cross section and other favorable physico-chemical properties. Conventional methods of preparation of boron carbide are energy intensive processes accompanied by huge loss of boron. Attempts were made at IGCAR Kalpakkam to develop energy efficient and cost effective methods to prepare boron carbide. The products of the gel combustion and microwave synthesis experiments were characterized for phase purity by XRD. The carbide formation was ascertained using finger-print spectroscopy of FTIR. Samples of pyrolized/microwave heated powder were characterized for surface morphology using SEM. The present work shows the recent advances in understanding of structural and chemical variations in boron carbide and their influence on morphology, optical and vibrational property results discussed in details.

  20. Properties of vacuum-evaporated boron films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feakes, F.

    1973-01-01

    The work on the properties of thin boron films made by vacuum evaporation of elemental boron using an electron beam as the energy source is reported. The program aimed at characterizing the properties of vacuum evaporated films. The work was directed toward those variables considered to be important in affecting the tensile strength of the boron films. In general, the thickness of the films was less than 0.002 in. The temperature of the substrate on which the boron was condensed was found to be most important. Three distinctly different forms of boron deposit were produced. Although the transition temperature was not sharply defined, at substrate temperatures of less than approximately 600 deg C the boron deposits were amorphous to X-ray. If the substrate were highly polished, the deposits were black and mirror-like. For substrates with coefficients of thermal expansion close to that of boron, the deposits were then continuous and uncracked. The studies suggest that the potential continues to exist for film-type composites to have both high strength and high modulus.

  1. SESAME equation of state number 7611, beryllium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Boettger, J.C.; Willis, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    A new equation of state (EOS) for beryllium oxide (BeO) has been constructed for the SESAME library as material number 7611. Unlike the existing EOS for BeO in the library (7610), this new EOS incorporates the effect of a structural phase transition which has been predicted by two independent theoretical calculations. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  2. TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenkov, M.; Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A.; Rolli, R.

    2014-12-01

    Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

  3. Biological Exposure Metrics of Beryllium-Exposed Dental Technicians

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Moshe; Lerman, Yehuda; Kapel, Arik; Pardo, Asher; Schwarz, Yehuda; Newman, Lee; Maier, Lisa; Fireman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Beryllium is commonly used in the dental industry. This study investigates the association between particle size and shape in induced sputum (IS) with beryllium exposure and oxidative stress in 83 dental technicians. Particle size and shape were defined by laser and video, whereas beryllium exposure data came from self-reports and beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) results. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) gene expression in IS was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A high content of particles (92%) in IS > 5 µ in size is correlated to a positive BeLPT risk (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9–13). Use of masks, hoods, and type of exposure yielded differences in the transparency of IS particles (gray level) and modulate HO1 levels. These results indicate that parameters of size and shape of particles in IS are sensitive to workplace hygiene, affect the level of oxidative stress, and may be potential markers for monitoring hazardous dust exposures. PMID:24205960

  4. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian P.

    2009-01-01

    Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were tabulated. Years 2001–10 gave the greatest match (45.9%) for methodological parameters, followed by 27.71% for 1991–2000. Years 1971–80 and 1981–90 were not significantly different in the information published and available whereas years 1951–1960 showed a lack of suitable articles. Some articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its biological monitoring in the workplace essential. PMID:20386622

  5. Beryllium decontamination with different solvents on different structures.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, A; Dion, C; Viau, S; Perrault, G

    2009-10-01

    The objective of the present work was to estimate the efficiency of moistened wipes in removing beryllium with different solutions including Citranox, Alconox, NaCl 5%, Resolve, and Ledizolv on various types of surfaces such as unpainted metal, wood frames, painted metal, concrete, painted concrete, and Plexiglas from three different occupational settings. Of the three plants that were investigated, only surfaces in the aluminium smelter were decontaminated down to the clearance reference level of 0.2 microg 100 cm(-2), with all the solvents used. In the machine tooling and milling department, the clearance level of 0.2 microg 100 cm(-2) was reached after the three decontaminations, with all the solvents. In the machine plant for the military, aerospace, and telecommunications industries, the beryllium concentrations on the concrete wall, before decontamination with the high-pressure gun, were usually >3 microg 100 cm(-2), and concentrations as high as 31 microg 100 cm(-2) were measured. After the high-pressure cleanup, the beryllium concentrations were sometimes reduced by a factor of 10, but never reached the clearance level. Beryllium compounds that had adhered to most types of structures that we attempted to decontaminate were reduced to below the clearance reference value except on concrete floors. There did not seem to be any difference between the decontamination actions for all the solvents used in this study. PMID:19605417

  6. Beryllium Wipe Sampling (differing methods - differing exposure potentials)

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, Kent

    2005-03-09

    This research compared three wipe sampling techniques currently used to test for beryllium contamination on room and equipment surfaces in Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling without a wetting agent, with water-moistened wipe materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Analysis indicated that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed about twice as much beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes, which removed about twice as much residue as dry wipes. Criteria at 10 CFR 850.30 and .31 were established on unspecified wipe sampling method(s). The results of this study reveal a need to identify criteria-setting method and equivalency factors. As facilities change wipe sampling methods among the three compared in this study, these results may be useful for approximate correlations. Accurate decontamination decision-making depends on the selection of appropriate wetting agents for the types of residues and surfaces. Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced removal efficiency such as methanol when surface contamination includes oil mist residue.

  7. Beryllium deposits of the western Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sainsbury, C.L.

    1963-01-01

    Deposits of beryllium ore in the Lost River area of the western Seward Peninsula, Alaska, consist of replacement veins, pipes, and stringer lodes is limestone in a zone about 7 miles long and 2 to 3 miles wide which is faulted and intruded by dikes and stocks. The ores are remarkably alike and typically consist of the following minerals, in percent: fluorite, 45-65; diaspore, 5-10; tourmaline, 0-10; chrysoberyl, 3-10; white mica, 0-5; small amounts of hematite, sulfide minerals, manganese oxide, other beryllium minerals; and traces of minerals not yet identified. The ores generally are cut by late veinlets which are of the same mineralogy as the groundmass ore, or which consist of fluorite, white mica, and euclase. The ores are fine grained, and many of the individual mineral grains, except fluorite, are less than 1 mm in size. The beryllium content of bulk samples of ore ranges from 0.11 to 0.54 percent (0.31 to 1.50 percent BeO). High-grade nodules, composed principally of chrysoberyl, diaspore, fluorite, and mica, contain as much as 6 percent BeO. Geochemical reconnaissance has disclosed other areas of anomalous beryllium in stream sediments elsewhere on the Seward Peninsula, generally around biotite granites that have them associated with tin deposits; additional exploration probably will disclose other deposits.

  8. 9. VIEW OF FOUNDRY FURNACE, DEPLETED URANIUM INGOTS, BERYLLIUM INGOTS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF FOUNDRY FURNACE, DEPLETED URANIUM INGOTS, BERYLLIUM INGOTS, AND ALUMINUM SHAPES WERE PRODUCED IN THE FOUNDRY. (10/30/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. A NOVEL BIOMARKER FOR BERYLLIUM SENSITIZATION IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project will determine the T-cell receptor (TCR) gene usages of beryllium reactive T-lymphocytes isolated directly from the peripheral blood of individuals exposed at a U.S. Department of Energy site. The objective is to develop a sensitive and novel biomarker for i...

  10. Subscale Beryllium Mirrors Demonstrator (SBMD) Program Summary and Ball Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendrick, Stephen; Brown, Robert; Stahl, Philip (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The SBMD Program was to design, fabricate, and test a 0.5-m beryllium lightweighted mirror applicable to space deployable systems with demanding optical and areal density requirements. This presentation summarizes the program's objectives and the mirror's tested technical performance along with lessons learned. In addition, test results are compared to modeling predictions. The SBMD Program was funded by NASA MSFC.

  11. REACTOR CORE SURROUNDED BY BERYLLIUM MODERATOR. CAMERA LOOKS DOWN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR CORE SURROUNDED BY BERYLLIUM MODERATOR. CAMERA LOOKS DOWN AND TOWARD NORTH INTO LOWER GRID CASTING. HOLES OF VARIOUS SIZES ACCOMMODATE COOLANT WATER AND EXPERIMENTAL POSITIONS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4197. Unknown Photographer, 2/11/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. 18. VIEW OF ENGINEERING CONTROLS USED IN THE BERYLLIUM SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF ENGINEERING CONTROLS USED IN THE BERYLLIUM SHOP TO REDUCE EMPLOYEE EXPOSURE. THE LATHE IS COVERED BY A HOOD WITH A SEPARATE AIR-HANDLING SYSTEM. PRECISION EQUIPMENT IS CONTROLLED DIGITALLY. (11/13/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. Requirement of Ginkgo Pollen-Derived Tissue Cultures for Boron and Effects of Boron Deficiency 1

    PubMed Central

    Yih, Roy, Y.; Hille, Frederick K.; Clark, Harold E.

    1966-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. pollen-derived tissue, which is made up of small, friable masses of homogeneous parenchymatous cells, was shown to require boron in the culture medium. If no boron is supplied, growth soon stops. Growth responses to additions of boron were observed up to an optimum level of 0.1 mg of boron per liter. Histological examination and chemical analyses showed 2 general effects of boron deficiency: (1) a reduced rate of cell division, with no significant effect on cell size, and (2) some alteration in composition of the cell walls. With the exception of a reduction in fructose, the concentration of soluble and of readily hydrolyzable carbohydrates, and the concentration of protein in the tissue, were not affected by boron deficiency. Images PMID:16656325

  14. Conductivity of boron-doped polycrystalline diamond films: influence of specific boron defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcheulov, P.; Šebera, J.; Kovalenko, A.; Petrák, V.; Fendrych, F.; Nesládek, M.; Taylor, A.; Vl?ková Živcová, Z.; Frank, O.; Kavan, L.; Dra?ínský, M.; Hubík, P.; Vacík, J.; Kraus, I.; Kratochvílová, I.

    2013-10-01

    The resistivity of boron doped polycrystalline diamond films changes with boron content in a very complex way with many unclear factors. From the large number of parameters affecting boron doped polycrystalline diamond film's conductivity we focused on the role of boron atoms inside diamond grains in terms of boron contribution to the continuum of diamond electronic states. Using a combination of theoretical and experimental techniques (plane-wave Density Functional Theory, Neutron Depth Profiling, resistivity and Hall effect measurements, Atomic Force Microscopy and Raman spectroscopy) we studied a wide range of B defect parameters - the boron concentration, location, structure, free hole concentration and mobility. The main goal and novelty of our work was to find the influence of B defects (structure, interactions, charge localisation and spins) in highly B-doped diamonds - close or above the metal-insulator transition - on the complex material charge transport mechanisms.

  15. JAGUAR Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Explosives Containing Boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, Leonard; Baker, Ernest; Capellos, Christos

    2009-06-01

    The JAGUAR product library was expanded to include boron and boron containing products. Relationships of the Murnaghan form for molar volumes and derived properties were implemented in JAGUAR. Available Hugoniot and static volumertic data were analyzed to obtain constants of the Murnaghan relationship for solid boron, boron oxide, boron nitride, boron carbide, and boric acid. Experimental melting points were also utilized with optimization procedures to obtain the constants of the volumetric relationships for liquid boron and boron oxide. Detonation velocities for HMX - boron mixtures calculated with these relationships using JAGUAR are in closer agreement with literature values at high initial densities for inert (unreacted) boron than with the completely reacted metal. These results indicate that boron mixtures may exhibit eigenvalue detonation behavior, as observed by aluminized combined effects explosives, with higher detonation velocities than would be achieved by a classical Chapman-Jouguet detonation. Analyses of calorimetric measurements for RDX - boron mixtures indicate that at high boron contents the formation of side products, including boron nitride and boron carbide, inhibits the energy output obtained from the detonation of the formulation.

  16. Lithium-bearing rocks of the Horse Spring Formation, Clark County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenner-Tourtelot, E. F.; Glanzman, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    The Horse Spring Formation of Miocene age in Clark County, Nevada, contains as much as 0.5% Li in individual samples. Rock sequences which average 0.1% Li range from 3 m thick near Gold Butte (south of Mesquite, Nev.) to as much as 40 m thick near Lava Butte (east of Las Vegas, Nev.) about 75 km to the west. The lithium-bearing beds are light colored to white and contain hectorite in a dolomite, magnesite, or calcite matrix. Varied amounts of gypsum, halite, celestite, clinoptilolite, quartz, feldspar, biolite and colemanite are also present locally. Hectorite is the only lithium mineral recognized to date. The lithium-rich rocks contain low concentrations of most other minor elements except that boron and strontium are enriched. Rarely, barium, arsenic, and zinc are present in anomalously large amounts. The lithium-enriched part of the Horse Spring Formation was formed from a series of volcanic ashes which were deposited in a playa. Relict volcanic ash is recognizable in thin sections as remnant glass shards and vitroclastic textures. Most of the original glass has been altered to clay minerals, carbonate minerals, or zeolites, presumably through interaction with highly saline pore waters. Abundant evidence of spring activity suggests that thermal waters played a part in releasing the lithium from volcanic materials. ?? 1978.

  17. Ultrathin two-dimensional atomic crystals as stable interfacial layer for improvement of lithium metal anode.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kai; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Gao, Teng; Zheng, Guangyuan; Yao, Hongbin; Wang, Haotian; Lu, Zhenda; Zhou, Yu; Liang, Zheng; Liu, Zhongfan; Chu, Steven; Cui, Yi

    2014-10-01

    Stable cycling of lithium metal anode is challenging due to the dendritic lithium formation and high chemical reactivity of lithium with electrolyte and nearly all the materials. Here, we demonstrate a promising novel electrode design by growing two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystal layers including hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene directly on Cu metal current collectors. Lithium ions were able to penetrate through the point and line defects of the 2D layers during the electrochemical deposition, leading to sandwiched lithium metal between ultrathin 2D layers and Cu. The 2D layers afford an excellent interfacial protection of Li metal due to their remarkable chemical stability as well as mechanical strength and flexibility, resulting from the strong intralayer bonds and ultrathin thickness. Smooth Li metal deposition without dendritic and mossy Li formation was realized. We showed stable cycling over 50 cycles with Coulombic efficiency ?97% in organic carbonate electrolyte with current density and areal capacity up to the practical value of 2.0 mA/cm(2)and 5.0 mAh/cm(2), respectively, which is a significant improvement over the unprotected electrodes in the same electrolyte. PMID:25166749

  18. High-power liquid-lithium jet target for neutron production

    E-print Network

    Halfon, S; Kijel, D; Paul, M; Berkovits, D; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Friedman, M; Hazenshprung, N; Mardor, I; Nagler, A; Shimel, G; Tessler, M; Silverman, I

    2013-01-01

    A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center. The lithium target, to be bombarded by the high-intensity proton beam of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), will constitute an intense source of neutrons produced by the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction for nuclear astrophysics research and as a pilot setup for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The liquid-lithium jet target acts both as neutron-producing target and beam dump by removing the beam thermal power (>5 kW, >1 MW/cm3) with fast transport. The target was designed based on a thermal model, accompanied by a detailed calculation of the 7Li(p,n) neutron yield, energy distribution and angular distribution. Liquid lithium is circulated through the target loop at ~200oC and generates a stable 1.5 mm-thick film flowing at a velocity up to 7 m/s onto a concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can diss...

  19. Fusion Engineering and Design 5152 (2000) 8591 Analysis of tritium kinetics of SIBELIUS beryllium

    E-print Network

    Abdou, Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    ­6]. The tritium release data from the beryllium irradiated in ATR (Advanced Test Reactor) at low temperature the kinetics of tritium transport in irradiated beryllium in fusion blanket applications. Some USA SIBELIUS in the HFR (High Flux Reactor) reactor to investigate the tritium release kinetics in irradiated beryllium

  20. Risk-based approach for controlling beryllium exposure in a manufacturing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, W. E.; Clawson, C. D.; Ellis, K. K.

    2003-01-01

    There are many diverse uses for beryllium in both military and industrial applications. Unfortunately, there are certain worker health risks associated with the manufacture and production of beryllium products. Respiratory illnesses due to prolonged contact with beryllium particulate are of paramount concern. However, these health risks can be controlled provided that the appropriate protective measures to prevent worker exposure from beryllium are in place. But it is no1 always a straightforward process to identify exactly what the beryllium protective measures should be in order to realize a true risk savings. Without prudent attention to a systematic inquiry and suitable evaluative criteria, a program for controlling beryllium health risks can be lacking in completeness and overall effectiveness. One approach that took into account the necessary ingredients for risk-based determination of beryllium protective measures was developed for a beryllium operation at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. The methodological framework that was applied at this facility, as well as a discussion of the final beryllium protective measures that were determined by this approach will be presented. Regulatory aspects for working with beryllium, as well as a risk-assessment strategy for ranking beryllium-handling activities with respect to exposure potential will also be discussed. The presentation will conclude with a synopsis of lessons-learned as gleaned from this case study, as well as providing the participants with a constructive blueprint that can be adapted to other processes involving beryllium.