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1

A study of galactic cosmic ray propagation models based on the isotopic composition of the elements lithium, beryllium and boron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A good test for a cosmic ray propagation model is its ability to predict the abundances of the light secondary nuclei lithium, beryllium, and boron. By using measured isotopic abundances of lithium, beryllium, and boron, Garcia-Munoz et al. (1979) were able to place limits on three important parameters of a leaky box propagation model. The considered parameters include the source spectral parameter, the leakage mean free path, and the characteristic adiabatic energy loss due to solar modulation. The present investigation is concerned with a critical evaluation of the information which can be deduced about these parameters from isotopic composition alone, taking into account the effects of uncertainties in the spallation cross section data.

Hinshaw, G. F.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Greiner, D. E.

1982-01-01

2

Study of beryllium and beryllium-lithium complexes in single-crystal silicon.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When beryllium is thermally diffused into silicon, it gives rise to acceptor levels 191 and 145 meV above the valence band. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that the 145-meV level is due to a more complex beryllium configuration than the 191-meV level. When lithium is thermally diffused into a beryllium-doped silicon sample, it produces two new acceptor levels at 106 and 81 meV. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that these new levels are due to lithium forming a complex with the defects responsible for the 191- and 145-meV beryllium levels, respectively. Electrical measurements imply that the lithium impurity ions are physically close to the beryllium impurity atoms. The ground state of the 106-meV beryllium-lithium level is split into two levels, presumably by internal strains. Tentative models are proposed to explain these results.

Crouch, R. K.; Robertson, J. B.; Gilmer, T. E., Jr.

1972-01-01

3

A study of beryllium and beryllium-lithium complexes in single crystal silicon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When beryllium is thermally diffused into silicon, it gives rise to acceptor levels 191 MeV and 145 meV above the valence band. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that the 145-MeV level is due to a more complex beryllium configuration than the 191-MeV level. When lithium is thermally diffused into a beryllium-doped silicon sample, it produces two acceptor levels at 106 MeV and 81 MeV. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that these levels are due to lithium forming a complex with the defects responsible for the 191-MeV and 145-MeV beryllium levels, respectively. Electrical measurements imply that the lithium impurity ions are physically close to the beryllium impurity atoms. The ground state of the 106-MeV beryllium level is split into two levels, presumably by internal strains. Tentative models are proposed.

Crouch, R. K.; Robertson, J. B.; Gilmer, T. E., Jr.

1972-01-01

4

Beryllium and Boron abundances in population II stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific focus of this program was to undertake UV spectroscopic abundance analyses of extremely metal poor stars with attention to determining abundances of light elements such as beryllium and boron. The abundances are likely to reflect primordial abundances within the early galaxy and help to constrain models for early galactic nucleosynthesis. The general metal abundances of these stars are also important for understanding stellar evolution.

1995-01-01

5

Lithium-boron anodes in nitrate thermal battery cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermally activated electrochemical cell utilizes a lithium-boron anode and a molten nitrate electrolyte selected from the group consisting of lithium nitrate, a mixture of lithium nitrate and sodium nitrate, a mixture of lithium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and a mixture of lithium nitrate and sodium nitrate with potassium nitrate, to provide improved cell electrical performance. The electrolyte is contained

G. E. McManis; A. N. Fletcher; M. H. Miles

1985-01-01

6

Comparison of beryllium oxide and pyrolytic graphite crucibles for boron doped silicon epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the comparison of beryllium oxide and pyrolytic graphite as crucible liners in a high-temperature effusion cell used for boron doping in silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis indicates decomposition of the beryllium oxide liner, leading to significant incorporation of beryllium and oxygen in the grown films. The resulting films are of poor crystal quality with rough surfaces and broad x-ray diffraction peaks. Alternatively, the use of pyrolytic graphite crucible liners results in higher quality films.

Ali, Dyan; Richardson, Christopher J. K. [Laboratory for Physical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

2012-11-15

7

A Lithium-Beryllium Method for the Detection of Solar Neutrinos  

E-print Network

A method for the detection of solar neutrino has been developed using the laboratory bench installations. The efficiency of the extraction of beryllium from lithium as high as 96.4{%} has been achieved, and it was shown that lithium losses during the extraction were less than 1{%}. The prospects of a full-scale experiment with a 10-t lithium detector consisting of twenty 500-kg lithium modules are discussed. The technical solutions formulated on the basis of this study enable to make design of a pilot lithium installation containing 500 kg of metallic lithium

A. V. Kopylov; I. V. Orekhov; V. V. Petukhov; A. E. Solomatin

2009-10-20

8

Test fixture design for boron-aluminum and beryllium test panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed description of the test fixture design and the backup analysis of the fixture assembly and its components are presented. The test fixture is required for the separate testing of two boron-aluminum and two beryllium compression panels. This report is presented in conjunction with a complete set of design drawings on the test fixture system.

Breaux, C. G.

1973-01-01

9

Preparation and physical characteristics of a lithium-beryllium-substituted fluorapatite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lithium-beryllium-substituted fluorapatite, Li0.50Be0.25Ca4.50(PO4)3F, has been prepared by means of a high-temperature reaction between lithium beryllium fluoride, Li2BeF4, and tricalcium phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2. This material has potential application as a waste form for radioactive and toxic fluoride salts. Monitoring of the reaction\\u000a progress by differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the reaction was initiated by melting of the fluoride salt and\\u000a that

Dusan Lexa

1999-01-01

10

Boron nitride protective coating of beryllium window surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The use of beryllium windows on white synchrotron radiation beamlines is constrained by the fact that the downstream surfaces of these windows should not be exposed to ambient atmosphere. They should, rather, be protected by a tail-piece under vacuum or containing helium atmosphere. This tailpiece is typically capped by Kapton (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) or aluminum foil. The reason for such an arrangement is due to the health risk associated with contaminants (BeO) which from on the exposed beryllium window surfaces and due to possible loss of integrity of the windows. Such a tail-piece may, however, add unwanted complications to the beamline in the form of vacuum pumps or helium supplies and their related monitoring systems. The Kapton windows may burn through in the case of high intensity beams and lower energy radiation may be absorbed in the case of aluminum foil windows. A more ideal situation would be to provide a coating for the exposed beryllium window surface, sealing it off from the atmosphere, thus preventing contamination and/or degradation of the window, and eliminating the need for helium or vacuum equipment.

Gmuer, N.F.

1991-12-01

11

Measurement of the Melting Point Temperature of Several Lithium-Sodium-Beryllium Fluoride Salt (Flinabe) Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium fluorides studied for molten salt fission reactors, has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for fusion applications. The melting points of 2LiF-BeFâ and LiF-BeFâ are 460 deg. C and 363 deg. C, but LiF-BeFâ is rather viscous and has less lithium for breeding. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX)

J. M McDonald; R. E. Nygren; T. J. Lutz; T. J Tanaka; M. A. Ulrickson; T. J. Boyle; K. P. Troncosa

2005-01-01

12

Lithium-boron anodes in nitrate thermal battery cells  

SciTech Connect

A thermally activated electrochemical cell utilizes a lithium-boron anode and a molten nitrate electrolyte selected from the group consisting of lithium nitrate, a mixture of lithium nitrate and sodium nitrate, a mixture of lithium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and a mixture of lithium nitrate and sodium nitrate with potassium nitrate, to provide improved cell electrical performance. The electrolyte is contained on a fiberglass separator and the electrolyte adjacent to the cathode may contain silver nitrate as well. Current densities over 300 mA/cm/sup 2/ with a usable temperature range of over 150/sup 0/ C. have been obtained. Anode open circuit potentials of about 3.2 V were found with little polarization at 100 mA/cm/sup 2/ and with very slight polarization at 300 mA/cm/sup 2/.

McManis III, G. E.; Fletcher, A. N.; Miles, M. H.

1985-08-13

13

Beryllium  

SciTech Connect

In the last 50 years, beryllium has risen from a geological curiosity to become an important industrial metal. Its high strength, light weight and high thermal conductivity make it valuable in both defense and commercial applications, It is lighter than aluminum, has a higher tensile strength and melting temperature than both magnesium and aluminum, and exhibits the highest elasticity and strength-to-weight ratio of the light metals. These features, as well as beryllium`s high beat capacity and unusual nuclear properties, caused beryllium to be dubbed the {open_quotes}wonder metal{close_quotes} in the 1950s and early 1960s.

NONE

1992-12-01

14

Beryllium  

Cancer.gov

Beryllium is a metal that is found in nature, especially in beryl and bertrandite rock. It is extremely lightweight and hard, is a good conductor of electricity and heat, and is non-magnetic. Because of these properties, beryllium is used in high-technology consumer and commercial products, including aerospace components, transistors, nuclear reactors, and golf clubs.

15

Beryllium bis(diazaborolyl): old neighbors finally shake hands.  

PubMed

The synthesis of a linear beryllium bis(diazaborolyl) compound featuring the first non-cluster bond between boron and beryllium has been achieved through the reaction of Yamashita's lithium diazaborolide and BeCl2. In accord with the established chemistry of beryllium, the bonding is polar covalent in character, as determined by structural and spectroscopic analysis, as well as reactivity studies. PMID:25417558

Arnold, T; Braunschweig, H; Ewing, W C; Kramer, T; Mies, J; Schuster, J K

2015-01-14

16

Isotope shifts in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy levels, normal and specific mass shift parameters as well as electronic densities at the nucleus are reported for numerous states along the beryllium, boron, carbon, and nitrogen isoelectronic sequences. Combined with nuclear data, these electronic parameters can be used to determine values of level and transition isotope shifts. The calculation of the electronic parameters is done using first-order perturbation theory with relativistic configuration interaction wavefunctions that account for valence, core-valence, and core-core correlation effects as zero-order functions. Results are compared with experimental and other theoretical values, when available.

Nazé, C.; Verdebout, S.; Rynkun, P.; Gaigalas, G.; Godefroid, M.; Jönsson, P.

2014-09-01

17

Surface tension of molten mixtures of fluorides of lithium, beryllium, and thorium  

SciTech Connect

Melts of mixtures of fluorides of lithium, beryllium, thorium and uranium satisfy most completely the many requirements imposed on fuel composites and breeder-zone materials in a liquid-salt nuclear reactor, and therefore there is a need for information on the physicochemical properties of such melts. This paper reports on a study in which the surface tension of three-component melts containing fluorides of thorium, beryllium and lithium were measured by the maximum-pressure method in a gas bubble. The salts investigated were placed in glass carbon crucibles. The material used for the capillaries was nickel, which is resistant to the action of fluoride melts. As the working gas, the authors used argon from which the traces of moisture and oxygen had been removed. The surface tension was calculated by the Cantor-Schrodinger method and in the investigations close attention was paid to the preparation of the appropriate anhydrous salts.

Klimenkov, A.A.; Chevinskii, Y.F.; Kurbatov, N.N.; Raspopin, S.P.

1984-12-01

18

Beryllium competitively inhibits brain myo-inositol monophosphatase, but unlike lithium does not enhance agonist-induced inositol phosphate accumulation.  

PubMed Central

Despite limiting side-effects, lithium is the drug of choice for the treatment of bipolar depression. Its action may be due, in part, to its ability to dampen phosphatidylinositol turnover by inhibiting myo-inositol monophosphatase. Beryllium has been identified as a potent inhibitor of partially purified myo-inositol monophosphatase isolated from rat brain (Ki = 150 nM), bovine brain (Ki = 35 nM), and from the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH (Ki = 85 nM). It is over three orders of magnitude more potent than LiCl (Ki = 0.5-1.2 mM). Kinetic analysis reveals that beryllium is a competitive inhibitor of myo-inositol monophosphatase, in contrast with lithium which is an uncompetitive inhibitor. Inhibition of exogenous [3H]inositol phosphate hydrolysis by beryllium (IC50 = 250-300 nM) was observed to the same maximal extent as that seen with lithium in permeabilized SK-N-SH cells, reflecting inhibition of cellular myo-inositol monophosphatase. However, in contrast with that observed with lithium, agonist-induced accumulation of inositol phosphate was not observed with beryllium in permeabilized and non-permeabilized SK-N-SH cells and in rat brain slices. Similar results were obtained in permeabilized SK-N-SH cells when GTP-gamma-S was used as an alternative stimulator of inositol phosphate accumulation. The disparity in the actions of beryllium and lithium suggest that either (1) selective inhibition of myo-inositol monophosphatase does not completely explain the action of lithium on the phosphatidylinositol cycle, or (2) that uncompetitive inhibition of myo-inositol monophosphatase is a necessary requirement to observe functional lithium mimetic activity. PMID:8387266

Faraci, W S; Zorn, S H; Bakker, A V; Jackson, E; Pratt, K

1993-01-01

19

Determination of boron and lithium by recording the products from (n, alpha) reactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Irradiation with thermal neutrons in the VVR-S reactor provides a nondestructive method for determining the presence of boron and lithium in solids. The charged particles produced in the reactions Li-6(n,alpha)H-3 and B-10(n,alpha)Li-7 were detected using CsI single crystal. For alpha-particle spectrometry in the boron determination, an ionization chamber (W and Sn electrodes, 99% Ar + 1% H2) was developed allowing both absolute and relative measurements. In determining boron in lithium-containing samples, both scintillation and ionization chambers are used. In determining lithium in minerals, the error was 1.5%, and the sensitivity 0.00005 wt.%. In the determination of boron in SiC with a concentration of boron approximately (3 plus or minus 2) the error given by the alpha-range uncertainty was 15%.

Lobanov, Y. M.; Zverev, B. P.; Simakhin, Y. F.; Usmanova, M. M.

1978-01-01

20

Distrontium lithium beryllium triborate, Sr2LiBeB3O8  

PubMed Central

Single crystals of distrontium lithium beryllium triborate, Sr2LiBeB3O8, were obtained by spontaneous nucleation from a high-temperature melt. In the Sr2Li[BeB3O8] structure, [BeB2O7]6? rings, made up from one BeO4 tetra­hedron and two BO3 triangles, are connected to each other by [BO3] triangles to form the smallest repeat unit {[BeB3O8]8?} and then form chains along the b axis. The Sr2+ cations are seven- or eight-­coordinated and Li+ cations are tetra-­coordinated and lie between the chains. PMID:22590052

Yu, Na; Ye, Ning

2012-01-01

21

Distrontium lithium beryllium triborate, Sr(2)LiBeB(3)O(8).  

PubMed

Single crystals of distrontium lithium beryllium triborate, Sr(2)LiBeB(3)O(8), were obtained by spontaneous nucleation from a high-temperature melt. In the Sr(2)Li[BeB(3)O(8)] structure, [BeB(2)O(7)](6-) rings, made up from one BeO(4) tetra-hedron and two BO(3) triangles, are connected to each other by [BO(3)] triangles to form the smallest repeat unit {[BeB(3)O(8)](8-)} and then form chains along the b axis. The Sr(2+) cations are seven- or eight--coordinated and Li(+) cations are tetra--coordinated and lie between the chains. PMID:22590052

Yu, Na; Ye, Ning

2012-05-01

22

Beryllium is an inhibitor of cellular GSK-3? that is 1,000-fold more potent than lithium.  

PubMed

Glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) is a key regulator in signaling networks that control cell proliferation, metabolism, development, and other processes. Lithium chloride is a GSK-3 family inhibitor that has been a mainstay of in vitro and in vivo studies for many years. Beryllium salt has the potential to act as a lithium-like inhibitor of GSK-3, but it is not known whether this agent is effective under physiologically relevant conditions. Here we show that BeSO4 inhibits endogenous GSK-3? in cultured human cells. Exposure to 10 µM Be(2+) produced a decrease in GSK-3? kinase activity that was comparable to that produced by 10 mM Li(+), indicating that beryllium is about 1,000-fold more potent than the classical inhibitor when treating intact cells. There was a statistically significant dose-dependent reduction in specific activity of GSK-3? immunoprecipitated from cells that had been treated with either agent. Lithium inhibited GSK-3? kinase activity directly, and it also caused GSK-3? in cells to become phosphorylated at serine-9 (Ser-9), a post-translational modification that occurs as part of a well-known positive feedback loop that suppresses the kinase activity. Beryllium also inhibited the kinase directly, but unlike lithium it had little effect on Ser-9 phosphorylation in the cell types tested, suggesting that alternative modes of feedback inhibition may be elicited by this agent. These results indicate that beryllium, like lithium, can induce perturbations in the GSK-3? signaling network of treated cells. PMID:25104312

Mudireddy, Swapna R; Abdul, Ataur Rahman Mohammed; Gorjala, Priyatham; Gary, Ronald K

2014-12-01

23

Measurement of the Melting Point Temperature of Several Lithium-Sodium-Beryllium Fluoride Salt (Flinabe) Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium fluorides studied for molten salt fission reactors, has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for fusion applications. The melting points of 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} and LiF-BeF{sub 2} are 460 deg. C and 363 deg. C, but LiF-BeF{sub 2} is rather viscous and has less lithium for breeding. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing liquid for the first wall and blanket were investigated. Flinabe (a mixture of LiF, BeF{sub 2} and NaF) was selected for a molten salt design because a melting temperature below 350 deg. C appeared possible and this provided an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a stainless steel crucible under vacuum. One had an apparent melting temperature of 305 deg. C. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, melting procedures and temperature curves for the melting and cooling are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible is reported in an accompanying paper.

McDonald, J.M; Nygren, R.E.; Lutz, T.J.; Tanaka, T.J; Ulrickson, M.A.; Boyle, T.J.; Troncosa, K.P. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States)

2005-04-15

24

Potential mining of lithium, beryllium and strontium from oilfield wastewater after enrichment in constructed wetlands and ponds.  

PubMed

Shortages of resources (chemical elements) used by growing industrial activities require new techniques for their acquisition. A suitable technique could be the use of wetlands for the enrichment of elements from produced water of the oil industry. Oil industries produce very high amounts of water in the course of oil mining. These waters may contain high amounts of rare elements. To our best knowledge nothing is known about the economic potential regarding rare element mining from produced water. Therefore, we estimated the amount of harvestable rare elements remaining in the effluent of a constructed wetland-pond system which is being used to treat and evaporate vast quantities of produced waters. The examined wetland system is located in the desert of the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula. This system manages 95,000 m(3) per day within 350 ha of surface flow wetlands and 350 ha of evaporation ponds and is designed to be used for at least 20 years. We found a strong enrichment of some chemical elements in the water pathway of the system (e.g. lithium up to 896 ?g L(-1) and beryllium up to 139 ?g L(-1)). For this wetland, lithium and beryllium are the elements with the highest economic potential resulting from a high price and load. It is calculated that after 20 years retention period 131 t of lithium and 57 t of beryllium could be harvested. This technique may also be useful for acquisition of rare earth elements. Other elements (e.g. strontium) with a high calculated load of 4500 tons in 20 years are not efficiently harvestable due to a relatively low market value. In conclusion, wetland treated waters from the oil industry offer a promising new acquisition technique for elements like lithium and beryllium. PMID:25010942

Schaller, Jörg; Headley, Tom; Prigent, Stephane; Breuer, Roman

2014-09-15

25

Lithium Nitride Synthesized by in situ Lithium Deposition and Ion Implantation for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Li3N synthesis on Li deposition layer was conducted without H2O and O2 by in situ lithium deposition in high vacuum chamber of 10-6 Pa and ion implantation techniques and the thermo-chemical stability of the Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) under laser heating and air exposure was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Following conclusions were derived; (1) Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target with very low oxide and carbon contamination was synthesized by in situ lithium vacuum deposition and N2+ ion implantation without H2O and O2 additions, (2) The starting temperature of evaporation of Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target increased by 120K compared to that of the Li/Cu target and (3) Remarkable oxidation and carbon contamination were observed on the surface of Li3N/Li/Cu after air exposure and these contaminated compositions was not removed by Ar+ heavy sputtering.

Ishitama, Shintaro; Baba, Yuji; Fujii, Ryo; Nakamura, Masaru; Imahori, Yoshio

26

Development of a high-power water cooled beryllium target for use in accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.  

PubMed

In order for ABNCT (accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy) to be successful, 10-16 kW or more must be dissipated from a target. Beryllium is well suited as a high-power target material. Beryllium has a thermal conductivity of 200 W/mK at 300 K which is comparable to aluminum, and it has one of the highest strength to weight ratios of any metal even at high temperatures (100 MPa at 600 degrees C). Submerged jet impingement cooling has been investigated as an effective means to remove averaged power densities on the order of 2 x 10(7) W/m2 with local power densities as high as 6 x 10(7) W/m2. Water velocities required to remove these power levels are in excess of 24 m/s with volumetric flow rates of nearly 100 GPM. Tests on a prototype target revealed that the heat transfer coefficient scaled as Re0.6. With jet-Reynolds numbers as high as 5.5 x 10(5) heat transfer coefficients of 2.6 x 10(5) W/m2K were achieved. With this type of cooling configuration 30 kW of power could be effectively removed from a beryllium target placed on the end of an accelerator. A beryllium target utilizing a proton beam of 3.7 MeV and cooled by submerged jet impingement could be used to deliver a dose of 13 RBE cGy/min mA to a tumor at a depth of 4 cm. With a beam power of 30 kW, 1500 cGy could be delivered in 14.2 min. PMID:9800705

Blackburn, B W; Yanch, J C; Klinkowstein, R E

1998-10-01

27

Measurement of the melting point temperature of several lithium-sodium-beryllium fluoride salt (FLINABE) mixtures.  

SciTech Connect

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium flourides, was studied for molten salt fission reactors and has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for the fusion applications. 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at 460 C. LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at a lower temperature, 363 C, but is rather viscous and has less lithium breeder. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing ternary molten salt for the first wall surface and blanket were investigated. The molten salt (FLiNaBe, a ternary mixture of LiF, BeF2 and NaF) salt was selected because a melting temperature below 350 C that would provide an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor application appeared possible. This information came from a Russian binary phase diagram and a US ternary phase diagram in the 1960's that were not wholly consistent. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and, BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a small stainless steel crucible under vacuum. The proportions of the three salts were selected to yield conglomerate salts with as low a melting temperature as possible. The temperature of the salts and the crucible were recorded during the melting and subsequent re-solidification using a thermocouple directly in the salt pool and two thermocouples embedded in the crucible. One mixture had an apparent melting temperature of 305 C. Particular attention was paid to the cooling curve of the salt temperature to observe evidence of any mixed intermediate phases between the fully liquid and fully solid states. The clarity, texture, and thickness were observed and noted as well. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, and the melting procedure are described. The temperature curves for the melting and cooling of each of the mixtures are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible was also done and is reported in a separate paper.

Boyle, Timothy J.; Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Nygren, Richard Einar; Lutz, Thomas Joseph; McDonald, Jimmie M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

2004-09-01

28

Hyperfine structures and Landé gJ-factors for n=2 states in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy levels, hyperfine interaction constants, and Landé gJ-factors are reported for n=2 states in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations. Valence, core-valence, and core-core correlation effects are taken into account through single and double-excitations from multireference expansions to increasing sets of active orbitals. A systematic comparison of the calculated hyperfine interaction constants is made with values from the available literature.

Verdebout, S.; Nazé, C.; Jönsson, P.; Rynkun, P.; Godefroid, M.; Gaigalas, G.

2014-09-01

29

Study on High Speed Lithium Jet For Neutron Source of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility study of a liquid lithium type proton beam target was performed for the neutron source of the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). As the candidates of the liquid lithium target, a thin sheet jet and a thin film flow on a concave wall were chosen, and a lithium flow experiment was conducted to investigate the hydrodynamic stability of the targets. The surfaces of the jets and film flows with a thickness of 0.5 mm and a width of 50 mm were observed by means of photography. It has been found that a stable sheet jet and a stable film flow on a concave wall can be formed up to certain velocities by using a straight nozzle and a curved nozzle with the concave wall, respectively.

Takahashi, Minoru; Kobayashi, Tooru; Zhang, Mingguang; Mák, Michael; Štefanica, Jirí; Dostál, Václav; Zhao, Wei

30

Boron  

MedlinePLUS

... mineral that is found in food and the environment. People take boron supplements as medicine. Boron is ... Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate. The effectiveness ratings for BORON are as follows:Preventing boron deficiency. ...

31

Method for hot pressing beryllium oxide articles  

DOEpatents

The hot pressing of beryllium oxide powder into high density compacts with little or no density gradients is achieved by employing a homogeneous blend of beryllium oxide powder with a lithium oxide sintering agent. The lithium oxide sintering agent is uniformly dispersed throughout the beryllium oxide powder by mixing lithium hydroxide in an aqueous solution with beryllium oxide powder. The lithium hydroxide is converted in situ to lithium carbonate by contacting or flooding the beryllium oxide-lithium hydroxide blend with a stream of carbon dioxide. The lithium carbonate is converted to lithium oxide while remaining fixed to the beryllium oxide particles during the hot pressing step to assure uniform density throughout the compact.

Ballard, Ambrose H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Godfrey, Jr., Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Mowery, Erb H. (Clinton, TN)

1988-01-01

32

Neutron dosimetry in boron neutron capture therapy using aqueous solutions of lithium acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development of a dosimetry method, based on liquid scintillation (LS) counting of the tritium that is produced in aqueous solutions of lithium acetate, for the determination of the boron and nitrogen absorbed doses in-phantom in BNCT. The dosimeter is passive, integrating, approximately tissue equivalent, and insensitive to gamma rays and the elastic scattering of fast neutrons. The dosimetry method exhibits a response which is proportional to the boron and nitrogen absorbed doses and which can be calibrated to NIST standard solutions of water spiked with tritium. For 0.2 g of lithium acetate dissolved in a milliliter of water, the measured sensitivity is (1.73±0.04)×10 -9 cpm per unit of thermal neutron fluence (in neutrons/cm 2). For the LS analyzer that was used, the background signal was 12.84±0.02 cpm, yielding a thermal neutron fluence threshold for this detection method of approximately 7×10 9 neutrons/cm 2.

Rakovan, L. J.; Blue, T. E.; Vest, A. L.

33

Cosmic ray models for early galactic lithium, beryllium, and boron production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To better understand the early galactic production of Li, Be, and B by cosmic ray spallation and fusion reactions, the dependence of these production rates on cosmic ray models and model parameters is examined. The sensitivity of elemental and isotropic production to the cosmic ray pathlength magnitude and energy dependence, source spectrum spallation kinematics, and cross section uncertainties is studied. Changes in these model features, particularly those features related to confinement, are shown to alter the Be- and B-versus-Fe slopes from a naive quadratic relation. The implications of our results for the diffuse gamma-ray background are examined, and the role of chemical evolution and its relation to our results is noted. It is also noted that the unmeasured high energy behavior of alpha + alpha fusion can lead to effects as large as a factor of 2 in the resultant yields. Future data should enable Population II Li, Be, and B abundances to constrain cosmic ray models for the early Galaxy.

Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.

1994-01-01

34

Production of Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron from Baryon inhomogeneous primordial nucleosynthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigate the possibility that inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis may eventually be used to explain the abundances of Li-6, Be-9, and B in Population II stars. The present work differs from previous studies in that we have used a more extensive reaction network. It is demonstrated that in the simplest scenario the abundances of the light elements with A less than or = 7 constrain the separation of inhomogeneities to sufficently small scales that the model is indistinguishable from homogeneous nucleosynthesis and that the abundnace of Li-6, Be-9, and B are then below observations by several orders of magnitude. This conclusion does not depend on the Li-7 constraint. We also examine alternative scenarios which involve a post-nucleosynthesis reprocessing of the light elements to reproduce the observed abundances of Li and B, while allowing for a somewhat higher baryon density (still well below the cosmological critical density). Future B/H measurements may be able to exclude even this exotic scenario and further restrict primirdial nucleosynthesis to approach the homogeneous model conclusions.

Thomas, David; Schramm, David N.; Olive, Keith A.; Mathews, Grant J.; Meyer, Bradley S.; Fields, Brian D.

1994-01-01

35

The isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray lithium, beryllium and boron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The isotopic composition of galactic-cosmic-ray Li, Be, and B has been measured near 100 MeV/nucleon by using the University of Chicago IMP 7 and IMP 8 cosmic-ray telescopes during 1973-1975. The measured abundances allow detailed checks of models of interstellar propagation and solar modulation to be made and conclusions to be drawn concerning the spectral forms at the source and the minimum solar modulation level. For example, comparing these results with local interstellar spectra calculated by using a 'leaky box' model, it is found that if solar modulation is ignored, there is no unique leakage mean free path consistent with all the observations. However, by taking account of a sizable level of residual solar modulation, excellent agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured abundances. Thus, these isotopic abundances confirm the old hypothesis that cosmic-ray Li, Be, and B are produced as secondaries in interstellar space.

Garcia-Munoz, M.; Mason, G. M.; Simpson, J. A.

1978-01-01

36

Cosmic-ray models for early Galactic Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To understand better the early Galactic production of Li, Be, and B by comsmic-ray spallation and fusion reactions, the dependence of these production rates on cosmic-ray models and model parameters is examined. The sensitivity of elemental and isotopic production to the cosmic-ray path length magnitude and energy dependence, source spectrum, spallation kinematics, and cross section uncertainties is studied. Changes in these model features, particularly those features related to confinement, are shown to alter the Be- and B- versus-Fe slopes from a naive quadratic relation. The implications of our results for the diffuse gamma-ray background are examined, and the role of chemical evolution and its relation to our results is noted. It is also noted that the unmeasured high-energy behavior of alpha + alpha fusion can lead to effects as large as a factor of 2 in the resultant yields. Future data should enable Population II Li, Be, and B abundances to constrain cosmic-ray models for the early Galaxy.

Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.

1994-01-01

37

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition by lithium and beryllium suggests the presence of two magnesium binding sites.  

PubMed

Lithium inhibits (Li(+)) glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) by competition for magnesium (Mg(2+)), but not ATP or substrate. Here, we show that the group II metal ion beryllium (Be(2+)) is a potent inhibitor of GSK-3 and competes for both Mg(2+) and ATP. Be(2+) also inhibits the related protein kinase cdc2 at similar potency, but not MAP kinase 2. To compare the actions of Li(+) and Be(2+) on GSK-3, we have devised a novel dual inhibition analysis. When Be(2+) and ADP are present together each interferes with the action of the other, indicating that both agents inhibit GSK-3 at the ATP binding site. In contrast, Li(+) exerts no interference with ADP inhibition or vice versa. We find, however, that Li(+) and Be(2+) do interfere with each other. These results suggest that Be(2+) competes for two distinct Mg(2+) binding sites: one is Li(+)-sensitive and the other, which is Li(+)-insensitive, binds the Mg:ATP complex. PMID:11798168

Ryves, W Jonathan; Dajani, Rana; Pearl, Laurence; Harwood, Adrian J

2002-01-25

38

Acidity enhancement of unsaturated bases of group 15 by association with borane and beryllium dihydride. Unexpected boron and beryllium Brønsted acids.  

PubMed

The intrinsic acidity of CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]CHXH2, HC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CXH2 (X = N, P, As, Sb) derivatives and of their complexes with BeH2 and BH3 has been investigated by means of high-level density functional theory and molecular orbital ab initio calculations, using as a reference the ethyl saturated analogues. The acidity of the free systems steadily increases down the group for the three series of derivatives, ethyl, vinyl and ethynyl. The association with both beryllium dihydride and borane leads to a very significant acidity enhancement, being larger for BeH2 than for BH3 complexes. This acidity enhancement, for the unsaturated compounds, is accompanied by a change in the acidity trends down the group, which do not steadily decrease but present a minimum value for both the vinyl- and the ethynyl-phosphine. When the molecule acting as the Lewis acid is beryllium dihydride, the ?-type complexes in which the BeH2 molecules interact with the double or triple bond are found, in some cases, to be more stable, in terms of free energies, than the conventional complexes in which the attachment takes place at the heteroatom, X. The most important finding, however, is that P, As, and Sb ethynyl complexes with BeH2 do not behave as P, As, or Sb Brønsted acids, but unexpectedly as Be acids. PMID:25415658

Martín-Sómer, Ana; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

2015-01-21

39

Boron  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Boron is an essential micronutrient element required for plant growth. Boron deficiency is wide-spread in crop plants throughout the world especially in coarse-textured soils in humid areas. Boron toxicity can also occur, especially in arid regions under irrigation. Plants respond directly to the...

40

Boron-Doped, Carbon-Coated SnO2 /Graphene Nanosheets for Enhanced Lithium Storage.  

PubMed

Heteroatom doping is an effective method to adjust the electrochemical behavior of carbonaceous materials. In this work, boron-doped, carbon-coated SnO2 /graphene hybrids (BCTGs) were fabricated by hydrothermal carbonization of sucrose in the presence of SnO2 /graphene nanosheets and phenylboronic acid or boric acid as dopant source and subsequent thermal treatment. Owing to their unique 2D core-shell architecture and B-doped carbon shells, BCTGs have enhanced conductivity and extra active sites for lithium storage. With phenylboronic acid as B source, the resulting hybrid shows outstanding electrochemical performance as the anode in lithium-ion batteries with a highly stable capacity of 1165?mA?h?g(-1) at 0.1?A?g(-1) after 360 cycles and an excellent rate capability of 600?mA?h?g(-1) at 3.2?A?g(-1) , and thus outperforms most of the previously reported SnO2 -based anode materials. PMID:25694249

Liu, Yuxin; Liu, Ping; Wu, Dongqing; Huang, Yanshan; Tang, Yanping; Su, Yuezeng; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

2015-03-27

41

Synthesis and studies of boron based anion receptors and their use in non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

A new family of anion receptors based on boron compounds has been synthesized. These compounds can be used as anion receptors in lithium battery electrolytes and can greatly increase solubility and ionic conductivities of various lithium salts, such as LiF, LiCl, CF{sub 3}COOLi and C{sub 2}F{sub 5}COOLi, in DME solutions. Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy studies show that Cl{sup {minus}} anions of LiCl are complexed with these compounds in DME solutions. The electrochemical stability of lithium salts and one of the boron compounds in deferent solvents was studied. For the first time, LiF has been successfully used as conducting salt in a novel electrolyte with this boron compound as an additive in DME. A rechargeable Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cell using this electrolyte was successfully cycled 51 times. However, the capacity fades with cycling due to decomposition of the solvent. The cycling performance of the battery was greatly improved by replacing DME with PC-EC-DMC as the solvent.

Sun, X.; Yang, X.Q.; Lee, H.S.; McBreen, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Choi, L.S. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1998-12-31

42

Fabrication of boron-doped carbon fibers by the decomposition of B4C and its excellent rate performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facile route, for the first time, was developed to fabricate boron-doped carbon fibers (BDCFs). Boron was doped into mesosphere pitch-based carbon fibers (CFs) by exposing the CFs in a vapor of boron by the decomposition of boron carbide. The microstructure of BDCFs was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. When used as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, BDCFs electrode exhibits an improved performance. Concretely, the specific capacity of BDCFs still had a value of over 400 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles. Moreover, BDCFs exhibits better rate capability and less hysteresis in comparison to the pristine CFs. Such enhanced lithium storage capability can be attributed to the improvement of graphitization properties and the high amount of defects induced by boron.

Wang, Huiqi; Ma, Canliang; Yang, Xueteng; Han, Tao; Tao, Zechao; Song, Yan; Liu, Zhanjun; Guo, Quangui; Liu, Lang

2015-03-01

43

Content of lithium, beryllium, boron, and titanium, and the isotopic composition of lithium, boron, and magnesium in Luna 16 regolith sample  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The abundance of the following elements in the L 16-19 No. 118 regolith sample, zone V was determined by isotopic dilution using a mass spectrometer equipped with a scattering ion source: Li -- 9.8, Be -- 1.2, Be -- 2.6, and Ti -- 1.92 percent. For comparison, these same elements were measured in samples of surface material returned by Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 14, and in the terrestrial reference standard diabase W-1. The content of Li, Be, and B in the Luna 16 sample is nearly the same as in the Apollo 11 surface material. The surface material returned by Apollo 12 and Apollo 14 contains two to four times more of these elements. However, the abundance ratios of Li, Be, and B are remarkably similar in the surface materials from the four different lunar regions. With respect to basaltic achondrites and especially with respect to chondrites, the lunar basalts are enriched in Li, Be, and B up to 100 times.

Eugster, O.

1974-01-01

44

Polymer composite electrolytes having core-shell silica fillers with anion-trapping boron moiety in the shell layer for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries.  

PubMed

Core-shell silica particles with ion-conducting poly(ethylene glycol) and anion-trapping boron moiety in the shell layer were prepared to be used as fillers for polymer composite electrolytes based on organic/inorganic hybrid branched copolymer as polymer matrix for all-solid-state lithium-ion battery applications. The core-shell silica particles were found to improve mechanical strength and thermal stability of the polymer matrix and poly(ethylene glycol) and boron moiety in the shell layer increase compatibility between filler and polymer matrix. Furthermore, boron moiety in the shell layer increases both ionic conductivity and lithium transference number of the polymer matrix because lithium salt can be more easily dissociated by the anion-trapping boron. Interfacial compatibility with lithium metal anode is also improved because well-dispersed silica particles serve as protective layer against interfacial side reactions. As a result, all-solid-state battery performance was found to be enhanced when the copolymer having core-shell silica particles with the boron moiety was used as solid polymer electrolyte. PMID:25805120

Shim, Jimin; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kim, Hee Joong; Lee, Jin Hong; Lee, Jong-Chan

2015-04-15

45

Efficient Organic Light-emitting Diode Using Lithium Tetra(8-hydroxy-quinolinato) Boron as the Electron Injection Layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with lithium tetra-(8-hydroxy-quinolinato) boron (LiBq4), instead of LiF, as the electron injection layer, and aluminum as the cathode were fabricated. In the fabrication of the devices, N,N?-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N,N?-diphenyl-1,1?-biphenyl-4,4?-diamine (NPB) was used as the hole transfer layer, and tri-(8-hydroxyquino-line) aluminum (Alq3) as the emitting and electron transfer layer. By using LiBq4 as the electron injection layer,

Rui Zhang; Yang Li; Lian Duan; Deqiang Zhang; Yong Qiu

2007-01-01

46

Beryllium disease.  

PubMed Central

The increasing use of beryllium in a variety of industries continues to be a hazard. New cases are still being reported to the UK Beryllium Case Registry, now numbering 60 in the period 1945-1988. The majority of cases follow inhalation which results in acute beryllium disease (chemical pneumonitis) or more commonly chronic beryllium disease--a granulomatous pneumonitis. Granulomatous skin nodules also occur following local implantation. The clinical and radiological features are briefly described with the emphasis on pathology and immunology. Laser microprobe mass spectrometry analysis of tissue sections is a major advance in diagnosis. Detection of beryllium distinguishes the granulomas of chronic beryllium disease from other diseases, in particular sarcoidosis. The role of beryllium lymphocyte transformation tests is discussed. Chronic beryllium disease is steroid dependent and local excision of skin lesions appears to be curative. There is no evidence that beryllium is carcinogenic. Images Figure 1 PMID:3074283

Jones Williams, W.

1988-01-01

47

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2009, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1.2 kt (1,300 st) of contained lithium, a 40-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium, and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2009, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 18.7 kt (20,600 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds.

Jaskula, B.W.

2010-01-01

48

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2012, estimated world lithium consumption was about 28 kt (31,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, an 8 percent increase from that of 2011. Estimated U.S. consumption was about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, the same as that of 2011. The United States was thought to rank fourth in consumption of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Rockwood Lithium Inc., produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

Jaskula, B.W.

2013-01-01

49

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2010, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1 kt (1,100 st) of contained lithium, a 23-percent decrease from 2009. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium. It remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2010, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 21 kt (22,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 12-percent increase from 2009.

Jaskula, B.W.

2011-01-01

50

The boron-to-beryllium ratio in halo stars - A signature of cosmic-ray nucleosynthesis in the early Galaxy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We discuss Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) spallation production of Li, Be, and B in the early Galaxy with particular attention to the uncertainties in the predictions of this model. The observed correlation between the Be abundance and the metallicity in metal-poor Population II stars requires that Be was synthesized in the early Galaxy. We show that the observations and such Population II GCR synthesis of Be are quantitatively consistent with the big bang nucleosynthesis production of Li-7. We find that there is a nearly model independent lower bound to B/Be of about 7 for GCR synthesis. Recent measurements of B/Be about 10 in HD 140283 are in excellent agreement with the predictions of Population II GCR nucleosynthesis. Measurements of the boron abundance in additional metal-poor halo stars is a key diagnostic of the GCR spallation mechanism. We also show that Population II GCR synthesis can produce amounts of Li-6 which may be observed in the hottest halo stars.

Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Schramm, D. N.; Olive, K. A.; Fields, B.

1993-01-01

51

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

Jaskula, B.W.

2012-01-01

52

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

Ober, J.A.

2006-01-01

53

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lithium industry can be divided into two sectors: ore concentrate producers and chemical producers. Ore concentrate producers mine lithium minerals. They beneficiate the ores to produce material for use in ceramics and glass manufacturing.

Ober, J.

1998-01-01

54

Lithium  

MedlinePLUS

Lithium is used to treat and prevent episodes of mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood) in people with ... depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Lithium is in a class of medications called antimanic ...

55

Geothermal constraints on enrichment of boron and lithium in salt lakes: An example from a river-salt lake system on the northern slope of the eastern Kunlun Mountains, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some rivers on the northern slope of the eastern Kunlun Mountains in the Qaidam Basin, China, show very high concentrations of boron and lithium. Correspondingly, the salt lakes fed by these rivers show an unusual enrichment of boron and lithium, and become an important economic resource. The origin of boron and lithium has long been debated. The aim of this study is to analyze the water chemistry and hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of river water to understand the unusual enrichment of boron and lithium in the salt lakes of the Qaidam Basin. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope data show that the source of river water in the winter and summer originates from the Kunlun Mountain ice and snow melt water, respectively. The water chemistry shows that boron and lithium contents are high but little variable with seasons in the Nalenggele River and Wutumeiren River waters. By contrast, other rivers have much lower lithium and boron contents. Moreover, the contents of B3+ and Li+ in the river loads or bed sands show little difference amongst the rivers. This indicates that removal by adsorption or input by surface rock weathering is not the main controlling factor of the B3+ and Li+ variation in the rivers. Rivers with high B3+ and Li+ content are chemically similar to geothermal waters in the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, the source area of the Nalenggele River is located in a collision zone of the Kunlun Mountains and Altun Mountains. Large and deep faults can serve as conduits for geothermal fluids. Thus, deep geothermal waters in the source area can easily migrate to the surface and discharge as springs feeding the rivers. They are an important source of B3+ and Li+ to the rivers. The abnormally high contents of B3+ and Li+ in the Nalenggele and Wutumeiren Rivers also suggest that the geothermal source area may be a future target for boron and lithium resources.

Tan, Hongbing; Chen, Jun; Rao, Wenbo; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhou, Huifang

2012-06-01

56

Target Studies for the Production of Lithium8 for Neutrino Physics Using a Low Energy Cyclotron  

E-print Network

Lithium 8 is a short lived beta emitter producing a high energy anti-neutrino, which is very suitable for making several measurements of fundamental quantities. It is proposed to produce Lithium 8 with a commercially available 60 MeV cyclotron using protons or alpha particles on a Beryllium 9 target. We have used the GEANT4 program to model these processes, and calculate the anti-neutrino fluxes that could be obtained in a practical system. We also calculate the production of undesirable contaminants such as Boron 8, and show that these can be reduced to a very low level.

Adriana Bungau; Roger Barlow; Michael Shaevitz; Janet Conrad; Joshua Spitz

2012-05-25

57

Boron-doped carbon prepared from PFO as a lithium-ion battery anode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A petroleum-based Li-ion battery anode was prepared by thermal condensation of pyrolysis fuel oil (PFO) and a subsequent carbonization process. H3BO3 was used as a catalyst for efficient thermal condensation, carbonization and battery performance. The influence of the carbonization temperature on the carbon structure and battery performance was also investigated. Notably, H3BO3 promoted thermal condensation and formation of a graphitic carbon structure and acted as a boron doping agent. Boron-doping attenuated the highly active sites in carbon and effectively controlled formation of the SEI layer, which resulted in an increase in the initial efficiency of the anode. For the sample carbonized at 900 °C, a reversible capacity of 301 mAh/g and an initial efficiency of 78.6% were obtained. In addition, the samples obtained at different carbonization temperatures were all highly stable over 50 cycles, with capacity retentions greater than 90%.

Kim, Jong Gu; Liu, Fei; Lee, Chul-Wee; Lee, Young-Seak; Im, Ji Sun

2014-08-01

58

Beryllium Technology Research in the United States  

SciTech Connect

While most active research involving beryllium in the United States remains tied strongly to biological effects, there are several areas of technology development in the last two years that should be mentioned. (1) Beryllium disposed of in soil vaults at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) has been encapsulated in-situ by high-temperature and pressure injection of a proprietary wax based material to inhibit corrosion. (2) A research program to develop a process for removing heavy metals and cobalt from irradiated beryllium using solvent extraction techniques has been initiated to remove components that prevent the beryllium from being disposed of as ordinary radioactive waste. (3) The JUPITER-II program at the INL Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has addressed the REDOX reaction of beryllium in molten Flibe (a mixture of LiF and BeF2) to control tritium, particularly in the form of HF, bred in the Flibe by reactions involving both beryllium and lithium. (4) Work has been performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to produce beryllium high heat flux components by plasma spray deposition on macro-roughened substrates. Finally, (5) corrosion studies on buried beryllium samples at the RWMC have shown that the physical form of some of the corroded beryllium is very filamentary and asbestos-like. This form of beryllium may exacerbate the contraction of chronic beryllium disease.

Glen R. Longhurst; Robert A. Anderl; M. Kay Adleer-Flitton; Gretchen E. Matthern; Troy J. Tranter; Kendall J. Hollis

2005-02-01

59

A first-principles study of lithium-decorated hybrid boron nitride and graphene domains for hydrogen storage.  

PubMed

First-principles calculations are performed to investigate the adsorption of hydrogen onto Li-decorated hybrid boron nitride and graphene domains of (BN)(x)C(1-x) complexes with x = 1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 0, and B0.125C0.875. The most stable adsorption sites for the nth hydrogen molecule in the lithium-decorated (BN)(x)C(1-x) complexes are systematically discussed. The most stable adsorption sites were affected by the charge localization, and the hydrogen molecules were favorably located above the C-C bonds beside the Li atom. The results show that the nitrogen atoms in the substrate planes could increase the hybridization between the 2p orbitals of Li and the orbitals of H2. The results revealed that the (BN)(x)C(1-x) complexes not only have good thermal stability but they also exhibit a high hydrogen storage of 8.7% because of their dehydrogenation ability. PMID:25173034

Hu, Zi-Yu; Shao, Xiaohong; Wang, Da; Liu, Li-Min; Johnson, J Karl

2014-08-28

60

From Wade-Mingos to Zintl-Klemm at 100 GPa: binary compounds of boron and lithium.  

PubMed

Structural diversity and a variety of bonding schemes emerge as characteristics of the Li-B phase diagram in this ground-state theoretical investigation. We studied stoichiometries ranging from LiB(15) to Li(5)B, over a pressure range from 1 atm to 300 GPa. At P = 1 atm, stability is found for the experimentally known LiB(0.8-1.0), LiB(3), and Li(3)B(14) phases. As the pressure rises, the latter two structures are no longer even metastable, while the LiB(0.8-1.0) structures change in geometry and narrow their range of off-stoichiometry, eventually coming at high pressure to a diamondoid NaTl-type LiB. This phase then dominates the convex hull of stability. Other phases emerge as stable points at some pressure: LiB(4), Li(3)B(2), Li(2)B, and Li(5)B. At the boron-rich end, one obtains structures expectedly containing polyhedral motifs, and geometries are governed by Wade-Mingos electron counts; LiB(4) has a BaAl(4) structure. In the center and on the lithium-rich side of the phase diagram, Zintl-phase considerations, i.e., bonding between B(n-) entities, give us insight into the structures-tetrahedral B(-) networks in LiB; B pairs to isolated bonds in Li(5)B. PMID:23066852

Hermann, Andreas; McSorley, Alexandra; Ashcroft, N W; Hoffmann, Roald

2012-11-14

61

Measurement of the LITHIUM-8(DEUTERON, NEUTRON)BERYLLIUM-9 and LITHIUM-8(ALPHA, NEUTRON)BORON-11 Reaction Cross Sections at Astrophysical Energies by Radioactive Beam Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary direct measurement of the ^8Li(d,n)^9Be cross section has been obtained by means of a radioactive beam facility used with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory FN van de Graaff accelerator. The cross section at a ^8Li energy of 13.3 MeV agrees plausibly with values estimated from data for the reverse reaction, ^9Be(n,d)^8Li, and for the related ^7Li(d,n) ^8Be reaction to within the large estimated experimental error. This result thus demonstrates the feasibility of the technique. In addition, a design for a similar radioactive beam measurement of the ^8Li(alpha,n) 11B reaction cross section is given. The two reactions figure prominently in network calculations for current inhomogeneous models of primordial nucleosynthesis in the early universe, and because of the short 838 millisecond half life of the radioactive ^8Li nuclide, their cross sections have not been measured directly before. The radioactive beam apparatus employs a 16.0 MeV ^7Li beam from the accelerator incident on a thin, deuterated polyethylene primary reaction target foil. A secondary beam containing ^8Li produced in the ^7 Li(d,p)^8Li reaction is concentrated by a spectrometer incorporating twin triplet magnetic quadrupole elements and an electrostatic dipole, and is focussed on a second deuterated polyethylene reaction target foil in which the reaction of interest takes place. Reaction products are identified and measured by means of a pair of surface barrier charged particle detector telescopes, and ^8Li flux is measured via a CaF_2 scintillator and photomultiplier tube at the rear of the detector chamber. Future efforts will use improved gas cell production and reaction targets and detector systems, and will focus in the near term on a definitive measurement of the ^8Li(d,n)^9 Be cross section at several energies. The experiments and apparatus described are part of a continuing program of studies of astrophysically interesting reactions on radioactive nuclides carried out with joint participation and support from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Ohio State University.

Corn, Philip Bennet

62

Lithium in sediments and brines--how, why and where to search  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The possibility of using lithium in batteries to power electric vehicles and as fuel for thermonuclear power has focused attention on the limited resources of lithium other than in pegmatite minerals. The Clayton Valley, Nev., subsurface lithium brine has been the major source of lithium carbonate since about 1967, but the life of this brine field is probably limited to several more decades at the present rate of production. Lithium is so highly soluble during weathering and in sedimentary environments that no lithium-rich sedimentary minerals other than clays have been identified to date. The known deposits of lithium, such as the clay mineral hectorite and the lithium-rich brines, occur in closed desert basins of the Southwest in association with nonmarine evaporites. However, the ultimate source for the lithium in these deposits may be from hydrothermal solutions. The search for previously unreported deposits of nonpegmatitic lithium should consider its probable association, not only with nonmarine evaporite minerals, but also with recent volcanic and tectonic activity, as well as with deposits of boron, beryllium, fluorine, manganese, and possibly phosphate.

Vine, James D.

1975-01-01

63

Beryllium Toxicity  

MedlinePLUS

... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Beryllium Toxicity Patient Education Care Instruction Sheet ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Page last reviewed: May 23, 2008 Page ...

64

Method for welding beryllium  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon.

Dixon, Raymond D. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, Frank M. (Espanola, NM); O'Leary, Richard F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01

65

Astrophysics: A lithium-rich stellar explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of explosions known as novae to the lithium content of the Milky Way is uncertain. Radioactive beryllium, which transforms into lithium, has been detected for the first time in one such explosion. See Letter p.381

Hernanz, Margarita

2015-02-01

66

Beryllium weldability  

SciTech Connect

Welding processes and metallurgical considerations for beryllium welding are discussed in this review. The primary difficulties of welding beryllium are hot cracking, cracking at defects, and ductility limitation or thermally induced cracking. Solutions to these welding problems include control of the Fe/Al ratio in the base metal to reduce hot cracking, minimization of the BeO content and starting grain size to limit cracking at defects and ductility limitation cracking, and optimization of the welding process and process variables. 25 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Hill, M.A.; Damkroger, B.K.; Dixon, R.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Robertson, E. (Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-01-01

67

Beryllium fluoride film protects beryllium against corrosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Film of beryllium fluoride protects beryllium against corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in water containing chloride ion concentrations. The film is formed by exposing the beryllium to fluorine gas at 535 degrees C or higher and makes beryllium suitable for space applications.

O donnell, P. M.; Odonnell, P. M.

1967-01-01

68

Comparative Studies of the Electrochemical and Thermal Stability of Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Using Two Types of Boron-Based Anion Receptors  

SciTech Connect

Comparative studies were done on two new types of boron based anion receptors, tris(pentafluorophenyl) borane (TFPB) and tris(pentafluorophenyl) borate (TFPBO), regarding conductivity enhancement electrochemical and thermal stability when used as additives in composite electrolytes for lithium batteries. Both additives enhance the ionic conductivity of electrolytes of simple lithium salts, LiF, CF{sub 3}CO{sub 2}Li and C{sub 2}F{sub 5}CO{sub 2}Li in several organic solvents. The electrochemical windows of TPFB based electrolytes in ethylene carbonate (EC)-propylene carbonate (PC)-dmethyl carbonate (DMC) (1:1:3, v/v) are up to 5, 4.76 and 4.96 V for LiF, CF{sub 3}CO{sub 2}Li and C{sub 2}F{sub 5}CO{sub 2}Li respectively. TPFBO has lower electrochemical stability compared to TPFB. The thermal stability of pure TFPB is better than TFPBO. The lithium salt complexes have higher thermal stability than these two compounds. TPFB based electrolytes showed high cycling efficiencies and good cycleability when they were tested in Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells. The capacity retention of the cells using TFPB based electrolytes during multiple cycling is better than those using TFPBO based electrolytes.

Yang, X. Q.; Lee, H. S.; Sun, X.; McBreen, J.

1999-10-17

69

Chronic Beryllium Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... 800.222.5864. References Mroz MM, Balkissoon R, Newman LS. Beryllium. In: Bringham E, Cohrssen B, Powell ... John Wiley & Sons 2001, 177-220. Balkissoon RC, Newman LS. Beryllium cooper alloy (2%) causes chronic beryllium ...

70

Method for welding beryllium  

SciTech Connect

A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. Beryllium parts made using this method can be used as structural components in aircraft, satellites and space applications.

Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

1995-12-31

71

Method for welding beryllium  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

1997-04-01

72

Beryllium - hazardous air pollutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium was placed on the EPA list of hazardous pollutants because of its potential for creating serious disease. The principal route of entrance into the human body is by inhalation and absorption through the lungs. Skin may be damaged by beryllium salts producing dermatitis. Chronic beryllium disease has a long latent period. Beryllium respiratory effects are chronic or acute. Acute

1971-01-01

73

Lithium Irradiation Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The subject of tritium production in the Antiproton Source Collection lens was raised in the mid-1980s during the design phase of the pbar source. Interest in it has recurred during development of the proton lens and in recent investigations to determine the feasibility of liquid lithium collection lenses for the pbar source and a muon collider project. Calculations for tritium and beryllium 7 production on lithium suffer from a lack of information on medium and high energy cross section data. In addition, knowledge of the energy spectrum within the target vault is based upon calculations. Knowledge of the low energy spectrum, important for tritium production on lithium, is limited, if not non-existent. For Collider Run II, effort is to be applied to improve the performance of the solid lithium lens. Historically, examination of failed lithium lenses has not been pursued because they have been fairly radioactive and because they are thought to contain significant quantities of the radionuclides tritium and beryllium 7. The development of methods to examine failed lithium lenses may be desirable so that the specific causes of failure can be discovered. From such studies, design improvements can be incorporated with the goal of achieving lens performances goals related to Collider Run II. The purpose of the lithium irradiation experiment is to determine the production rates of radioisotopes tritium and beryllium 7 within the lithium lens in its operating in its operating environment.

Leveling, A.F.; /Fermilab

2000-08-22

74

Improved synthesis of a highly fluorinated boronic ester as dual functional additive for lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrolyte additive 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (PFPTFBB, 1) was found to have a reversible redox potential at 4.43V vs. Li+\\/Li. This compound can function as an overcharge protection additive as well as anion receptor for lithium-ion batteries. It has drawn a great deal of interest from industry, but its use in relatively large quantities is limited by the production challenges of tetrafluorocatechol

Wei Weng; Zhengcheng Zhang; John A. Schlueter; Paul C. Redfern; Larry A. Curtiss; Khalil Amine

2011-01-01

75

Chemical feasibility of lithium as a matrix for structural composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemical compatibility of lithium with tows of carbon and aramid fibers and silicon carbide and boron monofilaments was investigated by encapsulating the fibers in liquid lithium and also by sintering. The lithium did not readily wet the various fibers. In particular, very little lithium infiltration into the carbon and aramid tows was achieved and the strength of the tows was seriously degraded. The strength of the boron and silicon carbide monofilaments, however, was not affected by the liquid lithium. Therefore lithium is not feasible as a matrix for carbon and aramid fibers, but a composite containing boron or silicon carbide fibers in a lithium matrix may be feasible for specialized applications.

Swann, R. T.; Esterling, D. M.

1984-01-01

76

Kroll process beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-purity beryllium metal was prepared on a laboratory scale by Kroll process procedures in which sodium was used as a reductant.\\u000a Crude beryllium chloride, purchased from commercial sources, was purified by vacuum sublimation and fused-salt scrubbing.\\u000a Purified beryllium chloride was vaporized and reacted at a controlled rate with molten sodium at temperatures ranging from\\u000a 650° to 750°C to form beryllium

Thomas T. Campbell; R. E. Mussler; F. E. Block

1970-01-01

77

Kroll process beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-purity beryllium metal was prepared on a laboratory scale by Kroll process procedures in which sodium was used as a reductant. Crude beryllium chloride, purchased from commercial sources, was purified by vacuum sublimation and fused-salt scrubbing. Purified beryllium chloride was vaporized and reacted at a controlled rate with molten sodium at temperatures ranging from 650° to 750°C to form beryllium

Thomas T. Campbell; R. E. Mussler; F. E. Block

1970-01-01

78

The synthesis of a new family of boron-based anion receptors and the study of their effect on ion pair dissociation and conductivity of lithium salts in nonaqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

A new family of anion receptors based on boron compounds has been synthesized. These compounds can be used as anion receptors in lithium battery electrolytes. This family includes various borane and borate compounds with different fluorinated aryl and fluorinated alkyl groups. When these anion receptors are used as additives in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) solutions containing various lithium salts, the ionic conductivities of these solutions are greatly increased. The electrolytes tested in this study were DME solutions containing the following lithium salts: LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI, CF{sub 3}COOLi, and C{sub 2}F{sub 5}COOLi. Without the additive the solubility of LiF in DME (and all other nonaqueous solvents) is very low. With some of these boron compounds as additives, LiF solutions in DME with concentration as high as 1 M were obtained. The solubilities of the other salts were also increased by these additives. Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy studies show that Cl{sup {minus}} and I{sup {minus}} anions are complexed with these compounds in DME solutions containing LiCl or LiI salts. The degree of complexation is also closely related to the structures of the fluorinated aryl and alkyl groups, which act as electron-withdrawing groups. The NEXAFS results are in good agreement with ionic conductivity studies.

Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; Xiang, C.L.; McBreen, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Choi, L.S. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1998-08-01

79

Low temperature coefficient of resistance and high gage factor in beryllium-doped silicon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gage factor and resistivity of p-type silicon doped with beryllium was studied as a function of temperature, crystal orientation, and beryllium doping concentration. It was shown that the temperature coefficient of resistance can be varied and reduced to zero near room temperature by varying the beryllium doping level. Similarly, the magnitude of the piezoresistance gage factor for beryllium-doped silicon is slightly larger than for silicon doped with a shallow acceptor impurity such as boron, whereas the temperature coefficient of piezoresistance is about the same for material containing these two dopants. These results are discussed in terms of a model for the piezoresistance of compensated p-type silicon.

Robertson, J. B.; Littlejohn, M. A.

1974-01-01

80

Boron and beryllium in Gamma Geminorum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations have been made of the B II resonance line at 1362 A in the A0 IV star Gamma Gem with the Princeton spectrometer on the Copernicus satellite at a spectral resolution of 0.05 A. Complementary ground-based observations of the Be II resonance lines at 3130 and 3131 A have been made at Mauna Kea Observatory with a comparable resolution. A model-atmosphere abundance analysis has been done which includes the effects of the lines that blend with the B II and Be II lines. Previous data on Alpha Lyr and Alpha CMa for B II (which blends with a V III feature) have been reanalyzed with the help of new photographic and Reticon data from Mauna Kea which enable the determination of the V abundance. The results show that Gamma Gem is depleted in B by a factor of 5-10 relative to Alpha Lyr and other normal B stars and depleted in Be by at least a factor of four. By comparison, the hot Am star Alpha CMa is B-deficient by about three orders of magnitude and Be-deficient by at least fifteen times. It is suggested that the abundance deficiencies are due to diffusion, and that Alpha CMa is intrinsically a slow rotator, and Gamma Gem is a slightly evolved slow rotator where some, but not all, of the B and Be has resurfaced.

Boesgaard, A. M.; Praderie, F.

1981-01-01

81

Boron and Lithium isotopic signatures in rivers as proxies of silicate weathering regimes : the example of the Mackenzie river system, Canada (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large river systems integrate the diversity of weathering and transport conditions as well as the bedrock composition. They provide a unique opportunity to unravel the parameters operating within the critical zone of the Earth globally. Here, we present B and Li isotopes data measured in both the complementary soluble and suspended phases in the Mackenzie river (Northeastern Canada), one of the world largest river the Mackenzie river basin. An interesting parallel can be made between these two isotopic systems: - Both elements are predominantly derived from the weathering of silicate minerals and are thus relatively less affected by lithology. - Both elements are considerably fractionated during water/rock interactions during which they partition between the solid and liquid phases. Their respective geochemical signature is then strongly dependent upon geomorphic features of the Basin (mountains, plains, shield area). - Both isotopic systems are greatly fractionated by a preferential release in solution of the heavy isotope, which considerably help investigating the nature and magnitude of the weathering and transport processes in action. - And finally, strong evidences indicate that local groundwaters may control their transfer through the basin and imprint their isotopic signature as well. Because, boron and lithium have very different chemical behaviors, in particular distinct surface properties, their respective isotopes behave distinctly under same reactive transport conditions. This feature results in the absence of correlation between this two isotopic systems despite their apparent similarities. Then the coupled investigation of the Li and B isotopes during chemical weathering adds strong constraints on the weathering regimes operating at large scale and clearly encourages the multi-isotopic tracing of the critical zone processes.

Gaillardet, J.; Millot, R.; Lemarchand, D.; Vigier, N.

2009-12-01

82

High-power electron beam tests of a liquid-lithium target and characterization study of (7)Li(p,n) near-threshold neutrons for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.  

PubMed

A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The target is intended to demonstrate liquid-lithium target capabilities to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals. The lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power >5kW generated by high-intensity proton beams, necessary for sufficient therapeutic neutron flux. In preliminary experiments liquid lithium was flown through the target loop and generated a stable jet on the concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power densities of more than 4kW/cm(2) and volumetric power density around 2MW/cm(3) at a lithium flow of ~4m/s, while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. These power densities correspond to a narrow (?=~2mm) 1.91MeV, 3mA proton beam. A high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5MeV, 2mA) is being commissioned at the SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator. In order to determine the conditions of LiLiT proton irradiation for BNCT and to tailor the neutron energy spectrum, a characterization of near threshold (~1.91MeV) (7)Li(p,n) neutrons is in progress based on Monte-Carlo (MCNP and Geant4) simulation and on low-intensity experiments with solid LiF targets. In-phantom dosimetry measurements are performed using special designed dosimeters based on CR-39 track detectors. PMID:24387907

Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Cohen, D; Eliyahu, I; Kijel, D; Mardor, I; Silverman, I

2014-06-01

83

Highly enhanced low temperature discharge capacity of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 with lithium boron oxide glass modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although lithium ion battery is known to be an excellent renewable energy provider in electronic markets further application of it has been limited by its notoriously poor performance at low temperature, especially below -20 °C. In this paper, the electrochemical performance of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode materials coated by lithium boron oxide (LBO) glass was investigated at a temperature range from 20 to -40 °C. The results show that the LBO coating not only helps to improve the discharge capacity of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 at room temperature but also increase the discharge capacity retention of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from 22.5% to 57.8% at -40 °C. Electrochemical impedance spectra results reveal that the LBO coating plays an important role in reducing the charge-transfer resistance on the electrolyte-electrode interfaces and improving lithium ion diffusion coefficients. The mechanism associated with the change of the structure and electrical properties are discussed in detail.

Tan, ShuangYuan; Wang, Lei; Bian, Liang; Xu, JinBao; Ren, Wei; Hu, PengFei; Chang, AiMin

2015-03-01

84

Crystal structure of lithium beryllium hydride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of powder diffraction data, published by Bell and Coates, reveals that LiBeH3 and Li2BeH4 both have an fcc translation group with lattice constants 5.09 and 5.14 Å, respectively. The cubic cell of each contains eight formula units; so the total atomic concentrations, 3.03×1023 and 4.12×1023 cm-3, exceed that of diamond by factors of 1.7 and 2.3. The computed densities are 1.91 and 2.63 g/cm3. Both crystals have a modified perovskite structure involving cubes with edges half the size of the lattice constant. The (otherwise) sc lattice is broken by a chemical superstructure in LiBeH3 and by an orientational superstructure in Li2BeH4. The ``conduction''-electron density of the latter is 4.71×1023 cm3; so the equivalent-sphere-radius parameter is rs=1.51 Bohr, a value in the range typically assumed for metallic hydrogen. Infrared absorption at 1600 cm-1 (~=2300 K) was reported. Consequently, these compounds, if metallic, may manifest the high-temperature superconductivity often envisioned for metallic hydrogen.

Overhauser, A. W.

1987-01-01

85

Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fabrications of large Beryllium optical components are fundamentally limited by available facility capabilities. To overcome this limitation, NASA funded Brush Wellman Corp to study a Be joining process. Four 76 mm diameters samples and a 0.5 mm diameter Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (JBMD) were fabricated. This presentation will review the fabrication of these samples and summarize the results of their cryogenic testing at MSFCs XRCF.

Stahl, H. Philip; Parsonage, Tom; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

86

Experience on using titanium as a structural material for a solar neutrino lithium detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data obtained by the radiotracer method on a specially designed test bench show that a lithium oxide film serves as a trap for beryllium extracted from lithium. No tangible chemisorption of beryllium on the titanium surface is observed. These finding are used to design and fabricate a lithium detector for solar neutrinos. They will also find application in designing power nuclear facilities with liquid-metal heat carriers.

Kopylov, A. V.; Orekhov, I. V.; Petukhov, V. V.

2012-04-01

87

Feasibility of a boron loaded scintillation detector for dose measurements related to boron neutron capture therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of the use of a boron loaded scintillation detector in a head phantom for boron neutron capture therapy dose estimates was evaluated. Several monoenergetic neutron groups were produced via the ^7Li(p,n)^7Be reaction in a metallic lithium target using the Van de Graaff accelerator at University of Massachusetts Lowell. The pulse-height spectra were taken from a natural boron loaded

Don-Soo Kim; James J. Egan; Gunter H. R. Kegel; David Desimone

2002-01-01

88

Containerless processing of beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Melting and solidification of a beryllium alloy containing 1.5% BeO by weight in the weightless environment of space has produced cast beryllium with a relatively uniform dispersion of BeO throughout. Examination of the cast material shows that it is coarse grained, although the BeO is not heavily agglomerated in the flight specimen. Ground based comparison experiments show extreme agglomeration and segregation of BeO, resulting in large zones which are practically free of the oxide. Several postulated hypotheses for the failure to grain refine the beryllium are formulated. These are: (1) spherodization of the BeO particles during specimen preparation and during the molten phase of the experiment; (2) loss of nucleation potency through aging in the molten phase; and (3) inability of BeO to act as a grain refiner for beryllium. Further investigation with non spherodized particles and shorter dwell times molten may delineate which of these hypotheses are valid. The results of this flight experiment indicate that the weightless environment of space is an important asset in conducting research to find grain refiners for beryllium and other metals for which cast dispersions of grain refining agents cannot be prepared terrestrially due to gravitationally driven settling and agglomeration.

Wouch, G.; Keith, G. H.; Frost, R. T.; Pinto, N. P.

1977-01-01

89

HANFORD BERYLLIUM STEERING GROUP CHARTER  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Beryllium Steering Group (BSG) is to (1) provide a forum for discussion of beryllium issues and concerns among Hanford prime contractors and DOE; (2) review proposed changes in prime contractor Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Programs (CBDPP) to determine if these changes will result in significant impacts to other contractors and their employees; (3) review proposed changes to Beryllium Hanford Facilities List prior to updating of this list.

HEWITT, E.R.

2003-11-19

90

An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy  

SciTech Connect

Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 10{sup 7} neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF{sub 3} composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

Mitchell, H.E.

1996-04-01

91

T cell recognition of beryllium.  

PubMed

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disorder caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium and characterized by the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells in the lung. Genetic susceptibility to beryllium-induced disease is strongly associated with HLA-DP alleles possessing a glutamic acid at the 69th position of the ?-chain (?Glu69). The structure of HLA-DP2, the most prevalent ?Glu69-containing molecule, revealed a unique solvent-exposed acidic pocket that includes ?Glu69 and represents the putative beryllium-binding site. The delineation of mimotopes and endogenous self-peptides that complete the ??TCR ligand for beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells suggests a unique role of these peptides in metal ion coordination and the generation of altered self-peptides, blurring the distinction between hypersensitivity and autoimmunity. PMID:23978481

Dai, Shaodong; Falta, Michael T; Bowerman, Natalie A; McKee, Amy S; Fontenot, Andrew P

2013-12-01

92

T Cell Recognition of Beryllium  

PubMed Central

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disorder caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium and characterized by the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in the lung. Genetic susceptibility to beryllium-induced disease is strongly associated with HLA-DP alleles possessing a glutamic acid at the 69th position of the ?-chain (?Glu69). The structure of HLA-DP2, the most prevalent ?Glu69-containing molecule, revealed a unique solvent-exposed acidic pocket that includes ?Glu69 and represents the putative beryllium binding site. The delineation of mimotopes and endogenous self-peptides that complete the ??TCR ligand for beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells suggests a unique role of these peptides in metal ion coordination and the generation of altered self-peptides, blurring the distinction between hypersensitivity and autoimmunity. PMID:23978481

Dai, Shaodong; Falta, Michael T.; Bowerman, Natalie A.; McKee, Amy S.; Fontenot, Andrew P.

2013-01-01

93

10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific...Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The...

2010-01-01

94

Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of dissolved arsenic, boron, lithium, selenium, strontium, thallium, and vanadium using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The inductively coupled plasma?mass spectrometric (ICP?MS) methods have been expanded to include the determination of dissolved arsenic, boron, lithium, selenium, strontium, thallium, and vanadium in filtered, acidified natural water. Method detection limits for these elements are now 10 to 200 times lower than by former U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) methods, thus providing lower variability at ambient concentrations. The bias and variability of the method was determined by using results from spike recoveries, standard reference materials, and validation samples. Spike recoveries at 5 to 10 times the method detection limit and 75 micrograms per liter in reagent-water, surface-water, and groundwater matrices averaged 93 percent for seven replicates, although selected elemental recoveries in a ground-water matrix with an extremely high iron sulfate concentration were negatively biased by 30 percent. Results for standard reference materials were within 1 standard deviation of the most probable value. Statistical analysis of the results from about 60 filtered, acidified natural-water samples indicated that there was no significant difference between ICP?MS and former USGS official methods of analysis.

Garbarino, John R.

1999-01-01

95

Electrical conductivity of molten mixtures of uranium, thorium, beryllium, and sodium fluorides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In discussions of the composition of fuels for molten-salt nuclear reactors it has been noted that possible fuel compositions may consist of uranium and thorium fluorides mixed with diluent salts such as the fluorides of lithium, sodium, beryllium, and zirconium. However, the properties of such salt compositions have not been studied sufficiently; in particular, there are no data in the

V. N. Desyatnik; A. P. Koverda; N. N. Kurbatov; V. V. Bystrov

1982-01-01

96

Characterization of Shocked Beryllium  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium metal has many excellent structural properties in addition to its unique radiation characteristics, including: high elastic modulus, low Poisson's ratio, low density, and high melting point. However, it suffers from several major mechanical drawbacks: 1) high anisotropy - due to its hexagonal lattice structure and its susceptibility to crystallographic texturing; 2) susceptibility to impurity-induced fracture - due to grain boundary segregation; and 3) low intrinsic ductility at ambient temperatures thereby limiting fabricability. While large ductility results from deformation under the conditions of compression, the material can exhibit a brittle behavior under tension. Furthermore, there is a brittle to ductile transition at approximately 200 C under tensile conditions. While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. The beryllium used in this study was Grade S200-F (Brush Wellman, Inc., Elmore, OH) material. The work focused on high strain rate deformation and examine the validity of constitutive models in deformation rate regimes, including shock, the experiments were modeled using a Lagrangian hydrocode. Two constitutive strength (plasticity) models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) models, were calibrated using the same set of quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data taken at temperatures from 77K to 873K and strain rates from 0.001/sec to 4300/sec. In spite of being calibrated on the same data, the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured wave profiles. These high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Preliminary analysis of the results appears to indicate that, if fractured by the initial shock loading, the S200F Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading of the material. Additional 'arrested' drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

Cady, Carl M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Adams, Chris D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hull, Lawrence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray III, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prime, Michael B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Addessio, Francis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wynn, Thomas A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Eric N [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-24

97

Ceramic-metal seals for advanced battery systems. [sodium sulfur and lithium sulfur batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The search for materials which are electrochemically compatible with the lithium sulfur and sodium sulfur systems is discussed. The use liquid or braze alloys, titanium hydrite coatings, and tungsten yttria for bonding beryllium with ceramic is examined.

Reed, L.

1978-01-01

98

5. VIEW OF BERYLLIUM PROCESSING AREA, ROLLING MILL. BERYLLIUM FORMING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF BERYLLIUM PROCESSING AREA, ROLLING MILL. BERYLLIUM FORMING BEGAN IN SIDE A OF THE BUILDING IN 1962. (11/5/73) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

99

Exposures to Beryllium in a Beryllium Alloying Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous monitoring of the air at seven representative work locations in a beryllium alloying plant during a five-day period in 1960 showed that concentrations of beryllium in the air at all locations greatly exceeded the TLV of 2 micrograms per cubic meter of air. A similar survey during 1966 also yielded concentrations which exceeded the TLV for the greater portion

Jacob Cholak; Lawrence Schafer; David Yeager

1967-01-01

100

Machining of beryllium with the LLNL Precision Engineering Research Lathe  

SciTech Connect

In August 1984, six flat samples of beryllium, which were prepared by Brush-Wellmen Corp. using various pressing and sintering processes, were machined at LLNL on the recently completed Precision Engineering Research Lathe (PERL). The purpose of this study, which was conducted in cooperation with the Hughes Aircraft Corporation and partially funded by that organization, was to determine the optical properties of machined beryllium surfaces when prepared under highly controlled conditions using high quality machine tools and CBN (cubic boron nitrite) cutting tools. This report will summarize the materials properties, the machining conditions used on the PERL and a comparison of the completed samples using optical measuring techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mirror surface reflecting measurements in the IR region are to be made by the group at Hughes Aircraft and will be exchanged with LLNL as a part of this joint technical effort. 3 refs., 14 figs.

Foley, R.J.

1985-04-01

101

Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

Johnson, Michelle Lynn

2014-07-09

102

SOLID STATE WELDING OF BERYLLIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The welding of both hot-pressed and hot-pressed and extruded beryllium ; powder was investigated, using the differential thermal expansion between the ; beryllium specimens and a molybdenum clamp to hold the adjoining surfaces in ; contact while induction heating in vacuum. The most complete bonding was ; observed to result when intimate contact across the weld interface was achieved ;

Passmore

1963-01-01

103

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR BERYLLIUM. REVIEW DRAFT  

EPA Science Inventory

The properties of beryllium resemble those of aluminum, zinc, and magnesium. The main routes of beryllium intake are inhalation and ingestion. The chemical properties of beryllium are such that transformation of soluble to insoluble forms of inhaled beryllium results in long rete...

104

QUANTITATIVE BERYLLIUM STUDIES IN POSTMORTEM LUNGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of lungs from residents of a neighborhood in which a beryllium ; factory was located, from exposed beryllium workers, and from persons who washed ; contaminated clothing yields the following conclusions: (1) the finding of ; beryllium in the lungs does not necessarily mean a person has berylliosis, (2) ; the amount of beryllium in the lung is not

J. Lieben; J. A. Dattoli; V. M. Vought

1963-01-01

105

Electroextraction of boron from boron carbide scrap  

SciTech Connect

Studies were carried out to extract elemental boron from boron carbide scrap. The physicochemical nature of boron obtained through this process was examined by characterizing its chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size. The microstructural characteristics of the extracted boron powder were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopic examination of boron powder was also carried out to determine its crystalline form. Oxygen and carbon were found to be the major impurities in boron. Boron powder of purity ? 92 wt. % could be produced by the electroextraction process developed in this study. Optimized method could be used for the recovery of enriched boron ({sup 10}B > 20 at. %) from boron carbide scrap generated during the production of boron carbide. - Highlights: • Recovery of {sup 10}B from nuclear grade boron carbide scrap • Development of process flow sheet • Physicochemical characterization of electroextracted boron • Microscopic examination of electroextracted boron.

Jain, Ashish [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Anthonysamy, S., E-mail: sas@igcar.gov.in [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Ghosh, C. [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Ravindran, T.R. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Divakar, R.; Mohandas, E. [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India)

2013-10-15

106

The solar abundance of beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar abundance of beryllium is deduced from high-resolution Kitt Peak observations of the 3130.43- and 3131.08-A lines of Be II interpreted by the method of spectrum synthesis. The results are in good agreement with those previously obtained by Grevesse (1968) and by Hauge and Engvold (1968) and indicate that in the photospheric layers, beryllium is depleted below the chondritic value by a factor of about two. It is found that the beryllium abundance is equal to logN(Be)/N(H) + 12 = 1.08 plus or minus 0.05.

Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

1974-01-01

107

Beryllium optics and beryllium-aluminum structures for reconnaissance applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BAE Systems has developed and fielded the F-9120, a compact, lightweight, dual-band Electro-Optical/Infrared (EO/IR) long range sensor for high altitude tactical reconnaissance applications. The sensor's weight and size allow it to be carried internally or in a pod on a variety of military aircraft. The challenge of maintaining optical performance over severe vibration and thermal environments has been met using beryllium optics coupled to a beryllium-aluminum structure. Material choices were vital to maintaining both the optical performance of the system over the environments as well as jitter control of the two-axis, inertially-stabilized gimbal. The beryllium and beryllium-aluminum combination has demonstrated unprecedented vibration performance in both laboratory and field environments. In addition, the close coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) match between the optics and structure has enabled the sensor to meet its stringent imaging requirements over a wide temperature range as predicted.

Russo, Michael J.; LoBiondo, Stephen; Coon, Bryan; Engelhardt, Michel; Pinzon, William

2007-09-01

108

Characterization of shocked beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosively driven arrested beryllium experiments were performed with post mortem characterization to evaluate the failure behaviors. The test samples were encapsulated in an aluminum assembly that was large relative to the sample, and the assembly features both axial and radial momentum traps. The sample carrier was inserted from the explosively-loaded end and has features to lock the carrier to the surrounding cylinder using the induced plastic flow. Calculations with Lagrangian codes showed that the tensile stresses experienced by the Be sample were below the spall stress. Metallographic characterization of the arrested Be showed radial cracks present in the samples may have been caused by bending moments. Fractography showed the fractures propagated from the side of the sample closest to the explosives, the side with the highest tensile stress. There was evidence that the fractures may have propagated from the circumferential crack outward and downward radially.

Brown, E. N.; Cady, C. M.; Gray, G. T., III; Hull, L. M.; Cooley, J. H.; Bronkhorst, C. A.; Addessio, F. L.

2014-05-01

109

Beryllium Interactions in Molten Salts  

SciTech Connect

Molten flibe (2LiF·BeF2) is a candidate as a cooling and tritium breeding media for future fusion power plants. Neutron interactions with the salt will produce tritium and release excess free fluorine ions. Beryllium metal has been demonstrated as an effective redox control agent to prevent free fluorine, or HF species, from reacting with structural metal components. The extent and rate of beryllium solubility in a pot design experiments to suppress continuously supplied hydrogen fluoride gas has been measured and modeled[ ]. This paper presents evidence of beryllium loss from specimens, a dependence of the loss upon bi-metal coupling, i.e., galvanic effect, and the partitioning of the beryllium to the salt and container materials. Various posttest investigative methods, viz., scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to explore this behavior.

G. S. Smolik; M. F. Simpson; P. J. Pinhero; M. Hara; Y. Hatano; R. A. Anderl; J. P. Sharpe; T. Terai; S. Tanaka; D. A. Petti; D.-K. Sze

2006-01-01

110

Beryllium Oxide Whiskers and Platelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium oxide platelets and whiskers have been grown by heating beryllium metal in a silica furnace tube and boat with a hydrogen atmosphere for 16 hr at 1500°C. Three distinct types of whiskers formed: one type was parallel to the crystallographic c axis, another in the basal plane ([1¯010] direction), and the third in an intermediate direction (approximately the [3¯032

P. L. Edwards; R. J. Happel

1962-01-01

111

Beryllium technology workshop, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 20, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: beryllium in the ITER blanket; mechanical testing of irradiated beryllium; tritium release measurements on irradiated beryllium; beryllium needs for plasma-facing components; thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed beryllium; beryllium research at the INEL; Japanese beryllium research activities for in-pile mockup tests on ITER; a study of beryllium bonding of copper alloy; new production technologies; thermophysical properties of a new ingot metallurgy beryllium product line; implications of beryllium:steam interactions in fusion reactors; and a test program for irradiation embrittlement of beryllium at JET.

Longhurst, G.R.

1991-12-01

112

Shockless compression and release behavior of beryllium to 110?GPa  

SciTech Connect

A magnetohydrodynamic loading technique was used to shocklessly compress beryllium to peak longitudinal stresses of 19–110?GPa and, subsequently, unload in order to determine both the compressive response and also the shear stress supported upon release. Loading strain rates were on the order of 10{sup 6?}s{sup ?1}, while the unloading rates were nearly constant at 3?×?10{sup 5?}s{sup ?1}. Velocimetry was used to monitor the ramp and release behavior of a beryllium/lithium fluoride window interface. After applying window corrections to infer in situ beryllium velocities, a Lagrangian analysis was employed to determine the material response. The Lagrangian wavespeed-particle velocity response is integrated to generate the stress-strain path, average change in shear stress over the elastic unloading, and estimates of the shear modulus at peak compression. These data are used to infer the pressure dependence of the flow strength at the unloading rate. Comparisons to several strength models reveal good agreement to 45?GPa, but the data indicate 20%–30% higher strength near 100?GPa.

Brown, J. L.; Knudson, M. D.; Alexander, C. S.; Asay, J. R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

2014-07-21

113

Beryllium Related Matter  

SciTech Connect

In recent months, LLNL has identified, commenced, and implemented a series of interim controls, compensatory measures, and initiatives to ensure worker safety, and improve safety processes with regards to potential worker exposure to beryllium. Many of these actions have been undertaken in response to the NNSA Independent Review (COR-TS-5/15/2008-8550) received by LLNL in November of 2008. Others are the result of recent discoveries, events or incidents, and lessons learned, or were scheduled corrective actions from earlier commitments. Many of these actions are very recent in nature, or are still in progress, and vary in the formality of implementation. Actions are being reviewed for effectiveness as they progress. The documentation of implementation, and review of effectiveness, when appropriate, of these actions will be addressed as part of the formal Corrective Action Plan addressing the Independent Review. The mitigating actions taken fall into the following categories: (1) Responses to specific events/concerns; (2) Development of interim controls; (3) Review of ongoing activities; and (4) Performance improvement measures.

Gaylord, R F

2008-12-23

114

Primordial nucleosynthesis and the abundances of beryllium and boron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recently attained ability to make measurements of Be and B as well as to put constraints on Li-6 abundances in metal-poor stars has led to a detailed reexamination of big bang nucleosynthesis in the A is greater than about 6 regime. The nuclear reaction network has been significantly expanded, with many new rates added. It is demonstrated that although a number of A is greater than 7 reaction rates are poorly determined, even with extreme values chosen, the standard homogeneous model is unable to produce significant yields above A = 7, and the (Li-7)/(Li-6) ratio always exceeds 500. We also preliminarily explore inhomogeneous models, such as those inspired by a first-order quark-hadron phase transition, where regions with high neutron/proton ratios can allow some leakage up to A is greater than 7. However, models that fit the A is not greater than 7 abundances still seem to have difficulty in obtaining significant A is greater than 7 yields.

Thomas, David; Schramm, David N.; Olive, Keith A.; Fields, Brian D.

1993-01-01

115

Beryllium and boron constraints on an early Galactic bright phase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent observations of Be and B in metal-deficient halo dwarfs are used to constrain a 'bright phase' of enhanced cosmic-ray flux in the early Galaxy. Assuming that this Be and B arises from cosmic-ray spallation in the early Galaxy, limits are placed on the intensity of the early (Population II) cosmic-ray flux relative to the present (Population I) flux. A simple estimate of bounds on the flux ratio is 1 - 40. This upper bound would restrict galaxies like our own from producing neutrino fluxes that would be detectable in any currently proposed detectors. It is found that the relative enhancement of the early flux varies inversely with the relative time of enhancement. It is noted that associated gamma-ray production via pp - pi sup 0 pp may be a significant contribution to the gamma-ray background above 100 MeV.

Fields, Brian D.; Schramm, David N.; Truran, James W.

1993-01-01

116

NIFTI and DISCOS: New concepts for a compact accelerator neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy applications  

SciTech Connect

Two new concepts, NIFTI and DISCOS, are described. These concepts enable the efficient production of epithermal neutrons for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) medical treatment, utilizing a low current, low energy proton beam impacting on a lithium target. The NIFTI concept uses fluoride compounds, such as lead or beryllium fluoride, to efficiently degrade high energy neutrons from the lithium target to the lower energies required for BNCT. The fluoride compounds are in turn encased in an iron layer that strongly impedes the transmission of neutrons with energies above 24 KeV. Lower energy neutrons readily pass through this iron filter, which has a deep window in its scattering cross section at 24 KeV. The DISCOS concept uses a rapidly rotating, high g disc to create a series of thin ({approximately} 1 micron thickness) liquid lithium targets in the form of continuous films or sheets of discrete droplets--through which the proton beam passes. The average energy lost by a proton as it passes through a single target is small, approximately 10 KeV. Between the targets, the proton beam is re-accelerated by an applied DC electric field. The DISCOS approach enables the accelerator--target facility to operate with a beam energy only slightly above the threshold value for neutron production--resulting in an output beam of low-energy epithermal neutrons--while achieving a high yield of neutrons per milliamp of proton beam current. Parametric trade studies of the NIFTI and DISCOS concepts are described. These include analyses of a broad range of NIFTI designs using the Monte carlo MCNP neutronics code, as well as mechanical and thermal-hydraulic analyses of various DISCOS designs.

Powell, J.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Reich, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

1995-06-01

117

Mineral resource of the month: beryllium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The article discusses information about Beryllium. It notes that Beryllium is a light metal that has a gray color. The metal is used in the production of parts and devices including bearings, computer-chip heat sinks, and output windows of X-ray tubes. The article mentions Beryllium's discovery in 1798 by French chemist, Louis-Nicolas Vanquelin. It cites that bertrandite and beryl are the principal mineral components for the commercial production of beryllium.

U.S. Geological Survey

2013-01-01

118

Beryllium--important for national defense  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beryllium is one of the lightest and stiffest metals, but there was little industrial demand for it until the 1930s and 1940s when the aerospace, defense, and nuclear sectors began using beryllium and its compounds. Beryllium is now classified by the U.S. Department of Defense as a strategic and critical material because it is used in products that are vital to national security. The oxide form of beryllium was identified in 1797, and scientists first isolated metallic beryllium in 1828. The United States is the world's leading source of beryllium. A single mine at Spor Mountain, Utah, produced more than 85 percent of the beryllium mined worldwide in 2010. China produced most of the remainder, and less than 2 percent came from Mozambique and other countries. National stockpiles also provide significant amounts of beryllium for processing. To help predict where future beryllium supplies might be located, U.S.Geological Survey (USGS) scientists study how and where beryllium resources are concentrated in Earth's crust and use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered beryllium resources may exist. Techniques to assess mineral resources have been developed by the USGS to support the stewardship of Federal lands and to better evaluate mineral resource availability in a global context. The USGS also compiles statistics and information on the worldwide supply of, demand for, and flow of beryllium. These data are used to inform U.S. national policymaking.

Boland, M.A.

2012-01-01

119

Beryllium in the Environment: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium is an important industrial metal because of its unusual material properties: it is lighter than aluminum and six times stronger than steel. Often alloyed with other metals such as copper, beryllium is a key component of materials used in the aerospace and electronics industries. Beryllium has a small neutron cross-section, which makes it useful in the production of nuclear

Tammy P. Taylor; Mei Ding; Deborah S. Ehler; Trudi M. Foreman; John P. Kaszuba; Nancy N. Sauer

2003-01-01

120

Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/boron mixtures  

DOEpatents

A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod. 2 figures.

Timberlake, J.R.; Manos, D.; Nartowitz, E.

1994-12-13

121

Cause of pitting in beryllium  

SciTech Connect

Light microscopy, bare-film radiography, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron microprobe and physical testing were used to examine beryllium specimens exhibiting a stratified, pitted, pattern after chemical milling. The objective was to find the cause of this pattern. Specimens were found to have voids in excess of density specification allowances. These voids are attributed, at least in part, to the sublimation of beryllium fluoride during the vacuum hot pressing operation. The origin of the pattern is attributed to these voids and etching out of fines and associated impurities. Hot isostatic pressing with a subsequent heat treatment close residual porosity and dispersed impurities enough to correct the problem.

Kershaw, R.P.

1982-04-16

122

Cryogenic Properties of Aluminum Beryllium and Beryllium Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 (38%Al-62%Be), at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-320 F) and (-252.8 C) (-423 F)) temperatures, and for an optical grade beryllium, O-30H (99%Be), at -252.8 C. AlBeMetl62 material was purchased to the requirements of SAE-AMS7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions." O-30H material was purchased to the requirements of Brush Wellman Inc. specification O-30H Optical Grade Beryllium. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths for extruded AlBeMetl62 material increased with decreasing temperature, and the percent elongation decreased with decreasing temperature. Design properties for the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percent elongation for extruded AlBeMetl62 were generated. It was not possible to distinguish a difference in the room and cryogenic ultimate strength for the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) O-30H material. The O30H elongation decreased with decreasing temperature.

Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

2003-01-01

123

Cryogenic Properties of Aluminum-Beryllium and Beryllium Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were obtained for the aluminum- beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 (38%Al-62%Be), at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-32O F) and (- 252.8 C) (-423 F)) temperatures, and for an optical grade beryllium, O-30H (99%Be), at -252.8 C. AlBeMet162 material was purchased to the requirements of SAE- AMs7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions". O-30H material was purchased to the requirements of Brush Wellman Inc. specification O-30H Optical Grade Beryllium. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths for extruded AlBeMet162 material increased with decreasing temperature, and the percent elongation decreased with decreasing temperature. Design properties for the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percent elongation for extruded AlBeMetl62 were generated. It was not possible to distinguish a difference in the room and cryogenic ultimate strength for the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) O-30H material. The O-30H elongation decreased with decreasing temperature.

Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

2003-01-01

124

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme  

SciTech Connect

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, {alpha}) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg {sup 10}B/g blood.

Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

2010-06-22

125

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, ?) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg 10B/g blood.

Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena

2010-06-01

126

Optimization of beryllium for fusion blanket applications  

SciTech Connect

The primary function of beryllium in a fusion reactor blanket is neutron multiplication to enhance tritium breeding. However, because heat, tritium and helium will be generated in and/or transported through beryllium and because the beryllium is in contact with other blanket materials, the thermal, mechanical, tritium/helium and compatibility properties of beryllium are important in blanket design. In particular, tritium retention during normal operation and release during overheating events are safety concerns. Accommodating beryllium thermal expansion and helium-induced swelling are important issues in ensuring adequate lifetime of the structural components adjacent to the beryllium. Likewise, chemical/metallurgical interactions between beryllium and structural components need to be considered in lifetime analysis. Under accident conditions the chemical interaction between beryllium and coolant and breeding materials may also become important. The performance of beryllium in fusion blanket applications depends on fabrication variables and operational parameters. First the properties database is reviewed to determine the state of knowledge of beryllium performance as a function of these variables. Several design calculations are then performed to indicate ranges of fabrication and operation variables that lead to optimum beryllium performance. Finally, areas for database expansion and improvement are highlighted based on the properties survey and the design sensitivity studies.

Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Fusion Power Program

1993-12-31

127

A Reconsideration of Acute Beryllium Disease  

PubMed Central

Context Although chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is clearly an immune-mediated granulomatous reaction to beryllium, acute beryllium disease (ABD) is commonly considered an irritative chemical phenomenon related to high exposures. Given reported new cases of ABD and projected increased demand for beryllium, we aimed to reevaluate the patho physiologic associations between ABD and CBD using two cases identified from a survey of beryllium production facility workers. Case Presentation Within weeks after exposure to beryllium fluoride began, two workers had systemic illness characterized by dermal and respiratory symptoms and precipitous declines in pulmonary function. Symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities improved with cessation of exposure and, in one worker, recurred with repeat exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analyses and blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests revealed lymphocytic alveolitis and cellular immune recognition of beryllium. None of the measured air samples exceeded 100 ?g/m3, and most were < 10 ?g/m3, lower than usually described. In both cases, lung biopsy about 18 months after acute illness revealed noncaseating granulomas. Years after first exposure, the workers left employment because of CBD. Discussion Contrary to common understanding, these cases suggest that ABD and CBD represent a continuum of disease, and both involve hypersensitivity reactions to beryllium. Differences in disease presentation and progression are likely influenced by the solubility of the beryllium compound involved. Relevance to Practice ABD may occur after exposures lower than the high concentrations commonly described. Prudence dictates limitation of further beryllium exposure in both ABD and CBD. PMID:19672405

Cummings, Kristin J.; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Virji, M. Abbas; Kreiss, Kathleen

2009-01-01

128

Galvanic corrosion of beryllium welds  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium is difficult to weld because it is highly susceptible to cracking. The most commonly used filler metal in beryllium welds is Al-12 wt.% Si. Beryllium has been successfully welded using Al-Si filler metal with more than 30 wt.% Al. This filler creates an aluminum-rich fusion zone with a low melting point that tends to backfill cracks. Drawbacks to adding a filler metal include a reduction in service temperature, a lowering of the tensile strength of the weld, and the possibility for galvanic corrosion to occur at the weld. To evaluate the degree of interaction between Be and Al-Si in an actual weld, sections from a mock beryllium weldment were exposed to 0.1 M Cl{sup {minus}} solution. Results indicate that the galvanic couple between Be and the Al-Si weld material results in the cathodic protection of the weld and of the anodic dissolution of the bulk Be material. While the cathodic protection of Al is generally inefficient, the high anodic dissolution rate of the bulk Be during pitting corrosion combined with the insulating properties of the Be oxide afford some protection of the Al-Si weld material. Although dissolution of the Be precipitate in the weld material does occur, no corrosion of the Al-Si matrix was observed.

Hill, M.A.; Butt, D.P.; Lillard, R.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Corrosion and Environmental Effects Lab.

1997-12-01

129

Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, “Minnema Report.”

NSTec Environment, Safety, Health & Quality

2009-12-28

130

Can mirror matter solve the the cosmological lithium problem?  

SciTech Connect

The abundance of lithium-7 confronts cosmology with a long lasting inconsistency between the predictions of standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis with the baryonic density determined from the Cosmic Microwave Background observations on the one hand, and the spectroscopic determination of the lithium-7 abundance on the other hand. We investigated the influence of the existence of a mirror world, focusing on models in which mirror neutrons can oscillate into ordinary neutrons. Such a mechanism allows for an effective late time neutron injection, which induces an increase of the destruction of beryllium-7and thus a lower final lithium-7 abundance.

Coc, Alain [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris Sud 11, UMR 8609, Bâtiment 104, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris, France and Sorbonne Universités, Institut Lagrange de Paris, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

2014-05-02

131

OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

Brisson, M

2009-04-01

132

Accelerator-driven boron neutron capture therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is a binary treatment for certain types of cancer. It works by loading the cancerous cells with a boron-10 carrying compound. This isotope has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the reaction producing a lithium nucleus and alpha particle that kill the cell in which they are produced. Recent studies of the boron carrier compound indicate that the uptake process works best in particularly aggressive cancers. Most studied is glioblastoma multiforme and a trial using a combination of BNCT and X-ray radiotherapy has shown an increase of nearly a factor of two in mean survival over the state of the art. However, the main technical problem with BNCT remains producing a sufficient flux of neutrons for a reasonable treatment duration in a hospital environment. This paper discusses this issue.

Edgecock, Rob

2014-05-01

133

Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Test Surveillance Identifies Clinically Significant Beryllium Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Workplace surveillance identifies chronic beryllium disease (CBD) but it remains unknown over what time frame mild CBD will progress to a more severe form. Methods We examined physiology and treatment in 229 beryllium sensitization (BeS) and 171 CBD surveillance-identified cases diagnosed from 1982 to 2002. Never smoking CBD cases (81) were compared to never smoking BeS patients (83) to assess disease progression. We compared CBD machinists to non-machinists to examine effects of exposure. Results At baseline, CBD and BeS cases did not differ significantly in exposure time or physiology. CBD patients were more likely to have machined beryllium. Of CBD cases, 19.3% went on to require oral immunosuppressive therapy. At 30 years from first exposure, measures of gas exchange were significantly worse and total lung capacity was lower for CBD subjects. Machinists had faster disease progression as measured by pulmonary function testing and gas exchange. Conclusions Medical surveillance for CBD identifies individuals at significant risk of disease progression and impairment with sufficient time since first exposure. PMID:19681064

Mroz, Margaret M.; Maier, Lisa A.; Strand, Matthew; Silviera, Lori; Newman, Lee S.

2011-01-01

134

Defense programs beryllium good practice guide  

SciTech Connect

Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is likely to generate dusts, mists, fumes, or small particulates. A beryllium exposure control program should minimize airborne concentrations, the potential for and spread of contamination, the number of times individuals are exposed to beryllium, and the number of employees who may be potentially exposed.

Herr, M.

1997-07-01

135

Tailoring material properties of sputtered beryllium  

SciTech Connect

Doped beryllium is a material of considerable interest to both the ICF and the weapons communities, as well as finding application in specialized industrial settings (e.g., x-ray windows and mirrors). Some of these uses require conformal coating of thin films on (possibly) irregularly-shaped surfaces. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) is often used to accomplish this, and sputtering is often the technique of choice. Among its advantages are that the depositing atoms are relatively energetic, leading to more compact films. Moreover, by simply applying a voltage bias to the substrate, ambient noble gas ions will bombard the growing film, which can cause further densification and other modifications to the microstructure. Sputtering is also well suited to the introduction of dopants, even those that are insoluble. Most applications of these novel materials will require fundamental knowledge of their properties. Because so many can be devised, such information is generally unavailable. The objective of the effort has been to systematically study the properties of films produced under different conditions, with an emphasis on surface finish and permeability. They have made extensive use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron microscopy to determine the microstructure of the films, along with composition probes (mainly x-ray fluorescence) to quantify the chemical structure. The studies can be roughly divided into three categories. First, there are those in which the properties of pure or Cu-doped Be films have been investigated, especially on randomly-agitated spherical capsules. Included are studies of the effects of a constant substrate bias ranging from 0 to 120 v and application of an intermittent bias during deposition. Second, there are experiments in which the structure of the depositing films has been modified via the incorporation of dopants, primarily boron. Finally, there have been numerous attempts to characterize the permeability of Be coatings at temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 C.

McEachern, R.M.

1999-03-01

136

Advances in identifying beryllium sensitization and disease.  

PubMed

Beryllium is a lightweight metal with unique qualities related to stiffness, corrosion resistance, and conductivity. While there are many useful applications, researchers in the 1930s and 1940s linked beryllium exposure to a progressive occupational lung disease. Acute beryllium disease is a pulmonary irritant response to high exposure levels, whereas chronic beryllium disease (CBD) typically results from a hypersensitivity response to lower exposure levels. A blood test, the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), was an important advance in identifying individuals who are sensitized to beryllium (BeS) and thus at risk for developing CBD. While there is no true "gold standard" for BeS, basic epidemiologic concepts have been used to advance our understanding of the different screening algorithms. PMID:20195436

Middleton, Dan; Kowalski, Peter

2010-01-01

137

Advances in Identifying Beryllium Sensitization and Disease  

PubMed Central

Beryllium is a lightweight metal with unique qualities related to stiffness, corrosion resistance, and conductivity. While there are many useful applications, researchers in the 1930s and l940s linked beryllium exposure to a progressive occupational lung disease. Acute beryllium disease is a pulmonary irritant response to high exposure levels, whereas chronic beryllium disease (CBD) typically results from a hypersensitivity response to lower exposure levels. A blood test, the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), was an important advance in identifying individuals who are sensitized to beryllium (BeS) and thus at risk for developing CBD. While there is no true “gold standard” for BeS, basic epidemiologic concepts have been used to advance our understanding of the different screening algorithms. PMID:20195436

Middleton, Dan; Kowalski, Peter

2010-01-01

138

20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30.508 Section...for Certain Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of...

2010-04-01

139

10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The...

2010-01-01

140

20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2012-04-01 true What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30.508 Section 30.508...Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical...

2014-04-01

141

20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30.508 Section 30.508...Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical...

2012-04-01

142

20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30.508 Section 30.508...Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical...

2013-04-01

143

20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30.508 Section 30.508...Payments § 30.508 What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical...

2011-04-01

144

Inhibited solid propellant composition containing beryllium hydride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An object of this invention is to provide a composition of beryllium hydride and carboxy-terminated polybutadiene which is stable. Another object of this invention is to provide a method for inhibiting the reactivity of beryllium hydride toward carboxy-terminated polybutadiene. It was found that a small amount of lecithin inhibits the reaction of beryllium hydride with the acid groups in carboxy terminated polybutadiene.

Thompson, W. W. (inventor)

1978-01-01

145

Brazing of beryllium for structural applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made in fabricating a beryllium compression tube structure and a stiffened beryllium panel. The compression tube was 7.6cm in diameter and 30.5cm long with titanium end fittings. The panel was 203cm long and stiffened with longitudinal stringers. Both units were assembled by brazing with BAg-18 braze alloy. The detail parts were fabricated by hot forming 0.305cm beryllium sheet and the brazing parameters established.

Vogan, J. W.

1972-01-01

146

Tritium behavior in ITER beryllium  

SciTech Connect

The beryllium neutron multiplier in the ITER breeding blanket will generate tritium through transmutations. That tritium constitutes a safety hazard. Experiments evaluating tritium storage and release mechanisms have shown that most of the tritium comes out in a burst during thermal ramping. A small fraction of retained tritium is released by thermally activated processes. Analysis of recent experimental data shows that most of the tritium resides in helium bubbles. That tritium is released when the bubbles undergo swelling sufficient to develop porosity that connects with the surface. That appears to occur when swelling reaches about 10--15%. Other tritium appears to be stored chemically at oxide inclusions, probably as Be(OT){sub 2}. That component is released by thermal activation. There is considerable variation in published values for tritium diffusion through the beryllium and solubility in it. Data from experiments using highly irradiated beryllium from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory showed diffusivity generally in line with the most commonly accepted values for fully dense material. Lower density material, planned for use in the ITER blanket may have very short diffusion times because of the open structure. The beryllium multiplier of the ITER breeding blanket was analyzed for tritium release characteristics using temperature and helium production figures at the midplane generated in support of the ITER Summer Workshop, 1990 in Garching. Ordinary operation, either in Physics or Technology phases, should not result in the release of tritium trapped in the helium bubbles. Temperature excursions above 600{degree}C result in large-scale release of that tritium. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Longhurst, G.R.

1990-10-01

147

Beryllium Use in the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) began operation in 1967. It makes use of a unique serpentine fuel core design and a beryllium reflector. Reactor control is achieved with rotating beryllium cylinders to which have been fastened plates of hafnium. Over time, the beryllium develops rather high helium content because of nuclear transmutations and begins to swell. The beryllium must be replaced at nominally 10-year intervals. Determination of when the replacement is made is by visual observation using a periscope to examine the beryllium surface for cracking and swelling. Disposition of the irradiated beryllium was once accomplished in the INL’s Radioactive Waste Management Complex, but that is no longer possible. Among contributing reasons are high levels of specific radioactive contaminants including transuranics. The INL is presently considering disposition pathways for this irradiated beryllium, but presently is storing it in the canal adjacent to the reactor. Numerous issues are associated with this situation including (1) Is there a need for ultra-low uranium material? (2) Is there a need to recover tritium from irradiated beryllium either because this is a strategic material resource or in preparation for disposal? (3) Is there a need to remove activation and fission products from irradiated beryllium? (4) Will there be enough material available to meet requirements for research reactors (fission and fusion)? In this paper will be discussed the present status of considerations on these issues.

Glen R. Longhurst

2007-12-01

148

Mineral resource of the month: beryllium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beryllium metal is lighter than aluminum and stiffer than steel. These and other properties, including its strength, dimensional stability, thermal properties and reflectivity, make it useful for aerospace and defense applications, such as satellite and space-vehicle structural components. Beryllium’s nuclear properties, combined with its low density, make it useful as a neutron reflector and moderator in nuclear reactors. Because it is transparent to most X rays, beryllium is used as X-ray windows in medical, industrial and analytical equipment.

Shedd, Kim B.

2006-01-01

149

Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium  

SciTech Connect

The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined form the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing(HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified.

Billone, M.C.

1995-12-31

150

Boron nitride nanotubes  

DOEpatents

Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

Smith, Michael W. (Newport News, VA); Jordan, Kevin (Newport News, VA); Park, Cheol (Yorktown, VA)

2012-06-06

151

20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...beryllium employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance...beryllium employee” exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance...beryllium vendor during a period when beryllium dust, particles, or vapor may have...

2014-04-01

152

20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...beryllium employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance...beryllium employee” exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance...beryllium vendor during a period when beryllium dust, particles, or vapor may have...

2012-04-01

153

20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...beryllium employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance...beryllium employee” exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance...beryllium vendor during a period when beryllium dust, particles, or vapor may have...

2013-04-01

154

20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...beryllium employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance...beryllium employee” exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance...beryllium vendor during a period when beryllium dust, particles, or vapor may have...

2011-04-01

155

Viscosity of molten lithium, thorium and beryllium fluorides mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering development of Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) concept, following Molten Salt fluorides mixtures have been chosen as an object for viscosity studies in this work (in mol%): 78LiF-22ThF 4; 71LiF-27ThF 4-2BeF 2 and 75LiF-20ThF 4-5BeF 2. Additionally, the effect of the 3 mol% CeF 3 additives on viscosity of the molten 75LiF-20ThF 4-5BeF 2 (mol%) salt mixture has been investigated experimentally. The method of torsional oscillations of cylindrical crucible filled by molten fluorides mixture has been chosen for kinematic viscosity measurement at temperatures up to 800-850 °C. In temperature ranges, where melts behave as normal liquids, dependences on viscosity vs. temperature are received: ? = ? exp [B/T(K)], where ? - kinematic viscosity, m 2/s; T - temperature, K. The kinematic viscosity Rout mean squares (RMS) estimated in the assumption about dispersion homoscedasticity is (0.04-0.12) × 10 -6 (m 2/s). Discrepancies left in the data of viscosity for molten mixtures of LiF, BeF 2 and ThF 4 received by different researchers need further investigations in this area to be continued.

Merzlyakov, Alexander V.; Ignatiev, Victor V.; Abalin, Sergei S.

2011-12-01

156

Viscosity of molten lithium, thorium and beryllium fluorides mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering development of Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) concept, following Molten Salt fluorides mixtures have been chosen as an object for viscosity studies in this work (in mol%): 78LiF–22ThF4; 71LiF–27ThF4–2BeF2 and 75LiF–20ThF4–5BeF2. Additionally, the effect of the 3mol% CeF3 additives on viscosity of the molten 75LiF–20ThF4–5BeF2 (mol%) salt mixture has been investigated experimentally. The method of torsional oscillations of cylindrical

Alexander V. Merzlyakov; Victor V. Ignatiev; Sergei S. Abalin

157

Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production  

DOEpatents

A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

2014-03-25

158

Fracture toughness of hot-pressed beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the results of an investigation into the fracture toughness, sustained-load flaw growth, and fatigue-crack propagation resistance of S200E hot-pressed beryllium at room temperature. It also reviews the literature pertaining to the influence of various factors on the fracture toughness of hot-pressed beryllium determined using fatigue-cracked specimens.

Lemon, D. D.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

1985-01-01

159

Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate  

DOEpatents

A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

Bergeron, Charles (Baton Rouge, LA); Bullard, John E. (Kendall Park, NJ); Morgan, Evan (Lynchburg, VA)

1991-01-01

160

The status of beryllium technology for fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beryllium was used for a number of years in the Joint European Torus (JET), and it is planned to be used extensively on the lower heat-flux surfaces of the reduced technical objective/reduced cost international thermonuclear experimental reactor (RTO/RC ITER). It has been included in various forms in a number of tritium breeding blanket designs. There are technical advantages but also a number of safety issues associated with the use of beryllium. Research in a variety of technical areas in recent years has revealed interesting issues concerning the use of beryllium in fusion. Progress in this research has been presented at a series of International Workshops on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The most recent workshop was held in Karlsruhe, Germany on 15-17 September 1999. In this paper, a summary of findings presented there and their implications for the use of beryllium in the development of fusion reactors are presented.

Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Longhurst, G. R.; Shestakov, V.; Kawamura, H.

2000-12-01

161

Constraining low-energy proton capture on beryllium-7 through charge radius measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we point out that a measurement of the charge radius of boron-8 provides indirect access to the S-factor for radiative proton capture on beryllium-7 at low energies. We use leading-order halo effective field theory to explore this correlation and we give a relation between the charge radius and the S-factor. Furthermore, we present important technical aspects relevant to the renormalization of point-like P -wave interactions in the presence of a repulsive Coulomb interaction.

Ryberg, Emil; Forssén, Christian; Hammer, H.-W.; Platter, Lucas

2014-11-01

162

Dosimetry of beryllium in cultured canine pulmonary alveolar macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the dosimetry within macrophages of beryllium compounds administered at sublethal doses. Information on the dosimetry of beryllium within macrophages is required to guide further efforts to isolate and characterize beryllium?containing haptens. Inhalation of beryllium aerosols can cause chronic berylliosis, a progressive, granulomatous fibrosis of the lung. Studies in laboratory animals indicate that alveolar macrophages

A. F. Eidson; A. Taya; G. L. Finch; M. D. Hoover; Cindy Cook

1991-01-01

163

Accelerator-based epithermal neutron sources for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the development of low-energy light ion accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs) for the treatment of brain tumors through an intact scalp and skull using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A major advantage of an ABNS for BNCT over reactor-based neutron sources is the potential for siting within a hospital. Consequently, light-ion accelerators that are injectors to larger machines in high-energy physics facilities are not considered. An ABNS for BNCT is composed of: (1) the accelerator hardware for producing a high current charged particle beam, (2) an appropriate neutron-producing target and target heat removal system (HRS), and (3) a moderator/reflector assembly to render the flux energy spectrum of neutrons produced in the target suitable for patient irradiation. As a consequence of the efforts of researchers throughout the world, progress has been made on the design, manufacture, and testing of these three major components. Although an ABNS facility has not yet been built that has optimally assembled these three components, the feasibility of clinically useful ABNSs has been clearly established. Both electrostatic and radio frequency linear accelerators of reasonable cost (approximately 1.5 M dollars) appear to be capable of producing charged particle beams, with combinations of accelerated particle energy (a few MeV) and beam currents (approximately 10 mA) that are suitable for a hospital-based ABNS for BNCT. The specific accelerator performance requirements depend upon the charged particle reaction by which neutrons are produced in the target and the clinical requirements for neutron field quality and intensity. The accelerator performance requirements are more demanding for beryllium than for lithium as a target. However, beryllium targets are more easily cooled. The accelerator performance requirements are also more demanding for greater neutron field quality and intensity. Target HRSs that are based on submerged-jet impingement and the use of microchannels have emerged as viable target cooling options. Neutron fields for reactor-based neutron sources provide an obvious basis of comparison for ABNS field quality. This paper compares Monte Carlo calculations of neutron field quality for an ABNS and an idealized standard reactor neutron field (ISRNF). The comparison shows that with lithium as a target, an ABNS can create a neutron field with a field quality that is significantly better (by a factor of approximately 1.2, as judged by the relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-dose that can be delivered to a tumor at a depth of 6cm) than that for the ISRNF. Also, for a beam current of 10 mA, the treatment time is calculated to be reasonable (approximately 30 min) for the boron concentrations that have been assumed. PMID:12749700

Blue, Thomas E; Yanch, Jacquelyn C

2003-01-01

164

Beryllium Recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2003-01-01

165

Beryllium recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2004-01-01

166

Beryllium abundances in parent stars of extrasolar planets: 16 Cyg A & B and rho 1 Cnc  

E-print Network

The Be II 3131 A doublet has been observed in the solar-type stars 16 Cyg A & B and in the late G-type star rho 1 Cnc, to derive their beryllium abundances. 16 Cyg A & B show similar (solar) beryllium abundances while 16 Cyg B, which has been proposed to have a planetary companion of ~2 M_Jup, is known to be depleted in lithium by a factor larger than 6 with respect to 16 Cyg A. Differences in their rotational histories which could induce different rates of internal mixing of material, and the ingestion of a similar planet by 16 Cyg A are discussed as potential explanations. The existence of two other solar-type stars which are candidates to harbour planetary-mass companions and which show lithium and beryllium abundances close to those of 16 Cyg A, requires a more detailed inspection of the peculiarities of the 16 Cyg system. For rho 1 Cnc, which is the coolest known object candidate to harbour a planetary-mass companion (M > 0.85 M_Jup), we establish a precise upper limit for its beryllium abundance, showing a strong Be depletion which constrains the available mixing mechanisms. Observations of similar stars without companions are required to asses the potential effects of the planetary companion on the observed depletion. It has been recently claimed that rho 1 Cnc appears to be a subgiant. If this were the case, the observed strong Li and Be depletions could be explained by a dilution process taking place during its post-main sequence evolution.

R. J. Garcia Lopez; M. R. Perez de Taoro

1998-03-03

167

Beryllium at Argonne East, past and present  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this presentation is the present activities at Argonne related to the control of beryllium exposure. However, since present activities involve some of the past uses of beryllium, the authors will review briefly the history as they have been able to resurrect it from records, memory and interviews with some of the people involved. The goal of the program is to identify past contaminated areas for remedial action, identify employees with past and current exposure who may benefit from additional medical monitoring and provide guidance and support so that any ongoing activities involving beryllium can be conducted safely.

Woodring, J.L.; Davis, J.T.

1998-07-01

168

Pulmonary toxicity of beryllium in albino rat  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic compounds, if chronically exposed to human beings, significantly increase incidences of epidermoid carcinomas of the skin and lung. Nickel has been considered to be an important metallic carcinogen. Regarding beryllium, different opinions are held so far as its carcinogenic nature is concerned. While it is reported that there is an equivocal increase in the incidences of respiratory cancers in patients with chronic pulmonary berylliosis, investigation shows no increase in the incidence of respiratory cancer. Among experimental animals, intravenous injections of suspensions of beryllium salts to rabbits have been shown to induce osteogenic sarcomas. This abstract deals with the histopathological and enzymological study of lungs of albino rats after prolonged beryllium treatment.

Goel, K.A.; Agrawal, V.P.; Garg, V.

1980-01-01

169

Immune mechanisms in beryllium lung disease  

SciTech Connect

The role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of beryllium lung disease has been suspected for years. The observation of cutaneous hypersensitivity to beryllium led to the development of the lymphocyte blast transformation test; the test clearly distinguishes between healthy subjects, who show little or no blast transformation response, and patients with beryllium lung disease, who demonstrate significant responses. The degree of blast transformation also correlates with the severity of the clinical disease. Animal studies have demonstrated the importance of histocompatibility antigens in development of the disease, and support the participation of cellular immune mechanisms.22 references.

Deodhar, S.D.; Barna, B.P. (Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH (USA))

1991-03-01

170

Current Treatment of Chronic Beryllium Disease  

PubMed Central

The current mainstay of management of chronic beryllium disease involves cessation of beryllium exposure and use of systemic corticosteroids. However, there are no randomized controlled trials to assess the effect of these interventions on the natural history of this disease. Despite this limitation, it is prudent to remove patients with chronic beryllium disease from further exposure and consider treating progressive disease early with long-term corticosteroids. The effect of treatment should be monitored using pulmonary function tests and high resolution computed tomography of chest. However, once pulmonary fibrosis has developed, corticosteroid therapy cannot reverse the damage. PMID:19894178

Sood, Akshay

2009-01-01

171

Chronic beryllium disease: computed tomographic findings.  

PubMed

Chronic beryllium disease is a rare multisystem granulomatous disease predominantly involving the lungs and resulting from an immunologic response to long-term occupational exposure. Computed tomography of the chest reveals important lung parenchymal and mediastinal findings and plays an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up assessment of patients with chronic beryllium disease. Its significance lies in the exact localization and evaluation of the extent of lesions. We present an overview of the subject and a pictorial review of the spectrum of computed tomographic features of beryllium disease. PMID:21084914

Sharma, Nidhi; Patel, Jeet; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H

2010-01-01

172

Current treatment of chronic beryllium disease.  

PubMed

The current mainstay of management of chronic beryllium disease involves cessation of beryllium exposure and use of systemic corticosteroids. However, there are no randomized controlled trials to assess the effect of these interventions on the natural history of this disease. Despite this limitation, it is prudent to remove patients with chronic beryllium disease from further exposure and consider treating progressive disease early with long-term corticosteroids. The effect of treatment should be monitored using pulmonary function tests and high-resolution computed tomography of the chest. However, once pulmonary fibrosis has developed, corticosteroid therapy cannot reverse the damage. PMID:19894178

Sood, Akshay

2009-12-01

173

THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BERYLLIUM TECHNOLOGY UPDATE  

SciTech Connect

A Beryllium Technology Update meeting was held at the Idaho National Laboratory on July 18, 2007. Participants came from the U.S., Japan, and Russia. There were two main objectives of this meeting. One was a discussion of current technologies for beryllium in fission reactors, particularly the Advanced Test Reactor and the Japan Materials Test Reactor, and prospects for material availability in the coming years. The second objective of the meeting was a discussion of a project of the International Science and Technology Center regarding treatment of irradiated beryllium for disposal. This paper highlights discussions held during that meeting and major conclusions reached

Glen R. Longhurst

2007-12-01

174

Combined aging of beryllium bronze  

SciTech Connect

This article evaluates the possibility of increasing the resistance of beryllium bronze to small plastic deformations as a result of the application of stepped aging under stress. Low-temperature aging under conditions of bending under a stress of about 100 MPa was applied to alloy BrBNT1, 9Mg at 150, 180, and 210 /sup 0/C, high-temperature aging at 300 and 340 /sup 0/C under stress and without stress. As a result of applying stepped aging under stress, the elastic limit of the alloy BrBNT1, 9Mg was raised to 900 MPa. Stepped aging under stress has a substantial effect on the relaxation stability of the alloy. The procedure suggested in the article for aging may be used efficiently for treating elastic elements made of other brands of bronze as well.

Duraev, P.P.; Kaplun, Yu.A.; Pastukhova, Zh.P.; Rakhshtadt, A.G.

1986-01-01

175

The optical properties of beryllium  

SciTech Connect

We review the published data on the optical properties of beryllium for the spectral region from 0.03 to 300 eV. In the visible and infrared spectral regions, where published data from various authors show very large variations, we have performed experiments that identify the most probable sources of error, and use this information to select the best data from published sources. The effects of surface oxide overlayers have also been studied. In the far infrared spectral region, where only normal incidence reflectance data are available, and in the extreme ultraviolet, where only transmission data are available, there is insufficient information to fully determine the optical properties at each photon energy. Between 0.06 and 26 eV, however, a normal incidence reflectance curve is fully determined. This curve has been used for a Kramers{endash}Kronig analysis to determine the optical properties in this spectral range. 10 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Arakawa, E.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Callcott, T.A.; Chang, Yun-ching (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA) Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1990-02-01

176

Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report  

SciTech Connect

This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

Lee, S

2012-03-29

177

Lithium toxicity  

MedlinePLUS

Thundiyil JG, Olson KR. Lithium. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; ...

178

Transgenic Mouse Model of Chronic Beryllium Disease  

SciTech Connect

Animal models provide powerful tools for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new treatment paradigms. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships is severely limited by a general inability to develop a sufficient chronic beryllium disease animal model. Discovery of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) - DPB1Glu69 genetic susceptibility component of chronic beryllium disease permitted the addition of this human beryllium antigen presentation molecule to an animal genome which may permit development of a better animal model for chronic beryllium disease. Using FVB/N inbred mice, Drs. Rubin and Zhu, successfully produced three strains of HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 transgenic mice. Each mouse strain contains a haplotype of the HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 gene that confers a different magnitude of odds ratio (OR) of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR = 240). In addition, Drs. Rubin and Zhu developed transgenic mice with the human CD4 gene to permit better transmission of signals between T cells and antigen presenting cells. This project has maintained the colonies of these transgenic mice and tested the functionality of the human transgenes.

Gordon, Terry

2009-05-26

179

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Cancer: Current Status and Future Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) isbased on the nuclear reaction that occurswhen boron-10 isirradiated with low-energy thermal neutronsto yield high linear energy transferA particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT hasfocused primarily on the treatment of high-grade gliomas and either cutaneous primaries or cerebral metastases of mel- anoma, most recently, head and neck and liver cancer. Neutron

Rolf F. Barth; Jeffrey A. Coderre; M. GraaH

2005-01-01

180

Radiation damage and defect behavior in ion-implanted, lithium counterdoped silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boron doped silicon n+p solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implantation and the resuitant n+p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. The function of fluence and a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) was studied to correlate defect behavior with cell performance. It was found that the lithium counterdoped cells exhibited significantly increased radiation resistance when compared to boron doped control cells. It is concluded that the annealing behavior is controlled by dissociation and recombination of defects. The DLTS studies show that counterdoping with lithium eliminates at least three deep level defects and results in three new defects. It is speculated that the increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is due primarily to the interaction of lithium with oxygen, single vacanies and divacancies and that the lithium-oxygen interaction is the most effective in contributing to the increased radiation resistance.

Weinberg, I.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C. K.

1984-01-01

181

Chronic beryllium disease: Diagnosis and management  

SciTech Connect

Chronic beryllium disease is predominantly a pulmonary granulomatosis that was originally described in 1946. Symptoms usually include dyspnea and cough. Fever, anorexia, and weight loss are common. Skin lesions are the most common extrathoracic manifestation. Granulomatous hepatitis, hypercalcemia, and kidney stones can also occur. Radiographic and physiologic abnormalities are similar to those in sarcoidosis. While traditionally the pathologic changes included granulomas and cellular interstitial changes, the hallmark of the disease today is the well-formed granuloma. Immunologic studies have demonstrated a cell-mediated response to beryllium that is due to an accumulation of CD4{sup +} T cells at the site of disease activity. Diagnosis depends on the demonstration of pathologic changes (i.e., granuloma) and evidence that the granuloma was caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium (i.e., positive lung proliferative response to beryllium). Using these criteria, the diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease can now be made before the onset of clinical symptoms. Whether, with early diagnosis, the natural course of this condition will be the same as when it was traditionally diagnosed is not known. Currently, corticosteroids are used to treat patients with significant symptoms or evidence of progressive disease. 21 refs.

Rossman, M.D. [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1996-10-01

182

Incipient toxicity of lithium to freshwater organisms representing a salmonid habitat  

SciTech Connect

Because the eventual development of fusion power reactors could increase the mining, use and disposal of lithium five-fold by the year 2000, potential effects from unusual amounts of lithium in aquatic environments were investigated. Freshwater oganisms representing a Pacific Northwest salmonid habitat were exposed to elevated conentrations of lithium. Nine parameters were used to determine the incipient toxicity of lithium to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), insect larvae (Chironomus sp.), and Columbia River periphyton. All three groups of biota were incipiently sensitive to lithium at concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results correspond with the incipient toxicity of beryllium, a chemically similar component of fusion reactor cores. A maximum lithium concentration of 0.01 mg/L occurs naturally in most freshwater environments (beryllium is rarer). Therefore, a concentration range of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L may be regarded as approaching toxic concentrations when assessing the hazards of lithium in freshwaters.

Emery, R.; Klopfer, D.C.; Skalski, J.R.

1981-07-01

183

Beryllium10 in Australasian tektites: evidence for a sedimentary precursor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 1 x 10⁸ atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 x 10⁶ years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in

D. K. Pal; C. Tuniz; R. K. Moniot; T. H. Kruse; G. F. Herzog

1982-01-01

184

Major histocompatibility locus genetic markers of beryllium sensitization and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major histocompatibility locus genetic markers of beryllium sensitization and disease. C. Saltini, L. Richeldi, M. Losi, M. Amicosante, C. Voorter, E. van den Berg-Loonen, R.A. Dweik, H.P. Wiedemann, D.C. Deubner, C. Tinelli. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: Hypersensitivity to beryllium (Be) is found in 1-16% of exposed workers undergoing immunological screening for beryllium disease using the beryllium lym- phocyte proliferation

C. Saltini; L. Richeldi; M. Losi; M. Amicosante; C. Voorter; E. Van Den Berg-Loonen; R. A. Dweik; H. P. Wiedemann; D. C. Deubner; C. Tinelli

2001-01-01

185

The All Boron Carbide Diode Neutron Detector: Experiment and Modeling Approach  

SciTech Connect

Boron carbide diode detectors, fabricated from two different polytypes of semiconducting boron carbide, will detect neutrons in reasonable agreement with theoretical expectations. The performance of the all boron carbide neutron detector differs, as expected, from devices where a boron rich neutron capture layer is distinct from the diode charge collection region (i.e. a conversion layer solid state detector). Diodes were fabricated from natural abundance boron (20% {sup 10}B and 80% {sup 11}B.) directly on the metal substrates and metal contacts applied to the films as grown. The total boron depth was on the order of 2 microns. This is clearly not a conversion-layer configuration. The diodes were exposed to thermal neutrons generated from a paraffin moderated plutonium-beryllium source in moderated and un-moderated, as well as shielded and unshielded experimental configurations, where the expected energy peaks at at 2.31 MeV and 2.8 MeV were clearly observed, albeit with some incomplete charge collection typical of thinner diode structures. The results are compared with other boron based thin film detectors and literature models. (authors)

Sabirianov, Ildar F.; Brand, Jennifer I. [College of Engineering, UNL, Lincoln, Nebraska (United States)]|[Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, UNL, Lincoln, Nebraska (United States); Fairchild, Robert W. [Physics and Astronomy, Nebraska Wesleyan University, Lincoln, Nebraska (United States)

2008-07-01

186

Synthesis of lithium nitride for neutron production target of BNCT by in situ lithium deposition and ion implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve high performance of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) device, Li3N/Li/Pd/Cu four layered Li target was designed and the structures of the synthesized four layered target were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. For the purpose of avoiding the radiation blistering and lithium evaporation, in situ vacuum deposition and nitridation techniques were established for in situ production and repairing maintenance of the lithium target. Following conclusions were derived: Uniform lithium layer of a few hundreds nanometer was formed on Pd/Cu multilayer surface by in situ vacuum deposition technique using metallic lithium as a source material. Lithium nitrides were formed by in situ nitridation reaction by the implantation of low-energy nitrogen ions on the deposited lithium layer surface. The chemical states of the nitridated zone were close to the stoichiometric lithium nitride, Li3N. This nitridated zone formed on surface of four layered lithium target is stable for a long time in air condition. The in situ nitridation is effective to protect lithium target from degradation by unfavorable reactions.

Ishiyama, S.; Baba, Y.; Fujii, R.; Nakamura, M.; Imahori, Y.

2012-12-01

187

REVIEWS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS: VI. BERYLLIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a review of the scientific literature on the biological and environmental effects of beryllium. Included in the review are a general summary and a comprehensive discussion of the following topics as related to beryllium and specific beryllium compounds: physical and...

188

Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using  

E-print Network

Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using DFT Sergio Orozco Student Advisor: Chen Huang Faculty Mentor Lithium LPS Test Lithium LPS #12;Density Functional Theory (DFT) Successful quantum mechanical approach (1979) #12;Building LPS for Lithium Create a LPS using NLPS density for Lithium Test LPS by comparing

Petta, Jason

189

The structure of boron in boron fibres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure of noncrystalline, chemically vapour-deposited boron fibres was investigated by computer modelling the experimentally obtained X-ray diffraction patterns. The diffraction patterns from the models were computed using the Debye scattering equation. The modelling was done utilizing the minimum nearest-neighbour distance, the density of the model, and the broadening and relative intensity of the various peaks as boundary conditions. The results suggest that the fibres consist of a continuous network of randomly oriented regions of local atomic order, about 2 nm in diameter, containing boron atoms arranged in icosahedra. Approximately half of these regions have a tetragonal structure and the remaining half a distorted rhombohedral structure. The model also indicates the presence of many partial icosahedra and loose atoms not associated with any icosahedra. The partial icosahedra and loose atoms indicated in the present model are in agreement with the relaxing sub-units which have been suggested to explain the anelastic behavior of fibre boron and the loosely bound boron atoms which have been postulated to explain the strengthening mechanism in boron fibres during thermal treatment.

Bhardwaj, J.; Krawitz, A. D.

1983-01-01

190

Evaluation of beryllium for space shuttle components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of beryllium to specific full-scale space shuttle structural components and assemblies was studied. Material evaluations were conducted to check the mechanical properties of as-received material to gain design information on characteristics needed for the material in the space shuttle environment, and to obtain data needed for evaluating component and panel tests. Four beryllium structural assemblies were analyzed and designed. Selected components of these assemblies, representing areas of critical loading or design/process uncertainty, were designed and tested, and two panel assemblies were fabricated. Trends in cost and weight factors were determined by progressive estimation at key points of preliminary design, final design, and fabrication to aid in a cost/weight evaluation of the use of beryllium.

Trapp, A. E.

1972-01-01

191

Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position

Lyday

1990-01-01

192

Beryllium window for synchrotron light sources  

SciTech Connect

As part of an on-going upgrade program at the National Synchrotron Light Source, a parametric study of rectangular flat and curved beryllium windows of varying thickness and heights and under varying thermal loading was undertaken. The study consisted of a series of 2D and 3D thermal stress finite element analyses to determine the relative benefit of various combinations of parameters with respect to the windows` ability to withstand thermal loads. This study includes evaluation of fixed versus flexible mounting of flat and curved beryllium windows. Buckling analyses for both types of mountings are also included.

Lynch, D.R.; Berman, L.; Montanez, P.; Pjerov, S.; Stefan, P.; Woodle, M.

1996-10-01

193

Microwave sintering of boron carbide  

DOEpatents

A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

1988-06-10

194

Lithium and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

Lithium and Pregnancy This sheet talks about the risks that exposure to lithium can have during pregnancy. With each pregnancy, all ... miscarriage has been reported. Can taking lithium during pregnancy cause birth defects? Yes, although not very often. ...

195

Lithium target for accelerator based BNCT neutron source: Influence by the proton irradiation on lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is in the transition stage from nuclear reactor to accelerator based neutron source. Generation of low energy neutron can be achieved by 7Li (p, n) 7Be reaction using accelerator based neutron source. Development of small-scale and safe neutron source is within reach. The melting point of lithium that is used for the target is low, and durability is questioned for an extended use at a high current proton beam. In order to test its durability, we have irradiated lithium with proton beam at the same level as the actual current density, and found no deterioration after 3 hours of continuous irradiation. As a result, it is suggested that lithium target can withstand proton irradiation at high current, confirming suitability as accelerator based neutron source for BNCT.

Fujii, R.; Imahori, Y.; Nakakmura, M.; Takada, M.; Kamada, S.; Hamano, T.; Hoshi, M.; Sato, H.; Itami, J.; Abe, Y.; Fuse, M.

2012-12-01

196

Thermal Conductivity of Composites of Beryllia and Lithium Titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion power for energy purposes. Wide varieties of solid breeders and multiplier materials have been proposed for fusion blankets. Beryllium and lithium titanate (Li2TiO3) have been accepted as neutron multiplier and breeder materials, respectively. However, swelling of beryllium due to helium and tritium permeation through metallic beryllium and low thermal conductivity of lithium titanate have caused serious limitations when ITER is in the demo version. It has been well established that BeO due its highest thermal conductivity among the known ceramics, low neutron absorption cross section, and high neutron reflection cross section is a good neutron multiplier. In the present investigation, a novel ceramic single compound of BeO-Li2TiO3 was synthesized, keeping the BeO content to Li2TiO3 in the volume ratio of 80:20, 75:25, 65:35, and 55:45 with the aim of maintaining the tritium breeding ratio as more than one, and characterized for phases present by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

Rath, B. N.; Ghanwat, S. J.; Kaity, Santu; Danani, Chandan; Kulkarni, R. V.; Alur, V. D.; Sathiyamoorthy, D.; Anantharaman, S.

2013-11-01

197

Role of boron oxide in growth of boron nitride grains  

SciTech Connect

Grain growth in sintered hexagonal boron nitride ceramics hot-pressed from microcrystalline and crystalline powders was studied. Boron oxide released during sintering, especially from the microcrystalline powder, had a crucial effect on the size and orientation of boron nitride grains and on the mechanical properties of the ceramics. The extraction of boron oxide from the boron nitride grains with elemental boron and subsequent conversion to a refractory suboxide resulted in a substantial rise in the refractoriness, preventing the undesirable growth of boron nitride grains, and reducing their response to the uniaxial effect of the external pressure. The migration mechanism of boron oxide ill hot-pressed boron nitride was also confirmed by measurements of the oxygen distribution ill the ceramics.

Hubacek, Milan; Ueki, Masanori [Nippon Steel Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

1996-12-31

198

Risks of beryllium disease related to work processes at a metal, alloy, and oxide production plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To describe relative hazards in sectors of the beryllium industry, risk factors of beryllium disease and sensitisation related to work process were sought in a beryllium manufacturing plant producing pure metal, oxide, alloys, and ceramics. METHODS: All 646 active employees were interviewed; beryllium sensitisation was ascertained with the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation blood test on 627 employees; clinical evaluation and

K Kreiss; M M Mroz; B Zhen; H Wiedemann; B Barna

1997-01-01

199

Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/coron mixtures  

DOEpatents

A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod.

Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ); Manos, Dennis (Williamsburg, VA); Nartowitz, Ed (Edison, NJ)

1994-01-01

200

Boron and Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Boron is found naturally in the earth’s crust in the oxidized form as borax and colemanite, particularly in the oceans, sedimentary\\u000a rocks, coal, shale, and some soils. It is never found in the elemental form in nature possessing a complex chemistry similar\\u000a to that of silicon, with properties switching between metals and non-metals. Boron has become an important and strategic

Munir Ozturk; Serdal Sakcali; Salih Gucel; Huseyin Tombuloglu

201

Processing of boron carbide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processing of boron carbide powder including sintering optimization, green body optimization and sintering behavior of nano-sized boron carbide was investigated for the development of complex shaped body armor. Pressureless sintered B4C relative densities as high as 96.7% were obtained by optimizing the soak temperature, and holding at that temperature for the minimum time required to reach terminal density. Although

Namtae Cho

2006-01-01

202

Molecular Structure of boron  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boron was founded in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy and Gay-Lussac and Thenard. It occurs as orthoboric acid in volcanic spring waters and as borates in Boron and colematic. Some sources can also be found in the Mohave Desert. It is used when making glass to keep the glass from breaking under temperature stress. Also if combined with sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide it makes bleach.

2002-08-26

203

Control of beryllium powder at a DOE facility  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium is contained in a number of domestic and national defense items. Although many items might contain beryllium in some manner, few people need worry about the adverse effects caused by exposure to beryllium because it is the inhalable form of beryllium that is most toxic. Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a granulomas and fibrotic lung disease with long latency, can be developed after inhalation exposures to beryllium. It is a progressive, debilitating lung disease. Its occurrence in those exposed to beryllium has been difficult to predict because some people seem to react to low concentration exposures whereas others do not react to high concentration exposures. Onset of the disease frequently occurs between 15 to 20 years after exposure begins. Some people develop the disease after many years of low concentration exposures but others do not develop CBD even though beryllium is shown to be present in lungs and urine. Conclusions based on these experiences are that their is some immunological dependence of developing CBD in about 3--4% of the exposed population, but the exact mechanism involved has not yet been identified. Acute beryllium disease can occur after a single exposure to a concentration of greater than 0.100 mg/m3 (inhalation exposure); it is characterized by the development of chemical pneumoconiosis, a respiratory disease. The acute effect of skin contact is a dermatitis characterized by itching and reddened, elevated, or fluid-accumulated lesions which appear particularly on the exposed surfaces of the body, especially the face, neck, arms, and hands. Small particles of beryllium that enter breaks in the skin can lead to the development of granulomas and/or open sores that do not heal until the beryllium has been removed. Our interest is only airborne beryllium, which is found in areas that machine or produce beryllium.

Langner, G.C.; Creek, K.L.; Castro, R.G.

1997-12-31

204

Lithium ion aqueous cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium ion aqueous cells were investigated using lithium intercalating compounds as anodes and cathodes. The aqueous electrolyte consisted of 4 to 5 molar solutions of either lithium perchlorate or lithium nitrate which contained lithium hydroxide in millimolar amounts to make the solutions slightly basic with a pH of about 8.5. Several electrode combinations were evaluated using lithium intercalating compounds such as lithium cobalt oxide and lithium manganese oxide as cathodes and lithium vanadium oxide, lithium manganese oxide, titanium disulfide, and molybdenum dioxide as the anodes. The cell employing manganese oxide as both the anode and cathode exhibited good charge-discharge characteristics with an open circuit potential of about one volt.

Plichta, Edward J.; Behl, Wishvender K.

1995-02-01

205

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Pt. 850, App. A Appendix A to Part 850—Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent...

2014-01-01

206

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Pt. 850, App. A Appendix A to Part 850—Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent...

2013-01-01

207

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Pt. 850, App. A Appendix A to Part 850—Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent...

2012-01-01

208

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Pt. 850, App. A Appendix A to Part 850—Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent...

2011-01-01

209

40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section...Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What...

2010-07-01

210

40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

211

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

2010-01-01

212

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...transport fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be)...

2014-01-01

213

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...transport fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be)...

2012-01-01

214

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...transport fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be)...

2011-01-01

215

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...transport fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be)...

2013-01-01

216

Beryllium oxide: a frost-preventing insulator.  

PubMed

A method is suggested of achieving low outdoor radiative losses by low spectral emittance in the atmospheric window of 8-13 microm, which will reduce dew and frost formation on surfaces exposed to the clear sky. The use of this selectively low emittance makes it feasible to use electrically insulating materials. It is argued that lattice-based reststrahlen bands can be exploited for this purpose. The observation is made that hexagonal beryllium oxide has a strong reststrahlen band that covers most of the primary atmospheric window. Results from experiments with polycrystalline samples demonstrate that bulk beryllium oxide is equally effective for dew and frost prevention as glass coated with conducting tin oxide. PMID:19770941

Ribbing, C G

1990-08-15

217

Dynamic structure factor in warm dense beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the dynamic structure factor (DSF) in warm dense beryllium by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamic conductivity is derived from the Kubo-Greenwood formula, and a Drude-like behaviour is observed. The corresponding dielectric function is used to determine the DSF. Since the ab initio approach is so far only applicable for wavenumbers k = 0, the k-dependence of the dielectric function is modelled via the Mermin ansatz. We present the results for the dielectric function and DSF of warm dense beryllium and compare these with perturbative treatments such as the Born-Mermin approximation. We found considerable differences between the results of these approaches; this underlines the need for a first-principles determination of the DSF of warm dense matter.

Plagemann, K.-U.; Sperling, P.; Thiele, R.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Fortmann, C.; Döppner, T.; Lee, H. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Redmer, R.

2012-05-01

218

Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron  

DOEpatents

This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01

219

Prevalence of beryllium sensitization among aluminium smelter workers  

PubMed Central

Background Beryllium exposure occurs in aluminium smelters from natural contamination of bauxite, the principal source of aluminium. Aims To characterize beryllium exposure in aluminium smelters and determine the prevalence rate of beryllium sensitization (BeS) among aluminium smelter workers. Methods A population of 3185 workers from nine aluminium smelters owned by four different aluminium-producing companies were determined to have significant beryllium exposure. Of these, 1932 workers participated in medical surveillance programmes that included the serum beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), confirmation of sensitization by at least two abnormal BeLPT test results and further evaluation for chronic beryllium disease in workers with BeS. Results Personal beryllium samples obtained from the nine aluminium smelters showed a range of <0.01–13.00 ?g/m3 time-weighted average with an arithmetic mean of 0.25 ?g/m3 and geometric mean of 0.06 ?g/m3. Nine workers were diagnosed with BeS (prevalence rate of 0.47%, 95% confidence interval = 0.21–0.88%). Conclusions BeS can occur in aluminium smelter workers through natural beryllium contamination of the bauxite and further concentration during the refining and smelting processes. Exposure levels to beryllium observed in aluminium smelters are similar to those seen in other industries that utilize beryllium. However, compared with beryllium-exposed workers in other industries, the rate of BeS among aluminium smelter workers appears lower. This lower observed rate may be related to a more soluble form of beryllium found in the aluminium smelting work environment as well as the consistent use of respiratory protection. PMID:20610489

Slade, M. D.; Cantley, L. F.; Kirsche, S. R.; Wesdock, J. C.; Cullen, M. R.

2010-01-01

220

Boron-Based Layered Structures for Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

Based on Density Functional Theory simulations, we have studied the boron-based graphite-like materials, i.e., LiBC and MgB2 for energy storage. First, when half of the Li-ions in the LiBC are removed, the BC layered structure is still preserved. The Li intercalation potential (equilibrium lithium-insertion voltage of 2.3-2.4 V relative to lithium metal) is significantly higher than that in graphite, allowing Li0.5BC to function as a cathode material. The reversible electrochemical reaction, LiBC = Li0.5BC + 0.5Li, enables a specific energy density of 1088 Wh/kg and a volumetric energy density of 2463 Wh/L. Second, 75% of the Mg ions in MgB2 can be removed and reversibly inserted with the layered boron structures being preserved through an in-plane topological transformation between the hexagonal lattice domains and triangular domains. The mechanism of such a charge-driven transformation originates from the versatile valence state of boron in its planar form.

Zhao, Y.; Wei, S. H.

2012-01-01

221

Electron collisions with beryllium and its ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is provided of the convergent close-coupling calculations for electron- impact on neutral beryllium, as well as its various ionic stages. The calculations were performed from near threshold to high energies with initial states having principal quantum number n <= 4. Excitation to states with n <= 5 and total ionisation cross sections have been calculated with an estimated accuracy of below 10% at all energies considered.

Bray, I.; Fursa, D. V.

2015-01-01

222

Neutron counter based on beryllium activation  

SciTech Connect

The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction {sup 9}Be(n, ?){sup 6}He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, {sup 6}He, decays with half-life T{sub 1/2} = 0.807 s emitting ?{sup ?} particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of ?–particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known ?–source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5–the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of ?{sup ?} particles emitted from radioactive {sup 6}He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Paducha, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM), Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Scholz, M.; Igielski, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS (IFJPAN), Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Karpinski, L. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland); Pytel, K. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Soltana 7, 05-400 Otwock - Swierk (Poland)

2014-08-21

223

Neutron counter based on beryllium activation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction 9Be(n, ?)6He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, 6He, decays with half-life T1/2 = 0.807 s emitting ?- particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of ?-particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known ?-source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5-the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of ?- particles emitted from radioactive 6He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Scholz, M.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Igielski, A.; Karpinski, L.; Paducha, M.; Pytel, K.

2014-08-01

224

Neutron leakage spectra from beryllium shells  

SciTech Connect

First results on neutron leakage spectra measurements for eight beryllium spheres with wall thickness from 3.2cm to 19.8cm with 14MeV neutron point source in the center are reported. Brief description of experimental arrangement, time of flight spectrometer, measurements and data reduction procedures are given. Preliminary experimental results are compared with the transport calculations, using the latest versions of evaluated data libraries.

Devkin, B.V.; Kobozev, M.G.; Kuzminov, B.D.; Simakov, S.P.; Sinitsa, V.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Chuvilin, D.Yu.; Zagryadsky, V.A. [Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fischer, U.; Wiegner, E. [Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31

225

Beryllium10 mass spectrometry with a cyclotron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Grenoble cyclotron has been used as a mass spectrometer to measure ratios of 10 to 9 of 10⁻⁸, 10⁻⁹, and 10⁻¹° in standardized beryllium oxide samples. Similar measurements can be used to determine cosmogenic 10 (half-life, 1.5 x 10⁶ years) profiles in various geophysical reservoirs such as sea sediments and polar ice. This procedure can be used either to

G. M. Raisbeck; F. Yiou; M. Fruneau; J. M. Loiseaux

1978-01-01

226

Aging beryllium bronze in pulsed magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of microhardness and X-ray diffraction were used to study the kinetics of changes in the microstructure of the beryllium\\u000a bronze alloy BrB-2 in the process of decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution in a pulsed magnetic field with a\\u000a frequency from 0 to 7 Hz at an amplitude of the pulse of 318.4 kA\\/m, a dc component of the

Yu. V. Osinskaya; A. V. Pokoev

2008-01-01

227

Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample  

DOEpatents

A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.

2006-10-31

228

Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample  

DOEpatents

A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Ehler, Deborah S. (Los Alamos, NM); John, Kevin D. (Santa Fe, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Collis, Gavin E. (Los Alamos, NM); Minogue, Edel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-08-24

229

Interaction of nitrogen ions with beryllium surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of energetic nitrogen projectiles with a beryllium surface is studied using a highly sensitive quartz crystal microbalance technique. The overall mass change rate of the beryllium sample under N2+ ion impact at an ion energy of 5000 eV (i.e. 2500 eV per N) is investigated in situ and in real-time. A strong dependency of the observed mass change rate on the nitrogen fluence (at constant flux) is found and can be attributed to the formation of a nitrogen-containing mixed material layer within the ion penetration depth. The presented data elucidate the dynamics of the interaction process and the surface saturation with increasing nitrogen fluence in a unique way. Basically, distinct interaction regimes can be discriminated, which can be linked to the evolution of the surface composition upon nitrogen impact. Steady state surface conditions are obtained at a total cumulative nitrogen fluence of ?80 × 1016 N atoms per cm2. In dynamic equilibrium, the interaction is marked by continuous surface erosion. In this case, the observed total sputtering yield becomes independent from the applied nitrogen fluence and is of the order of 0.4 beryllium atoms per impinging nitrogen atom.

Dobes, Katharina; Köppen, Martin; Oberkofler, Martin; Lungu, Cristian P.; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Höschen, Till; Meisl, Gerd; Linsmeier, Christian; Aumayr, Friedrich

2014-12-01

230

The Cryogenic Properties of Several Aluminum-Beryllium Alloys and a Beryllium Oxide Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance related mechanical properties for two aluminum-beryllium (Al-Be) alloys and one beryllium-oxide (BeO) material were developed at cryogenic temperatures. Basic mechanical properties (Le., ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percent elongation, and elastic modulus were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 at cryogenic [-195.5"C (-320 F) and -252.8"C (-423"F)I temperatures. Basic mechanical properties for the Be0 material were obtained at cyrogenic [- 252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. Fracture properties were obtained for the investment cast alloy Beralcast 363 at cryogenic [-252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. The AlBeMetl62 material was extruded, the Be0 material was hot isostatic pressing (HIP) consolidated, and the Beralcast 363 material was investment cast.

Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

2003-01-01

231

The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site beryllium characterization project  

SciTech Connect

A site beryllium characterization project was completed at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in 1997. Information from historical reviews, previous sampling surveys, and a new sampling survey were used to establish a more comprehensive understanding of the locations and levels of beryllium contamination in 35 buildings. A feature of the sampling strategy was to test if process knowledge was a good predictor of where beryllium contamination could be found. Results revealed that this technique was effective at identifying where surface contamination levels might exceed the RFETS smear control level but that it was not effective in identifying where low concentrations of beryllium might be found.

Morrell, D.M. [Kaiser-Hill Co. LLC, Golden, CO (United States); Miller, J.R. [Radian International LLC, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Allen, D.F. [Radian International LLC, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1999-06-01

232

Beryllium-10 in australasian tektites: evidence for a sedimentary precursor.  

PubMed

Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 1 x l0(8) atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 x 10(6) years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event. PMID:17771035

Pal, D K; Tuniz, C; Moniot, R K; Kruse, T H; Herzog, G F

1982-11-19

233

Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites - Evidence for a sedimentary precursor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 100 micron atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 million years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

Pal, D. K.; Moniot, R. K.; Kruse, T. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Tuniz, C.

1982-01-01

234

Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites: evidence for a sedimentary precursor  

SciTech Connect

Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 1 x 10/sup 8/ atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 x 10/sup 6/ years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

Pal, D.K.; Tuniz, C.; Moniot, R.K.; Kruse, T.H.; Herzog, G.F.

1982-11-19

235

Epidemiology of beryllium sensitization and disease in nuclear workers  

SciTech Connect

We examined the epidemiology of chronic beryllium disease among a stratified, random sample (n = 895) of nuclear weapons workers using the blood beryllium lymphocyte transformation (BeLT) test and chest radiograph for case identification. Of 18 new cases of beryllium sensitization, 12 had beryllium disease, and three more developed pulmonary granulomas on lung biopsy over the succeeding 2 yr. Beryllium-sensitized cases did not differ from noncases in age, gender, race, ethnicity, smoking, most respiratory symptoms, spirometric or radiographic abnormalities, or job tenure. The six sensitized cases without initial disease differed from beryllium disease cases in having greater pack-years of smoking. Sensitization occurred among workers with inadvertent or bystander exposure, such as a secretary and security guard. However, beryllium sensitization risk was higher for machinists (4.7%) and for persons reporting measured overexposure (7.4%, odds ratio 5.1); exposure beginning before 1970 (3.6%, odds ratio 2.7); consistent beryllium exposure (3.4%); and sawing (4.7%) or band sawing (6.0%) of beryllium metal. We conclude that both individual susceptibility to sensitization and exposure circumstances are important in developing disease.

Kreiss, K.; Mroz, M.M.; Zhen, B.; Martyny, J.W.; Newman, L.S. (National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-10-01

236

Boronate-Mediated Biologic Delivery  

PubMed Central

Inefficient cellular delivery limits the landscape of macromolecular drugs. Boronic acids readily form boronate esters with the 1,2- and 1,3-diols of saccharides, such as those that coat the surface of mammalian cells. Here pendant boronic acids are shown to enhance the cytosolic delivery of a protein toxin. Thus, boronates are a non-cationic carrier that can deliver a polar macromolecule into mammalian cells. PMID:22303837

Ellis, Gregory A.; Palte, Michael J.; Raines, Ronald T.

2012-01-01

237

Determination of Natural Beryllium (Be) in Soil and Swipe Samples Utilizing Yttrium/Beryllium Ratio  

SciTech Connect

1. Objective: A method to determine whether beryllium (Be) components in surface swipe samples are from a natural source is needed. 2. Methods: Soil samples and surface swipes from area facilities were analyzed for marker elements to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be). To be useful, the natural marker element must be present at reasonably consistent levels across the site, must correlate with the Be concentration, and not have the potential to be present from non-natural sources. 3. Results: The research on marker elements used to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be) concentrations demonstrates a clear correlation between Be and yttrium (Y) in natural soils on the Nevada National Security Site. The Y/Be ratio is proposed as a method to characterize the source of Be in soil and surface swipe samples and to aid in recommendations for follow up actions. Swipe samples are analyzed using an ICP/MS method and compared with results from soil samples. Natural soil constituent levels and the Y/Be Ratio range is determined for the occupied and historical facilities and surrounding areas. Y/Be ratios within the statistical range established indicate the Be is from a natural source. Y/Be ratios lower than this range indicate the presence of another Be source, and may then be correlated to alloy, ceramic, or other operational sources by the ratios of copper, nickel, cobalt, uranium, and/or niobium. Example case studies of evaluations of buildings with historical operational beryllium usage, current ongoing technical processes, and heavy equipment used in large building demolitions are included demonstrating the value of the ratio approach. 4. Conclusions: This differentiation is valuable as there is no known correlation between natural beryllium in soil and beryllium disease.

None

2010-09-30

238

Method for separating boron isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of separating boron isotopes ¹°B and ¹¹B by laser-induced selective excitation and photodissociation of BClâ molecules containing a particular boron isotope is described. The photodissociation products react with an appropriate chemical scavenger and the reaction products may readily be separated from undissociated BClâ, thus effecting the desired separation of the boron isotopes.

Rockwood

1978-01-01

239

Method for separating boron isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of separating boron isotopes .sup.10 B and .sup.11 B by laser-induced selective excitation and photodissociation of BCl.sub.3 molecules containing a particular boron isotope. The photodissociation products react with an appropriate chemical scavenger and the reaction products may readily be separated from undissociated BCl.sub.3, thus effecting the desired separation of the boron isotopes.

Rockwood; Stephen D

1978-01-01

240

Mineral of the month: boron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What does boron have to do with baseball, apple pie, motherhood and Chevrolet? Boron minerals and chemicals are used in the tanning of leather baseballs and gloves; in micro-fertilizer to grow apples and in the glass and enamels of bakewares to cook apple pie; in boron detergents for soaking baby clothes and diapers; and in fiberglass parts for the Chevrolet Corvette.

Lyday, Phyllis A.

2005-01-01

241

Functionally Graded Nanophase Beryllium/Carbon Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Beryllium, beryllium alloys, beryllium carbide, and carbon are the ingredients of a class of nanophase Be/Be2C/C composite materials that can be formulated and functionally graded to suit a variety of applications. In a typical case, such a composite consists of a first layer of either pure beryllium or a beryllium alloy, a second layer of B2C, and a third layer of nanophase sintered carbon derived from fullerenes and nanotubes. The three layers are interconnected through interpenetrating spongelike structures. These Be/Be2C/C composite materials are similar to Co/WC/diamond functionally graded composite materials, except that (1) W and Co are replaced by Be and alloys thereof and (2) diamond is replaced by sintered carbon derived from fullerenes and nanotubes. (Optionally, one could form a Be/Be2C/diamond composite.) Because Be is lighter than W and Co, the present Be/Be2C/C composites weigh less than do the corresponding Co/WC/diamond composites. The nanophase carbon is almost as hard as diamond. WC/Co is the toughest material. It is widely used for drilling, digging, and machining. However, the fact that W is a heavy element (that is, has high atomic mass and mass density) makes W unattractive for applications in which weight is a severe disadvantage. Be is the lightest tough element, but its toughness is less than that of WC/Co alloy. Be strengthened by nanophase carbon is much tougher than pure or alloy Be. The nanophase carbon has an unsurpassed strength-to-weight ratio. The Be/Be2C/C composite materials are especially attractive for terrestrial and aerospace applications in which there are requirements for light weight along with the high strength and toughness of the denser Co/WC/diamond materials. These materials could be incorporated into diverse components, including cutting tools, bearings, rocket nozzles, and shields. Moreover, because Be and C are effective as neutron moderators, Be/Be2C/C composites could be attractive for some nuclear applications.

Voronov, Oleg A.; Tompa, Gary S.

2003-01-01

242

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1982-02-09

243

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1983-01-01

244

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

1980-07-18

245

Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron  

SciTech Connect

U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position as a source of sodium borate products and boric acid exported to foreign markets. Supplementary U.S. imports of Turkish calcium borate and calcium-sodium borate ores, borax, and boric acid, primarily for various glass uses, continued.

Lyday, P.A.

1990-08-01

246

Boron Requirement in Cyanobacteria 1  

PubMed Central

The effect of boron on heterocystous and nonheterocystous dinitrogen fixing Cyanobacteria was examined. The absence of boron in culture media inhibited growth and nitrogenase activity in Nodularia sp., Chlorogloeopsis sp., and Nostoc sp. cultures. Examinations of boron-deficient cultures showed changes in heterocyst morphology. However, cultures of nonheterocystous Cyanobacteria, Gloeothece sp. and Plectonema sp., grown in the absence of boron did not show any alteration in growth or nitrogenase activity. These results suggest a requirement of boron only by heterocystous Cyanobacteria. A possible role for this element in the early evolution of photosynthetic organisms is proposed. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16667889

Bonilla, Ildefonso; Garcia-González, Mercedes; Mateo, Pilar

1990-01-01

247

Boron hydride polymer coated substrates  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

Pearson, R.K.; Bystroff, R.I.; Miller, D.E.

1986-08-27

248

Lithium Resources for the 21st Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas (Great Salt Lake, Searles Lake), geothermal systems (Salton Sea) and oil fields contain lithium, but in low concentrations that add relatively little to estimated global resources. Igneous deposits, which constitute 26% of estimated global resources, consist largely of pegmatites, including past and present producers at Kings Mountain-Bessemer City (USA), Greenbushes (Australia) and Bikita (Zimbabwe), as well as numerous active prospects, especially in Canada and China. Amenability of these deposits to economic extraction is controlled by mineralogy and zoning of lithium, which vary considerably from deposit to deposit. An additional 8% of global lithium resources is estimated to be present in unusual deposits including largely hectorite clays in volcaniclastic rocks at Kings Valley (USA) and jadarite in lacustrine evaporite deposits (Serbia), which present new challenges to both mining and processing. If this highly varied population of deposits can be converted to reserves, lithium supplies for the 21st century EV market are relatively secure.

Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

2011-12-01

249

One-dimensional two-phase reacting gas nonequilibrium performance program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program calculates the inviscid one-dimensional equilibrium, frozen, and nonequilibrium nozzle expansion of propellant exhaust mixtures containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, chlorine and either aluminum, beryllium, boron or lithium. This program performs calculations for conical nozzles only.

Cherry, S. S.; Frey, H. M.; Kliegel, J. R.; Quan, V.

1968-01-01

250

Structural studies of lead lithium borate glasses doped with silver oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver oxide doped lead lithium borate (LLB) glasses have been prepared and characterized. Structural and composition characterization were accessed by XRD, FTIR, Raman, SEM and EDS. Results from FTIR and Raman spectra indicate that Ag2O acts as a network modifier even at small quantities by converting three coordinated to four coordinated boron atoms. Other physical properties, such as density, molar

João Coelho; Cristina Freire; N. Sooraj Hussain

251

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR BERYLLIUM: REVIEW DRAFT (APRIL 1986)  

EPA Science Inventory

The chemical and geochemical properties of beryllium resemble those of aluminum, zinc, and magnesium. This resemblance is primarily due to similar ionic potentials which facilitate covalent bonding. The three most common forms of beryllium in industrial emission are the metal, th...

252

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR BERYLLIUM (1998 FINAL REPORT)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Beryllium and Compounds: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) . The updated Summary for Beryllium and Compounds and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Data...

253

IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR BERYLLIUM AND COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's assessment of the noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of Beryllium was added to the IRIS database in 1998. The IRIS program is updating the IRIS assessment for Beryllium. This update will incorporate health effects information published since the last assess...

254

Simulating beryllium electrorefining with AspenPlus{copyright}  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium is a lightweight, high strength metal with excellent thermal properties. It is a high cost material that has applications in electronics, the space program, and the defense industry. Beryllium is irreplaceable in several defense applications and therefore the US government maintains a reserve supply of several grades of the metal. However, the current defense industry (the largest metallic beryllium user) use has dwindled to the point that the only metallic beryllium producer in the US, Brush Wellman Inc., continually evaluates the profitability of continued production. The production dilemma has been compounded by health concerns associated with the generation of beryllium fines during production. An electrorefining method, previously developed, shows promise for recycling low purity beryllium scraps and produces a high grade material. Recycling and purification can reduce costs and waste disposal problems and increase the beryllium reserves in the event that Brush Wellman discontinues production. In this paper, the authors demonstrate how to use a commercially available process simulator for improving a process to electrorefine both scrap and low purity beryllium into a high purity product.

Polston, C.E.; Parkinson, W.J.; Abeln, S.P.; Wantuck, P.J.; Corle, R.R.

1998-12-01

255

Evaluation of beryllium surface defects observed following chemical milling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface defects referred to as protrusions and depressions were observed on parts made from commercial quality beryllium after chemical milling. Surface defects referred to as a depression, mottling, and pitting were observed on parts made from 35 ksi yield strength beryllium after chemical milling. This paper summarizes the results of the metallographic and tensile testing performed to characterize the surface

Ferrera

1985-01-01

256

Antidotes for acute beryllium sulfate intoxication in mice.  

PubMed

Eleven water soluble chelating agents were tested as antidotes for acute beryllium sulfate intoxication in mice. The most effective of these was sodium 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonate (Tiron). At the level of administration of beryllium used, aurin tricarboxylic acid is not an antidote. PMID:7122994

Basinger, M A; Johnson, J E; Burka, L T; Jones, M M

1982-06-01

257

[Genotoxic effects caused in workers by beryllium compounds].  

PubMed

The author represents results of studying genotoxic effects caused in workers by beryllium compounds. Increasing age and length of service apperared to correlate with higher level of chromosomal aberration in peripheral WBC. Findings are that obtaining beryllium and its compounds is associated with changed level of chromosomal damages. PMID:19877441

Gazalieva, M A

2009-01-01

258

2. VIEW IN ROOM 111, ATOMIC ABSORPTION BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS LABORATORY. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW IN ROOM 111, ATOMIC ABSORPTION BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS LABORATORY. AIR FILTERS AND SWIPES ARE DISSOLVED WITH ACIDS AND THE REMAINING RESIDUES ARE SUSPENDED IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTION. THE SOLUTION IS PROCESSED THROUGH THE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER TO DETECT THE PRESENCE AND LEVELS OF BERYLLIUM. - Rocky Flats Plant, Health Physics Laboratory, On Central Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

259

Testing of Liquid Lithium Limiters in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect

Part of the development of liquid metals as a first wall or divertor for reactor applications must involve the investigation of plasma-liquid metal interactions in a functioning tokamak. Most of the interest in liquid-metal walls has focused on lithium. Experiments with lithium limiters have now been conducted in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) device at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Initial experiments used a liquid-lithium rail limiter (L3) built by the University of California at San Diego. Spectroscopic measurements showed some reduction of impurities in CDX-U plasmas with the L3, compared to discharges with a boron carbide limiter. While no reduction in recycling was observed with the L3, which had a plasma-wet area of approximately 40 cm2, subsequent experiments with a larger area fully toroidal lithium limiter demonstrated significant reductions in both recycling and in impurity levels. Two series of experiments with the toroidal limiter have now be en performed. In each series, the area of exposed, clean lithium was increased, until in the latest experiments the liquid-lithium plasma-facing area was increased to 2000 cm2. Under these conditions, the reduction in recycling required a factor of eight increase in gas fueling in order to maintain the plasma density. The loop voltage required to sustain the plasma current was reduced from 2 V to 0.5 V. This paper summarizes the technical preparations for lithium experiments and the conditioning required to prepare the lithium surface for plasma operations. The mechanical response of the liquid metal to induced currents, especially through contact with the plasma, is discussed. The effect of the lithium-filled toroidal limiter on plasma performance is also briefly described.

R. Majeski; R. Kaita; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; T. Gray; B. Jones; D. Hoffman; H. Kugel; J. Menard; T. Munsat; A. Post-Zwicker; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; R. Maingi; M. Maiorano; S. Smith; D. Rodgers

2004-07-30

260

Determination of phase stability of elemental boron.  

PubMed

Boron is an important element, used in applications from superhard materials to superconductors. Boron exists in several forms (allotropes) and, surprisingly, it was not known which form (? or ?) is stable at ambient conditions. Through experiment, we quantify the relative stability of ?-boron and ?-boron as a function of temperature. The ground-state energies of ?-boron and ?-boron are nearly identical. For all temperatures up to 2000?K, the complicated ?-boron structure is more stable than the simpler ?-boron structure at ambient pressure. Below 1000?K, ?-boron is entropically stabilized with respect to ?-boron owing to its partially occupied sites, whereas at higher temperatures ?-boron is enthalpically stabilized with respect to ?-boron. We show that ?-boron only becomes stable on application of pressure. PMID:25619645

White, Mary Anne; Cerqueira, Anthony B; Whitman, Catherine A; Johnson, Michel B; Ogitsu, Tadashi

2015-03-16

261

Plasma boron and the effects of boron supplementation in males.  

PubMed Central

Recently, a proliferation of athletic supplements has been marketed touting boron as an ergogenic aid capable of increasing testosterone. The effect of boron supplementation was investigated in male bodybuilders. Ten male bodybuilders (aged 20 to 26) were given a 2.5-mg boron supplement, while nine male bodybuilders (aged 21 to 27) were given a placebo for 7 weeks. Plasma total and free testosterone, plasma boron, lean body mass, and strength measurements were determined on day 1 and day 49 of the study. A microwave digestion procedure followed by inductively coupled argon plasma spectroscopy was used for boron determination. Twelve subjects had boron values at or above the detection limit with median value of 25 ng/ml (16 ng/ml lower quartile and 33 ng/ml upper quartile). Of the ten subjects receiving boron supplements, six had an increase in their plasma boron. Analysis of variance indicated no significant effect of boron supplementation on any of the other dependent variables. Both groups demonstrated significant increases in total testosterone (p < 0.01), lean body mass (p < 0.01), and one repetition maximum (RM) squat (p < 0.001) and one RM bench press (p < 0.01). The findings suggest that 7 weeks of bodybuilding can increase total testosterone, lean body mass, and strength in lesser-trained bodybuilders, but boron supplementation affects these variables not at all. PMID:7889885

Green, N R; Ferrando, A A

1994-01-01

262

Hydrodynamic instabilities in beryllium targets for the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium ablators offer higher ablation velocity, rate, and pressure than their carbon-based counterparts, with the potential to increase the probability of achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We present here a detailed hydrodynamic stability analysis of low (NIF Revision 6.1) and high adiabat NIF beryllium target designs. Our targets are optimized to fully utilize the advantages of beryllium in order to suppress the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. This results in an implosion that resists breakup of the capsule, and simultaneously minimizes the amount of ablator material mixed into the fuel. We quantify the improvement in stability of beryllium targets relative to plastic ones, and show that a low adiabat beryllium capsule can be at least as stable at the ablation front as a high adiabat plastic target.

Yi, S. A., E-mail: austinyi@lanl.gov; Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Olson, R. E.; Kline, J. L.; Batha, S. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2014-09-15

263

Hydrodynamic instabilities in beryllium targets for the National Ignition Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beryllium ablators offer higher ablation velocity, rate, and pressure than their carbon-based counterparts, with the potential to increase the probability of achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We present here a detailed hydrodynamic stability analysis of low (NIF Revision 6.1) and high adiabat NIF beryllium target designs. Our targets are optimized to fully utilize the advantages of beryllium in order to suppress the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. This results in an implosion that resists breakup of the capsule, and simultaneously minimizes the amount of ablator material mixed into the fuel. We quantify the improvement in stability of beryllium targets relative to plastic ones, and show that a low adiabat beryllium capsule can be at least as stable at the ablation front as a high adiabat plastic target.

Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Olson, R. E.; Kline, J. L.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Batha, S. H.

2014-09-01

264

Method for fabricating beryllium-based multilayer structures  

DOEpatents

Beryllium-based multilayer structures and a process for fabricating beryllium-based multilayer mirrors, useful in the wavelength region greater than the beryllium K-edge (111 .ANG. or 11.1 nm). The process includes alternating sputter deposition of beryllium and a metal, typically from the fifth row of the periodic table, such as niobium (Nb), molybdenum (Mo), ruthenium (Ru), and rhodium (Rh). The process includes not only the method of sputtering the materials, but the industrial hygiene controls for safe handling of beryllium. The mirrors made in accordance with the process may be utilized in soft x-ray and extreme-ultraviolet projection lithography, which requires mirrors of high reflectivity (>60%) for x-rays in the range of 60-140 .ANG. (60-14.0 nm).

Skulina, Kenneth M. (Livermore, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Alford, Craig S. (Tracy, CA)

2003-02-18

265

Release of beryllium into artificial airway epithelial lining fluid.  

PubMed

Inhaled beryllium particles that deposit in the lung airway lining fluid may dissolve and interact with immune-competent cells resulting in sensitization. As such, solubilization of 17 beryllium-containing materials (ore, hydroxide, metal, oxide, alloys, and process intermediates) was investigated using artificial human airway epithelial lining fluid. The maximum beryllium release in 7 days was 11.78% (from a beryl ore melter dust), although release from most materials was < 1%. Calculated dissolution half-times ranged from 30 days (reduction furnace material) to 74,000 days (hydroxide). Despite rapid mechanical clearance, billions of beryllium ions may be released in the respiratory tract via dissolution in airway lining fluid. Beryllium-containing particles that deposit in the respiratory tract dissolve in artificial lung epithelial lining fluid, thereby providing ions for absorption in the lung and interaction with immune-competent cells in the respiratory tract. PMID:23074979

Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

2012-01-01

266

Plasma transferred arc deposition of beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exceptional properties of beryllium (Be), including low density and high elastic modulus, make it the material of choice in many defense and aerospace applications. However, health hazards associated with Be material handling limit the applications that are suited for its use. Innovative solutions that enable continued use of Be in critical applications while addressing worker health concerns are highly desirable. Plasma transferred arc solid free-form fabrication is being evaluated as a Be fabrication technique for civilian and military space-based components. Initial experiments producing Be deposits are reported here. Deposit shape, microstructure, and mechanical properties are reported.

Hollis, K.; Bartram, B.; Withers, J.; Storm, R.; Massarello, J.

2006-12-01

267

Evaluation of the characteristics of boron-dose enhancer (BDE) materials for BNCT using near threshold 7Li(p,n)7Be direct neutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of a number of candidate boron-dose enhancer (BDE) materials for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using near threshold 7Li(p,n)7Be direct neutrons were evaluated based on the treatable protocol depth (TPD), defined in this paper. Simulation calculations were carried out by means of MCNP-4B transport code for candidate BDE materials, namely, (C2H4)n, (C2H3F)n, (C2H2F2)n, (C2HF3)n, (C2D4)n, (C2F4)n, beryllium metal,

Gerard Bengua; Tooru Kobayashi; Kenichi Tanaka; Yoshinobu Nakagawa

2004-01-01

268

Boron suboxide: As hard as cubic boron nitride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vickers hardness of boron suboxide single crystals was measured using a diamond indentation method. Under a loading force of 0.98 N, our test gave an average Vickers hardness of 45 GPa. The average fracture toughness was measured as 4.5 MPa m1/2. We also measured the hardness of the cubic boron nitride and sapphire single crystals for comparison. The average measured hardness for boron suboxide was found to be very close to that of cubic boron nitride under the same loading force. Our results suggest that the boron suboxide could be a new superhard material for industrial applications, surpassed in hardness only by diamond and cubic boron nitride.

He, Duanwei; Zhao, Yusheng; Daemen, L.; Qian, J.; Shen, T. D.; Zerda, T. W.

2002-07-01

269

Occupational beryllium exposure: Reconciling federal policies, regulations and contractor implementation guides to protect worker health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium is a widely distributed, highly toxic metal. When beryllium particulates enter the body, the body's defense mechanisms are engaged. When the body's defenses cannot easily remove the particulates, then a damage and repair cycle is initiated. This cycle produces chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a progressive, fibrotic respiratory involvement which eventually suffocates exposed individuals. ^ Beryllium disease is an occupational

Michelle Marie Sheffield

2004-01-01

270

Lithium use in batteries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

Goonan, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

271

Thick beryllium coatings by magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

Thick (>150 {micro}m) beryllium coatings are studied as an ablator material of interest for fusion fuel capsules for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). As an added complication, the coatings are deposited on mm-scale spherical substrates, as opposed to flats. DC magnetron sputtering is used because of the relative controllability of the processing temperature and energy of the deposits. We used ultra small angle x-ray spectroscopy (USAXS) to characterize the void fraction and distribution along the spherical surface. We investigated the void structure using a combination focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results show a few volume percent of voids and a typical void diameter of less than two hundred nanometers. Understanding how the stresses in the deposited material develop with thickness is important so that we can minimize film cracking and delamination. To that end, an in-situ multiple optical beam stress sensor (MOSS) was used to measure the stress behavior of thick Beryllium coatings on flat substrates as the material was being deposited. We will show how the film stress saturates with thickness and changes with pressure.

Wu, H; Nikroo, A; Youngblood, K; Moreno, K; Wu, D; Fuller, T; Alford, C; Hayes, J; Detor, A; Wong, M; Hamza, A; van Buuren, T; Chason, E

2011-04-14

272

Investigation of Zeff and impurity behaviour in lithium coating experiments with full metallic first wall in HT-7 tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The control of the impurity level in magnetically confined plasmas is a critical issue for future fusion devices. All the graphite tiles have been replaced by molybdenum tiles as limiter materials in the 2011 spring campaign in order to further reduce the recycling and hydrogen content of the plasma. A lithium coating technique has been applied as an important wall conditioning method to the HT-7 tokamak. The effective ion charge Zeff and impurity behavior with full metallic first walls of high-Z materials and lower hydrogen recycling have been investigated in a series of lithium coating experiments in this paper. Plasma performance and impurity behavior without wall coatings are studied in the early stage of the campaign. Comparison of Zeff with different plasma-facing components has been made. A typical lithium coating experiment has been analyzed in order to understand the effect of lithium coating. The evolution of main impurity line radiation, Zeff and the H/(H + D) ratio is analyzed in detail as lithium coating is repeated, indicating that lithium coating is a very effective tool to control impurity level and reduce hydrogen recycling. Furthermore, a boronization is conducted at the end of this campaign in order to make comparison with lithium coating. Experimental results show that lithium coating has much more advantages in edge recycling control, though it does not reduce impurity level as effectively as boronization.

Chen, Yingjie; Wu, Zhenwei; Liu, Xiaoju; Wang, Dongsheng; Duan, Yanmin; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Ling; Huang, Juan; Sun, Zhen; Jie, Yinxian; Zhao, Junyu

2015-02-01

273

Sarcoidosis and chronic beryllium disease: similarities and differences.  

PubMed

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disease that may be pathologically and clinically indistinguishable from pulmonary sarcoidosis, except through use of immunologic testing, such as the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). Similar to sarcoidosis, the pulmonary manifestations of CBD are variable and overlap with other respiratory diseases. Definitive diagnosis of CBD is established by evidence of immune sensitization to beryllium and diagnostic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy. However, the diagnosis of CBD can also be established on a medically probable basis in beryllium-exposed patients with consistent radiographic imaging and clinical course. Beryllium workers exposed too much higher levels of beryllium in the past demonstrated a much more fulminant disease than is usually seen today. Some extrapulmonary manifestations similar to sarcoidosis were noted in these historic cohorts, although with a narrower spectrum. Extrapulmonary manifestations of CBD are rare today. Since lung-predominant sarcoidosis can very closely resemble CBD, CBD is still misdiagnosed as sarcoidosis when current or past exposure to beryllium is not recognized and no BeLPT is obtained. This article describes the similarities and differences between CBD and sarcoidosis, including clinical and diagnostic features that can help physicians consider CBD in patients with apparent lung-predominant sarcoidosis. PMID:25007084

Mayer, Annyce S; Hamzeh, Nabeel; Maier, Lisa A

2014-06-01

274

Inelastic properties of boron oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature dependence of internal friction and dynamic shear modulus for boron anhydride (B2O3) and boron suboxide (B6O) have been investigated at frequencies of 1–10 Hz and over the temperature range 80–900 K. Absolute shear modulus for boron suboxide at 80 and 400 K was 0.9 and 0.85 GPa, respectively. Relaxation maximum of internal friction, accompanied with shear modulus defect had

M. Ch. Tushishvili; G. Sh. Darsavelidze; O. A. Tsagareishvili; I. A. Bairamashvili; J. Sh. Jobava

1991-01-01

275

Inelastic properties of boron oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature dependence of internal friction and dynamic shear modulus for boron anhydride (B2O3) and boron suboxide (B6O) have been investigated at frequencies of 1-10 Hz and over the temperature range 80-900 K. Absolute shear modulus for boron suboxide at 80 and 400 K was 0.9 and 0.85 GPa, respectively. Relaxation maximum of internal friction, accompanied with shear modulus defect had

M. Ch. Tushishvili; G. Sh. Darsavelidze; O. A. Tsagareishvili; I. A. Bairamashvili; J. Sh. Jobava

1991-01-01

276

Boron nitride nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful synthesis of pure boron nitride (BN) nanotubes is reported here. Multi-walled tubes with inner diameters on the order of 1 to 3 nanometers and with lengths up to 200 nanometers were produced in a carbon-free plasma discharge between a BN-packed tungsten rod and a cooled copper electrode. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy on individual tubes yielded B:N ratios of approximately

N. G. Chopra; R. J. Luyken; K. Cherrey; V. H. Crespi; M. L. Cohen; S. G. Louie; A. Zettl

1995-01-01

277

Boron Nitride Nanomesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly regular mesh of hexagonal boron nitride with a 3-nanometer periodicity and a 2-nanometer hole size was formed by self-assembly on a Rh(111) single crystalline surface. Two layers of mesh cover the surface uniformly after high-temperature exposure of the clean rhodium surface to borazine (HBNH)3. The two layers are offset in such a way as to expose a minimum

Martina Corso; Willi Auwärter; Matthias Muntwiler; Anna Tamai; Thomas Greber; Jürg Osterwalder

2004-01-01

278

Radiation effects in beryllium used for plasma protection  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium is presently a leading candidate material for fusion reactor first wall coating and divertor applications. This paper reviews the literature on beryllium, emphasizing the effects of irradiation on essential properties. Swelling and embrittlement experiments as a function of irradiation temperature and dose, and as a function of neutron spectrum are described, and the results are quantified, where possible. Effects of impurity content are also reported, from which optimum composition specifications can be defined. Microstructural information has also been obtained to elucidate the processes controlling the property changes. The available information indicates that beryllium divertors can be expected to embrittle quickly and may need frequent replacement.

Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Dalle Donne, M. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Sernyaev, G.A. [SF NIKIET, Zarechnyi (Russian Federation); Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Blanket Irradiation and Analysis Lab.

1993-09-01

279

Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force  

SciTech Connect

On December 8, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) published Title 10 CFR 850 (hereafter referred to as the Rule) to establish a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) to: {sm_bullet} reduce the number of workers currently exposed to beryllium in the course of their work at DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors, {sm_bullet} minimize the levels of, and potential for, expos exposure to beryllium, and {sm_bullet} establish medical surveillance requirements to ensure early detection of the disease.

MacQueen, D H

2007-02-21

280

A Novel Biomarker for Beryllium Sensitization in Humans - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This research project will determine the T-cell receptor (TCR) gene usages of beryllium reactive T-lymphocytes isolated directly from the peripheral blood of individuals exposed at a U.S. Department of Energy site. The objective is to develop a sensitive and novel biomarker for identifying early human sensitization to environmental beryllium. This is a collaborative project involving the Genetics Laboratory of the University of Vermont and both the Center for Epidemiological Research and the scientific staff of the Cytogenetics Program at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). The > 2000 beryllium exposed workers who have been contacted for participation in the ORISE study ''Follow-up of Beryllium Workers at the Y-12 Plant/Efficacy of the Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Proliferation (LPT) and other Non-Invasive Procedures for Diagnosis of Chronic Beryllium Disease'' will provide the pool of potential participants for the proposed study. Beryllium reactive T-lymphocytes will be directly isolated from peripheral blood using a novel antigen-independent method of surrogate selection for in vivo arising hprt mutants as representatives of clones that are undergoing chronic proliferation. The T-cells undergoing chronic proliferation in beryllium sensitized individuals will be enriched for beryllium reactive cells. The TCR gene usage of these T-cell isolates will be determined and their junctional (CDR3) regions sequenced. Beryllium reactive T-cell clones will also be recovered following in vitro beryllium stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes from these same individuals and the TCR gene CDR3 region sequences similarly determined. The TCR genes used by the beryllium reactive isolates and their CRD3 region sequences will be compared within (in vivo vs. in vitro derived) and among individuals with attention to kinds and durations of beryllium exposure and HPA DPB Glu 69 status. A method for quantitating total body loads of these antigen reactive T-cells in individuals will be developed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) amplification of specific TCR gene sequences. Successful achievement of this overall objective will permit future studies aimed at the elucidation of the immunological mechanisms underlying sensitization, the comparison of cells involved in pulmonary and systemic sensitization and the definition of potential targets for immunotherapy.

Albertini, R. J.

2001-04-16

281

Measurement of Beryllium in Biological Samples by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry: Applications for Studying Chronic Beryllium Disease  

SciTech Connect

A method using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has been developed for quantifying attomoles of beryllium (Be) in biological samples. This method provides the sensitivity to trace Be in biological samples at very low doses with the purpose of identifying the molecular targets involved in chronic beryllium disease. Proof of the method was tested by administering 0.001, 0.05, 0.5 and 5.0 {micro}g {sup 9}Be and {sup 10}Be by intraperitoneal injection to male mice and removing spleen, liver, femurs, blood, lung, and kidneys after 24 h exposure. These samples were prepared for AMS analysis by tissue digestion in nitric acid, followed by further organic oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and ammonium persulfate and lastly, precipitation of Be with ammonium hydroxide, and conversion to beryllium oxide at 800 C. The {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratio of the extracted beryllium oxide was measured by AMS and Be in the original sample was calculated. Results indicate that Be levels were dose-dependent in all tissues and the highest levels were measured in the spleen and liver. The measured {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios spanned 4 orders of magnitude, from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -14}, with a detection limit of 3.0 x 10{sup -14}, which is equivalent to 0.8 attomoles of {sup 10}Be. These results show that routine quantification of nanogram levels of Be in tissues is possible and that AMS is a sensitive method that can be used in biological studies to understand the molecular dosimetry of Be and mechanisms of toxicity.

Chiarappa-Zucca, M L; Finkel, R C; Martinelli, R E; McAninch, J E; Nelson, D O; Turtletaub, K W

2004-04-15

282

Deformation of a beryllium-aluminum composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical and mechanical properties of beryllium, especially the combination of low density and high elastic modulus, make it an attractive candidate for a structural material. Intrinsic problems exist with Be as a monolithic material, as its structural behavior is complex due to its hexagonal close-packed crystal structure. Therefore, great value may be found in investigating composites of Be, such as beryllium-aluminum. However, one needs to understand the behavior of the individual phases in a Be composite and their interaction during the sequence of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture. The approach taken in this dissertation was to use neutron diffraction to monitor the elastic loading of each phase, in combination with detailed studies of the composite's mechanical behavior for strains up to 5%. In addition, the experiments were performed on a unique type of composite microstructure. This consisted of interpenetrating phases formed from liquid immiscibility, rather than conventional powder processing, which is limited by reactions at interfaces. The results were interpreted in terms of plasticity models and finite element calculations that describe the interaction between the phases and the local stress states established by compatibility requirements between the phases. Neutron diffraction studies of a compression test on a Be-Al composite showed that the Be deformed plastically at -200 to -250 MPa, and the Al developed large hydrostatic stress components. Finite element analyses using a relatively simple model simulated this behavior quite well. The tensile elongation of this rapidly solidified Be-Al composite was on the order of 10%, with yield strengths of 300--400 MPa, whereas the elongation of Be produced by the same rapid solidification process was only 1% at its ultimate strength of 400 MPa. The mechanical behavior of this composite was largely influenced by constraints developed during deformation. These constraints were very complex and had a number of origins. (i) Beryllium has some unique elastic properties including a high elastic modulus and a low Poisson's ratio. (ii) The microstructure and morphology of the composite consisted of an interpenetrating network of two continuous phases with a very fine grain size. (iii) The Al was constrained during plastic flow, yet accommodated compatible deformation in the Be.

Carter, David Harold

283

Design of an accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent interest in the production of epithermal neutrons for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has prompted an investigation into the feasibility of generating such neutrons with a tandem cascade accelerator. Accelerator-produced neutrons in the range of roughly 200--800 keV are generated in a lithium compound target via the ⁷Li(p,n)⁷Be nuclear reaction in a tandem cascade accelerator currently under

J. C. Yanch; X. L. Zhou; G. L. Brownell; R. E. Shefer; R. E. Klinkowstein

1990-01-01

284

Internal differentiation of rare-element pegmatites: Effects of boron, phosphorus, and fluorine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium-rich, rare-element pegmatites are characterized by high concentrations of B, P, and F. The interactions of these components with H 2 O and rare alkalis lower liquidas and solidus temperatures, enhance silicate liquid-H 2 O miscibility, and control partitioning and concentration of Group I elements and higher-field-strength cations. Boron, F, and perhaps P may form peralkaline Na- and Li-species that

David London

1987-01-01

285

Thermal conductivity of boron carbide-boron nitride composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that because of their preferred orientation, the addition of boron nitride dispersions to hot-pressed boron carbide was found to result in a considerable degree of anisotropy in thermal conductivity of the resulting composite, indicated by an increase in the thermal conductivity perpendicular to the hot-pressing direction by as much as a factor of 3 at the highest

Robert Ruh; Kimberly Y. Donaldson; D. P. H. Hasselman

1992-01-01

286

Boron Nitride Nanotube Films Grown From Boron Ink Painting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of nanotube films on various substrates and surfaces is vital for applications in nanoscale functional devices. We report a simple and versatile boron (B) ink painting method that enables high-density boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) films with any desired pattern to be grown on, and firmly attached to, different surfaces. In the method, special B ink is first painted,

Lu Hua Li; Ying Chen; Alexey M. Glushenkov

2010-01-01

287

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Uranium BERYLLIUM(13 - Boron(x)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements in the heavy fermion compound UBe_{13 -x}{B}_{x} for x = 0.030 and 0.067 in the temperature (T) range from 0.096 to 300 K are reported. Within a given sample we are able to detect resonances from three nuclei: ^9Be, ^{11}B, and ^{10}B. Analysis of the NMR spectra of these three nuclei show an exclusive substitution site for the B dopant into the m3 or cubic site of the UBe_{13} lattice. The nominal values of the B concentrations and a single phase sample composition is confirmed using NMR by a measurement of the relative number of ^{11}B to ^9Be nuclei in each sample. Normal state ^{11 }B magnetic shift (K_{m }) measurements exhibit the same T dependence as the static magnetic susceptibility(X_ {m}). From the slope of the linear plot of K_{m} verses X _{m}, the ^{11 }B hyperfine field (H_{hf }) is determined to be -361.1 Oe/mu_{B}. The magnetic shift is independent of B concentration. Normal state spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T_1) measurements of ^{11} B as a function of T reveal two energy scales in the magnetic response of these materials. The T dependence of the normal state electronic fluctuation rate ( Gamma) of the U^{3+ } moments is calculated using the results of 1/T_1, X_{m}, and H_{hf} measurements. At T<2{K}, Gamma~1 meV for x = 0.030, which is in agreement with the width of the narrow feature in the density of states at the Fermi energy needed to give the large values of the low temperature electronic specific heat coefficient and magnetic susceptibility. At higher temperatures Gamma~sqrt{T} which is characteristic of isolated local moments. For T>60 K the occurrence of crystal field splittings introduce a second energy scale that destroys the sqrt{T} behavior. The results of Gamma for x = 0.030 are in quantitative agreement with quasi-elastic and inelastic neutron scattering measurements in UBe_{13}. We observe no evidence for antiferromagnetic spin correlations down to 2 K. The x = 0.067 sample shows a similar magnitude and T dependence of Gamma for T>10 K, but as Tto T_{c } Gamma(x = 0.030)/Gamma(0.067)~2. Below T_{c}~0.9 K the T dependence of 1/T_1 shows a strong B concentration dependence, especially at low temperatures. We interpret this behavior as consistent with gapless superconductivity induced by resonant scattering off the B impurities. The ratio of the ^9 Be to ^{11}B 1/{it T}_1 increases with decreasing temperature below T_{c} indicating additional contributions to the ^9Be relaxation rate, possibly from nuclear spin diffusion to normal-state vortex cores or paramagnetic impurities. The ^{11}B Knight shifts (K_{s}) for both sample concentrations are T independent below T_{c} with K_ {s} = -0.08+/-0.01%..

Ahrens, Eric Thomas

288

The Halo Nuclei BERYLLIUM-11 and BORON-8 Studied by Fragmentation Reactions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of anomalously large matter radii in some weakly bound nuclei on the neutron dripline has led to measurements of breakup fragment momentum distributions aimed at obtaining a qualitative understanding of these nuclei. The valence nucleons in halo nuclei penetrate the low barrier of the core potential, and form a diffuse layer around a normal sized core. Momentum distributions of core fragments following a direct breakup are related to the spatial distribution of the halo nucleon, via Fourier Transform, and offer a straightforward method to study halo nuclei. The momentum distribution in the direction parallel with the beam direction (p_{ |}) is less affected by reaction mechanism effects than the distribution perpendicular to the beam direction (p_{bot}), and is expected to most accurately reflect the halo neutron momentum wavefunction. The nucleus, ^{11}Be, has a one-neutron halo and core fragment momentum distributions should permit a simple determination of halo characteristics. We measured the p_{|} distribution of ^{10}Be core fragments in Be, Nb, Ta and U targets and found that the p_{|} distributions on all targets are in excellent agreement with a projection (onto the p| axis) of the momentum wavefunction of a 2s_{1/2} neutron bound by 500 keV in a Woods-Saxon potential. This is taken to indicate that reaction mechanism effects do not significantly influence the ^{10 }Be core fragment p_{| } distributions. The corresponding root-mean -square radius of the halo neutron is 6.5 fm. Finally, there is a controversy concerning the existence of a proton halo in ^8B. We approached the issue assuming that the p_ {|} distributions of ^7Be breakup fragments would reflect the spatial distribution of the valence proton, as we had shown for ^{11}Be. Both p _{|} and p_ {bot} were measured. The p _{|} distributions are narrow, but are only about half of the width of a prediction for a proton bound by 140 keV in a Woods-Saxon potential with a rms radius of 4.24 fm. In this case, it appears that for the smaller halo of the p-orbital proton the breakup momenta are influenced by both the nuclear and Coulomb reaction mechanism effects. When these effects are included, the predictions agree with the data.

Kelley, John Henry

289

Binary compounds of boron and beryllium: a rich structural arena with space for predictions.  

PubMed

We explore ground-state structures and stoichiometries of the Be-B system in the static limit, with Be atom concentrations of 20?% or greater, and from P = 1?atm up to 320?GPa. At P = 1?atm, predictions are offered for several known compounds, the structures of which have not yet been determined experimentally. Specifically, at 1?atm, we predict a structure of R3m symmetry for the compound Be2B3, seen experimentally at high temperatures, which contains interesting BeBBBBe rods; and for the compound BeB4 we calculate metastability with respect to the elements with a structure similar to MgB4, which is quickly replaced as the pressure is elevated by a Cmcm structure that features 6- and 4-membered rings in B cages, with Be interstitials. For another high-temperature compound, Be2B, we confirm the CaF2 structure, but find a competitive and actually slightly more stable ground-state structure of C2/m symmetry that features B2 pairs. In the case of BeB2, a material for which the stoichiometry has been the subject of debate, we have a clear prediction of a stable F43m structure at P=1?atm. It has a diamondoid structure that is based on cubic (lower P) or hexagonal (higher P) diamond networks of B, but with Be in the interstices. This Zintl structure is a semiconductor at low and intermediate pressures. At higher pressures, BeB2 dominates the phase diagram. In general, the Zintl-Klemm concept of effective electron transfer from the more electropositive ion and bond formation among the resulting anions has proven useful in analyzing the structural preferences of many compositions in the Be-B system at P=1?atm and at elevated pressures. An unusual feature of this binary system is that the 1:1 BeB stoichiometry never appears to reach stability in the static limit, although it comes close, as does Be17B12. Also stable at high pressures are stoichiometries BeB3, BeB4, and Be5B2. PMID:23401125

Hermann, Andreas; Ashcroft, N W; Hoffmann, Roald

2013-03-25

290

Method of fabricating boron containing coatings  

DOEpatents

Hard coatings are fabricated from boron nitride, cubic boron nitride, and multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron is formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron and cubic boron nitride, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be discrete or of a blended or graded composition.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

291

Method of fabricating boron containing coatings  

DOEpatents

Hard coatings are fabricated from boron nitride, cubic boron nitride, and multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron is formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron and cubic boron nitride, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be discrete or of a blended or graded composition. 3 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

1999-04-27

292

Stellar abundances of beryllium and CUBES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stellar abundances of beryllium are useful in different areas of astrophysics, including studies of the Galactic chemical evolution, of stellar evolution, and of the formation of globular clusters. Determining Be abundances in stars is, however, a challenging endeavor. The two Be II resonance lines useful for abundance analyses are in the near UV, a region strongly affected by atmospheric extinction. CUBES is a new spectrograph planned for the VLT that will be more sensitive than current instruments in the near UV spectral region. It will allow the observation of fainter stars, expanding the number of targets where Be abundances can be determined. Here, a brief review of stellar abundances of Be is presented together with a discussion of science cases for CUBES. In particular, preliminary simulations of CUBES spectra are presented, highlighting its possible impact in investigations of Be abundances of extremely metal-poor stars and of stars in globular clusters.

Smiljanic, R.

2014-11-01

293

Polarizabilities of the beryllium clock transition  

SciTech Connect

The polarizabilities of the three lowest states of the beryllium atom are determined from a large basis configuration interaction calculation. The polarizabilities of the 2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sup e} ground state (37.73a{sub 0}{sup 3}) and the 2s2p {sup 3}P{sub 0}{sup o} metastable state (39.04a{sub 0}{sup 3}) are found to be very similar in size and magnitude. This leads to an anomalously small blackbody radiation shift at 300 K of -0.018(4) Hz for the 2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sup e}-2s2p {sup 3}P{sub 0}{sup o} clock transition. Magic wavelengths for simultaneous trapping of the ground and metastable states are also computed.

Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia)

2010-11-15

294

Primordial beryllium as a big bang calorimeter.  

PubMed

Many models of new physics including variants of supersymmetry predict metastable long-lived particles that can decay during or after primordial nucleosynthesis, releasing significant amounts of nonthermal energy. The hadronic energy injection in these decays leads to the formation of ?Be via the chain of nonequilibrium transformations: Energy(h)?T, ³He??He, ?Li??Be. We calculate the efficiency of this transformation and show that if the injection happens at cosmic times of a few hours the release of O(10 MeV) per baryon can be sufficient for obtaining a sizable ?Be abundance. The absence of a plateau structure in the ?Be/H abundance down to a O(10?¹?) level allows one to use beryllium as a robust constraint on new physics models with decaying or annihilating particles. PMID:21517297

Pospelov, Maxim; Pradler, Josef

2011-03-25

295

Advances in beryllium powder consolidation simulation  

SciTech Connect

A fuzzy logic based multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced and the algorithm is used to optimize micromechanical densification modeling parameters for warm isopressed beryllium powder, HIPed copper powder and CIPed/sintered and HIPed tantalum powder. In addition to optimizing the main model parameters using the experimental data points as objective functions, the GA provides a quantitative measure of the sensitivity of the model to each parameter, estimates the mean particle size of the powder, and determines the smoothing factors for the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 densification. While the GA does not provide a sensitivity analysis in the strictest sense, and is highly stochastic in nature, this method is reliable and reproducible in optimizing parameters given any size data set and determining the impact on the model of slight variations in each parameter.

Reardon, B.J.

1998-12-01

296

Use of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in boron-10 stable isotope experiments with plants, rats, and humans.  

PubMed Central

The commercial availability of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry technology (ICP-MS) has presented the opportunity to measure the boron concentrations and isotope ratios in a large number of samples with minimal sample preparation. A typical analytical sequence for fecal samples consists of 25 acid blanks, 1 digestion blank, 5 calibration solutions, 4 standard reference material solutions, 10 samples, and 4 natural abundance bias standards. Boron detection limits (3 x 1 sigma) for acid blanks are 0.11 ppb for 10B, and 0.40 ppb for 11B. Isotope ratios were measured in fecal samples with 20 to 50 ppb boron with < 2% relative standard deviation. Rapid washout and minimal memory effects were observed for a 50 ppb beryllium internal standard, but a 200 ppb boron biological sample had a 1.0 ppb boron memory after a 6-min washout. Boron isotope ratios in geological materials are highly variable; apparently this variability is reflected in plants of a fixed natural abundance value for boron requires that a natural abundance ratio be determined for each sample or related data set. The natural abundance variability also prevents quantitation and calculation of isotope dilution by instrument-supplied software. To measure boron transport in animal systems, 20 micrograms of 10B were fed to a fasted rat. During the 3 days after a 10B oral dose, 95% of the 10B was recovered from the urine and 4% from the feces. Urinary isotope ratios, 11B/10B, changed from a natural abundance of 4.1140 to an enriched value of 0.95077, a 77% change.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889873

Vanderpool, R A; Hoff, D; Johnson, P E

1994-01-01

297

The mechanical behavior of cross-rolled beryllium sheet  

SciTech Connect

In response to the failure of a conical section of the Insat C satellite during certification testing, the use of beryllium for payload structures, particularly in sheet product form, is being reevaluated. A test program was initiated to study the tensile, shear, and out-of-plane failure modes of beryllium cross-rolled sheet and to apply data to the development of an appropriate failure criterion. Tensile test results indicated that sanding the surface of beryllium sheet has no significant effect on yield strength but can produce a profound reduction in ultimate strength and results obtained by finite element analysis. Critical examination of these test results may contribute to the modification of a JSC policy for the use of beryllium in orbiter and payload structures.

Henkener, J.A.; Spiker, I.K.; Castner, W.L.

1992-10-01

298

Mortality study of beryllium industry workers' occupational lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

A cohort of 3685 white males employed during 1937 to 1948 in two major industries manufacturing beryllium was followed to the end of 1976 to evaluate lung cancer mortality experience. Lung cancer mortality among beryllium-exposed workers was contrasted with that of workers employed in the viscose rayon industry. Study results demonstrated that lung cancer mortality among berylliumm-exposed workers was significantly greater than that expected on the basis of lung cancer mortality experience of workers in the viscose rayon industry having similar employment patterns. The results of the present study are consistent with earlier animal bioassay studies and recent epidemiologic studies indicating that beryllium is carcinogenic. The results of the present study are not consistent with speculation attributing the excessive lung cancer mortality among beryllium-exposed workers to personal characteristics of individuals having unstable employment patterns.

Mancuso, T.F.

1980-02-01

299

The mechanical behavior of cross-rolled beryllium sheet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the failure of a conical section of the Insat C satellite during certification testing, the use of beryllium for payload structures, particularly in sheet product form, is being reevaluated. A test program was initiated to study the tensile, shear, and out-of-plane failure modes of beryllium cross-rolled sheet and to apply data to the development of an appropriate failure criterion. Tensile test results indicated that sanding the surface of beryllium sheet has no significant effect on yield strength but can produce a profound reduction in ultimate strength and results obtained by finite element analysis. Critical examination of these test results may contribute to the modification of a JSC policy for the use of beryllium in orbiter and payload structures.

Henkener, J. A.; Spiker, I. K.; Castner, W. L.

1992-01-01

300

Electropolishing or chemical milling of beryllium to remove machining defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The techniques of electropolishing and chemical milling to remove ; machine damage from beryllium are compared. Both techniques are found to be ; effective; chemical milling is recommended because it is easier to use and ; control. (auth)

Helms

1975-01-01

301

Development of Biomarkers for Chronic Beryllium Disease in Mice  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium is a strategic metal, indispensable for national defense programs in aerospace, telecommunications, electronics, and weaponry. Exposure to beryllium is an extensively documented occupational hazard that causes irreversible, debilitating granulomatous lung disease in as much as 3 - 5% of exposed workers. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships has been severely limited by a general lack of a sufficient CBD animal model. We have now developed and tested an animal model which can be used for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new diagnostic and treatment paradigms. We have created 3 strains of transgenic mice in which the human antigen-presenting moiety, HLA-DP, was inserted into the mouse genome. Each mouse strain contains HLA-DPB1 alleles that confer different magnitude of risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD): HLA-DPB1*0401 (odds ratio = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (odds ratio = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (odds ratio = 240). Our preliminary work has demonstrated that the *1701 allele, as predicted by human studies, results in the greatest degree of sensitization in a mouse ear swelling test. We have also completed dose-response experiments examining beryllium-induced lung granulomas and identified susceptible and resistant inbred strains of mice (without the human transgenes) as well as quantitative trait loci that may contain gene(s) that modify the immune response to beryllium. In this grant application, we propose to use the transgenic and Â?normal inbred strains of mice to identify biomarkers for the progression of beryllium sensitization and CBD. To achieve this goal, we propose to compare the sensitivity and accuracy of the lymphocyte proliferation test (blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) with the ELISPOT test in the three HLA-DP transgenic mice strains throughout a 6 month treatment with beryllium particles. Because of the availability of high-throughput proteomics, we will also identify changes in potential protein biomarkers in beryllium-treated mice. We will correlate these findings with the ability of the transgenic mice to develop a beryllium-specific adaptive immune response in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. We will also determine whether beryllium-responsive CD4+ T cells in blood and BAL correlate with the onset of granuloma formation. Thus, we will provide the scientific community with biomarkers of sensitization and disease progression for CBD. These biomarkers will serve as critical tools for development of improved industrial hygiene and therapeutic interventions.

Gordon, Terry

2013-01-25

302

Actinide/beryllium neutron sources with reduced dispersion characteristics  

DOEpatents

Neutron source comprising a composite, said composite comprising crystals comprising BeO and AmBe13, and an excess of beryllium, wherein the crystals have an average size of less than 2 microns; the size distribution of the crystals is less than 2 microns; and the beryllium is present in a 7-fold to a 75-fold excess by weight of the amount of AmBe13; and methods of making thereof.

Schulte, Louis D.

2012-08-14

303

Beryllium contamination and exposure monitoring in an inhalation laboratory setting.  

PubMed

Beryllium (Be) is used in several forms: pure metal, beryllium oxide, and as an alloy with copper, aluminum, or nickel. Beryllium oxide, beryllium metal, and beryllium alloys are the main forms present in the workplace, with inhalation being the primary route of exposure. Cases of workers with sensitization or chronic beryllium disease challenge the scientific community for a better understanding of Be toxicity. Therefore, a toxicological inhalation study using a murine model was performed in our laboratory in order to identify the toxic effects related to different particle sizes and chemical forms of Be. This article attempts to provide information regarding the relative effectiveness of the environmental monitoring and exposure protection program that was enacted to protect staff (students and researchers) in this controlled animal beryllium inhalation exposure experiment. This includes specific attention to particle migration control through intensive housekeeping and systematic airborne and surface monitoring. Results show that the protective measures applied during this research have been effective. The highest airborne Be concentration in the laboratory was less than one-tenth of the Quebec OEL (occupational exposure limit) of 0.15 microg/m(3). Considering the protection factor of 10(3) of the powered air-purifying respirator used in this research, the average exposure level would be 0.03 x 10(- 4) microg/m(3), which is extremely low. Moreover, with the exception of one value, all average Be concentrations on surfaces were below the Quebec Standard guideline level of 3 microg/100 cm(2) for Be contamination. Finally, all beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests for the staff were not higher than controls. PMID:20056744

Muller, Caroline; Audusseau, Séverine; Salehi, Fariba; Truchon, Ginette; Chevalier, Gaston; Mazer, Bruce; Kennedy, Greg; Zayed, Joseph

2010-02-01

304

Effects of Beryllium on Human Serum Immunoglobulin and Lymphocyte Subpopulation  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effects of short-term exposure of beryllium on the human immune system, the proportion of T-lymphocytes such as CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD95, and NK cells, andthe proportion of B cells and TNF? level in peripheral blood and immunoglobulins in the serum of 43 exposed workers and 34 healthy control subjects were studied. External exposure to beryllium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometer as recommended by the NIOSH analytical method 7300. T lymphocyte subpopulation analysis was carried out with flow cytometer. The working duration of exposed workers was less than 3 months and the mean ambient beryllium level was 3.4 ?g/m3, 112.3 ?g/m3, and 2.3 ?g/m3 in molding (furnace), deforming (grinding), and sorting processes, respectively (cited from Kim et al., 2008). However, ambient beryllium level after process change was non-detectable (< 0.1 ?g/m3). The number of T lymphocytes and the amount of immunoglobulins in the beryllium-exposed workers and control subjects were not significantly different, except for the total number of lymphocytes and CD95 (APO1/FAS). The total number of lymphocytes was higher in the beryllium-exposed individuals than in the healthy control subjects. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed lymphocytes to be affected by beryllium exposure (odd ratio = 7.293; p < 0.001). These results show that short-term exposure to beryllium does not induce immune dysfunction but is probably associated with lymphocytes proliferation. PMID:24278637

Kim, DaeSeong; Won, Yong Lim; Kang, Seong-Kyu

2013-01-01

305

PLUTONIUM-BERYLLIUM NEUTRON SOURCES THEIR FABRICATION AND THEIR YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigntion of the plutonium-beryllium phase diagram demonstrates ;\\u000a the suitability of these alloys and most particularly the intermetallic compound ;\\u000a PuBeââ for stable neutron sources. These sources are superior to polonium-;\\u000a beryllium sources in respect to sthbility of neutron yield as a iunction of time ;\\u000a and the prediotability of neutroc yield as a function of mass. The gamma-ray

R. E. Tate; A. S. Coffinberry

1958-01-01

306

Boron containing multilayer coatings and method of fabrication  

DOEpatents

Hard coatings are fabricated from multilayer boron/boron carbide, boron carbide/cubic boron nitride, and boron/boron nitride/boron carbide, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron and boron carbide used in forming the multilayers are formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/boron carbide, and boron carbide/cubic boron nitride is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron, cubic boron nitride or boron carbide, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be of a discrete or a blended or graded composition.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

307

Lithium purification technique  

DOEpatents

A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

Keough, Robert F. (Richland, WA); Meadows, George E. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01

308

Lithium purification technique  

DOEpatents

A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

1984-01-10

309

Kinetics of Boron Sorption and Desorption in Boron Thermal Regeneration System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron is used in the primary coolant of pressurized water reactors in nuclear power generation for shim control. If boron concentration is decreased, fewer neutrons are adsorbed and more fission occurs. When boron concentration increases, less fission occurs. The boron concentration can be controlled by the use of ion-exchange resins operating in the Boron Thermal Regeneration System (BTRS). A better

JIDONG LOU; GARY L. FOUTCH; JUNG WON NA

2000-01-01

310

Boron-Lined Multitube Neutron Proportional Counter Test  

SciTech Connect

Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride (BF3)-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated non-scintillating plastic fibers. In addition, a few other companies have detector technologies that might be competitive in the near term as an alternative technology. Reported here are the results of tests of a boron-lined, “multitube” proportional counter manufactured by Centronic Ltd. (Surry, U.K. and Houston, TX). This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma-ray rejection capabilities of the detector.

Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

2010-09-07

311

Lithium ion cell safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The safety characteristics of recent commercial lithium ion cells are examined in relation to their use for cellular phones. These are prismatic cells with an aluminum cell housing (can) and a 500-600 mA h capacity. They have one of two types of 4-V class cathodes, lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2) or lithium manganese oxide (LiMn 2O 4). This report provides results of the safety tests that we performed on lithium ion cells and outlines our views regarding their safety.

Tobishima, Shin-ichi; Takei, Koji; Sakurai, Yoji; Yamaki, Jun-ichi

312

Lithium nephrotoxicity revisited.  

PubMed

Lithium is widely used to treat bipolar disorder. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is the most common adverse effect of lithium and occurs in up to 40% of patients. Renal lithium toxicity is characterized by increased water and sodium diuresis, which can result in mild dehydration, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and renal tubular acidosis. The concentrating defect and natriuretic effect develop within weeks of lithium initiation. After years of lithium exposure, full-blown nephropathy can develop, which is characterized by decreased glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease. Here, we review the clinical and experimental evidence that the principal cell of the collecting duct is the primary target for the nephrotoxic effects of lithium, and that these effects are characterized by dysregulation of aquaporin 2. This dysregulation is believed to occur as a result of the accumulation of cytotoxic concentrations of lithium, which enters via the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) on the apical membrane and leads to the inhibition of signaling pathways that involve glycogen synthase kinase type 3beta. Experimental and clinical evidence demonstrates the efficacy of the ENaC inhibitor amiloride for the treatment of lithium-induced NDI; however, whether this agent can prevent the long-term adverse effects of lithium is not yet known. PMID:19384328

Grünfeld, Jean-Pierre; Rossier, Bernard C

2009-05-01

313

Lithium batteries: Future batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main characteristics and applications of lithium batteries are reviewed. Miniature batteries for quartz crystal watches have been developed and fabricated in Switzerland since 1970. High technology systems like lithium batteries are largely used for their low auto-discharge during storage and for their high energy density. Two kinds of lithium batteries can be distinguished concerning their place in the watch: integrated batteries; and batteries placed between motion parts and the bottom of the watchcase. Lithium batteries are also used in pocket calculators, electronic modules for integrated circuits, telephone, control systems, electronic games, bank cards, and heart stimulators.

Reiche, Harald

314

Arabidopsis boron transporter for xylem loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron deficiency hampers the productivity of 132 crops in more than 80 countries. Boron is essential in higher plants primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls and is also beneficial and might be essential in animals and in yeast. Understanding the molecular mechanism(s) of boron transport is crucial for alleviating boron deficiency. Here we describe the molecular identification of

Junpei Takano; Kyotaro Noguchi; Miho Yasumori; Masaharu Kobayashi; Zofia Gajdos; Kyoko Miwa; Hiroaki Hayashi; Tadakatsu Yoneyama; Toru Fujiwara

2002-01-01

315

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) bring together two components that when kept separate have only minor effects on normal cells. The first component is a stable isotope of boron (boron 10) that can be concentrated in tumor cells. The second is a beam of low-energy neutrons that produces short-range radiation when absorbed, or captured, by the boron. The combination of

Rolf F. Barth; Albert H. Soloway; Ralph G. Fairchild

1990-01-01

316

Boron nitride nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

The successful synthesis of pure boron nitride (BN) nanotubes is reported here. Multi-walled tubes with inner diameters on the order of 1 to 3 nanometers and with lengths up to 200 nanometers were produced in a carbon-free plasma discharge between a BN-packed tungsten rod and a cooled copper electrode. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy on individual tubes yielded B:N ratios of approximately 1, which is consistent with theoretical predictions of stable BN tube structures. 15 refs., 4 figs.

Chopra, N.G.; Luyken, R.J.; Cherrey, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1995-08-18

317

Functionalized boron nitride nanotubes  

DOEpatents

A plasma treatment has been used to modify the surface of BNNTs. In one example, the surface of the BNNT has been modified using ammonia plasma to include amine functional groups. Amine functionalization allows BNNTs to be soluble in chloroform, which had not been possible previously. Further functionalization of amine-functionalized BNNTs with thiol-terminated organic molecules has also been demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles have been self-assembled at the surface of both amine- and thiol-functionalized boron nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) in solution. This approach constitutes a basis for the preparation of highly functionalized BNNTs and for their utilization as nanoscale templates for assembly and integration with other nanoscale materials.

Sainsbury, Toby; Ikuno, Takashi; Zettl, Alexander K

2014-04-22

318

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

2010-04-01

319

20 CFR 30.507 - What compensation will be provided to covered Part B employees who only establish beryllium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA...Part B employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? The establishment of beryllium sensitivity does not entitle...

2010-04-01

320

20 CFR 30.507 - What compensation will be provided to covered Part B employees who only establish beryllium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? 30...employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? The establishment of beryllium sensitivity does not entitle a covered...

2011-04-01

321

20 CFR 30.507 - What compensation will be provided to covered Part B employees who only establish beryllium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? 30...employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? The establishment of beryllium sensitivity does not entitle a covered...

2013-04-01

322

20 CFR 30.507 - What compensation will be provided to covered Part B employees who only establish beryllium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? 30...employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? The establishment of beryllium sensitivity does not entitle a covered...

2014-04-01

323

20 CFR 30.507 - What compensation will be provided to covered Part B employees who only establish beryllium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? 30...employees who only establish beryllium sensitivity under Part B of EEOICPA? The establishment of beryllium sensitivity does not entitle a covered...

2012-04-01

324

Beryllium-stimulated Release of Tumor Necrosis Factor a , Interleukin6, and Their Soluble Receptors in Chronic Beryllium Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) provides a model system in which to evaluate the antigen-stimu- lated, cell-mediated, immune response that leads to granulomatous lung disease. We hypothesized that beryllium salts would stimulate bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell release of tumor necrosis fac- tor- a (TNF- a ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and their soluble receptors, soluble TNF receptor I (sTNF RI), sTNF RII,

SALLY S. TINKLE; LEE S. NEWMAN

325

Exposure and genetics increase risk of beryllium sensitisation and chronic beryllium disease in the nuclear weapons industry  

PubMed Central

Objectives Beryllium sensitisation (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) are caused by exposure to beryllium with susceptibility affected by at least one well-studied genetic host factor, a glutamic acid residue at position 69 (E69) of the HLA-DP? chain (DP?E69). However, the nature of the relationship between exposure and carriage of the DP?E69 genotype has not been well studied. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between DP?E69 and exposure in BeS and CBD. Methods Current and former workers (n=181) from a US nuclear weapons production facility, the Y-12 National Security Complex (Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA), were enrolled in a case–control study including 35 individuals with BeS and 19 with CBD. HLA-DPB1 genotypes were determined by PCR-SSP. Beryllium exposures were assessed through worker interviews and industrial hygiene assessment of work tasks. Results After removing the confounding effect of potential beryllium exposure at another facility, multivariate models showed a sixfold (OR 6.06, 95% CI 1.96 to 18.7) increased odds for BeS and CBD combined among DP?E69 carriers and a fourfold (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.43 to 11.0) increased odds for those exposed over an assigned lifetime-weighted average exposure of 0.1?g/m3. Those with both risk factors had higher increased odds (OR 24.1, 95% CI 4.77 to 122). Conclusion DP?E69 carriage and high exposure to beryllium appear to contribute individually to the development of BeS and CBD. Among workers at a beryllium-using facility, the magnitude of risk associated with either elevated beryllium exposure or carriage of DP?E69 alone appears to be similar. PMID:21460389

Van Dyke, Michael V; Martyny, John W; Mroz, Margaret M; Silveira, Lori J; Strand, Matt; Cragle, Donna L; Tankersley, William G; Wells, Susan M; Newman, Lee S; Maier, Lisa A

2015-01-01

326

Occurrence model for volcanogenic beryllium deposits: Chapter F in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Current global and domestic mineral resources of beryllium (Be) for industrial uses are dominated by ores produced from deposits of the volcanogenic Be type. Beryllium deposits of this type can form where hydrothermal fluids interact with fluorine and lithophile-element (uranium, thorium, rubidium, lithium, beryllium, cesium, tantalum, rare earth elements, and tin) enriched volcanic rocks that contain a highly reactive lithic component, such as carbonate clasts. Volcanic and hypabyssal high-silica biotite-bearing topaz rhyolite constitutes the most well-recognized igneous suite associated with such Be deposits. The exemplar setting is an extensional tectonic environment, such as that characterized by the Basin and Range Province, where younger topaz-bearing igneous rock sequences overlie older dolomite, quartzite, shale, and limestone sequences. Mined deposits and related mineralized rocks at Spor Mountain, Utah, make up a unique economic deposit of volcanogenic Be having extensive production and proven and probable reserves. Proven reserves in Utah, as reported by the U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Information Center, total about 15,900 tons of Be that are present in the mineral bertrandite (Be4Si2O7(OH)2). At the type locality for volcanogenic Be, Spor Mountain, the tuffaceous breccias and stratified tuffs that host the Be ore formed as a result of explosive volcanism that brought carbonate and other lithic fragments to the surface through vent structures that cut the underlying dolomitic Paleozoic sedimentary rock sequences. The tuffaceous sediments and lithic clasts are thought to make up phreatomagmatic base surge deposits. Hydrothermal fluids leached Be from volcanic glass in the tuff and redeposited the Be as bertrandite upon reaction of the hydrothermal fluid with carbonate clasts in lithic-rich sections of tuff. The localization of the deposits in tuff above fluorite-mineralized faults in carbonate rocks, together with isotopic evidence for the involvement of magmatic water in an otherwise meteoric water-dominated hydrothermal system, indicate that magmatic volatiles contributed to mineralization. At the type locality, hydrothermal alteration of dolomite clasts formed layered nodules of calcite, opal, fluorite, and bertrandite, the latter occurring finely intergrown with fluorite. Alteration assemblages and elemental enrichments in the tuff and surrounding volcanic rocks include regional diagenetic clays and potassium feldspar and distinctive hydrothermal halos of anomalous fluorine, lithium, molybdenum, niobium, tin, and tantalum, and intense potassium feldspathization with sericite and lithium-smectite in the immediate vicinity of Be ore. Formation of volcanogenic Be deposits is due to the coincidence of multiple factors that include an appropriate Be-bearing source rock, a subjacent pluton that supplied volatiles and heat to drive convection of meteoric groundwater, a depositional site characterized by the intersection of normal faults with permeable tuff below a less permeable cap rock, a fluorine-rich ore fluid that facilitated Be transport (for example, BeF42- complex), and the existence of a chemical trap that caused fluorite and bertrandite to precipitate at the former site of carbonate lithic clasts in the tuff.

Foley, Nora K.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Lindsey, David A.; Seal, Robert R., II; Jaskula, Brian; Piatak, Nadine M.

2012-01-01

327

The Sibelius experiment: Study of the irradiation behaviour of beryllium/ceramic and beryllium/steel compacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sibelius is an in-reactor compatibility test of beryllium and ceramics i.e, Be/Li 2O, Be/LiAlO 2, Be/Li 4SiO 4, Be/Li 2ZrO 3, and beryllium and steels i.e., Be/316L, Be/1.4914 (martensitic steel) conducted in the core of the Siloe reactor at Grenoble. The experiment is run for four cycles ( ~ 80 days) at a temperature of 550°C. Effect of neutron irradiation on compatibility is identified by comparison with out-of-reactor tests carried out in identical conditions. By monitoring the tritium release characteristics from the compatibility specimens and comparing with check samples containing only ceramics, one can quickly obtain information on certain reactions. Extensive post-irradiation examination will be performed in the USA, CEA and KFK laboratories to evaluate: (1) corrosion at the beryllium/ceramic interface; (2) corrosion at the beryllium/steel interface; (3) retention of tritium and helium in ceramics; (4) retention of tritium and helium in beryllium; and (5) swelling of beryllium.

Roux, N.; Briec, M.; Bruet, M.; Flament, T.; Johnson, C.; Masson, M.; Terlain, A.; Tournebize, F.

1991-03-01

328

Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis  

E-print Network

Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis Lekha Gupta, 2008 Ortholithiations of a range of arenes mediated by lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at -78 °C protocols with unpurified commercial samples of n-butyl- lithium to prepare LDA or commercially available

Collum, David B.

329

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide: A View of Lithium Ion Solvation  

E-print Network

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide: A View of Lithium Ion Solvation through a Glass-Bottom Boat BRETT L and reactivities, we were drawn to lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS; (Me3Si)2NLi) by its promi- nence principles of lithium ion coordination chemistry.2 Understanding how solvation influences organolithium

Collum, David B.

330

Cathode material for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

2013-07-23

331

Tritium migration in the materials proposed for fusion reactors: Li2TiO3 and beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of tritium and helium gas release from lithium ceramics samples Li2TiO3 irradiated at the WWR-K reactor (Almaty, Kazakhstan) and from beryllium samples irradiated at the BN-350 reactor (Aktau, Kazakhstan) and the IVG.1M reactor (Kurchatov, Kazakhstan) are presented. Experimentally obtained thermal desorption (TDS) spectra have shown that the dependence of tritium release from lithium ceramics has a complicated behavior and to a large extent depends on lithium ceramics type. Nevertheless, it was found that the total amount of tritium released from all types of lithium ceramics has the same order of magnitude, equal to about 1011 Bq/kg. It was found that in the temperature range from 523 K to 1373 K the process of tritium release from lithium ceramics involves volume diffusion and thermoactivated tritium release from the accumulation centers generated under irradiation. TDS of beryllium samples enables us to obtain characteristics of tritium and helium release during linear heating, to determine integrated quantities of generated helium and tritium, and to determine parameters of release processes. The range of operating temperatures from 303 K to 1773 K; The pressure in the operating volume of the chamber 10-5 Pa; The accuracy in automatic temperature maintenance with respect to given temperature ±0.5 K. The experiments were carried out as follows: the sample was loaded into the crucible of the operating chamber. Then the sample was degassed at 423 K with constant pumping for 4 h. After that the sample was cooled to room temperature and the sample heating experiment was carried out. Each of the samples was heated linearly to 1523 K examining the released gases having mass numbers 2 (?2), 3 (3??), 4 (4?? + ??), 6 (?2), 18 (?2?), 20 (HTO) and 22 (?2?). The rate of linear heating ranged from 5 K/min to 20 K/min. It was taken into account that the total tritium quantity is formed by values of peaks respective to 6 and 3 mass numbers. And according to standard interpretation of spectra relative to the deposition for tritium total quantity - M6 makes 95% and M3 makes 5%, which means that M3 is formed only by 3He at missing of M6 peak.It should be noted that the experimental device for TDS studies is small (the volume of the measuring chamber and all gas paths to the mass spectrometer is 3 l at the most). The assembly is equipped with a pump with a capacity of 100 l/s. Calibration experiments using helium and hydrogen pumping did not show any substantial delay in detection of gases with different mass numbers, caused by different rates of transportation from the place of gas measurement. The observed detection delay was less than 0.1 s. The majority of helium is released from samples of DV-56 in the high temperature region. For samples of TShG-200 helium released in the high-temperature region is about ˜50% of the total release. For samples of DV-56 (irradiated to higher doses than samples of TShG-200 with a higher amount of generated tritium), tritium is released in the high temperature range as T2 (˜60%), HTO and T2O (˜30%). For samples of TShG-200 tritium is released in low temperature region as HTO and T2O. In the high temperature range the overall allocation of tritium as T2 from TShG-200 samples increases from 5% to 25%. Tritium release in the form of tritium water is caused by the tritium-oxygen (beryllium oxide) reaction. We suppose that it can have a complicated mechanism: for example, in case of direct chemical interaction of tritium with beryllium oxide (or beryllium hydroxide forming HTO) or tritium-beryllium oxide decay. This mechanism is not fully understood, which is why we have not analyzed the dependences of tritium water flux obtained in the TDS experiments. The questions of the importance of sample exposure and its influence on tritium conditions in beryllium require further explanation. For samples of DV-56 the exposure is about 17 years. The dependence of T2 release were considered in diffusion coefficient estimations.Tri

Kulsartov, T. V.; Gordienko, Yu. N.; Tazhibayeva, I. L.; Kenzhin, E. A.; Barsukov, N. I.; Sadvakasova, A. O.; Kulsartova, A. V.; Zaurbekova, Zh. A.

2013-11-01

332

Boron suboxide: As hard as cubic boron nitride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vickers hardness of boron suboxide single crystals was measured using a diamond indentation method. Under a loading force of 0.98 N, our test gave an average Vickers hardness of 45 GPa. The average fracture toughness was measured as 4.5 MPa m1\\/2. We also measured the hardness of the cubic boron nitride and sapphire single crystals for comparison. The average

Duanwei He; Yusheng Zhao; L. Daemen; J. Qian; T. D. Shen; T. W. Zerda

2002-01-01

333

Synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes by boron ink annealing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ball-milling and annealing is one effective method for the mass production of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). We report that the method has been modified to a boron (B) ink annealing method. In this new process, the nanosize ball-milled B particles are mixed with metal nitrate in ethanol to form an ink-like solution, and then the ink is annealed in nitrogen-containing

Lu Hua Li; Ying Chen; Alexey M. Glushenkov

2010-01-01

334

The unusual properties of beryllium surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Be is a ``marginal metal.`` The stable phase, hcp-Be, has a low Fermi-level density of states and very anisotropic structural and elastic properties, similar to a semiconductor`s. At the Be(0001) surface, surface states drastically increase the Fermi-level density of states. The different nature of bonding in bulk-Be and at the Be(0001) surface explains the large outward relaxation. The presence of surface states causes large surface core-level shifts by inducing a higher electrostatic potential in the surface layers and by improving the screening at the surface. The authors experimental and theoretical investigations of atomic vibrations at the Be(0001) surface demonstrate clearly that Be screening of atomic motion by the surface states makes the surface phonon dispersion fundamentally different from that of the bulk. Properties of Be(0001) are so different from those of the bulk that the surface can be considered a new ``phase`` of beryllium with unique electronic and structural characteristics. For comparison they also study Be(11{bar 2}0), a very open surface without important surface states. Be(11{bar 2}0) is the only clean s-p metal surface known to reconstruct (1 {times} 3 missing row reconstruction).

Stumpf, R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[JRCAT, Ibaraki (Japan); Hannon, J.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Plummer, E.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-12-31

335

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

2008-01-01

336

40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20...

2010-07-01

337

Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project  

SciTech Connect

This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

2010-10-01

338

40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20...

2011-07-01

339

40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20...

2014-07-01

340

40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20...

2012-07-01

341

40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20...

2013-07-01

342

Detection of Neutrons Liberated from Beryllium by Gamma Rays: a New Technique for Inducing Radioactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed that a radiation emitted from beryllium under the influence of radium gamma rays excites induced radioactivity in iodine, and we conclude that neutrons are liberated from beryllium by gamma rays.

Leo Szilard; T. A. Chalmers

1934-01-01

343

Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components  

SciTech Connect

Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included.

Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

1993-07-01

344

Identification of beryllium-dependent peptides recognized by CD4+ T cells in chronic beryllium disease.  

PubMed

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous disorder characterized by an influx of beryllium (Be)-specific CD4? T cells into the lung. The vast majority of these T cells recognize Be in an HLA-DP–restricted manner, and peptide is required for T cell recognition. However, the peptides that stimulate Be-specific T cells are unknown. Using positional scanning libraries and fibroblasts expressing HLA-DP2, the most prevalent HLA-DP molecule linked to disease, we identified mimotopes and endogenous self-peptides that bind to MHCII and Be, forming a complex recognized by pathogenic CD4? T cells in CBD. These peptides possess aspartic and glutamic acid residues at p4 and p7, respectively, that surround the putative Be-binding site and cooperate with HLA-DP2 in Be coordination. Endogenous plexin A peptides and proteins, which share the core motif and are expressed in lung, also stimulate these TCRs. Be-loaded HLA-DP2–mimotope and HLA-DP2–plexin A4 tetramers detected high frequencies of CD4? T cells specific for these ligands in all HLADP2+ CBD patients tested. Thus, our findings identify the first ligand for a CD4? T cell involved in metal-induced hypersensitivity and suggest a unique role of these peptides in metal ion coordination and the generation of a common antigen specificity in CBD. PMID:23797096

Falta, Michael T; Pinilla, Clemencia; Mack, Douglas G; Tinega, Alex N; Crawford, Frances; Giulianotti, Marc; Santos, Radleigh; Clayton, Gina M; Wang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xuewu; Maier, Lisa A; Marrack, Philippa; Kappler, John W; Fontenot, Andrew P

2013-07-01

345

Identification of beryllium-dependent peptides recognized by CD4+ T cells in chronic beryllium disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous disorder characterized by an influx of beryllium (Be)-specific CD4+ T cells into the lung. The vast majority of these T cells recognize Be in an HLA-DP–restricted manner, and peptide is required for T cell recognition. However, the peptides that stimulate Be-specific T cells are unknown. Using positional scanning libraries and fibroblasts expressing HLA-DP2, the most prevalent HLA-DP molecule linked to disease, we identified mimotopes and endogenous self-peptides that bind to MHCII and Be, forming a complex recognized by pathogenic CD4+ T cells in CBD. These peptides possess aspartic and glutamic acid residues at p4 and p7, respectively, that surround the putative Be-binding site and cooperate with HLA-DP2 in Be coordination. Endogenous plexin A peptides and proteins, which share the core motif and are expressed in lung, also stimulate these TCRs. Be-loaded HLA-DP2–mimotope and HLA-DP2–plexin A4 tetramers detected high frequencies of CD4+ T cells specific for these ligands in all HLA-DP2+ CBD patients tested. Thus, our findings identify the first ligand for a CD4+ T cell involved in metal-induced hypersensitivity and suggest a unique role of these peptides in metal ion coordination and the generation of a common antigen specificity in CBD. PMID:23797096

Falta, Michael T.; Mack, Douglas G.; Tinega, Alex N.; Crawford, Frances; Giulianotti, Marc; Santos, Radleigh; Clayton, Gina M.; Wang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xuewu; Maier, Lisa A.; Marrack, Philippa; Kappler, John W.

2013-01-01

346

Genetic determinants of sensitivity to beryllium in mice.  

PubMed

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an irreversible, debilitating granulomatous lung disease is caused by exposure to beryllium. This occupational hazard occurs in primary production and machining of Be-metal, BeO, beryllium - containing alloys, and other beryllium products. CBD begins as an MHC Class II-restricted, T(H)1 hypersensitivity, and the Human Leukocyte Antigen, HLA-DPB1E(69), is associated with risk of developing CBD. Because inbred strains of mice have not provided good models of CBD to date, three strains of HLA-DPB1 transgenic mice in an FVB/N background were developed; each contains a single allele of HLA-DPB1 that confers a different magnitude of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR approximately 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR approximately 3), and HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR approximately 46). The mouse ear swelling test (MEST) was employed to determine if these different alleles would support a hypersensitivity response to beryllium. Mice were first sensitized on the back and subsequently challenged on the ear. In separate experiments, mice were placed into one of three groups (sensitization/challenge): C/C, C/Be, and Be/Be. In the HLA-DPB1*1701 mice, the strain with the highest risk transgene, the Be/Be group was the only group that displayed significant maximum increased ear thickness of 19.6% +/- 3.0% over the baseline measurement (p < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in the other transgenic strains for any treatment condition. In addition, inter-strain differences in response to beryllium in seven inbred strains were investigated through use of the MEST, these included: FVB/N, AKR, Balb/c, C3H/HeJ, C57/BL6, DBA/2, and SJL/J. The FVB/N strain was least responsive, while the SJL/J and C57/BL6 strains were the highest responders. Our results suggest that the HLA-DPB1*1701 transgene product is an important risk factor for induction of the beryllium-sensitive phenotype. This model should be a useful tool for investigating beryllium sensitization. PMID:19589099

Tarantino-Hutchison, Lauren M; Sorrentino, Claudio; Nadas, Arthur; Zhu, Yiwen; Rubin, Edward M; Tinkle, Sally S; Weston, Ainsley; Gordon, Terry

2009-06-01

347

Behavior of carboxylic acids upon complexation with beryllium compounds.  

PubMed

A significant acidity enhancement and changes on aromaticity were previously observed in squaric acid and its derivatives when beryllium bonds are present in those systems. In order to know if these changes on the chemical properties could be considered a general behavior of carboxylic acids upon complexation with beryllium compounds, complexes between a set of representative carboxylic acids RCOOH (formic acid, acetic acid, propanoic acid, benzoic acid, and oxalic acid) and beryllium compounds BeX2 (X = H, F, Cl) were studied by means of density functional theory calculations. Complexes that contain a dihydrogen bond or a OH···X interaction are the most stable in comparison with other possible BeX2 complexation patterns in which no other weak interactions are involved apart from the beryllium bond. Formic, acetic, propanoic, benzoic, and oxalic acid complexes with BeX2 are much stronger acids than their related free forms. The analysis of the topology of the electron density helps to clarify the reasons behind this acidity enhancement. Importantly, when the halogen atom is replaced by hydrogen in the beryllium compound, the dihydrogen bond complex spontaneously generates a new neutral complex [RCOO:BeH] in which a hydrogen molecule is lost. This seems to be a trend for carboxylic acids on complexing BeX2 compounds. PMID:25010490

Mykolayivna-Lemishko, Kateryna; Montero-Campillo, M Merced; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel

2014-07-31

348

Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers.

Ulrickson, M.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manly, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

1995-08-01

349

Nano boron nitride flatland.  

PubMed

Recent years have witnessed many breakthroughs in research on two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, among which is hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), a layered material with a regular network of BN hexagons. This review provides an insight into the marvellous nano BN flatland, beginning with a concise introduction to BN and its low-dimensional nanostructures, followed by an overview of the past and current state of research on 2D BN nanostructures. A comprehensive review of the structural characteristics and synthetic routes of BN monolayers, multilayers, nanomeshes, nanowaves, nanoflakes, nanosheets and nanoribbons is presented. In addition, electronic, optical, thermal, mechanical, magnetic, piezoelectric, catalytic, ecological, biological and wetting properties, applications and research perspectives for these novel 2D nanomaterials are discussed. PMID:24280706

Pakdel, Amir; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

2014-02-01

350

IL4 fails to regulate in vitro beryllium-induced cytokines in berylliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from patients with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) have been used to evaluate the beryllium-specific immune response and potential immunotherapeutics. Beryllium induces interferon-c (IFN-c), interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumour necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) from BAL cells. An antibody to IL-2 and recombinant human (rHu) IL-10 is able to partially suppress the beryllium-stimulated immune response. To

L. A. Maier; R. T. Sawyer; S. S. Tinkle; L. A. Kittle; E. A. Barker; R. Balkissoon; C. Rose; L. S. Newman

2001-01-01

351

Reducing Boron Toxicity by Microbial Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

While electricity is a clean source of energy, methods of electricity-production, such as the use of coal-fired power plants, often result in significant environmental damage. Coal-fired electrical power plants produce air pollution, while contaminating ground water and soils by build-up of boron, which enters surrounding areas through leachate. Increasingly high levels of boron in soils eventually overcome boron tolerance levels in plants and trees, resulting in toxicity. Formation of insoluble boron precipitates, mediated by mineral-precipitating bacteria, may sequester boron into more stable forms that are less available and toxic to vegetation. Results have provided evidence of microbially-facilitated sequestration of boron into insoluble mineral precipitates. Analyses of water samples taken from ponds with high boron concentrations showed that algae present contained 3-5 times more boron than contained in the water in the samples. Boron sequestration may also be facilitated by the incorporation of boron within algal cells. Experiments examining boron sequestration by algae are in progress. In bacterial experiments with added ferric citrate, the reduction of iron by the bacteria resulted in an ironcarbonate precipitate containing boron. An apparent color change showing the reduction of amorphous iron, as well as the precipitation of boron with iron, was more favorable at higher pH. Analysis of precipitates by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy revealed mineralogical composition and biologicallymediated accumulation of boron precipitates in test-tube experiments.

Hazen, T.; Phelps, T.J.

2002-01-01

352

Processing of boron carbide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processing of boron carbide powder including sintering optimization, green body optimization and sintering behavior of nano-sized boron carbide was investigated for the development of complex shaped body armor. Pressureless sintered B4C relative densities as high as 96.7% were obtained by optimizing the soak temperature, and holding at that temperature for the minimum time required to reach terminal density. Although the relative densities of pressureless sintered specimens were lower than that of commercially produced hot-pressed B4C, their (Vickers) hardness values were comparable. For 4.45 cm dia. 1.35 cm height disk-shaped specimens, pressureless sintered to at least 93.0% relative density, post-hot isostatic pressing resulted in vast increases in relative densities (e.g. 100.0%) and hardness values significantly greater than that of commercially produced hot-pressed B 4C. The densification behavior of 20-40nm graphite-coated B4C nano-particles was studied using dilatometry, x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The higher than expected sintering onset from a nano-scale powder (˜1500°C) was caused by remnant B2O3 not removed by methanol washing, keeping particles separated until volatilization, and the carbon coatings, which imposed particle to particle contact of a substance more refractory than B4C. Solid state sintering (1500-1850°C) was followed by an arrest in contraction attributed to formation of eutectic liquid droplets of size more than 10X the original nano-particles. These droplets, induced to form well below known B4C-graphite eutectic temperatures by the high surface energy of nanoparticles, are interpreted to have quickly solidified to form a vast number of voids in particle packing, which in turn, impeded continued solid state sintering. Starting at 2200°C, a permanent liquid phase formed which facilitated a rapid measured contraction by liquid phase sintering and/or compact slumping.

Cho, Namtae

353

Molecular Structure of Boron trifluoride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boron trifluoride has a trigonal pryamidal shape and dissolves in diethyl ether. Normally a gas, boron trifluoride is a hard and strong Lewis acid with a high affinity in displacement reactions and is therefore used mainly as a catalyst in alkylations, polymerizations and esterifications. It extracts bases bound to carbon and produces carbocations. Also it is used as a fumigant and in the magnesium industry because its anti-oxidant properties.

2002-08-15

354

Neutron detectors comprising boron powder  

DOEpatents

High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

2013-05-21

355

The Boron Solar Neutrino Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutrino excitation of the nuclear levels (NUEX) of 11B and charged-current (CC) excited inverse beta-decay of 11B to 11C, provide a double mode detection of solar nu's in a target of boron. Aspects of detector techniques and backgrounds in the Boron solar nu experiment, now under development, as well as its response to various non-standard nu scenarios are presented.

R. S. Raghavan

1987-01-01

356

Carbothermic formation of boron nitride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation of boron nitride by reaction of boric oxide with carbon and nitrogen was studied. It was found from the results of experiments conducted by holding B2O3-activated C mixtures under a flowing nitrogen atmosphere that formation of boron nitride was complete in 120 min at 1500 °C. After cleaning the reaction product from the ash of the activated carbon and from

A. Aydo?du; N. Sevinç

2003-01-01

357

Spherical Torus Plasma Interactions with Large-area Liquid Lithium Surfaces in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect

The Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) device at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is a spherical torus (ST) dedicated to the exploration of liquid lithium as a potential solution to reactor first-wall problems such as heat load and erosion, neutron damage and activation, and tritium inventory and breeding. Initial lithium limiter experiments were conducted with a toroidally-local liquid lithium rail limiter (L3) from the University of California at San Diego. Spectroscopic measurements showed a clear reduction of impurities in plasmas with the L3, compared to discharges with a boron carbide limiter. The evidence for a reduction in recycling was less apparent, however. This may be attributable to the relatively small area in contact with the plasma, and the presence of high-recycling surfaces elsewhere in the vacuum chamber. This conclusion was tested in subsequent experiments with a fully toroidal lithium limiter that was installed above the floor of the vacuum vessel. The new limiter covered over ten times the area of the L3 facing the plasma. Experiments with the toroidal lithium limiter have recently begun. This paper describes the conditioning required to prepare the lithium surface for plasma operations, and effect of the toroidal liquid lithium limiter on discharge performance.

R. Kaita; R. Majeski; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; B. Jones; D. Hoffman; H. Kugel; J. Menard; T. Munsat; A. Post-Zwicker; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; M. Maiorano; S. Smith

2002-01-18

358

Inelastic properties of boron oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature dependence of internal friction and dynamic shear modulus for boron anhydride (B2O3) and boron suboxide (B6O) have been investigated at frequencies of 1-10 Hz and over the temperature range 80-900 K. Absolute shear modulus for boron suboxide at 80 and 400 K was 0.9 and 0.85 GPa, respectively. Relaxation maximum of internal friction, accompanied with shear modulus defect had activation energy of 0.8 eV, and frequency factor of ˜1.1012 s-1. Measruements of absolute values of boron suboxide shear modulus at various temperatures showed deviations from linear decrease above 670 K. In the internal friction spectrum at temperatures of 410 and 700 K the maxima of origin have been revealed. At temperatures of 595 and 650-700 K an intense maxima of internal friction and shear modulus defects were observed. Many of the relaxation and hysteretic processes have been discussed accounting on the possiblity of formation of point defects (oxygen vacancies, unbonded boron atoms), split dislocations and polysynthetic twins in the (001) rhombohedral planes, lowering down the local symmetry in the boron suboxide crystal structure.

Tushishvili, M. Ch.; Darsavelidze, G. Sh.; Tsagareishvili, O. A.; Bairamashvili, I. A.; Jobava, J. Sh.

1991-07-01

359

Characterization of electrodeposited elemental boron  

SciTech Connect

Elemental boron was produced through electrowinning from potassium fluoroborate dissolved in a mixture of molten potassium fluoride and potassium chloride. The characteristics of the electrodeposited boron (raw boron) as well as the water and acid-leached product (processed boron) were studied. The chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size of the boron powders were investigated. The morphology of the deposits was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical state of the matrix, as well as the impurity phases present in them, was established using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In order to interpret and understand the results obtained, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out. The gas-phase corrosion in the head space as well as the chemistry behind the leaching process were interpreted using this analysis. The ease of oxidation of these powders in air was investigated using differential thermal analysis (DTA) coupled with thermogravimetry (TG). From the results obtained in this study it was established that elemental boron powder with a purity of 95-99% could be produced using a high temperature molten salt electrowinning process. The major impurities were found to be oxygen, carbon, iron and nickel.

Jain, Ashish [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Anthonysamy, S. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India)], E-mail: sas@igcar.gov.in; Ananthasivan, K.; Ranganathan, R. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Mittal, Vinit; Narasimhan, S.V. [Water and Steam Chemistry Division, BARC (F), Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Vasudeva Rao, P.R. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India)

2008-07-15

360

A time resolved study of the mitigation of graphite chemical erosion in deuterium plasmas containing beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of the graphite strike plate material in ITER, with a divertor plasma containing beryllium, is simulated experimentally in PISCES-B. Graphite targets are exposed at 600 K to deuterium plasmas with fixed beryllium fractions ( ) in the range 0.0003 ? fBe ? 0.011. From the onset of beryllium injection, the intensity of plasma CD band optical emission caused

M. J. Baldwin; R. P. Doerner

2006-01-01

361

Skin as a route of exposure and sensitization in chronic beryllium disease.  

PubMed Central

Chronic beryllium disease is an occupational lung disease that begins as a cell-mediated immune response to beryllium. Although respiratory and engineering controls have significantly decreased occupational beryllium exposures over the last decade, the rate of beryllium sensitization has not declined. We hypothesized that skin exposure to beryllium particles would provide an alternative route for sensitization to this metal. We employed optical scanning laser confocal microscopy and size-selected fluorospheres to demonstrate that 0.5- and 1.0- micro m particles, in conjunction with motion, as at the wrist, penetrate the stratum corneum of human skin and reach the epidermis and, occasionally, the dermis. The cutaneous immune response to chemical sensitizers is initiated in the skin, matures in the local lymph node (LN), and releases hapten-specific T cells into the peripheral blood. Topical application of beryllium to C3H mice generated beryllium-specific sensitization that was documented by peripheral blood and LN beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests (BeLPT) and by changes in LN T-cell activation markers, increased expression of CD44, and decreased CD62L. In a sensitization-challenge treatment paradigm, epicutaneous beryllium increased murine ear thickness following chemical challenge. These data are consistent with development of a hapten-specific, cell-mediated immune response following topical application of beryllium and suggest a mechanistic link between the persistent rate of beryllium worker sensitization and skin exposure to fine and ultrafine beryllium particles. PMID:12842774

Tinkle, Sally S; Antonini, James M; Rich, Brenda A; Roberts, Jenny R; Salmen, Rebecca; DePree, Karyn; Adkins, Eric J

2003-01-01

362

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Pt. 850, App. A Appendix A to Part 850—Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed...

2010-01-01

363

Investigation of the Dashigil mud volcano (Azerbaijan) using beryllium-10 K.J. Kim a,  

E-print Network

Investigation of the Dashigil mud volcano (Azerbaijan) using beryllium-10 K.J. Kim a, , M. Baskaran: Mud volcano Hydrothermal Beryllium-10 Beryllium isotopes Subduction Cosmogenic nuclide a b s t r a c t We collected and analyzed five sediments from three mud volcano (MV) vents and six suspended

364

Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables  

SciTech Connect

This report on the control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is functioning effectively.

Johnson, J.S.

1980-11-25

365

RCRA designation of discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources  

SciTech Connect

Many sealed sources containing americium and beryllium are used throughout construction, industry, and research, and will eventually require disposal. For planning purposes it is necessary to determine whether these sources, when disposed, constitute a mixed waste, i.e., a waste containing hazardous constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and radioactive constituents regulated under the Atomic Energy Act. Waste designation criteria contained in 40 CFR 261 are evaluated in detail in this report. It is determined that discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources do not contain any wastes listed in Subpart D of 40 CFR 261, nor do the discarded sources exhibit any hazardous characteristics. Therefore, it is concluded that discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources are not a mixed waste under regulations established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Hazardous waste regulatory programs delegated to States, however, may have regulations that differ from those of the Federal government.

Kirner, N.P. [Ebasco Environmental, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1994-09-01

366

Crack toughness evaluation of hot pressed and forged beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Beryllium fracture toughness test specimens were fatigue cracked using reversed cycling with a compression load two to three times the tension load. In worked beryllium, textures may be produced which result in fatigue cracks that are out of plane with the starter notch. Specimens of hot pressed stock exhibited load displacement records which were nonlinear throughout their course. Fracture specimens of both hot pressed and forged stock showed essentially no reduction of thickness and the fracture surfaces were flat and normal to the load axis. However, the stress intensity factor at maximum load increased with decreasing thickness. Load-displacement and electric potential records for the hot pressed beryllium specimens exhibited several anomalies such as negative residual crack mouth displacements and a decrease in electrical potential with increasing load.

Jones, M. H.; Bubsey, R. T.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

1971-01-01

367

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi2-yHyO.xM'O2.(1-x)Li1-zHzMO2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi2-yHy.xM'O2.(1-x)Li1-zHzMO2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi2M'O3.(1-x)LiMO2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

2010-06-08

368

X-ray focusing with compound lenses made from beryllium.  

PubMed

We have measured the intensity profile and transmission of x rays focused by a series of biconcave spherical unit lenses fabricated from beryllium. The use of beryllium extends the range of operation of compound refractive lenses, improving transmission, aperture size, and gain. The compound refractive lens was composed of 160 biconcave unit lenses, each with a radius of curvature of 1.9 mm. Two-dimensional focusing with a gain of 1.5 was obtained at 6.5 keV with a focal length of 93 cm. The effective aperture of the compound refractive lens was measured as 600 mum , with 9% peak transmission. PMID:18007930

Beguiristain, H R; Cremer, J T; Piestrup, M A; Gary, C K; Pantell, R H

2002-05-01

369

CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS  

SciTech Connect

The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

Ekechukwu, A

2009-04-20

370

Fluorometric study of the beryllium-morin system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three principal beryllium-morin complexes, a (1 + 1) monomer, a (1 + 1) dimer, and a (1 + 2) complex are found and conditional equilibrium constants for their formation are evaluated. Approximate ionization constants, absorption spectra, and the relative fluorescence intensities for five ionic species of morin are also determined in a spectrophotometric and fluorometric study of morin. The following interrelationships are discussed: pH, ionization of morin, absorption spectra of the various ionic species of morin and of the berylliummorin complexes, equilibria for the reactions between beryllium and morin, the period of time between preparation of the solution and measurement of the fluorescence, and fluorescence intensity.

Fletcher, M.H.

1965-01-01

371

Elemental composition in sealed plutonium-beryllium neutron sources.  

PubMed

Five sealed plutonium-beryllium (PuBe) neutron sources from various manufacturers were disassembled. Destructive chemical analyses for recovered PuBe materials were conducted for disposition purposes. A dissolution method for PuBe alloys was developed for quantitative plutonium (Pu) and beryllium (Be) assay. Quantitation of Be and trace elements was performed using plasma based spectroscopic instruments, namely inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Pu assay was accomplished by an electrochemical method. Variations in trace elemental contents among the five PuBe sources are discussed. PMID:25464182

Xu, N; Kuhn, K; Gallimore, D; Martinez, A; Schappert, M; Montoya, D; Lujan, E; Garduno, K; Tandon, L

2014-10-22

372

Failure prediction of thin beryllium sheets used in spacecraft structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an attempt to predict failure for cross-rolled beryllium sheet structures, high order macroscopic failure criteria are used. These require the knowledge of in-plane uniaxial and shear strengths. Test results are included for in-plane biaxial tension, uniaxial compression for two different material orientations, and shear. All beryllium specimens have the same chemical composition. In addition, all experimental work was performed in a controlled laboratory environment. Numerical simulation complements these tests. A brief bibliography supplements references listed in a previous report.

Roschke, Paul N.; Papados, Photios; Mascorro, Edward

1991-01-01

373

Method for removal of beryllium contamination from an article  

DOEpatents

A method of removal of beryllium contamination from an article is disclosed. The method typically involves dissolving polyisobutylene in a solvent such as hexane to form a tackifier solution, soaking the substrate in the tackifier to produce a preform, and then drying the preform to produce the cleaning medium. The cleaning media are typically used dry, without any liquid cleaning agent to rub the surface of the article and remove the beryllium contamination below a non-detect level. In some embodiments no detectible residue is transferred from the cleaning wipe to the article as a result of the cleaning process.

Simandl, Ronald F.; Hollenbeck, Scott M.

2012-12-25

374

Structural studies of lead lithium borate glasses doped with silver oxide.  

PubMed

Silver oxide doped lead lithium borate (LLB) glasses have been prepared and characterized. Structural and composition characterization were accessed by XRD, FTIR, Raman, SEM and EDS. Results from FTIR and Raman spectra indicate that Ag(2)O acts as a network modifier even at small quantities by converting three coordinated to four coordinated boron atoms. Other physical properties, such as density, molar volume and optical basicity are also evaluated. Furthermore, they are also affected by the silver oxide composition. PMID:22088558

Coelho, João; Freire, Cristina; Hussain, N Sooraj

2012-02-01

375

Structural studies of lead lithium borate glasses doped with silver oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver oxide doped lead lithium borate (LLB) glasses have been prepared and characterized. Structural and composition characterization were accessed by XRD, FTIR, Raman, SEM and EDS. Results from FTIR and Raman spectra indicate that Ag 2O acts as a network modifier even at small quantities by converting three coordinated to four coordinated boron atoms. Other physical properties, such as density, molar volume and optical basicity are also evaluated. Furthermore, they are also affected by the silver oxide composition.

Coelho, João; Freire, Cristina; Hussain, N. Sooraj

2012-02-01

376

Elementary Reactions of Boron Atoms with HydrocarbonssToward the Formation of Organo-Boron Compounds  

E-print Network

Boron Reactions 5112 2.3.1. Crossed Beam Machines with a Rotating QMS Detector 5113 2.3.2. Crossed BeamElementary Reactions of Boron Atoms with HydrocarbonssToward the Formation of Organo-Boron 96822 Received December 16, 2009 Contents 1. Introduction 5107 1.1. Organo-Boron Molecules in Combustion

Kaiser, Ralf I.

377

Lithium drifted germanium system  

Microsoft Academic Search

General characteristics of the lithium-drifted germanium photodiode-Dewar-preamplifier system and particular operating instructions for the device are given. Information is included on solving operational problems.

E. J. Fjarlie

1969-01-01

378

The LITHIUM-7(HELIUM-3,PROTON)BERYLLIUM-9 Reaction and Primordial Nucleosynthesis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The differential cross section for the ^7Li(^3He,p) ^9Be reaction has been measured in 50 keV intervals at 8 angles (15^circ -160^circ) in the energy range from Ecm = 0.5 to 2.0 MeV, and total cross sections were determined from these data. Since this reaction has been noted as being of possible importance in primordial nucleosynthesis, its astrophysical S-factor was calculated from the data. In addition, the cross section for the ^7Li( ^3H,n)^9Be reaction, also of importance in primordial nucleosynthesis, was estimated from the ^7Li(^3 He,p)^9Be data and its S -factor and thermonuclear reaction rate were calculated.

Rath, Dipti Prakash

379

Observation of Hypernuclear Gamma Rays in Lambda -LITHIUM-7 and LAMBDA-BERYLLIUM-9.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma rays were observed in the decays of the p-shell (LAMDA) hypernuclei ('7)(,(LAMDA))Li and ('9)(,(LAMDA))Be, formed in excited states with 823 MeV/c kaons through the reaction: ('A)X (K('-),(pi)('-)) ('A)(,(LAMDA))X The energies of the (gamma) rays observed are compared with those predicted from the level spacing in an existing shell model theory which takes into account the effect of the (LAMDA) on the nuclear core states through the spin-orbit and the spin -spin parts of the strong (LAMDA)-nucleus interaction. Cross sections for the production of these (LAMDA) hypernuclei are estimated from the data.

Hackenburg, Robert William

380

Radiative Capture of Polarized Deuterons by Lithium -6 and the D-State of BERYLLIUM-8  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of angular distributions of the cross section, sigma(theta), in addition to vector and tensor analyzing powers have been obtained at E_{rm d}(lab) = 9.0 MeV and E_{rm d}(lab) = 2.0 MeV for the ^6Li( vec {rm d},gamma)^8Be reaction. The measured analyzing powers include A _{rm yy}(theta) and A_{rm y}(theta) at E_{rm d}(lab) = 2.0 MeV and A_{rm yy}( theta), A_{rm y }(theta) and T_{20 }(theta) at E_{rm d}(lab) = 9.0 MeV. Energy excitation functions of the differential cross section, sigma( theta), the vector analyzing power A _{rm y}(theta), and the tensor analyzing power A_{rm yy}(theta) at theta = 130^circ were also measured from E_{rm d}(lab) = 7.0 MeV to E_{rm d}(lab) = 14.0 MeV. Transition matrix element analyses of the angular distributions at E_{rm d} (lab) = 9.0 MeV and E_{rm d}(lab) = 2.0 MeV were performed. The results of the analyses show the presence of 13% to 21% E1 radiation in addition to the expected dominant E2 radiation at E _{rm d}(lab) = 9.0 MeV and a dominant E1 radiation contribution, instead of dominant E2 radiation, of 57% at E_{ rm d}(lab) = 2.0 MeV. The largest E1 component at both energies is the isospin forbidden E1 transition comprising 10% of the cross section at E _{rm d}(lab) = 9.0 MeV and 40% of the cross section at E_{rm d}(lab) = 2.0 MeV. The angular distributions at E_ {rm d}(lab) = 9.0 MeV were compared to a simple direct capture (DC) calculation. The dominant E2 direct capture calculation gave a reasonably good description of the tensor analyzing power A_{rm yy}(theta) but failed to reproduce the cross section sigma(theta) and the vector analyzing power A_{ rm y}(theta). This model leads to a D-state probability of P_{rm D} = 0.5% for the ground state of ^8Be. In addition, a multichannel resonating group model (MCRGM) calculation was also performed. The MCRGM used an effective nucleon-nucleon potential and the tensor force was used in calculating both the continuum and bound states. No D-state was contained in any of the fragments used in the calculation. This calculation provided a fairly good representation of the data and predicts a D-state probability of P _{rm D} = 0.3% for the ground state of ^8Be.

Williams, James Zandy, Jr.

381

Vapor liquid equilibria on the ternary lithium fluoride-sodium fluoride-beryllium fluoride system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molten mixtures of LiF, NaF, and BeF2 (FLiNaBe) have been proposed as a liquid first wall for selected fusion reactor designs. Because currently envisaged reactor technologies for igniting and/or sustaining a, fusion reaction require vacuum conditions, the volatility of these liquids is an issue for concern. Many physical properties of the ternary LiF-NaF-BeF 2 (FLiNaBe) system have already been studied as part of the molten salt reactor program, but the vapor pressure has not been measured. A study of the vapor liquid equilibrium of FLiNaBe by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry (KCMS) is presented. The ternary system is treated as a pseudo-binary system by fixing the ratio of LiF:NaF and varying the amount of BeF2. Measurements have been performed over a composition range of 0.3--0.8 mole fraction BeF2 and from 875--975K. Experimental data, are correlated in terms of the BeF 2 activity coefficient. Measurements were also carried out on the binary systems LiF-BeF2 and NaF-BeF2. Measured values of the BeF2 activity coefficient in the binary LiF-BeF2 and NaF-BeF2 systems compare satisfactorily with previous results published in the research literature. The vapor phase of FLiNaBe was found to consist of primarily the species BeF2, LiBeF3, and NaBeF 3 over the temperature and composition range studied. Mixtures of BeF2-containing fluoride salts are highly non-ideal; the BeF2 activity coefficient exhibits both positive and negative deviations from ideality over the composition range studied. An associated solution model with 3 adjustable parameters is used to fit the BeF2 activity coefficient data of the LiF-BeF2 and NaF-BeF2 systems. The parameters obtained from fitting binary data are then used to fit the ternary system. The extension of the model to the ternary system results in a single additional parameter that can only be determined from fitting ternary data. Overall the agreement between the model and experimental data is within ˜30% and the model can be used to predict the vapor pressure over a wide composition range.

Fukuda, Grant Takeshi

382

Density and surface tension of mixtures of molten fluorides of lithium, beryllium, thorium, and uranium  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied the density rho and the surface tension rho of the four-component LiF-BeF/sub 2/-ThF/sub 4/-UF/sub 4/ system in a wide temperature range. The concentration range of the molten salts corresponds to salt compositions with a low melting point and a rather high concentration of fissile materials. In the three-component LiF-BeF/sub 2/-ThF/sub 4/ system, compositions in the following concentration range were selected (expressed as molar fraction, %): ThF/sub 4/ ( less than or equal to 20) and BeF/sub 2/ (less than or equal to 40). Uranium tetrafluoride was added up to a maximum concentration of 40% to the melts. The results of the rho and sigma measurements were evaluated with the least-square method. The temperature dependencies of the properties studied in the 32 compositions examined are quite adequately described by linear equations.

Klimenkov, A.A.; Kurbatov, N.N.; Raspopin, S.P.; Chervinskii, Yu.F.

1987-06-01

383

Vapor liquid equilibria on the ternary lithium fluoride-sodium fluoride-beryllium fluoride system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten mixtures of LiF, NaF, and BeF2 (FLiNaBe) have been proposed as a liquid first wall for selected fusion reactor designs. Because currently envisaged reactor technologies for igniting and\\/or sustaining a, fusion reaction require vacuum conditions, the volatility of these liquids is an issue for concern. Many physical properties of the ternary LiF-NaF-BeF 2 (FLiNaBe) system have already been studied

Grant Takeshi Fukuda

2006-01-01

384

Solid state lithium cell  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a solid state lithium cell comprising layers of a cathode-active material, a solid electrolyte, and an anode-active material consisting of lithium metal, which are arranged in this order, which is characterized in that said cathode-active material is a solid solution composed of lead iodide and at least one element selected from the group consisting of bismuth, antimony, thallium, indium and gallium and iodides thereof.

Imai, A.; Matake, S.

1983-09-13

385

Lithium battery management system  

DOEpatents

Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

Dougherty, Thomas J. (Waukesha, WI)

2012-05-08

386

Synthesis and photocurrent of amorphous boron nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although theoretically feasible, synthesis of boron nanostructures is challenging due to the highly reactive nature, high melting and boiling points of boron. We have developed a thermal vapor transfer approach to synthesizing amorphous boron nanowire using a solid boron source. The amorphous nature and chemical composition of boron nanowires were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Optical properties and photoconduction of boron nanowires have not yet been reported. In our investigation, the amorphous boron nanowire showed much better optical and electrical properties than previously reported photo-response of crystalline boron nanobelts. When excited by a blue LED, the photo/dark current ratio (I/I0) is 1.5 and time constants in the order of tens of seconds. I/I0 is 1.17 using a green light.

Ge, Liehui; Lei, Sidong; Hart, Amelia H. C.; Gao, Guanhui; Jafry, Huma; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

2014-08-01

387

Boronated porhyrins and methods for their use  

DOEpatents

The present invention covers boronated porphyrins containing multiple carborane cages which selectively accumulate in neoplastic tissue within the irradiation volume and thus can be used in cancer therapies such as boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy.

Miura, Michiko (Hampton Bays, NY); Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Slatkin, Daniel N. (Southhold, NY)

1999-03-02

388

Boronated porhyrins and methods for their use  

DOEpatents

The present invention covers boronated porphyrins containing multiple carborane cages which selectively accumulate in neoplastic tissue within the irradiation volume and thus can be used in cancer therapies such as boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy. 3 figs.

Miura, M.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Slatkin, D.N.

1999-03-02

389

Decreasing the leachibility of boron wood preservatives  

E-print Network

The use of boron in wood preservatives has been growing since the 1930s, primarily in various boric acid/borax mixtures. Boron preservatives have several advantages for application as wood preservatives including a broad spectrum of activity...

Gezer, Engin Derya

1996-01-01

390

Aluminum-lithium for aerospace  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum-lithium alloys were developed primarily to reduce the weight of aircraft and aerospace structures. Lithium is the lightest metallic element, and each 1% of lithium added to aluminum reduces alloy density by about 3% and increases modulus by about 5%. Though lithium has a solubility limit of 4.2% in aluminum, the amount of lithium ranges between 1 and 3% in commercial alloys. Aluminum-lithium alloys are most often selected for aerospace components because of their low density, high strength, and high specific modulus. However, other applications now exploit their excellent fatigue resistance and cryogenic toughness.

Fielding, P.S.; Wolf, G.J. [Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond, VA (United States)

1996-10-01

391

Solid-state lithium battery  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

2014-11-04

392

Helium-cooled lithium compound suspension blanket concept for ITER  

SciTech Connect

This blanket concept uses a dilute suspension of fine solid breeder particles (Li/sub 2/O, LiAlO/sub 2/, or Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/) in a carrier gas (He) as the coolant and the tritium breeding stream. A small fraction of this stream is processed outside the reactor for tritium recovery. The blanket consists of a beryllium multiplier and carbon/steel reflector. A steel clad is used for all materials. A carbon reflector is employed to reduce the the beryllium thickness used in the blanket for a specific tritium breeding ratio. The breeder particle size has to exceed a few microns (greater than or equal to 2 microns) to avoid sticking problems on the cold surfaces of the heat exchanger. The helium gas pressure is in the range of 2 - 3 MPa to carry the solid breeder particles through the blanket and the heat exchanger loop. The solid breeder concentration in the helium stream is 1 to 5 volume percent. A high lithium-6 enrichment is used to produce a high tritium breeding ratio and to reduce the breeder concentration in the helium gas. The main features, key technical issues, and design analyses of this blanket concept are summarized in this paper.

Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.C.; Attaya, H.; Billone, M.; Clemmer, R.C.; Finn, P.A.; Hassanein, A.; Johnson, C.E.; Majumdar, S.; Mattas, R.F.

1989-03-01

393

Sputter deposited beryllium fuel capsules for NIF  

SciTech Connect

The objective of our effort is to systematically study the properties of films produced under different conditions, with an emphasis on improving surface morphology and microstructure while studying permeability and capsule strength. We have made extensive use of atomic force and electron microscopy to determine the microstructure of the films, along with composition probes (mainly x-ray fluorescence) to quantify the chemical structure. Our studies can be roughly divided into three categories. First, there are those in which the effects of substrate biasing have been investigated. This includes varying the substrate voltage from 0 to 120 V and applying an intermittent bias. Next there are studies of Be combined with boron, a non-soluble dopant Because of it`s low Z this dopant is of particular interest for x-ray related applications. Finally, there are experiments in which pulses of nitrogen are admitted to the vacuum chamber during deposition. The layers of nitride formed tended to disrupt the growth of Be grains, leading to a more fine-grained microstructure. For all these studies, we have most often used hollow plastic spheres for our substrate material. However, there have been some samples deposited on glass spheres or silicon flats.

Alford, C.S.

1998-02-12

394

Methods for boron delivery to mammalian tissue  

DOEpatents

Boron neutron capture therapy can be used to destroy tumors. This treatment modality is enhanced by delivering compounds to the tumor site where the compounds have high concentrations of boron, the boron compounds being encapsulated in the bilayer of a liposome or in the bilayer as well as the internal space of the liposomes. Preferred compounds, include carborane units with multiple boron atoms within the carborane cage structure. Liposomes with increased tumor specificity may also be used.

Hawthorne, M. Frederick (Encino, CA); Feaks, Debra A. (Los Angeles, CA); Shelly, Kenneth J. (Los Angeles, CA)

2003-01-01

395

NEW ADVANCES IN BORON SOIL CHEMISTRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Boron is an essential micronutrient element required for plant growth. Boron deficiency is wide-spread in crop plants throughout the world especially in coarse-textured soils in humid areas. Boron toxicity can also occur, especially in arid regions under irrigation. Plants respond directly to the...

396

Mineral resource of the month: boron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What does boron have to do with baseball, apple pie, motherhood and Chevrolet? Boron minerals and chemicals are used in the tanning of leather baseballs and gloves; in micro-fertilizer to grow apples and in the glass and enamels of bakewares to cook apple pie; in boron detergents for soaking baby clothes and diapers; and in fiberglass parts for the Chevrolet Corvette.

Lyday, Phyllis A.

2005-01-01

397

Boron carbide devices for neutron detection applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of boron rich solid state neutron detectors has become a reality as a result of the development of a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method that results in the growth of semiconducting boron carbide films. Electrical and structural properties of semiconducting boron carbide films grown by this method have been characterized using x-ray, Raman and Resistivity. X-ray and

Ellen E. Day

2006-01-01

398

Beryllium deposits of the western Seward Peninsula, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deposits of beryllium ore in the Lost River area of the western Seward Peninsula, Alaska, consist of replacement veins, pipes, and stringer lodes is limestone in a zone about 7 miles long and 2 to 3 miles wide which is faulted and intruded by dikes and stocks. The ores are remarkably alike and typically consist of the following minerals, in percent: fluorite, 45-65; diaspore, 5-10; tourmaline, 0-10; chrysoberyl, 3-10; white mica, 0-5; small amounts of hematite, sulfide minerals, manganese oxide, other beryllium minerals; and traces of minerals not yet identified. The ores generally are cut by late veinlets which are of the same mineralogy as the groundmass ore, or which consist of fluorite, white mica, and euclase. The ores are fine grained, and many of the individual mineral grains, except fluorite, are less than 1 mm in size. The beryllium content of bulk samples of ore ranges from 0.11 to 0.54 percent (0.31 to 1.50 percent BeO). High-grade nodules, composed principally of chrysoberyl, diaspore, fluorite, and mica, contain as much as 6 percent BeO. Geochemical reconnaissance has disclosed other areas of anomalous beryllium in stream sediments elsewhere on the Seward Peninsula, generally around biotite granites that have them associated with tin deposits; additional exploration probably will disclose other deposits.

Sainsbury, C.L.

1963-01-01

399

TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

Klimenkov, M.; Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A.; Rolli, R.

2014-12-01

400

A NOVEL BIOMARKER FOR BERYLLIUM SENSITIZATION IN HUMANS  

EPA Science Inventory

This research project will determine the T-cell receptor (TCR) gene usages of beryllium reactive T-lymphocytes isolated directly from the peripheral blood of individuals exposed at a U.S. Department of Energy site. The objective is to develop a sensitive and novel biomarker for i...

401

The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health  

PubMed Central

Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were tabulated. Years 2001–10 gave the greatest match (45.9%) for methodological parameters, followed by 27.71% for 1991–2000. Years 1971–80 and 1981–90 were not significantly different in the information published and available whereas years 1951–1960 showed a lack of suitable articles. Some articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its biological monitoring in the workplace essential. PMID:20386622

Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian P.

2009-01-01

402

18. VIEW OF ENGINEERING CONTROLS USED IN THE BERYLLIUM SHOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. VIEW OF ENGINEERING CONTROLS USED IN THE BERYLLIUM SHOP TO REDUCE EMPLOYEE EXPOSURE. THE LATHE IS COVERED BY A HOOD WITH A SEPARATE AIR-HANDLING SYSTEM. PRECISION EQUIPMENT IS CONTROLLED DIGITALLY. (11/13/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

403

Subscale Beryllium Mirrors Demonstrator (SBMD) Program Summary and Ball Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SBMD Program was to design, fabricate, and test a 0.5-m beryllium lightweighted mirror applicable to space deployable systems with demanding optical and areal density requirements. This presentation summarizes the program's objectives and the mirror's tested technical performance along with lessons learned. In addition, test results are compared to modeling predictions. The SBMD Program was funded by NASA MSFC.

Kendrick, Stephen; Brown, Robert; Stahl, Philip (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

404

Beryllium Wipe Sampling (differing methods - differing exposure potentials)  

SciTech Connect

This research compared three wipe sampling techniques currently used to test for beryllium contamination on room and equipment surfaces in Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling without a wetting agent, with water-moistened wipe materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Analysis indicated that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed about twice as much beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes, which removed about twice as much residue as dry wipes. Criteria at 10 CFR 850.30 and .31 were established on unspecified wipe sampling method(s). The results of this study reveal a need to identify criteria-setting method and equivalency factors. As facilities change wipe sampling methods among the three compared in this study, these results may be useful for approximate correlations. Accurate decontamination decision-making depends on the selection of appropriate wetting agents for the types of residues and surfaces. Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced removal efficiency such as methanol when surface contamination includes oil mist residue.

Kerr, Kent

2005-03-09

405

9. VIEW OF FOUNDRY FURNACE, DEPLETED URANIUM INGOTS, BERYLLIUM INGOTS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF FOUNDRY FURNACE, DEPLETED URANIUM INGOTS, BERYLLIUM INGOTS, AND ALUMINUM SHAPES WERE PRODUCED IN THE FOUNDRY. (10/30/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

406

Biological Exposure Metrics of Beryllium-Exposed Dental Technicians  

PubMed Central

Beryllium is commonly used in the dental industry. This study investigates the association between particle size and shape in induced sputum (IS) with beryllium exposure and oxidative stress in 83 dental technicians. Particle size and shape were defined by laser and video, whereas beryllium exposure data came from self-reports and beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) results. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) gene expression in IS was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A high content of particles (92%) in IS > 5 µ in size is correlated to a positive BeLPT risk (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9–13). Use of masks, hoods, and type of exposure yielded differences in the transparency of IS particles (gray level) and modulate HO1 levels. These results indicate that parameters of size and shape of particles in IS are sensitive to workplace hygiene, affect the level of oxidative stress, and may be potential markers for monitoring hazardous dust exposures. PMID:24205960

Stark, Moshe; Lerman, Yehuda; Kapel, Arik; Pardo, Asher; Schwarz, Yehuda; Newman, Lee; Maier, Lisa; Fireman, Elizabeth

2015-01-01

407

Evaluation of beryllium surface defects observed following chemical milling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several types of surface defects have been observed at Rockwell International's Rocky Flats Plant on beryllium parts following chemical milling. Metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and wave length dispersive spectroscopy (WDS) were used to characterize the defects. The defects were generally associated with microchemical segregation of impurities, or the chemical milling process itself. Tensile tests showed no degradation of properties

S. P. Abeln; C. L. Ferrera

1982-01-01

408

Biological exposure metrics of beryllium-exposed dental technicians.  

PubMed

Beryllium is commonly used in the dental industry. This study investigates the association between particle size and shape in induced sputum (IS) with beryllium exposure and oxidative stress in 83 dental technicians. Particle size and shape were defined by laser and video, whereas beryllium exposure data came from self-reports and beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) results. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) gene expression in IS was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A high content of particles (92%) in IS >5 ? in size is correlated to a positive BeLPT risk (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9-13). Use of masks, hoods, and type of exposure yielded differences in the transparency of IS particles (gray level) and modulate HO1 levels. These results indicate that parameters of size and shape of particles in IS are sensitive to workplace hygiene, affect the level of oxidative stress, and may be potential markers for monitoring hazardous dust exposures. PMID:24205960

Stark, Moshe; Lerman, Yehuda; Kapel, Arik; Pardo, Asher; Schwarz, Yehuda; Newman, Lee; Maier, Lisa; Fireman, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

409

Risks of beryllium disease related to work processes at a metal, alloy, and oxide production plant.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To describe relative hazards in sectors of the beryllium industry, risk factors of beryllium disease and sensitisation related to work process were sought in a beryllium manufacturing plant producing pure metal, oxide, alloys, and ceramics. METHODS: All 646 active employees were interviewed; beryllium sensitisation was ascertained with the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation blood test on 627 employees; clinical evaluation and bronchoscopy were offered to people with abnormal test results; and industrial hygiene measurements related to work processes taken in 1984-93 were reviewed. RESULTS: 59 employees (9.4%) had abnormal blood tests, 47 of whom underwent bronchoscopy. 24 new cases of beryllium disease were identified, resulting in a beryllium disease prevalence of 4.6%, including five known cases (29/632). Employees who had worked in ceramics had the highest prevalence of beryllium disease (9.0%). Employees in the pebble plant (producing beryllium metal) who had been employed after 1983 also had increased risk, with a prevalence of beryllium disease of 6.4%, compared with 1.3% of other workers hired in the same period, and a prevalence of abnormal blood tests of 19.2%. Logistic regression modelling confirmed these two risk factors for beryllium disease related to work processes and the dependence on time of the risk at the pebble plant. The pebble plant was not associated with the highest gravimetric industrial hygiene measurements available since 1984. CONCLUSION: Further characterisation of exposures in beryllium metal production may be important to understanding how beryllium exposures confer high contemporary risk of beryllium disease. PMID:9326165

Kreiss, K; Mroz, M M; Zhen, B; Wiedemann, H; Barna, B

1997-01-01

410

Hanford Site Beryllium Program: Past, Present, and Future - 12428  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a long history of beryllium use because of the element's broad application to many nuclear operations and processes. At the Hanford Site beryllium alloy was used to fabricate parts for reactors, including fuel rods for the N-Reactor during plutonium production. Because of continued confirmed cases of chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and data suggesting CBD occurs at exposures to low-level concentrations, the DOE decided to issue a rule to further protect federal and contractor workers from hazards associated with exposure to beryllium. When the beryllium rule was issued in 1999, each of the Hanford Site contractors developed a Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) and initial site wide beryllium inventories. A new site-wide CBDPP, applicable to all Hanford contractors, was issued in May, 2009. In the spring of 2010 the DOE Headquarters Office of Health, Safety, and Security (HSS) conducted an independent inspection to evaluate the status of implementation of the Hanford Site Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP). The report identified four Findings and 12 cross-cutting Opportunities for Improvement (OFIs). A corrective action plan (CAP) was developed to address the Findings and crosscutting OFIs. The DOE directed affected site contractors to identify dedicated resources to participate in development of the CAP, along with involving stakeholders. The CAP included general and contractor-specific recommendations. Following initiation of actions to implement the approved CAP, it became apparent that additional definition of product deliverables was necessary to assure that expectations were adequately addressed and CAP actions could be closed. Consequently, a supplement to the original CAP was prepared and transmitted to DOE-HQ for approval. Development of the supplemental CAP was an eight month effort. From the onset a core group of CAP development members were identified to develop a mechanism for assuring that consensus was achieved on products developed as part of the CAP and the closure process. The original CAP was developed based on a large number of actions developed from the HSS report. This was essentially a 'bottoms up' approach. The revised CAP development team concluded that a more holistic, process-based approach was appropriate to assure that the resulting deliverable resulted in a best-in-class product. Consequently, issues and recommendations contained in the HSS report were grouped into 11 program areas, specific product deliverables were identified within each of the program areas, and a work breakdown structure (WBS) was logically applied to number the groupings. While the revised approach to product development utilizes a more holistic, 'top down' approach, the intent was still to incorporate specific recommendations and address specific issues contained in the HSS report. Through implementation of this new approach, a collaborative team has been established that works together using a consensus process for ensuring product completion. Benefits of the new approach include building a level of trust amongst all parties, quality of the products have improved, and acceptance by all parties of what action will truly meet the intent of the deficiency and make the beryllium program stronger. Open dialogue occurs amongst the core Be CAP team members, Hanford contractors, and DOE. It has been a learning process and will continue to be one, but everyone shares the common goal of reducing worker exposure to beryllium. (authors)

Fisher, Mark [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Garcia, Pete [U.S. Department of Energy - Richland Office, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Goeckner, Julie [U.S. Department of Energy - HQ, EMCBC, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202 (United States); Millikin, Emily [Washington Closure Hanford, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Stoner, Mike [Mission Support Alliance, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

2012-07-01

411

Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of graphene research has developed rapidly since its first isolation by mechanical exfoliation in 2004. Due to the relativistic Dirac nature of its charge carriers, graphene is both a promising material for next-generation electronic devices and a convenient low-energy testbed for intrinsically high-energy physical phenomena. Both of these research branches require the facile fabrication of clean graphene devices so as not to obscure its intrinsic physical properties. Hexagonal boron nitride has emerged as a promising substrate for graphene devices as it is insulating, atomically flat and provides a clean charge environment for the graphene. Additionally, the interaction between graphene and boron nitride provides a path for the study of new physical phenomena not present in bare graphene devices. This review focuses on recent advancements in the study of graphene on hexagonal boron nitride devices from the perspective of scanning tunneling microscopy with highlights of some important results from electrical transport measurements.

Yankowitz, Matthew; Xue, Jiamin; LeRoy, B. J.

2014-07-01

412

Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian

2014-01-01

413

Evaluation of treated wastewater for the production of Syngonium podophyllum  

E-print Network

relative tolerance of several ornamental plant species. . . . . . , . . 49 Boron relative tolerance of several ornamental plant species. . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Seed correction, blanks and standard control for BOD analysis. . . . . . . . 54 DO... be present in secondary effluent are trace elements and heavy metals. Trace elements (i. e. arsenic, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, fluoride, lead, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, vanadium and zinc) are those...

Garza Morton, Jose Antonio

1995-01-01

414

Unsuspected exposure to beryllium: potential implications for sarcoidosis diagnoses.  

PubMed

Exposure to Beryllium (Be) can cause sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in some individuals.  Even relatively low exposures may be sufficient to generate an asymptomatic, or in some cases a symptomatic, immune response. Since the clinical presentation of CBD is similar to that of sarcoidosis, it is helpful to have information on exposure to beryllium in order to reduce misdiagnosis. The purpose of this pilot study is to explore the occurrence of Be surface deposits at worksites with little or no previous reported use of commercially available Be products.  The workplaces chosen for this study represent a convenience sample of businesses in eastern Iowa. One hundred thirty-six surface dust samples were collected from 27 businesses for analysis of Be. The results were then divided into categories by the amount of detected Be according to U.S. Department of Energy guidelines as described in 10 CFR 850.30 and 10 CFR 850.31. Overall, at least one of the samples at 78% of the work sites tested contained deposited Be above the analytical limit of quantitation (0.035 µg beryllium per sample).  Beryllium was detected in 46% of the samples collected. Twelve percent of the samples exceeded 0.2 µg/100 cm² and 4% of the samples exceeded a Be concentration of 3 µg/100 cm². The findings from this study suggest that there may be a wider range and greater number of work environments that have the potential for Be exposure than has been documented previously.  These findings could have implications for the accurate diagnosis of sarcoidosis. PMID:25078645

Laczniak, Andrew N; Gross, Nathan A; Fuortes, Laurence J; Field, R William

2014-01-01

415

First-Principles Investigation on Boron Nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First-principles calculations based on density functional theory are employed to study and predict the properties of boron and Mg boride nanostructures. For boron nanostructures, two-dimensional boron sheets are found to be metallic and made of mixtures of triangles and hexagons which benefit from the balance of two-center bonding and three-center bonding. This unusual bonding in boron sheets results in a self-doping picture where adding atoms to the hexagon centers does not change the number of bonding states but merely increases the electron count. Boron sheets can be either flat or buckled depending on the ratio between hexagons and triangles. Formed by stacking two identical boron sheets, double-layered boron sheets can form interlayer bonds, and the most stable one is semiconducting. Built from single-layered boron sheets, single-walled boron nanotubes have smaller curvature energies than carbon nanotubes and undergo a metal-to-semiconductor transition once the diameter is smaller than ˜20 A. Optimal double-walled boron nanotubes with inter-walled bonds formed are metallic and always more stable than single-walled ones. For Mg boride nanostructures, certain Mg boride sheets prefer to curve themselves into nanotubes, which is explained via Mg-Mg interactions governed by the charge state of Mg. In addition, optimal Mg boride sheet structures are explored with a genetic algorithm. Phase diagrams for Mg boride sheet structures are constructed and stable phases under boron-rich environments are identified. Curvature effects on the phase diagram of Mg boride nanotubes are also discussed. As a natural extension to boron sheets, layered boron crystals based on boron sheets are then presented and are shown to be stable under high pressure. Finally, this thesis ends with an investigation of hydrogen-storage properties of pristine and metal doped boron nanostructures.

Tang, Hui

2011-12-01

416

Boron recovery, application and economic significance: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron compounds are widely used raw materials in various industries. However, high boron concentration in aqueous systems may be harmful to both humans and plants. Many treatment technologies have shown wide limitations in the removal of boron from wastewater and boronic wastes due to the complex boron chemistry. Boron exists as boric acid at pH9.2. Recovery of boron is one

Ezerie Henry Ezechi; Mohamed Hasnain Isa; Shamsul Rahman Kutty; Nasiman B. Sapari

2011-01-01

417

High-flux neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target  

SciTech Connect

A prototype compact Liquid Lithium Target (LiLiT), able to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source, was built. The neutron source is intended for nuclear astrophysical research, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in hospitals and material studies for fusion reactors. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear research Center (SNRC). The lithium target will produce neutrons through the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated by a high-intensity proton beam, necessary for intense neutron flux for the above applications. The liquid-lithium loop of LiLiT is designed to generate a stable lithium jet at high velocity on a concave supporting wall with free surface toward the incident proton beam (up to 10 kW). During off-line tests, liquid lithium was flown through the loop and generated a stable jet at velocity higher than 5 m/s on the concave supporting wall. The target is now under extensive test program using a high-power electron-gun. Up to 2 kW electron beam was applied on the lithium flow at velocity of 4 m/s without any flow instabilities or excessive evaporation. High-intensity proton beam irradiation will take place at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator currently in commissioning at SNRC.

Halfon, S. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel) and Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Feinberg, G. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel) and Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Arenshtam, A.; Berkovits, D.; Kijel, D.; Nagler, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Silverman, I. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel)

2013-04-19

418

High-flux neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype compact Liquid Lithium Target (LiLiT), able to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source, was built. The neutron source is intended for nuclear astrophysical research, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in hospitals and material studies for fusion reactors. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear research Center (SNRC). The lithium target will produce neutrons through the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated by a high-intensity proton beam, necessary for intense neutron flux for the above applications. The liquid-lithium loop of LiLiT is designed to generate a stable lithium jet at high velocity on a concave supporting wall with free surface toward the incident proton beam (up to 10 kW). During off-line tests, liquid lithium was flown through the loop and generated a stable jet at velocity higher than 5 m/s on the concave supporting wall. The target is now under extensive test program using a high-power electron-gun. Up to 2 kW electron beam was applied on the lithium flow at velocity of 4 m/s without any flow instabilities or excessive evaporation. High-intensity proton beam irradiation will take place at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator currently in commissioning at SNRC.

Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G.; Paul, M.; Arenshtam, A.; Berkovits, D.; Kijel, D.; Nagler, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Silverman, I.

2013-04-01

419

Boron-Rich Semiconducting Boron Carbide Neutron Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the neutron detection capabilities of a variety of boron carbide\\/Si heterojunction diodes is presented. The pulse height spectra are compared with previously measured conversion layer devices and the variations in shape and position of the peaks are discussed.

Andrew D. Harken; Ellen E. Day; Brian W. Robertson; Shireen Adenwalla

2005-01-01

420

Evaluation of historical beryllium abundance in soils, airborne particulates and facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.  

PubMed

Beryllium has been historically machined, handled and stored in facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) since the 1950s. Additionally, outdoor testing of beryllium-containing components has been performed at LLNL's Site 300 facility. Beryllium levels in local soils and atmospheric particulates have been measured over three decades and are comparable to those found elsewhere in the natural environment. While localized areas of beryllium contamination have been identified, laboratory operations do not appear to have increased the concentration of beryllium in local air or water. Variation in airborne beryllium correlates to local weather patterns, PM10 levels, normal sources (such as resuspension of soil and emissions from coal power stations) but not to LLNL activities. Regional and national atmospheric beryllium levels have decreased since the implementation of the EPA's 1990 Clean-Air-Act. Multi-element analysis of local soil and air samples allowed for the determination of comparative ratios for beryllium with over 50 other metals to distinguish between natural beryllium and process-induced contamination. Ten comparative elemental markers (Al, Cs, Eu, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sm, Th and Tl) that were selected to ensure background variations in other metals did not collectively interfere with the determination of beryllium sources in work-place samples at LLNL. Multi-element analysis and comparative evaluation are recommended for all workplace and environmental samples suspected of beryllium contamination. The multi-element analyses of soils and surface dusts were helpful in differentiating between beryllium of environmental origin and beryllium from laboratory operations. Some surfaces can act as "sinks" for particulate matter, including carpet, which retains entrained insoluble material even after liquid based cleaning. At LLNL, most facility carpets had beryllium concentrations at or below the upper tolerance limit determined by sampling facilities with no history of beryllium work. Some facility carpets had beryllium concentrations above the upper tolerance limits but can be attributed to tracking of local soils, while other facilities showed process-induced contamination from adjacent operations. In selected cases, distinctions were made as to the source of beryllium in carpets. Guidance on the determination of facility beryllium sources is given. PMID:22960112

Sutton, Mark; Bibby, Richard K; Eppich, Gary R; Lee, Steven; Lindvall, Rachel E; Wilson, Kent; Esser, Bradley K

2012-10-15

421

Boron-enhanced diffusion of boron from ultralow-energy boron implantation  

SciTech Connect

The authors have investigated the diffusion enhancement mechanism of BED (boron enhanced diffusion), wherein the boron diffusivity is enhanced three to four times over the equilibrium diffusivity at 1,050 C in the proximity of a silicon layer containing a high boron concentration. It is shown that BED is associated with the formation of a fine-grain polycrystalline silicon boride phase within an initially amorphous Si layer having a high B concentration. For 0.5 keV B{sup +}, the threshold implantation dose which leads to BED lies between 3 {times} 10{sup 14} and of 1 {times} 10{sup 15}/cm{sup {minus}2}. Formation of the shallowest possible junctions by 0.5 keV B{sup +} requires that the implant dose be kept lower than this threshold.

Agarwal, A.; Eaglesham, D.J.; Gossmann, H.J.; Pelaz, L.; Herner, S.B.; Jacobson, D.C. [Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ (United States). Bell Labs.; Haynes, T.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.; Erokhin, Y.E. [Eaton Corp., Beverly, MA (United States)

1998-05-03

422

Chronic beryllium disease and cancer risk estimates with uncertainty for beryllium released to the air from the Rocky Flats Plant.  

PubMed Central

Beryllium was released into the air from routine operations and three accidental fires at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado from 1958 to 1989. We evaluated environmental monitoring data and developed estimates of airborne concentrations and their uncertainties and calculated lifetime cancer risks and risks of chronic beryllium disease to hypothetical receptors. This article discusses exposure-response relationships for lung cancer and chronic beryllium disease. We assigned a distribution to cancer slope factor values based on the relative risk estimates from an occupational epidemiologic study used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine the slope factors. We used the regional atmospheric transport code for Hanford emission tracking atmospheric transport model for exposure calculations because it is particularly well suited for long-term annual-average dispersion estimates and it incorporates spatially varying meteorologic and environmental parameters. We accounted for model prediction uncertainty by using several multiplicative stochastic correction factors that accounted for uncertainty in the dispersion estimate, the meteorology, deposition, and plume depletion. We used Monte Carlo techniques to propagate model prediction uncertainty through to the final risk calculations. We developed nine exposure scenarios of hypothetical but typical residents of the RFP area to consider the lifestyle, time spent outdoors, location, age, and sex of people who may have been exposed. We determined geometric mean incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk estimates for beryllium inhalation for each scenario. The risk estimates were < 10(-6). Predicted air concentrations were well below the current reference concentration derived by the EPA for beryllium sensitization. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10464074

McGavran, P D; Rood, A S; Till, J E

1999-01-01

423

Method of separating boron isotopes  

DOEpatents

A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)-dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily by achieved with CO/sub 2/ laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl/sub 3/.

Jensen, R.J.; Thorne, J.M.; Cluff, C.L.

1981-01-23

424

Method of separating boron isotopes  

DOEpatents

A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily be achieved with CO.sub.2 laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl.sub.3.

Jensen, Reed J. (Los Alamos, NM); Thorne, James M. (Provo, UT); Cluff, Coran L. (Provo, UT); Hayes, John K. (Salt Lake City, UT)

1984-01-01

425

Structure of boron nitride nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystallographic structure of boron nitride nanotubes has been investigated. Various defects that may arise during nanotube synthesis are revealed by electron microscopy. Nanotubes with different numbers of walls and different diameters are modeled by molecular dynamics methods. Structural features of single-wall nanotubes are demonstrated. The causes of certain defects in multiwall nanotubes are indicated.

Buranova, Yu. S.; Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Perezhogin, I. A.; Blank, V. D.

2015-01-01

426

Lithium Dinitramide as an Additive in Lithium Power Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium dinitramide, LiN(NO2)2 has shown promise as an additive to nonaqueous electrolytes in rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion-based electrochemical power cells. Such non-aqueous electrolytes consist of lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of organic ethers, esters, carbonates, or acetals. The benefits of adding lithium dinitramide (which is also a lithium salt) include lower irreversible loss of capacity on the first charge/discharge cycle, higher cycle life, lower self-discharge, greater flexibility in selection of electrolyte solvents, and greater charge capacity. The need for a suitable electrolyte additive arises as follows: The metallic lithium in the anode of a lithium-ion-based power cell is so highly reactive that in addition to the desired main electrochemical reaction, it engages in side reactions that cause formation of resistive films and dendrites, which degrade performance as quantified in terms of charge capacity, cycle life, shelf life, first-cycle irreversible capacity loss, specific power, and specific energy. The incidence of side reactions can be reduced through the formation of a solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) a thin film that prevents direct contact between the lithium anode material and the electrolyte. Ideally, an SEI should chemically protect the anode and the electrolyte from each other while exhibiting high conductivity for lithium ions and little or no conductivity for electrons. A suitable additive can act as an SEI promoter. Heretofore, most SEI promotion was thought to derive from organic molecules in electrolyte solutions. In contrast, lithium dinitramide is inorganic. Dinitramide compounds are known as oxidizers in rocket-fuel chemistry and until now, were not known as SEI promoters in battery chemistry. Although the exact reason for the improvement afforded by the addition of lithium dinitramide is not clear, it has been hypothesized that lithium dinitramide competes with other electrolyte constituents to react with lithium on the surface of the anode to form a beneficial SEI. Apparently, nitrides and oxides that result from reduction of lithium dinitramide on the anode produce a thin, robust SEI different from the SEIs formed from organic SEI promoters. The SEI formed from lithium dinitramide is more electronically insulating than is the film formed in the presence of an otherwise identical electrolyte that does not include lithium dinitramide. SEI promotion with lithium dinitramide is useful in batteries with metallic lithium and lithium alloy anodes.

Gorkovenko, Alexander A.

2007-01-01

427

Brugada syndrome unmasked by lithium.  

PubMed

A 38-year-old man was brought by emergency medical service after resuscitation following cardiac arrest. The patient was found pulseless with a wide complex tachycardia. The patient had bipolar disorder and was on lithium, lamotrigine, and ziprasidone. His electrolytes and lithium levels were normal. An electrocardiogram (EKG) was performed the next day and showed type 1 Brugada pattern. Lithium was held. Electrophysiologists made a diagnosis of drug-unmasked Brugada syndrome. Lithium can unmask Brugada syndrome through its ability to block sodium channels, even at subtherapeutic concentrations. Physicians need to be aware of this potentially fatal drug effect and should monitor EKGs of patients on lithium. PMID:20016437

Chandra, Preeti A; Chandra, Abhinav B

2009-12-01

428

Behavior of beryllium atoms eroded from beryllium targets exposed to deuterium plasmas in PISCES-B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the characteristics of beryllium (Be) as both a material and an impurity in plasmas is important for the successful operation of ITER since the current design of ITER has Be as the first wall material. The angular distribution of Be atoms eroded and transported from Be targets exposed to steady-state deuterium plasmas with low incident ion energy, up to 140 eV, has been investigated in the linear divertor simulator PISCES-B. The two-dimensional profile of ground state Be atom density near the target has been derived with spectroscopic methods. A comparison between the measurement and WBC Monte Carlo simulation indicates a deviation from a cosine angular distribution. The angular distribution is found to be insensitive to the incident ion energy between 40 and 140 eV. The angular distribution was measured at two Be surface temperatures (450 and 700 ^oC). At the lower surface temperature, the angular distribution seems to be more peaked. Experiments at both lower, down to 50 ^oC, and higher surface temperatures are planned.

Nishijima, Daisuke; Brooks, Jeff

2005-10-01

429

A mortality study of workers at seven beryllium processing plants  

SciTech Connect

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has found that the evidence for the carcinogenicity of beryllium is sufficient based on animal data but limited based on human data. This analysis reports on a retrospective cohort mortality study among 9,225 male workers employed at seven beryllium processing facilities for at least 2 days between January 1, 1940, and December 31, 1969. Vital status was ascertained through December 31, 1988. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for lung cancer in the total cohort was 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.42); significant SMRs for lung cancer were observed for two of the oldest plants located in Lorain, Ohio (SMR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.28-2.19) and Reading, Pennsylvania (SMR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.03-1.48). For the overall cohort, significantly elevated SMRs were found for all deaths (SMR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.01-1.08), ischemic heart disease (SMR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.01-1.14), pneumoconiosis and other respiratory diseases (SMR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.21-1.80), and chronic and unspecified nephritis, renal failure, and other renal sclerosis (SMR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.00-2.12). Lung cancer SMRs did not increase with longer duration of employment, but did increase with longer latency (time since first exposure). Lung cancer was particularly elevated (SMR = 3.33; 95% CI = 1.66-5.95) among workers at the Lorain plant with a history of (primarily) acute beryllium disease, which is associated with very high beryllium exposure. The lung cancer excess was not restricted to plants operating in the 1940s, when beryllium exposures were known to be extraordinarily high. Elevated lung cancer SMRs were also observed for four of the five plants operating in the 1950s for workers hired during that decade. Neither smoking nor geographic location fully explains the increased lung cancer risk. Occupational exposure to beryllium compounds is the most plausible explanation for the increased risk of lung cancer observed in this study.

Ward, E.; Okun, A.; Ruder, A.; Fingerhut, M.; Steenland, K. (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1992-01-01

430

Large lithium loop experience  

SciTech Connect

An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters include coolant temperatures to 430/sup 0/C and flow to 0.038 m/sup 3//s (600 gal/min). Performance of the main pump, vacuum system, and control system is discussed. Unique test capabilities of the ELS are also discussed.

Kolowith, R.; Owen, T.J.; Berg, J.D.; Atwood, J.M.

1981-10-01

431

Lithium Ion Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

1997-01-01

432

DISSOLUTION OF FB-LINE METAL RESIDUES CONTAINING BERYLLIUM IN H-CANYON  

SciTech Connect

Scrap materials containing plutonium (Pu) metal from FB-Line vaults are currently being dissolved in HB-Line for subsequent disposition through the H-Canyon facility. However, milestone and schedule commitments may require the dissolution of material containing Pu and beryllium (Be) metals in H-Canyon. To support this option, a flowsheet for dissolving Pu and Be metals in H-Canyon was demonstrated using a 4 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution containing 0.3 M fluoride (F{sup -}). The F{sup -} was added as calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}). The dissolving solution also contained 2.5 g/L boron (B), a nuclear safety contingency for the H-Canyon dissolver, and 3.9 g/L iron (Fe) to represent the dissolution of carbon steel cans. The solution was heated to 90-95 C during the 8 h dissolution cycle. Dissolution of the Be metal appeared to begin as soon as the samples were added to the dissolver. Clear, colorless bubbles generated on the surface were observed and were attributed primarily to the generation of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas. The generation of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) gas was also evident from the color of the solution. Essentially all of the Pu and Be dissolved during the first hour of the dissolution as the solution was heated to 90-95 C. The amount of residual solids collected following the dissolution was < 2% of the total metal charged to the dissolver. Examination of residual solids by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the largest dimension of the particles was less than 50 {micro}m with particles of smaller dimensions being more abundant. Energy dispersive spectra from spots on some of the particles showed the solids consisted of a small amount of undissolved material, corrosion products from the glassware, and dried salts from the dissolving solution.

Rudisill, T; Mark Crowder, M; Michael Bronikowski, M

2005-07-15

433

4-1BB enhances proliferation of beryllium-specific T cells in the lung of subjects with chronic beryllium disease.  

PubMed

In contrast to naive T cells, reactivation of memory cells is less dependent on CD28-mediated costimulation. We have shown that circulating beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells from chronic beryllium disease patients remain CD28-dependent, while those present in the lung no longer require CD28 for T cell activation. In the present study, we analyzed whether other costimulatory molecules are essential for beryllium-induced T cell function in the lung. Enhanced proliferation of a beryllium-responsive, HLA-DP2-restricted T cell line was seen after the induction of 4-1BB ligand expression on the surface of HLA-DP2-expressing fibroblasts. Following beryllium exposure, CD4(+) T cells from blood and bronchoalveolar lavage of chronic beryllium disease patients up-regulate 4-1BB expression, and the majority of beryllium-responsive, IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+) T cells in blood coexpress CD28 and 4-1BB. Conversely, a significant fraction of IFN-gamma-producing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) T cells express 4-1BB in the absence of CD28. In contrast to blood, inhibition of the 4-1BB ligand-4-1BB interaction partially blocked beryllium-induced proliferation of BAL CD4(+) T cells, and a lack of 4-1BB expression on BAL T cells was associated with increased beryllium-induced cell death. Taken together, these findings suggest an important role of 4-1BB in the costimulation of beryllium-responsive CD4(+) T cells in the target organ. PMID:18768897

Mack, Douglas G; Lanham, Allison K; Palmer, Brent E; Maier, Lisa A; Watts, Tania H; Fontenot, Andrew P

2008-09-15

434

A review of hazards associated with primary lithium and lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary lithium batteries contain hazardous materials such as lithium metal and flammable solvents, which can lead to exothermic activity and runaway reactions above a defined temperature. Lithium-ion batteries operating outside the safe envelope can also lead to formation of lithium metal and thermal runaway. Despite protection by battery safety mechanisms, fires originating from primary lithium and lithium-ion batteries are a

Diego Lisbona; Timothy Snee

435

Micro-and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate  

E-print Network

Micro- and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate Vladimir Ya. Shur investigation of the domain evolution in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate during backswitched electric sources based on quasi-phase matching.11 Lithium niobate LiNbO3 (LN) and lithium tantalate LiTaO3 (LT

Byer, Robert L.

436

XPS analysis for cubic boron nitride crystal synthesized under high pressure and high temperature using Li3N as catalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cubic boron nitride (cBN) single crystals are synthesized with lithium nitride (Li3N) as catalyst under high pressure and high temperature. The variation of electronic structures from boron nitride of different layers in coating film on the cBN single crystal has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Combining the atomic concentration analysis, it was shown that from the film/cBN crystal interface to the inner, the sp2 fractions are decreasing, and the sp3 fractions are increasing in the film at the same time. Moreover, by transmission electron microscopy, a lot of cBN microparticles are found in the interface. For there is no Li3N in the film, it is possible that Li3N first reacts with hexagonal boron nitride to produce Li3BN2 during cBN crystals synthesis under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT). Boron and nitrogen atoms, required for cBN crystals growth, could come from the direct conversion from hexagonal boron nitride with the catalysis of Li3BN2 under high pressure and high temperature, but not directly from the decomposition of Li3BN2.

Guo, Xiaofei; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Wen; Cai, Zhichao; Wen, Zhenxing

2014-12-01

437

Removal of beryllium from drinking water by chemical coagulation and lime softening  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. Jar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride) and lime softening performed in removing beryllium from spiked waters. Centrifugation was used to simulate filtration. The two source waters used were raw Ohio River water and groundwater from the Great Miami Aquifer. The impact of initial beryllium concentration, coagulant dose, turbidity and pH on beryllium removal was examined and optimum treatment conditions were determined. Jar tests using alum and ferric chloride coagulants were able to achieve 95% and 85% removal of beryllium respectively from surface water. Removal efficiency increased as the pH was increased. Based on the data collected in the study, coprecipitation and precipitation are the two likely mechanisms responsible for beryllium removal.

Lytle, D.A.; Summers, R.S.; Sorg, T.J.

1992-01-01

438

First-principles studies of boron nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron is an 'electron deficient' element which has a rather fascinating chemical versatility. In the solid state, the elemental boron has neither a pure covalent nor a pure metallic character. As a result, its vast structural dimensionality and peculiar bonding features hold a unique place among other elements in the periodic table. In order to understand and properly describe these unusual bonding features, a detailed and systematic theoretical study is needed. In this work, I will show that some of the qualitative features of boron nanostructures, including clusters, sheets and nanotubes can easily be extracted from the results of first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Specifically, the size-dependent evolution of topological structures and bonding characteristics of boron clusters, Bn will be discussed. Based on the scenario observed in the boron clusters, the unique properties of boron sheets and boron nanotubes will be described. Moreover, the ballistic electron transport in single-walled boron nanotube relative to that of single-walled carbon nanotubes will be considered. It is expected that the theoretical results obtained in the present thesis will initiate further studies on boron nanostructures, which will be helpful in understanding, designing and realizing boron-based nanoscale devices.

Lau, Kah Chun

439

Boron analysis and boron imaging in biological materials for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on the ability of the stable isotope 10B to capture neutrons, which leads to a nuclear reaction producing an alpha- and a 7Li-particle, both having a high biological effectiveness and a very short range in tissue, being limited to approximately one cell diameter. This opens the possibility for a highly selective cancer therapy.

Andrea Wittig; Jean Michel; Raymond L. Moss; Finn Stecher-Rasmussen; Heinrich F. Arlinghaus; Peter Bendel; Pier Luigi Mauri; Saverio Altieri; Ralf Hilger; Piero A. Salvadori; Luca Menichetti; Robert Zamenhof; Wolfgang A. G. Sauerwein

2008-01-01

440

Risk of Chronic Beryllium Disease by HLA-DPB1 E69 Genotype and Beryllium Exposure in Nuclear Workers  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) are determined by at least one genetic factor, a glutamic acid at position 69 (E69) of the HLA-DPB1 gene, and by exposure to beryllium. The relationship between exposure and the E69 genotype has not been well characterized. Objectives: The study goal was to define the relationship between beryllium exposure and E69 for CBD and BeS. Methods: Workers (n = 386) from a U.S. nuclear weapons facility were enrolled into a case–control study (70 BeS, 61 CBD, and 255 control subjects). HLA-DPB1 genotypes were determined by sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction. Beryllium exposures were reconstructed on the basis of worker interviews and historical exposure measurements. Measurements and Main Results: Any E69 carriage increased odds for CBD (odds ratio [OR], 7.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.66–15.84) and each unit increase in lifetime weighted average exposure increased the odds for CBD (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.26–4.09). Compared with E69-negative genotypes, a single E69-positive *02 allele increased the odds for BeS (OR, 12.01; 95% CI, 4.28–33.71) and CBD (OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.42–8.43). A single non-*02 E69 allele further increased the odds for BeS (OR, 29.54; 95% CI, 10.33–84.53) and CBD (OR, 11.97; 95% CI, 5.12–28.00) and two E69 allele copies conferred the highest odds for BeS (OR, 55.68; 95% CI, 14.80–209.40) and CBD (OR, 22.54; 95% CI, 7.00–72.62). Conclusions: E69 and beryllium exposure both contribute to the odds of CBD. The increased odds for CBD and BeS due to E69 appear to be differentially distributed by genotype, with non-*02 E69 carriers and E69 homozygotes at higher odds than those with *02 genotypes. PMID:21471109

Van Dyke, Mike V.; Martyny, John W.; Mroz, Margaret M.; Silveira, Lori J.; Strand, Matt; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Sato, Hiroe; Newman, Lee S.; Maier, Lisa A.

2011-01-01

441

RADIATION DOSIMETRY OF A GRAPHITE MODERATED RADIUM BERYLLIUM SOURCE.  

SciTech Connect

The Brookhaven National Laboratory Sigma Pile a Radium-Beryllium neutron source imbedded in a cube of graphite blocks. The pile is approximately 2.13 m on four sides and is 3.07 m high. Absolute and relative thermal neutron flux measurements have been made using gold and indium foils, which were both bare and cadmium covered. Thermo-luminescent dosimeters were used to determine the neutron and gamma-ray dose rates in the pile. Gamma-ray dose rate measurements have also been made in the air outside of the pile, while the Radium-Beryllium neutron source was being withdrawn from the pile. The Monte Carlo MCNP code has been used to calculate the coupled neutron-photon transport. Measured dose rates at various locations agreed with the calculated values within 5% to 15%.

HOLDEN,N.E.; RECINIELLO,R.N.; HU,J.P.; RORER,D.C.

2002-08-18

442

Beryllium reflected cavity reactor for UF6 critical experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments and theoretical studies are being conducted for NASA on critical assemblies with one-meter diam by one-meter long low-density cores surrounded by a thick beryllium reflector. These assemblies make extensive use of existing nuclear propulsion reactor components, facilities, and instrumentation. Due to excessive porosity in the reflector, the initial critical mass was 19 kg U(93.2). Addition of a 17-cm-thick by 89-cm-diam beryllium flux trap in the cavity reduced the critical mass to 7 kg when all the uranium was in the zone just outside the flux trap. A mockup aluminum UF6 container was placed inside the flux trap and fueled with uranium-graphite elements. Fission distributions and reactivity worths of fuel and structural materials are available. These results will be used to guide the design of a prototype plasma core reactor which will test energy removal by optical radiation.

Jarvis, G. A.; Bernard, W.; Helmick, H. H.; White, R.

1975-01-01

443

A joint fracture toughness evaluation of hot-pressed beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fracture toughness tests at room temperature were made on three-point bend specimens cut from hot-pressed beryllium obtained from two suppliers. The test specimens had dimensions conforming to ASTM fracture toughness standard E399-72. A total of 42 specimens were machined from each batch of material. Six specimens from each batch were then distributed to seven independent laboratories for testing. The test data from the laboratories were collected and analyzed for differences between the laboratories and the two batches of material. It is concluded that ASTM 399-72 can be used as a valid test procedure for determining the fracture toughness of beryllium, providing that Kf(max) in fatigue cracking could be up to 80 percent of the K(0) value.

Conrad, H.; Sargent, G. A.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

1977-01-01

444

Beryllium dimer: a bond based on non-dynamical correlation.  

PubMed

The bond nature in beryllium dimer has been theoretically investigated using high-level ab initio methods. A series of ANO basis sets of increasing quality, going from sp to spdf ghi contractions, has been employed, combined with HF, CAS-SCF, CISD, and MRCI calculations with several different active spaces. The quality of these calculations has been checked by comparing the results with valence Full-CI calculations, performed with the same basis sets. It is shown that two quasi-degenerated partly occupied orbitals play a crucial role to give a qualitatively correct description of the bond. Their nature is similar to that of the edge orbitals that give rise to the quasi-degenerated singlet-triplet states in longer beryllium chains. PMID:24866399

El Khatib, Muammar; Bendazzoli, Gian Luigi; Evangelisti, Stefano; Helal, Wissam; Leininger, Thierry; Tenti, Lorenzo; Angeli, Celestino

2014-08-21

445

Final Results of the Ball AMSD Beryllium Mirror  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1.4-meter semi-rigid, beryllium Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) mirror completed initial cryogenic testing at Marshall's X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) in August of 2003. Results of this testing show the mirror to have very low cryogenic surface deformation and possess exceptional figure stability. Subsequent to this cryogenic testing beryllium was selected as the material of choice for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) multi-segment primary mirror. Therefore, the AMSD mirror was sent back to SSG-Tinsley for additional ambient polishing to JWST requirements. The mirror was successfully polished to less than 22nm rms of low frequency error. Those additional results are presented with comparisons to the JWST requirements.

Chaney, David M.

2004-01-01

446

Ultrasonic evaluation of beryllium-copper diffusion bonds  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to compare the effectiveness of several advanced ultrasonic techniques when used to determine the strength of diffusion bonded beryllium-copper, which heretofore have each been applied to only a few material systems. The use of integrated backscatter calculations, frequency domain reflection coefficients, and time-of-flight variance was compared in their ability to characterize the bond strength in a series of beryllium-copper diffusion bond samples having a wide variation in bond quality. Correlation of integrated backscatter calculations and time-of-flight variance with bond strength was good. Some correlation of the slope of the frequency based reflection coefficient was shown for medium and high strength bonds, while its Y-intercept showed moderate correlation for all bond strengths.

Jamieson, E.E.

2000-06-08

447

Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a series of normal-incidence reflectance measurements at wavelengths just longer than the beryllium K-edge (11.1 nm) from molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors. The highest peak reflectance was 68.7 +/- 0.2% at lambda = 11.3 nm obtained from a mirror with 70 bilayers ending in beryllium. To our knowledge, this is the highest normal-incidence reflectance that has been demonstrated in the 1-80-nm spectral range.

Skulina, K. M.; Alford, C. S.; Bionta, R. M.; Makowiecki, D. M.; Gullikson, E. M.; Soufli, R.; Kortright, J. B.; Underwood, J. H.

1995-07-01

448

Determination of beryllium in ores and rocks by a dilution-fluorometric method with morin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beryllium in concentrations as little as a few parts per million is determined fluorometrically with morin in low grade ores by a dilution method without separations. A high sensitivity is obtained by the adoption of instrumental and reaction conditions that give a satisfactory ratio of beryllium to blank fluorescence and at the same time minimize iron interference. Data on the behavior of 47 ions are given. The method is applied to ores containing bertrandite and beryl as the beryllium minerals.

May, R.; Grimaldi, F.S.

1961-01-01

449

[Structural and functional-metabolic criteria for studies of bronchial lavage cells in beryllium production workers].  

PubMed

The article presents results of cytomorphologic and cytochemical studies of bronchoalveolar lavage cells in experimental animals and in beryllium production workers having beryllium intoxication signs. Findings are increased counts of degenerated neutrophils and macrophages in bronchial lavage, high degree of microbial (streptococcal and staphylococcal) contamination in workers having atrophic bronchitis, low levels of catecholamines and esterase activity, high content of phospholipids, if compared to apparently healthy individuals. These tests are expedient to use in early diagnosis among beryllium production workers. PMID:22180971

Bazeliuk, L T; Sadykov, K B

2011-01-01

450

HLA-DPB1 and Chronic Beryllium Disease: A HuGE Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex is a series of genes located on chromosome 6 that are important in normal immune function. Susceptibility to chronic beryllium disease, a granulomatous lung disease that appears in workers exposed to beryllium, is modified by genetic variants of the HLA-DP subregion. Evaluation of HLA-DPB1 sequence motifs in current and former beryllium workers implicated a

Erin C. McCanlies; Kathleen Kreiss; Michael Andrew; Ainsley Weston

2003-01-01

451

Plasma-beryllium interactions research in the SAPFIR device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of the plasma-beryllium interaction under steady-state high power density plasma flow in SAPFIR device has started. The main parameters of the SAPFIR device in this experiments were: power density of the plasma flow up to 6 MW\\/m2 at ion energy up to 8.5 keV. The radial profile of the power density was measured in different regimes. The optimal

A. P. Belocurov; G. G. Checalin; L. I. Elizarov; M. I. Martynov; V. I. Pistunovich

1995-01-01

452

Some frequency and damping measuements of laminated beryllium beams  

SciTech Connect

A quantum leap in vibration performance of beryllium structure has been experimentally investigated. Laminations, segmentation, and sandwich syntactic foam core have been demonstrated to have both high specific flexural structural stiffness and high damping for reduced vibratory response. Acquisition cost, weight, machinability and environmental benefits are also expected. Applications to structure of optical and inertial navigation equipment would lead to reductions in jitter levels and other vibratory response measures.

Andriulli, J.; Rogers, L.C.

1993-01-01

453

Some frequency and damping measuements of laminated beryllium beams  

SciTech Connect

A quantum leap in vibration performance of beryllium structure has been experimentally investigated. Laminations, segmentation, and sandwich syntactic foam core have been demonstrated to have both high specific flexural structural stiffness and high damping for reduced vibratory response. Acquisition cost, weight, machinability and environmental benefits are also expected. Applications to structure of optical and inertial navigation equipment would lead to reductions in jitter levels and other vibratory response measures.

Andriulli, J.; Rogers, L.C.

1993-06-01

454

Aging of beryllium bronze under programmed loading conditions  

SciTech Connect

Results are provided from a study of different aging methods for beryllium bronze BrBNT1.9Mg under tensile stress conditions created by an applied load. Aging, both in the original hardened condition and after low-temperature treatment, is found to lead to an increase in yield strength and elastic limit. Ultimate breaking strength, hardness, and ductility do not change. An increase in deformation resistance after aging is connected with oriented precipitation of gamma-phase particles.

Duraev, P.P.; Kaplun, Yu.A.

1987-07-01

455

PhotoIonization Cross Section of Beryllium near Threshold  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1P continuum wave functions of beryllium with energies from 0 to ~3.5 eV above the 2s threshold are calculated with the inclusion of auto-ionizing lines by configuration interaction. These functions are then combined with a ten-configuration ground-state function to compute the photo-ionization cross section which is found to be dominated by auto-ionization from the 2pns and the 2pnd series.

P. L. Altick

1968-01-01

456

Fracture in hexagonal closed packed metals, zinc and beryllium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that fracture in zinc and beryllium is nucleation controlled and is independent of the nature of the barrier from which fracture nucleates. The double cantilever cleavage technique was used to determine the energy required to propagate a crack on the basal plane (0001) in single crystals. Tensile fracture data from single and asymmetric bicrystals were used to calculate the energy needed to initiate a cleavage crack on the (0001) plane.

Kamdar, M. H.

1973-01-01

457

Cleaning and activation of beryllium-copper electron multiplier dynodes.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of a cleaning and activation procedure followed in preparing beryllium-copper dynodes for electron multipliers used in sounding-rocket experiments to detect auroral electrons. The initial degreasing step involved a 5-min bath in trichloroethylene in an ultrasonic cleaner. This was followed by an ultrasonic rinse in methanol and by a two-step acid pickling treatment to remove the oxides. Additional rinsing in water and methanol was followed by activation in a stainless-steel RF induction oven.

Pongratz, M. B.

1972-01-01

458

Thermal fatigue behavior of US and Russian grades of beryllium  

SciTech Connect

A novel technique has been used to test the relative low cycle thermal fatigue resistance of different grades of US and Russian beryllium which is proposed as plasma facing armor for fusion reactor first wall, limiter, and divertor components. The 30 KW electron beam test system at Sandia National Laboratories was used to sweep the beam spot along one direction at 1 Hz. This produces a localized temperature ``spike`` of 750{degrees}C for each pass of the beam. Large thermal stress in excess of the yield strength are generated due to very high spot heat flux, 250 MW/m{sup 2}. Cyclic plastic strains on the order of 0.6% produced visible cracking on the heated surface in less than 3000 cycles. An in-vacuo fiber optic borescope was used to visually inspect the beryllium surfaces for crack initiation. Grades of US beryllium tested included: S-65C, S-65H, S-200F, S-300F-H, Sr-200, I-400, extruded high purity. HIP`d sperical powder, porous beryllium (94% and 98% dense), Be/30% BeO, Be/60% BeO, and TiBe{sub 12}. Russian grades included: TGP-56, TShGT, DShG-200, and TShG-56. Both the number of cycles to crack initiation, and the depth of crack propagation, were measured. The most fatigue resistant grades were S-65C, DShG-200, TShGT, and TShG-56. Rolled sheet Be(SR-200) showed excellent crack propagation resistance in the plane of rolling, despite early formation of delamination cracks. Only one sample showed no evidence of surface melting, Extruded (T). Metallographic and chemical analyses are provided. Good agreement was found between the measured depth of cracks and a 2-D elastic-plastic finite element stress analysis.

Watson, R.D.; Youchison, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Guiniatouline, R.N. [Efremov Institute, St. Petersburg (USSR); Kupriynov, I.B. [Russian Inst. of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (USSR)

1996-02-01

459

Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. The maximum values typically occur in the removable reflector and close to the midplane.

Ilas, Dan [ORNL

2013-10-01

460

Boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors: an emerging therapeutic modality.  

PubMed

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the nuclear reaction that occurs when boron-10, a stable isotope, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. For BNCT to be successful, a large number of 10B atoms must be localized on or preferably within neoplastic cells, and a sufficient number of thermal neutrons must be absorbed by the 10B atoms to sustain a lethal 10B (n, alpha) lithium-7 reaction. There is a growing interest in using BNCT in combination with surgery to treat patients with high-grade gliomas and possibly metastatic brain tumors. The present review covers the biological and radiobiological considerations on which BNCT is based, boron-containing low- and high-molecular weight delivery agents, neutron sources, clinical studies, and future areas of research. Two boron compounds currently are being used clinically, sodium borocaptate and boronophenylalanine, and a number of new delivery agents are under investigation, including boronated porphyrins, nucleosides, amino acids, polyamines, monoclonal and bispecific antibodies, liposomes, and epidermal growth factor. These are discussed, as is optimization of their delivery. Nuclear reactors currently are the only source of neutrons for BNCT, and the fission reaction within the core produces a mixture of lower energy thermal and epithermal neutrons, fast or high-energy neutrons, and gamma-rays. Although thermal neutron beams have been used clinically in Japan to treat patients with brain tumors and cutaneous melanomas, epithermal neutron beams now are being used in the United States and Europe because of their superior tissue-penetrating properties. Currently, there are clinical trials in progress in the United States, Europe, and Japan using a combination of debulking surgery and then BNCT to treat patients with glioblastomas. The American and European studies are Phase I trials using boronophenylalanine and sodium borocaptate, respectively, as capture agents, and the Japanese trial is a Phase II study. Boron compound and neutron dose escalation studies are planned, and these could lead to Phase II and possibly to randomized Phase III clinical trials that should provide data regarding therapeutic efficacy. PMID:10069580

Barth, R F; Soloway, A H; Goodman, J H; Gahbauer, R A; Gupta, N; Blue, T E; Yang, W; Tjarks, W

1999-03-01

461

Lithium ion conducting electrolytes  

DOEpatents

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

1996-04-09

462

Lithium ion conducting electrolytes  

DOEpatents

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

1996-01-01

463

Lithium Lens Interlocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium lens in the antiproton source target vault is protected by an interlock system, which is located in relay racks R5 and R6 near the southwest corner of the Target Hall (building APO). The interlock system consists of crates of commercial signal conditioner and alarm modules built by Acromag, Inc and interlock Master Modules built by Fermilab: Twenty analog

J. Krider

1985-01-01

464

Radiobiological evaluation of new boron delivery agents for boron neutron capture therapy  

E-print Network

This thesis evaluates the radiobiological effectiveness of three new boron compounds namely a boronated porphyrin (BOPP) and two liposome formulations for neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The methodology utilizes in vitro ...

Chung, Yoonsun

2008-01-01

465

Lung injury in mice and rats acutely exposed to beryllium  

SciTech Connect

The effect of lung injury, in rats and mice, exposed to an aerosol of beryllium sulfate (BE) for one hour, through nose-only inhalation, was evaluated by the methods of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung cell kinetics. The BAL in rats, sacrificed over a 21 day period following exposure, showed lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (Alk Pase) activities as the most sensitive indicators of lung damage. LDH activity peaked at day 8 while Alk Pase activity peaked at day 5, both being 30 times greater than comparable control values. Acid phosphatase activity and albumin levels were also increased, but not to the same extent as LDH and Alk Pase. The BAL of mice showed LDH activity as the most sensitive indicator of lung damage, with a maximum response 3 times greater than controls at day 5. In another series of experiments, animals were treated with three agents capable of inducing fibrosis: beryllium sulfate, bleomycin, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Cy A completely inhibited the fibrogenic effects of BHT in mice, as measured through total lung hydroxyproline content. Bleomycin-induced fibrosis was significantly reduced by Cy A treatment in rats, but showed no effect in mice. Additionally, the effect of iron salt administration to rats decreased the intravenous LD/sub 50/ dose, and significantly reduced the inhalation toxicity, of beryllium sulfate. The protective mechanism of iron salt administration, through the induction of ferritin synthesis, is postulated.

Sendelbach, L.E. Jr.

1985-01-01

466

Test of a beryllium limiter in the tokamak unitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beryllium rail limiters are inserted into the tokamak UNITOR to study the compatibility of this material with the plasma. The power load onto the limiter surface is 1-2 kW/cm2 during the plasma pulse length of 50 ms duration. The concentration of heavy (Cr) and light (O) impurities is monitored by means of spectroscopy. In comparison with other materials tested likewise (graphite, Ni, Al2O3, TiC, SiC, SS) the Be-experiments have shown the following improvements: a) the concentration of heavy impurities is considerably reduced, b) this reduction is preserved if the poloidal Be-limiters are retracted from the plasma, c) the plasma resistivity is diminished, d) the occurrence of disruptions decreases. A total amount of 6 mg beryllium was found distributed on the inner torus wall after 1500 shots. The decontamination of the apparatus was performed without major problems. Only very little volatile Be-dust was detected, and peripheric parts (pumps, mass spectrometer etc.) were not contaminated. The beryllium released from the limiters was found to be entirely deposited on the torus wall mainly in the vicinity of the limiters.

Hackmann, J.; Uhlenbusch, J.

1984-12-01

467

Beryllium Science: US-UK agreement on the use of Atomic Energy for mutual defense  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-seven papers are presented on beryllium supply, production, fabrication, safe handling, analysis, powder technology, and coatings. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (DLC)

Hanafee, J.E. (ed.)

1988-02-19

468

Proteomic analysis of beryllium-induced genotoxicity in an Escherichia coli mutant model system.  

PubMed

Beryllium is the second lightest metal, has a high melting point and high strength-to-weight ratio, and is chemically stable. These unique chemical characteristics make beryllium metal an ideal choice as a component material for a wide variety of applications in aerospace, defense, nuclear weapons, and industry. However, inhalation of beryllium dust or fumes induces significant health effects, including chronic beryllium disease and lung cancer. In this study, the mutagenicity of beryllium sulfate (BeSO(4)) and the comutagenicity of beryllium with a known mutagen 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) were evaluated using a forward mutant detection system developed in Escherichia coli. In this system, BeSO(4) was shown to be weakly mutagenic alone and significantly enhanced the mutagenicity of MNNG up to 3.5-fold over MNNG alone. Based on these results a proteomic study was conducted to identify the proteins regulated by BeSO(4). Using the techniques of 2-DE and oMALDI-TOF MS, we successfully identified 32 proteins being differentially regulated by beryllium and/or MNNG in the E. coli test system. This is the first study to describe the proteins regulated by beryllium in vitro, and the results suggest several potential pathways for the focus of further research into the mechanisms underlying beryllium-induced genotoxicity. PMID:16447159

Taylor-McCabe, Kirsten J; Wang, Zaolin; Sauer, Nancy N; Marrone, Babetta L

2006-03-01

469

The beryllium quandary: will the lower exposure limits spur new developments in sampling and analysis?  

SciTech Connect

At the time this article was written, new rulemakings were under consideration at OSHA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that would propose changes to occupational exposure limits for beryllium. Given these developments, it’s a good time to review the tools and methods available to IHs for assessing beryllium air and surface contamination in the workplace—what’s new and different, and what’s tried and true. The article discusses limit values and action levels for beryllium, problematic aspects of beryllium air sampling, sample preparation, sample analysis, and data evaluation.

Brisson, Michael

2013-06-03

470

Beryllium in soils of the Nevada Test Site: A preliminary assessment  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary assessment of the occurrence and distribution of beryllium in soils of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was conducted by identifying sites on the NTS where beryllium might have been used in past operations and measuring current soil beryllium concentratio